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Sample records for surface pressure gradients

  1. Characterizing developing adverse pressure gradient flows subject to surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzek, Brian; Chao, Donald; Turan, Özden; Castillo, Luciano

    2010-04-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the effects of surface roughness and adverse pressure gradient (APG) on the development of a turbulent boundary layer. Hot-wire anemometry measurements were carried out using single and X-wire probes in all regions of a developing APG flow in an open return wind tunnel test section. The same experimental conditions (i.e., T ∞, U ref, and C p) were maintained for smooth, k + = 0, and rough, k + = 41-60, surfaces with Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, 3,000 carefully designed such that the x-dependence in the flow field was known. Despite this fact, only a very small region of the boundary layer showed a balance of the various terms in the integrated boundary layer equation. The skin friction computed from this technique showed up to a 58% increase due to the surface roughness. Various equilibrium parameters were studied and the effect of roughness was investigated. The generated flow was not in equilibrium according to the Clauser (J Aero Sci 21:91-108, 1954) definition due to its developing nature. After a development region, the flow reached the equilibrium condition as defined by Castillo and George (2001), where Λ = const, is the pressure gradient parameter. Moreover, it was found that this equilibrium condition can be used to classify developing APG flows. Furthermore, the Zagarola and Smits (J Fluid Mech 373:33-79, 1998a) scaling of the mean velocity deficit, U ∞δ*/δ, can also be used as a criteria to classify developing APG flows which supports the equilibrium condition of Castillo and George (2001). With this information a ‘full APG region’ was defined.

  2. Microstructural and hardness gradients in Cu processed by high pressure surface rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Q. Y.; Zhu, X.-M.; Mei, Q. S.

    2017-01-01

    The surface of an annealed Cu plate was processed by a high pressure surface rolling (HPSR) process. It is found that the deformed surface layer in the Cu plate after HPSR can be as thick as 2 mm and is characterized by a gradient microstructure, with grain sizes varying from the nanoscale...

  3. Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and stro......The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum....... Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural...

  4. Comparison of distributed vortex receptivity coefficients at excitation of 3D TS-waves in presence and absence of surface waviness and pressure gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodulin, V. I.; Ivanov, A. V.; Kachanov, Y. S.; Mischenko, D. A.; Fedenkova, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    The paper is devoted to quantitative experimental investigation of effective mechanisms of excitation of 3D TS instability waves due to distributed boundary layer receptivity to free-stream vortices. Experiments carried out in a self-similar boundary layer with Hartree parameter βH = -0.115 and concentrated on studying two receptivity mechanisms connected with distributed scattering of 3D unsteady free-stream vortices both on the natural boundary layer nonuniformity (smooth surface) and on 2D surface nonuniformity (waviness). Obtained quantitative characteristics (distributed receptivity coefficients) are compared directly with those obtained in Blasius boundary layer. It is found that the adverse pressure gradient leads to reduction of efficiency of the vortex-roughness receptivity mechanism.

  5. Non-invasive measurement of pressure gradients using ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Traberg, Marie Sand; Pihl, Michael Johannes

    2013-01-01

    A non-invasive method for estimating 2-D pressure gradients from ultrasound vector velocity data is presented. The method relies on in-plane vector velocity fields acquired using the Transverse Oscillation method. The pressure gradients are estimated by applying the Navier-Stokes equations...

  6. Hepatic venous pressure gradients measured by duplex ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasu, J.-P.; Rocher, L.; Peletier, G.; Kuoch, V.; Kulh, E.; Miquel, A.; Buffet, C.; Biery, M.

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: The hepatic venous pressure gradient is a major prognostic factor in portal hypertension but its measurement is complex and requires invasive angiography. This study investigated the relationship between the hepatic venous pressure gradient and a number of Doppler measurements, including the arterial acceleration index. METHOD: We measured the hepatic venous pressure gradient in 50 fasting patients at hepatic venography. Immediately afterwards, a duplex sonographic examination of the liver was performed at which multiple measurements and indices of the venous and arterial hepatic vasculature were made. RESULTS: Hepatic arterial acceleration was correlated directly with the hepatic venous pressure gradient (r = 0.83, P -2 provided a positive predictive value of 95%, a sensitivity of 65% and a specificity of 95% for detecting patients with severe portal hypertension (hepatic venous pressure gradient > 12 mmHg). A correlation between the hepatic venous pressure gradient and the congestion index of the portal vein velocity (r = 0.45,P = 0.01) and portal vein velocity (r = 0.40,P = 0.044), was also noted. CONCLUSION: Measuring the hepatic arterial acceleration index may help in the non-invasive evaluation of portal hypertension. Tasu, J.-P. et al. (2002)

  7. Growth of fibroblasts and endothelial cells on wettability gradient surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruardy, TG; Moorlag, HE; Schakenraad, JM; VanderMei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    1997-01-01

    The growth, spreading, and shape of human skin fibroblasts (PK 84) and human umbilical cord endothelial cells on dichlorodimethylsilane (DDS) and dimethyloctadecylchlorosilane (DOGS) gradient surfaces were investigated in the presence of serum proteins. Gradient surfaces were prepared on glass using

  8. Evolution of a Planar Wake in Adverse Pressure Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, David M.; Mateer, George G.

    2016-01-01

    In the interest of improving the predictability of high-lift systems at maximum lift conditions, a series of fundamental experiments were conducted to study the effects of adverse pressure gradient on a wake flow. Mean and fluctuating velocities were measured with a two-component laser-Doppler velocimeter. Data were obtained for several cases of adverse pressure gradient, producing flows ranging from no reversed flow to massively reversed flow. While the turbulent Reynolds stresses increase with increasing size of the reversed flow region, the gradient of Reynolds stress does not. Computations using various turbulence models were unable to reproduce the reversed flow.

  9. Vertical pressure gradient and particle motions in wave boundary layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Lindegård

    weight of sediment. This revels that the upward directed vertical pressure gradient on average has a magnitude that yields in a contribution to the force needed to overcome the submerged weight of the water-sediment mixture. Secondly particle motion in the oscillatory boundary layer is investigated......The present study covers both a numerical and experimental investigation of the processes in the oscillatory boundary layer. In the first part a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is conducted to study the vertical pressure gradient, and its role in relation to laminar to turbulent transition...... and its role in the fully turbulent boundary layer. The pressure in the flow is obtained from the flow fields of the oscillatory boundary layer. What differs, the vertical pressure gradient, from other turbulent quantities, like e.g. velocity fluctuations is that it can detect newly generated turbulence...

  10. Quantifying dynamic changes in plantar pressure gradient in diabetics with peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Wen Lung

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic foot ulcers remain one of the most serious complications of diabetes. Peak plantar pressure (PPP and peak pressure gradient (PPG during walking have been shown to be associated with the development of diabetic foot ulcers. To gain further insight into the mechanical etiology of diabetic foot ulcers, examination of the pressure gradient angle (PGA has been recently proposed. The PGA quantifies directional variation or orientation of the pressure gradient during walking, and provides a measure of whether pressure gradient patterns are concentrated or dispersed along the plantar surface. We hypothesized that diabetics at risk of foot ulceration would have smaller PGA in key plantar regions, suggesting less movement of the pressure gradient over time. A total of 27 participants were studied, including 19 diabetics with peripheral neuropathy and 8 non-diabetic control subjects. A foot pressure measurement system was used to measure plantar pressures during walking. PPP, PPG and PGA were calculated for four foot regions - 1st toe (T1, 1st metatarsal head (M1, 2nd metatarsal head (M2, and heel (HL. Consistent with prior studies, PPP and PPG were significantly larger in the diabetic group compared to non-diabetic controls in the T1 and M1 regions, but not M2 or HL. For example, PPP was 165% (P=0.02 and PPG was 214% (P<0.001 larger in T1. PGA was found to be significantly smaller in the diabetic group in T1 (46%, P=0.04, suggesting a more concentrated pressure gradient pattern under the toe. The proposed PGA may improve our understanding of the role of pressure gradient on the risk of diabetic foot ulcers.

  11. Entropy Generation in Steady Laminar Boundary Layers with Pressure Gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. McEligot

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In an earlier paper in Entropy [1] we hypothesized that the entropy generation rate is the driving force for boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow. Subsequently, with our colleagues we have examined the prediction of entropy generation during such transitions [2,3]. We found that reasonable predictions for engineering purposes could be obtained for flows with negligible streamwise pressure gradients by adapting the linear combination model of Emmons [4]. A question then arises—will the Emmons approach be useful for boundary layer transition with significant streamwise pressure gradients as by Nolan and Zaki [5]. In our implementation the intermittency is calculated by comparison to skin friction correlations for laminar and turbulent boundary layers and is then applied with comparable correlations for the energy dissipation coefficient (i.e., non-dimensional integral entropy generation rate. In the case of negligible pressure gradients the Blasius theory provides the necessary laminar correlations.

  12. Three gradients and the perception of flat and curved surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, J E; Millard, R T

    1984-06-01

    Researchers of visual perception have long been interested in the perceived slant of a surface and in the gradients that purportedly specify it. Slant is the angle between the line of sight and the tangent to the planar surface at any point, also called the surface normal. Gradients are the sources of information that grade, or change, with visual angle as one looks from one's feet upward to the horizon. The present article explores three gradients--perspective, compression, and density--and the phenomenal impression of flat and curved surfaces. The perspective gradient is measured at right angles to the axis of tilt at any point in the optic array; that is, when looking down a hallway at the tiles of a floor receding in the distance, perspective is measured by the x-axis width of each tile projected on the image plane orthogonal to the line of sight. The compression gradient is the ratio of y/x axis measures on the projected plane. The density gradient is measured by the number of tiles per unit solid visual angle. For flat surfaces and many others, perspective and compression gradients decrease with distance, and the density gradient increases. We discuss the manner in which these gradients change for various types of surfaces. Each gradient is founded on a different assumption about textures on the surfaces around us. In Experiment 1, viewers assessed the three-dimensional character of projections of flat and curved surfaces receding in the distance. They made pairwise judgments of preference and of dissimilarity among eight stimuli in each of four sets. The presence of each gradient was manipulated orthogonally such that each stimulus had zero, one, two, or three gradients appropriate for either a flat surface or a curved surface. Judgments were made were made for surfaces with both regularly shaped and irregularly shaped textures scattered on them. All viewer assessment were then scaled in one dimension. Multiple correlation and regression on the scale values

  13. Improved plenum pressure gradient facemaps for PKL reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, D.A.; Hamm, L.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report documents the development of improved plenum pressure gradient facemaps* for PKL Mark 16--31 and Mark 22 reactor charges. These new maps are based on the 1985 L-area AC flow tests. Use of the L-area data base for estimating C-area plenum pressure gradient maps is inappropriate because the nozzle geometry plays a major role in determining the shape of the plenum pressure profile. These plenum pressure gradient facemaps are used in the emergency cooling system (ECS) and in the flow instability (FI) loss of coolant accident (LOCA) limits calculations. For the ECS LOCA limits calculations, the maps are used as input to the FLOWZONE computer code to determine the average flow within a flowzone during normal operating conditions. For the FI LOCA limits calculations, the maps are used as plenum pressure boundary conditions in the FLOWTRAN computer code to determine the maximum pre-incident assembly flow within a flowzone. These maps will also be used for flowzoning and transient protection limits analyses

  14. Similar solutions for the compressible laminar boundary layer with heat transfer and pressure gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Clarence B; Reshotko, Eli

    1956-01-01

    Stewartson's transformation is applied to the laminar compressible boundary-layer equations and the requirement of similarity is introduced, resulting in a set of ordinary nonlinear differential equations previously quoted by Stewartson, but unsolved. The requirements of the system are Prandtl number of 1.0, linear viscosity-temperature relation across the boundary layer, an isothermal surface, and the particular distributions of free-stream velocity consistent with similar solutions. This system admits axial pressure gradients of arbitrary magnitude, heat flux normal to the surface, and arbitrary Mach numbers. The system of differential equations is transformed to integral system, with the velocity ratio as the independent variable. For this system, solutions are found by digital computation for pressure gradients varying from that causing separation to the infinitely favorable gradient and for wall temperatures from absolute zero to twice the free-stream stagnation temperature. Some solutions for separated flows are also presented.

  15. Radial Wettable Gradient of Hot Surface to Control Droplets Movement in Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shile; Wang, Sijie; Tao, Yuanhao; Shang, Weifeng; Deng, Siyan; Zheng, Yongmei; Hou, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    A radial wettable gradient was fabricated on the surface of graphite plate by a simple one-step anodic oxidation process. It was found that the direction and value of the wettable gradient could be easily controlled by adjusting current and oxidation time gradient. With the increase of surface temperature, droplets on surface not only exhibited the transition of boiling mode, but also showed the controlled radial spreading, evaporation and movement behaviors. These phenomena could be attributed to the cooperation of wettability force, hysteresis force and vapor pressure (Leidenfrost effect). Especially, the controlled radial convergence or divergence of droplets with high velocity were realized on the surfaces with either inside or outside radial gradient, which would have crucial applications in the design of microfluidic devices and the exploration of the biotechnology. PMID:25975722

  16. Fifty shades of gradients: does the pressure gradient in venous sinus stenting for idiopathic intracranial hypertension matter? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Cameron M; Ban, Vin Shen; Beecher, Jeffrey; Pride, Lee; Welch, Babu G

    2018-03-02

    OBJECTIVE The role of venous sinus stenting (VSS) for idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is not well understood. The aim of this systematic review is to attempt to identify subsets of patients with IIH who will benefit from VSS based on the pressure gradients of their venous sinus stenosis. METHODS MEDLINE/PubMed was searched for studies reporting venous pressure gradients across the stenotic segment of the venous sinus, pre- and post-stent pressure gradients, and clinical outcomes after VSS. Findings are reported according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. RESULTS From 32 eligible studies, a total of 186 patients were included in the analysis. Patients who had favorable outcomes had higher mean pressure gradients (22.8 ± 11.5 mm Hg vs 17.4 ± 8.0 mm Hg, p = 0.033) and higher changes in pressure gradients after stent placement (19.4 ± 10.0 mm Hg vs 12.0 ± 6.0 mm Hg, p = 0.006) compared with those with unfavorable outcomes. The post-stent pressure gradients between the 2 groups were not significantly different (2.8 ± 4.0 mm Hg vs 2.7 ± 2.0 mm Hg, p = 0.934). In a multivariate stepwise logistic regression controlling for age, sex, body mass index, CSF opening pressure, pre-stent pressure gradient, and post-stent pressure gradient, the change in pressure gradient with stent placement was found to be an independent predictor of favorable outcome (p = 0.028). Using a pressure gradient of 21 as a cutoff, 81/86 (94.2%) of patients with a gradient > 21 achieved favorable outcomes, compared with 82/100 (82.0%) of patients with a gradient ≤ 21 (p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS There appears to be a relationship between the pressure gradient of venous sinus stenosis and the success of VSS in IIH. A randomized controlled trial would help elucidate this relationship and potentially guide patient selection.

  17. Avalanches driven by pressure gradients in a magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Compernolle, B.; Morales, G. J.

    2017-11-01

    The results are presented for a basic heat transport experiment involving an off-axis heat source in which avalanche events occur. The configuration consists of a long, hollow, cylindrical region of elevated electron temperature embedded in a colder plasma, and far from the device walls [Van Compernolle et al. Phys. Rev. E 91, 031102(R) (2015)]. The avalanche events are identified as sudden rearrangements of the pressure profile following the growth of fluctuations from ambient noise. The intermittent collapses of the plasma pressure profile are associated with unstable drift-Alfvén waves and exhibit both radial and poloidal dynamics. After each collapse, the plasma enters a quiescent phase in which the pressure profile slowly recovers and steepens until a threshold is exceeded, and the process repeats. The use of reference probes as time markers allows for the visualization of the 2D spatio-temporal evolution of the avalanche events. Avalanches are observed only for a limited combination of heating powers and magnetic fields. At higher heating powers, the system transits from the avalanche regime into a regime dominated by sustained drift-Alfvén wave activity. This manuscript focuses on new results that illustrate the individual contributions to the avalanche process from density and temperature gradients in the presence of zero-order, sheared flows.

  18. Local pressure gradients due to incipience of boiling in subcooled flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggles, A.E.; McDuffee, J.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Models for vapor bubble behavior and nucleation site density during subcooled boiling are integrated with boundary layer theory in order to predict the local pressure gradient and heat transfer coefficient. Models for bubble growth rate and bubble departure diameter are used to scale the movement of displaced liquid in the laminar sublayer. An added shear stress, analogous to a turbulent shear stress, is derived by considering the liquid movement normal to the heated surface. The resulting mechanistic model has plausible functional dependence on wall superheat, mass flow, and heat flux and agrees well with data available in the literature.

  19. MRI measurements of intracranial pressure in the upright posture: The effect of the hydrostatic pressure gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperin, Noam; Lee, Sang H; Bagci, Ahmet M

    2015-10-01

    To add the hydrostatic component of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived intracranial pressure (ICP) measurements in the upright posture for derivation of pressure value in a central cranial location often used in invasive ICP measurements. Additional analyses were performed using data previously collected from 10 healthy subjects scanned in supine and sitting positions with a 0.5T vertical gap MRI scanner (GE Medical). Pulsatile blood and CSF flows to and from the brain were quantified using cine phase-contrast. Intracranial compliance and pressure were calculated using a previously described method. The vertical distance between the location of the CSF flow measurement and a central cranial location was measured manually in the mid-sagittal T1 -weighted image obtained in the upright posture. The hydrostatic pressure gradient of a CSF column with similar height was then added to the MR-ICP value. After adjustment for the hydrostatic component, the mean ICP value was reduced by 7.6 mmHg. Mean ICP referenced to the central cranial level was -3.4 ± 1.7 mmHg compared to the unadjusted value of +4.3 ± 1.8 mmHg. In the upright posture, the hydrostatic pressure component needs to be added to the MRI-derived ICP values for compatibility with invasive ICP at a central cranial location. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Comparison of coral reef ecosystems along a fishing pressure gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska Weijerman

    Full Text Available Three trophic mass-balance models representing coral reef ecosystems along a fishery gradient were compared to evaluate ecosystem effects of fishing. The majority of the biomass estimates came directly from a large-scale visual survey program; therefore, data were collected in the same way for all three models, enhancing comparability. Model outputs-such as net system production, size structure of the community, total throughput, production, consumption, production-to-respiration ratio, and Finn's cycling index and mean path length-indicate that the systems around the unpopulated French Frigate Shoals and along the relatively lightly populated Kona Coast of Hawai'i Island are mature, stable systems with a high efficiency in recycling of biomass. In contrast, model results show that the reef system around the most populated island in the State of Hawai'i, O'ahu, is in a transitional state with reduced ecosystem resilience and appears to be shifting to an algal-dominated system. Evaluation of the candidate indicators for fishing pressure showed that indicators at the community level (e.g., total biomass, community size structure, trophic level of the community were most robust (i.e., showed the clearest trend and that multiple indicators are necessary to identify fishing perturbations. These indicators could be used as performance indicators when compared to a baseline for management purposes. This study shows that ecosystem models can be valuable tools in identification of the system state in terms of complexity, stability, and resilience and, therefore, can complement biological metrics currently used by monitoring programs as indicators for coral reef status. Moreover, ecosystem models can improve our understanding of a system's internal structure that can be used to support management in identification of approaches to reverse unfavorable states.

  1. Diffusion and surface alloying of gradient nanostructured metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenbo Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gradient nanostructures (GNSs have been optimized in recent years for desired performance. The diffusion behavior in GNS metals is crucial for understanding the diffusion mechanism and relative characteristics of different interfaces that provide fundamental understanding for advancing the traditional surface alloying processes. In this paper, atomic diffusion, reactive diffusion, and surface alloying processes are reviewed for various metals with a preformed GNS surface layer. We emphasize the promoted atomic diffusion and reactive diffusion in the GNS surface layer that are related to a higher interfacial energy state with respect to those in relaxed coarse-grained samples. Accordingly, different surface alloying processes, such as nitriding and chromizing, have been modified significantly, and some diffusion-related properties have been enhanced. Finally, the perspectives on current research in this field are discussed.

  2. Flow Control Device Evaluation for an Internal Flow with an Adverse Pressure Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Luther N.; Gorton, Susan Althoff; Anders, Scott G.

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of several active and passive devices to control flow in an adverse pressure gradient with secondary flows present was evaluated in the 15 Inch Low Speed Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. In this study, passive micro vortex generators, micro bumps, and piezoelectric synthetic jets were evaluated for their flow control characteristics using surface static pressures, flow visualization, and 3D Stereo Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. Data also were acquired for synthetic jet actuators in a zero flow environment. It was found that the micro vortex generator is very effective in controlling the flow environment for an adverse pressure gradient, even in the presence of secondary vortical flow. The mechanism by which the control is effected is a re-energization of the boundary layer through flow mixing. The piezoelectric synthetic jet actuators must have sufficient velocity output to produce strong longitudinal vortices if they are to be effective for flow control. The output of these devices in a laboratory or zero flow environment will be different than the output in a flow environment. In this investigation, the output was higher in the flow environment, but the stroke cycle in the flow did not indicate a positive inflow into the synthetic jet.

  3. Feedback Regulation of Intracellular Hydrostatic Pressure in Surface Cells of the Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junyuan; Sun, Xiurong; White, Thomas W; Delamere, Nicholas A; Mathias, Richard T

    2015-11-03

    In wild-type lenses from various species, an intracellular hydrostatic pressure gradient goes from ∼340 mmHg in central fiber cells to 0 mmHg in surface cells. This gradient drives a center-to-surface flow of intracellular fluid. In lenses in which gap-junction coupling is increased, the central pressure is lower, whereas if gap-junction coupling is reduced, the central pressure is higher but surface pressure is always zero. Recently, we found that surface cell pressure was elevated in PTEN null lenses. This suggested disruption of a feedback control system that normally maintained zero surface cell pressure. Our purpose in this study was to investigate and characterize this feedback control system. We measured intracellular hydrostatic pressures in mouse lenses using a microelectrode/manometer-based system. We found that all feedback went through transport by the Na/K ATPase, which adjusted surface cell osmolarity such that pressure was maintained at zero. We traced the regulation of Na/K ATPase activity back to either TRPV4, which sensed positive pressure and stimulated activity, or TRPV1, which sensed negative pressure and inhibited activity. The inhibitory effect of TRPV1 on Na/K pumps was shown to signal through activation of the PI3K/AKT axis. The stimulatory effect of TRPV4 was shown in previous studies to go through a different signal transduction path. Thus, there is a local two-legged feedback control system for pressure in lens surface cells. The surface pressure provides a pedestal on which the pressure gradient sits, so surface pressure determines the absolute value of pressure at each radial location. We speculate that the absolute value of intracellular pressure may set the radial gradient in the refractive index, which is essential for visual acuity. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of Coral Reef Ecosystems along a Fishing Pressure Gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijerman, M.W.; Fulton, E.A.; Parrish, F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Three trophic mass-balance models representing coral reef ecosystems along a fishery gradient were compared to evaluate ecosystem effects of fishing. The majority of the biomass estimates came directly from a large-scale visual survey program; therefore, data were collected in the same way for all

  5. Abundance gradients in low surface brightness spirals: clues on the origin of common gradients in galactic discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresolin, F.; Kennicutt, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    We acquired spectra of 141 H II regions in 10 late-type low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs). The analysis of the chemical abundances obtained from the nebular emission lines shows that metallicity gradients are a common feature of LSBGs, contrary to previous claims concerning the absence of such gradients in this class of galaxies. The average slope, when expressed in units of the isophotal radius, is found to be significantly shallower in comparison to galaxies of high surface brightness. This result can be attributed to the reduced surface brightness range measured across their discs, when combined with a universal surface mass density-metallicity relation. With a similar argument we explain the common abundance gradient observed in high surface brightness galaxy (HSBG) discs and its approximate dispersion. This conclusion is reinforced by our result that LSBGs share the same common abundance gradient with HSBGs, when the slope is expressed in terms of the exponential disc scalelength.

  6. Motion of Drops on Surfaces with Wettability Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, R. Shankar; McLaughlin, John B.; Moumen, Nadjoua; Qian, Dongying

    2002-11-01

    A liquid drop present on a solid surface can move because of a gradient in wettability along the surface, as manifested by a gradient in the contact angle. The contact angle at a given point on the contact line between a solid and a liquid in a gaseous medium is the angle between the tangent planes to the liquid and the solid surfaces at that point and is measured within the liquid side, by convention. The motion of the drop occurs in the direction of increasing wettability. The cause of the motion is the net force exerted on the drop by the solid surface because of the variation of the contact angle around the periphery. This force causes acceleration of an initially stationary drop, and leads to its motion in the direction of decreasing contact angle. The nature of the motion is determined by the balance between the motivating force and the resisting hydrodynamic force from the solid surface and the surrounding gaseous medium. A wettability gradient can be chemically induced as shown by Chaudhury and Whitesides who provided unambiguous experimental evidence that drops can move in such gradients. The phenomenon can be important in heat transfer applications in low gravity, such as when condensation occurs on a surface. Daniel et al have demonstrated that the velocity of a drop on a surface due to a wettability gradient in the presence of condensation can be more than two orders of magnitude larger than that observed in the absence of condensation. In the present research program, we have begun to study the motion of a drop in a wettability gradient systematically using a model system. Our initial efforts will be restricted to a system in which no condensation occurs. The experiments are performed as follows. First, a rectangular strip of approximate dimensions 10 x 20 mm is cut out of a silicon wafer. The strip is cleaned thoroughly and its surface is exposed to the vapor from an alkylchlorosilane for a period lasting between one and two minutes inside a

  7. Pressure relieving support surfaces (PRESSURE) trial: cost effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Cynthia; Nixon, Jane; Cranny, Gillian; Nelson, E Andrea; Hawkins, Kim; Phillips, Angela; Torgerson, David; Mason, Su; Cullum, Nicky

    2006-06-17

    To assess the cost effectiveness of alternating pressure mattresses compared with alternating pressure overlays for the prevention of pressure ulcers in patients admitted to hospital. Cost effectiveness analysis carried out alongside the pressure relieving support surfaces (PRESSURE) trial; a multicentre UK based pragmatic randomised controlled trial. 11 hospitals in six UK NHS trusts. Intention to treat population comprising 1971 participants. Kaplan Meier estimates of restricted mean time to development of pressure ulcers and total costs for treatment in hospital. Alternating pressure mattresses were associated with lower overall costs (283.6 pounds sterling per patient on average, 95% confidence interval--377.59 pounds sterling to 976.79 pounds sterling) mainly due to reduced length of stay in hospital, and greater benefits (a delay in time to ulceration of 10.64 days on average,--24.40 to 3.09). The differences in health benefits and total costs for hospital stay between alternating pressure mattresses and alternating pressure overlays were not statistically significant; however, a cost effectiveness acceptability curve indicated that on average alternating pressure mattresses compared with alternating pressure overlays were associated with an 80% probability of being cost saving. Alternating pressure mattresses for the prevention of pressure ulcers are more likely to be cost effective and are more acceptable to patients than alternating pressure overlays.

  8. A new macroscopically anisotropic pressure dependent yield function for metal matrix composite based on strain gradient plasticity for the microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azizi, Reza; Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2013-01-01

    in addition to the elastic strain. Hill's classical anisotropic yield criterion is extended to cover the composite such that hydrostatic pressure dependency, Bauschinger stress and size-effects are considered. It is found that depending on the fiber volume fraction, the anisotropic yield surface......Metal matrix composites with long aligned elastic fibers are studied using an energetic rate independent strain gradient plasticity theory with an isotropic pressure independent yield function at the microscale. The material response is homogenized to obtain a conventional macroscopic model...... that exhibits anisotropic yield properties with a pressure dependence. At the microscale free energy includes both elastic strains and plastic strain gradients, and the theory demands higher order boundary conditions in terms of plastic strain or work conjugate higher order tractions. The mechanical response...

  9. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Elizabeth; Jammali-Blasi, Asmara; Bell-Syer, Sally E M; Dumville, Jo C; Middleton, Victoria; Cullum, Nicky

    2015-09-03

    Pressure ulcers (i.e. bedsores, pressure sores, pressure injuries, decubitus ulcers) are areas of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue. They are common in the elderly and immobile, and costly in financial and human terms. Pressure-relieving support surfaces (i.e. beds, mattresses, seat cushions etc) are used to help prevent ulcer development. This systematic review seeks to establish:(1) the extent to which pressure-relieving support surfaces reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers compared with standard support surfaces, and,(2) their comparative effectiveness in ulcer prevention. In April 2015, for this fourth update we searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 15 April 2015) which includes the results of regular searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 3). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials, published or unpublished, that assessed the effects of any support surface for prevention of pressure ulcers, in any patient group or setting which measured pressure ulcer incidence. Trials reporting only proxy outcomes (e.g. interface pressure) were excluded. Two review authors independently selected trials. Data were extracted by one review author and checked by another. Where appropriate, estimates from similar trials were pooled for meta-analysis. For this fourth update six new trials were included, bringing the total of included trials to 59.Foam alternatives to standard hospital foam mattresses reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in people at risk (RR 0.40 95% CI 0.21 to 0.74). The relative merits of alternating- and constant low-pressure devices are unclear. One high-quality trial suggested that alternating-pressure mattresses may be more cost effective than alternating-pressure overlays in a UK context.Pressure-relieving overlays on the operating table reduce postoperative pressure ulcer incidence

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of collapse phenomena in heliotron plasma with large pressure gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuguchi, N.; Suzuki, Y.; Ohyabu, N.

    2008-10-01

    We have executed nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations in a heliotron-type configuration with a large pressure gradient to reveal the nonlinear dynamics of collapse phenomena. The simulation results reproduce the qualitative characteristics of the experimental observation on the so-called core density collapse (CDC) events in the Large Helical Device (LHD) plasma with the super dense core (SDC) profile. A long-term nonlinear behavior on the event, including the flushing mechanism of the core pressure, is clarified. The simulation result shows the linear growth of the ballooning-like resistive instability modes with the intermediate poloidal wavenumbers. The growth of the modes are saturated soon, and the system experiences the energy relaxation in about 1 msec. It should be noted that the linear mode structures are localized in the edge region, whereas the core pressure rapidly falls as the system reaches the relaxed state. The co-existence of the edge perturbation and the core collapse is consistent with the experimental observations. The lost pressure forms a wider tail in the peripheral region. The core pressure is remarkably reduced at a certain period, while it had withstood the disturbance before it. The most salient feature on this period is the disordering of the magnetic field structure. The system keeps the nested-flux-surface structure well in the beginnings, whereas part of them are abruptly lost at this period. Such a situation can induce a flattening of the pressure profile along the reconnected field lines. By checking the place where the plasma loss due to this mechanism occurs, such plasma outlets are found to be located mainly on the disordered region. Thus, one can conclude that the core collapse can be caused by the disturbance of the magnetic field. (author)

  11. Non-invasive Estimation of Pressure Gradients in Pulsatile Flow using Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Traberg, Marie Sand

    2014-01-01

    of pressure gradients are calculated using the Navier-Stokes equations. Flow data are acquired to a depth of 3 cm using directional synthetic aperture flow imaging on a linear array transducer producing 1500 image frames of velocity estimates per second. Scans of a carotid bifurcation phantom with a 70......% constriction are performed using an experimental scanner. The performance of the presented estimator is evaluated by comparing its results to a numerical simulation model, which geometry is reconstructed from MRI data. The study showed pressure gradients varying from 0 kPa/m to 4.5 kPa/m with a maximum bias...... and standard deviation of 10% and 13%, respectively, relative to peak estimated gradient. The paper concludes that maps of pressure gradients can be measured non-invasively using ultrasound with a precision of more than 85%...

  12. Portosystemic pressure reduction achieved with TIPPS and impact of portosystemic collaterals for the prediction of the portosystemic-pressure gradient in cirrhotic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grözinger, Gerd; Wiesinger, Benjamin; Schmehl, Jörg; Kramer, Ulrich; Mehra, Tarun; Grosse, Ulrich; König, Claudius

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The portosystemic pressure gradient is an important factor defining prognosis in hepatic disease. However, noninvasive prediction of the gradient and the possible reduction by establishment of a TIPSS is challenging. A cohort of patients receiving TIPSS was evaluated with regard to imaging features of collaterals in cross-sectional imaging and the achievable reduction of the pressure gradient by establishment of a TIPSS. Methods: In this study 70 consecutive patients with cirrhotic liver disease were retrospectively evaluated. Patients received either CT or MR imaging before invasive pressure measurement during TIPSS procedure. Images were evaluated with regard to esophageal and fundus varices, splenorenal collaterals, short gastric vein and paraumbilical vein. Results were correlated with Child stage, portosystemic pressure gradient and post-TIPSS reduction of the pressure gradient. Results: In 55 of the 70 patients TIPSS reduced the pressure gradient to less than 12 mmHg. The pre-interventional pressure and the pressure reduction were not significantly different between Child stages. Imaging features of varices and portosystemic collaterals did not show significant differences. The only parameter with a significant predictive value for the reduction of the pressure gradient was the pre-TIPSS pressure gradient (r = 0.8, p < 0.001). Conclusions: TIPSS allows a reliable reduction of the pressure gradient even at high pre-interventional pressure levels and a high collateral presence. In patients receiving TIPSS the presence and the characteristics of the collateral vessels seem to be too variable to draw reliable conclusions concerning the portosystemic pressure gradient

  13. Portosystemic pressure reduction achieved with TIPPS and impact of portosystemic collaterals for the prediction of the portosystemic-pressure gradient in cirrhotic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grözinger, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.groezinger@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University of Tübingen (Germany); Wiesinger, Benjamin; Schmehl, Jörg; Kramer, Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University of Tübingen (Germany); Mehra, Tarun [Department of Dermatology, University of Tübingen (Germany); Grosse, Ulrich; König, Claudius [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University of Tübingen (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: The portosystemic pressure gradient is an important factor defining prognosis in hepatic disease. However, noninvasive prediction of the gradient and the possible reduction by establishment of a TIPSS is challenging. A cohort of patients receiving TIPSS was evaluated with regard to imaging features of collaterals in cross-sectional imaging and the achievable reduction of the pressure gradient by establishment of a TIPSS. Methods: In this study 70 consecutive patients with cirrhotic liver disease were retrospectively evaluated. Patients received either CT or MR imaging before invasive pressure measurement during TIPSS procedure. Images were evaluated with regard to esophageal and fundus varices, splenorenal collaterals, short gastric vein and paraumbilical vein. Results were correlated with Child stage, portosystemic pressure gradient and post-TIPSS reduction of the pressure gradient. Results: In 55 of the 70 patients TIPSS reduced the pressure gradient to less than 12 mmHg. The pre-interventional pressure and the pressure reduction were not significantly different between Child stages. Imaging features of varices and portosystemic collaterals did not show significant differences. The only parameter with a significant predictive value for the reduction of the pressure gradient was the pre-TIPSS pressure gradient (r = 0.8, p < 0.001). Conclusions: TIPSS allows a reliable reduction of the pressure gradient even at high pre-interventional pressure levels and a high collateral presence. In patients receiving TIPSS the presence and the characteristics of the collateral vessels seem to be too variable to draw reliable conclusions concerning the portosystemic pressure gradient.

  14. Modelling creep of pressure vessels with thermal gradients using Theta projection data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, M.; Payten, W.; Snowden, K.

    2002-01-01

    Pressure vessels are often exposed to through-wall temperature gradients. Thermal stresses occur in addition to pressure stresses. The resulting creep response is calculated using the Theta projection creep algorithm within a finite element code. It was found that the stress and temperature dependence of the creep response may lead to complex stress evolution

  15. Pulsed high-voltage discharge in air with a pressure gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strikovskiy, A. V.; Evtushenko, A. A.; Gushchin, M. E.; Korobkov, S. V.; Kostrov, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    Results of experiments on high-voltage discharges in air with a pressure gradient are presented. The experiments were carried out at the setup developed at the Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences. The goal of the experiments was laboratory modeling of high-altitude atmospheric discharges―sprites and jets. The setup and diagnostic techniques are described. The experimental results include the distribution of the gas pressure in the vacuum chamber formed by means of pulsed air puffing, photographs of discharges in air with a pressure gradient, and the dependences of the discharge current and optical emission intensity on the initial conditions.

  16. Noninvasive estimation of 2-D pressure gradients in steady flow using ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Traberg, Marie Sand; Pihl, Michael Johannes

    2014-01-01

    A noninvasive method for estimating 2-D pressure gradients from ultrasound vector velocity data is presented. It relies on vector velocity fields acquired using the transverse oscillation method during steady flow conditions. The pressure gradients are calculated from the velocity fields using...... the Navier-Stokes equations. Scans of a carotid bifurcation phantom with a 70% constriction are performed using a linear transducer connected to a scanner. The performance of the estimator is evaluated by comparing its results to those of a computational fluid dynamics model of the carotid bifurcation...... of -7% for the axial component and -8% for the lateral component. The relative standard deviation of the estimator is 5% (axial component) and 30% (lateral component) when studying the pressure gradient across the constriction using 3 velocity frames per pressure estimate. The study shows that 2-D...

  17. Measurement of hepatic venous pressure gradient revisited: Catheter wedge vs balloon wedge techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Timothy Chelliah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the accuracy of measurement of hepatic venous pressure gradient by catheter wedge as compared to balloon wedge (the gold standard. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients having a clinical diagnosis of intrahepatic portal hypertension were subjected to the two different types of pressure measurements (catheter wedge and balloon wedge during transjugular liver biopsy under fluoroscopic guidance. Statistical Analysis: Spearman′s rank correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman plot for agreement, and single measure intraclass correlation were used for analysis of data. Results: There was a close correlation between the results obtained by both the techniques, with highly significant concordance (P < 0.0001. Hepatic venous pressure gradients as measured by the catheter wedge technique were either equal to or less than those obtained by the balloon wedge technique. Conclusions: The difference in hepatic venous pressure gradients measured by the two techniques is insignificant.

  18. Gastroesophageal pressure gradients in gastroesophageal reflux disease: relations with hiatal hernia, body mass index, and esophageal acid exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Durk R.; van Herwaarden, Margot A.; Smout, André J. P. M.; Samsom, Melvin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The roles of intragastric pressure (IGP), intraesophageal pressure (IEP), gastroesophageal pressure gradient (GEPG), and body mass index (BMI) in the pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and hiatal hernia (HH) are only partly understood. METHODS: In total, 149 GERD

  19. Creating gradient wetting surfaces via electroless displacement of zinc-coated carbon steel by nickel ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang; Liu, Huicong; Liang, Weitao; Zhu, Liqun; Li, Weiping; Chen, Haining

    2018-03-01

    Gradient wetting surfaces are getting increasing attention due to their wide application in multiple fields such as droplet movement and biosorption. However, the fabrication processes of full gradient wetting surfaces are still complex and costly. In present work, a facile and low-cost chemical immersion method was used to create a full gradient wetting surface. By controlling the displacement time in Ni2+ solution, the prepared surfaces perform hydrophilic to superhydrophilic. After being modified by stearic acid, the gradient hydrophilic surfaces convert into hydrophobic. The surface morphology, composition, and wetting behaviors of the as-prepared surfaces were systematically studied and discussed. The gradient wetting property could be attributed to the change in microroughness and surface energy. In addition, these surfaces also exhibited excellent self-cleaning and wax prevention properties. Furthermore, high stability and corrosion resistance were also found for these surfaces, which further highlight their promising practical applications in many fields.

  20. Towards a more comprehensive understanding of the diabatic ABL dynamics: variability of the pressure gradient in time and height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, M.; Bou-Zeid, E.

    2016-12-01

    Real-world atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers involve many inherent complexities that have often been neglected in the previous studies. For example, pressure gradients in nature frequently vary with time (unsteadiness) and height (baroclinicity); yet most previous investigations have focused on the steady-state barotropic conditions. We perform a suite of large-eddy simulations (LES), which include the temporal/spatial variability of the pressure gradient in the presence of the surface buoyancy. The impact of the variations in the pressure gradient on the mean and turbulent production, dissipation, and transport terms will be presented (e.g. figure 1). We then show that the mean ABL dynamics can be interpreted as a damped oscillator where inertial, Coriolis, and friction forces reflect the mass, spring and damper respectively (see e.g. Momen and Bou-Zeid [1]). This simplified physical framework reduces the governing RANS PDEs into a single ODE. The surface buoyancy forces largely influence the damping term in the model, corresponding to friction forces. The height dependence of the pressure gradient appears as an independent parameter in the model and hence this model can also be used to predict such conditions with an appropriate selection of the corresponding forces. The performance of this model is validated against LES results. The performed simulations help us better understand and model the underlying physics of the real ABLs. In addition to elucidating the fundamental features of the diurnal cycle and low-level jets, the reduced model covers a much wider range of realistic conditions, and can be employed for short-term forecasts of wind power production, and in various other engineering and meteorological applications. [1] Momen, M., and E. Bou-Zeid, 2016: Large Eddy Simulations and Damped-Oscillator Models of the Unsteady Ekman Boundary Layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 73, 25-40, doi:10.1175/JAS-D-15-0038.1.

  1. Non-invasive Measurement of Pressure Gradients in Pulsatile Flow using Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Traberg, Marie Sand; Pihl, Michael Johannes

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how pressure gradients in a pulsatile flow environment can be measured non-invasively using ultrasound. The proposed method relies on vector velocity fields acquired from ultrasound data. 2-D flow data are acquired at 18-23 frames/sec using the Transverse Oscillation...... approach. Pressure gradients are calculated from the measured velocity fields using the Navier-Stokes equation. Velocity fields are measured during constant and pulsating flow on a carotid bifurcation phantom and on a common carotid artery in-vivo. Scanning is performed with a 5 MHz BK8670 linear...... transducer using a BK Medical 2202 UltraView Pro Focus scanner. The calculated pressure gradients are validated through a finite element simulation of the constant flow model. The geometry of the flow simulation model is reproduced using MRI data, thereby providing identical flow domains in measurement...

  2. Semianalytical Solution of the Nonlinear Dual-Porosity Flow Model with the Quadratic Pressure Gradient Term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Tao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear dual-porosity flow model, specifically considering the quadratic pressure gradient term, wellbore storage coefficient, well skin factor, and interporosity flow of matrix to natural fractures, was established for well production in a naturally fractured formation and then solved using a semianalytical method, including Laplace transform and a transformation of the pressure function. Analytical solution of the model in Laplace space was converted to numerical solution in real space using Stehfest numerical inversion. Nonlinear flow process for well production in a naturally fractured formation with different external boundaries was simulated and analyzed using standard pressure curves. Influence of the quadratic pressure gradient coefficient on pressure curves was studied qualitatively and quantitatively in conditions of a group of fixed model parameters. The research results show that the semianalytical modelling method is applicable in simulating the nonlinear dual-porosity flow behavior.

  3. Development of the CARS method for measurement of pressure and temperature gradients in centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeltmann, A.H.; Valentini, J.J.

    1983-12-01

    These experiments evaluated the feasibility of applying the CARS technique to the measurement of UF 6 concentrations and pressure gradients in a gas centrifuge. The resultant CARS signals were properly related to system parameters as suggested by theory. The results have been used to guide design of an apparatus for making CARS measurements in a UF 6 gas centrifuge. Ease of measurement is expected for pressures as low as 0.1 torr. Temperature gradients can be measured by this technique with changes in the data acquisition method. 16 references, 8 figures, 2 tables

  4. On the physics of the pressure and temperature gradients in the edge of tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Weston M.

    2018-04-01

    An extended plasma fluid theory including atomic physics, radiation, electromagnetic and themodynamic forces, external sources of particles, momentum and energy, and kinetic ion orbit loss is employed to derive theoretical expressions that display the role of the various factors involved in the determination of the pressure and temperature gradients in the edge of tokamak plasmas. Calculations for current experiments are presented to illustrate the magnitudes of various effects including strong radiative and atomic physics edge cooling effects and strong reduction in ion particle and energy fluxes due to ion orbit loss in the plasma edge. An important new insight is the strong relation between rotation and the edge pressure gradient.

  5. Complex Surface Concentration Gradients by Stenciled "Electro Click Chemistry"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Lind, Johan Ulrik; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2010-01-01

    Complex one- or two-dimensional concentration gradients of alkynated molecules are produced on azidized conducting polymer substrates by stenciled "electro click chemistry". The latter describes the local electrochemical generation of catalytically active Cu(I) required to complete a "click...... reaction" between alkynes and azides at room temperature. A stencil on the counter electrode defines the shape and multiplicity of the gradient(s) on the conducting polymer substrate, while the specific reaction conditions control gradient steepness and the maximum concentration deposited. Biologically...

  6. Osmotic pressure of the cutaneous surface fluid of Rana esculenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid Larsen, Erik; Ramløv, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The osmotic pressure of the cutaneous surface fluid (CSF) in vivo was measured for investigating whether evaporative water loss (EWL) derives from water diffusing through the skin or fluid secreted by exocrine subepidermal mucous glands. EWL was stimulated by subjecting R. esculenta to 30–34 °C....../Kg, n = 16. Osmolality of lymph was, 239 ± 4 mosmol/Kg, n = 8. Thus the flow of water across the epidermis would be in the direction from CSF to the interstitial fluid driven by the above osmotic gradients and/or coupled to the inward active Na+ flux via the slightly hyperosmotic paracellular...

  7. Behaviour of a pre-stressed concrete pressure-vessel subjected to a high temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, F.

    1965-01-01

    After a review of the problems presented by pressure-vessels for atomic reactors (shape of the vessel, pressures, openings, foundations, etc.) the advantages of pre-stressed concrete vessels with respect to steel ones are given. The use of pre-stressed concrete vessels however presents many difficulties connected with the properties of concrete. Thus, because of the absence of an exact knowledge of the material, it is necessary to place a sealed layer of steel against the concrete, to have a thermal insulator or a cooling circuit for limiting the deformations and stresses, etc. It follows that the study of the behaviour of pre-stressed concrete and of the vessel subjected- to a high temperature gradient can yield useful information. A one-tenth scale model of a pre-stressed concrete cylindrical vessel without any side openings and without a base has been built. Before giving a description of the tests the authors consider some theoretical aspects concerning 'scale model-actual structure' similitude conditions and the calculation of the thermal and mechanical effects. The pre-stressed concrete model was heated internally by a 'pyrotenax' element and cooled externally by a very strong air current. The concrete was pre-stressed using horizontal and vertical cables held at 80 kg/cm 2 ; the thermal gradient was 160 deg. C. During the various tests, measurements were made of the overall and local deformations, the changes in water content, the elasticity modulus, the stress and creep of the cables and the depths of the cracks. The overall deformations observed are in line with thermal deformation theories and the creep of the cables attained 20 to 30 per cent according to their position relative to the internal surface. The dynamic elasticity modulus decreased by half but the concrete keeps its good mechanical properties. Finally, cracks 8 to 12 cm deep and 2 to 3 mms wide appeared in that part of the concrete which was not pre-stressed. The results obtained make it

  8. Prediction of Pressure and Temperature Gradients in the Tokamak Plasma Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, W. M.

    2017-10-01

    An extended plasma fluid theory that takes into account kinetic ion orbit loss and electromagnetic forces in the continuity, momentum and energy balances, as well as atomic physics and radiation, has been used to reveal the explicit dependence of the temperature and pressure gradients in the tokamak edge plasma on these various factors. Combining the ion radial momentum balance and the Ohm's Law expression for Er reveals the dependence of the radial ion pressure gradient on VxB forces driven by radial particle fluxes, which depend on ion orbit loss, and other factors. The strong temperature gradients measured in the H-mode edge pedestal could certainly be associated with radiative and atomic physics edge cooling effects and the strong reduction in ion and energy fluxes due to ion orbit loss, as well as to the possible reductions in thermal diffusivities that is usually assumed to be the cause. Work supported by USDOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  9. Effect of fast mold surface temperature evolution on iPP part morphology gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liparoti, Sara; Sorrentino, Andrea; Guzman, Gustavo; Cakmak, Mukerrem; Titomanlio, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The control of mold surface temperature is an important factor that affects the sample surface morphology as well as the structural gradients (orientation crystal size, and type) as well as cooling stresses. The frozen layer thickness formed during the filling stage also has a very significant effect on the flow resistance and thus on the resulting pressure drop and flow length in thin wall parts. The possibility to have a hot mold during filling and a quick cooling soon afterward is a significant process enhancement particularly for specialized applications such as micro injection molding and for the reproduction of micro structured surfaces. Up to now, several methods (electromagnetic, infrared, hot vapor fleshing etc,) were tried to achieve fast temperature evolution of the mold. Unfortunately, all these methods require a complex balance between thermal and mechanical problems, equipment cost, energy consumption, safety, molding cycle time and part quality achievable. In this work, a thin electrical resistance was designed and used to generate a fast and confined temperature variation on mold surface (by joule effect). Since the whole temperature evolution can take place in a few seconds, one can couple the advantages of a high surface temperature during filling with the advantages of a low mold temperature, fast cooling and low heating dissipation. Some experiments were performed with a commercial iPP resin. The effects of the surface temperature and of the heating time (under constant electric power) on surface finishing and on the final morphology (thickness and structure of the different layers) are explored and discussed.

  10. Constant pressure mode extended simple gradient liquid chromatography system for micro and nanocolumns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šesták, Jozef; Kahle, Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1350, Jul (2014), s. 68-71 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015023 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : constant pressure HPLC * gradient elution * simple liquid chromatograph Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.169, year: 2014 http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0233990

  11. Can postoperative mean transprosthetic pressure gradient predict survival after aortic valve replacement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, Bart M.; Hamad, Mohamed A. Soliman; Bouma, Wobbe; Mariani, Massimo A.; Peels, Kathinka C.; van Dantzig, Jan-Melle; van Straten, Albert H.

    In this study, we sought to determine the effect of the mean transprosthetic pressure gradient (TPG), measured at 6 weeks after aortic valve replacement (AVR) or AVR with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) on late all-cause mortality. Between January 1998 and March 2012, 2,276 patients (mean age

  12. Sildenafil does not influence hepatic venous pressure gradient in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmesen, Jens-Otto; Giraldi, Annamaria; Ott, Peter

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if sildenafil increases splanchnic blood flow and changes the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) in patients with cirrhosis. Phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors are valuable in the treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension in patients with end-stage liver...

  13. Theory of adiabatic pressure-gradient soliton compression in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Roberts, John

    2009-01-01

    Adiabatic soliton compression by means of a pressure gradient in a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber is investigated theoretically and numerically. It is shown that the dureation of the compressed pulse is limited mainly by the interplay between third-order dispersion and the Raman-induced soliton...

  14. Perturbations of the solar wind flow by radial and latitudinal pick-up ion pressure gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Fahr

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that pick-up ions at their dynamical incorporation into the solar wind modify the original conditions of the asymptotic solar wind plasma flow. In this respect, it has meanwhile been revealed in many papers that these type of solar wind modifications, i.e. deceleration and decrease of effective Mach number, are not only due to the pick-up ion loading effects, but also to the action of pick-up ion pressure gradients. Up to now only the effects of radial pick-up ion pressure gradients were considered, however, analogously but latitudinal pressure gradients also appear to be important. Here we study the effects of radial and latitudinal pick-up ion pressure gradients, occurring especially during solar minimum conditions at mid-latitude regions where slow solar wind streams change to fast solar wind streams. First, we give estimates of the latitudinal wind components connected with these gradients, and then after revealing its importance, present a more quantitative calculation of solar wind velocity and density perturbations resulting from these pressure forces. It is shown that the relative density perturbations near and in the ecliptic increase with radial distance and thus may well explain the measured non-spherically symmetric density decrease with distance. We also show that the solar wind decelerations actually seen with Voyager-1/2 are in conciliation with interstellar hydrogen densities of nH∞≥0.1cm-3, in contrast to earlier claims for nH∞=0.05cm-3.

  15. Perturbations of the solar wind flow by radial and latitudinal pick-up ion pressure gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Fahr

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that pick-up ions at their dynamical incorporation into the solar wind modify the original conditions of the asymptotic solar wind plasma flow. In this respect, it has meanwhile been revealed in many papers that these type of solar wind modifications, i.e. deceleration and decrease of effective Mach number, are not only due to the pick-up ion loading effects, but also to the action of pick-up ion pressure gradients. Up to now only the effects of radial pick-up ion pressure gradients were considered, however, analogously but latitudinal pressure gradients also appear to be important. Here we study the effects of radial and latitudinal pick-up ion pressure gradients, occurring especially during solar minimum conditions at mid-latitude regions where slow solar wind streams change to fast solar wind streams. First, we give estimates of the latitudinal wind components connected with these gradients, and then after revealing its importance, present a more quantitative calculation of solar wind velocity and density perturbations resulting from these pressure forces. It is shown that the relative density perturbations near and in the ecliptic increase with radial distance and thus may well explain the measured non-spherically symmetric density decrease with distance. We also show that the solar wind decelerations actually seen with Voyager-1/2 are in conciliation with interstellar hydrogen densities of nH∞≥0.1cm-3, in contrast to earlier claims for nH∞=0.05cm-3.

  16. Photodetachment of negative ion in a gradient electric field near a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tian-Qi; Wang De-Hua; Han Cai; Liu Jiang; Liang Dong-Qi; Xie Si-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Based on closed-orbit theory, the photodetachment of H − in a gradient electric field near a metal surface is studied. It is demonstrated that the gradient electric field has a significant influence on the photodetachment of negative ions near a metal surface. With the increase of the gradient of the electric field, the oscillation in the photodetachment cross section becomes strengthened. Besides, in contrast to the photodetachment of H − near a metal surface in a uniform electric field, the oscillating amplitude and the oscillating region in the cross section of a gradient electric field also become enlarged. Therefore, we can use the gradient electric field to control the photodetachment of negative ions near a metal surface. We hope that our results will be useful for understanding the photodetachment of negative ions in the vicinity of surfaces, cavities, and ion traps. (atomic and molecular physics)

  17. Nocturnal variation of air-surface temperature gradients for typical urban and rural surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaid, Hanna

    The nocturnal variation of the standard atmospheric air-ground surface temperature gradient under fair weather conditions is considered. A semi-analytical model in the form of an exponential response function is proposed and experimentally verified against field observations conducted by the author at Haifa ( ca 32°N) and by others at various geographical locations. The proposed model is intended to predict the sought gradient variation with the aid of an experimentally derived parameter (a time constant) which is directly proportional to the thermal inertia of the substrate matter beneath the surface in question. Among the impervious ground-cover types widely encountered in urban environments, concrete surfaces exhibit the highest time constant of about 10 h, while that of bare dry rural soil is 6.5 h. Turf and wet soil surfaces, common in rural environments, have time constants of 3.6 and 10.8 h, respectively. Applicability of the proposed model to the exterior surfaces of building-envelope elements is also discussed, as are the implications of the present findings regarding the causative factors of urban heat islands.

  18. Beyond Pressure Gradients: The Effects of Intervention on Heart Power in Aortic Coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Joao Filipe; Goubergrits, Leonid; Brüning, Jan; Hellmeier, Florian; Nordmeyer, Sarah; da Silva, Tiago Ferreira; Schubert, Stephan; Berger, Felix; Kuehne, Titus; Kelm, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    In aortic coarctation, current guidelines recommend reducing pressure gradients that exceed given thresholds. From a physiological standpoint this should ideally improve the energy expenditure of the heart and thus prevent long term organ damage. The aim was to assess the effects of interventional treatment on external and internal heart power (EHP, IHP) in patients with aortic coarctation and to explore the correlation of these parameters to pressure gradients obtained from heart catheterization. In a collective of 52 patients with aortic coarctation 25 patients received stenting and/or balloon angioplasty, and 20 patients underwent MRI before and after an interventional treatment procedure. EHP and IHP were computed based on catheterization and MRI measurements. Along with the power efficiency these were combined in a cardiac energy profile. By intervention, the catheter gradient was significantly reduced from 21.8±9.4 to 6.2±6.1mmHg (ptreatment of coarctation resulted in a decrease in IHP. Pressure gradients, as the most widespread clinical parameters in coarctation, did not show any correlation to changes in EHP or IHP. This raises the question of whether they should be the main focus in coarctation interventions. Only patients with high IHP of above 5W showed improvement in IHP and power efficiency after the treatment procedure. clinicaltrials.gov NCT02591940.

  19. Utilization of a pressure sensor guidewire to measure bileaflet mechanical valve gradients: hemodynamic and echocardiographic sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorey, Andrew J; Gakhal, Mandip; Pasquale, Michael J

    2006-04-01

    Suspected prosthetic valve dysfunction is a difficult clinical problem, because of the high risk of repeat valvular surgery. Echocardiographic measurements of prosthetic valvular dysfunction can be misleading, especially with bileaflet valves. Direct measurement of trans-valvular gradients is problematic because of potentially serious catheter entrapment issues. We report a case in which a high-fidelity pressure sensor angioplasty guidewire was used to cross prosthetic mitral and aortic valves in a patient, with hemodynamic and echocardiographic assessment. This technique was safe and effective, refuting the inaccurate non-invasive tests that over-estimated the aortic valvular gradient.

  20. Constrained numerical gradients and composite gradients: Practical tools for geometry optimization and potential energy surface navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenrup, Michael; Lindh, Roland; Fdez Galván, Ignacio

    2015-08-15

    A method is proposed to easily reduce the number of energy evaluations required to compute numerical gradients when constraints are imposed on the system, especially in connection with rigid fragment optimization. The method is based on the separation of the coordinate space into a constrained and an unconstrained space, and the numerical differentiation is done exclusively in the unconstrained space. The decrease in the number of energy calculations can be very important if the system is significantly constrained. The performance of the method is tested on systems that can be considered as composed of several rigid groups or molecules, and the results show that the error with respect to conventional optimizations is of the order of the convergence criteria. Comparison with another method designed for rigid fragment optimization proves the present method to be competitive. The proposed method can also be applied to combine numerical and analytical gradients computed at different theory levels, allowing an unconstrained optimization with numerical differentiation restricted to the most significant degrees of freedom. This approach can be a practical alternative when analytical gradients are not available at the desired computational level and full numerical differentiation is not affordable. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Blood pressure gradients in cerebral arteries: a clue to pathogenesis of cerebral small vessel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Pablo J; Müller, Lucas O; Spence, J David

    2017-09-01

    The role of hypertension in cerebral small vessel disease is poorly understood. At the base of the brain (the 'vascular centrencephalon'), short straight arteries transmit blood pressure directly to small resistance vessels; the cerebral convexity is supplied by long arteries with many branches, resulting in a drop in blood pressure. Hypertensive small vessel disease (lipohyalinosis) causes the classically described lacunar infarctions at the base of the brain; however, periventricular white matter intensities (WMIs) seen on MRI and WMI in subcortical areas over the convexity, which are often also called 'lacunes', probably have different aetiologies. We studied pressure gradients from proximal to distal regions of the cerebral vasculature by mathematical modelling. Blood flow/pressure equations were solved in an Anatomically Detailed Arterial Network (ADAN) model, considering a normotensive and a hypertensive case. Model parameters were suitably modified to account for structural changes in arterial vessels in the hypertensive scenario. Computations predict a marked drop in blood pressure from large and medium-sized cerebral vessels to cerebral peripheral beds. When blood pressure in the brachial artery is 192/113 mm Hg, the pressure in the small arterioles of the posterior parietal artery bed would be only 117/68 mm Hg. In the normotensive case, with blood pressure in the brachial artery of 117/75 mm Hg, the pressure in small parietal arterioles would be only 59/38 mm Hg. These findings have important implications for understanding small vessel disease. The marked pressure gradient across cerebral arteries should be taken into account when evaluating the pathogenesis of small WMIs on MRI. Hypertensive small vessel disease, affecting the arterioles at the base of the brain should be distinguished from small vessel disease in subcortical regions of the convexity and venous disease in the periventricular white matter.

  2. Link between convection and meridional gradient of sea surface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Resolution. URL. SST. TMI ... In this paper, we use satellite data for SST and rainfall to show that there exists a strong relationship between convec- tion and the meridional gradient of SST in the bay. We show that convection sets in within a ...

  3. Link between convection and meridional gradient of sea surface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A sensitivity analysis showed that the corresponding threshold for was 29°C. We hypothesise that the excess heating (∼1° C above the threshold for deep convection)required in the northern bay to trigger convection is because this excess in SST is what is required to establish the critical SST gradient.

  4. Free water transport, small pore transport and the osmotic pressure gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikova, Alena; Smit, Watske; Zweers, Machteld M; Struijk, Dirk G; Krediet, Raymond T

    2008-07-01

    Water transport in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients occurs through the small pores and water channels, the latter allowing free water transport (FWT). The osmotic gradient is known to be one of the major determinants of water transport. The objective of the study was to analyse the relation between each transport route and the osmotic gradient. The 4-h standard peritoneal permeability analyses of 80 stable PD patients were studied. Small pore transport (SPT) was calculated based on the transported amount of sodium. FWT was calculated by subtracting SPT from transcapillary ultrafiltration (TCUF). Water transport rates were determined. The osmotic gradient was calculated. The slope of the relation between FWT rate and osmotic gradient (slope(FWT)), and the elimination constant (K(e)) of the exponential relation between SPT rate and osmotic gradient (K(SPT)) were calculated for every patient. The FWT rate was related to the osmotic gradient (P = 0.001). A similar correlation was also found between the SPT rate and osmotic gradient when fitted exponentially (P = 0.005). The rates of FWT decreased significantly between each time point during the whole dwell. The SPT rates decreased significantly within the first half of the dwell and levelled off thereafter. No correlations were found between the slope(FWT), K(SPT) and PD duration. The slope(FWT) of the relationship between the FWT and the osmotic gradient is an indirect measurement of the amount of functioning water channels. Similarly, the K(SPT) value represents the number of functioning small pores. The absence of a relationship of these parameters with the duration of PD suggests opposing mechanisms, for instance a lower number of functioning pores in combination with an increased vascular surface area. Conclusion. The curves of the relationship between FWR, SPT and OG support the assumption that FWR is much more dependent on the OG than SPT. Non-osmotic determinants are likely to be important in small pore fluid

  5. Pressure relieving support surfaces: a randomised evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J; Nelson, E A; Cranny, G; Iglesias, C P; Hawkins, K; Cullum, N A; Phillips, A; Spilsbury, K; Torgerson, D J; Mason, S

    2006-07-01

    To determine differences between alternating pressure overlays and alternating pressure replacement mattresses with respect to the development of new pressure ulcers, healing of existing pressure ulcers, patient acceptability and cost-effectiveness of the different pressure-relieving surfaces. Also to investigate the specific additional impact of pressure ulcers on patients' well-being. A multicentre, randomised, controlled, open, fixed sample, parallel-group trial with equal randomisation was undertaken. The trial used remote, concealed allocation and intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. The main trial design was supplemented with a qualitative study involving a purposive sample of 20-30 patients who developed pressure ulcers, to assess the impact of the pressure ulcers on their well-being. In addition, a focus group interview was carried out with clinical research nurses, who participated in the PRESSURE (Pressure RElieving Support SUrfaces: a Randomised Evaluation) Trial, to explore the experiences of their role and observations of pressure area care. The study took place in 11 hospital-based research centres within six NHS trusts in England. Acute and elective patients aged 55 years or older and admitted to vascular, orthopaedic, medical or care of the elderly wards in the previous 24 hours were investigated. Patients were randomised to either an alternating pressure overlay or an alternating pressure mattress replacement, with mattress specifications clearly defined to enable the inclusion of centres using products from different manufacturers, and to exclude hybrid mattress systems (which either combine foam or constant low pressure with alternating pressure in one mattress, or can be used as either an overlay or a replacement mattress). Development of a new pressure ulcer (grade pressures ulcers, patient acceptability and cost-effectiveness. In total, 6155 patients were assessed for eligibility to the trial and 1972 were randomised: 990 to the alternating

  6. Moving coil pressure algometer produces consistent force gradient and repeated stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnadjevic, Djordje; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Computer-controlled pressure stimulation (algometry) offers seemingly good reliability when it comes to pain assessment methods. It is therefore important to ensure through methodological quantification that moving coil pressure algometer (MCPA) exhibits accurate, fast, and precise tissue stimulation techniques. This study 1) demonstrates that MCPA satisfies force gradient capabilities of a conventional computer-controlled algometry, and 2) reports on effectiveness of the MCPA to produce sustained, fast, and repeated stimulation of a known pulse duration (600 ms) and force magnitude (10 kg). Solicited force gradients of 500, 1000, and 1800 g/s showed high correlation values (R(2) > 0.99) for both rubber mat and direct probe-to-sensor contact cases. Through fast switching between different modes of operation of the actuator, force overshoot was reduced from as much as 300 to 20% for the same force magnitude, at the expense of a slight delay in repeated pulse delivery scheme.

  7. Pressure-gradient-driven nearshore circulation on a beach influenced by a large inlet-tidal shoal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, F.; Hanes, D.M.; Kirby, J.T.; Erikson, L.; Barnard, P.; Eshleman, J.

    2011-01-01

    The nearshore circulation induced by a focused pattern of surface gravity waves is studied at a beach adjacent to a major inlet with a large ebb tidal shoal. Using a coupled wave and wave-averaged nearshore circulation model, it is found that the nearshore circulation is significantly affected by the heterogeneous wave patterns caused by wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal. The model is used to predict waves and currents during field experiments conducted near the mouth of San Francisco Bay and nearby Ocean Beach. The field measurements indicate strong spatial variations in current magnitude and direction and in wave height and direction along Ocean Beach and across the ebb tidal shoal. Numerical simulations suggest that wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal causes wave focusing toward a narrow region at Ocean Beach. Due to the resulting spatial variation in nearshore wave height, wave-induced setup exhibits a strong alongshore nonuniformity, resulting in a dramatic change in the pressure field compared to a simulation with only tidal forcing. The analysis of momentum balances inside the surf zone shows that, under wave conditions with intensive wave focusing, the alongshore pressure gradient associated with alongshore nonuniform wave setup can be a dominant force driving circulation, inducing heterogeneous alongshore currents. Pressure-gradient- forced alongshore currents can exhibit flow reversals and flow convergence or divergence, in contrast to the uniform alongshore currents typically caused by tides or homogeneous waves.

  8. An Experimental Study of Pressure Gradients for Flow of Boiling Water in Vertical Round Ducts (Part 4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Kurt M.; Hernborg, Gunnar; Bode, Manfred

    1962-01-01

    The present report contains the experimental results from the fourth and last phase of an investigation concerning frictional pressure gradients for flow of boiling water in vertical channels. The test section for this phase consisted of an electric heated stainless steel tube of 3120 mm length and 12.99 mm inner diameter. Data were obtained for pressures between 6 and 10 ata, steam qualities between 0 and 0.70, mass flow rates between 0.04 and 0.164 kg/sec. Only one value of 65 W/cm 2 were used for the surface heat flux. The results are in excellent agreement with our earlier data for flow in 9. 93, 7. 76 and 3. 94 mm inner diameter ducts previously presented, and our conclusions given in those reports have been verified. On the basis of the measured pressure gradients, the following empirical equation has been established for engineering use. χ 2 = 1 + 2600*(x/p) 0.96 This equation correlates our data within an accuracy of ± 15 per cent. Considering the data from all four ducts investigated, we have found that the following equation correlates the data with a discrepancy less than ± 20 per cent: χ 2 = 1 + 2500*(x/p) 0.96 and we conclude that for engineering purposes, the effect of diameter is of no significance

  9. Inferred pressure gradient and fluid flow in a condensing sessile droplet based on the measured thickness profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Shripad J.; Plawsky, Joel L.; Wayner, Peter C.; DasGupta, Sunando

    2004-06-01

    The thickness and curvature profiles of partially wetting condensing drops of 2-propanol on a quartz surface were measured using image analyzing interferometry and a new data analysis procedure. The profiles give fundamental insight into the phenomena of phase change, pressure gradient, fluid flow and spreading in a condensing drop, and the physics of interfacial phenomena in the contact line region of a polar fluid. The precursor adsorbed film and interfacial slope (a measure of the contact angle) and curvature profiles are consistent with previous concepts based on interfacial models. The curvature profiles, which were obtained using a new data reduction procedure, clearly demonstrate the convex nature of the drop near the thicker part (negative value of curvature), whereas, in the thinner region, the drop is concave (positive curvature) where the partially wetting liquid merges with a flat adsorbed film. The pressure profiles inside the drop are calculated from the augmented Young-Laplace equation showing that the pressure gradient increases with an increase in the spreading velocity (rates of condensation) to support the higher liquid flow rates associated with the growth of the drop. Internal flow is towards the point of maximum positive curvature from both the thin film and convex regions. Apolar and polar components of the spreading coefficient help describe the interfacial phenomena occurring. The experimental techniques are relatively simple but very revealing.

  10. Unsteady Magnetohydrodynamic Flow of Liquid Through a Channel Variable Pressure Gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    The article studies the unsteady motion of an electrically conducting, viscous incompressible fluid along a channel in the presence of imposed transverse magnetic field, when the walls do not conduct current, under the influence of pressure gradient which varies linearly with respect to time. Analytical expressions for the velocity of the fluid for various values of Hartman numbers and at different times has been obtained

  11. Derivation of Zagarola-Smits scaling in zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tie; Maciel, Yvan

    2018-01-01

    This Rapid Communication derives the Zagarola-Smits scaling directly from the governing equations for zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers (ZPG TBLs). It has long been observed that the scaling of the mean streamwise velocity in turbulent boundary layer flows differs in the near surface region and in the outer layer. In the inner region of small-velocity-defect boundary layers, it is generally accepted that the proper velocity scale is the friction velocity, uτ, and the proper length scale is the viscous length scale, ν /uτ . In the outer region, the most generally used length scale is the boundary layer thickness, δ . However, there is no consensus on velocity scales in the outer layer. Zagarola and Smits [ASME Paper No. FEDSM98-4950 (1998)] proposed a velocity scale, U ZS=(δ1/δ ) U∞ , where δ1 is the displacement thickness and U∞ is the freestream velocity. However, there are some concerns about Zagarola-Smits scaling due to the lack of a theoretical base. In this paper, the Zagarola-Smits scaling is derived directly from a combination of integral, similarity, and order-of-magnitude analysis of the mean continuity equation. The analysis also reveals that V∞, the mean wall-normal velocity at the edge of the boundary layer, is a proper scale for the mean wall-normal velocity V . Extending the analysis to the streamwise mean momentum equation, we find that the Reynolds shear stress in ZPG TBLs scales as U∞V∞ in the outer region. This paper also provides a detailed analysis of the mass and mean momentum balance in the outer region of ZPG TBLs.

  12. The Difference in Translaminar Pressure Gradient and Neuroretinal Rim Area in Glaucoma and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Siaudvytyte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess differences in translaminar pressure gradient (TPG and neuroretinal rim area (NRA in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG, high tension glaucoma (HTG, and healthy controls. Methods. 27 patients with NTG, HTG, and healthy controls were included in the prospective pilot study (each group consisted of 9 patients. Intraocular pressure (IOP, intracranial pressure (ICP, and confocal laser scanning tomography were assessed. TPG was calculated as the difference of IOP minus ICP. ICP was measured using noninvasive two-depth transcranial Doppler device. The level of significance P 0.05. The difference between TPG for healthy (5.4(7.7 mmHg and glaucomatous eyes (NTG 6.3(3.1 mmHg, HTG 15.7(7.7 mmHg was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Higher TPG was correlated with decreased NRA (r = −0.83; P = 0.01 in the NTG group. Conclusion. Translaminar pressure gradient was higher in glaucoma patients. Reduction of NRA was related to higher TPG in NTG patients. Further prospective studies are warranted to investigate the involvement of TPG in glaucoma management.

  13. Investigation of the effects of pressure gradient, temperature and wall temperature ratio on the stagnation point heat transfer for circular cylinders and gas turbine vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamatsu, H. T.; Duffy, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Low and high pressure shock tubes were designed and constructed for the purpose of obtaining heat transfer data over a temperature range of 390 to 2500 K, pressures of 0.3 to 42 atm, and Mach numbers of 0.15 to 1.5 with and without pressure gradient. A square test section with adjustable top and bottom walls was constructed to produce the favorable and adverse pressure gradient over the flat plate with heat gages. A water cooled gas turbine nozzle cascade which is attached to the high pressure shock tube was obtained to measuse the heat flux over pressure and suction surfaces. Thin-film platinum heat gages with a response time of a few microseconds were developed and used to measure the heat flux for laminar, transition, and turbulent boundary layers. The laminar boundary heat flux on the shock tube wall agreed with Mirel's flat plate theory. Stagnation point heat transfer for circular cylinders at low temperature compared with the theoretical prediction, but for a gas temperature of 922 K the heat fluxes were higher than the predicted values. Preliminary flat plate heat transfer data were measured for laminar, transition, and turbulent boundary layers with and without pressure gradients for free-stream temperatures of 350 to 2575 K and flow Mach numbers of 0.11 to 1.9. The experimental heat flux data were correlated with the laminar and turbulent theories and the agreement was good at low temperatures which was not the case for higher temperatures.

  14. Gradient nanostructured surface of a Cu plate processed by incremental frictional sliding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Chuanshi; Huang, Xiaoxu; Hansen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The flat surface of a Cu plate was processed by incremental frictional sliding at liquid nitrogen temperature. The surface treatment results in a hardened gradient surface layer as thick as 1 mm in the Cu plate, which contains a nanostructured layer on the top with a boundary spacing of the order...

  15. Patterned gradient surface for spontaneous droplet transportation and water collection: simulation and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Xianhua; Zhu, Yiying; Shi, Tielin; Tang, Zirong; Liao, Guanglan

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate spontaneous droplet transportation and water collection on wedge-shaped gradient surfaces consisting of alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Droplets on the surfaces are modeled and simulated to analyze the Gibbs free energy and free energy gradient distributions. Big half-apex angle and great wettability difference result in considerable free energy gradient, corresponding to large driving force for spontaneous droplet transportation, thus causing the droplets to move towards the open end of the wedge-shaped hydrophilic regions, where the Gibbs free energy is low. Gradient surfaces are then fabricated and tested. Filmwise condensation begins on the hydrophilic regions, forming wedge-shaped tracks for water collection. Dropwise condensation occurs on the hydrophobic regions, where the droplet size distribution and departure diameters are controlled by the width of the regions. Condensate water from both the hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions are collected directionally to the open end of the wedge-shaped hydrophilic regions, agreeing with the simulations. Directional droplet transport and controllable departure diameters make the branched gradient surfaces more efficient than smooth surfaces for water collection, which proves that gradient surfaces are potential in water collection, microfluidic devices, anti-fogging and self-cleaning. (paper)

  16. Nonlinear vacuum gas flow through a short tube due to pressure and temperature gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantazis, Sarantis; Naris, Steryios; Tantos, Christos [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, 38334 Volos (Greece); Valougeorgis, Dimitris, E-mail: diva@mie.uth.gr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, 38334 Volos (Greece); André, Julien; Millet, Francois; Perin, Jean Paul [Service des Basses Températures, UMR-E CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, Grenoble, F-38054 (France)

    2013-10-15

    The flow of a rarefied gas through a tube due to both pressure and temperature gradients has been studied numerically. The main objective is to investigate the performance of a mechanical vacuum pump operating at low temperatures in order to increase the pumped mass flow rate. This type of pump is under development at CEA-Grenoble. The flow is modelled by the Shakhov kinetic model equation, which is solved by the discrete velocity method. Results are presented for certain geometry and flow parameters. Since according to the pump design the temperature driven flow is in the opposite direction than the main pressure driven flow, it has been found that for the operating pressure range studied here the net mass flow rate through the pump may be significantly reduced.

  17. Sensitivity of the hand to surface pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson-Hall, C; Kilbom, A

    1993-06-01

    A new method of measuring pain-pressure threshold (PPT) of the hand has been developed. Externally applied surface pressure (EASP) was exerted at a certain rate of increase and the level where the feeling of pressure turned into pain was recorded. Also, the effects of sustained EASP were elucidated. Sixteen healthy right-handed subjects (eight female, eight male) participated. The distribution of the hand's sensitivity to EASP is presented. The most sensitive areas were the thenar area, the skinfold between thumb and index finger and the area around os pisiforme. When the hand was repeatedly exposed to EASP, the PPT decreased with increasing number of pressure incidents. For sustained EASP, the time of exposure was found to be important also for the quality of the sensation. Our results show that sustained EASP does not hurt at once, but becomes painful after a short time. On average, the female PPT corresponded to two-thirds of the male PPT. Females experienced pain faster than males when exposed to sustained EASP, and chose lower levels when estimating acceptable sustained EASP.

  18. Thermodynamic and energy efficiency analysis of power generation from natural salinity gradients by pressure retarded osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-05-01

    The Gibbs free energy of mixing dissipated when fresh river water flows into the sea can be harnessed for sustainable power generation. Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is one of the methods proposed to generate power from natural salinity gradients. In this study, we carry out a thermodynamic and energy efficiency analysis of PRO work extraction. First, we present a reversible thermodynamic model for PRO and verify that the theoretical maximum extractable work in a reversible PRO process is identical to the Gibbs free energy of mixing. Work extraction in an irreversible constant-pressure PRO process is then examined. We derive an expression for the maximum extractable work in a constant-pressure PRO process and show that it is less than the ideal work (i.e., Gibbs free energy of mixing) due to inefficiencies intrinsic to the process. These inherent inefficiencies are attributed to (i) frictional losses required to overcome hydraulic resistance and drive water permeation and (ii) unutilized energy due to the discontinuation of water permeation when the osmotic pressure difference becomes equal to the applied hydraulic pressure. The highest extractable work in constant-pressure PRO with a seawater draw solution and river water feed solution is 0.75 kWh/m(3) while the free energy of mixing is 0.81 kWh/m(3)-a thermodynamic extraction efficiency of 91.1%. Our analysis further reveals that the operational objective to achieve high power density in a practical PRO process is inconsistent with the goal of maximum energy extraction. This study demonstrates thermodynamic and energetic approaches for PRO and offers insights on actual energy accessible for utilization in PRO power generation through salinity gradients. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  19. Fabrication of a wettability-gradient surface on copper by screen-printing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-Jun; Leu, Tzong-Shyng

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a screen-printing technique is utilized to fabricate a wettability-gradient surface on a copper substrate. The pattern definitions on the copper surface were freely fabricated to define the regions with different wettabilities, for which the printing definition technique was developed as an alternative to the existing costly photolithography techniques. This fabrication process using screen printing in tandem with chemical modification methods can easily realize an excellent wettability-gradient surface with superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity. Surface analyses were performed to characterize conditions in some fabrication steps. A water droplet movement sequence is provided to clearly demonstrate the droplet-driving effectiveness of the fabricated gradient surface. The droplet-driving efficiency offers a promising solution for condensation heat transfer applications in the foreseeable future.

  20. Fast drop movements resulting from the phase change on a gradient surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, S; Chaudhury, M K; Chen, J C

    2001-01-26

    The movement of liquid drops on a surface with a radial surface tension gradient is described here. When saturated steam passes over a colder hydrophobic substrate, numerous water droplets nucleate and grow by coalescence with the surrounding drops. The merging droplets exhibit two-dimensional random motion somewhat like the Brownian movements of colloidal particles. When a surface tension gradient is designed into the substrate surface, the random movements of droplets are biased toward the more wettable side of the surface. Powered by the energies of coalescence and collimated by the forces of the chemical gradient, small drops (0.1 to 0.3 millimeter) display speeds that are hundreds to thousands of times faster than those of typical Marangoni flows. This effect has implications for passively enhancing heat transfer in heat exchangers and heat pipes.

  1. Exact solution of unsteady flow generated by sinusoidal pressure gradient in a capillary tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdulhameed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the mathematical modeling of unsteady second grade fluid in a capillary tube with sinusoidal pressure gradient is developed with non-homogenous boundary conditions. Exact analytical solutions for the velocity profiles have been obtained in explicit forms. These solutions are written as the sum of the steady and transient solutions for small and large times. For growing times, the starting solution reduces to the well-known periodic solution that coincides with the corresponding solution of a Newtonian fluid. Graphs representing the solutions are discussed.

  2. Correlation of heat transfer for the zero pressure gradient hypersonic laminar boundary layer for several gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    A theoretical study of heat transfer for zero pressure gradient hypersonic laminar boundary layers for various gases with particular application to the flows produced in an expansion tube facility was conducted. A correlation based on results obtained from solutions to the governing equations for five gases was formulated. Particular attention was directed toward the laminar boundary layer shock tube splitter plates in carbon dioxide flows generated by high speed shock waves. Computer analysis of the splitter plate boundary layer flow provided information that is useful in interpreting experimental data obtained in shock tube gas radiation studies.

  3. Ion slip effect on unsteady Hartmann flow with heat transfer under exponential decaying pressure gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem A. Attia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The unsteady Hartmann flow of an electrically conducting, viscous, incompressible fluid bounded by two parallel nonconducting porous plates is studied with heat transfer taking the ion slip into consideration. An external uniform magnetic field and a uniform suction and injection are applied perpendicular to the plates, while the fluid motion is subjected to an exponential decaying pressure gradient. The two plates are kept at different but constant temperatures while the Joule and viscous dissipations are included in the energy equation. The effect of the ion slip and the uniform suction and injection on both the velocity and temperature distributions is examined.

  4. Surface tension gradient enhanced thin film flow for particle deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, James; Joshi, Kedar; Muangnapoh, Tanyakorn; Stever, Michael

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the effect of varying concentration in binary mixtures of water and ethanol as the suspending medium for micron-scale silica particles on convective deposition. By pulling a suspension along a substrate, a thin film is created that results in enhanced evaporation of the solvent and capillary forces that order particles trapped in the thin film. In pure water or pure ethanol, assembly and deposition is easily understood by a simply flux balance first developed by Dimitrov and Nagayama in 1996. In solvent mixtures having only a few percent of ethanol, Marangoni stresses from the concentration gradient set by unbalanced solvent evaporation dominates the thin film flow. The thin film profile is similar to that found in ``tears of wine'' where the particles are deposited in the thin film between the tears and the reservoir. A simple model describes the 10x increase of deposition speed found in forming well-ordered monolayers of particles. At higher ethanol concentrations, lateral instabilities also generated by Marangoni stresses cause nonuniform deposition in the form of complex streaks that mirror sediment deposits in larger scale flows. We acknowledge funding from the NSF Scalable Nanomanufacturing Program under grant No. 1120399.

  5. Observations of wave-induced pore pressure gradients and bed level response on a surf zone sandbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dylan; Cox, Dan; Mieras, Ryan; Puleo, Jack A.; Hsu, Tian-Jian

    2017-06-01

    Horizontal and vertical pressure gradients may be important physical mechanisms contributing to onshore sediment transport beneath steep, near-breaking waves in the surf zone. A barred beach was constructed in a large-scale laboratory wave flume with a fixed profile containing a mobile sediment layer on the crest of the sandbar. Horizontal and vertical pore pressure gradients were obtained by finite differences of measurements from an array of pressure transducers buried within the upper several centimeters of the bed. Colocated observations of erosion depth were made during asymmetric wave trials with wave heights between 0.10 and 0.98 m, consistently resulting in onshore sheet flow sediment transport. The pore pressure gradient vector within the bed exhibited temporal rotations during each wave cycle, directed predominantly upward under the trough and then rapidly rotating onshore and downward as the wavefront passed. The magnitude of the pore pressure gradient during each phase of rotation was correlated with local wave steepness and relative depth. Momentary bed failures as deep as 20 grain diameters were coincident with sharp increases in the onshore-directed pore pressure gradients, but occurred at horizontal pressure gradients less than theoretical critical values for initiation of the motion for compact beds. An expression combining the effects of both horizontal and vertical pore pressure gradients with bed shear stress and soil stability is used to determine that failure of the bed is initiated at nonnegligible values of both forces.type="synopsis">type="main">Plain Language SummaryThe pressure gradient present within the seabed beneath breaking waves may be an important physical mechanism transporting sediment. A large-scale laboratory was used to replicate realistic surfzone conditions in controlled tests, allowing for horizontal and vertical pressure gradient magnitudes and the resulting sediment bed response to be observed with precise instruments

  6. Influence of Pressure-gradient and Shear on Ballooning Stability in Stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, S.R.; Hegna, C.C.; Nakajima, N.

    2005-01-01

    Pressure-driven, ideal ballooning stability calculations are often used to predict the achievable plasma in stellarator configurations. In this paper, the sensitivity of ballooning stability to plasmas profile variations is addressed. A simple, semi-analytic method for expressing the ballooning growth rate, for each field line, as a polynomial function of the variation in the pressure gradient and the average magnetic shear from an original equilibrium has recently been introduced [Phys. Plasmas 11:9 (September 2004) L53]. This paper will apply the expression to various stellarator configurations and comment on the validity of various truncated forms of the polynomial expression. In particular, it is shown that in general it is insufficient to consider only the second order terms as previously assumed, and that higher order terms must be included to obtain accurate predictions of stability

  7. Near-surface thermal gradients and their effects on mid-infrared emission spectra of planetary surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, B. G.; Jakosky, B. M.

    1994-01-01

    We model the heat transfer by radiation and conduction in the top few millimeters of a planetary surface to determine the magnitude of near-surface (approximately 100 micrometers) thermal gradients and their effects on mid-infrared emission spectra for a number of planetary environments. The model is one-dimensional and uses a finite difference scheme for approximately 10 micrometers layers. Calculations are peformed for samples heated at the base and from above by sunlight. Our results indicate that near-surface radiative cooling creates significant thermal gradients in the top few hundred microns of surfaces in which radiation is an importamnt heat transfer mechanism. The effect is maximized in evacuated, underdense particulate media with sufficiently high temperatures. Near-surface thermal gradients will be significant in fine-grained particulate surfaces on the Moon (40-60 K/100 micrometers) and Mercury (approximately 80 K/100 micrometers), increasing spectral contrast and creating emission maxima in the transparent regions of the spectra. They will be of lesser importance on the surface of Mars, with a maximum value of around 5 k/100 micrometers in areas of low thermal inertia, and will be negligible on planets with more substantial atmospheres (less than 1 K/100 micrometers). We conclude that the effects that thermal gradients have on mid-IR emission spectra are predictable and do not negate the utility of emission spectroscopy for remote determination of planetary surface composition.

  8. Beyond Pressure Gradients: The Effects of Intervention on Heart Power in Aortic Coarctation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Filipe Fernandes

    Full Text Available In aortic coarctation, current guidelines recommend reducing pressure gradients that exceed given thresholds. From a physiological standpoint this should ideally improve the energy expenditure of the heart and thus prevent long term organ damage.The aim was to assess the effects of interventional treatment on external and internal heart power (EHP, IHP in patients with aortic coarctation and to explore the correlation of these parameters to pressure gradients obtained from heart catheterization.In a collective of 52 patients with aortic coarctation 25 patients received stenting and/or balloon angioplasty, and 20 patients underwent MRI before and after an interventional treatment procedure. EHP and IHP were computed based on catheterization and MRI measurements. Along with the power efficiency these were combined in a cardiac energy profile.By intervention, the catheter gradient was significantly reduced from 21.8±9.4 to 6.2±6.1mmHg (p<0.001. IHP was significantly reduced after intervention, from 8.03±5.2 to 4.37±2.13W (p < 0.001. EHP was 1.1±0.3 W before and 1.0±0.3W after intervention, p = 0.044. In patients initially presenting with IHP above 5W intervention resulted in a significant reduction in IHP from 10.99±4.74 W to 4.94±2.45W (p<0.001, and a subsequent increase in power efficiency from 14 to 26% (p = 0.005. No significant changes in IHP, EHP or power efficiency were observed in patients initially presenting with IHP < 5W.It was demonstrated that interventional treatment of coarctation resulted in a decrease in IHP. Pressure gradients, as the most widespread clinical parameters in coarctation, did not show any correlation to changes in EHP or IHP. This raises the question of whether they should be the main focus in coarctation interventions. Only patients with high IHP of above 5W showed improvement in IHP and power efficiency after the treatment procedure.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02591940.

  9. Orientations of Liquid Crystals in Contact with Surfaces that Present Continuous Gradients of Chemical Functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clare, B.; Efimenko, K.; Fischer, D.; Genzer, J.; Abbott, N.

    2006-01-01

    We report the formation of continuous spatial gradients in the density of grafted semifluorinated chains on silicon oxide surfaces by vapor-phase diffusion of semifluorinated silanes. We quantify the orientations of the nematic liquid crystal (LC) 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl on these surfaces as a function of local surface composition obtained by using NEXAFS. These measurements demonstrate that it is possible to obtain the full range of tilt angles of a LC on these surfaces. We also use the data provided by these gradient surfaces to test hypotheses regarding the nature of the interaction between the LC and surfaces that give rise to the range of tilted orientations of the LC. We conclude that the orientations of the LC are not determined solely by the density of grafted semifluorinated chains or by the density of residual hydroxyl groups presented at these surfaces following reactions with the silanes. Instead, our results raise the possibility that the tilt angles of the semifluorinated chains on these surfaces (which are a function of the density of the grafted chains) may influence the orientation of the LC. These results, when combined, demonstrate the potential utility of gradient surfaces for screening surface chemistries that achieve desired orientations of LCs as well as for rapidly assembling experimental data sets that can be used to test propositions regarding mechanisms of anchoring LCs at surfaces

  10. Modeling of surface effects in crystalline materials within the framework of gradient crystal plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiang-Long; Husser, Edgar; Huang, Gan-Yun; Bargmann, Swantje

    2018-03-01

    A finite-deformation gradient crystal plasticity theory is developed, which takes into account the interaction between dislocations and surfaces. The model captures both energetic and dissipative effects for surfaces penetrable by dislocations. By taking advantage of the principle of virtual power, the surface microscopic boundary equations are obtained naturally. Surface equations govern surface yielding and hardening. A thin film under shear deformation serves as a benchmark problem for validation of the proposed model. It is found that both energetic and dissipative surface effects significantly affect the plastic behavior.

  11. Finite Element Analysis of Surface Residual Stress in Functionally Gradient Cemented Carbide Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chuangnan; Liu, Deshun; Tang, Siwen; Li, Pengnan; Qiu, Xinyi

    2018-03-01

    A component distribution model is proposed for three-component functionally gradient cemented carbide (FGCC) based on electron probe microanalysis results obtained for gradient layer thickness, microstructure, and elemental distribution. The residual surface stress of FGCC-T5 tools occurring during the fabrication process is analyzed using an ANSYS-implemented finite element method (FEM) and X-ray diffraction. A comparison of the experimental and calculated values verifies the feasibility of using FEM to analyze the residual surface stress in FGCC-T5 tools. The effects of the distribution index, geometrical shape, substrate thickness, gradient layer thickness, and position of the cobalt-rich layer on residual surface stress are studied in detail.

  12. Spatial variation patterns of subtidal seaweed assemblages along a subtropical oceanic archipelago: Thermal gradient vs herbivore pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangil, Carlos; Sansón, Marta; Afonso-Carrillo, Julio

    2011-10-01

    The structure and composition of subtidal rocky seaweed assemblages were studied at 69 sites on the Canary Islands (northeastern Atlantic). This group of islands are situated at the southern boundary of the warm temperate region and adjacent to the cold waters from the northwest African coastal upwelling, which creates a difference of almost 2 °C in surface seawater temperature from the eastern to the western islands. This thermal variation allows an examination of the transition between the warm temperate and the tropical regions along this longitudinal gradient together with the hypothesised Fucales-dominated assemblages towards the eastern islands in contrast to the Dictyotales-dominated assemblages towards the western ones. Environmental and biological parameters were considered in order to investigate which were the main factors explaining spatial variation along the gradient in a multi-scaled approach. Although seventy-nine macroalgae were identified, 87.63% of the total mean cover was due to six taxa ( Lobophora variegata, nongeniculate corallines, Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Jania adhaerens, Cystoseira abies-marina and Pseudolithoderma adriaticum). At a large scale, sea urchin density explained the highest variation in seaweed assemblages (26.94%), and its pattern of distribution across the islands. The expected pattern of distribution according to the upwelling distance only occurred in restricted areas of the Canarian Archipelago in absence of herbivore pressure and habitat degradation. Spatial variations within islands (medium scale) were mainly related to wave exposure, while at a small scale these were mostly due to the degree of sedimentation.

  13. Engineering optical gradient force from coupled surface plasmon polariton modes in nanoscale plasmonic waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiahui; Wang, Guanghui

    2016-11-01

    We explore the dispersion properties and optical gradient forces from mutual coupling of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes at two interfaces of nanoscale plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic metamaterial cladding. With Maxwell’s equations and Maxwell stress tensor, we calculate and compare the dispersion relation and optical gradient force for symmetric and antisymmetric SPP modes in two kinds of nanoscale plasmonic waveguides. The numerical results show that the optical gradient force between two coupled hyperbolic metamaterial waveguides can be engineered flexibly by adjusting the waveguide structure parameters. Importantly, an alternative way to boost the optical gradient force is provided through engineering the hyperbolic metamaterial cladding of suitable orientation. These special optical properties will open the door for potential optomechanical applications, such as optical tweezers and actuators. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474106) and the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2016A030313439).

  14. Correlation of boundary layer quantities for hypersonic laminar flows with zero pressure gradient for several gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    The laminar boundary layer has been theoretically studied for six gases for flows over cold walls with zero pressure gradient at Mach numbers between 5.5 and 12.5 to correlate boundary layer quantities for the various gases. The flow conditions considered correspond to those that can be generated in test facilities such as the shock tunnel and the expansion tube. Computed results obtained using real gas properties indicate that the Eckert number based on edge conditions serves to correlate the results in terms of the wall shear stress and enthalpy gradient, the Stanton number, and the momentum thickness for the various gases within plus or minus 10 per cent for Te = Tw and Te approximately 3Tw. Computed Reynolds analogy factors exhibit very good agreement with those predicted by the Colburn analogy. Velocity and displacement thicknesses correlate well with Eckert number for Te = Tw, but fail to correlate for Te approximately 3Tw. Differences in results are traced to property variations. Results show that the Eckert number is a significant correlating variable for the flows considered.

  15. Transition from resistive ballooning to neoclassical magnetohydrodynamic pressure-gradient-driven instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spong, D.A.; Shaing, K.C.; Carreras, B.A.; Charlton, L.A.; Callen, J.D.; Garcia, L.

    1988-10-01

    The linearized neoclassical magnetohydrodynamic equations, including perturbed neoclassical flows and currents, have been solved for parameter regimes where the neoclassical pressure-gradient-driven instability becomes important. This instability is driven by the fluctuating bootstrap current term in Ohm's law. It begins to dominate the conventional resistive ballooning mode in the banana-plateau collisionality regime [μ/sub e//ν/sub e/ /approximately/ √ε/(1 + ν/sub *e/) > ε 2 ] and is characterized by a larger radial mode width and higher growth rate. The neoclassical instability persists in the absence of the usual magnetic field curvature drive and is not significantly affected by compressibility. Scalings with respect to β, n (toroidal mode number), and μ (neoclassical viscosity) are examined using a large-aspect-ratio, three-dimensional initial-value code that solves linearized equations for the magnetic flux, fluid vorticity, density, and parallel ion flow velocity in axisymmetric toroidal geometry. 13 refs., 10 figs

  16. Pressure ulcer prevention and pressure-relieving surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbow, Maureen

    Although rarely subject to media attention, political interest or research funding, pressure ulcers, and their almost inevitable increase in incidence, detrimentally affect the quality of life of thousands of patients, both in the hospital and community setting. In addition, the costs to the NHS of pressure-ulcer-related care in hospitals is estimated to be pounds sterling 1.8-pounds sterling 2.5 billion annually. Many pressure ulcers that develop could have been prevented, and there are several up-to-date, easily-accessible sources of evidence to guide decision-making regarding appropriate interventions in pressure care. Consideration and assessment of the patient holistically, followed by appropriate intervention and evaluation, is the key to any prevention strategy.

  17. Beds: practical pressure management for surfaces/mattresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Linda; Coutts, Patricia; Sibbald, R Gary

    2011-07-01

    The prevention and management of pressure ulcers, including support surface selection, are a primary focus of healthcare providers. This article discusses the forces contributing to pressure ulcer formation and explores choosing therapeutic support surface features based on the patient's clinical needs and on using the evidence-informed support surface algorithm and decision trees.

  18. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Cullum, N; McInnes, E; Bell-Syer, SE; Legood, R

    2004-01-01

    : Pressure ulcers (also known as bedsores, pressure sores, decubitus ulcers) are areas of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue due to pressure, shear or friction. They are common in the elderly and immobile and costly in financial and human terms. Pressure-relieving beds, mattresses and seat cushions are widely used as aids to prevention in both institutional and non-institutional settings. : This systematic review seeks to answer the following questions: to what extent do press...

  19. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention

    OpenAIRE

    McInnes, E; Bell-Syer, SE; Dumville, JC; Legood, R; Cullum, NA

    2008-01-01

    Background Pressure ulcers (also known as bedsores, pressure sores, decubitus ulcers) are areas of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue due to pressure, shear or friction. They are common in the elderly and immobile and costly in financial and human terms. Pressure-relieving beds, mattresses and seat cushions are widely used as aids to prevention in both institutional and non-institutional settings. Objectives This systematic review seeks to answer the following questions: (1) t...

  20. Calculation of Surface Tensions of Polar Mixtures with a Simplified Gradient Theory Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, You-Xiang; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1996-01-01

    Key Words: Thermodynamics, Simplified Gradient Theory, Surface Tension, Equation of state, Influence Parameter.In this work, assuming that the number densities of each component in a mixture across the interface between the coexisting vapor and liquid phases are linearly distributed, we developed...

  1. An Improved Local Gradient Method for Sea Surface Wind Direction Retrieval from SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhang Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface wind affects the fluxes of energy, mass and momentum between the atmosphere and ocean, and therefore regional and global weather and climate. With various satellite microwave sensors, sea surface wind can be measured with large spatial coverage in almost all-weather conditions, day or night. Like any other remote sensing measurements, sea surface wind measurement is also indirect. Therefore, it is important to develop appropriate wind speed and direction retrieval models for different types of microwave instruments. In this paper, a new sea surface wind direction retrieval method from synthetic aperture radar (SAR imagery is developed. In the method, local gradients are computed in frequency domain by combining the operation of smoothing and computing local gradients in one step to simplify the process and avoid the difference approximation. This improved local gradients (ILG method is compared with the traditional two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D FFT method and local gradients (LG method, using interpolating wind directions from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF reanalysis data and the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP wind vector product. The sensitivities to the salt-and-pepper noise, the additive noise and the multiplicative noise are analyzed. The ILG method shows a better performance of retrieval wind directions than the other two methods.

  2. Capillary electrophoresis in a fused-silica capillary with surface roughness gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Šlais, Karel; Karásek, Pavel; Růžička, F.; Šalplachta, Jiří; Šesták, Jozef; Kahle, Vladislav; Roth, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 19 (2016), s. 3827-3834 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03749S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-29916A Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * supercritical water * surface roughness gradient Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2016

  3. Gradients of parameters of the real structure in steels surface layers after mechanical treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drahokoupil, Jan; Čerňanský, Marian; Ganev, N.; Kolařík, K.; Pala, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 130, - (2007), s. 77-80 ISSN 1012-0394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : gradients * real structure * steels * surface Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.493, year: 2005

  4. Simulation of Effective Slip and Drag in Pressure-Driven Flow on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanding Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow on superhydrophobic surfaces was investigated using finite element modeling (FEM. Surfaces with different textures like grooves, square pillars, and cylinders immersed in liquid forming Cassie state were modeled. Nonslip boundary condition was assumed at solid-liquid interface while slip boundary condition was supposed at gas-liquid interface. It was found that the flow rate can be affected by the shape of the texture, the fraction of the gas-liquid area, the height of the channel, and the driving pressure gradient. By extracting the effective boundary slip from the flow rate based on a model, it was found that the shape of the textures and the fraction of the gas-liquid area affect the effective slip significantly while the height of the channel and the driving pressure gradient have no obvious effect on effective slip.

  5. Association between portal vein pressure drop gradient after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and clinical prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Zhengguo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the association between portal vein pressure drop gradient in patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension treated by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS and clinical prognosis, as well as the ideal range of portal vein pressure drop. MethodsA total of 58 patients who underwent TIPS in Xinqiao Hospital of Third Military Medical University from November 2013 to December 2015 were enrolled. All the patients underwent TIPS and embolization of the gastric coronary vein and the short gastric veins, and the change intervals of portal vein pressure gradient were monitored. The follow-up time ranged from 3 days to 2 years, and the association of portal vein pressure drop gradient with postoperative liver function, splenic function, rebleeding rate, hepatic encephalopathy, and portal hypertensive gastrointestinal diseases was analyzed. The paired t-test was used for comparison of parameters before and after treatment. ResultsThe patients had a significant reduction in liver function on day 3 after surgery. At 2 month after surgery, the levels of TBil was rised and had significant changes[(49.81±27.82μmol/L vs (31.64±17.67 μmol/L,t=5.372,P<0.001]. At 6 months after surgery, red blood cell count and platelet count had no significant changes,but,white blood cell count was reduced[(3.79±1.37)×109/L vs (4.57±2.24×109/L,t=2.835,P=0.006]. There was a 23% reduction in portal vein pressure after surgery (from 30.62±3.56 mmHg before surgery to 21.21±2.90 mmHg after surgery, t=23.318,P<0.001. All the patients had varying degrees of relief of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with portal vein hypertension, such as abdominal distension, poor appetite, and diarrhea. Of all patients, none experienced in-stent restenosis or occlusion and 13 experienced hepatic encephalopathy after surgery, which tended to occur at the time when postoperative portal vein pressure was reduced to 14.7-25.7 mmHg, i

  6. Study of Boundary Layer Convective Heat Transfer with Low Pressure Gradient Over a Flat Plate Via He's Homotopy Perturbation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathizadeh, M.; Aroujalian, A.

    2012-01-01

    The boundary layer convective heat transfer equations with low pressure gradient over a flat plate are solved using Homotopy Perturbation Method, which is one of the semi-exact methods. The nonlinear equations of momentum and energy solved simultaneously via Homotopy Perturbation Method are in good agreement with results obtained from numerical methods. Using this method, a general equation in terms of Pr number and pressure gradient (λ) is derived which can be used to investigate velocity and temperature profiles in the boundary layer.

  7. Redox systematics of a magma ocean with variable pressure-temperature gradients and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K; Ghiorso, M S

    2012-07-24

    Oxygen fugacity in metal-bearing systems controls some fundamental aspects of the geochemistry of the early Earth, such as the FeO and siderophile trace element content of the mantle, volatile species that influence atmospheric composition, and conditions for organic compounds synthesis. Redox and metal-silicate equilibria in the early Earth are sensitive to oxygen fugacity (fO(2)), yet are poorly constrained in modeling and experimentation. High pressure and temperature experimentation and modeling in metal-silicate systems usually employs an approximation approach for estimating fO(2) that is based on the ratio of Fe and FeO [called "ΔIW (ratio)" hereafter]. We present a new approach that utilizes free energy and activity modeling of the equilibrium: Fe + SiO(2) + O(2) = Fe(2)SiO(4) to calculate absolute fO(2) and relative to the iron-wüstite (IW) buffer at pressure and temperature [ΔIW (P,T)]. This equilibrium is considered across a wide range of pressures and temperatures, including up to the liquidus temperature of peridotite (4,000 K at 50 GPa). Application of ΔIW (ratio) to metal-silicate experiments can be three or four orders of magnitude different from ΔIW (P,T) values calculated using free energy and activity modeling. We will also use this approach to consider the variation in oxygen fugacity in a magma ocean scenario for various thermal structures for the early Earth: hot liquidus gradient, 100 °C below the liquidus, hot and cool adiabatic gradients, and a cool subsolidus adiabat. The results are used to assess the effect of increasing P and T, changing silicate composition during accretion, and related to current models for accretion and core formation in the Earth. The fO(2) in a deep magma ocean scenario may become lower relative to the IW buffer at hotter and deeper conditions, which could include metal entrainment scenarios. Therefore, fO(2) may evolve from high to low fO(2) during Earth (and other differentiated bodies) accretion. Any

  8. Quantitative angiography of the left anterior descending coronary artery: correlations with pressure gradient and exercise thallium scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiber, J.H.C.; Serruys, P.W.; Slager, C.J.; Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam

    1986-01-01

    In order to evaluate during cardiac catheterization what constitutes a physiologically significant obstruction to blood flow in the human coronary system, computer based quantitative analysis of coronary angiograms was performed in 31 patients with isolated proximal left anterior descending coronary artery disease. The angiographic severity of the stenosis was compared with the transstenotic pressure gradient measured with the dilatation catheter during angioplasty and the results of exercise thallium scintigraphy. A curvilinear relation was found between the pressure gradient across the stenosis (normalized for the mean aortic pressure) and the residual minimal obstruction area (after subtracting the area of the angioplasty catheter). This relation was best fitted by the equation: normalized mean pressure gradient = a + b · log [obstruction area], r = 0.74. The measurements of the percent area stenosis (cut-off 80%) and of the transstenotic pressure gradient (cut-off 0.30) obtained at rest, correctly predicted the occurrence of thallium perfusion defects induced by exercise in 83% of the patients. (Auth.)

  9. Quantitative angiography of the left anterior descending coronary artery: correlations with pressure gradient and results of exercise thallium scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijns, W.; Serruys, P.W.; Reiber, J.H.; van den Brand, M.; Simoons, M.L.; Kooijman, C.J.; Balakumaran, K.; Hugenholtz, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate, during cardiac catheterization, what constitutes a physiologically significant obstruction to blood flow in the human coronary system, computer-based quantitative analysis of coronary angiograms was performed on the angiograms of 31 patients with isolated disease of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery. The angiographic severity of stenosis was compared with the transstenotic pressure gradient measured with the dilation catheter during angioplasty and with the results of exercise thallium scintigraphy. A curvilinear relationship was found between the pressure gradient across the stenosis (normalized for the mean aortic pressure) and the residual minimal area of obstruction (after subtracting the area of the angioplasty catheter). This relationship was best fitted by the equation: normalized mean pressure gradient . a + b . log [obstruction area], r . .74. The measurements of the percent area of stenosis (cutoff 80%) and of the transstenotic pressure gradient (cutoff 0.30) obtained at rest correctly predicted the occurrence of thallium perfusion defects induced by exercise in 83% of the patients

  10. Interface pressure mapping pilot study to select surfaces that effectively redistribute pediatric occipital pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higer, Samantha; James, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to better inform clinical decisions to prevent pediatric occipital pressure ulcers with quantitative data to choose an appropriate reactive support surface. A commercially available capacitive pressure mapping system (XSENSOR, X3 Medical Seat System, Calgary, Canada) was used to evaluate a standard pediatric mattress and four commercially available pressure-redistributing support surfaces. The pressure mapping system was validated for use in the pediatric population through studies on sensitivity, accuracy, creep, and repeatability. Then, a pilot pressure mapping study on healthy children under 6 years old (n = 22) was performed to determine interface pressure and pressure distribution between the occipital region of the skull and each surface: standard mattress, gel, foam, air and fluidized. The sensor was adequate to measure pressure generated by pediatric occipital loading, with 0.5-9% error in accuracy in the 25-95 mmHg range. The air surface had the lowest mean interface pressure (p pressure index (PPI), defined as the peak pressure averaged over four sensels, (p pressure for mattress, foam, fluidized, gel, and air materials were 24.8 ± 4.42, 24.1 ± 1.89, 19.4 ± 3.25, 17.9 ± 3.10, and 14.2 ± 1.41 mmHg, respectively. The air surface also had the most homogenous pressure distribution, with the highest mean to PPI ratio (p surfaces (p surface was the most effective pressure-redistributing material for pediatric occipital pressure as it had the lowest interface pressure and a homogeneous pressure distribution. This implies effective envelopment of the bony prominence of the occiput and increasing contact area to decrease peak pressure points. Copyright © 2015 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A high-pressure thermal gradient block for investigating microbial activity in multiple deep-sea samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallmeyer, J.; Ferdelman, TG; Jansen, KH

    2003-01-01

    Details about the construction and use of a high-pressure thermal gradient block for the simultaneous incubation of multiple samples are presented. Most parts used are moderately priced off-the-shelf components that easily obtainable. In order to keep the pressure independent of thermal expansion...... range of temperatures and pressures and can easily be modified to accommodate different experiments, either biological or chemical. As an application, we present measurements of bacterial sulfate reduction rates in hydrothermal sediments from Guyamas Basin over a wide range of temperatures and pressures...

  12. Pressure gradients and boiling as mechanisms for localizing ore in porphyry systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles G.

    1978-01-01

    Fluid inclusions in ore zones of porphyry systems indicate that extensive boiling of hydrothermal fluids accompanies deposition of ore and gangue minerals. The boiling commonly accompanied a change from a lithostatic to a hydrostatic environment during evolution of an epizonal stock. Pressure gradients near the margin of the stock can determine whether ore or only a diffuse zone of mineralization is formed. A sharp drop in pressure in an epizonal environment is more likely to cause extensive boiling than a comparable change in a deeper environment, as the slope of the boiling curve steepens with an increase 'in pressure. The drop in pressure causes the hydrothermal fluids to boil and creates a crackle (stockwork) breccia, which hosts the veinlets of gangue quartz and ore minerals. The boiling selectively partitions CO2, H2S, and HCl into the vapor phase, changing the pH, composition, ionic strength, and thus the solubility product of metal complexes in the remaining liquid and causing the ore and gangue to come out of solution. Fluid inclusions trapped from boiling solutions can exhibit several forms, depending on the physical and chemical conditions of the hydrothermal fluid from which they were trapped. In one case, inclusions when heated can homogenize to either liquid or vapor at the same temperature, which is the true boiling temperature. In another case, homogenization of various inclusions can occur through a range of temperatures. The latter case results from the trapping of mixture of liquid and vapor. Variations in salinity can result from boiling of the hydrothermal fluid, or intermittent incorporation of high-salinity fluids from the magma, or trapping of fluids of varying densities at pressure-temperature conditions above the critical point of the fluid. In places, paleopressure-temperature transition zones can be recognized by fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures and phase relationships and by the presence of anhydrite daughter minerals

  13. Noise Evaluation Technique Based on Surface Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter the relevant theory for the understanding of TE noise modeling is collected. It contains the acoustic formulations of [31] and [57]. Both give a relation for the far field sound pressure in dependence of the frequency wave number spectral density of the pressure on the airfoil...

  14. Laser-Doppler acoustic probing of granular media with in-depth property gradient and varying pore pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodet, L.; Dhemaied, A.; Mourgues, R.; Tournat, V.; Rejiba, F.

    2012-01-01

    Non-contacting ultrasonic techniques recently proved to be efficient in the physical modeling of seismic-wave propagation at various application scales, as for instance in the context of geological analogue and seismic modeling. An innovative experimental set-up is proposed here to perform laser-Doppler acoustic probing of unconsolidated granular media with varying pore pressures. The preliminary experiments presented here provide reproducible results and exploitable data, thus validating both the proposed medium preparation and pressure gradient generation procedure.

  15. Self-propulsion of Leidenfrost droplets on micropillared hot surfaces with gradient wettability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-yao; Jia, Zhi-hai; Zhang, Tao; Fei, Yuan-yuan

    2018-03-01

    Motion of matter requires application of asymmetric potential. In this work, we explored the self-propulsion of Leidenfrost droplet on hot micropillared surfaces with gradient wettability. The surface fabricated with micropillars displays unidirectional properties. It was found that Leidenfrost droplets on this surface self-propelled from the smaller superficial area of micropillars (SSAM) towards the larger superficial area of micropillars (LSAM). The self-propulsion mechanism is proposed based on the self-rotation of Leidenfrost droplets and the theoretical model is well matched with the experimental findings.

  16. Cost-Effective Fabrication of Wettability Gradient Copper Surface by Screen Printing and its Application to Condensation Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng; Huang, Hung-Ming; Huang, Ding-Jun

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, wettability gradient pattern is applied to condensation heat transfer on a copper tube surface. For this application, the vital issue is how to fabricate gradient patterns on a curve tube surface to accelerate the droplet collection efficiently. For this purpose, novel fabrication processes are developed to form wettability gradient patterns on a curve copper tube surface by using roller screen printing surface modification techniques. The roller screen printing surface modification techniques can easily realize wettability gradient surfaces with superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity on a copper tube surface. Experimental results show the droplet nucleation sites, movement and coalescence toward the collection areas can be effectively controlled which can assist in removing the condensation water from the surface. The effectiveness of droplet collection is appropriate for being applied to condensation heat transfer in the foreseeable future.

  17. Accuracy and precision of MR velocity mapping in measurement of stenotic cross-sectional area, flow rate, and pressure gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, L; Ståhlberg, F; Thomsen, C

    1993-01-01

    jet. Besides determination of the stenotic cross-sectional area and flow rate, the pressure gradient was calculated with the modified Bernoulli equation and compared with manometer measurements. Cross-sectional areas were measured with an accuracy of > or = 76%, a precision of > or = 91%, and an error...

  18. Land surface phenology and land surface temperature changes along an urban-rural gradient in Yangtze River Delta, china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guifeng; Xu, Jianhua

    2013-07-01

    Using SPOT/VGT NDVI time series images (2002-2009) and MODIS/LST images (2002-2009) smoothed by a Savitzky-Golay filter, the land surface phenology (LSP) and land surface temperature (LST), respectively, are extracted for six cities in the Yangtze River Delta, China, including Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Changzhou, Wuxi, and Suzhou. The trends of the averaged LSP and LST are analyzed, and the relationship between these values is revealed along the urban-rural gradient. The results show that urbanization advances the start of the growing season, postpones the end of the growing season, prolongs the growing season length (GSL), and reduces the difference between maximal NDVI and minimal NDVI in a year (NDVIamp). More obvious changes occur in surface vegetation phenology as the urbanized area is approached. The LST drops monotonously and logarithmically along the urban-rural gradient. Urbanization generally affects the LSP of the surrounding vegetation within 6 km to the urban edge. Except for GSL, the difference in the LSP between urban and rural areas has a significant logarithmic relationship with the distance to the urban edge. In addition, there is a very strong linear relationship between the LSP and the LST along the urban-rural gradient, especially within 6 km to the urban edge. The correlations between LSP and gross domestic product and population density reveal that human activities have considerable influence on the land surface vegetation growth.

  19. Near-surface temperature gradients and their effects on thermal-infrared emission spectra of particulate planetary surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, B. G.; Jakosky, B. M.

    1993-01-01

    The infrared energy emitted from a planetary surface is generated within a finite depth determined by the material's absorption skin depth. This parameter varies significantly with wavelength in the infrared but has an average value of around 50 microns for most geologic materials. In solid rock, heat transfer is efficient enough so that this 50 micron zone of the near surface from which the radiation emanates will be more or less isothermal. In particulate materials, however, heat transfer is more complicated and occurs via a combination of mechanisms, including solid conduction within grains and across grain contacts, conduction through the interstitial gas, and thermal radiation within individual particles and across the void spaces in between grains. On planets with substantial atmospheres, the gas component dominates the heat transfer and tends to mitigate near-surface thermal gradients. However, on airless bodies, the gas component is absent and heat transfer occurs via solid conductions and radiation. If the particles are small relative to the average absorption skin depth, then the top 50-100 microns or so of the surface will be cooled by radiation to space allowing the creation of significant near-surface thermal gradients. In those regions of the spectrum where the absorption coefficient is low, the emission will come from the deeper, warmer parts of the medium, whereas in regions of high absorption, the emission will emanate from shallower, cooler parts of the medium. The resulting emission spectrum will show non-compositional features as a result of the thermal structure in the material. We have modeled the heat transfer in a particulate medium in order to determine the magnitude of near-surface thermal gradients for surfaces on airless bodies and on Mars. We use the calculated thermal structure to determine the effects it has on the infrared emission spectrum of the surface.

  20. [Clinical application of hepatic venous pressure gradient to predict early bleeding after esophageal variceal ligation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingju; Wu, Lichun; Wang, Guangchuan; Feng, Hua; Hu, Jinhua; Cui, Yi; Zhang, Chunqing

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the predictive value of hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) for early bleeding after esophageal variceal ligation (EVL) by analyzing the differences in HVPG in patients with and without post-EVL bleeding. The medical records of patients who had been diagnosed with cirrhosis and esophageal varices and who had pre-EVL HVPG measurement data were surveyed. The study population included 105 patients from October 2010 to March 2014. Data of HVPG value, previous treatment history, endoscopic manifestation, and whether bleeding and serious complications occurred within 2 weeks after the ligation procedure were investigated as independent risk factors. included the chi-square test and Wilcoxon test, logistic regression modeling and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis using the SPSS software version 16. Only HVPG value was identified as an independent risk factor of early bleeding after EVL.According to the ROC analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) of HVPG for early bleeding after EVL was 0.866; when HVPG was more than or equal to 16 mmHg, AUC was 0.838. The sensitivity was 90.9% and the specificity was 76.4%. HVPG is an independent factor of early bleeding after EVL and when HVPG cut-off value of more than or equal to 16 mmHg is used the predictive ability has certain accuracy and high sensitivity and specificity.

  1. A pressure-gradient mechanism for vortex shedding in constricted channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghosian, M. E.; Cassel, K. W.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the unsteady, two-dimensional, incompressible Navier–Stokes equations are performed for a Newtonian fluid in a channel having a symmetric constriction modeled by a two-parameter Gaussian distribution on both channel walls. The Reynolds number based on inlet half-channel height and mean inlet velocity ranges from 1 to 3000. Constriction ratios based on the half-channel height of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 are considered. The results show that both the Reynolds number and constriction geometry have a significant effect on the behavior of the post-constriction flow field. The Navier–Stokes solutions are observed to experience a number of bifurcations: steady attached flow, steady separated flow (symmetric and asymmetric), and unsteady vortex shedding downstream of the constriction depending on the Reynolds number and constriction ratio. A sequence of events is described showing how a sustained spatially growing flow instability, reminiscent of a convective instability, leads to the vortex shedding phenomenon via a proposed streamwise pressure-gradient mechanism. PMID:24399860

  2. Instability of non-Newtonian jets with a surface tension gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhanjun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the mechanisms of temporal instability of non-Newtonian liquid jets, more specifically viscoelastic liquid jets, with a surface tension gradient. The dispersion relation between the growth rate and the wave number for a viscoelastic liquid jet is derived. The effects of various parameters on the instability behavior are studied. A number of quantitative conclusions and sensitivities on the instability behavior of viscoelastic jets are investigated. The present work can provide a good foundation for further investigations of the instability and breakup of viscoelastic liquid jets in the situation where the surface tension gradient exists. The applications of such a phenomenon include a microfluidic inkjet printheads with thousands of nozzles that are thermally modulated near the nozzle orifice to produce steady steams of picoliter-sized droplets at kilo-Hertz frequency rates

  3. The extended surface forces apparatus. IV. Precision static pressure control

    OpenAIRE

    Schurtenberger E; Heuberger M

    2011-01-01

    We report on design and performance of an extended surface forces apparatus (eSFA) built into a pressurized system. The aim of this instrument is to provide control over static pressure and temperature to facilitate direct surface force experiments in equilibrium with fluids at different loci of their phase diagram. We built an autoclave that can bear a miniature eSFA. To avoid mechanical or electrical feedtroughs the miniature apparatus uses an external surface coarse approach stage under am...

  4. Thin-Film Composite Pressure Retarded Osmosis Membranes for Sustainable Power Generation from Salinity Gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Ngai Yin

    2011-05-15

    Pressure retarded osmosis has the potential to produce renewable energy from natural salinity gradients. This work presents the fabrication of thin-film composite membranes customized for high performance in pressure retarded osmosis. We also present the development of a theoretical model to predict the water flux in pressure retarded osmosis, from which we can predict the power density that can be achieved by a membrane. The model is the first to incorporate external concentration polarization, a performance limiting phenomenon that becomes significant for high-performance membranes. The fabricated membranes consist of a selective polyamide layer formed by interfacial polymerization on top of a polysulfone support layer made by phase separation. The highly porous support layer (structural parameter S = 349 μm), which minimizes internal concentration polarization, allows the transport properties of the active layer to be customized to enhance PRO performance. It is shown that a hand-cast membrane that balances permeability and selectivity (A = 5.81 L m-2 h-1 bar-1, B = 0.88 L m-2 h-1) is projected to achieve the highest potential peak power density of 10.0 W/m2 for a river water feed solution and seawater draw solution. The outstanding performance of this membrane is attributed to the high water permeability of the active layer, coupled with a moderate salt permeability and the ability of the support layer to suppress the undesirable accumulation of leaked salt in the porous support. Membranes with greater selectivity (i.e., lower salt permeability, B = 0.16 L m-2 h-1) suffered from a lower water permeability (A = 1.74 L m-2 h-1 bar-1) and would yield a lower peak power density of 6.1 W/m2, while membranes with a higher permeability and lower selectivity (A = 7.55 L m-2 h-1 bar-1, B = 5.45 L m-2 h-1) performed poorly due to severe reverse salt permeation, resulting in a similar projected peak power density of 6.1 W/m2. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  5. Airfoil Trailing Edge Noise Generation and Its Surface Pressure Fluctuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    where the time history pressure data are recorded by the surface pressure microphones. After the flow-field is stabilized, the generated noise from the airfoil Trailing Edge (TE) is predicted using the acoustic analogy solver, where the results from LES are the input. It is found that there is a strong......In the present work, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of turbulent flows over a NACA 0015 airfoil is performed. The purpose of such numerical study is to relate the aerodynamic surface pressure with the noise generation. The results from LES are validated against detailed surface pressure measurements...... relation between TE noise and the aerodynamic pressure. The results of power spectrum density show that the fluctuation of aerodynamic pressure is responsible for noise generation....

  6. On axial temperature gradients due to large pressure drops in dense fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgate, Sam O; Berger, Terry A

    2015-03-13

    The effect of energy degradation (Degradation is the creation of net entropy resulting from irreversibility.) accompanying pressure drops across chromatographic columns is examined with regard to explaining axial temperature gradients in both high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). The observed effects of warming and cooling can be explained equally well in the language of thermodynamics or fluid dynamics. The necessary equivalence of these treatments is reviewed here to show the legitimacy of using whichever one supports the simpler determination of features of interest. The determination of temperature profiles in columns by direct application of the laws of thermodynamics is somewhat simpler than applying them indirectly by solving the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. Both disciplines show that the preferred strategy for minimizing the reduction in peak quality caused by temperature gradients is to operate columns as nearly adiabatically as possible (i.e. as Joule-Thomson expansions). This useful fact, however, is not widely familiar or appreciated in the chromatography community due to some misunderstanding of the meaning of certain terms and expressions used in these disciplines. In fluid dynamics, the terms "resistive heating" or "frictional heating" have been widely used as synonyms for the dissipation function, Φ, in the NS energy equation. These terms have been widely used by chromatographers as well, but often misinterpreted as due to friction between the mobile phase and the column packing, when in fact Φ describes the increase in entropy of the system (dissipation, ∫TdSuniv>0) due to the irreversible decompression of the mobile phase. Two distinctly different contributions to the irreversibility are identified; (1) ΔSext, viscous dissipation of work done by the external surroundings driving the flow (the pump) contributing to its warming, and (2) ΔSint, entropy change accompanying decompression of

  7. Volume based vs. time based chromatograms: reproducibility of data for gradient separations under high and low pressure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovich, Joseph J; Gritti, Fabrice; Stevenson, Paul G; Vajda, Péter; Beaver, Lois Ann; Guiochon, Georges

    2014-05-23

    A critical aspect in fast gradient separations carried out under constant pressure, in the very high pressure liquid chromatography (VHPLC) mode is that time-based chromatograms may not yield highly reproducible separations. A proposed solution to improve the reproducibility of these separations involves plotting the chromatograms as functions of the volume eluted vs. UV absorbance instead of time vs. UV. To study the consequences of using the volume-based rather than the time-based chromatograms, separations were first performed under low pressures that do not generate significant amounts of heat and for which the variations of the eluent density along the columns are negligible. Secondly, they were performed under very high pressures that do generate heat and measurable variations of the local retention factor and eluent density along the column. Comparison of the results provides estimates of the improvements obtained when volume based chromatograms are used in gradient analyses. Using a column packed with fully porous particles, four different types of methods and several sets for each method were used to perform the gradient elution runs: two sets of constant flow rate operations, four sets of constant pressure operations, two sets of constant pressure operations with programmed flow rate, and one set using the constant heat loss approach. The differences between time-based and volume-based chromatograms are demonstrated by using eight replicates of early, middle, and last eluting peaks. The results show that volume-based chromatograms improve the retention time reproducibility of the four constant pressure methods by a factor of 3.7 on average. If the column is not thermally conditioned prior to performing a long series of separations, flow controlled methods (constant flow rate, programmed constant pressure, and constant wall heat approaches) are more precise. If one gradient run is used to bring the column to a relatively stable temperature, constant

  8. Microhardness changes gradient of the duplex stainless steel (DSS surface layer after dry turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Krolczyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the gradient of microhardness changes as a function of the distance from the material surface after turning with a wedge provided with a coating with a ceramic intermediate layer. The investigation comprised the influence of cutting speed on surface integrity microhardness in dry machining. The tested material was duplex stainless steel (DSS with two-phase, ferritic-austenitic structure. The tests have been performed under production conditions during machining of parts for electric motors and deep-well pumps.

  9. A gradient surface produced by combined electroplating and incremental frictional sliding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hong, Chuanshi; Kitamura, K.

    2017-01-01

    A Cu plate was first electroplated with a Ni layer, with a thickness controlled to be between 1 and 2 mu m. The coated surface was then deformed by incremental frictional sliding with liquid nitrogen cooling. The combined treatment led to a multifunctional surface with a gradient in strain...... processed Cu plate without Ni coating, showing a strong effect of the coated layer on the deformation. The experimental results are followed by an analysis of strengthening mechanisms and a discussion of the applicability of the new technique for increasing the durability and lifetime of components exposed...

  10. An adaptive finite element method for simulating surface tension with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2014-01-01

    The gradient theory for the surface tension of simple fluids and mixtures is rigorously analyzed based on mathematical theory. The finite element approximation of surface tension is developed and analyzed, and moreover, an adaptive finite element method based on a physical-based estimator is proposed and it can be coupled efficiently with Newton\\'s method as well. The numerical tests are carried out both to verify the proposed theory and to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High-order accurate finite-volume formulations for the pressure gradient force in layered ocean models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engwirda, Darren; Kelley, Maxwell; Marshall, John

    2017-08-01

    Discretisation of the horizontal pressure gradient force in layered ocean models is a challenging task, with non-trivial interactions between the thermodynamics of the fluid and the geometry of the layers often leading to numerical difficulties. We present two new finite-volume schemes for the pressure gradient operator designed to address these issues. In each case, the horizontal acceleration is computed as an integration of the contact pressure force that acts along the perimeter of an associated momentum control-volume. A pair of new schemes are developed by exploring different control-volume geometries. Non-linearities in the underlying equation-of-state definitions and thermodynamic profiles are treated using a high-order accurate numerical integration framework, designed to preserve hydrostatic balance in a non-linear manner. Numerical experiments show that the new methods achieve high levels of consistency, maintaining hydrostatic and thermobaric equilibrium in the presence of strongly-sloping layer geometries, non-linear equations-of-state and non-uniform vertical stratification profiles. These results suggest that the new pressure gradient formulations may be appropriate for general circulation models that employ hybrid vertical coordinates and/or terrain-following representations.

  12. Mechanical Behavior of Ultrafine Gradient Grain Structures Produced via Ambient and Cryogenic Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment in Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Murdoch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ambient and cryogenic surface mechanical attrition treatments (SMAT are applied to bcc iron plate. Both processes result in significant surface grain refinement down to the ultrafine-grained regime; the cryogenic treatment results in a 45% greater grain size reduction. However, the refined region is shallower in the cryogenic SMAT process. The tensile ductility of the grain size gradient remains low (<10%, in line with the expected behavior of the refined surface grains. Good tensile ductility in a grain size gradient requires the continuation of the gradient into an undeformed region.

  13. Variability of water content useful in surface along a rainfall gradient Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Sinoga, J. D.; Martinez-Murillo, J. F.; Gabarron-Galeote, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    A climatic gradient was defined in South of spain with a great decreased of rainfall from West to East (>1,000 mm), which produces changes in vegetation and hydric resources. this study was carried out in five hill slopes under different climatic conditions and their aims were to analyze: the variability of available water along the gradient since 2002 to 2006, the key factors of it and the influence on the vegetal cover. Results showed that clay content had a great influence in the surface available water for plants, which did not decrease in the deerfield sites, where the amount of days with hydric deficient was lower. Relationships between vegetation and soil water were stronger in the more humid field sites, where existed a feedback between both properties. (Author) 4 refs.

  14. Does Pressure Accentuate General Relativistic Gravitational Collapse and Formation of Trapped Surfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Abhas

    2013-04-01

    It is widely believed that though pressure resists gravitational collapse in Newtonian gravity, it aids the same in general relativity (GR) so that GR collapse should eventually be similar to the monotonous free fall case. But we show that, even in the context of radiationless adiabatic collapse of a perfect fluid, pressure tends to resist GR collapse in a manner which is more pronounced than the corresponding Newtonian case and formation of trapped surfaces is inhibited. In fact there are many works which show such collapse to rebound or become oscillatory implying a tug of war between attractive gravity and repulsive pressure gradient. Furthermore, for an imperfect fluid, the resistive effect of pressure could be significant due to likely dramatic increase of tangential pressure beyond the "photon sphere." Indeed, with inclusion of tangential pressure, in principle, there can be static objects with surface gravitational redshift z → ∞. Therefore, pressure can certainly oppose gravitational contraction in GR in a significant manner in contradiction to the idea of Roger Penrose that GR continued collapse must be unstoppable.

  15. Functionalized PDMS with versatile and scalable surface roughness gradients for cell culture

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu

    2015-07-21

    This manuscript describes a simple and versatile approach to engineering surface roughness gradients via combination of microfluidics and photo-polymerization. Through UV-mediated polymerization, N-isopropylacrylamide with concentration gradients are successfully grafted onto PDMS surface, leading to diverse roughness degrees on the obtained PDMS substrate. Furthermore, the extent of surface roughness can be controllably regulated via tuning the flow rate ratio between the monomer solution and deionized water. Average roughness ranging from 8.050 nm to 151.68 nm has well been achieved in this work. Such PDMS samples are also demonstrated to be capable of working as supporting substrates for controlling cell adhesion or detachment. Due to the different degrees of surface roughness on a single substrate, our method provides an effective approach for designing advanced surafecs for cell culture. Finally, the thermosensitive property of N-isopropylacrylamide makes our sample furnish as another means for controlling the cell detachment from the substrates with correspondence to the surrounding temperature.

  16. Support surface interface pressure, microenvironment, and the prevalence of pressure ulcers: an analysis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reger, Steven I; Ranganathan, Vinoth K; Sahgal, Vinod

    2007-10-01

    External pressure is the most frequently considered stress factor in the formation of ulcers. A review and analysis of existing literature addressing the relationship between pressure ulcer prevalence and interface pressures at various anatomic sites was conducted. Results suggest a nearly non-existent or slightly negative correlation between interface pressure and ulcer prevalence in general and spinal cord injured populations, respectively. Despite limitations of the analysis methods used, the observed lack of a direct relationship confirms the results of other studies and suggests that ulcer formation also may involve factors secondary to pressure and mechanical factors (eg, temperature, moisture, duration of the applied load, atrophy, and posture). Based on currently available information, clinicians should include these considerations when selecting a support surface. Studies directly relating primary stress factors and tissue viability with prevalence and incidence of pressure ulcers are needed to better understand the benefits of pressure-relieving support surfaces and to improve the effectiveness of prevention and treatment.

  17. Plastic collapse pressure of cylindrical vessels containing longitudinal surface cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarrabi, K. [New South Wales Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia). Sch. of Mech. and Mfg. Eng.; Zhang, H. [New South Wales Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia). Sch. of Mech. and Mfg. Eng.; Nhim, K. [New South Wales Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia). Sch. of Mech. and Mfg. Eng.

    1997-05-01

    Based on nonlinear finite element analysis, the plastic collapse pressures of cylindrical vessels with longitudinal surface cracks are computed. A general formula of plastic collapse pressure of such structures are given and compared with the literature solutions. The results of the present study could be applied for the integrity assessments, failure analyses, remanent life assessment, and licence extensions of the vessels. (orig.)

  18. Characteristics of pressure gradients in downflow condensing of nitrogen in plain, brazed aluminium, plate-fin heat exchanger passages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.M.; Blundell, N.; Clarke, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the total two-phase gradients have been made during the downflow condensing of nitrogen in a vertical plain, plate-fin test-section. The results show that pressure recovery occurs only at very low qualities, at low mass flux the falling film is smooth and at high mass flux it is rough. A relationship between the apparent film roughness and the calculated film thickness has been established. The implications for designers of heat exchangers are discussed

  19. Using Spherical-Harmonics Expansions for Optics Surface Reconstruction from Gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Solano-Altamirano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to reconstruct optics surfaces (aka wavefronts from gradients, defined on a circular domain, by means of the Spherical Harmonics. The experimental results indicate that this algorithm renders the same accuracy, compared to the reconstruction based on classical Zernike polynomials, using a smaller number of polynomial terms, which potentially speeds up the wavefront reconstruction. Additionally, we provide an open-source C++ library, released under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 (GPLv2, wherein several polynomial sets are coded. Therefore, this library constitutes a robust software alternative for wavefront reconstruction in a high energy laser field, optical surface reconstruction, and, more generally, in surface reconstruction from gradients. The library is a candidate for being integrated in control systems for optical devices, or similarly to be used in ad hoc simulations. Moreover, it has been developed with flexibility in mind, and, as such, the implementation includes the following features: (i a mock-up generator of various incident wavefronts, intended to simulate the wavefronts commonly encountered in the field of high-energy lasers production; (ii runtime selection of the library in charge of performing the algebraic computations; (iii a profiling mechanism to measure and compare the performance of different steps of the algorithms and/or third-party linear algebra libraries. Finally, the library can be easily extended to include additional dependencies, such as porting the algebraic operations to specific architectures, in order to exploit hardware acceleration features.

  20. Using Spherical-Harmonics Expansions for Optics Surface Reconstruction from Gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Altamirano, Juan Manuel; Vázquez-Otero, Alejandro; Khikhlukha, Danila; Dormido, Raquel; Duro, Natividad

    2017-11-30

    In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to reconstruct optics surfaces (aka wavefronts) from gradients, defined on a circular domain, by means of the Spherical Harmonics. The experimental results indicate that this algorithm renders the same accuracy, compared to the reconstruction based on classical Zernike polynomials, using a smaller number of polynomial terms, which potentially speeds up the wavefront reconstruction. Additionally, we provide an open-source C++ library, released under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 (GPLv2), wherein several polynomial sets are coded. Therefore, this library constitutes a robust software alternative for wavefront reconstruction in a high energy laser field, optical surface reconstruction, and, more generally, in surface reconstruction from gradients. The library is a candidate for being integrated in control systems for optical devices, or similarly to be used in ad hoc simulations. Moreover, it has been developed with flexibility in mind, and, as such, the implementation includes the following features: (i) a mock-up generator of various incident wavefronts, intended to simulate the wavefronts commonly encountered in the field of high-energy lasers production; (ii) runtime selection of the library in charge of performing the algebraic computations; (iii) a profiling mechanism to measure and compare the performance of different steps of the algorithms and/or third-party linear algebra libraries. Finally, the library can be easily extended to include additional dependencies, such as porting the algebraic operations to specific architectures, in order to exploit hardware acceleration features.

  1. Temporal variation of coastal surface sediment bacterial communities along an environmental pollution gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, V; Tsoi, M M Y; Zhang, W; Qian, P Y

    2010-07-01

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (T-RFLP) was used to track the changes of bacterial community compositions (BCC) in coastal surface sediments along an environmental pollution gradient between 2004 and 2006. BCC in the chronically contaminated sites showed the largest deviation from those in the adjacent sites. Surprisingly, BCC at two contrasting environments (oceanic vs. river-influenced) were more similar. Unexpectedly, the BCC did not recover (when compared to oceanic control site) even after 5 years of pollution abatement initiatives in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong. On the other hand, disposal of treated sewage for 5 years in one of the sites did not significantly affect the BCC. A striking seasonal variation in the BCC was observed at only the polluted sites. Although factors other than pollution gradients may explain the observed BCC patterns, the information presented here can be useful in predicting long-term effects of pollution on BCC. Furthermore, this study suggests that BCC analysis using T-RFLP is a faster, reliable and easier approach to monitor microbenthic community response to environmental pollution gradient in coastal sediments. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Atmospherically derived organic surface films along an urban-rural gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, S E; Diamond, M L; Stern, G A; McCarry, B E

    2001-10-15

    Atmospherically derived organic films have been found on an impervious surface along an urban-rural gradient in the Toronto, Ontario, Canada area. Film thickness and concentrations, expressed on an aerial basis, of sigman-alkanes, sigmaPCB, sigmaPAH, and sigmaOC (organochlorine) pesticides decrease along this gradient, coincident with lower atmospheric emissions (PCB and PAH) and less accumulation in thinner rural films (OC pesticides). For PCBs and some OC pesticides, patterns of chemical abundance also shift, indicating a "fresh" pattern near emission sources (downtown) versus aged patterns at rural locations that are indicative of atmospheric transport. Plant-derived n-alkane concentrations were greater at urban than rural sites, and we hypothesize greater urban plant wax production and erosion due to air pollution. As expected, along the urban-rural gradient the concentration of particle-phase PAH decreased more rapidly than that of gas-phase compounds, but unexpectedly the contribution of alkylated PAH increased from urban to rural locations. Distances over which concentrations decline by 63% vary from 50 km for persistent gas-phase compounds (e.g., P1,2CB) to 10-20 km for reactive gas-phase compounds (e.g., naphthalene, fluoranthene) to particle-phase compounds (e.g., P6-10CB, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[e]pyrene).

  3. Surface texturing of superconductors by controlled oxygen pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, N.; Goretta, K.C.; Dorris, S.E.

    1999-01-05

    A method of manufacture of a textured layer of a high temperature superconductor on a substrate is disclosed. The method involves providing an untextured high temperature superconductor material having a characteristic ambient pressure peritectic melting point, heating the superconductor to a temperature below the peritectic temperature, establishing a reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere below ambient pressure causing reduction of the peritectic melting point to a reduced temperature which causes melting from an exposed surface of the superconductor and raising pressure of the reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere to cause solidification of the molten superconductor in a textured surface layer. 8 figs.

  4. Velocity gradients in the Earth's upper mantle: insights from higher mode surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishwick, Stewart; Maupin, Valerie; Afonso, Juan Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The majority of seismic tomographic models of the uppermost mantle beneath Precambrian regions show a positive velocity gradient from the Moho to depths of around 100 km. It is becoming increasingly well recognised that this gradient is not readily compatible with simple models of a craton with constant composition and a steady-state geotherm and more complex compositional variations are invoked to explain this feature. At these depths most of the models are dominated by data from fundamental mode surface waves, and the combination of the sensitivity kernels alongside the choice of model parameterisation means that the velocity gradient could be an artefact of the particular inversion. Indeed, recent work using thermodynamically consistent velocity models suggests that in some cases there is not a requirement of this style of gradient. We investigate this aspect of the mantle structure further by returning to the Sa phase. This phase can be considered as the build up of a wave packet due to the overlapping group velocities of higher modes at periods of around 8 - 30 s. Using the Australian shield as a test-case we compare waveforms built from three different styles of velocity model. Firstly, the 1D model AU3 (Gaherty & Jordan, 1995) which did incorporate the Sa phase as part of the waveform in their modelling. Secondly, recent tomographic models of the Australian continent are used, which include no a priori information from the phase. Thirdly, a thermodynamically consistent velocity model that fits the broad dispersion characteristics of the tomography is tested. Finally, these synthetic waveforms are compared to real data crossing the Australian shield. The results illustrate small, but clear, variations in waveform dependent on the velocity structure. Complicating factors in any analysis involve the importance of having good knowledge of the crustal structure and a very accurate source depth (particularly if this is similar to the average crustal thickness).

  5. Changes in intracranial pressure gradients between the cerebral hemispheres in patients with intracerebral hematomas in one cerebral hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wusi; Jiang, Qizhou; Xiao, Guoming; Wang, Weiming; Shen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial-pressure (ICP) monitoring is useful for patients with increased ICP following hemorrhagic stroke. In this study, the changes in pressure gradients between the two cerebral hemispheres were investigated after hemorrhagic stroke of one side, and after a craniotomy. Twenty-four patients with acute cerebral hemorrhages and intracerebral hematomas who exhibited mass effect and midline shift to the contralateral side on computed tomography were selected for this study. After admission, both sides of the cranium were drilled, and optical fiber sensors were implanted to monitor the brain parenchyma pressure (BPP) in both cerebral hemispheres. All patients underwent surgical hematoma evacuations. The preoperative and postoperative BPP data from both cerebral hemispheres were collected at various time points and compared pairwise. There were statistically significant differences (P 0.05). The posteroperative BPPs of both hemispheres were statistically significantly lower than preoperative recordings. BPP sensors should be applied to the injured cerebral hemisphere, because this becomes the source of increased ICP. Hematoma evacuation surgery effectively decreases ICP and eliminates pressure gradients between the two cerebral hemispheres, consequently enabling brain shift correction.

  6. The extended surface forces apparatus. IV. Precision static pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurtenberger, E; Heuberger, M

    2011-10-01

    We report on design and performance of an extended surface forces apparatus (eSFA) built into a pressurized system. The aim of this instrument is to provide control over static pressure and temperature to facilitate direct surface force experiments in equilibrium with fluids at different loci of their phase diagram. We built an autoclave that can bear a miniature eSFA. To avoid mechanical or electrical feedtroughs the miniature apparatus uses an external surface coarse approach stage under ambient conditions. The surface separation is thus pre-adjusted to approximately ~3 μm before sliding the apparatus into the autoclave. Inside the autoclave, the surface separation can be further controlled with a magnetic drive at sub-Ångstrom precision over a 14 μm range. The autoclave pressure can then be set and maintained between 20 mbar and 170 bars with few mbar precision. The autoclave is connected to a specially designed pressurization system to precondition the fluids. The temperature can be controlled between -20 and 60 °C with few mK precision. We demonstrate the operation of the instrument in the case of gaseous or liquid carbon dioxide. Thanks to a consequent decoupling of the eSFA mechanical loop from the autoclave structure, the obtained measurement stability and reproducibility, at elevated pressures, is comparable to the one established for the conventional eSFA, operated under ambient conditions.

  7. The extended surface forces apparatus. IV. Precision static pressure control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurtenberger, E.; Heuberger, M.

    2011-10-01

    We report on design and performance of an extended surface forces apparatus (eSFA) built into a pressurized system. The aim of this instrument is to provide control over static pressure and temperature to facilitate direct surface force experiments in equilibrium with fluids at different loci of their phase diagram. We built an autoclave that can bear a miniature eSFA. To avoid mechanical or electrical feedtroughs the miniature apparatus uses an external surface coarse approach stage under ambient conditions. The surface separation is thus pre-adjusted to approximately ˜3 μm before sliding the apparatus into the autoclave. Inside the autoclave, the surface separation can be further controlled with a magnetic drive at sub-Ångstrom precision over a 14 μm range. The autoclave pressure can then be set and maintained between 20 mbar and 170 bars with few mbar precision. The autoclave is connected to a specially designed pressurization system to precondition the fluids. The temperature can be controlled between -20 and 60 °C with few mK precision. We demonstrate the operation of the instrument in the case of gaseous or liquid carbon dioxide. Thanks to a consequent decoupling of the eSFA mechanical loop from the autoclave structure, the obtained measurement stability and reproducibility, at elevated pressures, is comparable to the one established for the conventional eSFA, operated under ambient conditions.

  8. Continuous micro liquid delivery by evaporation on a gradient-capillary microstructure surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Xiaoze; Zhao, T S; Luo, Jia

    2011-01-01

    An evaporation-based micropump is proposed and fabricated for delivering liquid with constant flow rates of ∼100 nl s −1 continuously. The liquid is pumped by the surface transpiration in a micro evaporator, which consists of a gradient-capillary surface by microfabricating micropost arrays. The micropost arrays are patterned such that the gaps between microposts reduce gradually away from the center microwell to the surface edge, by which a capillary force is formed to pull the liquid spreading on the evaporator surface. A simple analytical model is proposed to obtain the primary characteristics of the micropump, by which the influences of the contact angle of fluid on the flow rate and also the corresponding parameters during the operation of micropump are analyzed. The most striking feature of the micropump is that it can be precisely and simply controlled only by varying the surface wall temperature. The results indicate that a very linear relationship between the flow rate and solid wall temperature can be achieved by the present design. Quite consistent variation trend of the flow rate with wall temperature can be obtained between the experimental tests and theoretical analysis. The present micropump concept may be potentially used in delivering a precisely controlled, continuous flow rate for many new applications in the fields of biotechnology, environmental testing and instrumentation for analytical chemistry

  9. Investigation of the effects of time periodic pressure and engpotential gradients on viscoelastic fluid flow in circular narrow confinements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Trieu; van der Meer, Devaraj; van den Berg, Albert

    2017-01-01

    -Boltzmann equation, together with the incompressible Cauchy momentum equation under no-slip boundary conditions for viscoelastic fluid in the case of a combination of time periodic pressure-driven and electro-osmotic flow. The resulting solutions allow us to predict the electrical current and solution flow rate...... conversion applications. We also found that time periodic electro-osmotic flow in many cases is much stronger enhanced than time periodic pressure-driven flow when comparing the flow profiles of oscillating PDF and EOF in micro-and nanochannels. The findings advance our understanding of time periodic......In this paper we present an in-depth analysis and analytical solution for time periodic hydrodynamic flow (driven by a time-dependent pressure gradient and electric field) of viscoelastic fluid through cylindrical micro-and nanochannels. Particularly, we solve the linearized Poisson...

  10. Trace metal concentrations in forest and lawn soils of Paris region (France) along a gradient of urban pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovic, Foti

    2017-04-01

    concentrations and subsequent risks in soils of Paris and Paris region (Île-de-France). Our study aims at filling this knowledge gap, focusing on contamination and pollution by TMs in lawns and forests that constitute the main types of vegetation in urban areas of Paris region. Considering the rational described above, the aims of the present study were (i) to examine the concentration of eight selected TMs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) in soils of two land-uses (public lawns and woods) along an urban pressure gradient in Paris region, (ii) to distinguish origins and sources of contamination or pollution, (iii) to evaluate the individual and overall TM contamination degree as well as the individual and overall TM pollution degree, (iiii) to use soil characteristics to better understand soil origins and histories along the urban pressure gradient and the relationship between these characteristics and TM concentrations. Ultimately, this study provides a baseline TM assessment for the long-term monitoring of the evolution of TM soil contents in urban area of the Paris region.

  11. Inclusion of biotic stress (consumer pressure) alters predictions from the stress gradient hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Christian; Rietkerk, Max; Wassen, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    The stress gradient hypothesis (SGH) predicts a shift from net negative interactions in benign environments towards net positive in harsh environments in ecological communities. While several studies found support for the SGH, others found evidence against it, leading to a debate on how nature and

  12. Free water transport, small pore transport and the osmotic pressure gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parikova, Alena; Smit, Watske; Zweers, Machteld M.; Struijk, Dirk G.; Krediet, Raymond T.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Water transport in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients occurs through the small pores and water channels, the latter allowing free water transport (FWT). The osmotic gradient is known to be one of the major determinants of water transport. The objective of the study was to analyse the

  13. Surface cleaning of metal wire by atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Buttapeng, C.; Furuya, S.; Harada, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the possible application of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma for the annealing of metallic wire is examined and presented. The main purpose of the current study is to examine the surface cleaning effect for a cylindrical object by atmospheric pressure plasma. The experimental setup consists of a gas tank, plasma reactor, and power supply with control panel. The gas assists in the generation of plasma. Copper wire was used as an experimental cylindrical object. This copper wire was irradiated with the plasma, and the cleaning effect was confirmed. The result showed that it is possible to remove the tarnish which exists on the copper wire surface. The experiment reveals that atmospheric pressure plasma is usable for the surface cleaning of metal wire. However, it is necessary to examine the method for preventing oxidization of the copper wire.

  14. Acoustics and Surface Pressure Measurements from Tandem Cylinder Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic and unsteady surface pressure measurements from two cylinders in tandem configurations were acquired to study the effect of spacing, surface trip and freestream velocity on the radiated noise. The Reynolds number ranged from 1.15x10(exp 5) to 2.17x10(exp 5), and the cylinder spacing varied between 1.435 and 3.7 cylinder diameters. The acoustic and surface pressure spectral characteristics associated with the different flow regimes produced by the cylinders' wake interference were identified. The dependence of the Strouhal number, peak Sound Pressure Level and spanwise coherence on cylinder spacing and flow velocity was examined. Directivity measurements were performed to determine how well the dipole assumption for the radiation of vortex shedding noise holds for the largest and smallest cylinder spacing tested.

  15. Nanocapillary Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet: A Tool for Ultrafine Maskless Surface Modification at Atmospheric Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motrescu, Iuliana; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2016-05-18

    With respect to microsized surface functionalization techniques we proposed the use of a maskless, versatile, simple tool, represented by a nano- or microcapillary atmospheric pressure plasma jet for producing microsized controlled etching, chemical vapor deposition, and chemical modification patterns on polymeric surfaces. In this work we show the possibility of size-controlled surface amination, and we discuss it as a function of different processing parameters. Moreover, we prove the successful connection of labeled sugar chains on the functionalized microscale patterns, indicating the possibility to use ultrafine capillary atmospheric pressure plasma jets as versatile tools for biosensing, tissue engineering, and related biomedical applications.

  16. AirSWOT Measurements of Water Surface Elevations and Hydraulic Gradients over the Yukon Flats, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, L. H.; Pavelsky, T.; Smith, L. C.; Moller, D.; Altenau, E. H.; Lion, C.; Bertram, M.; Cooley, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    AirSWOT is an airborne, Ka-band synthetic aperture radar interferometer (InSAR) intended to quantify surface water fluxes by mapping water surface elevations (WSE). AirSWOT will also serve as a calibration/validation tool for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission (scheduled for launch in 2021). The hydrology objectives for AirSWOT and SWOT are to measure WSE with accuracies sufficient to estimate hydrologic fluxes in lakes, wetlands and rivers. However, current understanding of the performance of these related though not identical instruments when applied to complex river-lake-wetland fluvial environments remains predominantly theoretical. We present AirSWOT data acquired 15-June-2015 over the Yukon Flats, Alaska, USA, together with in situ field surveys, to assess the accuracy of AirSWOT WSE measurements in lakes and rivers. We use these data to demonstrate that AirSWOT can be used to estimate large-scale hydraulic gradients across wetland complexes. Finally, we present key lessons learned from this AirSWOT analysis for consideration in future campaigns, including: maximizing swath overlap for spatial averaging to minimize uncertainty as well as orienting flight paths parallel to river flow directions to reduce along track aircraft drift for neighboring flight paths. We conclude that spatially dense AirSWOT measurements of river and lake WSEs can improve geospatial understanding of surface water hydrology and fluvial processes.

  17. Experiments during flow boiling of a R22 drop-in: R422D adiabatic pressure gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosato, A.; Mauro, A.W.; Mastrullo, R.; Vanoli, G.P.

    2009-01-01

    R22, the HCFC most widely used in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems in the last years, is phasing-out. R422D, a zero ozone-depleting mixture of R125, R134a and R600a (65.1%/31.5%/3.4% by weight, respectively), has been recently proposed as a drop-in substitute. For energy consumption calculations and temperature control, it is of primary importance to estimate operating conditions after substitution. To determine pressure drop in the evaporator and piping line to the compressor, in this paper the experimental adiabatic pressure gradients during flow boiling of R422D are reported for a circular smooth horizontal tube (3.00 mm inner radius) in a range of operating conditions of interest for dry-expansion evaporators. The data are used to establish the best predictive method for calculations and its accuracy: the Moreno-Quiben and Thome method provided the best predictions for the whole database and also for the segregated data in the annular flow regime. Finally, the experimental data have been compared with the adiabatic pressure gradients of both R22 and its much used alternative R407C available in the literature.

  18. Overdrainage after ventriculoperitoneal shunting in a patient with a wide depressed skull bone defect: The effect of atmospheric pressure gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lixiang; Yu, Jinlu; Sun, Lichao; Han, Yanwu; Wang, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    In patients with traumatic brain injury, an effective approach for managing refractory intracranial hypertension is wide decompressive craniectomy. Postoperative hydrocephalus is a frequent complication requiring cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion. A 50-year-old male who underwent decompressive craniectomy after traumatic brain injury. He developed hydrocephalus postoperatively, and accordingly we placed a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. However, an imbalance between the intra- and extra-cranial atmospheric pressures led to overdrainage, and he suffered cognitive disorders and extremity weakness. He remained supine for 5days to avoid the effect of gravity on CSF diversion. After 20days, we performed a cranioplasty using a titanium plate. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient achieved satisfactory recovery. The gravitational effect and the atmospheric pressure gradient effect are two factors associated in the ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt treatment of hydrocephalus for the patient who had decompressive craniectomy. These effects can be eliminated by supine bed rest and cranioplasty. We herein emphasize the efficacy of VP shunt, supine bed rest and cranioplasty in treating hydrocephalus patients who have undergone craniectomy. A flexible application of these procedures to change the gravitational effect and the atmospheric pressure gradient effect should promote a favorable outcome. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Synchronous Surface Pressure and Velocity Measurements of standard model in hypersonic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments in the Hypersonic Wind tunnel of NUAA(NHW present synchronous measurements of bow shockwave and surface pressure of a standard blunt rotary model (AGARD HB-2, which was carried out in order to measure the Mach-5-flow above a blunt body by PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry as well as unsteady pressure around the rotary body. Titanium dioxide (Al2O3 Nano particles were seeded into the flow by a tailor-made container. With meticulous care designed optical path, the laser was guided into the vacuum experimental section. The transient pressure was obtained around model by using fast-responding pressure-sensitive paint (PSPsprayed on the model. All the experimental facilities were controlled by Series Pulse Generator to ensure that the data was time related. The PIV measurements of velocities in front of the detached bow shock agreed very well with the calculated value, with less than 3% difference compared to Pitot-pressure recordings. The velocity gradient contour described in accord with the detached bow shock that showed on schlieren. The PSP results presented good agreement with the reference data from previous studies. Our work involving studies of synchronous shock-wave and pressure measurements proved to be encouraging.

  20. The structure of a three-dimensional boundary layer subjected to streamwise-varying spanwise-homogeneous pressure gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentaleb, Y.; Leschziner, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We study a spatially-evolving three-dimensional boundary layer. • We impose a streamwise-varying spanwise-homogeneous pressure gradient. • A collateral flow is formed close to the wall, and this is investigated alongside the skewed upper part of the boundary layer. • A wide range of flow-physical properties have been studied. -- Abstract: A spatially-evolving three-dimensional boundary layer, subjected to a streamwise-varying spanwise-homogeneous pressure gradient, equivalent to a body force, is investigated by way of direct numerical simulation. The pressure gradient, prescribed to change its sign half-way along the boundary layer, provokes strong skewing of the velocity vector, with a layer of nearly collateral flow forming close to the wall up to the position of maximum spanwise velocity. A wide range of flow-physical properties have been studied, with particular emphasis on the near-wall layer, including second-moments, major budget contributions and wall-normal two-point correlations of velocity fluctuations and their angles, relative to wall-shear fluctuations. The results illustrate the complexity caused by skewing, including a damping in turbulent mixing and a significant lag between strains and stresses. The study has been undertaken in the context of efforts to develop and test novel hybrid LES–RANS schemes for non-equilibrium near-wall flows, with an emphasis on three-dimensional near-wall straining. Fundamental flow-physical issues aside, the data derived should be of particular relevance to a priori studies of second-moment RANS closure and the development and validation of RANS-type near-wall approximations implemented in LES schemes for high-Reynolds-number complex flows

  1. Ultrasound enhanced plasma surface modification at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Norrman, Kion

    irradiation, the water contact angle dropped markedly, and tended to decrease furthermore at higher power. The ultrasonic irradiation during the plasma treatment consistently improved the wettability. Oxygen containing polar functional groups were introduced at the surface by the plasma treatment......Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can be highly enhanced by simultaneous high-power ultrasonic irradiation onto the treating surface. It is because ultrasonic waves with a sound pressure level (SPL) above approximately 140 dB can reduce the thickness of a boundary gas layer between the plasma...... are separated using a polyethylene film. The gliding arc was extended by a high speed air flow into ambient air, directed the polyester surface at an angle of approximately 30o. The ultrasonic waves were introduced vertically to the surface. After the plasma treatment using each plasma source without ultrasonic...

  2. Reynolds stress structures in a self-similar adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer at the verge of separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C.; Sekimoto, A.; Jiménez, J.; Soria, J.

    2018-04-01

    Mean Reynolds stress profiles and instantaneous Reynolds stress structures are investigated in a self-similar adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer (APG-TBL) at the verge of separation using data from direct numerical simulations. The use of a self-similar APG-TBL provides a flow domain in which the flow gradually approaches a constant non-dimensional pressure gradient, resulting in a flow in which the relative contribution of each term in the governing equations is independent of streamwise position over a domain larger than two boundary layer thickness. This allows the flow structures to undergo a development that is less dependent on the upstream flow history when compared to more rapidly decelerated boundary layers. This APG-TBL maintains an almost constant shape factor of H = 2.3 to 2.35 over a momentum thickness based Reynolds number range of Re δ 2 = 8420 to 12400. In the APG-TBL the production of turbulent kinetic energy is still mostly due to the correlation of streamwise and wall-normal fluctuations, 〈uv〉, however the contribution form the other components of the Reynolds stress tensor are no longer negligible. Statistical properties associated with the scale and location of sweeps and ejections in this APG-TBL are compared with those of a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer developing from the same inlet profile, resulting in momentum thickness based range of Re δ 2 = 3400 to 3770. In the APG-TBL the peak in both the mean Reynolds stress and the production of turbulent kinetic energy move from the near wall region out to a point consistent with the displacement thickness height. This is associated with a narrower distribution of the Reynolds stress and a 1.6 times higher relative number of wall-detached negative uv structures. These structures occupy 5 times less of the boundary layer volume and show a similar reduction in their streamwise extent with respect to the boundary layer thickness. A significantly lower percentage

  3. Surface Approximation using Growing Self-Organizing Nets and Gradient Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rivera-Rovelo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show how to improve the performance of two self-organizing neural networks used to approximate the shape of a 2D or 3D object by incorporating gradient information in the adaptation stage. The methods are based on the growing versions of the Kohonen's map and the neural gas network. Also, we show that in the adaptation stage the network utilizes efficient transformations, expressed as versors in the conformal geometric algebra framework, which build the shape of the object independent of its position in space (coordinate free. Our algorithms were tested with several images, including medical images (CT and MR images. We include also some examples for the case of 3D surface estimation.

  4. Surface modification and its role in the preparation of FeSi gradient alloys with good magnetic property and ductility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyuan; Bi, Xiaofang

    2018-04-01

    Realization of the effective Si penetration at a lower processing temperature is a challenge, but of significance in reducing the strict requirements for the equipment and realizing cost-cutting in production. In this work, we have modified the surface microstructure of Fe-3 wt%Si alloy by using surface mechanical attrition treatment. The modified surface microstructure is characteristic of nanocrystalline, which is found to significantly enhance the efficiency of subsequent Si penetration into the alloy, and successively leading to the decrease of penetration temperature up to 200 °C. As a consequence, the Si gradient distribution across thickness can be readily controlled by changing penetration time, and FeSi alloys with various gradients are prepared by chemical vapor deposition along with subsequent annealing process. The dependence of magnetic and mechanical properties on Si gradient for demonstrates that the increase of Si gradient reduces core losses, especially at higher frequencies, and meanwhile improves ductility of FeSi alloys as well. The mechanism underlying the effect of Si gradient is clarified by combining magnetostriction measurement and domain structure observations. This work provides a facile and effective way for achieving gradient FeSi alloys with good magnetic property and ductility.

  5. Role of west Asian surface pressure in summer monsoon onset over central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arindam; Agrawal, Shubhi

    2017-07-01

    Using rain-gauge measurements and reanalysis data sets for 1948-2015, we propose a mechanism that controls the interannual variation of summer monsoon onset over central India. In May, about a month before the onset, the low level jet over the Arabian Sea is about 40% stronger and about 2.5 degrees northward during years of early onset as compared to years of late onset. A stronger and northward shifted low level jet carries about 50% more moisture in early onset years, which increases low level moist static energy over central India in the pre-monsoon season. The increase in low level moist static energy decreases the stability of the atmosphere and makes it conducive for convection. The strength and position of the low level jet are determined by surface pressure gradient between western Asia and the west-equatorial Indian Ocean. Thus, an anomalous surface pressure low over western Asia in the pre-monsoon season increases this gradient and strengthens the jet. Moreover, a stronger low level jet increases the meridional shear of zonal wind and supports the formation of an onset vortex in a stronger baroclinic atmosphere. These developments are favourable for an early onset of the monsoon over the central Indian region. Our study postulates a new physical mechanism for the interannual variation of onset over central India, the core of the Indian monsoon region and relevant to Indian agriculture, and could be tested for real-time prediction.

  6. Variability of water content useful in surface along a rainfall gradient Mediterranean; Variabilidad de la disposibilidad hidrica superficial para la vegetacion a lo largo de un gradiente pluviometrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Sinoga, J. D.; Martinez-Murillo, J. F.; Gabarron-Galeote, M. A.

    2009-07-01

    A climatic gradient was defined in South of spain with a great decreased of rainfall from West to East (>1,000 mm), which produces changes in vegetation and hydric resources. this study was carried out in five hill slopes under different climatic conditions and their aims were to analyze: the variability of available water along the gradient since 2002 to 2006, the key factors of it and the influence on the vegetal cover. Results showed that clay content had a great influence in the surface available water for plants, which did not decrease in the deerfield sites, where the amount of days with hydric deficient was lower. Relationships between vegetation and soil water were stronger in the more humid field sites, where existed a feedback between both properties. (Author) 4 refs.

  7. Are pressure redistribution surfaces or heel protection devices effective for preventing heel pressure ulcers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkin, Joan; Gray, Mikel

    2009-01-01

    Heel pressure ulcers are recognized as second in prevalence only to pressure ulcer (PU) on the heel among hospitalized patients, and recent studies suggest their incidence may be higher than even sacral ulcers. We systematically reviewed the literature to identify and evaluate whether pressure redistribution surfaces or heel protection devices are effective for the prevention of heel ulcers. We searched CINAHL and MEDLINE databases, using the keywords "pressure ulcer" and "heel," which we also searched the Cochrane Library, using the key terms "pressure ulcer," "heel," and "support surface." We hand searched the ancestry of pertinent research reports and review articles in order to identify additional studies. Inclusion criteria were (1) any study that compared one or more pressure redistribution surfaces or heel protection devices designed specifically to prevent heel PU and (2) any study comparing 2 or more pressure redistribution surfaces designed to prevent PU that specifically reported differences in the incidence of heel PU. Exclusion criteria were (1) studies that did not measure heel PU incidence as an outcome, (2) studies without an English language abstract, and (3) studies that reported overall PU incidence but did not analyze heel PU incidence separately. Clinical evidence concerning the efficacy of pressure redistribution surfaces or heel protection devices is sparse. Existing evidence suggests that pressure redistribution surfaces vary in their ability to prevent heel pressure ulcers, but there is insufficient evidence to determine which surfaces are optimal for this purpose. A single study suggests that a wedge-shaped viscoelastic foam cushion is superior to standard foam pillows for preventing heel PU, but further research is needed before a definitive conclusion concerning this issue can be reached. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether heel protection devices are more effective than a standard hospital foam pillow for the prevention

  8. Evapotranspiration and surface energy balance across an agricultural-urban landscape gradient in Southern California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiflett, S. A.; Anderson, R. G.; Jenerette, D.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization substantially affects energy, surface and air temperature, and hydrology due to extensive modifications in land surface properties such as vegetation, albedo, thermal capacity and soil moisture. The magnitude and direction of these alterations depends heavily on the type of urbanization that occurs. We investigated energy balance variation in a local network of agricultural and urban ecosystems using the eddy covariance method to better understand how vegetation fraction and degree of urbanization affects energy exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere. We deployed eddy flux systems within a well-irrigated, agricultural citrus orchard, a moderately developed urban zone with a substantial amount of local vegetative cover, and an intensely developed urban zone with minimal vegetative cover and increased impervious surfaces relative to the other two sites. Latent energy (LE) fluxes in the agricultural area ranged from 7.9 ± 1.4 W m-2 (nighttime) to 168.7 ± 6.2 W m-2 (daytime) compared to 10.2 ± 3.5 W m-2 and 40.6 ± 4.1 W m-2, respectively, for the moderately developed urban area. Sensible energy (H) fluxes ranged from -9.1 ± 1.0 W m-2 (nighttime) to 119 ± 7.0 W m-2 (daytime) in the agricultural area compared to 9.6 ± 2.6 W m-2 and 134 ± 6.0 W m-2, respectively, for the moderately developed urban zone. Daytime LE is reduced with increasing urbanization; however, daily cycles of LE are less recognizable in urban areas compared to distinct daily cycles obtained above a mature citrus crop. In contrast, both daytime and nighttime H increases with increasing degree of urbanization. Reduction in vegetation and increases in impervious surfaces along an urbanization gradient leads to alterations in energy balance, which are associated with microclimate and water use changes.

  9. Ultrasound enhanced plasma surface modification at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Norrman, Kion

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can be highly enhanced by simultaneous high power ultrasonic irradiation onto the treating surface. It is because ultrasonic waves with a sound pressure level (SPL) above ∼140 dB can reduce the thickness of a boundary gas layer between the plasma...... arc at atmospheric pressure to study adhesion improvement. The effect of ultrasonic irradiation with the frequency diapason between 20 and 40 kHz at the SPL of ∼150 dB was investigated. After the plasma treatment without ultrasonic irradiation, the wettability was significantly improved....... The ultrasonic irradiation during the plasma treatment consistently enhanced the treatment efficiency. The principal effect of ultrasonic irradiation can be attributed to enhancing surface oxidation during plasma treatment. In addition, ultrasonic irradiation can suppress arcing, and the uniformity...

  10. Social class-related gradient in the association of skeletal growth with blood pressure among adolescent boys in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shobha; Apte, Priti

    2009-12-01

    In view of the fact that height differences between socio-economic groups are apparent early in childhood, it is of interest to examine whether skeletal growth is reflective of the social class gradient in CVD risk. The present study examined blood pressure levels, adiposity and growth of adolescent boys from high and low social classes. In a cross-sectional study, skeletal growth (height and sitting height), adiposity (weight, BMI and body fat) and blood pressure levels of the adolescents were measured. Pune, India. Adolescent schoolboys (9-16 years) from high socio-economic (HSE; n 1146) and low socio-economic (LSE; n 932) class. LSE boys were thin, short and undernourished (mean BMI: 15.5 kg/m2 v. 19.3 kg/m2 in HSE boys, P = 0.00). Social gradient was revealed in differing health risks. The prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (HSBP) was high in HSE class (10.5 % v. 2.7 % in LSE class, P = 0.00) and was associated with adiposity, while the prevalence of high diastolic blood pressure (HDBP) was high in LSE class (9.8 % v. 7.0 % in HSE class, P = 0.00) and had only a weak association with adiposity. Despite this, lower ratio of leg length to height was associated with significantly higher respective health risks, i.e. for HDBP in LSE class (OR = 1.99, 95 % CI 1.14, 3.47) and for HSBP in HSE class (OR = 1.69, 95 % CI 1.02, 2.77). As stunting in childhood is a major problem in India and Asia, the leg length to height indicator needs to be validated in different populations to understand CVD risks.

  11. Analytic study on low- external ideal infernal modes in tokamaks with large edge pressure gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Daniele; Graves, J. P.; Lazzaro, E.; Mariani, A.; Nowak, S.; Cooper, W. A.; Wahlberg, C.

    2018-04-01

    The problem of pressure driven infernal type perturbations near the plasma edge is addressed analytically for a circular limited tokamak configuration which presents an edge flattened safety factor. The plasma is separated from a metallic wall, either ideally conducting or resistive, by a vacuum region. The dispersion relation for such types of instabilities is derived and discussed for two classes of equilibrium profiles for pressure and mass density.

  12. Drop impact on a solid surface at reduced air pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Kenneth; Li, E. Q.; Tian, Y. S.; Hicks, P. D.; Thoroddsen, S. T.

    2017-11-01

    When a drop approaches a solid surface at atmospheric pressure, the lubrication pressure within the air forms a dimple in the bottom of the drop resulting in the entrainment of an air disc upon impact. Reducing the ambient air pressure below atmospheric has been shown to suppress splashing and the compression of the intervening air could be significant on the air disc formation; however, to date there have been no experimental studies showing how the entrainment of the air disc is affected by reducing the ambient pressure. Using ultra-high-speed interferometry, at up to 5 Mfps, we investigate droplet impacts onto dry solid surfaces in reduced ambient air pressures with particular interest in what happens as rarified gas effects become important, i.e. when the thickness of the air layer is of the same magnitude as the mean free path of the air molecules. Experimental data will be presented showing novel phenomena and comparisons will be drawn with theoretical models from the literature.

  13. Variable but persistent coexistence of Prochlorococcus ecotypes along temperature gradients in the ocean's surface mixed layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Jeremy W; Lin, Yajuan; Gainer, P Jackson; Post, Anton F; Johnson, Zackary I; Zinser, Erik R

    2016-04-01

    The vast majority of the phytoplankton communities in surface mixed layer of the oligotrophic ocean are numerically dominated by one of two ecotypes of Prochlorococcus, eMIT9312 or eMED4. In this study, we surveyed large latitudinal transects in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean to determine if these ecotypes discretely partition the surface mixed layer niche, or if populations exist as a continuum along key environmental gradients, particularly temperature. Transitions of dominance occurred at approximately 19-21°C, with the eMED4 ecotype dominating the colder, and eMIT9312 ecotype dominating the warmer regions. Within these zones of regional dominance, however, the minority ecotype was not competed to extinction. Rather, a robust log-linear relationship between ecotype ratio and temperature characterized this stabilized coexistence: for every 2.5°C increase in temperature, the eMIT9312:eMED4 ratio increased by an order of magnitude. This relationship was observed in both quantitative polymerase chain reaction and in pyrosequencing assays. Water column stratification also contributed to the ecotype ratio along the basin-scale transects, but to a lesser extent. Finally, instances where the ratio of the eMED4 and eMIT9312 abundances did not correlate well with temperature were identified. Such occurrences are likely due to changes in water temperatures outpacing changes in community structure. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Theory of activated glassy relaxation, mobility gradients, surface diffusion, and vitrification in free standing thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirigian, Stephen; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed a quantitative, force level, statistical mechanical theory for how confinement in free standing thin films introduces a spatial mobility gradient of the alpha relaxation time as a function of temperature, film thickness, and location in the film. The crucial idea is that relaxation speeds up due to the reduction of both near-surface barriers associated with the loss of neighbors in the local cage and the spatial cutoff and dynamical softening near the vapor interface of the spatially longer range collective elasticity cost for large amplitude hopping. These two effects are fundamentally coupled. Quantitative predictions are made for how an apparent glass temperature depends on the film thickness and experimental probe technique, the emergence of a two-step decay and mobile layers in time domain measurements, signatures of confinement in frequency-domain dielectric loss experiments, the dependence of film-averaged relaxation times and dynamic fragility on temperature and film thickness, surface diffusion, and the relationship between kinetic experiments and pseudo-thermodynamic measurements such as ellipsometry

  15. Theory of activated glassy relaxation, mobility gradients, surface diffusion, and vitrification in free standing thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirigian, Stephen, E-mail: kschweiz@illinois.edu, E-mail: smirigian@gmail.com; Schweizer, Kenneth S., E-mail: kschweiz@illinois.edu, E-mail: smirigian@gmail.com [Departments of Materials Science and Chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    We have constructed a quantitative, force level, statistical mechanical theory for how confinement in free standing thin films introduces a spatial mobility gradient of the alpha relaxation time as a function of temperature, film thickness, and location in the film. The crucial idea is that relaxation speeds up due to the reduction of both near-surface barriers associated with the loss of neighbors in the local cage and the spatial cutoff and dynamical softening near the vapor interface of the spatially longer range collective elasticity cost for large amplitude hopping. These two effects are fundamentally coupled. Quantitative predictions are made for how an apparent glass temperature depends on the film thickness and experimental probe technique, the emergence of a two-step decay and mobile layers in time domain measurements, signatures of confinement in frequency-domain dielectric loss experiments, the dependence of film-averaged relaxation times and dynamic fragility on temperature and film thickness, surface diffusion, and the relationship between kinetic experiments and pseudo-thermodynamic measurements such as ellipsometry.

  16. Multifactor analysis and simulation of the surface runoff and soil infiltration at different slope gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Kang, Q.; Yang, J. X.; Jin, P. W.

    2017-08-01

    The surface runoff and soil infiltration exert significant influence on soil erosion. The effects of slope gradient/length (SG/SL), individual rainfall amount/intensity (IRA/IRI), vegetation cover (VC) and antecedent soil moisture (ASM) on the runoff depth (RD) and soil infiltration (INF) were evaluated in a series of natural rainfall experiments in the South of China. RD is found to correlate positively with IRA, IRI, and ASM factors and negatively with SG and VC. RD decreased followed by its increase with SG and ASM, it increased with a further decrease with SL, exhibited a linear growth with IRA and IRI, and exponential drop with VC. Meanwhile, INF exhibits a positive correlation with SL, IRA and IRI and VC, and a negative one with SG and ASM. INF was going up and then down with SG, linearly rising with SL, IRA and IRI, increasing by a logit function with VC, and linearly falling with ASM. The VC level above 60% can effectively lower the surface runoff and significantly enhance soil infiltration. Two RD and INF prediction models, accounting for the above six factors, were constructed using the multiple nonlinear regression method. The verification of those models disclosed a high Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient and low root-mean-square error, demonstrating good predictability of both models.

  17. Combined effect of salt concentration and pressure gradients across charged membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benavente, Juana; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2002-01-01

    to correlate the behaviour of the BP membrane with that corresponding to each sublayer, the same kind of measurements was carried out for both opposite external conditions, this means, applying the pressure on the cation exchanger (CABM) or on the anion exchanger membrane (ACBM), respectively. From values......The combined effect of both concentration and pressure differences on electrical potential (Deltaphi) for two ion-exchanger membranes, one positively charged (AE) and another negatively charged (CE), measured with the membranes in contact with NaCl solutions was studied. Results show a linear...... obtained at DeltaP = 0, the counter-ion transport number in each ion-exchange membrane was obtained and the contribution of membrane potential on Deltaphi values can be evaluated. Results show clear differences on both the membrane potential and the effect of pressure in the bipolar membrane depending...

  18. Thermal studies of a high gradient quadrupole magnet cooled with pressurized, stagnant superfluid

    CERN Document Server

    Chiesa, L; Kerby, J S; Lamm, M J; Novitski, I; Orris, D; Ozelis, J P; Peterson, Thomas J; Tartaglia, M; Zlobin, A V

    2001-01-01

    A 2-m long superconducting model of an LHC Interaction Region quadrupole magnet was wound with stabrite coated cable. The resulting low interstrand resistance and high AC losses presented the opportunity to measure magnet quench performance in superfluid as a function of helium temperature and heat deposition in the coil. Our motivation was to duplicate the high radiation heat loads predicted for the inner triplet quadrupoles at LHC and study the coil cooling conditions in the magnet. At the Magnet Test Facility in Fermilab's Technical Division, the magnet quench performance was tested as a function of bulk helium temperature and current ramp rate near the planned high luminosity interaction region field gradient of 205 T/m. AC loss measurements provided a correlation between current ramp rate and heat deposition in the coil. Analysis indicates that the results are consistent with there being little participation of superfluid helium in the small channels inside the inner layer in the heat removal from the co...

  19. Salinity-gradient power: Evaluation of pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.W.; Veerman, J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Euverink, G.J.W.; Metz, S.J.; Nymeijer, K.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2007-01-01

    A huge potential to obtain clean energy exists from mixing water streams with different salt concentrations. Two membrane-based energy conversion techniques are evaluated: pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis. From the literature, a comparison is not possible since the reported

  20. Influence of pressure gradients and fracturing in oil field rocks on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formation of normal faults is common in deltaic over-pressured environments such as the Gulf Coast of Mexico and the Niger Delta. This has led to the formation of associated geological structures such as growth faults, roll-over anticilines and sealing faults (with shale smears), which are traps for hydrocarbon accumulation.

  1. Performance Limiting Effects in Power Generation from Salinity Gradients by Pressure Retarded Osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Ngai Yin

    2011-12-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis has the potential to utilize the free energy of mixing when fresh river water flows into the sea for clean and renewable power generation. Here, we present a systematic investigation of the performance limiting phenomena in pressure retarded osmosis-external concentration polarization, internal concentration polarization, and reverse draw salt flux-and offer insights on the design criteria of a high performance pressure retarded osmosis power generation system. Thin-film composite polyamide membranes were chemically modified to produce a range of membrane transport properties, and the water and salt permeabilities were characterized to determine the underlying permeability-selectivity trade-off relationship. We show that power density is constrained by the trade-off between permeability and selectivity of the membrane active layer. This behavior is attributed to the opposing influence of the beneficial effect of membrane water permeability and the detrimental impact of reverse salt flux coupled with internal concentration polarization. Our analysis reveals the intricate influence of active and support layer properties on power density and demonstrates that membrane performance is maximized by tailoring the water and salt permeabilities to the structural parameters. An analytical parameter that quantifies the relative influence of each performance limiting phenomena is employed to identify the dominant effect restricting productivity. External concentration polarization is shown to be the main factor limiting performance at high power densities. Enhancement of the hydrodynamic flow conditions in the membrane feed channel reduces external concentration polarization and thus, yields improved power density. However, doing so will also incur additional operating costs due to the accompanying hydraulic pressure loss. This study demonstrates that by thoughtful selection of the membrane properties and hydrodynamic conditions, the detrimental

  2. Vacuum surface flashover and high pressure gas streamers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizondo, J.M.; Krogh, M.L.; Smith, D.; Stolz, D.; Wright, S.N.

    1997-07-01

    Pre-breakdown current traces obtained during high pressure gas breakdown and vacuum surface flashover show similar signatures. The initial pre-breakdown current spike, a flat constant current phase, and the breakdown phase with voltage collapse and current surge differ mostly in magnitude. Given these similarities, a model, consisting of the initial current spike corresponding to a fast precursor streamer (ionization wave led by a photoionizing front), the flat current stage as the heating or glow phase, and the terminal avalanche and gap closure, is applied to vacuum surface flashover. A simple analytical approximation based on the resistivity changes induced in the vacuum and dielectric surface is presented. The approximation yields an excellent fit to pre-breakdown time delay vs applied field for previously published experimental data. A detailed kinetics model that includes surface and gas contributions is being developed based in the initial approximation

  3. Atmospheric pressure plasma surface modification of carbon fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Michelsen, Poul

    2008-01-01

    Carbon fibres are continuously treated with dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure in various gas conditions for adhesion improvement in mind. An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis indicated that oxygen is effectively introduced onto the carbon fibre surfaces by He, He....../O2 and Ar plasma treatments, mainly attributed to an increase in the density of the C-O single bond at the carbon fibre surfaces. The O/C ratio increased to 0.182 after 1-s He plasma treatment, and remained approximately constant after longer treatment. After exposure in an ambient air at room...

  4. The role of the meridional sea surface temperature gradient in controlling the Caribbean low-level jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Tito; Rutgersson, Anna; Caballero, Rodrigo; Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Alfaro, Eric; Amador, Jorge

    2017-06-01

    The Caribbean low-level jet (CLLJ) is an important modulator of regional climate, especially precipitation, in the Caribbean and Central America. Previous work has inferred, due to their semiannual cycle, an association between CLLJ strength and meridional sea surface temperature (SST) gradients in the Caribbean Sea, suggesting that the SST gradients may control the intensity and vertical shear of the CLLJ. In addition, both the horizontal and vertical structure of the jet have been related to topographic effects via interaction with the mountains in Northern South America (NSA), including funneling effects and changes in the meridional geopotential gradient. Here we test these hypotheses, using an atmospheric general circulation model to perform a set of sensitivity experiments to examine the impact of both SST gradients and topography on the CLLJ. In one sensitivity experiment, we remove the meridional SST gradient over the Caribbean Sea and in the other, we flatten the mountains over NSA. Our results show that the SST gradient and topography have little or no impact on the jet intensity, vertical, and horizontal wind shears, contrary to previous works. However, our findings do not discount a possible one-way coupling between the SST and the wind over the Caribbean Sea through friction force. We also examined an alternative approach based on barotropic instability to understand the CLLJ intensity, vertical, and horizontal wind shears. Our results show that the current hypothesis about the CLLJ must be reviewed in order to fully understand the atmospheric dynamics governing the Caribbean region.

  5. Controls on plant functional surface cover types along a precipitation gradient in the Negev Desert of Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, E.; Veldkamp, A.; Boeken, B.; Breemen, van N.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the controls on functional surface cover types in four catchments along a semi-arid to arid precipitation gradient in the northern Negev Desert of Israel. First, we selected four functional types, based on their unique water use and redistribution functionality: shrubs, Asphodelus

  6. Sea surface temperature control of taxon specific phytoplankton production along an oligotrophic gradient in the Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poll, W.H.V.; Boute, P.G.; Rozema, P.D.; Buma, A.; Kulk, G.; Rijkenberg, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to assess changes in phytoplankton composition and productivity along an oligotrophic gradient in relation to changes in sea surface temperature (SST). Phytoplankton pigments, nutrients, and physical water column properties were studied along a longitudinal transect in the

  7. Pressure-Redistributing Support Surface Use and Pressure Ulcer Incidence in Elderly Hip Fracture Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Shayna E.; Shardell, Michelle; Hawkes, William G.; Margolis, David J.; Amr, Sania; Miller, Ram; Baumgarten, Mona

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate the association between pressure-redistributing support surface (PRSS) use and incident pressure ulcers in older adults with hip fracture. DESIGN Secondary analysis of data from prospective cohort with assessments performed as soon as possible after hospital admission and on alternating days for 21 days. SETTING Nine hospitals in the Baltimore Hip Studies network and 105 postacute facilities to which participants were discharged. PARTICIPANTS Six hundred fifty-eight people aged 65 and older who underwent surgery for hip fracture. MEASUREMENTS Full-body examination for pressure ulcers; bedbound status; and PRSS use, recorded as none, powered (alternating pressure mattresses, low-air-loss mattresses, and alternating pressure overlays), or nonpowered (high-density foam, static air, or gel-filled mattresses or pressure-redistributing overlays except for alternating pressure overlays). RESULTS Incident pressure ulcers (IPUs), Stage 2 or higher, were observed at 4.2% (195/4,638) of visits after no PRSS use, 4.5% (28/623) of visits after powered PRSS use, and 3.6% (54/1,496) of visits after nonpowered PRSS use. The rate of IPU per person-day of follow-up did not differ significantly between participants using powered PRSSs and those not using PRSSs. The rate also did not differ significantly between participants using nonpowered PRSSs and those not using PRSSs, except in the subset of bedbound participants (incidence rate ratio = 0.3, 95% confidence interval = 0.1–0.7). CONCLUSION PRSS use was not associated with a lower IPU rate. Clinical guidelines may need revision for the limited effect of PRSS use, and it may be appropriate to target PRSS use to bedbound patients at risk of pressure ulcers. PMID:21649630

  8. Influence of natural organic matter fouling and osmotic backwash on pressure retarded osmosis energy production from natural salinity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-01-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) has the potential to produce clean, renewable energy from natural salinity gradients. However, membrane fouling can lead to diminished water flux productivity, thus reducing the extractable energy. This study investigates organic fouling and osmotic backwash cleaning in PRO and the resulting impact on projected power generation. Fabricated thin-film composite membranes were fouled with model river water containing natural organic matter. The water permeation carried foulants from the feed river water into the membrane porous support layer and caused severe water flux decline of ∼46%. Analysis of the water flux behavior revealed three phases in membrane support layer fouling. Initial foulants of the first fouling phase quickly adsorbed at the active-support layer interface and caused a significantly greater increase in hydraulic resistance than the subsequent second and third phase foulants. The water permeability of the fouled membranes was lowered by ∼39%, causing ∼26% decrease in projected power density. A brief, chemical-free osmotic backwash was demonstrated to be effective in removing foulants from the porous support layer, achieving ∼44% recovery in projected power density. The substantial performance recovery after cleaning was attributed to the partial restoration of the membrane water permeability. This study shows that membrane fouling detrimentally impacts energy production, and highlights the potential strategies to mitigate fouling in PRO power generation with natural salinity gradients.

  9. A three-colour graph as a complete topological invariant for gradient-like diffeomorphisms of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grines, V Z; Pochinka, O V; Kapkaeva, S Kh

    2014-01-01

    In a paper of Oshemkov and Sharko, three-colour graphs were used to make the topological equivalence of Morse-Smale flows on surfaces obtained by Peixoto more precise. In the present paper, in the language of three-colour graphs equipped with automorphisms, we obtain a complete (including realization) topological classification of gradient-like cascades on surfaces. Bibliography: 25 titles

  10. Helium atmospheric pressure plasma jets touching dielectric and metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Seth A.; Johnsen, Eric; Kushner, Mark J.

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are being investigated in the context plasma medicine and biotechnology applications, and surface functionalization. The composition of the surface being treated ranges from plastics, liquids, and biological tissue, to metals. The dielectric constant of these materials ranges from as low as 1.5 for plastics to near 80 for liquids, and essentially infinite for metals. The electrical properties of the surface are not independent variables as the permittivity of the material being treated has an effect on the dynamics of the incident APPJ. In this paper, results are discussed from a computational investigation of the interaction of an APPJ incident onto materials of varying permittivity, and their impact on the discharge dynamics of the plasma jet. The computer model used in this investigation solves Poisson's equation, transport equations for charged and neutral species, the electron energy equation, and the Navier-Stokes equations for the neutral gas flow. The APPJ is sustained in He/O2 = 99.8/0.2 flowing into humid air, and is directed onto dielectric surfaces in contact with ground with dielectric constants ranging from 2 to 80, and a grounded metal surface. Low values of relative permittivity encourage propagation of the electric field into the treated material and formation and propagation of a surface ionization wave. High values of relative permittivity promote the restrike of the ionization wave and the formation of a conduction channel between the plasma discharge and the treated surface. The distribution of space charge surrounding the APPJ is discussed.

  11. Population dynamics of two antilisterial cheese surface consortia revealed by temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasler Madlen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surface contamination of smear cheese by Listeria spp. is of major concern for the industry. Complex smear ecosystems have been shown to harbor antilisterial potential but the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in the inhibition mostly remain unclear, and are likely related to complex interactions than to production of single antimicrobial compounds. Bacterial biodiversity and population dynamics of complex smear ecosystems exhibiting antilisterial properties in situ were investigated by Temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE, a culture independent technique, for two microbial consortia isolated from commercial Raclette type cheeses inoculated with defined commercial ripening cultures (F or produced with an old-young smearing process (M. Results TTGE revealed nine bacterial species common to both F and M consortia, but consortium F exhibited a higher diversity than consortium M, with thirteen and ten species, respectively. Population dynamics were studied after application of the consortia on fresh-produced Raclette cheeses. TTGE analyses revealed a similar sequential development of the nine species common to both consortia. Beside common cheese surface bacteria (Staphylococcus equorum, Corynebacterium spp., Brevibacterium linens, Microbacterium gubbeenense, Agrococcus casei, the two consortia contained marine lactic acid bacteria (Alkalibacterium kapii, Marinilactibacillus psychrotolerans that developed early in ripening (day 14 to 20, shortly after the growth of staphylococci (day 7. A decrease of Listeria counts was observed on cheese surface inoculated at day 7 with 0.1-1 × 102 CFU cm-2, when cheeses were smeared with consortium F or M. Listeria counts went below the detection limit of the method between day 14 and 28 and no subsequent regrowth was detected over 60 to 80 ripening days. In contrast, Listeria grew to high counts (105 CFU cm-2 on cheeses smeared with a defined surface culture

  12. Modeling Study: Mechanism of Foam Propagation in Porous Media at Different Levels of Minimum Mobilization Pressure Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, M.; Kam, S.

    2017-12-01

    Scope: Numerous laboratory and field tests revealed that foam can effectively control gas mobility and improve sweep efficiency in enhanced-oil-recovery and subsurface-remediation processes, if correctly designed. The objective of this study is to answer (i) how mechanistic foam model parameters can be determined by fitting lab experiments in a step-by-step manner; (ii) how different levels of mobilization pressure gradient for foam generation affects the fundamentals of foam propagation; and (iii) how foam propagation distance can be estimated in the subsurface. This study for the first time shows why, and by how much, supercritical CO2 foams are advantaged over other types of foams such as N2 foam. Methods: First of all, by borrowing experimental data existing in the literature, this study shows how to capture mechanistic foam model parameters. The model, then, is applied to a wide range of mobilization pressure gradient to represent different types of foams that have been applied in the field (Note that supercritical CO2 foams exhibit much lower mobilization pressure compared to other types of foams (N2, steam, air, etc.). Finally, the model and parameters are used to evaluate different types of foam injection scenarios in order to predict how far foams can propagate with what properties in the field condition. Results and Conclusions: The results show that (i) the presence of three different foam states (strong, weak, intermediate) as well as two different strong-foam flow regimes (high-quality and low-quality regimes) plays a key role in model fit and field-scale propagation prediction and (ii) the importance of complex non-Newtonian foam rheology should not be underestimated. More specifically, this study finds that (i) supercritical CO2 foams can propagate a few hundreds of feet easily, which is a few orders of magnitude higher than other foams such as N2 foams; (ii) for dry foams (or, strong foams in the high-quality regime), the higher gas fractions the

  13. Sildenafil does not influence hepatic venous pressure gradient in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmesen, J.O.; Giraldi, A.; Ott, P.

    2008-01-01

    consent. Measurement of splanchnic blood flow and the HVPG during liver vein catheterization were done before and 80 min after oral administration of 50 mg sildenafil. Blood flow was estimated by use of indocyanine green clearance technique and Fick's principle, with correction for non-steady state....... RESULTS: The plasma concentration of sildenafil was 222 +/- 136 ng/mL 80 min after administration. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased from 77 +/- 7 mmHg to 66 +/- 12 mmHg, P = 0.003, while the splanchnic blood flow and oxygen consumption remained unchanged at 1.14 +/- 0.71 L/min and 2.3 +/- 0.6 mmol....../min, respectively. Also the HVPG remained unchanged (18 +/- 2 mmHg vs 16 +/- 2 mmHg) with individual changes ranging from -8 mmHg to +2 mmHg. In seven patients, HVPG decreased and in three it increased. CONCLUSION: In spite of arterial blood pressure decreases 80 min after administration of the phosphodiesterase...

  14. Shock tunnel measurements of surface pressures in shock induced separated flow field using MEMS sensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriram, R; Jagadeesh, G; Ram, S N; Hegde, G M; Nayak, M M

    2015-01-01

    Characterized not just by high Mach numbers, but also high flow total enthalpies—often accompanied by dissociation and ionization of flowing gas itself—the experimental simulation of hypersonic flows requires impulse facilities like shock tunnels. However, shock tunnel simulation imposes challenges and restrictions on the flow diagnostics, not just because of the possible extreme flow conditions, but also the short run times—typically around 1 ms. The development, calibration and application of fast response MEMS sensors for surface pressure measurements in IISc hypersonic shock tunnel HST-2, with a typical test time of 600 μs, for the complex flow field of strong (impinging) shock boundary layer interaction with separation close to the leading edge, is delineated in this paper. For Mach numbers 5.96 (total enthalpy 1.3 MJ kg −1 ) and 8.67 (total enthalpy 1.6 MJ kg −1 ), surface pressures ranging from around 200 Pa to 50 000 Pa, in various regions of the flow field, are measured using the MEMS sensors. The measurements are found to compare well with the measurements using commercial sensors. It was possible to resolve important regions of the flow field involving significant spatial gradients of pressure, with a resolution of 5 data points within 12 mm in each MEMS array, which cannot be achieved with the other commercial sensors. In particular, MEMS sensors enabled the measurement of separation pressure (at Mach 8.67) near the leading edge and the sharply varying pressure in the reattachment zone. (paper)

  15. Quantifying predation pressure along an urbanisation gradient in Denmark using artificial caterpillars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrante, Marco; Lo Cacciato, Alessandro; Lövei, Gabor L

    2014-01-01

    Urbanisation results in a marked modification of habitats and influences several ecological processes, some of which give rise to beneficial ecological services. Natural pest control, the effect of predators on prey is one of such services. We quantified changes in the incidence of predation...... with increasing levels of urbanisation using artificial caterpillars made of green plasticine. Potential predators can be identified by the "attack marks" they leave on these artificial caterpillars. We conducted this study from May to October 2010 around the city of Sorø (Zealand, Denmark), in forests along...... of these to carabids, the most common group of ground-active arthropods. Chewing insects exerted the greatest predation pressure in the original forest (52.1%), with lower values recorded in the suburban (10.1%) and urban (16.4%) forest fragments. Ants were responsible for only 4.7% of the attacks in forest, 11...

  16. Blood pressure and socioeconomic status in low-income women in Mexico: a reverse gradient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, L C H; Adler, N E

    2008-05-01

    In the developed world, there is a well-established inverse association between socioeconomic status (SES) and blood pressure. In the developing world, however, these relationships are not as clear, particularly in middle-income countries undergoing epidemiological and nutritional transition. A house-to-house cross-sectional survey was conducted in low-income regions of rural Mexico in 2003. A sample of women (n = 9362) aged 18-65 years (mean 35.2, SD 10.4) was assessed. Measurements of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and body mass index (BMI) were obtained using standardised techniques and equipment. Interviews were conducted to collect information about SES, both objective (education, income, housing and assets, occupation) and subjective (perceived social status). Household income, housing and assets were positively and strongly associated with age-adjusted SBP; the associations were attenuated somewhat with the inclusion of BMI. SBP was also positively associated with perceived social status within one's community. In contrast, age and BMI-adjusted SBP was negatively associated with educational achievement. There was a significant education by BMI interaction; at equivalent values for BMI, women who had received at least some secondary education had lower SBP than those who had received less education. In contrast to traditional assumptions about the associations between SES and health, women in low-income rural populations who are at the upper end of the income spectrum within their community were found to be more likely to have higher SBP, as were those who perceived that they had higher status in the community. These results challenge standard assumptions about the association of SES and health.

  17. Construction of wettability gradient surface on copper substrate by controlled hydrolysis of poly(methyl methacrylate–butyl acrylate) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yong, E-mail: Yong.Z@mail.scut.edu.cn [Guangzhou Panyu Polytechnic, Guangzhou 511483 (China); Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Zhuo-ru [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2014-10-01

    We report a gradient wettability surface on copper slide prepared by a simple controlled ester group hydrolysis procedure of poly(methyl methacrylate–butyl acrylate) [P (MMA-BA)] films coated on the copper substrate. In the method, sodium hydroxide solutions are selected to prepare surface gradient wettability on P (MMA-BA) films. The P (MMA-BA) copolymers with different MMA contents are first synthesized by a conventional free atom radical solution polymerization method. The transfer of surface chemical composition from the ester group to acid salt is achieved by hydrolysis in NaOH solution. The effects of different concentrations of NaOH solution and reaction times on the physicochemical properties of the resulting surfaces are studied. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that the varying concentration along the substrate length is only attributed to the hydrolysis reaction of ester groups. The hydrolysis causes insignificant change on the morphology of the original film on the copper substrate. In addition, it is found that the MMA copolymer content has a significant influence on the concentration of ester groups on the outermost surface and thus important for forming the slope gradients.

  18. Evaluation of the flux gradient technique for measurement of ozone surface fluxes over snowpack at Summit, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bocquet

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A multi-step procedure for investigating ozone surface fluxes over polar snow by the tower gradient method was developed and evaluated. These measurements were then used to obtain five months (April–August 2004 of turbulent ozone flux data at the Summit research camp located in the center of the Greenland ice shield. Turbulent fluxes were determined by the gradient method incorporating tower measurements of (a ozone gradients measured by commercial ultraviolet absorption analyzers, (b ambient temperature gradients using aspirated thermocouple sensors, and (c wind speed gradients determined by cup anemometers. All gradient instruments were regularly inter-compared by bringing sensors or inlets to the same measurement height. The developed protocol resulted in an uncertainty on the order of 0.1 ppbv for 30-min averaged ozone gradients that were used for the ozone flux calculations. This protocol facilitated a lower sensitivity threshold for the ozone flux determination of ∼8 × 10−3μg m−2 s−1, respectively ∼0.01 cm s−1 for the ozone deposition velocity for typical environmental conditions encountered at Summit. Uncertainty in the 30-min ozone exchange measurements (evaluated by the Monte Carlo statistical approach was on the order of 10−2 cm s−1. This uncertainty typically accounted to ~20–100% of the ozone exchange velocities that were determined. These measurements are among the most sensitive ozone deposition determinations reported to date. This flux experiment allowed for measurements of the relatively low ozone uptake rates encountered for polar snow, and thereby the study of their environmental and spring-versus-summer dependencies.

  19. Analysis of Transonic Shock Induced Separated Flow Including Normal Pressure Gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    denote the variables in the ElF: -6 1 %.... a (41-41 00y - Pu -Pj ui..,., (28) .. . p _u 0u *i Oa + ,1 au a: aP X Xi Ox oy ax ay Ox u(29) Re, [a (FY +E...Eq. (68) u,* and uA* denote the viscous and inviscid predictions, respectively, oY the .n4iscid velocity along the displacement surface. In the...accounting for the displacement interaction. The same problem has been also sol-ved by Kwon ad Pletcher(28 ), Cebeci and Schimke(29 ), and Vatsa and

  20. Estimating Surface Downward Shortwave Radiation over China Based on the Gradient Boosting Decision Tree Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Downward shortwave radiation (DSR is an essential parameter in the terrestrial radiation budget and a necessary input for models of land-surface processes. Although several radiation products using satellite observations have been released, coarse spatial resolution and low accuracy limited their application. It is important to develop robust and accurate retrieval methods with higher spatial resolution. Machine learning methods may be powerful candidates for estimating the DSR from remotely sensed data because of their ability to perform adaptive, nonlinear data fitting. In this study, the gradient boosting regression tree (GBRT was employed to retrieve DSR measurements with the ground observation data in China collected from the China Meteorological Administration (CMA Meteorological Information Center and the satellite observations from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR at a spatial resolution of 5 km. The validation results of the DSR estimates based on the GBRT method in China at a daily time scale for clear sky conditions show an R2 value of 0.82 and a root mean square error (RMSE value of 27.71 W·m−2 (38.38%. These values are 0.64 and 42.97 W·m−2 (34.57%, respectively, for cloudy sky conditions. The monthly DSR estimates were also evaluated using ground measurements. The monthly DSR estimates have an overall R2 value of 0.92 and an RMSE of 15.40 W·m−2 (12.93%. Comparison of the DSR estimates with the reanalyzed and retrieved DSR measurements from satellite observations showed that the estimated DSR is reasonably accurate but has a higher spatial resolution. Moreover, the proposed GBRT method has good scalability and is easy to apply to other parameter inversion problems by changing the parameters and training data.

  1. Vapor pressure deficit predicts epiphyte abundance across an elevational gradient in a tropical montane region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsch, Sybil G; Davidson, Kenneth; Murray, Jessica G; Duarte, Vanessa J; Draguljić, Danel

    2017-12-01

    Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMCFs) are important ecosystems to study and preserve because of their high biodiversity and critical roles in local and regional ecosystem processes. TMCFs may be particularly affected by changes in climate because of the narrow bands of microclimate they occupy and the vulnerability of TMCF species to projected increases in cloud base heights and drought. A comprehensive understanding of the structure and function of TMCFs is lacking and difficult to attain because of variation in topography within and across TMCF sites. This causes large differences in microclimate and forest structure at both large and small scales. In this study, we estimated the abundance of the entire epiphyte community in the canopy (bryophytes, herbaceous vascular plants, woody epiphytes, and canopy dead organic matter) in six sites. In each of the sites we installed a complete canopy weather station to link epiphyte abundance to a number of microclimatic parameters. We found significant differences in epiphyte abundance across the sites; epiphyte abundance increased with elevation and leaf wetness, but decreased as vapor pressure deficit (VPD) increased. Epiphyte abundance had the strongest relationship with VPD; there were differences in VPD that could not be explained by elevation alone. By measuring this proxy of canopy VPD, TMCF researchers will better understand differences in microclimate and plant community composition across TMCF sites. Incorporating such information in comparative studies will allow for more meaningful comparisons across TMCFs and will further conservation and management efforts in this ecosystem. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  2. [Measurements of surface ocean carbon dioxide partial pressure during WOCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the research progress of the second year of research under Measurement of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE'' and proposes to continue measurements of underway pCO[sub 2]. During most of the first year of this grant, our efforts to measure pCO[sub 2] on WOCE WHP legs were frustrated by ship problems. The R/V Knorr, which was originally scheduled to carry out the first work on WHP lines P19 and P16 in the southeastem Pacific during the 1990-91 austral summer, was delayed in the shipyard during her mid-life refit for more than a year. In the interim, the smaller R/V Thomas Washington, was pressed into service to carry out lower-latitude portions of WHP lines P16 and P17 during mid-1991 (TUNES Expedition). We installed and operated our underway chromatographic system on this expedition, even though space and manpower on this smaller vessel were limited and no one from our group would be aboard any of the 3 WHP expedition legs. The results for carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are shown. A map of the cruise track is shown for each leg, marked with cumulative distance. Following each track is a figure showing the carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide results as a function of distance along this track. The results are plotted as dry-gas mole fractions (in ppm and ppb, respectively) in air and in gas equilibrated with surface seawater at a total pressure equal to the barometric pressure. The air data are plotted as a 10-point running mean, and appear as a roughly horizontal line. The seawater data are plotted as individual points, using a 5-point Gaussian smoother. Equal values Of xCO[sub 2] in air and surface seawater indicate air-sea equilibrium.

  3. The dependence of lipid monolayer lipolysis on surface pressure.

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, D G

    1992-01-01

    Brönsted-Bjerrum theory [Brönsted (1922) Z. Phys. Chem. 102, 169-207; (1925) Z. Phys. Chem. 115, 337-364; Bjerrum (1924) Z. Phys. Chem. 108, 82-100] as applied to reactions at interfaces is used to interpret published data on the lipolysis of dinonanoyl phosphatidylcholine monolayers by pancreatic phospholipase A2. Reasonable quantitative agreement between theoretical and experimental results occurs when the reported effects of surface pressure on the amount of adsorbed enzyme are used togeth...

  4. Biological soil crust succession impact on soil moisture and temperature in the sub-surface along a rainfall gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaady, E.; Yizhaq, H.; Ashkenazy, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Biological soil crusts produce mucilage sheets of polysaccharides that cover the soil surface. This hydrophobic coating can seal the soil micro-pores and thus cause reduction of water permeability and may influence soil temperature. This study evaluates the impact of crust composition on sub-surface water and temperature over time. We hypothesized that the successional stages of biological soil crusts, affect soil moisture and temperature differently along a rainfall gradient throughout the year. Four experimental sites were established along a rainfall gradient in the western Negev Desert. At each site three treatments; crust removal, pure sand (moving dune) and natural crusted were monitored. Crust successional stage was measured by biophysiological and physical measurements, soil water permeability by field mini-Infiltrometer, soil moisture by neutron scattering probe and temperature by sensors, at different depths. Our main interim conclusions from the ongoing study along the rainfall gradient are: 1. the biogenic crust controls water infiltration into the soil in sand dunes, 2. infiltration was dependent on the composition of the biogenic crust. It was low for higher successional stage crusts composed of lichens and mosses and high with cyanobacterial crust. Thus, infiltration rate controlled by the crust is inverse to the rainfall gradient. Continuous disturbances to the crust increase infiltration rates, 3. despite the different rainfall amounts at the sites, soil moisture content below 50 cm is almost the same. We therefore predict that climate change in areas that are becoming dryer (desertification) will have a positive effect on soil water content and vice versa.

  5. The Effect of 200 MPa Pressure on Specific Surface Area of Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszela-Marek Ewa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of laboratory studies of the 200 MPa pressure effect on specific surface area of clay. The original high-pressure investigation stand was used for the pressure tests. Determination of the specific surface area was performed by the methylene blue adsorption method. The results of the specific surface area test were compared for non-pressurized clays and for clays pressured in a high-pressure chamber. It was found that the specific surface area of pressurized soil clearly increased. This shows that some microstructural changes take place in the soil skeleton of clays.

  6. Pressurized Rover for Moon and Mars Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Barbara; Ransom, Stephen; Mohanty, Susmita; Özdemir, Kürsad; Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Frischauf, Norbert; Hoheneder, Waltraut; Waclavicek, René

    The work described in this paper was done under ESA and Thales Alenia Space contract in the frame of the Analysis of Surface Architecture for European Space Exploration -Element Design. Future manned space missions to the Moon or to Mars will require a vehicle for transporting astronauts in a controlled and protected environment and in relative comfort during surface traverses of these planetary bodies. The vehicle that will be needed is a pressurized rover which serves the astronauts as a habitat, a refuge and a research laboratory/workshop. A number of basic issues influencing the design of such a rover, e.g. habitability, human-machine interfaces, safety, dust mitigation, interplanetary contamination and radiation protection, have been analysed in detail. The results of these analyses were subsequently used in an investigation of various designs for a rover suitable for surface exploration, from which a single concept was developed that satisfied scientific requirements as well as environmental requirements encoun-tered during surface exploration of the Moon and Mars. This concept was named in memory of the late Sir Arthur C. Clark RAMA (Rover for Advanced Mission Applications, Rover for Advanced Moon Applications, Rover for Advanced Mars Applications) The concept design of the pressurized rover meets the scientific and operational requirements defined during the course of the Surface Architecture Study. It is designed for surface missions with a crew of two or three lasting up to approximately 40 days, its source of energy, a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen fuel cell, allowing it to be driven and operated during the day as well as the night. Guidance, navigation and obstacle avoidance systems are foreseen as standard equipment to allow it to travel safely over rough terrain at all times of the day. The rover allows extra-vehicular activity and a remote manipulator is provided to recover surface samples, to deploy surface instruments and equipment and, in general

  7. Multiphase Transport in Porous Media: Gas-Liquid Separation Using Capillary Pressure Gradients International Space Station (ISS) Flight Experiment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Holtsnider, John T.; Dahl, Roger W.; Deeks, Dalton; Javanovic, Goran N.; Parker, James M.; Ehlert, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of multiphase flow characteristics under variable gravity conditions will ultimately lead to improved and as of yet unknown process designs for advanced space missions. Such novel processes will be of paramount importance to the success of future manned space exploration as we venture into our solar system and beyond. In addition, because of the ubiquitous nature and vital importance of biological and environmental processes involving airwater mixtures, knowledge gained about fundamental interactions and the governing properties of these mixtures will clearly benefit the quality of life here on our home planet. The techniques addressed in the current research involving multiphase transport in porous media and gas-liquid phase separation using capillary pressure gradients are also a logical candidate for a future International Space Station (ISS) flight experiment. Importantly, the novel and potentially very accurate Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) modeling of multiphase transport in porous media developed in this work offers significantly improved predictions of real world fluid physics phenomena, thereby promoting advanced process designs for both space and terrestrial applications.This 3-year research effort has culminated in the design and testing of a zero-g demonstration prototype. Both the hydrophilic (glass) and hydrophobic (Teflon) media Capillary Pressure Gradient (CPG) cartridges prepared during the second years work were evaluated. Results obtained from ground testing at 1-g were compared to those obtained at reduced gravities spanning Martian (13-g), Lunar (16-g) and zero-g. These comparisons clearly demonstrate the relative strength of the CPG phenomena and the efficacy of its application to meet NASAs unique gas-liquid separation (GLS) requirements in non-terrestrial environments.LB modeling software, developed concurrently with the zero-g test effort, was shown to accurately reproduce observed CPG driven gas-liquid separation

  8. Climatic gradients and human development pressure determine spatial patterns of forest fragmentation in the Great Lakes basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, W. S.; Hart, S.

    2015-12-01

    Over half of temperate forest area globally has been fragmented or deforested by human activities. Our objective was to gain insight into the combination of climatic, ecological, and social factors that control complex spatial patterns of forest cover and fragmentation at the regional scale. Our study area was the US portion of the land area of the Laurentian Great Lakes basin (USGL basin) of the Upper Midwest, USA, covering ca. 300,000 km2 and home to 25 million people. While this region was historically forested, today there are regional gradients in forest cover as well as complex spatial patterns of agriculture, human settlements, and tree cover. This includes large expanses of fragmented forests in the wildland-urban interface or the forest transition zone. We used structural equation modeling to test models of social and climatic-ecological factors to explain spatial patterns of forest cover and fragmentation. This is a model-driven approach to statistical analysis that is used to test proposed causal "structures" of direct and indirect relationships among variables. It is an innovative approach that makes use of large spatial datasets to test understanding. We assembled numerous spatial data layers at 1 km2 resolution across the USGL basin. We found that 64% to 75% of variance in tree cover and forest connectivity was explained through a relatively simple model combining climatic gradients and human development pressure. Human development pressure was best represented as a measurement model that explained 45% of variance in road density and 87% of housing unit density, while significantly explaining patterns of forest fragmentation. Climate could be represented by a single variable, temperature: where temperature was higher, tree cover and forest connectivity was lower due to human land use. Temperatures did not help to explain patterns of human development as roads and housing, but did affect forest fragmentation through land use as cropland. This suggests

  9. High-frequency pressure variations in the vicinity of a surface CO2 flux chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene S. Takle; James R. Brandle; R. A. Schmidt; Rick Garcia; Irina V. Litvina; William J. Massman; Xinhua Zhou; Geoffrey Doyle; Charles W. Rice

    2003-01-01

    We report measurements of 2Hz pressure fluctuations at and below the soil surface in the vicinity of a surface-based CO2 flux chamber. These measurements were part of a field experiment to examine the possible role of pressure pumping due to atmospheric pressure fluctuations on measurements of surface fluxes of CO2. Under the moderate wind speeds, warm temperatures,...

  10. The Impact of Reduced SST Gradients and MJO-like Tropical Variability on Surface Winds at Midlatitude Upwelling Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, N. P.; Tziperman, E.

    2012-12-01

    Sediment core data suggest that sea surface temperatures (SST) at present-day sites of wind-driven coastal upwelling were much warmer during the early Pliocene, and only cooled gradually over the last 3-4My. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the Pliocene warm anomalies, including a globally deeper thermocline and weaker upwelling-favorable winds, but it remains unclear if the SST anomalies reflect differences in upwelling intensity or in subsurface water properties. In this study we explore two factors which might affect the surface winds responsible for midlatitude upwelling: (1) differences in the large-scale SST distribution and their impact on the atmospheric general circulation, and (2) teleconnections from changes in tropical convective variability. We run the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model with a spectrum of meridional and zonal surface temperature gradients, ranging from a modern climatology to a low-gradient state reminiscent of the early Pliocene. A prescribed forcing is then added to the model to stimulate tropical convective variability based on the observed Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), which can impact midlatitude sites by exciting atmospheric Rossby waves. Quantitative metrics of along-shore wind stress at several midlatitude sediment core sites are presented as a function of the prescribed SST gradients and tropical forcing amplitude.

  11. Surface Modification of C17200 Copper-Beryllium Alloy by Plasma Nitriding of Cu-Ti Gradient Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y. D.; Yan, M. F.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, C. S.

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, a copper-titanium film of gradient composition was firstly fabricated by the dual magnetron sputtering through power control and plasma nitriding of the film was then conducted to modify C17200 Cu alloy. The results showed that the prepared gradient Cu-Ti film by magnetron sputtering was amorphous. After plasma nitriding at 650 °C, crystalline Cu-Ti intermetallics appeared in the multi-phase coating, including CuTi2, Cu3Ti, Cu3Ti2 and CuTi. Moreover, even though the plasma nitriding duration of the gradient Cu-Ti film was only 0.5 h, the mechanical properties of the modified Cu surface were obviously improved, with the surface hardness enhanced to be 417 HV0.01, the wear rate to be 0.32 × 10-14 m3/Nm and the friction coefficient to be 0.075 at the load of 10 N, which are all more excellent than the C17200 Cu alloy. In addition, the wear mechanism also changed from adhesion wear for C17200 Cu substrate to abrasive wear for the modified surface.

  12. Understanding the Hydromechanical Behavior of a Fault Zone From Transient Surface Tilt and Fluid Pressure Observations at Hourly Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuite, Jonathan; Longuevergne, Laurent; Bour, Olivier; Burbey, Thomas J.; Boudin, Frédérick; Lavenant, Nicolas; Davy, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Flow through reservoirs such as fractured media is powered by head gradients which also generate measurable poroelastic deformation of the rock body. The combined analysis of surface deformation and subsurface pressure provides valuable insights of a reservoir's structure and hydromechanical properties, which are of interest for deep-seated CO2 or nuclear waste storage for instance. Among all surveying tools, surface tiltmeters offer the possibility to grasp hydraulically induced deformations over a broad range of time scales with a remarkable precision. Here we investigate the information content of transient surface tilt generated by the pressurization a kilometer scale subvertical fault zone. Our approach involves the combination of field data and results of a fully coupled poromechanical model. The signature of pressure changes in the fault zone due to pumping cycles is clearly recognizable in field tilt data and we aim to explain the peculiar features that appear in (1) tilt time series alone from a set of four instruments and 2) the ratio of tilt over pressure. We evidence that the shape of tilt measurements on both sides of a fault zone is sensitive to its diffusivity and its elastic modulus. The ratio of tilt over pressure predominantly encompasses information about the system's dynamic behavior and extent of the fault zone and allows separating contributions of flow in the different compartments. Hence, tiltmeters are well suited to characterize hydromechanical processes associated with fault zone hydrogeology at short time scales, where spaceborne surveying methods fail to recognize any deformation signal.

  13. Pressure RElieving Support SUrfaces: a Randomised Evaluation 2 (PRESSURE 2): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Sarah; Smith, Isabelle L.; Brown, Julia M.; Hulme, Claire; McGinnis, Elizabeth; Stubbs, Nikki; Nelson, E. Andrea; Muir, Delia; Rutherford, Claudia; Walker, Kay; Henderson, Valerie; Wilson, Lyn; Gilberts, Rachael; Collier, Howard; Fernandez, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Pressure ulcers represent a major burden to patients, carers and the healthcare system, affecting approximately 1 in 17 hospital and 1 in 20 community patients. They impact greatly on an individual?s functional status and health-related quality of life. The mainstay of pressure ulcer prevention practice is the provision of pressure redistribution support surfaces and patient repositioning. The aim of the PRESSURE 2 study is to compare the two main mattress types utilised within the...

  14. Effects of flecainide on left ventricular pressure gradient and symptoms in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a comparison of flecainide and disopyramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruki, Shintaro; Minami, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Atsushi; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa

    2015-09-01

    It remains unclear whether flecainide, a Class I antiarrhythmic drug, improves left ventricular pressure gradient (LVPG) or symptoms in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Our study evaluated the long-term efficacy of flecainide, compared to disopyramide, when administered orally, on LVPG and symptoms in obstructive HCM patients. Among 164 obstructive HCM patients, 15 were administered oral flecainide therapy and 33 administered oral disopyramide therapy. LVPG declined from 79.8 ± 36.6 to 39.2 ± 36.7 mmHg (p = 0.003) after flecainide therapy and from 74.5 ± 26.4 to 31.4 ± 24.8 mmHg (p symptoms. Improvements in LVPG and symptoms were similar in patients treated with flecainide and patients treated with disopyramide, suggesting that flecainide is a potentially useful alternative for symptomatic obstructive HCM patients, particularly those with disopyramide-induced vagolytic side effects, narrow angle glaucoma, or prostatic hyperplasia and pre-existing urination difficulties. Our data must be viewed with caution, however, in view of the small number of study patients. Flecainide therapy will require further proof of safety before it can be routinely recommended in patients with symptomatic obstructive HCM.

  15. Dynamics of low to high (``L'' to ``H'') confinement bifurcation: Poloidal flow and ion pressure gradient evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, B. A.; Newman, D.; Diamond, P. H.; Liang, Y.-M.

    1994-12-01

    A self-consistent model of the low to high (``L'' to ``H'') transition is derived from coupled nonlinear envelope equations for the fluctuation level and radial electric field shear, Er', as determined by ion pressure gradient, ∇Pi, and poloidal flow. These equations extend the phase transition model of the L to H bifurcation by including ∇Pi effects. In this model, the transition occurs when the turbulence drive is large enough to overcome the damping of the total E×B flow. Near the critical power for transition, poloidal flow shear dominates Er', but at high power, ∇Pi gives the main contribution. The inclusion of ∇Pi also introduces a quenched fluctuation state that is accessible at high power and may be the experimentally observed H-mode state for P≫Pcrit. In this state, the radial electric field is determined only by ∇Pi because no fluctuation energy is available to produce a turbulent Reynolds stress.

  16. Important role of vertical migration of compressed gas, oil and water in formation of AVPD (abnormally high pressure gradient) zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikiyev, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    The principal role of vertical migration of compressed gases, gas-saturated petroleum and water during formation of abnormally high pressure gradients (AVPD) is confirmed by extensive factual data on gas production, grifons, blowouts and gushers that accompany drilling formations with AVPD from early history to the present time; the sources of vertical migration of compressed fluids, in accordance with geodynamic AVPD theory, are the deep degasified centers of the earth mantle. Among the various types of AVPD zones especially notable are the large (often massive or massive-layer) deposits and the intrusion aureoles that top them in the overlapping covering layers. Prediction of AVPD zones and determining their field and energy potential must be based on field-baric simulation of the formations being drilled in light of laws regarding the important role of the vertical migration of compressed fluids. When developing field-baric models, it is necessary to utilize the extensive and valuable data on grifons, gas production and blowouts that has been collected and categorized by drilling engineers and production geologists. To further develop data on field-baric conditions of the earth, it is necessary to collect and study signals of AVPD. First of all, there is a need to evaluate potential elastic resources of compressed fluids which can move from the bed into the well. Thus it is necessary to study and standardize intrusion aureoles and other AVPD zones within the aspect of fieldbaric modeling.

  17. [The temperature and temperature gradients distribution in the rabbit body thermophysical model with evaporation of moisture from its surface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiantsev, G V

    2004-04-01

    On created in laboratory heat-physical model of a rabbit body reflecting basic heat-physical parameters of the body such as: weight, size of a relative surface, heat absorption and heat conduction, heat capacity etc., a change of radial distribution of temperature and size was found across a superficial layer of evaporation of water from its surface, that simulates sweating, with various ratio of environmental temperature and capacity of electrical heater simulating heat production in animal. The experiments have shown that with evaporation of moisture from a surface of model in all investigated cases, there is an increase of superficial layer of body of a temperature gradient and simultaneous decrease of temperature of a model inside and on the surface. It seems that, with evaporation of a moisture from a surface of a body, the size of a temperature gradient in a thin superficial layer dependent in our experiments on capacity for heat production and environmental temperature, is increased and can be used in a live organism for definition of change in general heat content of the body with the purpose of maintenance of its thermal balance with environment.

  18. Highly efficient separation of surfactant stabilized water-in-oil emulsion based on surface energy gradient and flame retardancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mengying; Peng, Shan; Deng, Wanshun; Miao, Xinrui; Wen, Ni; Zhou, Qiannan; Deng, Wenli

    2018-06-15

    Surface energy gradient would generate an imbalance force to drive tiny water droplets in dry air from the hydrophilic bumps to superhydrophobic domains, which has found on the Stenocara beetle's back. Inspired by this phenomenon, we introduced a pristine superhydrophilic filter paper on the lower surface energy superhydrophobic filter paper. ZnSn(OH) 6 particles and polydimethylsiloxane were mixed to prepare the superhydrophobic coating, and the coating was spray-coated on the poly(dialkyldimethylammonium chloride) covered filter paper to separate the span 80 stabilized water-in-isooctane emulsion. A pristine filter paper was added on the superhydrophobic filter paper to fabricate another membrane for separation. The results revealed that with a pristine filter paper, the membrane performed higher efficiency and more recyclability, and it could separate the emulsions with higher surfactant concentrations. The stabilized water droplets passed the superamphiphilic surface, and hindered by the superhydrophobic surface, generating a surface energy gradient for better separation. In addition, the superhydrophobic membrane could be protected from fire to some degree due to the introduced ZnSn(OH) 6 particles with excellent flame retardancy. This easy and efficient approach via simply bringing in pristine superhydrophilic membrane has great potential applications for water-in-oil emulsion separation or oil purification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Measuring Global Surface Pressures on a Circulation Control Concept Using Pressure Sensitive Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Anthony N.; Lipford, William E.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Goodman, Kyle Z.; Goad, William K.

    2012-01-01

    This report will present the results obtained from the Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) technique on a circulation control concept model. This test was conducted at the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at the NASA Langley Research Center. PSP was collected on the upper wing surface while the facility was operating in cryogenic mode at 227 K (-50 oF). The test envelope for the PSP portion included Mach numbers from 0.7 to 0.8 with angle of attack varying between 0 and 8 degrees and a total pressure of approximately 168 kPa (24.4 psi), resulting in a chord Reynolds number of approximately 15 million. While the PSP results did exhibit high levels of noise in certain conditions (where the oxygen content of the flow was very small), some conditions provided good correlation between the PSP and pressure taps, showing the ability of the PSP technique. This work also served as a risk reduction opportunity for future testing in cryogenic conditions at the NTF.

  20. Surface wave propagation characteristics in atmospheric pressure plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pencheva, M; Benova, E; Zhelyazkov, I

    2007-01-01

    In the typical experiments of surface wave sustained plasma columns at atmospheric pressure the ratio of collision to wave frequency (ν/ω) is much greater than unity. Therefore, one might expect that the usual analysis of the wave dispersion relation, performed under the assumption ν/ω = 0, cannot give adequate description of the wave propagation characteristics. In order to study these characteristics we have analyzed the wave dispersion relationship for arbitrary ν/ω. Our analysis includes phase and wave dispersion curves, attenuation coefficient, and wave phase and group velocities. The numerical results show that a turning back point appears in the phase diagram, after which a region of backward wave propagation exists. The experimentally observed plasma column is only in a region where wave propagation coefficient is higher than the attenuation coefficient. At the plasma column end the electron density is much higher than that corresponding to the turning back point and the resonance

  1. Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges for sterilization and surface treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, O. H.; Lai, C. K.; Choo, C. Y.; Wong, C. S.; Nor, R. M. [Plasma Technology Research Centre, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Thong, K. L. [Microbiology Division, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Atmospheric pressure non-thermal dielectric barrier discharges can be generated in different configurations for different applications. For sterilization, a parallel-plate electrode configuration with glass dielectric that discharges in air was used. Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus) were successfully inactivated using sinusoidal high voltage of ∼15 kVp-p at 8.5 kHz. In the surface treatment, a hemisphere and disc electrode arrangement that allowed a plasma jet to be extruded under controlled nitrogen gas flow (at 9.2 kHz, 20 kVp-p) was applied to enhance the wettability of PET (Mylar) film.

  2. Evaluating road surface conditions using dynamic tire pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yubo; Wu, H. Felix; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Wang, Ming L.

    2014-03-01

    In order to best prioritize road maintenance, the level of deterioration must be known for all roads in a city's network. Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and International Roughness Index (IRI) are two standard methods for obtaining this information. However, IRI is substantially easier to measure. Significant time and money could be saved if a method were developed to estimate PCI from IRI. This research introduces a new method to estimate IRI and correlate IRI with PCI. A vehicle-mounted dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS) system is used. The DTPS measures the signals generated from the tire/road interaction while driving. The tire/road interaction excites surface waves that travel through the road. DTPS, which is mounted on the tire's valve stem, measures tire/road interaction by analyzing the pressure change inside the tire due to the road vibration, road geometry and tire wall vibration. The road conditions are sensible to sensors in a similar way to human beings in a car. When driving on a smooth road, tire pressure stays almost constant and there are minimal changes in the DTPS data. When driving on a rough road, DTPS data changes drastically. IRI is estimated from the reconstructed road profile using DTPS data. In order to correlate IRI with PCI, field tests were conducted on roads with known PCI values in the city of Brockton, MA. Results show a high correlation between the estimated IRI values and the known PCI values, which suggests that DTPS-based IRI can provide accurate predictions of PCI.

  3. Randomised, controlled trial of alternating pressure mattresses compared with alternating pressure overlays for the prevention of pressure ulcers: PRESSURE (pressure relieving support surfaces) trial

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare whether differences exist between alternating pressure overlays and alternating pressure mattresses in the development of new pressure ulcers, healing of existing pressure ulcers, and patient acceptability. Design Pragmatic, open, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Setting 11 hospitals in six NHS trusts. Participants 1972 people admitted to hospital as acute or elective patients. Interventions Participants were randomised to an alternating pressure mattress (n = 98...

  4. The orthogonal gradients method: A radial basis functions method for solving partial differential equations on arbitrary surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Piret, Cécile

    2012-05-01

    Much work has been done on reconstructing arbitrary surfaces using the radial basis function (RBF) method, but one can hardly find any work done on the use of RBFs to solve partial differential equations (PDEs) on arbitrary surfaces. In this paper, we investigate methods to solve PDEs on arbitrary stationary surfaces embedded in . R3 using the RBF method. We present three RBF-based methods that easily discretize surface differential operators. We take advantage of the meshfree character of RBFs, which give us a high accuracy and the flexibility to represent the most complex geometries in any dimension. Two out of the three methods, which we call the orthogonal gradients (OGr) methods are the result of our work and are hereby presented for the first time. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  5. Surface modification with a remote atmospheric pressure plasma: dc glow discharge and surface streamer regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temmerman, Eef; Akishev, Yuri; Trushkin, Nikolay; Leys, Christophe; Verschuren, Jo

    2005-01-01

    A remote atmospheric pressure discharge working with ambient air is used for the near room temperature treatment of polymer foils and textiles of varying thickness. The envisaged plasma effect is an increase in the surface energy of the treated material, leading, e.g., to a better wettability or adhesion. Changes in wettability are examined by measuring the contact angle or the liquid absorptive capacity. Two regimes of the remote atmospheric pressure discharge are investigated: the glow regime and the streamer regime. These regimes differ mainly in power density and in the details of the electrode design. The results show that this kind of discharge makes up a convenient non-thermal plasma source to be integrated into a treatment installation working at atmospheric pressure

  6. Sterilization of Surfaces with a Handheld Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Robert; Habib, Sara; Chan, Wai; Gonzalez, Eleazar; Tijerina, A.; Sloan, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Low temperature, atmospheric pressure plasmas have shown great promise for decontaminating the surfaces of materials and equipment. In this study, an atmospheric pressure, oxygen and argon plasma was investigated for the destruction of viruses, bacteria, and spores. The plasma was operated at an argon flow rate of 30 L/min, an oxygen flow rate of 20 mL/min, a power density of 101.0 W/cm^3 (beam area = 5.1 cm^2), and at a distance from the surface of 7.1 mm. An average 6log10 reduction of viable spores was obtained after only 45 seconds of exposure to the reactive gas. By contrast, it takes more than 35 minutes at 121^oC to sterilize anthrax in an autoclave. The plasma properties were investigated by numerical modeling and chemical titration with nitric oxide. The numerical model included a detailed reaction mechanism for the discharge as well as for the afterglow. It was predicted that at a delivered power density of 29.3 W/cm^3, 30 L/min argon, and 0.01 volume% O2, the plasma generated 1.9 x 10^14 cm-3 O atoms, 1.6 x 10^12 cm-3 ozone, 9.3 x 10^13 cm-3 O2(^1δg), and 2.9 x 10^12 cm-3 O2(^1σ^+g) at 1 cm downstream of the source. The O atom density measured by chemical titration with NO was 6.0 x 10^14 cm-3 at the same conditions. It is believe that the oxygen atoms and the O2(^1δg) metastables were responsible for killing the anthrax and other microorganisms.

  7. Pattern of pressure gradient alterations after venous sinus stenting for idiopathic intracranial hypertension predicts stent-adjacent stenosis: a proposed classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, Daniel; Buell, Thomas J; Ding, Dale; Chen, Ching-Jen; Starke, Robert M; Liu, Kenneth C

    2018-04-01

    Venous sinus stenting (VSS) is a safe and effective treatment for idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) with angiographic venous sinus stenosis. However, predictors of stent-adjacent stenosis (SAS) remain poorly defined. We performed a retrospective review of 47 patients with IIH and intracranial venous stenosis who underwent VSS with pre- and post-stent venography. Patient characteristics, treatments and outcomes were reviewed. Changes in pressure gradient after VSS were classified according to pattern of gradient resolution into types I-III. Type I gradient resolution, in which mean venous pressure (MVP) in the transverse sinus (TS) decreases towards MVP in the sigmoid sinus (SS), occurred in 18 patients (38.3%). Type II gradient resolution pattern, in which SS MVP increases towards that in the TS, occurred in 7patients (14.9%). Type III pattern, in which MVP equilibrates to a middle value, occurred in 22patients (46.8%). SAS occurred in 0%, 28.6%, and 22.7% of patients in types I, II and III, respectively. Compared with patients with type I gradient resolution, SAS was more common in those with type II (p=0.0181) and type III (p=0.0306) patterns. The pattern of change in the trans-stenosis venous pressure gradient may be predictive of SAS and is a useful tool for classifying the response of the venous obstruction to stenting. A type I pattern appears to represent the ideal response to VSS. Some patients with type II and III changes, particularly if they have other predictors of recurrent stenosis, may benefit from longer initial stent constructs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Characteristics of meter-scale surface electrical discharge propagating along water surface at atmospheric pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoffer, Petr; Sugiyama, Y.; Hosseini, S.H.R.; Akiyama, H.; Lukeš, Petr; Akiyama, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 41 (2016), č. článku 415202. ISSN 0022-3727 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : water surface * spectroscopy * high-speed photography * pulsed plasma discharge * Atmospheric-pressure plasmas * electric discharges * liquids * water Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0022-3727/49/41/415202

  9. Discordance gradient-surface dans le rétrécissement mitral: le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Il s'agit d'une étude transversale monocentrique incluant tous les patients admis au service de Cardiologie du CHU Ibn Rochd de Casablanca pour un RM serré ou très serré, sur une période d'une année (Janvier 2014 à Décembre 2014). Nous avons analysés séparément deux groupes de patients : ceux avec un gradient ...

  10. Temperature effects on surface pressure-induced changes in rat skin perfusion: implications in pressure ulcer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S; Knapp, C F; Donofrio, J C; Salcido, R

    1999-07-01

    The effect of varying local skin temperature on surface pressure-induced changes in skin perfusion and deformation was determined in hairless fuzzy rats (13.5+/-3 mo, 474+/-25 g). Skin surface pressure was applied by a computer-controlled plunger with corresponding skin deformation measured by a linear variable differential transformer while a laser Doppler flowmeter measured skin perfusion. In Protocol I, skin surface perfusion was measured without heating (control, T=28 degrees C), with heating (T=36 degrees C), for control (probe just touching skin, 3.7 mmHg), and at two different skin surface pressures, 18 mmHg and 73 mmHg. Heating caused perfusion to increase at control and 18 mmHg pressure, but not at 73 mmHg. In Protocol II, skin perfusion was measured with and without heating as in Protocol I, but this time skin surface pressure was increased from 3.7 to 62 mmHg in increments of 3.7 mmHg. For unheated skin, perfusion increased as skin surface pressure increased from 3.7 to 18 mmHg. Further increases in surface pressure caused a decrease in perfusion until zero perfusion was reached for pressures over 55 mmHg. Heating increased skin perfusion for surface pressures from 3.7 to 18 mmHg, but not for pressures greater than 18 mmHg. After the release of surface pressure, the reactive hyperemia peak of perfusion increased with heating. In Protocol III, where skin deformation (creep and relaxation) was measured during the application of 3.7 and 18 mmHg, heating caused the tissue to be stiffer, allowing less deformation. It was found that for surface pressures below 18 mmHg, increasing skin temperature significantly increased skin perfusion and tissue stiffness. The clinical significance of these findings may have relevance in evaluating temperature and pressure effects on skin blood flow and deformation as well as the efficacy of using temperature as a therapeutic modality in the treatment of pressure ulcers.

  11. Randomised, controlled trial of alternating pressure mattresses compared with alternating pressure overlays for the prevention of pressure ulcers: PRESSURE (pressure relieving support surfaces) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Jane; Cranny, Gillian; Iglesias, Cynthia; Nelson, E Andrea; Hawkins, Kim; Phillips, Angela; Torgerson, David; Mason, Su; Cullum, Nicky

    2006-06-17

    To compare whether differences exist between alternating pressure overlays and alternating pressure mattresses in the development of new pressure ulcers, healing of existing pressure ulcers, and patient acceptability. Pragmatic, open, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. 11 hospitals in six NHS trusts. 1972 people admitted to hospital as acute or elective patients. Participants were randomised to an alternating pressure mattress (n = 982) or an alternating pressure overlay (n = 990). The proportion of participants developing a new pressure ulcer of grade 2 or worse; time to development of new pressure ulcers; proportions of participants developing a new ulcer within 30 days; healing of existing pressure ulcers; and patient acceptability. Intention to treat analysis found no difference in the proportions of participants developing a new pressure ulcer of grade 2 or worse (10.7% overlay patients, 10.3% mattress patients; difference 0.4%, 95% confidence interval--2.3% to 3.1%, P = 0.75). More overlay patients requested change owing to dissatisfaction (23.3%) than mattress patients (18.9%, P = 0.02). No difference was found between alternating pressure mattresses and alternating pressure overlays in the proportion of people who develop a pressure ulcer. ISRCTN 78646179.

  12. Characterization of the startup transient electrokinetic flow in rectangular channels of arbitrary dimensions, zeta potential distribution, and time-varying pressure gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew; Villegas, Arturo; Diez, F Javier

    2015-03-01

    The solution to the startup transient EOF in an arbitrary rectangular microchannel is derived analytically and validated experimentally. This full 2D transient solution describes the evolution of the flow through five distinct periods until reaching a final steady state. The derived analytical velocity solution is validated experimentally for different channel sizes and aspect ratios under time-varying pressure gradients. The experiments used a time resolved micro particle image velocimetry technique to calculate the startup transient velocity profiles. The measurements captured the effect of time-varying pressure gradient fields derived in the analytical solutions. This is tested by using small reservoirs at both ends of the channel which allowed a time-varying pressure gradient to develop with a time scale on the order of the transient EOF. Results showed that under these common conditions, the effect of the pressure build up in the reservoirs on the temporal development of the transient startup EOF in the channels cannot be neglected. The measurements also captured the analytical predictions for channel walls made of different materials (i.e., zeta potentials). This was tested in channels that had three PDMS and one quartz wall, resulting in a flow with an asymmetric velocity profile due to variations in the zeta potential between the walls. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Response surface based optimization; gradient-enhanced kriging of a high-pressure turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, F.

    2014-01-01

    In the Aerospace industry, before the construction of a new aircraft or engine is even realized, its performance and characteristics are already known. This knowledge is obtained through simulations in a wind-tunnel or using computational fl uid dynamics. But with complex aircraft and engines, the

  14. Near 7-day response of ocean bottom pressure to atmospheric surface pressure and winds in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Zhao, Ruixiang

    2018-02-01

    Ocean bottom pressures, observed by five pressure-recording inverted echo sounders (PIESs) from October 2012 to July 2014, exhibit strong near 7-day variability in the northern South China Sea (SCS) where long-term in situ bottom pressure observations are quite sparse. This variability was strongest in October 2013 during the near two years observation period. By joint analysis with European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data, it is shown that the near 7-day ocean bottom pressure variability is closely related to the local atmospheric surface pressure and winds. Within a period band near 7 days, there are high coherences, exceeding 95% significance level, of observed ocean bottom pressure with local atmospheric surface pressure and with both zonal and meridional components of the wind. Ekman pumping/suction caused by the meridional component of the wind in particular, is suggested as one driving mechanism. A Kelvin wave response to the near 7-day oscillation would propagate down along the continental slope, observed at the Qui Nhon in the Vietnam. By multiple and partial coherence analyses, we find that local atmospheric surface pressure and Ekman pumping/suction show nearly equal influence on ocean bottom pressure variability at near 7-day periods. A schematic diagram representing an idealized model gives us a possible mechanism to explain the relationship between ocean bottom pressure and local atmospheric forcing at near 7-day periods in the northern SCS.

  15. Assessment of early diastolic intraventricular pressure gradient in the left ventricle among patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maki; Takahashi, Ken; Yamada, Mariko; Yazaki, Kana; Matsui, Kotoko; Tanaka, Noboru; Shigemitsu, Sachie; Akimoto, Katsumi; Kishiro, Masahiko; Nakanishi, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Shiori; Nii, Masaki; Itatani, Keiichi; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2017-11-01

    Assessment of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is vital in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF). The early diastolic intraventricular pressure gradient (IVPG) in the LV plays an important role in diastolic function. IVPG is calculated as the intraventricular pressure difference divided by the LV length, which allows to account for differences in LV size and therefore calculate IVPG in children. We aimed to investigate the mechanisms of LV diastolic dysfunction by measuring mid-to-apical IVPG as an indicator of the active suction force sucking blood from the left atrium into the LV. We included 38 rTOF patients and 101 healthy controls. The study population was stratified based on age group into children (4-9 years), adolescents (10-15 years), and adults (16-40 years). IVPGs were calculated based on mitral inflow measurements obtained using color M-mode Doppler echocardiography. Although total IVPGs did not differ between rTOF patients and controls, mid-to-apical IVPGs in adolescents and adults were smaller among rTOF patients than among controls (0.15 ± 0.05 vs. 0.21 ± 0.06 mmHg/cm, p < 0.05; 0.09 ± 0.07 vs. 0.17 ± 0.05 mmHg/cm, p < 0.001; respectively). Additionally, only mid-to-apical IVPG correlated linearly with peak circumferential strain (ρ = 0.217, p = 0.011), longitudinal strain (ρ = -0.231, p = 0.006), torsion (ρ = -0.200, p = 0.018), and untwisting rate in early diastole (ρ = -0.233, p = 0.006). In rTOF, the mechanisms underlying diastolic dysfunction involve reduced active suction force, which correlates with reduced LV deformation in all directions.

  16. EUS-guided portal pressure gradient measurement with a novel 25-gauge needle device versus standard transjugular approach: a comparison animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jason Y; Samarasena, Jason B; Tsujino, Takeshi; Chang, Kenneth J

    2016-08-01

    Portal hypertension (PH) is a serious adverse event of liver cirrhosis. The hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) accurately reflects the degree of PH and is the single best prognostic factor in liver disease. Currently, portal pressure gradient (PPG) measurement is performed at interventional radiology (IR) with a standard transjugular approach requiring radiation and intravenous contrast. The aim of this study was to develop a novel EUS-guided system using a 25G FNA needle and compact manometer to directly measure PPG and to evaluate its performance and clinical feasibility. Experiments were performed in 3 swine that were under general anesthesia. Manometry was performed in venous (baseline and PH) and arterial (aorta) systems. The PH model was created by rapid Dextran-40 infusion peripherally. Under EUS guidance a 25G FNA needle with attached manometer was used to puncture (transgastric-transhepatic approach) and measure pressures in the portal vein, right hepatic vein (RHV), inferior vena cava (IVC), and aorta. With the IR approach, RHV (free and wedged), IVC, and aorta pressure were measured with an occlusion balloon. Pressure correlation was divided into 3 groups; low pressure (baseline), medium pressure (noncirrhotic portal hypertensive model), and high pressure (arterial). Correlation between the 2 methods of measurement was charted in scatter plots, and the Pearson's correlation coefficient (R) was calculated. EUS identification, access, and manometry was successful in all targeted vessels. There was excellent correlation (R, .985-.99) between EUS and IR methods in all pressure ranges. No adverse event occurred. This novel technique of EUS-PPG measurement using a 25G needle and novel manometer was feasible and demonstrated excellent correlation with the standard transjugular method throughout low, medium, and high pressure ranges. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Estimation of Time Dependent Properties from Surface Pressure in Open Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    static pressure of the cavity. The stagnation and static pressures are measured separately with Druck Model DPI 145 pressure transducers (with a quoted...interacting with the ZNMF actuator jets, the 2D shape of the vortical structures transform to a 3D shape with spanwise vortical structures. These...Therefore, the pressure gradient in the d direction is dd ° 3d Substituting Equation (5.3) into Equation (5.5) results in ^l = PJk(e^-Re^)/c^ (5.6

  18. Unsteady MHD flow of visco-elastic Oldroydian fluid with transient pressure gradient through a rectangular channel: with a possible generalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, P.R.; Kundu, Shyamal Kumar

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we have determined the unsteady MHD flow of visco-elastic fluid with transient pressure gradient through a rectangular channel. Here we have calculated the velocity profile of a fluid element of the titled problem theoretically and numerically. Then an empirical model of generalisation has been made as proposed by the senior author Dr P.K. Sengupta to cover a wide range of visco-elastic fluids admitting new class of generalised visco-elastic fluids. The problem of unsteady MHD flow of such visco-elastic fluids with transient pressure gradient through a rectangular channel has been calculated. From this generalisation the corresponding flow of Oldroydian first order, second order and n-th order, Maxwell first order, second order and n-th order, Rivlen-Ericksen first order, second order and n-th order fluid and first order special type of Walters fluid as well as ordinary fluids have been derived. (author)

  19. Pressure exerted by a vesicle on a surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarek, A L; Prellberg, T

    2014-01-01

    Several recent works have considered the pressure exerted on a wall by a model polymer. We extend this consideration to vesicles attached to a wall, and hence include osmotic pressure. We do this by considering a two-dimensional directed model, namely that of area-weighted Dyck paths. Not surprisingly, the pressure exerted by the vesicle on the wall depends on the osmotic pressure inside, especially its sign. Here, we discuss the scaling of this pressure in the different regimes, paying particular attention to the crossover between positive and negative osmotic pressure. In our directed model, there exists an underlying Airy function scaling form, from which we extract the dependence of the bulk pressure on small osmotic pressures. (paper)

  20. Indirect measurement of near-surface velocity and pressure fields based on measurement of moving free surface profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibamoto, Yasuteru; Nakamura, Hideo

    2005-01-01

    A non-intrusive technique for measurement of the velocity and pressure fields adjacent to a moving fluid surface is developed. The technique is based on the measurement of fluid surface profile. The velocity and pressure fields are derived with use of the boundary element method (BEM) by seeking for an incompressible flow field that satisfies the kinematic boundary condition imposed by the time-dependent fluid surface profile. The proposed technique is tested by deriving the velocity and pressure fields inversely from the fluid surface profiles obtained by a forward BEM calculation of fluid surface response to externally-imposed pressure. The inverse calculation results show good agreement with the imposed pressure distribution in the forward calculation. (author)

  1. Laboratory measurement of the interface pressures applied by active therapy support surfaces: a consensus document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    A key element in pressure ulcer prevention and management is the selection of appropriate pressure redistributing (PR) patient support surfaces for use while seated and in bed. However little explicit guidance exists allowing standardised quantitative comparison of different PR surfaces based upon their ability to redistribute pressure from anatomical landmarks such as the heels and sacrum. In 2008 a working group was established in Europe through the US National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) support surface standardisation initiative (S3I) and under the aegis of the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel with the specific remit of developing test methods for the evaluation of active therapy support surfaces (alternating pressure air mattresses). This report describes a consensus development process to agree test methods appropriate to compare active therapy surfaces based upon their ability to redistribute pressure from the sacrum and the heels. Copyright 2009 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Surface diagnostics of evaporating droplets of nanosphere suspension: Fano interference and surface pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolwas, Maciej; Kolwas, Krystyna; Derkachov, Gennadiy; Jakubczyk, Daniel

    2015-03-14

    The evaporation of a single, levitating microdroplet of glycols containing SiO2 nanospheres, both of similar refraction indices, was studied by observing changes in the interference pattern and intensities of polarized and depolarized scattered laser light. The evolution of the effective radius of the droplet has been found on the basis of Mie scattering theory supplemented by the "electrical weighting" measurement of droplet mass evolution. During formation of a layer of nanospheres on the droplet surface, the asymmetric Fano profile was observed which was found to be due to the destructive and constructive interference of overlapping processes: (i) the scattering on single nanospheres emerging on the droplet surface and (ii) the scattering on ensembles of closely spaced (comparing to the light wavelength) nanospheres of an evolving surface film. Therefore we report the first observation of the Fano interference in the time domain rather than in the spectral domain. The optical surface diagnostics was complemented with the thermodynamics-like analysis in terms of the effective droplet surface pressure isotherm and with numerical simulations illustrating evaporation driven changes in the distribution of nanospheres. The reported study can serve as the basis for a wide range of novel diagnostic methods for studying configuration changes in complex systems of nano- and microparticles evolving at the sub-wavelength scale.

  3. Influence of slight microstructural gradients on the surface properties of Ti6Al4V irradiated by UV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo-Moreno, A.M.; Multigner, M.; Pacha-Olivenza, M.A.; Lieblich, M.; Jimenez, J.A.; Gonzalez-Carrasco, J.L.; Gonzalez-Martin, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Ti6Al4V alloy is one of the most widely used materials for biomedical implants. Among its properties, it is remarkable the photoactivity displayed by its passive layer, which is mainly composed by titanium dioxide. However, variations in the processing conditions may yield to differences in the microstructure which can be reflected on the surface properties of the machined product. From contact angle measurements taken on different zones of samples removed from a commercial bar of Ti6Al4V, it has been shown that the modifications of the surface Gibbs energy suffered by the alloy under UV irradiation have a radial dependence. This behaviour is related to slight microstructural changes of the alloy, particularly with an increase in the volume fraction of the β-phase when moving to the interior of the sample, which alters the composition and/or microstructure of the passive layer along its radius. This study shows that gradients in the microstructure and physical properties are sample size dependent and are likely related to thermal gradients during processing.

  4. The influence of small-scale sea surface temperature gradients on surface vector winds and subsequent impacts on oceanic Ekman pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Paul J.

    Satellite observations have revealed a small-scale (air--sea coupling in regions of strong sea surface temperature (SST) gradients (e.g., fronts, currents, eddies, and tropical instability waves), where the surface wind and wind stress are modified. Surface winds and wind stresses are persistently higher over the warm side of the SST front compared to the cool side, causing perturbations in the dynamically and thermodynamically curl and divergence fields. Capturing this small-scale SST--wind variability is important because it can significantly impact both local and remote (i.e., large scale) oceanic and atmospheric processes. The SST--wind relationship is not well represented in numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate models, and the relative importance of the physical processes that are proposed to be responsible for this relationship is actively and vehemently debated. This study focuses on the physical mechanisms that are primarily responsible for the SST-induced changes in surface wind and wind stress, and on the physical implication on ocean forcing through Ekman pumping. The roles that SST-induced atmospheric baroclinicity and boundary-layer stability play in modifying the surface vector wind in regions of strong SST gradients are examined with an idealized model. Modeled changes in surface wind speed due to changes in atmospheric boundary-layer stability and baroclinicity are largely between -2.0 and 2.0 m s-1, which is consistent with past observational findings. The baroclinic-related changes in the surface vector wind are found to have a largely linear dependence on the SST gradient, whereas the stability-related changes are highly non-linear. The linearity of the baroclinic impacts matches that of the observed (satellite and in situ) SST--wind relationship. This result suggests that the baroclinic-related mechanism is the leading factor in driving the observed surface wind response to strong open ocean SST fronts on scales greater than 25 km

  5. The gradient structure of the NiTi surface layers subjected to tantalum ion beam alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girsova, S. L.; Poletika, T. M.; Meisner, L. L.; Schmidt, E. Yu

    2017-05-01

    The NiTi shape memory alloy has been modified by ion implantation with Ta to improve the surface and biological properties. The elemental and phase composition and structure of the surface and near-surface layers of NiTi specimens after the Ta ion implantation with the fluency D = 3 × 1017 cm-2 and D = 6 × 1017 cm-2 are examined. The methods of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron dispersion analysis (EDS) are used. It is found that a nonuniform distribution of elements along the depth of the surface layer after the ion implantation of NiTi specimens, regardless of the regime, is accompanied by the formation of a number of sublayer structures.

  6. Coccolith distribution patterns in South Atlantic and Southern Ocean surface sediments in relation to environmental gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeckel, B.; Baumann, K.-H.; Henrich, R.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the coccolith compositions of 213 surface sediment samples from the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean were analysed with respect to the environmental parameters of the overlying surface waters. From this data set, the abundance patterns of the main species and their ecological...... seems to be associated with high temperatures and salinities under low-nutrient conditions. Based on the relative abundances of Calcidiscus leptoporus, F. profunda, Gladiolithus flabellatus, Helicosphaera spp., Umbilicosphaera foliosa, Umbilicosphaera sibogae and a group of subordinate subtropical...

  7. Preventing pressure ulcers--Are pressure-redistributing support surfaces effective? A Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Elizabeth; Jammali-Blasi, Asmara; Bell-Syer, Sally; Dumville, Jo; Cullum, Nicky

    2012-03-01

    To undertake a systematic review of the effectiveness of pressure redistributing support surfaces in the prevention of pressure ulcers. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Cochrane Wound Group Specialised Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE and EBSCO CINAHL. The reference sections of included trials were searched for further trials. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials, published or unpublished, which assessed the effects of support surfaces in preventing pressure ulcers (of any grade), in any patient group, in any setting compared to any other support surface, were sought. Two reviewers extracted and summarised details of eligible trials using a standardised form and assessed the methodological quality of each trial using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Fifty-three eligible trials were identified with a total of 16,285 study participants. Overall the risk of bias in the included trials was high. Pooled analysis showed that: (i) foam alternatives to the standard hospital foam mattress reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in people at risk (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.21-0.74) and Australian standard medical sheepskins prevent pressure ulcers compared to standard care (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.31-0.74). Pressure-redistributing overlays on the operating table compared to standard care reduce postoperative pressure ulcer incidence (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.33-0.85). While there is good evidence that higher specification foam mattresses, sheepskins, and that some overlays in the operative setting are effective in preventing pressure ulcers, there is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on the value of seat cushions, limb protectors and various constant low pressure devices. The relative merits of higher-tech constant low pressure and alternating pressure for prevention are unclear. More robust trials are required to address these research gaps. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Surface conductivity dependent dynamic behaviour of an ultrafine atmospheric pressure plasma jet for microscale surface processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuzairi, Tomy [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Okada, Mitsuru [Department of Engineering, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Bhattacharjee, Sudeep [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Nagatsu, Masaaki, E-mail: nagatsu.masaaki@shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Department of Engineering, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Spatio-temporal behaviors of capillary APPJs are studied for various substrates. • Plasma irradiation area depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity. • Surface irradiation area was significantly broadened in polymer-like substrate. • Effect of applying a substrate bias on the APPJ irradiation area was investigated. - Abstract: An experimental study on the dynamic behaviour of microcapillary atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) with 5 μm tip size for surfaces of different conductivity is reported. Electrical and spatio-temporal characteristics of the APPJs are monitored using high voltage probe, current monitor and high speed intensified charge couple device camera. From these experimental results, we presented a simple model to understand the electrical discharge characteristics of the capillary APPJs with double electrodes, and estimated the velocity of the ionization fronts in the jet and the electron density to be 3.5–4.2 km/s and 2–7 × 10{sup 17} m{sup −3}. By analyzing the dynamics of the microcapillary APPJs for different substrate materials, it was found that the surface irradiation area strongly depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity, especially in the case of polymer-like substrate, surface irradiation area was significantly broadened probably due to the repelling behaviour of the plasma jets from the accumulated electrical charges on the polymer surface. The effect of applying a substrate bias in the range from −900 V to +900 V on the plasma irradiation onto the substrates was also investigated. From the knowledge of the present results, it is helpful for choosing the substrate materials for microscale surface modification.

  9. Distributions of the ion temperature, ion pressure, and electron density over the current sheet surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyrie, N. P., E-mail: kyrie@fpl.gpi.ru; Markov, V. S., E-mail: natalya.kyrie@yandex.ru; Frank, A. G.; Vasilkov, D. G.; Voronova, E. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    The distributions of the ion temperature, ion pressure, and electron density over the width (the major transverse dimension) of the current sheet have been studied for the first time. The current sheets were formed in discharges in argon and helium in 2D and 3D magnetic configurations. It is found that the temperature of argon ions in both 2D and 3D magnetic configurations is almost uniform over the sheet width and that argon ions are accelerated by the Ampère force. In contrast, the distributions of the electron density and the temperature of helium ions are found to be substantially nonuniform. As a result, in the 2D magnetic configuration, the ion pressure gradient across the sheet width makes a significant contribution (comparable with the Ampère force) to the acceleration of helium ions, whereas in the 3D magnetic configuration, the Ampère force is counterbalanced by the pressure gradient.

  10. Surface profile gradient in amorphous Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} semi conductive layers regulates nanoscale electric current stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cefalas, A.C., E-mail: ccefalas@eie.gr [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece); Kollia, Z.; Spyropoulos-Antonakakis, N.; Gavriil, V. [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece); Christofilos, D.; Kourouklis, G. [Physics Division, School of Technology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Semashko, V.V.; Pavlov, V. [Kazan Federal University, Institute of Physics, 18 Kremljovskaja str., Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Sarantopoulou, E. [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece); Kazan Federal University, Institute of Physics, 18 Kremljovskaja str., Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The work links the surface morphology of amorphous semiconductors with both their electric-thermal properties and current stability at the nanoscale (<1 μm). • Measured high correlation value between surface morphological spatial gradient and conductive electron energy spatial gradient or thermal gradient. • Unidirectional current stability is associated with asymmetric nanodomains along nanosize conductive paths. • Bidirectional current stability is inherent with either long conductive paths or nanosize conductive paths along symmetric nanodomains. • Conclusion: Surface design improves current stability across nanoelectonic junctions. - Abstract: A link between the morphological characteristics and the electric properties of amorphous layers is established by means of atomic, conductive, electrostatic force and thermal scanning microscopy. Using amorphous Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} (a-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) semiconductive layer, it is found that surface profile gradients (morphological gradient), are highly correlated to both the electron energy gradient of trapped electrons in interactive Coulombic sites and the thermal gradient along conductive paths and thus thermal and electric properties are correlated with surface morphology at the nanoscale. Furthermore, morphological and electron energy gradients along opposite conductive paths of electrons intrinsically impose a current stability anisotropy. For either long conductive paths (L > 1 μm) or along symmetric nanodomains, current stability for both positive and negative currents i is demonstrated. On the contrary, for short conductive paths along non-symmetric nanodomains, the set of independent variables (L, i) is spanned by two current stability/intability loci. One locus specifies a stable state for negative currents, while the other locus also describes a stable state for positive currents.

  11. The GALEX/S4G Surface Brightness and Color Profiles Catalog. I. Surface Photometry and Color Gradients of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquin, Alexandre Y. K.; Gil de Paz, Armando; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Boissier, Samuel; Sheth, Kartik; Zaritsky, Dennis; Peletier, Reynier F.; Knapen, Johan H.; Gallego, Jesús

    2018-02-01

    We present new spatially resolved surface photometry in the far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) from images obtained by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) and IRAC1 (3.6 μm) photometry from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G). We analyze the radial surface brightness profiles μ FUV, μ NUV, and μ [3.6], as well as the radial profiles of (FUV ‑ NUV), (NUV ‑ [3.6]), and (FUV ‑ [3.6]) colors in 1931 nearby galaxies (z measured scale length and central surface brightness values yield distributions of spin and circular velocity within a factor of two of those obtained via direct kinematic measurements. We find that at a surface brightness fainter than μ [3.6] = 20.89 mag arcsec‑2, or below 3 × 108 M ⊙ kpc‑2 in stellar mass surface density, the average specific star formation rate (sSFR) for star-forming and quiescent galaxies remains relatively flat with radius. However, a large fraction of GALEX Green Valley galaxies show a radial decrease in sSFR. This behavior suggests that an outside-in damping mechanism, possibly related to environmental effects, could be testimony of an early evolution of galaxies from the blue sequence of star-forming galaxies toward the red sequence of quiescent galaxies.

  12. Perception of surface pressure applied to the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L; Kjellberg, A; Kilbom, A; Hägg, G M

    1999-10-01

    The study aimed to determine the relationship between the physical magnitude and the subjective perception of applied pressure, and to determine discomfort and pain thresholds. Free modulus magnitude estimation of the subjective pressure level was made on three points: on the finger, the palm and the thenar area. The pressure was judged to be higher at the thenar point than at the finger and palm points. The slopes of the linear functions (log magnitude estimates as a function of log pressure) were 0.66, 0.78 and 0.76 for the finger, palm and thenar points respectively. The discomfort threshold was 38% of the pain pressure threshold at the finger point, 40% at the palm and 22% at the thenar point. The results are probably of importance in the performance of hand-intensive work, in particular in the design of hand tools.

  13. Renal Artery Stenosis Evaluated with 3D-Gd-Magnetic Resonance Angiography Using Transstenotic Pressure Gradient as the Standard of Reference. A Multireader Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekloef, H.; Ahlstrom, H.; Bostrom, A.; Bergqvist, D.; Andren, B.; Karacagil, S.; Nyman, R.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate 3D-Gd-magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in detecting hemodynamically significant renal artery stenosis (RAS). Material and Methods: Thirty patients evaluated for atherosclerotic RAS by MRA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were retrospectively included. Standard of reference for hemodynamically significant RAS was a transstenotic gradient of 15 mmHg. DSA visualized 60 main renal arteries and 9 accessory arteries. Pressure gradient measurement (PGM) was available from 61 arteries. Three radiologists evaluated all examinations independently in a blinded fashion. Results: RAS was present in 26 arteries. On MRA, each reader identified 4 of 9 accessory renal arteries, a detection rate of 44%. The three readers correctly classified 22/25/22 of the 26 vessels with a significant gradient as >60% RAS and 31/25/32 of the 35 with a significant gradient as <60% RAS on MRA. Interobserver agreement was substantial. MRA image quality was adequate for RAS evaluations in all patients. ROC curves indicated that MRA is an adequate method for evaluating RAS. When screening for RAS, a 50% diameter reduction cut-off is better than 60%. RAS with 40-80% diameter reductions accounted for 65% of discrepancies. Conclusion: MRA is an adequate method for evaluating RAS limited mainly by poor detection rate for accessory renal arteries

  14. Automated Measurement for Sensitivity Analysis of Runoff-Sediment Load at Varying Surface Gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imanogor P.A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct measurement of surface runoff is often associated with errors and inaccuracies which results to unreliable hydrological data. An automatic Runoff-meter using tipping buckets arrangement calibrated to tip 0.14 liter of runoff water per tip with an accuracy of ± 0.001 litre was used to measure surface runoff from a steel bounded soil tray of dimension (1200 mm X 900 mm X 260 mm filled with sand loamy to the depth of 130 mm and inclined at angle (0 0 , 5 0 ,12 0 and 15 0 horizontal to the instrument. The effect of varying angles of inclination on runoff intensity, sediment loss rate and sediment loss is significant at 5 % confidence level, while surface runoff is not significant at 5 % confidence level. Total highest sediment loss of 458.2 g and 313.4 g were observed at angle 15 0 and 12 0 respectively. Total surface runoff of 361.5 mm and 445.8 mm were generated at inclined angle of 0 0 and 5 0 , while at angle 12 0 and 15 0 , 564.3 mm and 590.0 mm of surface runoff were generated. In addition, runoff intensity and sediment loss rate were highest at angle 15 0 , while the lowest values of 1.5mm/min and 5.43 g/min were obtained at angle of inclination 5 0 . The results showed that strong relationship existed among the hydrological variables as a result of subjecting the steel bounded soil tray to different angles of inclination. Such results would provide useful data for the running of physics-based deterministic model of surface runoff and erosion which will be useful for the design of hydrological structures, land use planning and management.

  15. Vibration analysis of bonded double-FGM viscoelastic nanoplate systems based on a modified strain gradient theory incorporating surface effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamalpoor, Ali; Kiani, Ali

    2017-03-01

    On the basis of the modified strain gradient theory, the present paper deals with the theoretical analysis of the free vibration of coupled double-FGM viscoelastic nanoplates by Kelvin-Voigt visco-Pasternak medium. To establish static equilibrium of atoms on the each nanoplate surface, the effects of the surface layers are considered. The properties of material in the thickness direction vary according to the power low distribution. Kirchhoff plate assumption and Hamilton's variational principle are employed to achieve the partial differential equations for three different cases of vibration (out-of-phase, in-phase, and one nanoplate of the system being stationary) and corresponding boundary conditions. Navier's approach which satisfies the simply supported boundary conditions applied to analytically investigate the size effect on the natural frequencies of double-FGM viscoelastic nanoplate systems. Numerical studies are carried out to illustrate the influence of viscoelastic damping structural of the nanoplates, damping coefficient of the visco-Pasternak medium, independent length scale parameter, aspect ratio, surface properties, and other factors on the frequency behavior system. Some numerical results of this research illustrate that the frequencies may increase or decrease with respect to the sign of the surface properties of FGMs.

  16. Macrobenthic species response surfaces along estuarine gradients: prediction by logistic regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ysebaert, T.; Meire, P.; Herman, P.M.J.; Verbeek, H.

    2002-01-01

    This study aims at contributing to the development of statistical models to predict macrobenthic species response to environmental conditions in estuarine ecosystems. Ecological response surfaces are derived for 10 estuarine macrobenthic species. Logistic regression is applied on a large data set,

  17. Mapping surface flow in low gradient areas with thermal remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christian; Petersen, Rasmus Jes; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    Thermal infrared (TIR) imagery has long been used for mapping groundwater-surface water interactions and mainly for locating areas of groundwater seepage in lakes and shorelines (Rundquist et al. 1985, Banks et al. 1996). In this study, we used the method for locating discharge from tile drains...

  18. Pressure-dependent surface viscosity and its surprising consequences in interfacial lubrication flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikantan, Harishankar; Squires, Todd M.

    2017-02-01

    The surface shear rheology of many insoluble surfactants depends strongly on the surface pressure (or concentration) of that surfactant. Here we highlight the dramatic consequences that surface-pressure-dependent surface viscosities have on interfacially dominant flows, by considering lubrication-style geometries within high Boussinesq (Bo) number flows. As with three-dimensional lubrication, high-Bo surfactant flows through thin gaps give high surface pressures, which in turn increase the local surface viscosity, further amplifying lubrication stresses and surface pressures. Despite their strong nonlinearity, the governing equations are separable, so that results from two-dimensional Newtonian lubrication analyses may be immediately adapted to treat surfactant monolayers with a general functional form of ηs(Π ) . Three paradigmatic systems are analyzed to reveal qualitatively new features: a maximum, self-limiting value for surfactant fluxes and particle migration velocities appears for Π -thickening surfactants, and kinematic reversibility is broken for the journal bearing and for suspensions more generally.

  19. Acoustic propagation operators for pressure waves on an arbitrarily curved surface in a homogeneous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yimin; Verschuur, Eric; van Borselen, Roald

    2018-03-01

    The Rayleigh integral solution of the acoustic Helmholtz equation in a homogeneous medium can only be applied when the integral surface is a planar surface, while in reality almost all surfaces where pressure waves are measured exhibit some curvature. In this paper we derive a theoretically rigorous way of building propagation operators for pressure waves on an arbitrarily curved surface. Our theory is still based upon the Rayleigh integral, but it resorts to matrix inversion to overcome the limitations faced by the Rayleigh integral. Three examples are used to demonstrate the correctness of our theory - propagation of pressure waves acquired on an arbitrarily curved surface to a planar surface, on an arbitrarily curved surface to another arbitrarily curved surface, and on a spherical cap to a planar surface, and results agree well with the analytical solutions. The generalization of our method for particle velocities and the calculation cost of our method are also discussed.

  20. Prevention and management of pressure ulcers: support surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Zena; Stephen Haynes, Jackie; Callaghan, Rosie

    Pressure ulcers are a common and debilitating problem in health care, impacting negatively on health-related quality of life and compounding challenges in achieving patient safety targets. Pressure ulcer prevention is a multidisciplinary team effort, involving a myriad of interventions, such as nutrition, skin care and repositioning. This article discusses the factors influencing pressure ulcer development, and then elaborates on the principles of prevention. This is followed by a focused discussion on the use of redistribution devices and the importance of the cover of such equipment in contributing to achieving good standards in prevention.

  1. Pressure loss reduction in hydrogen pipelines by surface restructuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peet, Y.; Sagaut, P. [Insitut Jean Le Rond d' Alembert, UMR CNRS 7190, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu - case 162, F-75252 Paris Cedex 5 (France); Charron, Y. [IFP- Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison Cedex, 92852 (France)

    2009-11-15

    This paper concerns the reduction of pressure losses during pipeline hydrogen transportation, as the cost of hydrogen compression is a significant obstacle for efficient hydrogen pumping on a large-scale basis. The use of organized micro-structures on pipeline walls is proposed to obtain lower values of pressure losses with respect to smooth walls. Three-dimensional micro-structures of a sinusoidal shape are investigated as potentially more efficient counterparts to conventional two-dimensional structures (riblets) developed in aerospace industry. Aerodynamic performance of three-dimensional structures is investigated computationally in terms of both skin friction and pressure drag, two constituents of the total drag. Three-dimensional structures are shown to provide larger total drag reduction than two-dimensional structures for some range of geometrical parameters (14.5% versus 11%). Parametric dependence of both pressure and skin friction drag on structure geometry is analyzed, and an optimum configuration maximizing the total drag reduction is proposed. (author)

  2. Spatial Gradients in Trace Metal Concentrations in the Surface Microlayer of the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eTovar-Sanchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between dust deposition and surface water metal concentrations is poorly understood. Dissolution, solubility, and partitioning reactions of trace metals from dust particles are governed by complex chemical, biological, and physical processes occurring in the surface ocean. Despite that, the role of the sea surface microlayer (SML, a thin, but fundamental component modulating the air-sea exchange of materials has not been properly evaluated. Our study revealed that the SML of the Mediterranean Sea is enriched with bioactive trace metals (i.e., Cd, Co, Cu and Fe, ranging from 8 (for Cd to 1000 (for Fe times higher than the dissolved metal pool in the underlying water column. The highest enrichments were spatially correlated with the atmospheric deposition of mineral particles. Our mass balance results suggest that the SML in the Mediterranean Sea contains about 2 tonnes of Fe. However, we did not detect any trends between the concentrations of metals in SML with the subsurface water concentrations and biomass distributions. These findings suggest that future studies are needed to quantify the rate of metal exchange between the SML and the bioavailable pool and that the SML should be considered to better understand the effect of atmospheric inputs on the biogeochemistry of trace metals in the ocean.

  3. Determination of charged particles and their polarity in XLPE by temperature gradient thermally stimulated surface potential measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Kato, Keizo; Kook, Sang-Hoon; Hino, Taro

    1985-01-01

    By the thermally stimulated surface potential measurement with a temperature gradient in the insulator specimen, various information not possible by the uniform heating is obtained. Determination of polarity of the carriers is capable of providing a knowledge on space charge in power cables, for example. For the cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) film as cable insulation, polarity of the carriers trapped in it was determined, thereby demonstrating effectiveness of the method. The determination of polarity of mobile ions forming polarization of the ion space charge was also studied. In the ion C-peak appearing in the thermally stimulated current are involved straight-polarity mobile ions, and in the trap D-peak, hole carriers. (Mori, K.)

  4. Is it useful to measure supratentorial ICP in the presence of a posterior fossa lesion? Absence of transtentorial pressure gradients in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, A; Rainov, N G; Sanchin, L; Ebel, H; Furka, I; Görömbey, Z; Burkert, W

    1999-10-01

    Previous studies with animal models of supratentorial ICP elevation have demonstrated a pressure gradient between the supratentorial and the infratentorial compartments. The present study was designed to investigate the possible presence of such a gradient in the case of infratentorial ICP elevation. An inflatable infratentorial balloon catheter was implanted in seven domestic pigs. The infratentorial ICP (ICPi) was measured in the left cerebellar hemisphere, and the supratentorial ICP (ICPs) was measured in the left cerebral hemisphere. The corresponding pulse amplitudes (ICPi-PA, ICPs-PA) were recorded in both compartments, and the cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) was calculated. ICPi and ICPs values prior to balloon inflation were 4.4 (SD 2.2) and 4.1 (SD 2.3) mm Hg, respectively, and increased to 63.1 (SD 32.6) and 62.3 (SD 28.1) mmHg after balloon inflation. ICPi-PA rose from 3.1 (SD 0.43) to 12.8 (SD 8.0) mmHg, and ICPs-PA rose from 3.2 (SD 0.63) to 13.0 (SD 7.1) mmHg. CPP decreased from 86.1 (SD 12.0) to 55.4 (SD 14.6) mm Hg. The paired difference between ICPi and ICPs values was 0.44 (SD 1.96) mmHg, and the paired difference of ICP amplitudes was 0.03 (SD 1.19) mmHg. All these differences in infratentorial and supratentorial values were statistically not significant. In conclusion, infratentorial ICP elevation in the presented pig model leads to a uniform ICP elevation in the intracranial space without development of a considerable pressure gradient below and above the tentorium. In the low pressure part of the ICP curve, cerebrospinal fluid connects the compartments and contributes to the pressure equilibrium. The early obstruction of the foramen magnum by intruding cerebellar tissue seems to isolate the infratentorial from the spinal compartment. In the high-pressure part of the curve, the upwards cerebellar transtentorial herniation takes over the pressure transfer, and the whole intracranial space can be considered as a single compartment in the pig.

  5. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention: A network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chunhu; Dumville, Jo C; Cullum, Nicky

    2018-01-01

    Pressure ulcers are a prevalent and global issue and support surfaces are widely used for preventing ulceration. However, the diversity of available support surfaces and the lack of direct comparisons in RCTs make decision-making difficult. To determine, using network meta-analysis, the relative effects of different support surfaces in reducing pressure ulcer incidence and comfort and to rank these support surfaces in order of their effectiveness. We conducted a systematic review, using a literature search up to November 2016, to identify randomised trials comparing support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention. Two reviewers independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We grouped the support surfaces according to their characteristics and formed evidence networks using these groups. We used network meta-analysis to estimate the relative effects and effectiveness ranking of the groups for the outcomes of pressure ulcer incidence and participant comfort. GRADE was used to assess the certainty of evidence. We included 65 studies in the review. The network for assessing pressure ulcer incidence comprised evidence of low or very low certainty for most network contrasts. There was moderate-certainty evidence that powered active air surfaces and powered hybrid air surfaces probably reduce pressure ulcer incidence compared with standard hospital surfaces (risk ratios (RR) 0.42, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.29 to 0.63; 0.22, 0.07 to 0.66, respectively). The network for comfort suggested that powered active air-surfaces are probably slightly less comfortable than standard hospital mattresses (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.94; moderate-certainty evidence). This is the first network meta-analysis of the effects of support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention. Powered active air-surfaces probably reduce pressure ulcer incidence, but are probably less comfortable than standard hospital surfaces. Most prevention evidence was of low or

  6. Efficient numerical methods for simulating surface tension of multi-component mixtures with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2015-08-01

    Surface tension significantly impacts subsurface flow and transport, and it is the main cause of capillary effect, a major immiscible two-phase flow mechanism for systems with a strong wettability preference. In this paper, we consider the numerical simulation of the surface tension of multi-component mixtures with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces. Major numerical challenges include that the system of the Euler-Lagrange equations is solved on the infinite interval and the coefficient matrix is not positive definite. We construct a linear transformation to reduce the Euler-Lagrange equations, and naturally introduce a path function, which is proven to be a monotonic function of the spatial coordinate variable. By using the linear transformation and the path function, we overcome the above difficulties and develop the efficient methods for calculating the interface and its interior compositions. Moreover, the computation of the surface tension is also simplified. The proposed methods do not need to solve the differential equation system, and they are easy to be implemented in practical applications. Numerical examples are tested to verify the efficiency of the proposed methods. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Wave propagation analysis of embedded nanoplates based on a nonlocal strain gradient-based surface piezoelectricity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Dabbagh, Ali

    2017-11-01

    The present paper deals with the smart characteristics of waves propagating in a piezoelectric nanosize plate rested on an elastic medium whenever surface effects are included. A more realistic simulation about the elastic medium is presented by utilizing a three-parameter medium containing Winkler, Pasternak and damping coefficients. Furthermore, both of the decreasing and increasing impacts of small scale influences are covered in the framework of a nonlocal strain gradient theory (NSGT). The electric potential is approximated by a function possessing linear and trigonometric parts. Also, by developing the surface elasticity theory of Gurtin-Murdoch for piezoelectric solids, influences of surface layers are considered. Kinematic relations are derived employing the Kirchhoff plate theory. Afterwards, Hamilton's principle is introduced in order to achieve Euler-Lagrange equations of piezoelectric nanoplates. The final part consists of an analytical approach to obtain the wave frequency value. The accuracy of the presented model is verified by organizing a comparison of the presented results with previous ones. Finally, some parametric case studies are rendered to clarify the influence of different parameters such as wave number, nonlocal and length scale parameters, foundation parameters and applied voltage.

  8. Surface-initiated phase transition in solid hydrogen under the high-pressure compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Haile; Lin, Wei; Wang, Kai; Li, Xibo

    2018-03-01

    The large-scale molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to understand the microscopic mechanism governing the phase transition of solid hydrogen under the high-pressure compression. These results demonstrate that the face-centered-cubic-to-hexagonal close-packed phase transition is initiated first at the surfaces at a much lower pressure than in the volume and then extends gradually from the surface to volume in the solid hydrogen. The infrared spectra from the surface are revealed to exhibit a different pressure-dependent feature from those of the volume during the high-pressure compression. It is thus deduced that the weakening intramolecular H-H bonds are always accompanied by hardening surface phonons through strengthening the intermolecular H2-H2 coupling at the surfaces with respect to the counterparts in the volume at high pressures. This is just opposite to the conventional atomic crystals, in which the surface phonons are softening. The high-pressure compression has further been predicted to force the atoms or molecules to spray out of surface to degrade the pressure. These results provide a glimpse of structural properties of solid hydrogen at the early stage during the high-pressure compression.

  9. Direct measured systolic pressure gradients across the aorto-iliac segment in multiple-level-obstruction arteriosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Ivan; Praestholm, J; Tønnesen, K H

    1981-01-01

    Patients with severe ischemia due to multi-level obstructions in the leg arteries both above and below the region were assessed preoperatively by intraarterial brachial and femoral artery pressure measurements. The systolic pressure drop along aorto-iliac obstructions was compared to the angiogra....... Due to large variations, however, the angiographic information was found to be useless in the individual patient. No difference in the pressure drop was found between cases in which rich and poor collateral networks were visualized....

  10. Surface Pressure Dependencies in the GEOS-Chem-Adjoint System and the Impact of the GEOS-5 Surface Pressure on CO2 Model Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meemong; Weidner, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In the GEOS-Chem Adjoint (GCA) system, the total (wet) surface pressure of the GEOS meteorology is employed as dry surface pressure, ignoring the presence of water vapor. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) research team has been evaluating the impact of the above discrepancy on the CO2 model forecast and the CO2 flux inversion. The JPL CMS research utilizes a multi-mission assimilation framework developed by the Multi-Mission Observation Operator (M2O2) research team at JPL extending the GCA system. The GCA-M2O2 framework facilitates mission-generic 3D and 4D-variational assimilations streamlining the interfaces to the satellite data products and prior emission inventories. The GCA-M2O2 framework currently integrates the GCA system version 35h and provides a dry surface pressure setup to allow the CO2 model forecast to be performed with the GEOS-5 surface pressure directly or after converting it to dry surface pressure.

  11. Atmospheric-pressure plasma activation and surface characterization on polyethylene membrane separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Chien; Li, Hsiao-Ling; Huang, Chun

    2017-01-01

    The surface hydrophilic activation of a polyethylene membrane separator was achieved using an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. The surface of the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated membrane separator was found to be highly hydrophilic realized by adjusting the plasma power input. The variations in membrane separator chemical structure were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Chemical analysis showed newly formed carbonyl-containing groups and high surface concentrations of oxygen-containing species on the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated polymeric separator surface. It also showed that surface hydrophilicity primarily increased from the polar component after atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment. The surface and pore structures of the polyethylene membrane separator were examined by scanning electron microscopy, revealing a slight alteration in the pore structure. As a result of the incorporation of polar functionalities by atmospheric-pressure plasma activation, the electrolyte uptake and electrochemical impedance of the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated membrane separator improved. The investigational results show that the separator surface can be controlled by atmospheric-pressure plasma surface treatment to tailor the hydrophilicity and enhance the electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries.

  12. Comparison between gradient-dependent hydraulic conductivities of roots using the root pressure probe: the role of pressure propagations and implications for the relative roles of parallel radial pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, Helen; Turner, Neil C; Turner, David W; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2007-07-01

    Hydrostatic pressure relaxations with the root pressure probe are commonly used for measuring the hydraulic conductivity (Lp(r)) of roots. We compared the Lp(r) of roots from species with different root hydraulic properties (Lupinus angustifolius L. 'Merrit', Lupinus luteus L. 'Wodjil', Triticum aestivum L. 'Kulin' and Zea mays L. 'Pacific DK 477') using pressure relaxations, a pressure clamp and osmotic gradients to induce water flow across the root. Only the pressure clamp measures water flow under steady-state conditions. Lp(r) determined by pressure relaxations was two- to threefold greater than Lp(r) from pressure clamps and was independent of the direction of water flow. Lp(r) (pressure clamp) was two- to fourfold higher than for Lp(r) (osmotic) for all species except Triticum aestivum where Lp(r) (pressure clamp) and Lp(r) (osmotic) were not significantly different. A novel technique was developed to measure the propagation of pressure through roots to investigate the cause of the differences in Lp(r). Root segments were connected between two pressure probes so that when root pressure (P(r)) was manipulated by one probe, the other probe recorded changes in P(r). Pressure relaxations did not induce the expected kinetics in pressure in the probe at the other end of the root when axial hydraulic conductance, and probe and root capacitances were accounted for. An electric circuit model of the root was constructed that included an additional capacitance in the root loaded by a series of resistances. This accounted for the double exponential kinetics for intact roots in pressure relaxation experiments as well as the reduced response observed with the double probe experiments. Although there were potential errors with all the techniques, we considered that the measurement of Lp(r) using the pressure clamp was the most unambiguous for small pressure changes, and provided that sufficient time was allowed for pressure propagation through the root. The differences in

  13. Unsteady Surface Pressure Measurements on a Pitching Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-12

    through 8 Dynamics 7512B amplifiers. The pitching motions of the airfoil were generated by 6°jN\\! 920O/_ a PDP 11/03 computer controlling a Control...acquisition system. The pressure data were used to calculate pressure 2 coefficients which were in turn integrated to compute lift coefficients. Both...Airfoils," AIAA J., Vol. 13, No. 1, 17. Gormont, R.E., "A Mathenatical Model pp 71-79, Jan 1975. of Unsteady Aerodynamics and Radial 4. McAlister, K.W

  14. Pressure-redistribution surfaces for prevention of surgery-related pressure ulcers: a meta-analysis .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai-Yan; Chen, Hong-Lin; Xu, Xu-Juan

    2013-04-01

    Pressure-redistribution surfaces are generally recommended to prevent pressure ulcers (PUs) in high-risk patients, but their use in surgery-related PU prevention remains controversial. A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the relative preventive impact of pressure-redistribution surfaces versus standard hospital mattresses (usually a hospital-issue, foam-based mattress) on the incidence of surgery-related PUs. Systematic literature searches were performed using the terms pressure ulcer, operation, surgery, mattress, foam, polymer, pad, overlay, surface, and interface. Country, race, language, and publication year of articles was not restricted; randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials were eligible for analysis. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for surgery-related PU incidence in patients using support surfaces versus standard mattress were calculated by random-effects model. Of the 316 studies identified, 10 involving a total of 1,895 patients were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Seven studies were randomized, controlled and three were quasi-randomized controlled trials. Patients who were provided a support surface had a significantly decreased incidence of surgery-related PUs (OR 0.31 [95% CI 0.17-0.59]) compared to patients using a standard mattress. Subgroup analysis showed pressure-redistribution surfaces used intra-operatively did not decrease the incidence of surgery-related PUs (OR 0.59, [95% CI 0.34-1.01]), but PU incidence decreased with postoperative (OR 0.07 [95% CI 0.01-0.49]) as well as with intra-operative and postoperative use (OR 0.20 [95% CI 0.06-0.73]). Funnel plot diagrams suggest a minimal risk of bias. Sensitivity analysis did not materially change the result of the main metaanalysis. Postoperative use of pressure-redistribution surfaces can effectively decrease the incidence of surgery-related PUs, but evidence to substantiate intra-operative use is insufficient. Patients at high risk for surgery

  15. Study on the effects of gradient mechanical pressures on the proliferation, apoptosis, chondrogenesis and hypertrophy of mandibular condylar chondrocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Huang, Linjian; Xie, Qianyang; Cai, Xieyi; Yang, Chi; Wang, Shaoyi; Zhang, Min

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of gradient mechanical pressure on chondrocyte proliferation, apoptosis, and the expression of markers of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy. Mandibular condylar chondrocytes from 5 rabbits were cultured in vitro, and pressed with static pressures of 50kPa, 100kPa, 150kPa and 200kPa for 3h, respectively. The chondrocytes cultured without pressure (0kPa) were used as control. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, and the expression of aggrecan (AGG), collagen II (COL2), collagen X (COL10), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were investigated. Ultrastructures of the pressurized chondrocytes under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were observed. Chondrocyte proliferation increased at 100kPa and decreased at 200kPa. Chondrocyte apoptosis increased with peak pressure at 200kPa in a dose-dependent manner. Chondrocyte necrosis increased at 200kPa. The expression of AGG increased at 200kPa. The expression of COL2 decreased at 50kPa and increased at 150kPa. The expression of COL10 and ALP increased at 150kPa. Ultrastructure of the pressurized chondrocytes under TEM showed: at 100kPa, cells were enlarged with less cellular microvillus and a bigger nucleus; at 200kPa, cells shrank with the sign of apoptosis, and apoptosis cells were found. The mechanical loading of 150kPa is the moderate pressure for chondrocyte: cell proliferation and apoptosis is balanced, necrosis is reduced, and chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy are promoted. When the pressure is lower, chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy are inhibited. At 200kPa, degeneration of cartilage is implied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Surface Pressure Measurements of Atmospheric Tides Using Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin; Maor, Ron

    2017-04-01

    Similar to the oceans, the atmosphere also has tides that are measured in variations of atmospheric pressure. However, unlike the gravitational tides in the oceans, the atmospheric tides are caused primarily in the troposphere and stratosphere when the atmosphere is periodically heated by the sun, due to tropospheric absorption by water vapor and stratospheric absorption by ozone. Due to the forcing being always on the day side of the globe, the tides migrate around the globe following the sun (migrating tides) with a dominant periodicity of 12 hours (and less so at 24 hours). In recent years smartphones have been equipped with sensitive, cheap and reliable pressure sensors that can easily detect these atmospheric tides. By 2020 it is expected that there will be more than 6 billion smartphones globally, each measuring continuously atmospheric pressure at 1Hz temporal resolution. In this presentation we will present some control experiments we have performed with smartphones to monitor atmospheric tides, while also using random pressure data from more than 50,000 daily users via the WeatherSignal application. We conclude that smartphones are a useful tool for studying atmospheric tides on local and global scales.

  17. Modelling surface pressure fluctuation on medium-rise buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snæbjörnsson, J.T.; Geurts, C.P.W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the results of two experiments into the fluctuating characteristics of windinduced pressures on buildings in a built-up environment. The experiments have been carried out independently in Iceland and The Netherlands and can be considered to represent two separate cases of

  18. Surface modification of polylactic acid films by atmospheric pressure plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtseva, V. L.; Zhuravlev, M. V.; Tverdokhlebov, S. I.

    2017-09-01

    A new approach for the modification of polylactic acid (PLA) materials using atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) is described. PLA films plasma exposure time was 20, 60, 120 s. The surface morphology and wettability of the obtained PLA films were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the sitting drop method. The atmospheric pressure plasma increased the roughness and surface energy of PLA film. The wettability of PLA has been improved with the application of an atmospheric plasma surface treatment. It was shown that it is possible to obtain PLA films with various surface relief and tunable wettability. Additionally, we demonstrated that the use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma for surface activation allows for the immobilization of bioactive compounds like hyaluronic acid (HA) on the surface of obtained films. It was shown that composite PLA-HA films have an increased long-term hydrophilicity of the films surface.

  19. Optically abrupt localized surface plasmon resonances in si nanowires by mitigation of carrier density gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Li-Wei; Boyuk, Dmitriy S; Filler, Michael A

    2015-02-24

    Spatial control of carrier density is critical for engineering and exploring the interactions of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) in nanoscale semiconductors. Here, we couple in situ infrared spectral response measurements and discrete dipole approximation (DDA) calculations to show the impact of axially graded carrier density profiles on the optical properties of mid-infrared LSPRs supported by Si nanowires synthesized by the vapor-liquid-solid technique. The region immediately adjacent to each intentionally encoded resonator (i.e., doped segment) can exhibit residual carrier densities as high as 10(20) cm(-3), which strongly modifies both near- and far-field behavior. Lowering substrate temperature during the spacer segment growth reduces this residual carrier density and results in a spectral response that is indistinguishable from nanowires with ideal, atomically abrupt carrier density profiles. Our experiments have important implications for the control of near-field plasmonic phenomena in semiconductor nanowires, and demonstrate methods for determining and controlling axial dopant profile in these systems.

  20. Coupling of climate models and ice sheet models by surface mass balance gradients: application to the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Helsen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It is notoriously difficult to couple surface mass balance (SMB results from climate models to the changing geometry of an ice sheet model. This problem is traditionally avoided by using only accumulation from a climate model, and parameterizing the meltwater run-off as a function of temperature, which is often related to surface elevation (Hs. In this study, we propose a new strategy to calculate SMB, to allow a direct adjustment of SMB to a change in ice sheet topography and/or a change in climate forcing. This method is based on elevational gradients in the SMB field as computed by a regional climate model. Separate linear relations are derived for ablation and accumulation, using pairs of Hs and SMB within a minimum search radius. The continuously adjusting SMB forcing is consistent with climate model forcing fields, also for initially non-glaciated areas in the peripheral areas of an ice sheet. When applied to an asynchronous coupled ice sheet – climate model setup, this method circumvents traditional temperature lapse rate assumptions. Here we apply it to the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS. Experiments using both steady-state forcing and glacial-interglacial forcing result in realistic ice sheet reconstructions.

  1. Io meteorology - How atmospheric pressure is controlled locally by volcanos and surface frosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1989-01-01

    The present modification of the Ingersoll et al. (1985) hydrodynamic model of the SO2 gas sublimation-driven flow from the day to the night side of Io includes the effects of nonuniform surface properties noted in observational studies. Calculations are conducted for atmospheric pressures, horizontal winds, sublimation rates, and condensation rates for such surface conditions as patchy and continuous frost cover, volcanic venting, surface temperature discontinuities, subsurface cold trapping, and the propagation of insolation into the frost. While pressure is found to follow local vapor pressure away from the plumes, it becomes higher inside them.

  2. Effects of Drought, Pest Pressure and Light Availability on Seedling Establishment and Growth: Their Role for Distribution of Tree Species across a Tropical Rainfall Gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Gaviria

    Full Text Available Tree species distributions associated with rainfall are among the most prominent patterns in tropical forests. Understanding the mechanisms shaping these patterns is important to project impacts of global climate change on tree distributions and diversity in the tropics. Beside direct effects of water availability, additional factors co-varying with rainfall have been hypothesized to play an important role, including pest pressure and light availability. While low water availability is expected to exclude drought-intolerant wet forest species from drier forests (physiological tolerance hypothesis, high pest pressure or low light availability are hypothesized to exclude dry forest species from wetter forests (pest pressure gradient and light availability hypothesis, respectively. To test these hypotheses at the seed-to-seedling transition, the potentially most critical stage for species discrimination, we conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment combined with a pest exclosure treatment at a wet and a dry forest site in Panama with seeds of 26 species with contrasting origin. Establishment success after one year did not reflect species distribution patterns. However, in the wet forest, wet origin species had a home advantage over dry forest species through higher growth rates. At the same time, drought limited survival of wet origin species in the dry forest, supporting the physiological tolerance hypothesis. Together these processes sort species over longer time frames, and exclude species outside their respective home range. Although we found pronounced effects of pests and some effects of light availability on the seedlings, they did not corroborate the pest pressure nor light availability hypotheses at the seed-to-seedling transition. Our results underline that changes in water availability due to climate change will have direct consequences on tree regeneration and distributions along tropical rainfall gradients, while indirect effects of

  3. Effects of Drought, Pest Pressure and Light Availability on Seedling Establishment and Growth: Their Role for Distribution of Tree Species across a Tropical Rainfall Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviria, Julian; Engelbrecht, Bettina M J

    2015-01-01

    Tree species distributions associated with rainfall are among the most prominent patterns in tropical forests. Understanding the mechanisms shaping these patterns is important to project impacts of global climate change on tree distributions and diversity in the tropics. Beside direct effects of water availability, additional factors co-varying with rainfall have been hypothesized to play an important role, including pest pressure and light availability. While low water availability is expected to exclude drought-intolerant wet forest species from drier forests (physiological tolerance hypothesis), high pest pressure or low light availability are hypothesized to exclude dry forest species from wetter forests (pest pressure gradient and light availability hypothesis, respectively). To test these hypotheses at the seed-to-seedling transition, the potentially most critical stage for species discrimination, we conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment combined with a pest exclosure treatment at a wet and a dry forest site in Panama with seeds of 26 species with contrasting origin. Establishment success after one year did not reflect species distribution patterns. However, in the wet forest, wet origin species had a home advantage over dry forest species through higher growth rates. At the same time, drought limited survival of wet origin species in the dry forest, supporting the physiological tolerance hypothesis. Together these processes sort species over longer time frames, and exclude species outside their respective home range. Although we found pronounced effects of pests and some effects of light availability on the seedlings, they did not corroborate the pest pressure nor light availability hypotheses at the seed-to-seedling transition. Our results underline that changes in water availability due to climate change will have direct consequences on tree regeneration and distributions along tropical rainfall gradients, while indirect effects of light and pests

  4. Surface Gradient Integrated Profiler for X-ray and EUV Optics--Calibration of the rotational angle error of the rotary encoders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Yasuo; Kume, Tatsuya; Enami, Kazuhiro; Ueno, Kenji; Mori, Yuzo; Takaie, Yuichi; Endo, Katsuyoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Yamamura, Kazuya; Sano, Yasuhisa

    2007-01-01

    A new ultraprecision profiler has been developed to measure for example asymmetric and aspheric profiles. The principle of our measuring method is that the normal vector at each point on the surface is determined by making the incident light beam on the mirror surface and the reflected beam at that point coincident. The gradient at each point is calculated from the normal vector, and the surface profile is then obtained by integrating the gradients. The measuring instrument was designed in accordance with the above principle for the measuring method and is called Surface Gradient Integrated Profiler (SGIP). In the design, four ultraprecision goniometers were applied to adjust the light axis for the normal vector measurement. These goniostages make it possible to attain an angular resolution of 0.018 μ radian by electrically dividing a pulse of the rotary encoder. The surface gradients are determined only by the rotational angle of goniometers. Thus in the measuring instrument, the most important factor is the accuracy of the normal vectors measured by the goniometers. To attain an accuracy of 0.1 μ radian, we developed a system for correcting the rotational angle error of the goniometers in which the trigonometric measuring method is utilized for geometrical angle determination

  5. [Analysis of statutory health insurance data concerning utilization of support surfaces for pressure ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Falk; Scharnetzky, Elke; Deitermann, Bernhilde; Glaeske, Gerd

    2006-10-01

    Support surfaces are commonly used to prevent and treat pressure ulcers. Up to now little is known about their application in Germany. We conducted a cross-sectional study using claims data of the Gmuender ErsatzKasse (GEK) for the year 2004 to analyse the utilization of support surfaces for pressure ulcers in primary care. Based on age- and sex-specific treatment prevalences for individuals with at least one prescription, prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated. A total of 1999 subjects with a mean age of 63.4 years (SD: 20.7) received support surfaces for pressure ulcers. With respect to the numbers of prescriptions (n = 2421) alternating pressure mattresses (31.6%), air-filled rings (13.5%) and various seat cushions (13.0%) were used frequently, whereas foam mattresses only came to 4.7%. The treatment prevalence increases continuously with age with no sex-specific differences. Using the 50-59 year olds as a reference, men aged 90+ (PR: 43.94; 95% CI: 31.46-61.37) as well as women aged 90+ (PR: 40.61; 95% CI: 30.77-53.60) received approximately 40-times more often support surfaces for pressure ulcers. Support surfaces for pressure ulcers are commonly used in the elderly. Our study suggests that their application does not correspond to the best available evidence. Prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers as well as the selection of support surfaces should be seen as an interdisciplinary task.

  6. Towards improved estimation of the unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity in the near saturated range by a fully automated, pressure controlled unit gradient experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werisch, Stefan; Müller, Marius

    2017-04-01

    Determination of soil hydraulic properties has always been an important part of soil physical research and model applications. While several experiments are available to measure the water retention of soil samples, the determination of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is often more complicated, bound to strong assumption and time consuming. Although, the application of unit gradient experiments is recommended since the middle of the last century, as one method towards a (assumption free) direct measurement of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, data from unit gradient experiments is seldom to never reported in literature. We developed and build a fully automated, pressure controlled, unit gradient experiment, which allows a precise determination of the unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity K(h) and water retention VWC(h), especially in the highly dynamic near saturated range. The measurement apparatus applies the concept of hanging water columns and imposes the required soil water pressure by dual porous plates. This concepts allows the simultaneous and direct measurement of water retention and hydraulic conductivity. Moreover, this approach results in a technically less demanding experiment than related flux controlled experiments, and virtually any flux can be measured. Thus, both soil properties can be measured in mm resolution, for wetting and drying processes, between saturation and field capacity for all soil types. Our results show, that it is important to establish separate measurements of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity in the near saturated range, as the shape of the retention function and hydraulic conductivity curve do not necessarily match. Consequently, the prediction of the hydraulic conductivity curve from measurements of the water retention behavior in combination with a value for the saturated hydraulic conductivity can be misleading. Thus, separate parameterizations of the individual functions might be necessary and are

  7. The association between the pulse pressure gradient at the cranio-cervical junction derived from phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging and invasively measured pulsatile intracranial pressure in symptomatic patients with Chiari malformation type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frič, Radek; Lindstrøm, Erika Kristina; Ringstad, Geir Andre; Mardal, Kent-André; Eide, Per Kristian

    2016-12-01

    In symptomatic Chiari malformation type 1 (CMI), impaired intracranial compliance (ICC) is associated with an increased cranio-spinal pulsatile pressure gradient. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents a non-invasive modality for the assessment of the pulse pressure gradient at the cranio-cervical junction (CCJ). We wished to explore how the MRI-derived pulse pressure gradient (MRI-dP) compares with invasively measured pulsatile intracranial pressure (ICP) in CMI, and with healthy controls. From phase-contrast MRI of CMI patients and healthy controls, we computed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow velocities and MRI-dP at the CCJ. We assessed bidirectional flow and compared the flow between the anterior and the posterior subarachnoid space at the CCJ. We computed total intracranial volume (ICV), ventricular CSF volume (VV), and posterior cranial fossa volume (PCFV). We analyzed the static and pulsatile ICP scores from overnight monitoring in CMI patients. Five CMI patients and four healthy subjects were included. The CMI group had a significantly larger extent of tonsillar ectopia, smaller PCFV, and a smaller area of CSF in the FM. The pulsatile ICP (mean ICP wave amplitude, MWA) was abnormally increased in 4/5 CMI patients and correlated positively with MRI-dP. However, the MRI-dP as well as the CSF flow velocities did not differ significantly between CMI and healthy subjects. Moreover, bidirectional flow was observed in both CMI as well as healthy subjects, with no significant difference. In symptomatic CMI patients, we found a significant association between the pulse pressure gradient at the CCJ derived from phase-contrast MRI and the pulsatile ICP (MWA) measured invasively. However, the MRI-dP was close to identical in CMI patients and healthy subjects. Moreover, the CSF flow velocities at the CCJ and the occurrence of bidirectional flow were not different in CMI patients and healthy individuals. Further studies are required to determine the

  8. Surface CO2 Exchange Dynamics across a Climatic Gradient in McKenzie Valley: Effect of Landforms, Climate and Permafrost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Startsev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Northern regions are experiencing considerable climate change affecting the state of permafrost, peat accumulation rates, and the large pool of carbon (C stored in soil, thereby emphasizing the importance of monitoring surface C fluxes in different landform sites along a climate gradient. We studied surface net C exchange (NCE and ecosystem respiration (ER across different landforms (upland, peat plateau, collapse scar in mid-boreal to high subarctic ecoregions in the Mackenzie Valley of northwestern Canada for three years. NCE and ER were measured using automatic CO2 chambers (ADC, Bioscientific LTD., Herts, England, and soil respiration (SR was measured with solid state infrared CO2 sensors (Carbocaps, Vaisala, Vantaa, Finland using the concentration gradient technique. Both NCE and ER were primarily controlled by soil temperature in the upper horizons. In upland forest locations, ER varied from 583 to 214 g C·m−2·year−1 from mid-boreal to high subarctic zones, respectively. For the bog and peat plateau areas, ER was less than half that at the upland locations. Of SR, nearly 75% was generated in the upper 5 cm layer composed of live bryophytes and actively decomposing fibric material. Our results suggest that for the upland and bog locations, ER significantly exceeded NCE. Bryophyte NCE was greatest in continuously waterlogged collapsed areas and was negligible in other locations. Overall, upland forest sites were sources of CO2 (from 64 g·C·m−2·year−1 in the high subarctic to 588 g C·m−2·year−1 in mid-boreal zone; collapsed areas were sinks of C, especially in high subarctic (from 27 g·C·m−2 year−1 in mid-boreal to 86 g·C·m−2·year−1 in high subarctic and peat plateaus were minor sources (from 153 g·C·m−2·year−1 in mid-boreal to 6 g·C·m−2·year−1 in high subarctic. The results are important in understanding how different landforms are responding to climate change and would be useful in modeling the

  9. Irradiance gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.J.; Heckbert, P.S.; Technische Hogeschool Delft

    1992-04-01

    A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques

  10. Sound pressure around dipole source above porous surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezelj, Jurij; Steblaj, Peter; Cudina, Mirko

    2014-06-01

    A technique for in situ measurements of acoustic properties of a fibrous porous material is proposed in this paper. Proposed technique exploits a directivity pattern of a dipole source in its very near field. Theoretical analysis for the proposed technique is based on the Rayleigh integral with a complex reflection included. Results are compared with results of FEM analysis and show that flow resistivity of a porous material placed in the very near field of the dipole source has significant influence on the sound pressure at its ring. Results provide an excellent starting point for the design of the sensor for sound absorption.

  11. Pressure RElieving Support SUrfaces: a Randomised Evaluation 2 (PRESSURE 2): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sarah; Smith, Isabelle L; Brown, Julia M; Hulme, Claire; McGinnis, Elizabeth; Stubbs, Nikki; Nelson, E Andrea; Muir, Delia; Rutherford, Claudia; Walker, Kay; Henderson, Valerie; Wilson, Lyn; Gilberts, Rachael; Collier, Howard; Fernandez, Catherine; Hartley, Suzanne; Bhogal, Moninder; Coleman, Susanne; Nixon, Jane E

    2016-12-20

    Pressure ulcers represent a major burden to patients, carers and the healthcare system, affecting approximately 1 in 17 hospital and 1 in 20 community patients. They impact greatly on an individual's functional status and health-related quality of life. The mainstay of pressure ulcer prevention practice is the provision of pressure redistribution support surfaces and patient repositioning. The aim of the PRESSURE 2 study is to compare the two main mattress types utilised within the NHS: high-specification foam and alternating pressure mattresses, in the prevention of pressure ulcers. PRESSURE 2 is a multicentre, open-label, randomised, double triangular, group sequential, parallel group trial. A maximum of 2954 'high-risk' patients with evidence of acute illness will be randomised on a 1:1 basis to receive either a high-specification foam mattress or alternating-pressure mattress in conjunction with an electric profiling bed frame. The primary objective of the trial is to compare mattresses in terms of the time to developing a new Category 2 or above pressure ulcer by 30 days post end of treatment phase. Secondary endpoints include time to developing new Category 1 and 3 or above pressure ulcers, time to healing of pre-existing Category 2 pressure ulcers, health-related quality of life, cost-effectiveness, incidence of mattress change and safety. Validation objectives are to determine the responsiveness of the Pressure Ulcer Quality of Life-Prevention instrument and the feasibility of having a blinded endpoint assessment using photography. The trial will have a maximum of three planned analyses with unequally spaced reviews at event-driven coherent cut-points. The futility boundaries are constructed as non-binding to allow a decision for stopping early to be overruled by the Data Monitoring and Ethics Committee. The double triangular, group sequential design of the PRESSURE 2 trial will provide an efficient design through the possibility of early stopping for

  12. High Sensitivity Semiconductor Sensor Skins for Multi-Axis Surface Pressure Characterization, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA Phase II SBIR program would fabricate high sensitivity semiconductor nanomembrane 'sensor skins' capable of multi-axis surface pressure characterization on...

  13. High Sensitivity Semiconductor Sensor Skins for Multi-Axis Surface Pressure Characterization, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA Phase I SBIR program would fabricate high sensitivity semiconductor nanomembrane 'sensor skins' capable of multi-axis surface pressure characterization on...

  14. Fluorination of poly(dimethylsiloxane) surfaces by low pressure CF4 plasma : physicochemical and antifouling properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordeiro, A.L.; Nitschke, M.; Janke, A.; Helbig, R.; D'Souza, F.; Donnelly, G.T.; Willemsen, P.R.; Werner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Fluorinated surface groups were introduced into poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) coatings by plasma treatment using a low pressure radio frequency discharge operated with tetrafluoromethane. Substrates were placed in a remote position downstream the discharge. Discharge power and treatment time were

  15. Hydrophilic surface modification of coronary stent using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet for endothelialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae Won; Bae, In-Ho; Park, Dae Sung; Lee, So-Youn; Jang, Eun-Jae; Lim, Kyung-Seob; Park, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Ju Han; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2018-03-01

    The first two authors contributed equally to this study. Bioactivity and cell adhesion properties are major factors for fabricating medical devices such as coronary stents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantages of atmospheric-pressure plasma jet in enhancing the biocompatibility and endothelial cell-favorites. The experimental objects were divided into before and after atmospheric-pressure plasma jet treatment with the ratio of nitrogen:argon = 3:1, which is similar to air. The treated surfaces were basically characterized by means of a contact angle analyzer for the activation property on their surfaces. The effect of atmospheric-pressure plasma jet on cellular response was examined by endothelial cell adhesion and XTT analysis. It was difficult to detect any changeable morphology after atmospheric-pressure plasma jet treatment on the surface. The roughness was increased after atmospheric-pressure plasma jet treatment compared to nonatmospheric-pressure plasma jet treatment (86.781 and 7.964 nm, respectively). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that the surface concentration of the C-O groups increased slightly from 6% to 8% after plasma activation. The contact angle dramatically decreased in the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet treated group (22.6 ± 15.26°) compared to the nonatmospheric-pressure plasma jet treated group (72.4 ± 15.26°) ( n = 10, p atmospheric-pressure plasma jet on endothelial cell migration and proliferation was 85.2% ± 12.01% and 34.2% ± 2.68%, respectively, at 7 days, compared to the nonatmospheric-pressure plasma jet treated group (58.2% ± 11.44% in migration, n = 10, p atmospheric-pressure plasma jet method. Moreover, the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet might affect re-endothelialization after stenting.

  16. Cleaning of niobium surface by plasma of diffuse discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Erofeev, M. V.; Shulepov, M. A.; Ripenko, V. S.

    2017-07-01

    Elements composition of niobium surface before and after plasma treatment by runaway electron preionized diffuse discharge was investigated in atmospheric pressure nitrogen flow by means of an Auger electron spectroscopy. Surface characterizations obtained from Auger spectra show that plasma treatment by diffuse discharge after exposure of 120000 pulses provides ultrafine surface cleaning from carbon contamination. Moreover, the surface free energy of the treated specimens increased up to 3 times, that improve its adhesion property.

  17. Collapse of Langmuir monolayer at lower surface pressure: Effect of hydrophobic chain length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Kaushik, E-mail: kaushikdas2089@gmail.com; Kundu, Sarathi [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Vigyan Path, Paschim Boragaon, Garchuk, Guwahati, Assam 781035 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Long chain fatty acid molecules (e.g., stearic and behenic acids) form a monolayer on water surface in the presence of Ba{sup 2+} ions at low subphase pH (≈ 5.5) and remain as a monolayer before collapse generally occurs at higher surface pressure (π{sub c} > 50 mN/m). Monolayer formation is verified from the surface pressure vs. area per molecule (π-A) isotherms and also from the atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of the films deposited by single upstroke of hydrophilic Si (001) substrate through the monolayer covered water surface. At high subphase pH (≈ 9.5), barium stearate molecules form multilayer structure at lower surface pressure which is verified from the π-A isotherms and AFM analysis of the film deposited at 25 mN/m. Such monolayer to multilayer structure formation or monolayer collapse at lower surface pressure is unusual as at this surface pressure generally fatty acid salt molecules form a monolayer on the water surface. Formation of bidentate chelate coordination in the metal containing headgroups is the reason for such monolayer to multilayer transition. However, for longer chain barium behenate molecules only monolayer structure is maintained at that high subphase pH (≈ 9.5) due to the presence of relatively more tail-tail hydrophobic interaction.

  18. Surface pressure model for simple delta wings at high angles of attack

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new aerodynamic modelling approach is proposed for the longitudinal static characteristics of a simple delta wing. It captures the static variation of normal force and pitching moment characteristics throughout the angle of attack range. The pressure model is based on parametrizing the surface pressure distribution on a ...

  19. Predictors of ventricular tachyarrhythmia occurring late after intracardiac repair of tetralogy of Fallot: combination of QRS duration change rate and tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masashi; Sugimoto, Ai; Tsuchida, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Background To determine potential predictors of ventricular tachyarrhythmia and sudden cardiac death (SCD) occurring late after repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Methods Since 1964, 415 patients had undergone total repair for TOF at Niigata University Hospital. Of these, 89 patients who were followed for more than 10 years at our institute were retrospectively reviewed. Results The mean follow-up period was 24.3 years. During the study period, one patient died of cerebral bleeding, and two patients had SCD. The overall survival rates at 20, 30, and 40 years were 100%, 94.6%, and 94.6%, respectively. Eight (9.0%) patients required re-intervention during the late period associated with right ventricular outflow (n=4), tricuspid valve (n=3), aortic valve (n=2), and others (n=2). Ten (11.2%) patients had a history of ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF), and six underwent implantation of an implantable cardiac defibrillator. Multivariate analysis selected the change rate of QRS duration [ms/year; odds ratio (OR), 2.44; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28–4.65; P=0.007] and the pressure gradient at tricuspid valve regurgitation on echocardiography (OR, 1.12; 95% CI: 1.02–1.22; P=0.017) as risk factors for VT/VF or SCD. Trans-annular patch (TAP) repair was not an independent risk factor for ventricular arrhythmia. Conclusions The combination of rapid change rate of QRS duration and higher-pressure gradient at tricuspid regurgitation were risk factors for ventricular tachyarrhythmia late after TOF repair. Adequate surgical or catheter intervention for pressure and volume load in the right ventricle might decrease the prevalence of VT/VF and SCD. PMID:29312717

  20. Support surfaces in the prevention of pressure ulcers in surgical patients: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Karoline Faria; Nascimento, Kleiton Gonçalves; Nicolussi, Adriana Cristina; Chavaglia, Suzel Regina Ribeiro; de Araújo, Cleudmar Amaral; Barbosa, Maria Helena

    2017-08-01

    To assess the scientific evidence about the types of support surfaces used in intraoperative surgical practice in the prevention of pressure ulcers due to surgical positioning. This is an integrative literature review. The electronic databases Cochrane, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Lilacs, and CINAHL were used. The descriptors surgical patients, support surfaces, perioperative care, patient positioning, and pressure ulcer were used in the search strategy. Articles that addressed the use of support surfaces intraoperatively, published between 1990 and 2016, were selected. The PRISMA guidelines were used to structure the review. Of 18 evaluated studies, most were in English, followed by Portuguese and Spanish; most were performed by nurses. The most commonly cited support surfaces were viscoelastic polymer, micropulse mattresses, gel based mattresses, and foam devices. There are gaps in knowledge regarding the most efficient support surfaces and the specifications of the products used to prevent pressure ulcers due to surgical positioning. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Estimation of methane emission flux at landfill surface using laser methane detector: Influence of gauge pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Kyu; Kang, Jong-Yun; Lee, Nam-Hoon

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of measuring methane emission fluxes, using surface methane concentration and gauge pressure, by analyzing the influence of gauge pressure on the methane emission flux and the surface methane concentration, as well as the correlation between the methane emission flux and surface methane concentrations. The surface methane concentration was measured using a laser methane detector. Our results show a positive linear relationship between the surface methane concentration and the methane emission flux. Furthermore, the methane emission flux showed a positive linear relationship with the gauge pressure; this implies that when the surface methane concentration and the surface gauge pressure are measured simultaneously, the methane emission flux can be calculated using Darcy's law. A decrease in the vertical permeability was observed when the gauge pressure was increased, because reducing the vertical permeability may lead to a reduced landfill gas emission to the atmosphere, and landfill gas would be accumulated inside the landfill. Finally, this method is simple and can allow for a greater number of measurements during a relatively shorter period. Thus, it provides a better representation of the significant space and time variations in methane emission fluxes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Formation Mechanism of Surface Crack in Low Pressure Casting of A360 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan-Guang; Cao, Fu-Yang; Ying, Tao; Zhao, Xin-Yi; Liu, Jing-Shun; Shen, Hong-Xian; Guo, Shu; Sun, Jian-Fei

    2017-12-01

    A surface crack defect is normally found in low pressure castings of Al alloy with a sudden contraction structure. To further understand the formation mechanism of the defect, the mold filling process is simulated by a two-phase flow model. The experimental results indicate that the main reason for the defect deformation is the mismatching between the height of liquid surface in the mold and pressure in the crucible. In the case of filling, a sudden contraction structure with an area ratio smaller than 0.5 is obtained, and the velocity of the liquid front increases dramatically with the influence of inertia. Meanwhile, the pressurizing speed in the crucible remains unchanged, resulting in the pressure not being able to support the height of the liquid level. Then the liquid metal flows back to the crucible and forms a relatively thin layer solidification shell on the mold wall. With the increasing pressure in the crucible, the liquid level rises again, engulfing the shell and leading to a surface crack. As the filling velocity is characterized by the damping oscillations, surface cracks will form at different heights. The results shed light on designing a suitable pressurizing speed for the low pressure casting process.

  3. Effect of excess pore pressure on the long runout of debris flows over low gradient channels: A case study of the Dongyuege debris flow in Nu River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen-Hua; Ren, Zhe; Wang, Kun; Yang, Kui; Tang, Yong-Jun; Tian, Lin; Xu, Ze-Min

    2018-05-01

    Debris flows with long reaches are one of the major natural hazards to human life and property on alluvial fans, as shown by the debris flow that occurred in the Dongyuege (DYG) Gully in August 18, 2010, and caused 96 deaths. The travel distance and the runout distance of the DYG large-scale tragic debris flow were 11 km and 9 km, respectively. In particular, the runout distance over the low gradient channel (channel slope value (Kp) and rate of dissipation (R) of relative excess pore pressure are dependent on SVC. Further, the SVC that gives the lowest rate of dissipation is regarded as the optimum SVC (Cvo). The dissipation response of excess pore pressure can be characterized by the R value under Cvo at a given moment (i.e., 0.5 h, 1 h or 2 h later after peak time). The results reveal that a relatively high level of excess pore pressure developed within the DYG debris-flow mass and had a strong persistence capability. Further research shows that the development, peak value and dissipation of excess pore pressure in a mixture of sediment and water are related to the maximum grain size (MGS), gradation and mineralogy of clay-size particles of the sediment. The layer-lattice silicates in clay particles can be the typical clay minerals, including kaolinite, montmorillonite and illite, and also the unrepresentative clay minerals such as muscovite and chlorite. Moreover, small woody debris can also contribute to the slurrying of sediments and maintenance of debris flows in well vegetated mountainous areas and the boulders suspended in debris flows can elevate excess pore pressure and extend debris-flow mobility. The parameters, including Id, Kp, R and etc., are affected by the intrinsic properties of debris. They, therefore, can reflect the slurrying susceptibility of sediments, and can also be applied to the research on the occurrence mechanisms and risk assessment of other debris flows.

  4. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention: A network meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhu Shi

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcers are a prevalent and global issue and support surfaces are widely used for preventing ulceration. However, the diversity of available support surfaces and the lack of direct comparisons in RCTs make decision-making difficult.To determine, using network meta-analysis, the relative effects of different support surfaces in reducing pressure ulcer incidence and comfort and to rank these support surfaces in order of their effectiveness.We conducted a systematic review, using a literature search up to November 2016, to identify randomised trials comparing support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention. Two reviewers independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We grouped the support surfaces according to their characteristics and formed evidence networks using these groups. We used network meta-analysis to estimate the relative effects and effectiveness ranking of the groups for the outcomes of pressure ulcer incidence and participant comfort. GRADE was used to assess the certainty of evidence.We included 65 studies in the review. The network for assessing pressure ulcer incidence comprised evidence of low or very low certainty for most network contrasts. There was moderate-certainty evidence that powered active air surfaces and powered hybrid air surfaces probably reduce pressure ulcer incidence compared with standard hospital surfaces (risk ratios (RR 0.42, 95% confidence intervals (CI 0.29 to 0.63; 0.22, 0.07 to 0.66, respectively. The network for comfort suggested that powered active air-surfaces are probably slightly less comfortable than standard hospital mattresses (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.94; moderate-certainty evidence.This is the first network meta-analysis of the effects of support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention. Powered active air-surfaces probably reduce pressure ulcer incidence, but are probably less comfortable than standard hospital surfaces. Most prevention evidence was

  5. A variable pressure method for characterizing nanoparticle surface charge using pore sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Robert; Anderson, Will; Eldridge, James; Glossop, Ben; Willmott, Geoff

    2012-04-03

    A novel method using resistive pulse sensors for electrokinetic surface charge measurements of nanoparticles is presented. This method involves recording the particle blockade rate while the pressure applied across a pore sensor is varied. This applied pressure acts in a direction which opposes transport due to the combination of electro-osmosis, electrophoresis, and inherent pressure. The blockade rate reaches a minimum when the velocity of nanoparticles in the vicinity of the pore approaches zero, and the forces on typical nanoparticles are in equilibrium. The pressure applied at this minimum rate can be used to calculate the zeta potential of the nanoparticles. The efficacy of this variable pressure method was demonstrated for a range of carboxylated 200 nm polystyrene nanoparticles with different surface charge densities. Results were of the same order as phase analysis light scattering (PALS) measurements. Unlike PALS results, the sequence of increasing zeta potential for different particle types agreed with conductometric titration.

  6. Atmospheric pressure plasma surface modification of titanium for high temperature adhesive bonding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akram, M.; Jansen, K.M.B.; Ernst, L.J.; Bhowmik, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation surface treatment of titanium is carried out by plasma ion implantation under atmospheric pressure plasma in order to increase the adhesive bond strength. Prior to the plasma treatment, titanium surfaces were mechanically treated by sand blasting. It is observed that the

  7. Pressure effects on interfacial surface contacts and performance of organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyei-Tuffour, B.; Doumon, Nutifafa Y.; Rwenyagila, E. R.; Asare, J.; Oyewole, O. K.; Shen, Z.; Petoukhoff, C. E.; Zebaze Kana, M. G.; Ocarroll, D. M.; Soboyejo, W. O.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of pressure on the interfacial surface contacts and the performance of organic solar cells. A combination of experimental techniques and analytical/computational models is used to study the evolving surface contacts profiles that occur when compliant, semi-rigid and

  8. Deployment of a Pressure Sensitive Paint System for Measuring Global Surface Pressures on Rotorcraft Blades in Simulated Forward Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, A. Neal; Leighty, Bradley; Lipford, William E.; Wong, Oliver D.; Goodman, Kyle Z.; Crafton, Jim; Forlines, Alan; Goss, Larry P.; Gregory, James W.; Juliano, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper will present details of a Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) system for measuring global surface pressures on the tips of rotorcraft blades in simulated forward flight at the 14- x 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center. The system was designed to use a pulsed laser as an excitation source and PSP data was collected using the lifetime-based approach. With the higher intensity of the laser, this allowed PSP images to be acquired during a single laser pulse, resulting in the collection of crisp images that can be used to determine blade pressure at a specific instant in time. This is extremely important in rotorcraft applications as the blades experience dramatically different flow fields depending on their position in the rotor disk. Testing of the system was performed using the U.S. Army General Rotor Model System equipped with four identical blades. Two of the blades were instrumented with pressure transducers to allow for comparison of the results obtained from the PSP. Preliminary results show that the PSP agrees both qualitatively and quantitatively with both the expected results as well as with the pressure taps. Several areas of improvement have been indentified and are currently being developed.

  9. The temporal evolution of the resistive pressure-gradient-driven turbulence and anomalous transport in shear flow across the magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae June; Mikhailenko, Vladmir; Mikhailenko, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    The temporal evolution of the resistive pressure-gradient-driven mode in the sheared flow is investigated by employing the shearing modes approach. It reveals an essential difference in the processes, which occur in the case of the flows with velocity shearing rate less than the growth rate of the instability in the steady plasmas, and in the case of the flows with velocity shear larger than the instability growth rate in steady plasmas. It displays the physical content of the empirical ``quench rule'' which predicts the suppression of the turbulence in the sheared flows when the velocity shearing rate becomes larger than the maximum growth rate of the possible instability. We found that the distortion of the perturbations by the sheared flow with such velocity shear introduces the time dependencies into the governing equations, which prohibits the application of the eigenmodes formalism and requires the solution of the initial value problem.

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations of water on a hydrophilic silica surface at high air pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, H.A.; Walther, Jens Honore; Jaffe, R.L.

    2014-01-01

    of air in water at different pressures. Using the calibrated force field, we conduct MD simulations to study the interface between a hydrophilic silica substrate and water surrounded by air at different pressures. We find that the static water contact angle is independent of the air pressure imposed......Wepresent a force field forMolecular Dynamics (MD) simulations ofwater and air in contactwith an amorphous silica surface. We calibrate the interactions of each species present in the systemusing dedicated criteria such as the contact angle of a water droplet on a silica surface, and the solubility...... on the system. Our simulations reveal the presence of a nanometer thick layer of gas at the water–silica interface. We believe that this gas layer could promote nucleation and stabilization of surface nanobubbles at amorphous silica surfaces. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  11. Liquid Hydrogen Propellant Tank Sub-Surface Pressurization with Gaseous Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.; Cartagena, W.

    2015-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of a propellant tank pressurization system with the pressurant diffuser intentionally submerged beneath the surface of the liquid. Propellant tanks and pressurization systems are typically designed with the diffuser positioned to apply pressurant gas directly into the tank ullage space when the liquid propellant is settled. Space vehicles, and potentially propellant depots, may need to conduct tank pressurization operations in micro-gravity environments where the exact location of the liquid relative to the diffuser is not well understood. If the diffuser is positioned to supply pressurant gas directly to the tank ullage space when the propellant is settled, then it may become partially or completely submerged when the liquid becomes unsettled in a microgravity environment. In such case, the pressurization system performance will be adversely affected requiring additional pressurant mass and longer pressurization times. This series of tests compares and evaluates pressurization system performance using the conventional method of supplying pressurant gas directly to the propellant tank ullage, and then supplying pressurant gas beneath the liquid surface. The pressurization tests were conducted on the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) located at Test Stand 300 at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). EDU is a ground based Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) test article supported by Glenn Research Center (GRC) and MSFC. A 150 ft3 propellant tank was filled with liquid hydrogen (LH2). The pressurization system used regulated ambient helium (GHe) as a pressurant, a variable position valve to maintain flow rate, and two identical independent pressurant diffusers. The ullage diffuser was located in the forward end of the tank and was completely exposed to the tank ullage. The submerged diffuser was located in the aft end of the tank and was completely submerged when the tank liquid level was 10% or greater

  12. Analysis of the geochemical gradient created by surface-groundwater interactions within riverbanks of the East River in Crested Butte, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunzer, J.; Williams, K. H.; Malenda, H. F.; Nararne-Sitchler, A.

    2016-12-01

    An improved understanding of the geochemical gradient created by the mixing of surface and groundwater of a river system will have considerable impact on our understanding of microorganisms, organic cycling and biogeochemical processes within these zones. In this study, the geochemical gradient in the hyporheic zone is described using a variety of geochemical properties. A system of shallow groundwater wells were installed in a series of transects along a stream bank. Each transect consists of several wells that progress away from the river bank in a perpendicular fashion. From these wells, temperature, conductivity and pH of water samples were obtained via hand pumping or bailing. These data show a clear geochemical gradient that displays a distinct zone in the subsurface where the geochemical conditions change from surface water dominated to groundwater dominated. For this study, the East River near Crested Butte, Colorado has been selected as the river of interest due the river being a relatively undisturbed floodplain. Additionally, the specific section chosen on the East River displays relatively high sinuosity meaning that these meandering sections will produce hyporheic zones that are more laterally expansive than what would be expected on a river of lower sinuosity. This increase in lateral extension of the hyporheic zone will make depicting the subtle changes in the geochemical gradient much easier than that of a river system in which the hyporheic zone is not as laterally extensive. Data has been and will be continued to be collected at different river discharges to evaluate the geochemical gradient at differing rates. Overall, this characterization of the geochemical gradient along stream banks will produce results that will aid in the further use of geochemical methods to classify and understand hyporheic exchange zones and the potential expansion of these techniques to river systems of differing geologic and geographic conditions.

  13. Effect of pressure on Fe3+/ΣFe ratio in a mafic magma and consequences for magma ocean redox gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. L.; Hirschmann, M. M.; Cottrell, E.; Withers, A. C.

    2017-05-01

    Experiments establishing the effect of pressure on the Fe3+/ΣFe ratio of andesitic silicate melts buffered by coexisting Ru and RuO2 were performed from 100 kPa to 7 GPa and 1400-1750 °C. Fe3+/ΣFe ratios were determined by room temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy, but corrected for the effects of recoilless fraction. Fe3+/ΣFe ratios in quenched glasses decrease with increasing pressure consistent with previous results between 100 kPa and 3 GPa (O'Neill et al., 2006), but show only small pressure effects above 5 GPa. Ratios also decrease with increasing temperature. Mössbauer hyperfine parameters indicate mean coordination of Fe3+ ions of ∼5 in glasses, with no dependence on the pressure from which the glasses were quenched, but show an increase with pressure in mean coordination of Fe2+ ions, from ∼5 to ∼6. XANES spectra on these glasses show variations in pre-edge intensities and centroid positions that are systematic with Fe3+/ΣFe, but are displaced from those established from otherwise identical andesitic glasses quenched at 100 kPa (Zhang et al., 2016). These systematics permit construction of a new XANES calibration curve relating pre-edge sub-peak intensities to Fe3+/ΣFe applicable to high pressure glasses. Consistent with interpretations of the Mössbauer hyperfine parameters, XANES pre-edge peak features in high pressure glasses are owing chiefly to the effects of pressure on the coordination of Fe2+ ions from ∼5.5 to ∼6, with negligible effects evident for Fe3+ ions. We use the new data to construct a thermodynamic model relating the effects of oxygen fugacity and pressure on Fe3+/ΣFe. We apply this model to calculate variations in oxygen fugacity in isochemical (constant Fe3+/ΣFe) columns of magma representative of magma oceans, in which fO2 is fixed at the base by equilibration with molten Fe. These calculations indicate that oxygen fugacities at the surface of shallow magma oceans are more reduced than at depth. For magma oceans in

  14. Effect of pressure on Fe3+/ΣFe ratio in a mafic magma and consequences for magma ocean redox gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H. L.; Hirschmann, M. M.; Cottrell, E.; Withers, A. C.

    2017-05-01

    indicate that oxygen fugacities at the surface of shallow magma oceans are more reduced than at depth. For magma oceans in which the pressure at the base is near 5 GPa, as may be appropriate for Mercury and the Moon, conditions at the surface are ~1.5 log unit more reduced at the surface than at their base. If the results calibrated up to pressures of 7 GPa can be extrapolated to higher pressures appropriate for magma oceans on larger terrestrial planets such as Mars or Earth, then conditions at the surface are ~2 or 2.5 log units more reduced at the surface than at the base, respectively. Thus, atmospheres overlying shallow magma oceans should be highly reduced and rich in H2 and CO.

  15. Monitoring of the spatio-temporal change in the interplate coupling at northeastern Japan subduction zone based on the spatial gradients of surface velocity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iinuma, Takeshi

    2018-04-01

    A monitoring method to grasp the spatio-temporal change in the interplate coupling in a subduction zone based on the spatial gradients of surface displacement rate fields is proposed. I estimated the spatio-temporal change in the interplate coupling along the plate boundary in northeastern (NE) Japan by applying the proposed method to the surface displacement rates based on global positioning system observations. The gradient of the surface velocities is calculated in each swath configured along the direction normal to the Japan Trench for time windows such as 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 yr being shifted by one week during the period of 1997-2016. The gradient of the horizontal velocities is negative and has a large magnitude when the interplate coupling at the shallow part (less than approximately 50 km in depth) beneath the profile is strong, and the sign of the gradient of the vertical velocity is sensitive to the existence of the coupling at the deep part (greater than approximately 50 km in depth). The trench-parallel variation of the spatial gradients of a displacement rate field clearly corresponds to the trench-parallel variation of the amplitude of the interplate coupling on the plate interface, as well as the rupture areas of previous interplate earthquakes. Temporal changes in the trench-parallel variation of the spatial gradient of the displacement rate correspond to the strengthening or weakening of the interplate coupling. We can monitor the temporal change in the interplate coupling state by calculating the spatial gradients of the surface displacement rate field to some extent without performing inversion analyses with applying certain constraint conditions that sometimes cause over- and/or underestimation at areas of limited spatial resolution far from the observation network. The results of the calculation confirm known interplate events in the NE Japan subduction zone, such as the post-seismic slip of the 2003 M8.0 Tokachi-oki and 2005 M7.2 Miyagi

  16. Surface-nitriding treatment of steels using microwave-induced nitrogen plasma at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shigeo; Arai, Yuuki; Yamashita, Noboru; Kojyo, Atsushi; Kodama, Kenji; Ohtsu, Naofumi; Okamoto, Yukio; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2012-01-01

    A rapid surface-nitriding system using microwave-induced nitrogen plasma at atmospheric pressure was developed for modifying iron and steel surfaces. Since the conventional plasma nitriding technique requires a low-pressure atmosphere in the treatment chamber, the population of excited nitrogen molecules in the plasma is limited. Accordingly, several hours are required for nitriding treatment. By contrast, the developed nitriding system can use atmospheric-pressure plasma through application of the Okamoto cavity for excitation of nitrogen plasma. The high population of excited nitrogen molecules induced by the atmospheric-pressure plasma allowed the formation of a nitriding layer that was several micrometers thick within 1 min and produced an expanded austenite iron phase with a high nitrogen concentration close to the solubility limit on the iron substrate. In addition, the nitriding treatment on high-chromium steel was performed by introducing a reducing gas such as NH 3 and H 2 into the treatment chamber. While the nitriding reaction did not proceed in a simple N 2 atmosphere due to surface oxidation, the surface reduction induced by the NH 3 or H 2 gas promoted the nitriding reaction at the surface. These nitriding phenomena characteristics of the atmospheric-pressure plasma are discussed in this paper based on the effects of the specimen temperature and plasma atmosphere on the thickness, the chemical states, and the nitride compounds of the nitrided layer as investigated by X-ray diffraction, glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  17. Influence of surface rectangular defect winding layer on burst pressure of CNG-II composite cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, H. X.; Peng, L.; Zhao, C.; Ma, K.; Zhang, S.

    2018-01-01

    To study the influence of composite materials’ surface defect on the burst pressure of CNG-II composite cylinder, the surface defect was simplified as a rectangular slot of certain size on the basis of actually investigating the shape of cylinder’s surface defect. A CNG-II composite cylinder with a rectangular slot defect (2mm in depth) was used for burst test, and the numerical simulation software ANSYS was used to calculate its burst pressure. Through comparison between the burst pressure in the test and the numerical analysis result, the correctness of the numerical analysis method was verified. On this basis, the numerical analysis method was conducted for composite cylinders with surface defect in other depth. The result showed that surface defect in the form of rectangular slot had no significant effect on the liner stress of composite cylinder. Instead, it had a great influence on the stress of fiber-wrapped layer. The burst pressure of the composite cylinder decreased as the defect depth increasing. The hoop stress at the bottom of the defect in the shape of rectangular slot exceeded the maximum of the composite materials’ tensile strength, which could result in the burst pressure of composite cylinders decreasing.

  18. Arsenic and metallic trace elements cycling in the surface water-groundwater-soil continuum down-gradient from a reclaimed mine area: Isotopic imprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaska, Mahmoud; Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Sassine, Lara; Cary, Lise; Bruguier, Olivier; Verdoux, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    One decade after closure of the Salsigne mine (SW France), As contamination persisted in surface water, groundwater and soil near and down-gradient from the reclaimed ore processing site (OPS). We assess the fate of As and other associated chalcophilic MTEs, and their transport in the surface-water/groundwater/soil continuum down-gradient from the reclaimed OPS, using Sr-isotopic fingerprinting. The Sr-isotope ratio was used as a tracer of transfer processes in this hydro-geosystem and was combined to sequential extraction of soil samples to evaluate the impact of contaminated soil on the underlying phreatic groundwater. The contrast in Sr isotope compositions of the different soil fractions reflects several Sr sources in the soil. In the complex hydro-geosystem around the OPS, the transport of As and MTEs is affected by a succession of factors, such as (1) Existence of a reducing zone in the aquifer below the reclaimed OPS, where groundwater shows relatively high As and MTEs contents, (2) Groundwater discharge into the stream near the reclaimed OPS causing an increase in As and MTE concentrations in surface water; (3) Partial co-precipitation of As with Fe-oxyhydroxides, contributing to some attenuation of As contents in surface water; (4) Infiltration of contaminated stream water into the unconfined aquifer down-gradient from the reclaimed OPS; (5) Accumulation of As and MTEs in soil irrigated with contaminated stream- and groundwater; (6) Release of As and MTEs from labile soil fractions to underlying the groundwater.

  19. Pressure gradient of a two-region solid-liquid flow in horizontal wells; Gradiente de presion de un flujo bifasico solido-liquido de dos regiones en pozos horizontales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar Mendoza, R.; Garcia Gutierrez, A. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (CENIDET), Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Espinosa Paredes, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-12-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented for the problem of cutting transport in a two-region, slurry-flow system in horizontal pipes, with a stationary bed of drill cuttings as a porous medium (w-region) below a two-phase dispersed flow (n-region). Volume averaging was applied to derive a rigorous mathematical model where each variable is precisely defined. The model includes volume-averaged transport equations for both the two-phase dispersed flow and the porous-medium regions, and terms from a macroscopic forces balance. The solution of the two-region model allowed evaluation of the behavior of the pressure gradient as a function of velocity, total volume fraction of cuttings, and the relationship between the height of the stationary bed and pipe diameter. It is based on a backward, finite-difference explicit scheme. The simulated physical system is a pipe diameter. It is based on a backward, finite-difference explicit scheme. The simulated physical system is a pipe of 4.135 m in horizontal length and 0.0508 m in diameter. A one dimensional, mesh-centered grid is used, consisting of 10 nodes. The numerical results were compared with experimental data on slurry flows and a good agreement was found. [Spanish] Se presenta un analisis teorico del problema de transporte de recortes de perforacion en pozos horizontales. Se estudia el flujo bifasico solido-liquido en dos regiones donde la region inferior es un lecho estacionario de recortes, considerado como medio poroso, mientras que la region superior es un flujo bifasico disperso solido-liquido. Se aplica el metodo de promediado en volumen para derivar de manera matematicamente rigurosa el modelo de dos regiones. El modelo incluye las ecuaciones de transporte promediadas en volumen para cada region y terminos que resultan de un balance de fuerzas macroscopico. La solucion del modelo permite evaluar el comportamiento del gradiente de presion como funcion de la velocidad, la fraccion de volumen de recortes total y la

  20. Hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated using atmospheric pressure cold plasma technology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakellis, Panagiotis; Gogolides, Evangelos

    2018-03-29

    Hydrophobic surfaces are often used to reduce wetting of surfaces by water. In particular, superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desired for several applications due to their exceptional properties such as self-cleaning, anti-icing, anti-friction and others. Such surfaces can be prepared via numerous methods including plasma technology, a dry technique with low environmental impact. Atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) has recently attracted significant attention as lower-cost alternative to low-pressure plasmas, and as a candidate for continuous rather than batch processing. Although there are many reviews on water-repellent surfaces, and a few reviews on APP technology, there are hardly any review works on APP processing for hydrophobic and superhydrohobic surface fabrication, a topic of high importance in nanotechnology and interface science. Herein, we critically review the advances on hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surface fabrication using APP technology, trying also to give some perspectives in the field. After a short introduction to superhydrophobicity of nanostructured surfaces and to APPs we focus this review on three different aspects: (1) The atmospheric plasma reactor technology used for fabrication of (super)hydrophobic surfaces. (2) The APP process for hydrophobic surface preparation. The hydrophobic surface preparation processes are categorized methodologically as: a) activation, b) grafting, c) polymerization, d) roughening and hydrophobization. Each category includes subcategories related to different precursors used. (3) One of the most important sections of this review concerns superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated using APP. These are methodologically characterized as follows: a) single step processes where micro-nano textured topography and low surface energy coating are created at the same time, or b) multiple step processes, where these steps occur sequentially in or out of the plasma. We end the review with some perspectives in the field. We

  1. Pressure controlled transition into a self-induced topological superconducting surface state

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2014-02-07

    Ab-initio calculations show a pressure induced trivial-nontrivial-trivial topological phase transition in the normal state of 1T-TiSe2. The pressure range in which the nontrivial phase emerges overlaps with that of the superconducting ground state. Thus, topological superconductivity can be induced in protected surface states by the proximity effect of superconducting bulk states. This kind of self-induced topological surface superconductivity is promising for a realization of Majorana fermions due to the absence of lattice and chemical potential mismatches. For appropriate electron doping, the formation of the topological superconducting surface state in 1T-TiSe 2 becomes accessible to experiments as it can be controlled by pressure.

  2. Effects of Oxygen Partial Pressure on the Surface Tension of Liquid Nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Gowda, Vijaya Kumar Malahalli Shankare; Rodriguez, Justin; Matson, Douglas M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory has been recently upgraded with an oxygen partial pressure controller. This system allows the oxygen partial pressure within the vacuum chamber to be measured and controlled, theoretically in the range from 10-36 to 100 bar. The oxygen control system installed in the ESL laboratory's main chamber consists of an oxygen sensor, oxygen pump, and a control unit. The sensor is a potentiometric device that determines the difference in oxygen activity in two gas compartments (inside the chamber and the air outside of the chamber) separated by an electrolyte, which is yttria-stabilized zirconia. The pump utilizes coulometric titration to either add or remove oxygen. The system is controlled by a desktop control unit, which can also be accessed via a computer. The controller performs temperature control for the sensor and pump, PID-based current loop, and a control algorithm. Oxygen partial pressure has been shown to play a significant role in the surface tension of liquid metals. Oxide films or dissolved oxygen may lead to significant changes in surface tension. The effects of oxygen partial pressure on the surface tension of undercooled liquid nickel will be analyzed, and the results will be presented. The surface tension will be measured at several different oxygen partial pressures while the sample is undercooled. Surface tension will be measured using the oscillating drop method. While undercooled, each sample will be oscillated several times consecutively to investigate how the surface tension behaves with time while at a particular oxygen partial pressure.

  3. Surface pressure fluctuations on aircraft flaps and their correlation with far-field noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y. P.; Joshi, M. C.; Bent, P. H.; Yamamoto, K. J.

    2000-07-01

    This paper discusses unsteady surface pressures on aircraft flaps and their correlation with far-field noise. Analyses are made of data from a 4.7% DC-10 aircraft model test, conducted in the 40 × 80 feet wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. Results for various slat/wing/flap configurations and various flow conditions are discussed in detail to reveal major trends in surface pressure fluctuations. Spectral analysis, including cross-correlation/coherence, both among unsteady surface pressures and between far-field noise and near-field fluctuations, is used to reveal the most coherent motions in the near field and identify potential sources of noise related to flap flows. Dependencies of surface pressure fluctuations on mean flow Mach numbers, flap settings and slat angles are discussed. Dominant flow features in flap side edge regions, such as the formation of double-vortex structures, are shown to manifest themselves in the unsteady surface pressures as a series of spectral humps. The spectral humps are shown to correlate well with the radiated noise, indicating the existence of major noise sources in flap side edge regions. Strouhal number scaling is used to collapse the data with satisfactory results. The effects of flap side edge fences on surface pressures are also discussed. It is shown that the application of fences effectively increases the thickness of the flaps so that the double-vortex structures have more time to evolve. As a result, the characteristic timescale of the unsteady sources increases, which in turn leads to a decrease in the dominant frequency of the source process. Based on this, an explanation is proposed for the noise reduction mechanism of flap side edge fences.

  4. Effect of an end plate on surface pressure distributions of two swept wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza SOLTANI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of wind tunnel tests was conducted to examine how an end plate affects the pressure distributions of two wings with leading edge (LE sweep angles of 23° and 40°. All the experiments were carried out at a midchord Reynolds number of 8×105, covering an angle of attack (AOA range from −2° to 14°. Static pressure distribution measurements were acquired over the upper surfaces of the wings along three chordwise rows and one spanwise direction at the wing quarter-chord line. The results of the tests confirm that at a particular AOA, increasing the sweep angle causes a noticeable decrease in the upper-surface suction pressure. Furthermore, as the sweep angle increases, the development of a laminar separation bubble near the LEs of the wings takes place at higher AOAs. On the other hand, spanwise pressure measurements show that increasing the wing sweep angle results in forming a stronger vortex on the quarter-chord line which has lower sensitivity to AOA variation and remains substantially attached to the wing surface for higher AOAs than that can be achieved in the case of a lower sweep angle. In addition, data obtained indicate that installing an end plate further reinforces the spanwise flow over the wing surface, thus affecting the pressure distribution.

  5. Use of Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Jet for Polymer Surface Modification: An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuettner, Lindsey A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-16

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are playing an increasingly important role in materials processing procedures. Plasma treatment is a useful tool to modify surface properties of materials, especially polymers. Plasma reacts with polymer surfaces in numerous ways thus the type of process gas and plasma conditions must be explored for chosen substrates and materials to maximize desired properties. This report discusses plasma treatments and looks further into atmospheric-pressure plasma jets and the effects of gases and plasma conditions. Following the short literature review, a general overview of the future work and research at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is discussed.

  6. Effects of radiation pressure on the equipotential surfaces in x-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.; McCluskey, G.E. Jr.; Gulden, S.L.

    1976-01-01

    Equipotential surfaces incorporating the effect of radiation pressure were computed for the x-ray binaries Cen X-3, Cyg X-1 = HDE 226868, Vela XR-1 = 3U 0900-40 = HD 77581, and 3U 1700-37 = HD 153919. The topology of the equipotential surfaces is significantly affected by radiation pressure. In particular, the so-called critical Roche (Jacobian) lobes, the traditional figure 8's, do not exist. The effects of these results on modeling x-ray binaries are discussed

  7. Dynamic modeling method of the bolted joint with uneven distribution of joint surface pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shichao; Gao, Hongli; Liu, Qi; Liu, Bokai

    2018-03-01

    The dynamic characteristics of the bolted joints have a significant influence on the dynamic characteristics of the machine tool. Therefore, establishing a reasonable bolted joint dynamics model is helpful to improve the accuracy of machine tool dynamics model. Because the pressure distribution on the joint surface is uneven under the concentrated force of bolts, a dynamic modeling method based on the uneven pressure distribution of the joint surface is presented in this paper to improve the dynamic modeling accuracy of the machine tool. The analytic formulas between the normal, tangential stiffness per unit area and the surface pressure on the joint surface can be deduced based on the Hertz contact theory, and the pressure distribution on the joint surface can be obtained by the finite element software. Futhermore, the normal and tangential stiffness distribution on the joint surface can be obtained by the analytic formula and the pressure distribution on the joint surface, and assigning it into the finite element model of the joint. Qualitatively compared the theoretical mode shapes and the experimental mode shapes, as well as quantitatively compared the theoretical modal frequencies and the experimental modal frequencies. The comparison results show that the relative error between the first four-order theoretical modal frequencies and the first four-order experimental modal frequencies is 0.2% to 4.2%. Besides, the first four-order theoretical mode shapes and the first four-order experimental mode shapes are similar and one-to-one correspondence. Therefore, the validity of the theoretical model is verified. The dynamic modeling method proposed in this paper can provide a theoretical basis for the accurate dynamic modeling of the bolted joint in machine tools.

  8. Parameters of the center of pressure displacement on the saddle during hippotherapy on different surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana M. Flores

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hippotherapy uses horseback riding movements for therapeutic purposes. In addition to the horse's movement, the choice of equipment and types of floor are also useful in the intervention. The quantification of dynamic parameters that define the interaction of the surface of contact between horse and rider provides insight into how the type of floor surface variations act upon the subject's postural control. Objective: To test whether different types of surfaces promote changes in the amplitude (ACOP and velocity (VCOP of the center of pressure (COP displacement during the rider's contact with the saddle on the horse's back. Method: Twenty two healthy adult male subjects with experience in riding were evaluated. The penetration resistances of asphalt, sand and grass surfaces were measured. The COP data were collected on the three surfaces using a pressure measurement mat. Results: ACOP values were higher in sand, followed by grass and asphalt, with significant differences between sand and asphalt (anteroposterior, p=0.042; mediolateral, p=0.019. The ACOP and VCOP values were higher in the anteroposterior than in the mediolateral direction on all surfaces (ACOP, p=0.001; VCOP, p=0.006. The VCOP did not differ between the surfaces. Conclusion: Postural control, measured by the COP displacement, undergoes variations in its amplitude as a result of the type of floor surface. Therefore, these results reinforce the importance of the choice of floor surface when defining the strategy to be used during hippotherapy intervention.

  9. Parameters of the center of pressure displacement on the saddle during hippotherapy on different surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Fabiana M; Dagnese, Frederico; Mota, Carlos B; Copetti, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Hippotherapy uses horseback riding movements for therapeutic purposes. In addition to the horse's movement, the choice of equipment and types of floor are also useful in the intervention. The quantification of dynamic parameters that define the interaction of the surface of contact between horse and rider provides insight into how the type of floor surface variations act upon the subject's postural control. To test whether different types of surfaces promote changes in the amplitude (ACOP) and velocity (VCOP) of the center of pressure (COP) displacement during the rider's contact with the saddle on the horse's back. Twenty two healthy adult male subjects with experience in riding were evaluated. The penetration resistances of asphalt, sand and grass surfaces were measured. The COP data were collected on the three surfaces using a pressure measurement mat. ACOP values were higher in sand, followed by grass and asphalt, with significant differences between sand and asphalt (anteroposterior, p=0.042; mediolateral, p=0.019). The ACOP and VCOP values were higher in the anteroposterior than in the mediolateral direction on all surfaces (ACOP, p=0.001; VCOP, p=0.006). The VCOP did not differ between the surfaces. Postural control, measured by the COP displacement, undergoes variations in its amplitude as a result of the type of floor surface. Therefore, these results reinforce the importance of the choice of floor surface when defining the strategy to be used during hippotherapy intervention.

  10. Calculated Fermi surface properties of LaSn3 and YSn3 under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanchana, V.

    2012-01-01

    The electronic structure, Fermi surface and elastic properties of the iso-structural and iso-electronic LaSn 3 and YSn 3 intermetallic compounds are studied under pressure within the frame work of density functional theory including spin-orbit coupling. The LaSn 3 Fermi surface consists of two sheets, of which the second is very complex. Under pressure a third sheet appears around compression V/V 0 =0.94, while a small topology changes in the second sheet is seen at compression V/V 0 =0.90. This may be in accordance with the anomalous behavior in the superconducting transition temperature observed in LaSn 3 , which has been suggested to reflect a Fermi surface topological transition, along with a non-monotonic pressure dependence of the density of states at the Fermi level. The similar behavior is not observed in YSn 3 for which the Fermi surface includes three sheets already at ambient conditions, and the topology remains unchanged under pressure. The reason for the difference in behavior between LaSn 3 and YSn 3 is the role of spin-orbit coupling and the hybridization of La-4f state with the Sn-p state in the vicinity of the Fermi level, which is well explained using the band structure calculation. The elastic constants and related mechanical properties are calculated at ambient as well as at elevated pressures. The elastic constants increase with pressure for both compounds and satisfy the conditions for mechanical stability under pressure. (author)

  11. Irreversible particle motion in surfactant-laden interfaces due to pressure-dependent surface viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikantan, Harishankar; Squires, Todd M.

    2017-09-01

    The surface shear viscosity of an insoluble surfactant monolayer often depends strongly on its surface pressure. Here, we show that a particle moving within a bounded monolayer breaks the kinematic reversibility of low-Reynolds-number flows. The Lorentz reciprocal theorem allows such irreversibilities to be computed without solving the full nonlinear equations, giving the leading-order contribution of surface pressure-dependent surface viscosity. In particular, we show that a disc translating or rotating near an interfacial boundary experiences a force in the direction perpendicular to that boundary. In unbounded monolayers, coupled modes of motion can also lead to non-intuitive trajectories, which we illustrate using an interfacial analogue of the Magnus effect. This perturbative approach can be extended to more complex geometries, and to two-dimensional suspensions more generally.

  12. Surface energy-tunable iso decyl acrylate based molds for low pressure-nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Hyowon; Tahk, Dongha; Jeong, Chanho; Lee, Sori; Kim, Tae-il

    2017-10-01

    We presented surface energy-tunable nanoscale molds for unconventional lithography. The mold is highly robust, transparent, has a minimized haze, does not contain additives, and is a non-fluorinated isodecyl acrylate and trimethylolpropane triacrylate based polymer. By changing the mixing ratio of the polymer components, the cross-linking density, mechanical modulus, and surface energy (crucial factors in low pressure ((1-2) × 105 N m-2) low pressure-nanoimprint lithography (LP-NIL)), can be controlled. To verify these properties of the molds, we also characterized the surface energy by measuring the contact angles and calculating the work of adhesion among the wafer, polymer film, and mold for successful demolding in nanoscale structures. Moreover, the molds showed high optical clarity and precisely tunable mechanical and surface properties, capable of replicating sub-100 nm patterns by thermal LP-NIL and UV-NIL.

  13. Investigation of surface porosity measurements and compaction pressure as means to ensure consistent contact angle determinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, René; Borkenfelt, Simon; Allesø, Morten

    2016-01-01

    for a compound is determined by its contact angle to a liquid, which in the present study was measured using the sessile drop method applied to a disc compact of the compound. Precise determination of the contact angle is important should it be used to either rank compounds or selected excipients to e.......g. increase the wetting from a solid dosage form. Since surface roughness of the compact has been suggested to influence the measurement this study investigated if the surface quality, in terms of surface porosity, had an influence on the measured contact angle. A correlation to surface porosity was observed......, however for six out of seven compounds similar results were obtained by applying a standard pressure (866MPa) to the discs in their preparation. The data presented in the present work therefore suggest that a constant high pressure should be sufficient for most compounds when determining the contact angle...

  14. The effect of surface pressure modification on the speed of vortex rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partridge, Matthew; Davis, Frank; Higson, Seamus P J [Centre of Biomedical Imaging, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); James, Stephen W; Tatam, Ralph P, E-mail: f.davis@cranfield.ac.uk [Engineering Photonics, School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-01

    A series of experiments investigating the relationship between surface pressure, monolayer elasticity and the speed of vortex rings is presented. A drop of water, when touched to the surface of a larger body of water, will coalesce and form a vortex ring that moves perpendicularly to the surface of the water. The speed of the vortex ring movement away from the surface of the water has been seen to be sensitive to the presence of monolayer materials. Here we explore the influence of four monolayer forming materials, stearic acid, tricosanoic acid, 4-tert butyl calix[4]arene and calix[4]resorcarene (C11), on the properties of vortex rings. For each material, the speed of the vortex rings through the water was measured at a range of surface pressures. The speed was found to increase in a linear fashion until surface pressures greater than 30 mN m{sup −1}, where the ring’s speed decreased towards the value measured in the absence of a monolayer. Analysis of the results suggests a future route toward a better understanding of the mechanisms involved.

  15. Durability of simulated waste glass: effects of pressure and formation of surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Mosley, W.C.; Whitkop, P.G.; Saturday, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    The leaching behavior of simulated Savannah River Plant (SRP) waste glass was studied at elevated pressures and anticipated storage temperatures. An integrated approach, which combined leachate solution analyses with both bulk and surface studies, was used to study the corrosion process. Compositions of leachates were evaluated by colorimetry and atomic absorption. Used in the bulk and surface analyses were optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray energy spectroscopy, wide-angle x-ray, diffraction, electron microprobe analysis, infrared reflectance spectroscopy, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and Auger electron spectroscopy. Results from this study show that there is no significant adverse effect of pressure, up to 1500 psi and 90 0 C, on the chemical durability of simulated SPR waste glass leached for one month in deionized water. In addition, the leached glass surface layer was characterized by an adsorbed film rich in minor constituents from the glass. This film remained on the glass surface even after leaching in relatively alkaline solutions at elevated pressures at 90 0 C for one month. The sample surface area to volume of leachant ratios (SA/V) was 10:1 cm -1 and 1:10 cm -1 . The corrosion mechanisms and surface and subsurface layers produced will be discussed along with the potential importance of these results to repository storage

  16. On the Pressure Distribution in a Porous Media under a Spherical Loading Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuyun; Zhu, Zenghao; Nathan, Rungun; Wu, Qianhong

    2017-11-01

    The phenomenon of pressure generation and relaxation inside a porous media is widely observed in biological systems. Herein, we report a biomimetic study to examine the pressure distribution inside a soft porous layer when a spherical loaded surface suddenly impacts on it. A novel experimental setup was developed that includes a fully instrumented spherical piston and a soft fibrous porous layer underneath. Extensive experimental study was performed with different porous materials, different loadings and different sized loading surfaces. The pore pressure generation and the motion of the loading surface were recorded. A novel theoretical model was developed to characterize the pressure field during the process. Excellent agreement was observed between the experimental results and the theoretically predictions. It shows that the pressure generation is governed by the Brinkman parameter, α = h/Kp0.5, where h is the porous layer thickness, and Kp is the undeformed permeability. The study improves our understanding of the dynamic response of soft porous media under rapid compression. It has board impact on the study of transient load bearing in biological systems and industry applications. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF CBET) under Award #1511096.

  17. Surface pressure model for simple delta wings at high angles of attack

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    characteristics. Flight mechanics analysis is primarily concerned with the aerodynamic data composed ... static data are the limiting case of unsteady flow pattern as time tends to infinity (or at least a few times the .... as the qualitative changes in the surface pressure model are independently confirmed by Roos. & Kegelman ...

  18. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Water Nanodroplets on Silica Surfaces at High Air Pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, Harvey A; Jaffe, Richard Lawrence; Walther, Jens Honore

    2010-01-01

    e.g., nanobubbles. In the present work we study the role of air on the wetting of hydrophilic systems. We conduct molecular dynamics simulations of a water nanodroplet on an amorphous silica surface at different air pressures. The interaction potentials describing the silica, water, and air...... are obtained from the literature. The silica surface is modeled by a large 32 ⨯ 32 ⨯ 2 nm amorphous SiO2 structure consisting of 180000 atoms. The water consists of 18000 water molecules surrounded by N2 and O2 air molecules corresponding to air pressures of 0 bar (vacuum), 50 bar, 100 bar and 200 bar. We...... the effect of air and find a consistent increase in the water contact angle reaching 53º at 200 bar air pressure. These results are important for the creation and stability of nanobubbles at hydrophilic interfaces....

  19. Bioinspired self-repairing slippery surfaces with pressure-stable omniphobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tak-Sing; Kang, Sung Hoon; Tang, Sindy K Y; Smythe, Elizabeth J; Hatton, Benjamin D; Grinthal, Alison; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2011-09-21

    Creating a robust synthetic surface that repels various liquids would have broad technological implications for areas ranging from biomedical devices and fuel transport to architecture but has proved extremely challenging. Inspirations from natural nonwetting structures, particularly the leaves of the lotus, have led to the development of liquid-repellent microtextured surfaces that rely on the formation of a stable air-liquid interface. Despite over a decade of intense research, these surfaces are, however, still plagued with problems that restrict their practical applications: limited oleophobicity with high contact angle hysteresis, failure under pressure and upon physical damage, inability to self-heal and high production cost. To address these challenges, here we report a strategy to create self-healing, slippery liquid-infused porous surface(s) (SLIPS) with exceptional liquid- and ice-repellency, pressure stability and enhanced optical transparency. Our approach-inspired by Nepenthes pitcher plants-is conceptually different from the lotus effect, because we use nano/microstructured substrates to lock in place the infused lubricating fluid. We define the requirements for which the lubricant forms a stable, defect-free and inert 'slippery' interface. This surface outperforms its natural counterparts and state-of-the-art synthetic liquid-repellent surfaces in its capability to repel various simple and complex liquids (water, hydrocarbons, crude oil and blood), maintain low contact angle hysteresis (<2.5°), quickly restore liquid-repellency after physical damage (within 0.1-1 s), resist ice adhesion, and function at high pressures (up to about 680 atm). We show that these properties are insensitive to the precise geometry of the underlying substrate, making our approach applicable to various inexpensive, low-surface-energy structured materials (such as porous Teflon membrane). We envision that these slippery surfaces will be useful in fluid handling and

  20. Pressurization Risk Assessment of CO2 Reservoirs Utilizing Design of Experiments and Response Surface Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyant, E.; Han, W. S.; Kim, K. Y.; Park, E.; Han, K.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring of pressure buildup can provide explicit information on reservoir integrity and is an appealing tool, however pressure variation is dependent on a variety of factors causing high uncertainty in pressure predictions. This work evaluated pressurization of a reservoir system in the presence of leakage pathways as well as exploring the effects of compartmentalization of the reservoir utilizing design of experiments (Definitive Screening, Box Behnken, Central Composite, and Latin Hypercube designs) and response surface methods. Two models were developed, 1) an idealized injection scenario in order to evaluate the performance of multiple designs, and 2) a complex injection scenario implementing the best performing design to investigate pressurization of the reservoir system. A holistic evaluation of scenario 1, determined that the Central Composite design would be used for the complex injection scenario. The complex scenario evaluated 5 risk factors: reservoir, seal, leakage pathway and fault permeabilities, and horizontal position of the pathway. A total of 60 response surface models (RSM) were developed for the complex scenario with an average R2 of 0.95 and a NRMSE of 0.067. Sensitivity to the input factors was dynamic through space and time; at the earliest time (0.05 years) the reservoir permeability was dominant, and for later times (>0.5 years) the fault permeability became dominant for all locations. The RSM's were then used to conduct a Monte Carlo Analysis to further analyze pressurization risks, identifying the P10, P50, P90 values. This identified the in zone (lower) P90 values as 2.16, 1.77, and 1.53 MPa and above zone values of 1.35, 1.23, 1.09 MPa for monitoring locations 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In summary, the design of experiments and response surface methods allowed for an efficient sensitivity and uncertainty analysis to be conducted permitting a complete evaluation of the pressurization across the entire parameter space.

  1. Supersonic flow over a pitching delta wing using surface pressure measurements and numerical simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa HADIDOOLABI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and numerical methods were applied to investigating high subsonic and supersonic flows over a 60° swept delta wing in fixed state and pitching oscillation. Static pressure coefficient distributions over the wing leeward surface and the hysteresis loops of pressure coefficient versus angle of attack at the sensor locations were obtained by wind tunnel tests. Similar results were obtained by numerical simulations which agreed well with the experiments. Flow structure around the wing was also demonstrated by the numerical simulation. Effects of Mach number and angle of attack on pressure distribution curves in static tests were investigated. Effects of various oscillation parameters including Mach number, mean angle of attack, pitching amplitude and frequency on hysteresis loops were investigated in dynamic tests and the associated physical mechanisms were discussed. Vortex breakdown phenomenon over the wing was identified at high angles of attack using the pressure coefficient curves and hysteresis loops, and its effects on the flow features were discussed.

  2. Comparative study on two different seal surface structure for reactor pressure vessel sealing behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jun; Xiong Guangming; Deng Xiaoyun

    2014-01-01

    The seal surface structure is very important to reactor pressure vessel (RPV) sealing behavior. In this paper, two 3-D RPV sealing analysis finite models have been established with different seal surface structures, in order to study the influence of two structures. The separation of RPV upper and lower flanges, bolt loads and etc. are obtained, which are used to evaluate the sealing behavior of the RPV. Meanwhile, the comparative analysis of safety margin of two seal surface structural had been done, which provides the theoretical basis for RPV seal structure design optimization. (authors)

  3. Surface modification of nanofibrillated cellulose films by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siró, Istvan; Kusano, Yukihiro; Norrman, Kion

    2013-01-01

    of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment, the water contact angle of NFC films increased and the values were comparable with those of PLA films. On the other hand, surface chemical characterization revealed inhomogeneity of the plasma treatment and limited improvement in adhesion between NFC and PLA films......A dielectric barrier discharge in a gas mixture of tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and O2 was used for tailoring the surface properties of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) films. The surface chemical composition of plasma-modified NFC was characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time....... Further research in this direction is required in order to enhance the uniformity of the plasma treatment results....

  4. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Jet Surface Treatment for Use in Improving Adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuettner, Lindsey Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are a method of plasma treatment that plays an important role in material processing and modifying surface properties of materials, especially polymers. Gas plasmas react with polymer surfaces in numerous ways such as oxidation, radical formation, degradation, and promotion of cross-linking. Because of this, gas and plasma conditions can be explored for chosen processes to maximize desired properties. The purpose of this study is to investigate plasma parameters in order to modify surface properties for improved adhesion between aluminum and epoxy substrates using two types of adhesives. The background, results to date, and future work will be discussed.

  5. Buoyancy-Driven Heat Transfer During Application of a Thermal Gradient for the Study of Vapor Deposition at Low Pressure Using and Ideal Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, D. O.; Hung, R. J.; Paley, M. S.; Penn, B. G.; Long, Y. T.

    1996-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to determine heat transfer during vapor deposition of source materials under a variety of orientations relative to gravitational accelerations. The model demonstrates that convection can occur at total pressures as low as 10-2 mm Hg. Through numerical computation, using physical material parameters of air, a series of time steps demonstrates the development of flow and temperature profiles during the course of vapor deposition. These computations show that in unit gravity vapor deposition occurs by transport through a fairly complicated circulating flow pattern when applying heat to the bottom of the vessel with parallel orientation with respect to the gravity vector. The model material parameters for air predict the effect of kinematic viscosity to be of the same order as thermal diffusivity, which is the case for Prandtl number approx. 1 fluids. Qualitative agreement between experiment and the model indicates that 6-(2-methyl-4-nitroanilino)-2,4-hexadiyn-l-ol (DAMNA) at these pressures indeed approximates an ideal gas at the experiment temperatures, and may validate the use of air physical constants. It is apparent that complicated nonuniform temperature distribution in the vapor could dramatically affect the homogeneity, orientation, and quality of deposited films. The experimental test i's a qualitative comparison of film thickness using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy on films generated in appropriately oriented vapor deposition cells. In the case where heating of the reaction vessel occurs from the top, deposition of vapor does not normally occur by convection due to a stable stratified medium. When vapor deposition occurs in vessels heated at the bottom, but oriented relative to the gravity vector between these two extremes, horizontal thermal gradients induce a complex flow pattern. In the plane parallel to the tilt axis, the flow pattern is symmetrical and opposite in direction from that where the vessel is

  6. Study on hot melt pressure sensitive coil material for removing surface nuclear pollution dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Jiao; Wang, Jianhui; Zheng, Li; Li, Jian; Lv, Linmei

    2018-02-01

    A new method for removing surface nuclear pollution by using hot melt pressure sensitive membrane was presented. The hot melt pressure sensitive membrane was designed and prepared by screening hot melt pressure sensitive adhesive and substrate. The simulated decontamination test of the hot melt pressure sensitive membrane was performed by using 100 mesh and 20 mesh standard sieve dust for simulation of nuclear explosion fall ash and radioactive contaminated particles, respectively. It was found that the single decontamination rate of simulated fall ash and contaminated particles were both above 80% under pressure conditions of 25kPa or more at 140°C. And the maximum single decontamination rate was 92.5%. The influence of heating temperature and pressure on the decontamination rate of the membrane was investigated at the same time. The results showed that higher heating temperature could increase the decontamination rate by increasing the viscosity of the adhesive. When the adhesive amount of the adhesive layer reached saturation, a higher pressure could increase the single decontamination rate also.

  7. Numerical analysis of the flow separation and adverse pressure gradient in laminar boundary layer over a flat plate due to a rotating cylinder in the vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroz, Farhana; Sharif, Muhammad A. R.

    2018-04-01

    Generation of adverse pressure gradient (APG) in the boundary layer over a plane wall using a rotating cylinder close to the wall has been numerically investigated for a range of the freestream Reynolds number (50 ≤ Re ≤ 400), the cylinder rotation rate (0 ≤ α ≤ 2), and the cylinder to wall gap (0.125 ≤ G/D ≤ 2). Various combinations of these flow parameters have been considered and the transient flow is computed using the ANSYS Fluent CFD code. The magnitude of the APG has been quantified. The influence of the freestream Reynolds number on the dynamics of flow separation and cylinder wake has been examined. Reynolds number has strong effect on bubble size properties and APG magnitude. Drag and lift force coefficient on the cylinder are also computed which are found to be strong function of the Reynolds number. Higher Reynolds number results in complex laminar separation bubble on the wall. A parametric demarcation map showing the threshold combinations of the flow parameters for transition from steady to periodic unsteady flow is generated.

  8. Portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis: indirect assessment of hepatic venous pressure gradient by measuring azygos flow with 2D-cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouya, Hervé; Grabar, Sophie; Vignaux, Olivier; Saade, Anastasia; Pol, Stanislas; Legmann, Paul; Sogni, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    To measure azygos, portal and aortic flow by two-dimensional cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (2D-cine PC MRI), and to compare the MRI values to hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurements, in patients with cirrhosis. Sixty-nine patients with cirrhosis were prospectively included. All patients underwent HVPG measurements, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and 2D-cine PC MRI measurements of azygos, portal and aortic blood flow. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to evaluate the correlation between the blood flow and HVPG. The performance of 2D-cine PC MRI to diagnose severe portal hypertension (HVPG ≥ 16 mmHg) was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, and area under the curves (AUC) were compared. Azygos and aortic flow values were associated with HVPG in univariate linear regression model. Azygos flow (p cine PC MRI is a promising technique to evaluate significant portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis. • Noninvasive HVPG assessment can be performed with MRI azygos flow. • Azygos MRI flow is an easy-to-measure marker to detect significant portal hypertension. • MRI flow is more specific that varice grade to detect portal hypertension.

  9. High-pressure catalytic reactions over single-crystal metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, JoséA.; Wayne Goodman, D.

    1991-11-01

    Studies dealing with high-pressure catalytic reactions over single-crystal surfaces are reviewed. The coupling of an apparatus for the measurement of reaction kinetics at elevated pressures with an ultrahigh vacuum system for surface analysis allows detailed study of structure sensitivity, the effects of promoters and inhibitors on catalytic activity, and, in certain cases, identification of reaction intermediates by post-reaction surface analysis. Examples are provided which demonstrate the relevance of single-crystal studies for modeling the behaviour of high-surface-area supported catalysts. Studies of CO methanation and CO oxidation over single-crystal surfaces provide convincing evidence that these reactions are structure insensitive. For structure-sensitive reactions (ammonia synthesis, alkane hydrogenolysis, alkane isomerization, water-gas shift reaction, etc.) model single-crystal studies allow correlations to be established between surface structure and catalytic activity. The effects of both electronegative (S and P) and electropositive (alkali metals) impurities upon the catalytic activity of metal single crystals for ammonia synthesis, CO methanation, alkane hydrogenolysis, ethylene epoxidation and water-gas shift are discussed. The roles of "ensemble" and "ligand" effects in bimetallic catalysts are examined in light of data obtained using surfaces prepared by vapor-depositing one metal onto a crystal face of a dissimilar metal.

  10. Adsorbate induced surface alloy formation investigated by near ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierhoff, Anders Ulrik Fregerslev; Conradsen, Christian Nagstrup; McCarthy, David Norman

    2014-01-01

    Formation of meta-stable surface-alloys can be used as a way to tune the binding strength of reaction intermediates and could therefore be used as improved catalyst materials for heterogeneous catalysis. Understanding the role of adsorbates on such alloy surfaces can provide new insights for engi...... and bulk Pt contributions. The study provides direct evidence on how it is possible to monitor the surface structure under near operation conditions. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Formation of meta-stable surface-alloys can be used as a way to tune the binding strength of reaction intermediates and could therefore be used as improved catalyst materials for heterogeneous catalysis. Understanding the role of adsorbates on such alloy surfaces can provide new insights...... for engineering of more active or selective catalyst materials. Dynamical surface changes on alloy surfaces due to the adsorption of reactants in high gas pressures are challenging to investigate using standard characterization tools. Here we apply synchrotron illuminated near ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron...

  11. Surface modification of polyester synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane by atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, C.W.; Kwong, C.H.; Ng, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment improved surface performance of polyester synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane. • XPS and FTIR confirmed the deposition of organosilanes on the sample's surface. • Contact angle increases to 138° after plasma treatment. - Abstract: Much works have been done on synthetic materials but scarcely on synthetic leather owing to its surface structures in terms of porosity and roughness. This paper examines the use of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment for improving the surface performance of polyester synthetic leather by use of a precursor, tetramethylsilane (TMS). Plasma deposition is regarded as an effective, simple and single-step method with low pollution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirm the deposition of organosilanes on the sample's surface. The results showed that under a particular combination of treatment parameters, a hydrophobic surface was achieved on the APP treated sample with sessile drop static contact angle of 138°. The hydrophobic surface is stable without hydrophilic recovery 30 days after plasma treatment

  12. Development of bio/blood compatible polypropylene through low pressure nitrogen plasma surface modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomathi, N., E-mail: gomathi@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Department of Space, Trivandrum, 695547 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Rajasekar, R. [Materials Science Center, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Babu, R. Rajesh [Rubber Technology Center, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Advanced Tyre Research, Apollo Tyres, Baroda, 391750 (India); Mishra, Debasish [Department of Biotechnolgy, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Neogi, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India)

    2012-10-01

    Surface modification of polypropylene by nitrogen containing plasma was performed in this work in order to improve the wettability which resulted in enhanced biocompatibility and blood compatibility. Various nitrogen containing functional groups as well as oxygen containing functional groups were found to be incorporated to the polymer surface during plasma treatment and post plasma reaction respectively. Wettability of the polymers was evaluated by static contact angle measurement to show the improvement in hydrophilicity of plasma treated polypropylene. Cross linking and surface modification were reported to be dominating in the case of nitrogen plasma treatment compared to degradation. The effect of various process variables namely power, pressure, flow rate and treatment time on surface energy and weight loss was studied at various levels according to the central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). Except pressure the other variables resulted in increased weight loss due to etching whereas with increasing pressure weight loss was found to increase and then decrease. The effect of process variables on surface morphology of polymers was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Well spread fibroblast cells on nitrogen plasma treated polypropylene due to the presence of CO, NH{sup 2+} and NH{sup +} was observed. Reduced platelet adhesion and increased partial thromboplastin time evidenced the increased blood compatibility. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved biocompatibility and blood compatibility of polypropylene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen plasma surface modification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maintaining a balance between polar group incorporation and weight loss due to etching. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimization of process conditions by response surface methodology.

  13. Development of bio/blood compatible polypropylene through low pressure nitrogen plasma surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomathi, N.; Rajasekar, R.; Babu, R. Rajesh; Mishra, Debasish; Neogi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Surface modification of polypropylene by nitrogen containing plasma was performed in this work in order to improve the wettability which resulted in enhanced biocompatibility and blood compatibility. Various nitrogen containing functional groups as well as oxygen containing functional groups were found to be incorporated to the polymer surface during plasma treatment and post plasma reaction respectively. Wettability of the polymers was evaluated by static contact angle measurement to show the improvement in hydrophilicity of plasma treated polypropylene. Cross linking and surface modification were reported to be dominating in the case of nitrogen plasma treatment compared to degradation. The effect of various process variables namely power, pressure, flow rate and treatment time on surface energy and weight loss was studied at various levels according to the central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). Except pressure the other variables resulted in increased weight loss due to etching whereas with increasing pressure weight loss was found to increase and then decrease. The effect of process variables on surface morphology of polymers was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Well spread fibroblast cells on nitrogen plasma treated polypropylene due to the presence of CO, NH 2+ and NH + was observed. Reduced platelet adhesion and increased partial thromboplastin time evidenced the increased blood compatibility. - Highlights: ► Improved biocompatibility and blood compatibility of polypropylene. ► Nitrogen plasma surface modification. ► Maintaining a balance between polar group incorporation and weight loss due to etching. ► Optimization of process conditions by response surface methodology.

  14. Surface treatment of aramid fiber by air dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Caixia; Chen Ping; Liu Wei; Li Bin; Wang Qian

    2011-01-01

    Aramid fiber samples are treated by air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma at atmospheric pressure; the plasma treatment time is investigated as the major parameter. The effects of this treatment on the fiber surface physical and chemical properties are studied by using surface characterization techniques. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is performed to determine the surface morphology changes, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is analyzed to reveal the surface chemical composition variations and dynamic contact angle analysis (DCAA) is used to examine the changes of the fiber surface wettability. In addition, the wetting behavior of a kind of thermoplastic resin, poly(phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) (PPESK), on aramid fiber surface is also observed by SEM photos. The study shows that there seems to be an optimum treatment condition for surface modification of aramid fiber by the air DBD plasma. In this paper, after the 12 s, 27.6 W/cm 3 plasma treatment the aramid fiber surface roughness is significantly improved, some new oxygen-containing groups such as C-O, C=O and O=C-O are generated on the fiber surface and the fiber surface wettability is greatly enhanced, which results in the better wetting behavior of PPESK resin on the plasma-treated aramid fiber.

  15. Investigation of the surface free energy of the ITO thin films deposited under different working pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özen, Soner; Pat, Suat; Korkmaz, Şadan; Şenay, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses the influence of working pressure on the surface energy of the ITO thin films produced by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method. Optical tensiometer (Attension Theta Lite) is used for evaluating wetting behavior of the water droplet on the film surface and Equation of State method was selected to determine surface free energy for this study. Equation of state method does not divide the surface tension into different components such as polar, dispersive, acid-base. It is calculated the surfaces’ free energy measuring the contact angle with a single liquid. The surface free energy value was in the range of 15-31 mN/m. Also, the transmittances were determined in the wavelength range between 200 and 1000 nm using the UNICO 4802 UV-Vis double beam spectrophotometer. Transmittances of the produced ITO thin films are greater than %70 in the visible range.

  16. Investigation of the surface free energy of the ITO thin films deposited under different working pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özen, Soner, E-mail: osoner@ogu.edu.tr; Pat, Suat; Korkmaz, Şadan [Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Physics Department, 26480 (Turkey); Şenay, Volkan [Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Physics Department, 26480 (Turkey); Bayburt University, Primary Science Education Department, 69000 (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    This study discusses the influence of working pressure on the surface energy of the ITO thin films produced by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method. Optical tensiometer (Attension Theta Lite) is used for evaluating wetting behavior of the water droplet on the film surface and Equation of State method was selected to determine surface free energy for this study. Equation of state method does not divide the surface tension into different components such as polar, dispersive, acid-base. It is calculated the surfaces’ free energy measuring the contact angle with a single liquid. The surface free energy value was in the range of 15-31 mN/m. Also, the transmittances were determined in the wavelength range between 200 and 1000 nm using the UNICO 4802 UV-Vis double beam spectrophotometer. Transmittances of the produced ITO thin films are greater than %70 in the visible range.

  17. Surface chemical changes of atmospheric pressure plasma treated rabbit fibres important for felting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Štěpánová, Vlasta; Slavíček, Pavel; Stupavská, Monika; Jurmanová, Jana; Černák, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Rabbit fibres plasma treatment is an effective method for fibres modification. • Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment is able to affect fibres properties. • Surface changes on fibres after plasma treatment were analysed via SEM, ATR-FTIR, XPS. • Significant increase of fibres wettability after plasma treatment was observed. • Plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure can replace the chemical treatment of fibres. - Abstract: We introduce the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment as a suitable procedure for in-line industrial application of rabbit fibres pre-treatment. Changes of rabbit fibre properties due to the plasma treatment were studied in order to develop new technology of plasma-based treatment before felting. Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge (DCSBD) in ambient air at atmospheric pressure was used for plasma treatment. Scanning electron microscopy was used for determination of the fibres morphology before and after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used for evaluation of reactive groups. The concentration of carbon decreased and conversely the concentration of nitrogen and oxygen increased after plasma treatment. Aging effect of plasma treated fibres was also investigated. Using Washburn method the significant increase of fibres wettability was observed after plasma treatment. New approach of pre-treatment of fibres before felting using plasma was developed. Plasma treatment of fibres at atmospheric pressure can replace the chemical method which consists of application of strong acids on fibres.

  18. Surface chemical changes of atmospheric pressure plasma treated rabbit fibres important for felting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Štěpánová, Vlasta, E-mail: vstepanova@mail.muni.cz [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Slavíček, Pavel; Stupavská, Monika; Jurmanová, Jana [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Černák, Mirko [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Rabbit fibres plasma treatment is an effective method for fibres modification. • Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment is able to affect fibres properties. • Surface changes on fibres after plasma treatment were analysed via SEM, ATR-FTIR, XPS. • Significant increase of fibres wettability after plasma treatment was observed. • Plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure can replace the chemical treatment of fibres. - Abstract: We introduce the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment as a suitable procedure for in-line industrial application of rabbit fibres pre-treatment. Changes of rabbit fibre properties due to the plasma treatment were studied in order to develop new technology of plasma-based treatment before felting. Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge (DCSBD) in ambient air at atmospheric pressure was used for plasma treatment. Scanning electron microscopy was used for determination of the fibres morphology before and after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used for evaluation of reactive groups. The concentration of carbon decreased and conversely the concentration of nitrogen and oxygen increased after plasma treatment. Aging effect of plasma treated fibres was also investigated. Using Washburn method the significant increase of fibres wettability was observed after plasma treatment. New approach of pre-treatment of fibres before felting using plasma was developed. Plasma treatment of fibres at atmospheric pressure can replace the chemical method which consists of application of strong acids on fibres.

  19. Modification of a variational objective analysis model for new equations for pressure gradient and vertical velocity in the lower troposphere and for spatial resolution and accuracy of satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtemeier, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    Since late 1982 NASA has supported research to develop a numerical variational model for the diagnostic assimilation of conventional and space-based meteorological data. In order to analyze the model components, four variational models are defined dividing the problem naturally according to increasing complexity. The first of these variational models (MODEL I), the subject of this report, contains the two nonlinear horizontal momentum equations, the integrated continuity equation, and the hydrostatic equation. This report summarizes the results of research (1) to improve the way the large nonmeteorological parts of the pressure gradient force are partitioned between the two terms of the pressure gradient force terms of the horizontal momentum equations, (2) to generalize the integrated continuity equation to account for variable pressure thickness over elevated terrain, and (3) to introduce horizontal variation in the precision modulus weights for the observations.

  20. Surface recombination of oxygen atoms in O2 plasma at increased pressure: II. Vibrational temperature and surface production of ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopaev, D. V.; Malykhin, E. M.; Zyryanov, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Ozone production in an oxygen glow discharge in a quartz tube was studied in the pressure range of 10-50 Torr. The O3 density distribution along the tube diameter was measured by UV absorption spectroscopy, and ozone vibrational temperature TV was found comparing the calculated ab initio absorption spectra with the experimental ones. It has been shown that the O3 production mainly occurs on a tube surface whereas ozone is lost in the tube centre where in contrast the electron and oxygen atom densities are maximal. Two models were used to analyse the obtained results. The first one is a kinetic 1D model for the processes occurring near the tube walls with the participation of the main particles: O(3P), O2, O2(1Δg) and O3 molecules in different vibrational states. The agreement of O3 and O(3P) density profiles and TV calculated in the model with observed ones was reached by varying the single model parameter—ozone production probability (\\gamma_{O_{3}}) on the quartz tube surface on the assumption that O3 production occurs mainly in the surface recombination of physisorbed O(3P) and O2. The phenomenological model of the surface processes with the participation of oxygen atoms and molecules including singlet oxygen molecules was also considered to analyse \\gamma_{O_{3}} data obtained in the kinetic model. A good agreement between the experimental data and the data of both models—the kinetic 1D model and the phenomenological surface model—was obtained in the full range of the studied conditions that allowed consideration of the ozone surface production mechanism in more detail. The important role of singlet oxygen in ozone surface production was shown. The O3 surface production rate directly depends on the density of physisorbed oxygen atoms and molecules and can be high with increasing pressure and energy inputted into plasma while simultaneously keeping the surface temperature low enough. Using the special discharge cell design, such an approach opens up the

  1. Surface recombination of oxygen atoms in O2 plasma at increased pressure: II. Vibrational temperature and surface production of ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopaev, D V; Malykhin, E M; Zyryanov, S M

    2011-01-01

    Ozone production in an oxygen glow discharge in a quartz tube was studied in the pressure range of 10-50 Torr. The O 3 density distribution along the tube diameter was measured by UV absorption spectroscopy, and ozone vibrational temperature T V was found comparing the calculated ab initio absorption spectra with the experimental ones. It has been shown that the O 3 production mainly occurs on a tube surface whereas ozone is lost in the tube centre where in contrast the electron and oxygen atom densities are maximal. Two models were used to analyse the obtained results. The first one is a kinetic 1D model for the processes occurring near the tube walls with the participation of the main particles: O( 3 P), O 2 , O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) and O 3 molecules in different vibrational states. The agreement of O 3 and O( 3 P) density profiles and T V calculated in the model with observed ones was reached by varying the single model parameter-ozone production probability (γ O 3 ) on the quartz tube surface on the assumption that O 3 production occurs mainly in the surface recombination of physisorbed O( 3 P) and O 2 . The phenomenological model of the surface processes with the participation of oxygen atoms and molecules including singlet oxygen molecules was also considered to analyse γ O 3 data obtained in the kinetic model. A good agreement between the experimental data and the data of both models-the kinetic 1D model and the phenomenological surface model-was obtained in the full range of the studied conditions that allowed consideration of the ozone surface production mechanism in more detail. The important role of singlet oxygen in ozone surface production was shown. The O 3 surface production rate directly depends on the density of physisorbed oxygen atoms and molecules and can be high with increasing pressure and energy inputted into plasma while simultaneously keeping the surface temperature low enough. Using the special discharge cell design, such an approach opens up

  2. Surface modification of polytetrafluoroethylene film using the atmospheric pressure glow discharge in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Z; Qiu, Y; Luo, Y

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) is more promising in industrial applications compared with glow discharges in a gas other than air or in low-pressure air, which needs an expensive vacuum system. In this paper, the APGD and dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) are generated in atmospheric air using a power-frequency voltage source, and the transition from DBD to APGD is achieved by varying the electrode arrangement. The differences between their discharge characteristics are shown by measurement of their electrical discharge parameters and observation of light-emission phenomena. The effects of APGD and DBD on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface modification are studied. The surface properties are characterized by contact angle measurement, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the APGD and DBD treatments modify the PTFE surface in both morphology and composition. APGD is more effective in PTFE surface modification than DBD as it can modify the surface more uniformly, implant more oxygen atoms into the surface and make the contact angle decline to a lower level. The experimental results are discussed

  3. Surface treatment of polyethylene terephthalate film using atmospheric pressure glow discharge in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zhi; Qiu Yuchang; Wang Hui

    2004-01-01

    Non-thermal plasmas under atmospheric pressure are of great interest in polymer surface processing because of their convenience, effectiveness and low cost. In this paper, the treatment of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film surface for improving hydrophilicity using the non-thermal plasma generated by atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) in air is conducted. The discharge characteristics of APGD are shown by measurement of their electrical discharge parameters and observation of light-emission phenomena, and the surface properties of PET before and after the APGD treatment are studied using contact angle measurement, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is found that the APGD is homogeneous and stable in the whole gas gap, which differs from the commonly filamentary dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). A short time (several seconds) APGD treatment can modify the surface characteristics of PET film markedly and uniformly. After 10 s APGD treatment, the surface oxygen content of PET surface increases to 39%, and the water contact angle decreases to 19 degree, respectively. (authors)

  4. The Role of Atmospheric Pressure on Surface Thermal Inertia for Early Mars Climate Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischna, M.; Piqueux, S.

    2017-12-01

    On rocky bodies such as Mars, diurnal surface temperatures are controlled by the surface thermal inertia, which is a measure of the ability of the surface to store heat during the day and re-radiate it at night. Thermal inertia is a compound function of the near-surface regolith thermal conductivity, density and specific heat, with the regolith thermal conductivity being strongly controlled by the atmospheric pressure. For Mars, current best maps of global thermal inertia are derived from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft using bolometric brightness temperatures of the surface. Thermal inertia is widely used in the atmospheric modeling community to determine surface temperatures and to establish lower boundary conditions for the atmosphere. Infrared radiation emitted from the surface is key in regulating lower atmospheric temperatures and driving overall global circulation. An accurate map of surface thermal inertia is thus required to produce reasonable results of the present-day atmosphere using numerical Mars climate models. Not surprisingly, thermal inertia is also a necessary input into climate models of early Mars, which assume a thicker atmosphere, by as much as one to two orders of magnitude above the present-day 6 mb mean value. Early Mars climate models broadly, but incorrectly, assume the present day thermal inertia surface distribution. Here, we demonstrate that, on early Mars, when pressures were larger than today's, the surface layer thermal inertia was globally higher because of the increased thermal conductivity driven by the higher gas pressure in interstitial pore spaces within the soil. Larger thermal inertia reduces the diurnal range of surface temperature and will affect the size and timing of the modeled seasonal polar ice caps. Additionally, it will globally alter the frequency of when surface temperatures are modeled to exceed the liquid water melting point, and so results may

  5. Development of Maximum Bubble Pressure Method for Surface Tension Measurement of High Viscosity Molten Silicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Osamu; Iwamoto, Hirone; Sakashita, Ryota; Iseki, Chiaki; Zhu, Hongmin

    2017-07-01

    A surface tension measurement method based on the maximum bubble pressure (MBP) method was developed in order to precisely determine the surface tension of molten silicates in this study. Specifically, the influence of viscosity on surface tension measurements was quantified, and the criteria for accurate measurement were investigated. It was found that the MBP apparently increased with an increase in viscosity. This was because extra pressure was required for the flowing liquid inside the capillary due to viscous resistance. It was also expected that the extra pressure would decrease by decreasing the fluid velocity. For silicone oil with a viscosity of 1000 \\hbox {mPa}{\\cdot }\\hbox {s}, the error on the MBP could be decreased to +1.7 % by increasing the bubble detachment time to 300 \\hbox {s}. However, the error was still over 1 % even when the bubble detachment time was increased to 600 \\hbox {s}. Therefore, a true value of the MBP was determined by using a curve-fitting technique with a simple relaxation function, and that was succeeded for silicone oil at 1000 \\hbox {mPa}{\\cdot } \\hbox {s} of viscosity. Furthermore, for silicone oil with a viscosity as high as 10 000 \\hbox {mPa}{\\cdot }\\hbox {s}, the apparent MBP approached a true value by interrupting the gas introduction during the pressure rising period and by re-introducing the gas at a slow flow rate. Based on the fundamental investigation at room temperature, the surface tension of the \\hbox {SiO}2-40 \\hbox {mol}%\\hbox {Na}2\\hbox {O} and \\hbox {SiO}2-50 \\hbox {mol}%\\hbox {Na}2\\hbox {O} melts was determined at a high temperature. The obtained value was slightly lower than the literature values, which might be due to the influence of viscosity on surface tension measurements being removed in this study.

  6. On the theory and computation of surface tension: The elimination of parasitic currents through energy conservation in the second-gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamet, Didier; Torres, David; Brackbill, J.U.

    2002-01-01

    Errors in the computation of fluid flows with surface tension are examined. These errors cause large parasitic flows when the capillary number is large and have often been attributed to truncation error in underresolved interfacial regions. A study using the second-gradient method reveals that when truncation error is eliminated in the computation of energy exchanges between surface and kinetic energies so that energy is strictly conserved, the parasitic currents are reduced to round-off. The results are based on general thermodynamic arguments and can be used to guide improvements in other methods, such as the continuum-surface-force (CSF) method, which is commonly used with the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method

  7. Use of Pressure-Redistributing Support Surfaces among Elderly Hip Fracture Patients across the Continuum of Care: Adherence to Pressure Ulcer Prevention Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Mona; Margolis, David; Orwig, Denise; Hawkes, William; Rich, Shayna; Langenberg, Patricia; Shardell, Michelle; Palmer, Mary H.; McArdle, Patrick; Sterling, Robert; Jones, Patricia S.; Magaziner, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the frequency of use of pressure-redistributing support surfaces (PRSS) among hip fracture patients and to determine whether higher pressure ulcer risk is associated with greater PRSS use. Design and Methods: Patients (n = 658) aged [greater than or equal] 65 years who had surgery for hip fracture were examined by research…

  8. Surface Tension of Binary Mixtures Including Polar Components Modeled by the Density Gradient Theory Combined with the PC-SAFT Equation of State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinš, Václav; Planková, Barbora; Hrubý, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 5 (2013), s. 792-812 ISSN 0195-928X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905; GA ČR(CZ) GPP101/11/P046; GA ČR GA101/09/1633 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : chemical polarity * gradient theory * surface tension Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.623, year: 2013 http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&id=doi:10.1007/s10765-012-1207-z

  9. Using CFD Surface Solutions to Shape Sonic Boom Signatures Propagated from Off-Body Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz, Irian; Li, Wu

    2013-01-01

    The conceptual design of a low-boom and low-drag supersonic aircraft remains a challenge despite significant progress in recent years. Inverse design using reversed equivalent area and adjoint methods have been demonstrated to be effective in shaping the ground signature propagated from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) off-body pressure distributions. However, there is still a need to reduce the computational cost in the early stages of design to obtain a baseline that is feasible for low-boom shaping, and in the search for a robust low-boom design over the entire sonic boom footprint. The proposed design method addresses the need to reduce the computational cost for robust low-boom design by using surface pressure distributions from CFD solutions to shape sonic boom ground signatures propagated from CFD off-body pressure.

  10. Printing transferable components using microstructured elastomeric surfaces with pressure modulated reversible adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menard, Etienne; Rogers, John A.; Kim, Seok; Carlson, Andrew

    2016-08-09

    In a method of printing a transferable component, a stamp including an elastomeric post having three-dimensional relief features protruding from a surface thereof is pressed against a component on a donor substrate with a first pressure that is sufficient to mechanically deform the relief features and a region of the post between the relief features to contact the component over a first contact area. The stamp is retracted from the donor substrate such that the component is adhered to the stamp. The stamp including the component adhered thereto is pressed against a receiving substrate with a second pressure that is less than the first pressure to contact the component over a second contact area that is smaller than the first contact area. The stamp is then retracted from the receiving substrate to delaminate the component from the stamp and print the component onto the receiving substrate. Related apparatus and stamps are also discussed.

  11. Application of a novel atmospheric pressure plasma fluidized bed in the powder surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guangliang; Chen Shihua; Zhou Mingyan; Feng Wenran; Gu Weichao; Yang Size

    2006-01-01

    A novel atmospheric pressure plasma fluidized bed (APPFB) with one liquid electrode was designed, and its preliminary discharge characteristics were studied. The glow discharge in the APPFB was generated by applying a low power with helium (He) gas, and the plasma gas temperature was no higher than 320 K when the applied power was lower than 11 W. The plasma optical emission spectrum (OES) of the gas mixture consisting of He and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) was recorded by a UV-visible monochromator. The calcium carbonate powders were modified by APPFB using HMDSO in the He plasma. The powder surface energy was decreased greatly by coating an organosilicon polymer onto the powder surface. This surface modification process changed the wettability of the powder from super-hydrophilicity to super-hydrophobicity, and the contact angle of water on the modified powders surface was greater than 160 0

  12. Quantitative spatial analysis of the mouse brain lipidome by pressurized liquid extraction surface analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Reinaldo; Berzina, Zane; Christensen, Eva Arnspang

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe a novel surface sampling technique termed pressurized liquid extraction surface analysis (PLESA), which in combination with a dedicated high-resolution shotgun lipidomics routine enables both quantification and in-depth structural characterization of molecular lipid species...... extracted directly from tissue sections. PLESA uses a sealed and pressurized sampling probe that enables the use of chloroform-containing extraction solvents for efficient in situ lipid microextraction with a spatial resolution of 400 μm. Quantification of lipid species is achieved by the inclusion...... of internal lipid standards in the extraction solvent. The analysis of lipid microextracts by nanoelectrospray ionization provides long-lasting ion spray which in conjunction with a hybrid ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometer enables identification and quantification of molecular lipid species using a method...

  13. DPPC Monolayers Exhibit an Additional Phase Transition at High Surface Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Chen; de la Serna, Jorge B.; Struth, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant forms a monolayer at the air/aqueous interface within the lung. During the breath process, the surface pressure (Π) periodically varies from ~40mN/m up to ~70mN/m. The film is mechanically stable during this rapid and reversible expansion. Pulmonary surfactant consists of ~90......% of lipid with 10% integrated proteins. Among its lipid compounds, di-palmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) dominates (~45wt%). DPPC is the only known lipid that can be compressed to very high surface pressure (~70mN/m) before its monolayer collapses. Most probably, this feature contributes to the mechanical...... stability of the alveoli monolayer. Still, to the best of our knowledge, some details of the compression isotherm presented here and the related structures of the DPPC monolayer were not studied so far. The liquid-expanded/liquid-condensed phase transition of the DPPC monolayer at ~10mN/m is well known...

  14. Atmospheric pressure surface sampling/ionization techniques for direct coupling of planar separations with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasilis, Sofie P; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2010-06-18

    Planar separations, which include thin layer chromatography and gel electrophoresis, are in widespread use as important and powerful tools for conducting separations of complex mixtures. To increase the utility of planar separations, new methods are needed that allow in situ characterization of the individual components of the separated mixtures. A large number of atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques for use with mass spectrometry have emerged in the past several years, and several have been investigated as a means for mass spectrometric read-out of planar separations. In this article, we review the atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques that have been used for the read-out of planar separation media. For each technique, we briefly explain the operational basics and discuss the analyte type for which it is appropriate and some specific applications from the literature. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Expressions to Rayleigh circumferential phase velocity and dispersion relation for a cylindrical surface under mechanical pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebold, Jean Eduardo; de Lacerda, Luiz Alkimin

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a substantiated mathematical theory for Rayleigh waves propagated on some types of metal cylinders. More specifically, it presents not only a new way to express the dispersion relation of Rayleigh waves propagated on the cylindrical surface, but also how it can be used to construct a mathematical equation showing that the applied static mechanical pressure affects the shear modulus of the metal cylinder. All steps, required to conclude the process, consider the equation of motion as a function of radial and circumferential coordinates only, while the axial component can be overlooked without causing any problems. Some numerical experiments are done to illustrate the changes in the Rayleigh circumferential phase velocity in a metal cylindrical section due to static mechanical pressure around its external surface.

  16. Spreading and atomization of droplets on a vibrating surface in a standing pressure field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepu, P.; Basu, Saptarshi; Saha, Abhishek; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2012-10-01

    We report the first observation and analytical model of deformation and spreading of droplets on a vibrating surface under the influence of an ultrasonic standing pressure field. The standing wave allows the droplet to spread, and the spreading rate varies inversely with viscosity. In low viscosity droplets, the synergistic effect of radial acoustic force and the transducer surface acceleration also leads to capillary waves. These unstable capillary modes grow to cause ultimate disintegration into daughter droplets. We find that using nanosuspensions, spreading and disintegration can be prevented by suppressing the development of capillary modes and subsequent break-up.

  17. Influence of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment on surface properties of PBO fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ruiyun; Pan Xianlin; Jiang Muwen; Peng Shujing; Qiu Yiping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PBO fibers were treated with atmospheric pressure plasmas. ► When 1% of oxygen was added to the plasma, IFSS increased 130%. ► Increased moisture regain could enhance plasma treatment effect on improving IFSS with long treatment time. - Abstract: In order to improve the interfacial adhesion property between PBO fiber and epoxy, the surface modification effects of PBO fiber treated by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) in different time, atmosphere and moisture regain (MR) were investigated. The fiber surface morphology, functional groups, surface wettability for control and plasma treated samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurements, respectively. Meanwhile, the fiber interfacial shear strength (IFSS), representing adhesion property in epoxy, was tested using micro-bond pull-out test, and single fiber tensile strength was also tested to evaluate the mechanical performance loss of fibers caused by plasma treatment. The results indicated that the fiber surface was etched during the plasma treatments, the fiber surface wettability and the IFSS between fiber and epoxy had much improvement due to the increasing of surface energy after plasma treatment, the contact angle decreased with the treatment time increasing, and the IFSS was improved by about 130%. The processing atmosphere could influence IFSS significantly, and moisture regains (MR) of fibers also played a positive role on improving IFSS but not so markedly. XPS analysis showed that the oxygen content on fiber surface increased after treatment, and C=O, O-C=O groups were introduced on fiber surface. On the other hand, the observed loss of fiber tensile strength caused by plasma treatment was not so remarkable to affect the overall performance of composite materials.

  18. Tactile surface classification for limbed robots using a pressure sensitive robot skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shill, Jacob J; Collins Jr, Emmanuel G; Coyle, Eric; Clark, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to terrain identification based on pressure images generated through direct surface contact using a robot skin constructed around a high-resolution pressure sensing array. Terrain signatures for classification are formulated from the magnitude frequency responses of the pressure images. The initial experimental results for statically obtained images show that the approach yields classification accuracies >98%. The methodology is extended to accommodate the dynamic pressure images anticipated when a robot is walking or running. Experiments with a one-legged hopping robot yield similar identification accuracies ≈99%. In addition, the accuracies are independent with respect to changing robot dynamics (i.e., when using different leg gaits). The paper further shows that the high-resolution capabilities of the sensor enables similarly textured surfaces to be distinguished. A correcting filter is developed to accommodate for failures or faults that inevitably occur within the sensing array with continued use. Experimental results show using the correcting filter can extend the effective operational lifespan of a high-resolution sensing array over 6x in the presence of sensor damage. The results presented suggest this methodology can be extended to autonomous field robots, providing a robot with crucial information about the environment that can be used to aid stable and efficient mobility over rough and varying terrains. (paper)

  19. Characterization of an atmospheric pressure air plasma source for polymer surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shujun; Tang, Jiansheng

    2013-10-01

    An atmospheric pressure air plasma source was generated through dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). It was used to modify polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) surfaces with very high throughput. An equivalent circuit model was used to calculate the peak average electron density. The emission spectrum from the plasma was taken and the main peaks in the spectrum were identified. The ozone density in the down plasma region was estimated by Absorption Spectroscopy. NSF and ARC-ODU

  20. Blood pressure gradients and cardiovascular risk factors in urban and rural populations in Abia State South Eastern Nigeria using the WHO STEPwise approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikechi Gareth Okpechi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA face a double burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs and communicable diseases. As high blood pressure (BP is a common global cardiovascular (CV disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality, the relationship between gradients of BP and other CV risk factors was assessed in Abia State, Nigeria. METHODS: Using the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey in Abia state, Nigeria from August 2011 to March 2012. Data collected at various steps included: demographic and behavioral risk factors (Step 1; BP and anthropometric measurements (Step 2, and fasting blood cholesterol and glucose (Step 3. RESULTS: Of the 2983 subjects with complete data for analysis, 52.1% were females and 53.2% were rural dwellers. Overall, the distribution of selected CV disease risk factors was diabetes (3.6%, hypertension (31.4%, cigarette smoking (13.3%, use of smokeless tobacco (4.8%, physical inactivity (64.2% and being overweight or obese (33.7%. Presence of hypertension, excessive intake of alcohol, smoking (cigarette and smokeless tobacco and physical inactivity occurred more frequently in males than in females (p<0.05; while low income, lack of any formal education and use of smokeless tobacco were seen more frequently in rural dwellers than in those living in urban areas (p<0.05. The frequency of selected CV risk factors increased as BP was graded from optimal, normal to hypertension; and high BP correlated with age, gender, smokeless tobacco, overweight or obesity, annual income and level of education. CONCLUSION: Given the high prevalence of hypertension in this part of Nigeria, there is an urgent need to focus on the reduction of preventable CV risk factors we have observed to be associated with hypertension, in order to effectively reduce the burden of NCDs in Africa.

  1. A prospective, in vivo evaluation of two pressure-redistribution surfaces in healthy volunteers using pressure mapping as a quality control instrument .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephannie; Parker, Michael; Blasiole, Nicole; Beinlich, Nancy; Fulton, Judith

    2013-02-01

    Deep tissue injury (DTI) can rapidly evolve into a higher stage pressure ulcer. Use of pressure-redistribution surfaces is a widely accepted practice for the prevention of pressure ulcers in acute care patients, particularly in departments where care processes limit mobility. A 15-year-old patient developed a sacral DTI 24 hours after completion of a lengthy (12- hour) electrophysiology (EP) study and catheter ablation. A root cause analysis (RCA) conducted to investigate the origin of the hospital-acquired suspected DTI prompted a small investigation to evaluate the pressure-distribution properties of the EP lab surface and an OR table pad. Five healthy adult employee volunteers were evaluated in the supine position by placing a sensing mat between the volunteer and the test surface. Interface pressures (on a scale of 0 mm Hg to 100 mm Hg) were captured after a "settling in" time of 4 minutes, and the number of sensors registering very high pressures (above 90 mm Hg) across the surface were recorded. On the OR table pad, zero to six sensors registered >90 mm Hg compared to two to 20 sensors on the EP lab surface. These data, combined with the acquired DTI, initiated a change in EP lab surfaces. Although interface pressure measurements only provide information about one potential support surface characteristic, it can be helpful during an RCA. Studies to compare the effect of support surfaces in all hospital units on patient outcomes are needed.

  2. Surface treatment of a titanium implant using low temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Young; Tang, Tianyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Ho-Jun; Lee, Hae June

    2015-09-01

    During the last two decades, atmospheric pressure plasmas(APP) are widely used in diverse fields of biomedical applications, reduction of pollutants, and surface treatment of materials. Applications of APP to titanium surface of dental implants is steadily increasing as it renders surfaces wettability and modifies the oxide layer of titanium that hinders the interaction with cells and proteins. In this study, we have treated the titanium surfaces of screw-shaped implant samples using a plasma jet which is composed of a ceramic coaxial tube of dielectrics, a stainless steel inner electrode, and a coper tube outer electrode. The plasma ignition occurred with Ar gas flow between two coaxial metal electrodes and a sinusoidal bias voltage of 3 kV with a frequency of 20 kHz. Titanium materials used in this study are screw-shaped implants of which diameter and length are 5 mm and 13 mm, respectively. Samples were mounted at a distance of 5 mm below the plasma source, and the plasma treatment time was set to 3 min. The wettability of titanium surface was measured by the moving speed of water on its surface, which is enhanced by plasma treatment. The surface roughness was also measured by atomic force microscopy. The optimal condition for wettability change is discussed.

  3. Stability of Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Induced Changes on Polycarbonate Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajesh; Holcomb, Edward; Trigwell, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Polycarbonate films are subjected to plasma treatment in a number of applications such as improving adhesion between polycarbonate and silicon alloy in protective and optical coatings. The changes in surface chemistry due to plasma treatment have tendency to revert back. Thus stability of the plasma induced changes on polymer surfaces over desired time period is very important. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of ageing on atmospheric pressure helium-plasma treated polycarbonate (PC) sample as a function of treatment time. The ageing effects were studied over a period of 10 days. The samples were plasma treated for 0.5, 2, 5 and 10 minutes. Contact angle measurements were made to study surface energy changes. Modification of surface chemical structure was examined using, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Contact angle measurements on untreated and plasma treated surfaces were made immediately, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs after treatment. Contact angle decreased from 93 deg for untreated sample to 30 deg for sample plasma treated for 10 minutes. After 10 days the contact angles for the 10 minute plasma treated sample increased to 67 deg, but it never reverted back to that of untreated surface. Similarly the O/C ratio increased from 0.136 for untreated sample to 0.321 for 10 minute plasma treated sample indication increase in surface energy.

  4. Estimation of gradients from scattered data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, S.E.

    1984-01-01

    Many techniques for producing a surface from scattered data require gradients at the data points. Since only positional data are usually known, the gradients must be estimated before the surface can be computed. The quality of the surface depends on the estimated gradients; so it is important to compute accurate estimates.

  5. Aluminum metal surface cleaning and activation by atmospheric-pressure remote plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, J., E-mail: jmespadero@uco.es; Bravo, J.A.; Calzada, M.D.

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Atmospheric-pressure postdischarges have been applied on aluminium surfaces. • The outer hydrocarbon layer is reduced by the action of the postdischarge. • The treatment promotes the appearance of hydrophilic OH radicals in the surface. • Effectivity for distances up to 5 cm allows for treating irregular surfaces. • Ageing in air due to the disappearance of OH radicals has been reported. - Abstract: The use of the remote plasma (postdischarge) of argon and argon-nitrogen microwave plasmas for cleaning and activating the surface of metallic commercial aluminum samples has been studied. The influence of the nitrogen content and the distance between the treated samples and the end of the discharge on the hydrophilicity and the surface energy has been analyzed by means of the sessile drop technique and the Owens-Wendt method. A significant increase in the hydrophilicity has been noted in the treated samples, together with an increase in the surface energy from values around 37 mJ/m{sup 2} to 77 mJ/m{sup 2}. Such increase weakly depends on the nitrogen content of the discharge, and the effectivity of the treatment extends to distances up to 5 cm from the end of the discharge, much longer than those reported in other plasma-based treatments. The analysis of the treated samples using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that such increase in the surface energy takes place due to a reduction of the carbon content and an increase in the amount of OH radicals in the surface. These radicals tend to disappear within 24–48 h after the treatment when the samples are stored in contact with ambient air, resulting in the ageing of the treated surface and a partial retrieval of the hydrophobicity of the surface.

  6. Long-term Effect of Dual-chamber Pacing on Pressure Gradient at Left Ventricular Outflow Tract in Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Hosoda, MD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old man with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM was implanted dual-chamber ICD for the purpose of both the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT gradient reduction by ventricular pacing and the primary prevention of ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Because the LVOT gradient reduction and improvement of symptoms by pacing were insufficient, however, a new pacing lead was inserted in the right ventricular apex at a different position 1.5 cm away from the site of the defibrillation lead, and the LVOT gradient greatly declined from 108 to 30 mmHg. This DDD pacing was continued over seven years. On this occasion, he was referred to our hospital because of battery depletion, and a cardiac catheterization study was performed after ICD replacement. The LVOT gradient was 10 mmHg in sinus rhythm. After administration of isoproterenol (0.02γ, the gradient was increased to 92 mmHg in sinus rhythm. DDD pacing using a newly placed ventricular pacing lead significantly decreased the gradient to 36 mmHg. This case study indicated that DDD pacing from a suitable location in the right ventricular apex caused a marked early reduction in the LVOT gradient, and at long-term follow up a further significant effect was obtained, also in sinus rhythm.

  7. Cytocompatibility evaluation and surface characterization of TiNi deformed by high-pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awang Shri, Dayangku Noorfazidah, E-mail: AWANGSHRI.Dayangku@nims.go.jp [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Structural Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Koichi [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Structural Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Yamamoto, Akiko [Biomaterials Unit, International Center for Material Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-10-01

    Effect of high-pressure torsion (HPT) deformation on biocompatibility and surface chemistry of TiNi was systematically investigated. Ti–50 mol% Ni was subjected to HPT straining for different numbers of turns, N = 0.25, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 at a rotation speed of 1 rpm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observations after 7 days of cell culture revealed the changes in the surface oxide composition, enrichment of Ti and detection of nitrogen derived from organic molecules in the culture medium. Plating efficiency of L929 cells was slightly increased by HPT deformation though no significant difference was observed. Albumin adsorption was higher in HPT-deformed samples, while vitronectin adsorption was peaked at N = 1. HPT deformation was also found to effectively suppress the Ni ion release from the TiNi samples into the cell culture medium even after the low degree of deformation at N = 0.25. - Highlights: • Nanostructured Ti–50 mol%Ni alloy was produced using high-pressure torsion. • HPT deformation improved L929 growth on TiNi samples. • Changes in surface chemistry were observed in HPT deformed samples. • Protein adsorption behavior was influenced by the surface chemistry. • Ni ion release was suppressed in HPT deformed samples.

  8. Surface pressure and aerodynamic loads determination of a transonic airfoil based on particle image velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragni, D; Ashok, A; Van Oudheusden, B W; Scarano, F

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation assesses a procedure to extract the aerodynamic loads and pressure distribution on an airfoil in the transonic flow regime from particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. The wind tunnel model is a two-dimensional NACA-0012 airfoil, and the PIV velocity data are used to evaluate pressure fields, whereas lift and drag coefficients are inferred from the evaluation of momentum contour and wake integrals. The PIV-based results are compared to those derived from conventional loads determination procedures involving surface pressure transducers and a wake rake. The method applied in this investigation is an extension to the compressible flow regime of that considered by van Oudheusden et al (2006 Non-intrusive load characterization of an airfoil using PIV Exp. Fluids 40 988–92) at low speed conditions. The application of a high-speed imaging system allows the acquisition in relatively short time of a sufficient ensemble size to compute converged velocity statistics, further translated in turbulent fluctuations included in the pressure and loads calculation, notwithstanding their verified negligible influence in the computation. Measurements are performed at varying spatial resolution to optimize the loads determination in the wake region and around the airfoil, further allowing us to assess the influence of spatial resolution in the proposed procedure. Specific interest is given to the comparisons between the PIV-based method and the conventional procedures for determining the pressure coefficient on the surface, the drag and lift coefficients at different angles of attack. Results are presented for the experiments at a free-stream Mach number M = 0.6, with the angle of attack ranging from 0° to 8°

  9. Absolute local sea surface in the Vanuatu Archipelago from GPS, satellite altimetry and pressure gauge data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K. K.; Ballu, V.; Bouin, M.; Calmant, S.; Shum, C.

    2004-12-01

    Water height measurements provided by seafloor tide gauges are a combination of sea level variation and local ground motion. Both signals are of scientific interest, but they must be separated in order to be useful. A reliable estimation of the vertical ground motion is important in very seismically areas such as the Pacific Ocean rim. One promising method to separate the two contributions is to use satellite altimetry which gives absolute water height that is independent of the local ground motion. However, the altimeter data must be calibrated using ground truth measurements. Once different components of the signal are separated, bottom pressure gauges can be used to detect vertical movements of the seafloor. The Vanuatu Archipelago is part of the Pacific "ring of fire", where plates are quickly converging. In this area, movements are very rapid and the seismic activity is intense, which gives a good opportunity to study deformation and seismic cycle. To get an integrate picture of vertical deformation over one plate and between the two plates, one needs to be able to monitor vertical movements on both underwater and emerged areas. We conducted an experiment in this area to compare measurements from bottom pressure gauges located beneath altimetry satellite tracks with sea surface altitude measurements from GPS. Two bottom pressure gauge are immerged since Nov. 1999 in this region. In order to perform absolute calibration for multiple satellite altimeters that overfly the region, we conducted 2 campaigns of GPS measurements of instantaneous sea surface height onboard the R/V Alis and using a GPS buoy. We present results of GPS computations for the March 2003 and March 2004 campaigns. These sea level GPS measurements are compared with multiple altimeter-measured sea surface heights, and sampling differences and high frequency variations were removed using continuous pressure gauge data. The observed discrepancies are likely to be explained by local geoid

  10. Development of an Organosilicon-Based Superhydrophobic/Icephobic Surface Using an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahi, Siavash

    During the past few decades, plasma-based surface treatment methods have gained a lot of interest in various applications such as thin film deposition, surface etching, surface activation and/or cleaning, etc. Generally, in plasma-based surface treatment methods, high-energy plasma-generated species are utilized to modify the surface structure or the chemical composition of a substrate. Unique physical and chemical characteristics of the plasma along with the high controllability of the process makes plasma treatment approaches very attractive in several industries. Plasma-based treatment methods are currently being used or investigated for a number of practical applications, such as adhesion promotion in auto industry, wound management and cancer treatment in biomedical industry, and coating development in aerospace industry. In this study, a two-step procedure is proposed for the development of superhydrophobic/icephobic coatings based on atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment of aluminum substrates using air and nitrogen plasma. The effects of plasma parameters on various surface properties are studied in order to identify the optimum conditions for maximum coating efficiency against icing and wetting. In the first step, the interactions between air or nitrogen plasma and the aluminum surface are studied. It is shown that by reducing jet-to-substrate distance, air plasma treatment, unlike nitrogen plasma treatment, is capable of creating micro-porous micro-roughened structures on the surface, some of which bear a significant resemblance to the features observed in laser ablation of metals with short and ultra-short laser pulses. The formation of such structures in plasma treatment is attributed to a transportation of energy from the jet to the surface over a very short period of time, in the range of picoseconds to microseconds. This energy transfer is shown to occur through a streamer discharge from the rotating arc source in the jet body to a close proximity of

  11. A coupled surface/subsurface flow model accounting for air entrapment and air pressure counterflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delfs, Jens Olaf; Wang, Wenqing; Kalbacher, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    the mass exchange between compartments. A benchmark test, which is based on a classic experimental data set on infiltration excess (Horton) overland flow, identified a feedback mechanism between surface runoff and soil air pressures. Our study suggests that air compression in soils amplifies surface runoff......This work introduces the soil air system into integrated hydrology by simulating the flow processes and interactions of surface runoff, soil moisture and air in the shallow subsurface. The numerical model is formulated as a coupled system of partial differential equations for hydrostatic (diffusive...... wave) shallow flow and two-phase flow in a porous medium. The simultaneous mass transfer between the soil, overland, and atmosphere compartments is achieved by upgrading a fully established leakance concept for overland-soil liquid exchange to an air exchange flux between soil and atmosphere. In a new...

  12. Apparatus and method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for shaping of damage free surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr,; Jeffrey, W [Livermore, CA

    2009-03-31

    Fabrication apparatus and methods are disclosed for shaping and finishing difficult materials with no subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use an atmospheric pressure mixed gas plasma discharge as a sub-aperture polisher of, for example, fused silica and single crystal silicon, silicon carbide and other materials. In one example, workpiece material is removed at the atomic level through reaction with fluorine atoms. In this example, these reactive species are produced by a noble gas plasma from trace constituent fluorocarbons or other fluorine containing gases added to the host argon matrix. The products of the reaction are gas phase compounds that flow from the surface of the workpiece, exposing fresh material to the etchant without condensation and redeposition on the newly created surface. The discharge provides a stable and predictable distribution of reactive species permitting the generation of a predetermined surface by translating the plasma across the workpiece along a calculated path.

  13. Gradient Evolution of Body Colouration in Surface- and Cave-Dwelling Poecilia mexicana and the Role of Phenotype-Assortative Female Mate Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bierbach

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological speciation assumes reproductive isolation to be the product of ecologically based divergent selection. Beside natural selection, sexual selection via phenotype-assortative mating is thought to promote reproductive isolation. Using the neotropical fish Poecilia mexicana from a system that has been described to undergo incipient ecological speciation in adjacent, but ecologically divergent habitats characterized by the presence or absence of toxic H2S and darkness in cave habitats, we demonstrate a gradual change in male body colouration along the gradient of light/darkness, including a reduction of ornaments that are under both inter- and intrasexual selection in surface populations. In dichotomous choice tests using video-animated stimuli, we found surface females to prefer males from their own population over the cave phenotype. However, female cave fish, observed on site via infrared techniques, preferred to associate with surface males rather than size-matched cave males, likely reflecting the female preference for better-nourished (in this case: surface males. Hence, divergent selection on body colouration indeed translates into phenotype-assortative mating in the surface ecotype, by selecting against potential migrant males. Female cave fish, by contrast, do not have a preference for the resident male phenotype, identifying natural selection against migrants imposed by the cave environment as the major driver of the observed reproductive isolation.

  14. Surface modification of polyimide (PI) film using water cathode atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Peichao; Liu Keming; Wang Jinmei; Dai Yu; Yu Bin; Zhou Xianju; Hao Honggang; Luo Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Equipment called water cathode atmospheric pressure glow discharge was used to improve the hydrophilicity of polyimide films. ► The data shows good homogeneity and the variation trends of contact angles are different for polar and non-polar testing liquids. ► The thickness of liquid layer plays an important role in plasma processing and directly affects the treatment effect. ► Surface hydrophilicity after plasma treatment is improved partly due to the increase in the roughness. ► The hydrophilicity of polyimide films is still better than untreated ones after long-term storage. - Abstract: The industrial use of polyimide film is limited because of undesirable properties such as poor wettability. In the present paper, a new kind of equipment called water cathode atmospheric pressure glow discharge was used to improve the surface properties of polyimide films and made them useful to technical applications. The changes in hydrophilicity of modified polyimide film surfaces were investigated by contact angle, surface energy and water content measurements as a function of treatment time. The results obtained show good treatment homogeneity and that the variation trends of contact angles are different for polar and non-polar testing liquids, while surface energy and water content are significantly enhanced with the increase of treatment time until they achieve saturated values after 60 s plasma treatment. Also, the thickness of liquid layer plays an important role in plasma processing and directly affects the treatment effect. Changes in morphology of polyimide films were analyzed by atomic force microscope and the results indicate that surface hydrophilicity after plasma treatment are improved partly due to the increase in the roughness. In addition, polyimide films treated by plasma are subjected to an ageing process to determine the durability of plasma treatment. It is found that the hydrophilicity is still better than untreated ones though the

  15. Effect of nanoscale surface texture on the contact-pressure-dependent conduction characteristics of a carbon-nanotube thin-film tactile pressure sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chaehyun; Lee, Kunhak; Choi, Eunsuk; Kim, Ahsung; Kim, Jinoh; Lee, Seungbeck [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    We report on a novel tactile pressure sensor structure that transfers the vertical pressure applied to the sample's surface to lateral strain in the carbon-nanotube thin film embedded in an elastomer by using a 'wavy' structured substrate contact surface. When pressure was applied to the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surface, it was transferred to a carbon-nanotube thin film (CNTF) underneath, where it stretched to conform to the wavy substrate surface. This resulted in an elongation, or lateral strain, in the CNTF layer, their reducing its conductance. The measurements showed that with an applied vertical pressure of 30 kPa, a 15% reduction in conductance was achieved with only a 500-nm deflection in the CNTF, and repeatedly applied pressures for 3,600 cycles (12 hours) resulted in only a 2% reduction in sensitivity, demonstrating the their film's high sensitivity and reliability. The mechanical stability and high sensitivity of the CNTF/PDMS hybrid with wavy substrate structures may make possible applications to future tactile pressure sensors.

  16. A comparison between evaporation ponds and evaporation surfaces as a source of the concentrated salt brine for salt gradient maintenance at Tajoura solar pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, Abdulghani M.; Agha, Khairy R.; Abughres, M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main problems that negatively affect the operation of salt gradient solar ponds and influence its thermal stability is the maintenance of salt gradient profile. Evaporation pond (EP) is designed to generate the salt which lost upward salt diffusion from the lower convective zone (LCZ) of the solar pond. Another attractive method is the evaporation surface facility (ES). Regions with moderate to high precipitation favor Evaporation Surface over Evaporation Ponds. Dry climates will generally favor Evaporation Ponds for the brine re-concentration. In previous studies [1-3], the authors have shown that the (EP) of Tajoura's Experimental Solar Pond (TESP) is under sized and can provide only about 30% of the salt required by a Salt Gradient Solar Pond (SGSP). The anticipated size of (EP) was estimated and presented in those studies under different design conditions, including Summer, Autumn and Spring designs, while the winter design was excluded due to the low rates of net evaporation during the winter season. In addition, the results presented were predicted for the first three years of operation. The daily variations of brine concentration in the (EP) of (TESP) and those based on different designs were predicted and discussed under different scenarios. The quantities of brine provided by the evaporation pond and that required by SGSP were predicted for both cases of surface water flushing (fresh water and sea-water) under the different design conditions as shown in Table 1. This paper investigates the differences between (EP) and (ES) both as a source for salt brine generation by evaporation. The effect of (EP) depth on the area ratio and daily variations of salt concentrations for three years of operation is shown. Results show that evaporation can be a reasonable method for salt brine generation. Reducing the depth of (EP) improves the capability of (EP) for brine re-concentration. It also increases the (EP) surface area for the same quantity of

  17. Study of discharges produced by surface waves under medium and high pressure: application to chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laye epouse Granier, Agnes

    1986-01-01

    This report deals with the study of microwave discharges produced in argon gas by surface waves in the 20-760 Torr pressure range. Application to chemical analysis by emission optical spectroscopy is also investigated. First of all we study the propagation of a surface wave in a bounded plasma in which the effective collision frequency for momentum transfer ν is higher than the excitation one. The axial electron density profile is determined from two diagnostic techniques, i.e., phase variations of the wave field and Stark broadening of H β line. Then we deduce the discharge characteristics ν, θ (maintaining power of an electron-ion pair) and E eff (effective electric field for discharge sustaining) from the electron density profile. Then an energy balance of the discharge is developed. It explains the change of operating conditions in the 20-50 Torr range. At low pressure the discharge is governed by ambipolar diffusion whereas at high pressure, the electrons are mainly lost by volume recombination of Ar 2 + . Finally, we report on chemical analysis experiment of gases (optimum sensibility in found near 100 Torr) and of metallic solutions sprayed by a graphite oven. Performances of such a design and ICP plasma torches are compared. (author) [fr

  18. Capillary pressure in a porous medium with distinct pore surface and pore volume fractal dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deinert, M R; Dathe, A; Parlange, J-Y; Cady, K B

    2008-02-01

    The relationship between capillary pressure and saturation in a porous medium often exhibits a power-law dependence. The physical basis for this relation has been substantiated by assuming that capillary pressure is directly related to the pore radius. When the pore space of a medium exhibits fractal structure this approach results in a power-law relation with an exponent of 3-D(v), where D(v) is the pore volume fractal dimension. However, larger values of the exponent than are realistically allowed by this result have long been known to occur. Using a thermodynamic formulation for equilibrium capillary pressure we show that the standard result is a special case of the more general exponent (3-D(v))(3-D(s)) where D(s) is the surface fractal dimension of the pores. The analysis reduces to the standard result when D(s)=2, indicating a Euclidean relationship between a pore's surface area and the volume it encloses, and allows for a larger value for the exponent than the standard result when D(s)>2 .

  19. Rough-Surface-Enabled Capacitive Pressure Sensors with 3D Touch Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kilsoo; Lee, Jaehong; Kim, Gwangmook; Kim, Youngjae; Kang, Subin; Cho, Sungjun; Kim, SeulGee; Kim, Jae-Kang; Lee, Wooyoung; Kim, Dae-Eun; Kang, Shinill; Kim, DaeEun; Lee, Taeyoon; Shim, Wooyoung

    2017-11-01

    Fabrication strategies that pursue "simplicity" for the production process and "functionality" for a device, in general, are mutually exclusive. Therefore, strategies that are less expensive, less equipment-intensive, and consequently, more accessible to researchers for the realization of omnipresent electronics are required. Here, this study presents a conceptually different approach that utilizes the inartificial design of the surface roughness of paper to realize a capacitive pressure sensor with high performance compared with sensors produced using costly microfabrication processes. This study utilizes a writing activity with a pencil and paper, which enables the construction of a fundamental capacitor that can be used as a flexible capacitive pressure sensor with high pressure sensitivity and short response time and that it can be inexpensively fabricated over large areas. Furthermore, the paper-based pressure sensors are integrated into a fully functional 3D touch-pad device, which is a step toward the realization of omnipresent electronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Fermi Surface, Pressure-Induced Antiferromagnetic Order, and Superconductivity in FeSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Jun; Yamada, Takemi; Yanagi, Yuki; Ōno, Yoshiaki

    2018-01-01

    The pressure dependence of the structural (Ts), antiferromagnetic (Tm), and superconducting (Tc) transition temperatures in FeSe is investigated on the basis of the 16-band d-p model. At ambient pressure, a shallow hole pocket disappears due to the correlation effect, as observed in the angular-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and quantum oscillation (QO) experiments, resulting in the suppression of the antiferromagnetic order, in contrast to the other iron pnictides. The orbital-polarization interaction between the Fe d orbital and Se p orbital is found to drive the ferro-orbital order responsible for the structural transition without accompanying the antiferromagnetic order. The pressure dependence of the Fermi surfaces is derived from the first-principles calculation and is found to well account for the opposite pressure dependences of Ts and Tm, around which the enhanced orbital and magnetic fluctuations cause the double-dome structure of the eigenvalue λ in the Eliashberg equation, as consistent with that of Tc in FeSe.

  1. Ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy: a new tool for surface science and nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron, Miquel; Salmeron, Miquel; Schlogl, Robert

    2008-03-12

    Progress in science often follows or parallels the development of new techniques. The optical microscope helped convert medicine and biology from a speculative activity in old times to today's sophisticated scientific disciplines. The telescope changed the study and interpretation of heavens from mythology to science. X-ray diffraction enabled the flourishing of solid state physics and materials science. The technique object of this review, Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy or APPES for short, has also the potential of producing dramatic changes in the study of liquid and solid surfaces, particularly in areas such as atmospheric, environment and catalysis sciences. APPES adds an important missing element to the host of techniques that give fundamental information, i.e., spectroscopy and microscopy, about surfaces in the presence of gases and vapors, as encountered in industrial catalysis and atmospheric environments. APPES brings electron spectroscopy into the realm of techniques that can be used in practical environments. Decades of surface science in ultra high vacuum (UHV) has shown the power of electron spectroscopy in its various manifestations. Their unique property is the extremely short elastic mean free path of electrons as they travel through condensed matter, of the order of a few atomic distances in the energy range from a few eV to a few thousand eV. As a consequence of this the information obtained by analyzing electrons emitted or scattered from a surface refers to the top first few atomic layers, which is what surface science is all about. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and other such techniques have been used for decades and provided some of the most fundamental knowledge about surface crystallography, composition and electronic structure available today. Unfortunately the high interaction cross section of

  2. Chemical loading into surface water along a hydrological, biogeochemical, and land use gradient: A holistic watershed approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, L.B.; Murphy, S.F.; Verplanck, P.L.; Sandstrom, M.W.; Taylor, Howard E.; Furlong, E.T.

    2006-01-01

    Identifying the sources and impacts of organic and inorganic contaminants at the watershed scale is a complex challenge because of the multitude of processes occurring in time and space. Investigation of geochemical transformations requires a systematic evaluation of hydrologic, landscape, and anthropogenic factors. The 1160 km2 Boulder Creek Watershed in the Colorado Front Range encompasses a gradient of geology, ecotypes, climate, and urbanization. Streamflow originates primarily as snowmelt and shows substantial annual variation. Water samples were collected along a 70-km transect during spring-runoff and base-flow conditions, and analyzed for major elements, trace elements, bulk organics, organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs), and pesticides. Major-element and trace-element concentrations were low in the headwaters, increased through the urban corridor, and had a step increase downstream from the first major wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Boron, gadolinium, and lithium were useful inorganic tracers of anthropogenic inputs. Effluent from the WWTP accounted for as much as 75% of the flow in Boulder Creek and was the largest chemical input. Under both hydrological conditions, OWCs and pesticides were detected in Boulder Creek downstream from the WWTP outfall as well as in the headwater region, and loads of anthropogenic-derived contaminants increased as basin population density increased. This report documents a suite of potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals in a reach of stream with native fish populations showing indication of endocrine disruption.

  3. Surface reconstruction of GaAs(001) nitrided under the controlled As partial pressure [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imayoshi, Takahiro; Oigawa, Haruhiro; Shigekawa, Hidemi; Tokumoto, Hiroshi

    2003-08-01

    Under the controlled As partial pressure, the nitridation process of GaAs(0 0 1)-(2 × 4) surface was studied using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) combined with an electron cyclotron resonance plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy system. With either prolonging the nitridation time or decreasing the As partial pressure, the previously reported (3 × 3) structure with two dimers per surface cell ((3 × 3)-2D) was found to progressively convert into a new (3 × 3) structure characterized by one dimer per surface cell ((3 × 3)-1D). Reversely the exposure to arsenic transformed the structure from (3 × 3)-1D to (3 × 3)-2D, suggesting that the topmost layer is composed of As 2-dimers. Based on these STM images together with the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data, we propose the new As 2-dimer coverage models to explain both (3 × 3)-1D and -2D structures involving the exchange reaction of arsenic with nitrogen in the subsurface region of GaAs.

  4. FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN A U-TUBE WITH SURFACE ROUGHNESS AND PRESSURE DROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GYUN-HO GIM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the surface roughness affecting the pressure drop in a pipe used as the steam generator of a PWR was studied. Based on the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics technique using a commercial code named ANSYS-FLUENT, a straight pipe was modeled to obtain the Darcy frictional coefficient, changed with a range of various surface roughness ratios as well as Reynolds numbers. The result is validated by the comparison with a Moody chart to set the appropriate size of grids at the wall for the correct consideration of surface roughness. The pressure drop in a full-scale U-shaped pipe is measured with the same code, correlated with the surface roughness ratio. In the next stage, we studied a reduced scale model of a U-shaped heat pipe with experiment and analysis of the investigation into fluid-structure interaction (FSI. The material of the pipe was cut from the real heat pipe of a material named Inconel 690 alloy, now used in steam generators. The accelerations at the fixed stations on the outer surface of the pipe model are measured in the series of time history, and Fourier transformed to the frequency domain. The natural frequency of three leading modes were traced from the FFT data, and compared with the result of a numerical analysis for unsteady, incompressible flow. The corresponding mode shapes and maximum displacement are obtained numerically from the FSI simulation with the coupling of the commercial codes, ANSYS-FLUENT and TRANSIENT_STRUCTURAL. The primary frequencies for the model system consist of three parts: structural vibration, BPF(blade pass frequency of pump, and fluid-structure interaction.

  5. Static Air Support Surfaces to Prevent Pressure Injuries: A Multicenter Cohort Study in Belgian Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serraes, Brecht; Beeckman, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors for developing pressure injuries (PIs) in patients placed on a static air support surfaces: mattress overlay, heel wedge, and seat cushion. Multicenter cohort study. The sample comprised 176 residents; their mean age was 87 (SD = 6.76) years; their mean Braden Scale score was 14 (SD = 2.54). The study was performed on a convenience sample of 6 nursing homes in Belgium. Data were collected on 23 care units. The primary outcome measure, cumulative PI incidence (category [stage] II-IV) over a 30-day observation period, was calculated. Pressure injury occurrence was defined according to the 2014 European and US National Pressure Injury Advisory panels, Pan Pacific Pressure Injury Alliance classification system. The PI incidence for category (stage) II-IV was 5.1%. Six residents (3.4%) developed a category II PI, and 3 (1.7%) developed a category III PI; no category IV ulcers occurred. No significant risk factors for category II-IV PIs were identified using multivariate logistic regression. Time of sitting in a chair was found to be a risk factor for development of nonblanchable erythema (category I PI) (odds ratio = 21.608; 95% confidence interval [CI], 20.510-22.812; P = .013). The median time to develop a category II-IV PI was 16 days (interquartile range = 2-26). The interrater reliability between the observations of the researcher and nurses on-site was almost perfect (0.86; 95% CI, 0.81-0.91). We found a low incidence of PIs when using a static air overlay mattress for patients at risk in a nursing home population. Static air support surfaces, alongside patient-tailored patient repositioning protocols, should be considered to prevent PIs in this patient population.

  6. Remote Sensing Global Surface Air Pressure Using Differential Absorption BArometric Radar (DiBAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Harrah, Steven; Lawrence, Wes; Hu, Yongxiang; Min, Qilong

    2016-01-01

    Tropical storms and severe weathers are listed as one of core events that need improved observations and predictions in World Meteorological Organization and NASA Decadal Survey (DS) documents and have major impacts on public safety and national security. This effort tries to observe surface air pressure, especially over open seas, from space using a Differential-absorption BArometric Radar (DiBAR) operating at the 50-55 gigahertz O2 absorption band. Air pressure is among the most important variables that affect atmospheric dynamics, and currently can only be measured by limited in-situ observations over oceans. Analyses show that with the proposed space radar the errors in instantaneous (averaged) pressure estimates can be as low as approximately 4 millibars (approximately 1 millibar under all weather conditions). With these sea level pressure measurements, the forecasts of severe weathers such as hurricanes will be significantly improved. Since the development of the DiBAR concept about a decade ago, NASA Langley DiBAR research team has made substantial progress in advancing the concept. The feasibility assessment clearly shows the potential of sea surface barometry using existing radar technologies. The team has developed a DiBAR system design, fabricated a Prototype-DiBAR (P-DiBAR) for proof-of-concept, conducted lab, ground and airborne P-DiBAR tests. The flight test results are consistent with the instrumentation goals. Observational system simulation experiments for space DiBAR performance based on the existing DiBAR technology and capability show substantial improvements in tropical storm predictions, not only for the hurricane track and position but also for the hurricane intensity. DiBAR measurements will lead us to an unprecedented level of the prediction and knowledge on global extreme weather and climate conditions.

  7. Investigation of surface treatment of conductive wire in cylindrical atmospheric pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Rubin; Kagohashi, Tsutomu; Zheng Wei

    2009-01-01

    Polyethylene insulated electric wire was treated in He and Ar dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric pressure plasmas generated in a quartz tube wound with tubular electrodes. The wire was put penetrating through the high voltage and the grounded electrodes, improving the discharge and facilitating uniform surface treatment. In this work, the influences of conductivity of the wire on the effects of surface treatment and discharge behavior were investigated. Surface properties of the wire samples were analyzed by means of surface energy measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In order to reveal the mechanism for treating the conductive wire, I-V discharge waveforms were measured and time-resolved plasma images were taken. It was demonstrated that the conductive wire was involved in the discharge process, reducing the breakdown voltage significantly and enhancing the discharge. It shows that the discharge mode was strongly dependent on the conductivity of a wire. Intensive surface discharges developed along the conductive wire were found to be mainly responsible for noticeable improvement in the treatment effect.

  8. Ambient pressure dried tetrapropoxysilane-based silica aerogels with high specific surface area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parale, Vinayak G.; Han, Wooje; Jung, Hae-Noo-Ree; Lee, Kyu-Yeon; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2018-01-01

    In the present paper, we report the synthesis of tetrapropoxysilane (TPOS)-based silica aerogels with high surface area and large pore volume. The silica aerogels were prepared by a two-step sol-gel process followed by surface modification via a simple ambient pressure drying approach. In order to minimize drying shrinkage and obtain hydrophobic aerogels, the surface of the alcogels was modified using trichloromethylsilane as a silylating agent. The effect of the sol-gel compositional parameters on the polymerization of aerogels prepared by TPOS, one of the precursors belonging to the Si(OR)4 family, was reported for the first time. The oxalic acid and NH4OH concentrations were adjusted to achieve good-quality aerogels with high surface area, low density, and high transparency. Controlling the hydrolysis and condensation reactions of the TPOS precursor turned out to be the most important factor to determine the pore characteristics of the aerogel. Highly transparent aerogels with high specific surface area (938 m2/g) and low density (0.047 g/cm3) could be obtained using an optimized TPOS/MeOH molar ratio with appropriate concentrations of oxalic acid and NH4OH.

  9. Hydrophilic film polymerized on the inner surface of PMMA tube by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Mengmeng; Huang, Jun; Yu, Jinsong; Chen, Guangliang; Qu, Shanqing

    2017-07-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) tube is widely used in biomedical and mechanical engineering fields. However, it is hampered for some special applications as the inner surface of PMMA tube exhibts a hydrophobic characteristic. The aim of this work is to explore the hydrophilic modification of the inner surface of the PMMA tubes using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) system that incorporates the acylic acid monomer (AA). Polar groups were grafted onto the inner surface of PMMA tube via the reactive radicals (•OH, •H, •O) generated in the Ar/O2/AA plasma, which were observed by the optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The deposition of the PAA thin layer on the PMMA surface was verified through the ATR-FTIR spectra, which clearly showed the strengthened stretching vibration of the carbonyl group (C=O) at 1700 cm-1. The XPS data show that the carbon ratios of C-OH/R and COOH/R groups increased from 9.50% and 0.07% to 13.49% and 17.07% respectively when a discharge power of 50 W was used in the APPJ system. As a result, the static water contat angle (WCA) of the modified inner surface of PMMA tube decreased from 100° to 48°. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of the APP modified PMMA tubes was illustrated by the study of the adhesion of the cultured MC3T3-E1 osteocyte cells, which exhibted a significantly enhanced adhesion density.

  10. Structure, Mobility, and Composition of Transition Metal Catalyst Surfaces. High-Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Ambient-Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zhongwei [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-12-06

    Surface structure, mobility, and composition of transition metal catalysts were studied by high-pressure scanning tunneling microscopy (HP-STM) and ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at high gas pressures. HP-STM makes it possible to determine the atomic or molecular rearrangement at catalyst surfaces, particularly at the low-coordinated active surface sites. AP-XPS monitors changes in elemental composition and chemical states of catalysts in response to variations in gas environments. Stepped Pt and Cu single crystals, the hexagonally reconstructed Pt(100) single crystal, and Pt-based bimetallic nanoparticles with controlled size, shape and composition, were employed as the model catalysts for experiments in this thesis.

  11. [Measurements of surface ocean carbon dioxide partial pressure during WOCE]. Summary of research progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses the research progress of the second year of research under ``Measurement of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE`` and proposes to continue measurements of underway pCO{sub 2}. During most of the first year of this grant, our efforts to measure pCO{sub 2} on WOCE WHP legs were frustrated by ship problems. The R/V Knorr, which was originally scheduled to carry out the first work on WHP lines P19 and P16 in the southeastem Pacific during the 1990-91 austral summer, was delayed in the shipyard during her mid-life refit for more than a year. In the interim, the smaller R/V Thomas Washington, was pressed into service to carry out lower-latitude portions of WHP lines P16 and P17 during mid-1991 (TUNES Expedition). We installed and operated our underway chromatographic system on this expedition, even though space and manpower on this smaller vessel were limited and no one from our group would be aboard any of the 3 WHP expedition legs. The results for carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are shown. A map of the cruise track is shown for each leg, marked with cumulative distance. Following each track is a figure showing the carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide results as a function of distance along this track. The results are plotted as dry-gas mole fractions (in ppm and ppb, respectively) in air and in gas equilibrated with surface seawater at a total pressure equal to the barometric pressure. The air data are plotted as a 10-point running mean, and appear as a roughly horizontal line. The seawater data are plotted as individual points, using a 5-point Gaussian smoother. Equal values Of xCO{sub 2} in air and surface seawater indicate air-sea equilibrium.

  12. Study on the reforming of alcohols in a surface wave discharge (SWD) at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, M; Yubero, C; Calzada, M D

    2008-01-01

    Surface wave plasma at atmospheric pressure has been used to produce the decomposition of the alcohol molecules introduced into it, in order to obtain hydrogen. Four alcohols, methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol, have been used for this purpose. Optical emission spectroscopy was the tool used to analyse the radiation emitted by the plasma. Hydrogen atoms and other species such as C 2 and CH in alcohols have been detected but no CO molecular bands. Also, a mass spectrometer has been used in order to detect molecular hydrogen production in methanol decomposition

  13. Use of Pressure-Redistributing Support Surfaces Among Elderly Hip Fracture Patients Across the Continuum of Care: Adherence to Pressure Ulcer Prevention Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgarten, Mona; Margolis, David; Orwig, Denise; Hawkes, William; Rich, Shayna; Langenberg, Patricia; Shardell, Michelle; Palmer, Mary H.; McArdle, Patrick; Sterling, Robert; Jones, Patricia S.; Magaziner, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the frequency of use of pressure-redistributing support surfaces (PRSS) among hip fracture patients and to determine whether higher pressure ulcer risk is associated with greater PRSS use. Design and Methods: Patients (n = 658) aged ≥65 years who had surgery for hip fracture were examined by research nurses at baseline and on alternating days for 21 days. Information on PRSS use and pressure ulcer risk factors was recorded at each assessment visit. Other information was o...

  14. Spatially resolved surface valence gradient and structural transformation of lithium transition metal oxides in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanshuo; Bugnet, Matthieu; Tessaro, Matteo Z; Harris, Kristopher J; Dunham, Mark J R; Jiang, Meng; Goward, Gillian R; Botton, Gianluigi A

    2016-10-26

    Layered lithium transition metal oxides are one of the most important types of cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) that possess high capacity and relatively low cost. Nevertheless, these layered cathode materials suffer structural changes during electrochemical cycling that could adversely affect the battery performance. Clear explanations of the cathode degradation process and its initiation, however, are still under debate and not yet fully understood. We herein systematically investigate the chemical evolution and structural transformation of the LiNi x Mn y Co 1-x-y O 2 (NMC) cathode material in order to understand the battery performance deterioration driven by the cathode degradation upon cycling. Using high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HR-EELS) we clarify the role of transition metals in the charge compensation mechanism, particularly the controversial Ni 2+ (active) and Co 3+ (stable) ions, at different states-of-charge (SOC) under 4.6 V operation voltage. The cathode evolution is studied in detail from the first-charge to long-term cycling using complementary diagnostic tools. With the bulk sensitive 7 Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements, we show that the local ordering of transition metal and Li layers (R3[combining macron]m structure) is well retained in the bulk material upon cycling. In complement to the bulk measurements, we locally probe the valence state distribution of cations and the surface structure of NMC particles using EELS and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The results reveal that the surface evolution of NMC is initiated in the first-charging step with a surface reduction layer formed at the particle surface. The NMC surface undergoes phase transformation from the layered structure to a poor electronic and ionic conducting transition-metal oxide rock-salt phase (R3[combining macron]m → Fm3[combining macron]m), accompanied by irreversible lithium and oxygen loss. In addition to

  15. Development of a pressure based room acoustic model using impedance descriptions of surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marbjerg, Gerd Høy; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    and acoustic radiosity will account for the diffuse reflections. This paper presents the motivation for the new model in the form of results in literature, which show the importance of retaining the angle dependence and phase information in reflections along with simple examples of angle dependent reflection......If a simulation tool is to be used for the optimization of absorbent ceilings, it is important that the simulation tool includes a good description of the surface. This study therefore aims at developing a model which can describe surfaces by their impedance values and not just by their statistical...... absorption coefficient, thus retaining the phase and the angle dependence. The approach of the proposed model will be to calculate the pressure impulse response using a combination of the image source method and acoustic radiosity. The image source method will account for the specular reflections...

  16. Interfacial effects of surface-active agents under zinc pressure leach conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, George; Dreisinger, David B.; Peters, Ernest

    1995-02-01

    Liquid sulfur-zinc sulfate solution interfacial tensions and liquid sulfur-zinc sulfate solution-zinc sulfide (marmatite) contact angles were measured in the absence and presence of surface-active agents. Interfacial tensions measured varied between 54 ± 1 mN/m in the surfactant-free system and 20 ± 1 mN/m in the presence of a surfactant. The liquid sulfur-zinc sulfide mineral-zinc sulfate solution contact angle varies between 80 ± 5 deg, in the absence of any surfactant, and 148 ± 5 deg, depending on the surfactant used. The surface-active agents were used as dispersants for sulfur in bench-scale zinc pressure-leaching experiments. The observed extent of zinc extraction depends on the surfactant and varies from 40 to 96 pct.

  17. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls along an east-to-west gradient in subtropical North Atlantic surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, Gerhard; Spitzy, Alejandro; Audy, Ondřej; Beckmann, Sabine; Codling, Garry P; Kretzschmann, Lisett; Kukučka, Petr; Stemmler, Irene

    2017-04-01

    Despite the fact that most persistent toxic substances have hardly been primarily emitted for several decades, their concentrations are only slowly decreasing in the global oceans. Surface seawater samples were collected along a 38°-24° N/28°-67° W transect in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. While the concentration levels of hexachlorobenzene (2.1-6.1 pg L -1 ), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, up to 2.1 pg L -1 ) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB, 10.8-24.9 pg L -1 ) were in the same range as observed earlier in the North Atlantic, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, 90-627 pg L -1 ) was found elevated, partly also relative to previous measurements in the same sea region. Hereby, the ratio α-HCH/γ-HCH was very low, 0.09-0.13. Chlordane and endosulfan were found in the range pollution patterns in surface seawaters seem to be determined by atmospheric and oceanic transport patterns, rather than by mixing and air-sea equilibrium. The comparison with global multicompartment chemistry-transport model predictions of surface seawater levels indicate underestimated degradation of PCBs and overestimated emissions of endosulfan.

  18. Characteristics of surface sound pressure and absorption of a finite impedance strip for a grazing incident plane wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, K S; Pan, J

    2007-07-01

    Distributions of sound pressure and intensity on the surface of a flat impedance strip flush-mounted on a rigid baffle are studied for a grazing incident plane wave. The distributions are obtained by superimposing the unperturbed wave (the specularly reflected wave as if the strip is rigid plus the incident wave) with the radiated wave from the surface vibration of the strip excited by the unperturbed pressure. The radiated pressure interferes with the unperturbed pressure and distorts the propagating plane wave. When the plane wave propagates in the baffle-strip-baffle direction, it encounters discontinuities in acoustical impedance at the baffle-strip and strip-baffle interfaces. The radiated pressure is highest around the baffle-strip interface, but decreases toward the strip-baffle interface where the plane wave distortion reduces accordingly. As the unperturbed and radiated waves have different magnitudes and superimpose out of phase, the surface pressure and intensity increase across the strip in the plane wave propagation direction. Therefore, the surface absorption of the strip is nonzero and nonuniform. This paper provides an understanding of the surface pressure and intensity behaviors of a finite impedance strip for a grazing incident plane wave, and of how the distributed intensity determines the sound absorption coefficient of the strip.

  19. The effect of ambient pressure on ejecta sheets from free-surface ablation

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2016-04-16

    We present observations from an experimental study of the ablation of a free liquid surface promoted by a focused laser pulse, causing a rapid discharge of liquid in the form of a very thin conical-shaped sheet. In order to capture the dynamics, we employ a state-of-the-art ultra-high-speed video camera capable of capturing events at (Formula presented.) fps with shutter speeds down to 20 ns, whereby we were able to capture not only the ejecta sheet, but also the shock wave, emerging at speeds of up to 1.75 km/s, which is thus found to be hypersonic (Mach 5). Experiments were performed at a range of ambient pressures in order to study the effect of air drag on the evolution of the sheet, which was always observed to dome over, even at pressures as low as 3.8 kPa. At reduced pressures, the extended sheet evolution led to the formation of interference fringe patterns from which, by comparison with the opening speed of rupture, we were able to determine the ejecta thickness. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  20. Effects of land use types on surface water quality across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient in the upper reach of the Hun River, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruizhao; Xu, Tianle; Yu, Lizhong; Zhu, Jiaojun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2013-05-01

    Surface water quality is vulnerable to pollution due to human activities. The upper reach of the Hun River is an important water source that supplies 52 % of the storage capacity of the Dahuofang Reservoir, the largest reservoir for drinking water in Northeast China, which is suffering from various human-induced changes in land use, including deforestation, reclamation/farming, urbanization and mine exploitation. To investigate the impacts of land use types on surface water quality across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient at a local scale, 11 physicochemical parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen [DO], turbidity, oxygen redox potential, conductivity, biochemical oxygen demand [BOD5], chemical oxygen demand [COD], total nitrogen [TN], total phosphorus [TP], NO(3)(-)N, and NH(4)(+)-N) of water from 12 sampling sites along the upper reach of the Hun River were monitored monthly during 2009-2010. The sampling sites were classified into four groups (natural, near-natural, more disturbed, and seriously disturbed). The water quality exhibited distinct spatial and temporal characteristics; conductivity, TN, and NO(3)(-)-N were identified as key parameters indicating the water quality variance. The forest and farmland cover types played significant roles in determining the surface water quality during the low-flow, high-flow, and mean-flow periods based on the results of a stepwise linear regression. These results may provide incentive for the local government to consider sustainable land use practices for water conservation.

  1. Silver from polyurethane dressing is delivered by gradient to exudate, tissue, and serum of patients undergoing negative-pressure wound treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca-Buis, René F; Munguía, Nadia M; Gonzalez, Juan Manuel Melchor; Solís-Arrieta, Lilia; y Osorio, Liliana Saldivar; Krötzsch, Edgar

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the distribution and concentration of silver eluted from silver-coated polyurethane dressing (V.A.C. GranuFoam Silver Dressing; KCI, San Antonio, Texas) in vitro and in patients undergoing negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT). This was a descriptive study of the effect of silver-coated polyurethane dressing in patients undergoing NPWT. Six patients with infected wounds undergoing NPWT using silver-coated polyurethane dressing. To evaluate silver release in vitro, the authors soaked dressing fragments in water and human serum for different lengths of time and performed atomic absorption spectroscopy. For patient evaluation, the authors obtained exudate, serum, and wound tissue at different time points from 6 patients undergoing NPWT and measured silver levels by atomic absorption and dispersed x-ray spectroscopy. Silver from the dressing was immediately released in vitro at a rate 3 times greater in serum than in water. In vivo, silver was delivered to wound exudate at rates 102 to 104 times greater than in corresponding serum. Few surface silver deposits were detected in treated tissue. The high concentration of silver found in wound exudate reflects not only the affinity for silver in serum components and wound fluids, but also that most silver ions are not distributed systemically in the patient; instead, they are transported by the vacuum created by therapy.

  2. Microbial Community and Biochemical Dynamics of Biological Soil Crusts across a Gradient of Surface Coverage in the Central Mojave Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Mogul

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we expand upon the biogeography of biological soil crusts (BSCs and provide molecular insights into the microbial community and biochemical dynamics along the vertical BSC column structure, and across a transect of increasing BSC surface coverage in the central Mojave Desert, CA, United States. Next generation sequencing reveals a bacterial community profile that is distinct among BSCs in the southwestern United States. Distribution of major phyla in the BSC topsoils included Cyanobacteria (33 ± 8%, Proteobacteria (26 ± 6%, and Chloroflexi (12 ± 4%, with Phormidium being the numerically dominant genus. Furthermore, BSC subsurfaces contained Proteobacteria (23 ± 5%, Actinobacteria (20 ± 5%, and Chloroflexi (18 ± 3%, with an unidentified genus from Chloroflexi (AKIW781, order being numerically dominant. Across the transect, changes in distribution at the phylum (p < 0.0439 and genus (p < 0.006 levels, including multiple biochemical and geochemical trends (p < 0.05, positively correlated with increasing BSC surface coverage. This included increases in (a Chloroflexi abundance, (b abundance and diversity of Cyanobacteria, (b OTU-level diversity in the topsoil, (c OTU-level differentiation between the topsoil and subsurface, (d intracellular ATP abundances and catalase activities, and (e enrichments in clay, silt, and varying elements, including S, Mn, Co, As, and Pb, in the BSC topsoils. In sum, these studies suggest that BSCs from regions of differing surface coverage represent early successional stages, which exhibit increasing bacterial diversity, metabolic activities, and capacity to restructure the soil. Further, these trends suggest that BSC successional maturation and colonization across the transect are inhibited by metals/metalloids such as B, Ca, Ti, Mn, Co, Ni, Mo, and Pb.

  3. Microbial Community and Biochemical Dynamics of Biological Soil Crusts across a Gradient of Surface Coverage in the Central Mojave Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogul, Rakesh; Vaishampayan, Parag; Bashir, Mina; McKay, Chris P; Schubert, Keith; Bornaccorsi, Rosalba; Gomez, Ernesto; Tharayil, Sneha; Payton, Geoffrey; Capra, Juliana; Andaya, Jessica; Bacon, Leonard; Bargoma, Emily; Black, David; Boos, Katie; Brant, Michaela; Chabot, Michael; Chau, Danny; Cisneros, Jessica; Chu, Geoff; Curnutt, Jane; DiMizio, Jessica; Engelbrecht, Christian; Gott, Caroline; Harnoto, Raechel; Hovanesian, Ruben; Johnson, Shane; Lavergne, Britne; Martinez, Gabriel; Mans, Paul; Morales, Ernesto; Oei, Alex; Peplow, Gary; Piaget, Ryan; Ponce, Nicole; Renteria, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Veronica; Rodriguez, Joseph; Santander, Monica; Sarmiento, Khamille; Scheppelmann, Allison; Schroter, Gavin; Sexton, Devan; Stephenson, Jenin; Symer, Kristin; Russo-Tait, Tatiane; Weigel, Bill; Wilhelm, Mary B

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we expand upon the biogeography of biological soil crusts (BSCs) and provide molecular insights into the microbial community and biochemical dynamics along the vertical BSC column structure, and across a transect of increasing BSC surface coverage in the central Mojave Desert, CA, United States. Next generation sequencing reveals a bacterial community profile that is distinct among BSCs in the southwestern United States. Distribution of major phyla in the BSC topsoils included Cyanobacteria (33 ± 8%), Proteobacteria (26 ± 6%), and Chloroflexi (12 ± 4%), with Phormidium being the numerically dominant genus. Furthermore, BSC subsurfaces contained Proteobacteria (23 ± 5%), Actinobacteria (20 ± 5%), and Chloroflexi (18 ± 3%), with an unidentified genus from Chloroflexi (AKIW781, order) being numerically dominant. Across the transect, changes in distribution at the phylum ( p < 0.0439) and genus ( p < 0.006) levels, including multiple biochemical and geochemical trends ( p < 0.05), positively correlated with increasing BSC surface coverage. This included increases in (a) Chloroflexi abundance, (b) abundance and diversity of Cyanobacteria, (b) OTU-level diversity in the topsoil, (c) OTU-level differentiation between the topsoil and subsurface, (d) intracellular ATP abundances and catalase activities, and (e) enrichments in clay, silt, and varying elements, including S, Mn, Co, As, and Pb, in the BSC topsoils. In sum, these studies suggest that BSCs from regions of differing surface coverage represent early successional stages, which exhibit increasing bacterial diversity, metabolic activities, and capacity to restructure the soil. Further, these trends suggest that BSC successional maturation and colonization across the transect are inhibited by metals/metalloids such as B, Ca, Ti, Mn, Co, Ni, Mo, and Pb.

  4. Relative significance of microtopography and vegetation as controls on surface water flow on a low-gradient floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jungyill; Harvey, Judson W.

    2014-01-01

    Surface water flow controls water velocities, water depths, and residence times, and influences sediment and nutrient transport and other ecological processes in shallow aquatic systems. Flow through wetlands is substantially influenced by drag on vegetation stems but is also affected by microtopography. Our goal was to use microtopography data directly in a widely used wetland model while retaining the advantages of the model’s one-dimensional structure. The base simulation with no explicit treatment of microtopography only performed well for a period of high water when vegetation dominated flow resistance. Extended simulations using microtopography can improve the fit to low-water conditions substantially. The best fit simulation had a flow conductance parameter that decreased in value by 70 % during dry season such that mcrotopographic features blocked 40 % of the cross sectional width for flow. Modeled surface water became ponded and flow ceased when 85 % of the cross sectional width became blocked by microtopographic features. We conclude that vegetation drag dominates wetland flow resistance at higher water levels and microtopography dominates at low water levels with the threshold delineated by the top of microtopographic features. Our results support the practicality of predicting flow on floodplains using relatively easily measured physical and biological variables.

  5. Modeling and Analysis of The Pressure Die Casting Using Response Surface Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittur, Jayant K.; Herwadkar, T. V.; Parappagoudar, M. B.

    2010-01-01

    Pressure die casting is successfully used in the manufacture of Aluminum alloys components for automobile and many other industries. Die casting is a process involving many process parameters having complex relationship with the quality of the cast product. Though various process parameters have influence on the quality of die cast component, major influence is seen by the die casting machine parameters and their proper settings. In the present work, non-linear regression models have been developed for making predictions and analyzing the effect of die casting machine parameters on the performance characteristics of die casting process. Design of Experiments (DOE) with Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been used to analyze the effect of effect of input parameters and their interaction on the response and further used to develop nonlinear input-output relationships. Die casting machine parameters, namely, fast shot velocity, slow shot to fast shot change over point, intensification pressure and holding time have been considered as the input variables. The quality characteristics of the cast product were determined by porosity, hardness and surface rough roughness (output/responses). Design of experiments has been used to plan the experiments and analyze the impact of variables on the quality of casting. On the other-hand Response Surface Methodology (Central Composite Design) is utilized to develop non-linear input-output relationships (regression models). The developed regression models have been tested for their statistical adequacy through ANOVA test. The practical usefulness of these models has been tested with some test cases. These models can be used to make the predictions about different quality characteristics, for the known set of die casting machine parameters, without conducting the experiments.

  6. Prevention of pressure ulcers in the intensive care unit: a randomized trial of 2 viscoelastic foam support surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurek, Pakize; Yavuz, Meryem

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare whether differences exist between 2 viscoelastic foam support surfaces in the development of new pressure ulcers. There is evidence to support the use of viscoelastic foam over standard hospital foam to reduce pressure. A comparative effectiveness study was done to compare 2 viscoelastic foam support surfaces. A randomized controlled trial was carried out. The study was performed in 2 intensive care units between October 1, 2008, and January 4, 2010. Patients (n = 105) admitted to intensive care unit were randomly assigned to viscoelastic foam 1 (n = 53) or viscoelastic foam 2 support surface (n = 52). In total, 42.8% of all patients developed a new pressure ulcer of stage 1 or worse. By stages, pressure ulcer incidence was 28.6%, 13.3%, and 1.0% for stages 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was no significant difference in pressure ulcer incidence between the viscoelastic foam 1 and 2 groups (X2 = 0.07, df = 1, P > .05). No difference was found between 2 different viscoelastic foam surfaces in the prevention of pressure ulcers in patients treated in intensive care. Pressure ulcer incidence in critically ill patients remains high. Nurses must compare current products for effectiveness and develop innovative systems, processes, or devices to deliver best practices.

  7. Investigation of working pressure on the surface roughness controlling technology of glow discharge polymer films based on the diagnosed plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Chen, Guo; He, Zhibing; Ai, Xing; Huang, Jinglin; Liu, Lei; Tang, Yongjian; He, Xiaoshan

    2017-07-01

    The effects of working pressure on the component, surface morphology, surface roughness, and deposition rate of glow discharge polymer (GDP) films by a trans-2-butene/hydrogen gas mixture were investigated based on plasma characteristics diagnosis. The composition and ion energy distributions of a multi-carbon (C4H8/H2) plasma mixture at different working pressures were diagnosed by an energy-resolved mass spectrometer (MS) during the GDP film deposition process. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and white-light interferometer (WLI) results were obtained to investigate the structure, morphology and roughness characterization of the deposited films, respectively. It was found that the degree of ionization of the C4H8/H2 plasma reduces with an increase in the working pressure. At a low working pressure, the C-H fragments exhibited small-mass and high ion energy in plasma. In this case, the film had a low CH3/CH2 ratio, and displayed a smooth surface without any holes, cracks or asperities. While the working pressure increased to 15 Pa, the largest number of large-mass fragments led to the deposition rate reaching a maximum of 2.11 μm h-1, and to hole defects on the film surface. However, continuing to increase the working pressure, the film surface became smooth again, and the interface between clusters became inconspicuous without etching pits.

  8. Changes in Land Surface Water Dynamics since the 1990s and Relation to Population Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, C.; Papa, F.; Aires, F.; Jimenez, C.; Rossow, W. B.; Matthews, E.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a remote sensing approach based on multi-satellite observations, which provides an unprecedented estimate of monthly distribution and area of land-surface open water over the whole globe. Results for 1993 to 2007 exhibit a large seasonal and inter-annual variability of the inundation extent with an overall decline in global average maximum inundated area of 6% during the fifteen-year period, primarily in tropical and subtropical South America and South Asia. The largest declines of open water are found where large increases in population have occurred over the last two decades, suggesting a global scale effect of human activities on continental surface freshwater: denser population can impact local hydrology by reducing freshwater extent, by draining marshes and wetlands, and by increasing water withdrawals. Citation: Prigent, C., F. Papa, F. Aires, C. Jimenez, W. B. Rossow, and E. Matthews (2012), Changes in land surface water dynamics since the 1990s and relation to population pressure, in section 4, insisting on the potential applications of the wetland dataset.

  9. Causes of plasma column contraction in surface-wave-driven discharges in argon at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenti, Marco Antonio; de Amorim, Jayr; Dal Pino, Arnaldo; Guerra, Vasco; Petrov, George

    2018-01-01

    In this work we compute the main features of a surface-wave-driven plasma in argon at atmospheric pressure in view of a better understanding of the contraction phenomenon. We include the detailed chemical kinetics dynamics of Ar and solve the mass conservation equations of the relevant neutral excited and charged species. The gas temperature radial profile is calculated by means of the thermal diffusion equation. The electric field radial profile is calculated directly from the numerical solution of the Maxwell equations assuming the surface wave to be propagating in the TM00 mode. The problem is considered to be radially symmetrical, the axial variations are neglected, and the equations are solved in a self-consistent fashion. We probe the model results considering three scenarios: (i) the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) is calculated by means of the Boltzmann equation; (ii) the EEDF is considered to be Maxwellian; (iii) the dissociative recombination is excluded from the chemical kinetics dynamics, but the nonequilibrium EEDF is preserved. From this analysis, the dissociative recombination is shown to be the leading mechanism in the constriction of surface-wave plasmas. The results are compared with mass spectrometry measurements of the radial density profile of the ions Ar+ and Ar2+. An explanation is proposed for the trends seen by Thomson scattering diagnostics that shows a substantial increase of electron temperature towards the plasma borders where the electron density is small.

  10. Absolute Height of Sea Surface by Trajectory of GPS Antennae Over Submerged Pressure Gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouin, M.; Calmant, S.; Cheng, K.; Ballu, V.; Shum, C. K.; Testut, L.

    2003-12-01

    Water height data provided by seafloor tide gauges is a combination of sea-level variations and ground motion. Both of these signals are of scientific interest, but they must be separated in order to be useful. Estimating ground motion is specially important in very tectonically active areas such as the Pacific Ocean rim. One promising method to separate the two contributions is to use satellite altimetry data which gives absolute water height, but these data must be calibrated using ground truth measurements. Once different components of the signal are separated, bottom pressure gauges can be used to detect vertical movements of the seafloor such as co-seismic or slow inter-seismic motions. The Vanuatu archipelago is part of the Pacific ring of fire, where plates are rapidly converging. In the area, movements are very rapid and the seismic activity is intense, which gives a good opportunity to study deformation and seismic cycle. To get an integrate picture of vertical deformation over one plate and between the two plates, one needs to be able to monitor vertical movements on both underwater and emerged areas. We conducted an experiment in the Vanuatu archipelago, South-West Pacific, to compare measurements from bottom pressure gauges located beneath altimetry satellite tracks with sea surface altitude measurements from GPS. Two bottom pressure gauges are immerged since Nov. 1999 on Sabine bank (15.90° S, 166.14° E) and Wusi Bank (15.34° S, 166.55° E), West of Santo island, Vanuatu. In order to perform absolute calibrations of JASON and ENVISAT altimeters that overfly the Wusi and Sabine banks, respectively, we performed GPS measurements of instantaneous sea surface altitude. The GPS antennae were fixed on top of the 30m long R/V Alis. An inertial unit also recorded the high frequency vessel motions. The height of the antennae over the sea surface was measured using a laser distancemeter in calibration sessions during particularly calm sea states. We present

  11. In Situ Studies of Surface Mobility on Noble Metal Model Catalysts Using STM and XPS at Ambient Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, Derek Robert [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-06-01

    High Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (HP-STM) and Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy were used to study the structural properties and catalytic behavior of noble metal surfaces at high pressure. HP-STM was used to study the structural rearrangement of the top most atomic surface layer of the metal surfaces in response to changes in gas pressure and reactive conditions. AP-XPS was applied to single crystal and nanoparticle systems to monitor changes in the chemical composition of the surface layer in response to changing gas conditions. STM studies on the Pt(100) crystal face showed the lifting of the Pt(100)-hex surface reconstruction in the presence of CO, H2, and Benzene. The gas adsorption and subsequent charge transfer relieves the surface strain caused by the low coordination number of the (100) surface atoms allowing the formation of a (1 x 1) surface structure commensurate with the bulk terminated crystal structure. The surface phase change causes a transformation of the surface layer from hexagonal packing geometry to a four-fold symmetric surface which is rich in atomic defects. Lifting the hex reconstruction at room temperature resulted in a surface structure decorated with 2-3 nm Pt adatom islands with a high density of step edge sites. Annealing the surface at a modest temperature (150 C) in the presence of a high pressure of CO or H2 increased the surface diffusion of the Pt atoms causing the adatom islands to aggregate reducing the surface concentration of low coordination defect sites. Ethylene hydrogenation was studied on the Pt(100) surface using HP-STM. At low pressure, the lifting of the hex reconstruction was observed in the STM images. Increasing the ethylene pressure to 1 Torr, was found to regenerate the hexagonally symmetric reconstructed phase. At room temperature ethylene undergoes a structural rearrangement to form ethylidyne. Ethylidyne preferentially binds at the three-fold hollow sites, which

  12. Low pressure water vapour plasma treatment of surfaces for biomolecules decontamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fumagalli, F; Kylian, O; Amato, Letizia

    2012-01-01

    Decontamination treatments of surfaces are performed on bacterial spores, albumin and brain homogenate used as models of biological contaminations in a low-pressure, inductively coupled plasma reactor operated with water-vapour-based gas mixtures. It is shown that removal of contamination can...... be achieved using pure H2O or Ar/H2O mixtures at low temperatures with removal rates comparable to oxygen-based mixtures. Particle fluxes (Ar+ ions, O and H atomic radicals and OH molecular radicals) from water vapour discharge are measured by optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probe under several...... operating conditions. Analysis of particle fluxes and removal rates measurements illustrates the role of ion bombardment associated with O radicals, governing the removal rates of organic matter. Auxiliary role of hydroxyl radicals is discussed on the basis of experimental data. The advantages of a water...

  13. Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, F; Rauscher, H; Hasiwa, M; Gilliland, D; Kylian, O

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms of sterilization and decontamination of surfaces are compared in direct and post discharge plasma treatments in two low-pressure reactors, microwave and inductively coupled plasma. It is shown that the removal of various biomolecules, such as proteins, pyrogens or peptides, can be obtained at high rates and low temperatures in the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) by using Ar/O 2 mixtures. Similar efficiency is obtained for bacterial spores. Analysis of the discharge conditions illustrates the role of ion bombardment associated with O radicals, leading to a fast etching of organic matter. By contrast, the conditions obtained in the post discharge lead to much lower etching rates but also to a chemical modification of pyrogens, leading to their de-activation. The advantages of the two processes are discussed for the application to the practical case of decontamination of medical devices and reduction of hospital infections, illustrating the advantages and drawbacks of the two approaches.

  14. Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, F; Rauscher, H; Hasiwa, M; Gilliland, D [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Via E. Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Kylian, O [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, Prague 8, 180 00 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: francois.rossi@jrc.ec.europa.eu

    2009-11-15

    The mechanisms of sterilization and decontamination of surfaces are compared in direct and post discharge plasma treatments in two low-pressure reactors, microwave and inductively coupled plasma. It is shown that the removal of various biomolecules, such as proteins, pyrogens or peptides, can be obtained at high rates and low temperatures in the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) by using Ar/O{sub 2} mixtures. Similar efficiency is obtained for bacterial spores. Analysis of the discharge conditions illustrates the role of ion bombardment associated with O radicals, leading to a fast etching of organic matter. By contrast, the conditions obtained in the post discharge lead to much lower etching rates but also to a chemical modification of pyrogens, leading to their de-activation. The advantages of the two processes are discussed for the application to the practical case of decontamination of medical devices and reduction of hospital infections, illustrating the advantages and drawbacks of the two approaches.

  15. Experimental and numerical investigations of stable crack growth of axial surface flaws in a pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocks, W.; Krafka, H.; Mueller, W.; Wobst, K.

    1988-01-01

    In connection with the problem of the transferability of parameters obtained experimentally with the help of fracture-mechanical test specimens and used for the initiation and the stable propagation of cracks in cases of pulsating stress and of the elasto-plastic behaviour of construction components, a pressure vessel with an inside diameter of 1500 mm, a cylindrical length of 3000 mm and a wall thickness of 40 mm was hydraulically loaded with the help of internal pressure in the first stage, to attain an average crack growth of 1 mm at Δ a ≅, the loading taking place at about 21deg C. This stress-free annealed vessel exhibited an axial semielliptical vibration-induced surface crack about 181 mm long and 20 mm deep, as a test defect, in a welded circular blank made of the steel 20MnMoNi 55. The fractographic analysis of the first stable crack revealed that its growth rate of Δa was highest in the area of transition from the weak to the strong bend of the crack front (55deg m /σ v (average principal stress: σ m , Mises' reference stress: σ v v). A comparison of the experimental with the numerical results from the first stable crack shows that the local stable crack growth Δa cannot be calculated solely with reference to J, because Δa appears to depend essentially on the quotient σ m /σ v . (orig./MM) [de

  16. Diagnostics of surface wave driven low pressure plasmas based on indium monoiodide-argon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ögün, C M; Kaiser, C; Kling, R; Heering, W

    2015-01-01

    Indium monoiodide is proposed as a suitable alternative to hazardous mercury, i.e. the emitting component inside the compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), with comparable luminous efficacy. Indium monoiodide-argon low pressure lamps are electrodelessly driven with surface waves, which are launched and coupled into the lamp by the ‘surfatron’, a microwave coupler optimized for an efficient operation at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. A non intrusive diagnostic method based on spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy is employed to characterize the plasma parameters. The line emission coefficients of the plasma are derived by means of Abel’s inversion from the measured spectral radiance data. The characteristic plasma parameters, e.g. electron temperature and density are determined by comparing the experimentally obtained line emission coefficients with simulated ones from a collisional-radiative model. Additionally, a method to determine the absolute plasma efficiency via irradiance measurements without any goniometric setup is presented. In this way, the relationship between the plasma efficiency and the plasma parameters can be investigated systematically for different operating configurations, e.g. electrical input power, buffer gas pressure and cold spot temperature. The performance of indium monoiodide-argon plasma is compared with that of conventional CFLs. (paper)

  17. Producing a gradient-composition nanocrystalline structure on nitrided surfaces of invar-type Fe-Ni alloys using megaplastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabashov, V. A.; Borisov, S. V.; Litvinov, A. V.; Kataeva, N. V.; Afanas'ev, S. V.; Titova, S. G.

    2014-09-01

    A nanocrystalline Fe-Ni matrix strengthened by dispersed CrN and TiN nitrides has been produced on the ion-plasma-nitrided surfaces of the austenitic Fe-Ni38-Cr15 and Fe-Ni36-Ti4 alloys using cyclic "nitride dissolution-nitride precipitation" phase transformations induced by megaplastic deformation. The high-pressure torsion of the nitrided alloys has led to the dissolution of the CrN nitrides and Ni3Ti intermetallic compounds, which appeared in the matrix, in the surface layer and to the mechanical alloying of the nitrided subsurface layer and the unnitriderd bulk of the specimens. Subsequent annealing has resulted in the formation of secondary nitrides, which propagated to a depth substantially exceeding the thickness of the original nitrided layer.

  18. High-pressure coolant effect on the surface integrity of machining titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wentao; Liu, Zhanqiang

    2018-03-01

    Machinability improvement of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V is a challenging work in academic and industrial applications owing to its low thermal conductivity, low elasticity modulus and high chemical affinity at high temperatures. Surface integrity of titanium alloys Ti-6Al-4V is prominent in estimating the quality of machined components. The surface topography (surface defects and surface roughness) and the residual stress induced by machining Ti-6Al-4V occupy pivotal roles for the sustainability of Ti-6Al-4V components. High-pressure coolant (HPC) is a potential choice in meeting the requirements for the manufacture and application of Ti-6Al-4V. This paper reviews the progress towards the improvements of Ti-6Al4V surface integrity under HPC. Various researches of surface integrity characteristics have been reported. In particularly, surface roughness, surface defects, residual stress as well as work hardening are investigated in order to evaluate the machined surface qualities. Several coolant parameters (including coolant type, coolant pressure and the injection position) deserve investigating to provide the guidance for a satisfied machined surface. The review also provides a clear roadmap for applications of HPC in machining Ti-6Al4V. Experimental studies and analysis are reviewed to better understand the surface integrity under HPC machining process. A distinct discussion has been presented regarding the limitations and highlights of the prospective for machining Ti-6Al4V under HPC.

  19. Surface Decontamination of Chemical Agent Surrogates Using an Atmospheric Pressure Air Flow Plasma Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanguo; Li, Ying; Cao, Peng; Zhao, Hongjie

    2013-07-01

    An atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jet generator using air flow as the feedstock gas was applied to decontaminate the chemical agent surrogates on the surface of aluminum, stainless steel or iron plate painted with alkyd or PVC. The experimental results of material decontamination show that the residual chemical agent on the material is lower than the permissible value of the National Military Standard of China. In order to test the corrosion effect of the plasma jet on different material surfaces in the decontamination process, corrosion tests for the materials of polymethyl methacrylate, neoprene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), phenolic resin, iron plate painted with alkyd, stainless steel, aluminum, etc. were carried out, and relevant parameters were examined, including etiolation index, chromatism, loss of gloss, corrosion form, etc. The results show that the plasma jet is slightly corrosive for part of the materials, but their performances are not affected. A portable calculator, computer display, mainboard, circuit board of radiogram, and a hygrometer could work normally after being treated by the plasma jet.

  20. Surface Decontamination of Chemical Agent Surrogates Using an Atmospheric Pressure Air Flow Plasma Jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhanguo; Li Ying; Cao Peng; Zhao Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jet generator using air flow as the feedstock gas was applied to decontaminate the chemical agent surrogates on the surface of aluminum, stainless steel or iron plate painted with alkyd or PVC. The experimental results of material decontamination show that the residual chemical agent on the material is lower than the permissible value of the National Military Standard of China. In order to test the corrosion effect of the plasma jet on different material surfaces in the decontamination process, corrosion tests for the materials of polymethyl methacrylate, neoprene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), phenolic resin, iron plate painted with alkyd, stainless steel, aluminum, etc. were carried out, and relevant parameters were examined, including etiolation index, chromatism, loss of gloss, corrosion form, etc. The results show that the plasma jet is slightly corrosive for part of the materials, but their performances are not affected. A portable calculator, computer display, mainboard, circuit board of radiogram, and a hygrometer could work normally after being treated by the plasma jet

  1. Cell treatment and surface functionalization using a miniature atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonson, S; Coulombe, S; Leveille, V; Leask, R L

    2006-01-01

    A miniature atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma torch was used to detach cells from a polystyrene Petri dish. The detached cells were successfully transplanted to a second dish and a proliferation assay showed the transplanted cells continued to grow. Propidium iodide diffused into the cells, suggesting that the cell membrane had been permeabilized, yet the cells remained viable 24 h after treatment. In separate experiments, hydrophobic, bacteriological grade polystyrene Petri dishes were functionalized. The plasma treatment reduced the contact angle from 93 0 to 35 0 , and promoted cell adhesion. Two different torch nozzles, 500 μm and 150 μm in internal diameter, were used in the surface functionalization experiments. The width of the tracks functionalized by the torch, as visualized by cell adhesion, was approximately twice the inside diameter of the nozzle. These results indicate that the miniature plasma torch could be used in biological micropatterning, as it does not use chemicals like the present photolithographic techniques. Due to its small size and manouvrability, the torch also has the ability to pattern complex 3D surfaces

  2. Quantitative measurements of ground state atomic oxygen in atmospheric pressure surface micro-discharge array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Kong, M. G.; Britun, N.; Snyders, R.; Leys, C.; Nikiforov, A.

    2017-06-01

    The generation of atomic oxygen in an array of surface micro-discharge, working in atmospheric pressure He/O2 or Ar/O2 mixtures, is investigated. The absolute atomic oxygen density and its temporal and spatial dynamics are studied by means of two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence. A high density of atomic oxygen is detected in the He/O2 mixture with up to 10% O2 content in the feed gas, whereas the atomic oxygen concentration in the Ar/O2 mixture stays below the detection limit of 1013 cm-3. The measured O density near the electrode under the optimal conditions in He/1.75% O2 gas is 4.26  ×  1015 cm-3. The existence of the ground state O (2p 4 3 P) species has been proven in the discharge at a distance up to 12 mm away from the electrodes. Dissociative reactions of the singlet O2 with O3 and deep vacuum ultraviolet radiation, including the radiation of excimer \\text{He}2\\ast , are proposed to be responsible for O (2p 4 3 P) production in the far afterglow. A capability of the surface micro-discharge array delivering atomic oxygen to long distances over a large area is considered very interesting for various biomedical applications.

  3. Elimination of diazinon insecticide from cucumber surface by atmospheric pressure air-dielectric barrier discharge plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorraki, Naghme; Mahdavi, Vahideh; Ghomi, Hamid; Ghasempour, Alireza

    2016-12-06

    The food industry is in a constant search for new technologies to improve the commercial sterilization process of agricultural commodities. Plasma treatment may offer a novel and efficient method for pesticide removal from agricultural product surfaces. To study the proposed technique of plasma food treatment, the degradation behavior of diazinon insecticide by air-dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was investigated. The authors studied the effect of different plasma powers and treatment times on pesticide concentration in liquid form and coated on the surface of cucumbers, where the diazinon residue was analyzed with mass spectroscopy gas chromatography. Our results suggest that atmospheric pressure air-DBD plasma is potentially effective for the degradation of diazinon insecticide, and mainly depends on related operating parameters, including plasma treatment time, discharge power, and pesticide concentrations. Based on the interaction between reactive oxygen species and electrons in the plasma with the diazinon molecule, two degradation pathway of diazinon during plasma treatment are proposed. It was also found that produced organophosphate pesticides are harmless and less hazardous compounds than diazinon.

  4. Comparison of air-fluidized therapy with other support surfaces used to treat pressure ulcers in nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Rachel F; Horn, Susan D; van Rijswijk, Lia; Pietsch, Catherine; Smout, Randall J

    2005-02-01

    To provide empirical evidence comparing pressure ulcer healing rates between different support surfaces, data were analyzed from eligible residents with pressure ulcers (N = 664) enrolled in the National Pressure Ulcer Long-Term Care Study, a retrospective pressure ulcer prevention and treatment study. Support surfaces were categorized as: Group 1 (static overlays and replacement mattresses), Group 2 (low-air-loss beds, alternating pressure, and powered/non-powered overlays/mattresses), and Group 3 (air-fluidized beds). Calculation of healing rates, using the largest ulcer from each resident, found mean healing rates greatest for air-fluidized therapy (Group 3) (mean = 5.2 cm(2)/week) versus Group 1 (mean =1.5 cm(2)/week) and Group 2 (mean = 1.8 cm(2)/week) surfaces (P = 0.007). Healing rates also were assessed using 7- to 10-day "episodes"; each ulcer generated separate episode(s) that included all ulcers when residents had multiple ulcers. Mean healing rates were significantly greater for Stage III/IV ulcers on Group 3 surfaces (mean = 3.1 cm(2)/week) versus Group 1 (mean = 0.6 cm(2)/week) and Group 2 (mean = 0.7 cm(2)/week) surfaces (Group 2 versus Group 3: P = 0.0211). This finding persisted for ulcers with comparable initial baseline areas (20 cm(2) to 75 cm(2)) on Group 2 and Group 3 surfaces; healing improved on Group 3 surfaces (+2.3 cm(2)/week) versus Group 2 surfaces (-2.1 cm(2)/week, P = 0.0399). Residents on Group 3 (6 out of 82; 7.3%) and Group 1 (47 out of 461; 10.2%) surfaces had fewer hospitalizations and emergency room visits than those on Group 2 surfaces (23 out of 121; 19.0%, P = 0.01) despite significantly greater illness in residents on Group 2 and 3 versus Group 1 surfaces (P is less than 0.0001). Despite limitations inherent in retrospective studies, ulcers on Group 3 surfaces versus Groups 1 and Group 2 surfaces had statistically significant faster healing rates (particularly for Stage III/IV ulcers) with significantly fewer

  5. Evolution effects of the copper surface morphology on the nucleation density and growth of graphene domains at different growth pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedayat, Seyed Mahdi [Transport Phenomena & Nanotechnology Lab., School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi-Sabet, Javad, E-mail: j_karimi@alum.sharif.edu [NFCRS, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shariaty-Niassar, Mojtaba, E-mail: mshariat@ut.ac.ir [Transport Phenomena & Nanotechnology Lab., School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Manipulation of the Cu surface morphology in a wide range by electropolishing treatment. • Comparison of the nucleation density of graphene at low pressure and atmospheric pressure CVD processes. • Controlling the evolution of the Cu surface morphology inside a novel confined space. • Growth of large-size graphene domains. - Abstract: In this work, we study the influence of the surface morphology of the catalytic copper substrate on the nucleation density and the growth rate of graphene domains at low and atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD and APCVD) processes. In order to obtain a wide range of initial surface morphology, precisely controlled electropolishing methods were developed to manipulate the roughntreess value of the as-received Cu substrate (RMS = 30 nm) to ultra-rough (RMS = 130 nm) and ultra-smooth (RMS = 2 nm) surfaces. The nucleation and growth of graphene domains show obviously different trends at LPCVD and APCVD conditions. In contrast to APCVD condition, the nucleation density of graphene domains is almost equal in substrates with different initial roughness values at LPCVD condition. We show that this is due to the evolution of the surface morphology of the Cu substrate during the graphene growth steps. By stopping the surface sublimation of copper substrate in a confined space saturated with Cu atoms, the evolution of the Cu surface was impeded. This results in the reduction of the nucleation density of graphene domains up to 24 times in the pre-smoothed Cu substrates at LPCVD condition.

  6. Measurement of temperature and pressure on the surface of a blunt cone using FBG sensor in hypersonic wind tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guru Prasad, A S; Sharath, U; Asokan, S; Nagarjun, V; Hegde, G M

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of temperature and pressure exerted on the leeward surface of a blunt cone specimen has been demonstrated in the present work in a hypersonic wind tunnel using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. The experiments were conducted on a 30° apex-angle blunt cone with 51 mm base diameter at wind flow speeds of Mach 6.5 and 8.35 in a 300 mm hypersonic wind tunnel of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. A special pressure insensitive temperature sensor probe along with the conventional bare FBG sensors was used for explicit temperature and aerodynamic pressure measurement respectively on the leeward surface of the specimen. computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the flow field around the blunt cone specimen has also been carried out to obtain the temperature and pressure at conditions analogous to experiments. The results obtained from FBG sensors and the CFD simulations are found to be in good agreement with each other. (paper)

  7. High temperature and high pressure oxidation behavior of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material – Effect of β phase composition and surface machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouduru, S.K., E-mail: nouduru@barc.gov.in [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kumar, M. Kiran; Kain, Vivekanand [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Khanna, A.S. [Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Saibaba, N. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, ECILPost, Hyderabad 500062 (India); Dey, G.K. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-03-15

    Pressure tube material, Zr-2.5Nb, of pressurized heavy water reactors was given selective heat-treatments. The objective was to generate microstructures with different compositions of the second phase β namely, Νb depleted β{sub Zr} phase and Nb rich β{sub Nb} phase. The material with β{sub Zr} was then subjected to surface machining. The presence of phases after different heat-treatments was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and the resultant microstructures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and electron back scattered diffraction. The Nb content in the β phase after heat-treatments and residual stresses before and after surface machining were measured using X-ray diffraction. Oxidation was carried out in steam at 400 °C and 10 MPa up to 30 days and the oxides were characterized by Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that the presence of Nb rich β{sub Nb} in the microstructure and faster diffusion of Nb into β phase brought about by surface machining resulted in an enhanced oxidation resistance. - Highlights: • Effect of heat treatments in formation of Nb rich/depleted phases established. • Microstructure with β{sub Nb} and Nb depleted α shown to have high oxidation resistance. • Surface machining resulted in grain refinement, strain and tensile residual stress. • Surface machining improved oxidation resistance and its extent increased with time. • Machined specimen showed higher fraction of tetragonal zirconia.

  8. High temperature and high pressure oxidation behavior of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material – Effect of β phase composition and surface machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouduru, S.K.; Kumar, M. Kiran; Kain, Vivekanand; Khanna, A.S.; Saibaba, N.; Dey, G.K.

    2016-01-01

    Pressure tube material, Zr-2.5Nb, of pressurized heavy water reactors was given selective heat-treatments. The objective was to generate microstructures with different compositions of the second phase β namely, Νb depleted β Zr phase and Nb rich β Nb phase. The material with β Zr was then subjected to surface machining. The presence of phases after different heat-treatments was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and the resultant microstructures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and electron back scattered diffraction. The Nb content in the β phase after heat-treatments and residual stresses before and after surface machining were measured using X-ray diffraction. Oxidation was carried out in steam at 400 °C and 10 MPa up to 30 days and the oxides were characterized by Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that the presence of Nb rich β Nb in the microstructure and faster diffusion of Nb into β phase brought about by surface machining resulted in an enhanced oxidation resistance. - Highlights: • Effect of heat treatments in formation of Nb rich/depleted phases established. • Microstructure with β Nb and Nb depleted α shown to have high oxidation resistance. • Surface machining resulted in grain refinement, strain and tensile residual stress. • Surface machining improved oxidation resistance and its extent increased with time. • Machined specimen showed higher fraction of tetragonal zirconia.

  9. Development of symmetric composition-gradient materials including hard particles in its surface layer; Hyosobu ni koshitsu ryushi wo fukumu taishogata sosei keisha zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Development of new materials with both thermal resistance and thermal shock resistance was studied on the basis of symmetric ceramics/metal/ceramics gradient composition. Al2O3/TiC/Ni/TiC/Al2O3 was used as material model of basic composition, and the system was selected where WC-Co system alloy hard particles were dispersed into the Al2O3 ceramic surface layer. The layered material was sintered in N2 gas atmosphere by SHS/HIP method using exothermic caused by nitriding reaction. Since cracks were generated in some specimens of 5-layer structure, improved specimens of 7-layer structure were prepared. To examine the effect of a particle size on toughness, WC-Co system alloy specimens with different particle sizes were also prepared. As a result, no cracks were found, and residual stress and fracture toughness were affected by particle size. In addition, the following were studied: technique of mass production, observation of fine structures, analysis of thermal stress, thermal shock resistance, and friction and abrasion characteristics. 13 refs., 65 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. [Translaminar Gradient and Glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čmelo, J

    2017-01-01

    The cribriform plate is a threshold of the intraocular pressure (VOT) and of the intracranial pressure (IKT). The difference between the VOT and IKT is referred to as translaminar gradient (TLG). The goal was to evaluate the Glaucoma progression (visual field, fundus examination, HRT) with / without topical anti-glaucomatous therapy) in relation to the TLG. the significance of TLG has been studied in two groups. I. Group: 57 patients diagnosed and treatment of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma (PGOU), 10 patients with Ocular hypertension (OH), 7 patients with Normal-Tension Glaucoma (NTG), and 75 healthy without glaucoma. The examinations of TLG were carried out once and retrospectively. In II. group there were prospectively studied 14 patients with OH and 24 patients with newly detected PGOU without local therapy. The examinations were performed 4 times at intervals of 10 to 11 months. All tests included a basic eye examination, ORA tonometry, HRT examination, gonioscopy, Color Doppler sonography of blood vessels of the eye and orbit. Venous pulsation pressure (VPT) has been recorded by the Ophthalmodynamometer Meditron (D-ODM). In case of spontaneous retinal venous pulsation, VPT was considered as the same pressure as the VOT. The TLG was calculated with formula of Querfurth: ICT = 0.29 + 0.74 (VOT / PI (AO)). [PI(AO) - Pulsatility index of the Ophthalmic artery (AO)]. I. group: TLG was in the control group without Glaucoma: 12.2 ± 2.0 torr. The NTG group: 9.0 ± 1.70 mm Hg. PGOU: 11.1 ± 1.91 mm Hg. OH: 12.6 ± 0.85 mm Hg. IKT alone does not show a significant relationship to the presence of glaucoma, ocular hypertension. II. Group: The average TLG in Ocular Hypertension (14 patients) has been 3.8 ± 1.2 torr. 2 patients (OH) had TLG 10 torr. and 15 torr. After 4 years in one of them (TLG = 15 torr.) there was recorded Glaucoma progression. In the PGOU group before antiglaucoma therapy, TLG was 15.0 ± 4.8 torr for all patients. After setting up local anti

  11. Polydiagnostic calibration performed on a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, N.; Palomares, J. M.; Iordanova, E. I.; van Veldhuizen, E. M.; van der Mullen, J. J. A. M.

    2008-10-01

    The electron density and electron temperature of a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma have been determined using passive and active (laser) spectroscopic methods simultaneously. In this way the validity of the various techniques is established while the plasma properties are determined more precisely. The electron density, ne, is determined with Thomson scattering (TS), absolute continuum measurements, Stark broadening and an extrapolation of the atomic state distribution function (ASDF). The electron temperature, Te, is obtained using TS and absolute line intensity (ALI) measurements combined with a collisional-radiative (CR) model for argon. At an argon pressure of 15 mbar, the ne values obtained with TS and Stark broadening agree with each other within the error bars and are equal to (4 ± 0.5) × 1019 m-3, whereas the ne value (2 ± 0.5) × 1019 m-3 obtained from the continuum is about 30% lower. This suggests that the used formula and cross-section values for the continuum method have to be reconsidered. The electron density determined by means of extrapolation of the ASDF to the continuum is too high (~1020 m-3). This is most probably related to the fact that the plasma is strongly ionizing so that the extrapolation method is not justified. At 15 mbar, the Te values obtained with TS are equal to 13 400 ± 1100 K while the ALI/CR-model yields an electron temperature that is about 10% lower. It can be concluded that the passive results are in good or fair agreement with the active results. Therefore, the calibrated passive methods can be applied to other plasmas in a similar regime for which active diagnostic techniques cannot be used.

  12. Polydiagnostic calibration performed on a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, N de; Iordanova, E I; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Mullen, J J A M van der [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Palomares, J M [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, ed. C-2, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)], E-mail: j.j.a.m.v.d.Mullen@tue.nl

    2008-10-21

    The electron density and electron temperature of a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma have been determined using passive and active (laser) spectroscopic methods simultaneously. In this way the validity of the various techniques is established while the plasma properties are determined more precisely. The electron density, n{sub e}, is determined with Thomson scattering (TS), absolute continuum measurements, Stark broadening and an extrapolation of the atomic state distribution function (ASDF). The electron temperature, T{sub e}, is obtained using TS and absolute line intensity (ALI) measurements combined with a collisional-radiative (CR) model for argon. At an argon pressure of 15 mbar, the n{sub e} values obtained with TS and Stark broadening agree with each other within the error bars and are equal to (4 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, whereas the n{sub e} value (2 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} obtained from the continuum is about 30% lower. This suggests that the used formula and cross-section values for the continuum method have to be reconsidered. The electron density determined by means of extrapolation of the ASDF to the continuum is too high ({approx}10{sup 20} m{sup -3}). This is most probably related to the fact that the plasma is strongly ionizing so that the extrapolation method is not justified. At 15 mbar, the T{sub e} values obtained with TS are equal to 13 400 {+-} 1100 K while the ALI/CR-model yields an electron temperature that is about 10% lower. It can be concluded that the passive results are in good or fair agreement with the active results. Therefore, the calibrated passive methods can be applied to other plasmas in a similar regime for which active diagnostic techniques cannot be used.

  13. Advanced Production Surface Preparation Technology Development for Ultra-High Pressure Diesel Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, Marion B.

    2012-04-30

    In 2007, An Ultra High Injection Pressure (UHIP) fueling method has been demonstrated by Caterpillar Fuel Systems - Product Development, demonstrating ability to deliver U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 4 Final diesel engine emission performance with greatly reduced emissions handling components on the engine, such as without NOx reduction after-treatment and with only a through-flow 50% effective diesel particulate trap (DPT). They have shown this capability using multiple multi-cylinder engine tests of an Ultra High Pressure Common Rail (UHPCR) fuel system with higher than traditional levels of CEGR and an advanced injector nozzle design. The system delivered better atomization of the fuel, for more complete burn, to greatly reduce diesel particulates, while CEGR or high efficiency NOx reduction after-treatment handles the NOx. With the reduced back pressure of a traditional DPT, and with the more complete fuel burn, the system reduced levels of fuel consumption by 2.4% for similar delivery of torque and horsepower over the best Tier 4 Interim levels of fuel consumption in the diesel power industry. The challenge is to manufacture the components in high-volume production that can withstand the required higher pressure injection. Production processes must be developed to increase the toughness of the injector steel to withstand the UHIP pulsations and generate near perfect form and finish in the sub-millimeter size geometries within the injector. This project resulted in two developments in 2011. The first development was a process and a machine specification by which a high target of compressive residual stress (CRS) can be consistently imparted to key surfaces of the fuel system to increase the toughness of the steel, and a demonstration of the feasibility of further refinement of the process for use in volume production. The second development was the demonstration of the feasibility of a process for imparting near perfect, durable geometry to

  14. Modeling the Mechanics of Cell Division: Influence of Spontaneous Membrane Curvature, Surface Tension, and Osmotic Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Beltrán-Heredia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many cell division processes have been conserved throughout evolution and are being revealed by studies on model organisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and protozoa. Cellular membrane constriction is one of these processes, observed almost universally during cell division. It happens similarly in all organisms through a mechanical pathway synchronized with the sequence of cytokinetic events in the cell interior. Arguably, such a mechanical process is mastered by the coordinated action of a constriction machinery fueled by biochemical energy in conjunction with the passive mechanics of the cellular membrane. Independently of the details of the constriction engine, the membrane component responds against deformation by minimizing the elastic energy at every constriction state following a pathway still unknown. In this paper, we address a theoretical study of the mechanics of membrane constriction in a simplified model that describes a homogeneous membrane vesicle in the regime where mechanical work due to osmotic pressure, surface tension, and bending energy are comparable. We develop a general method to find approximate analytical expressions for the main descriptors of a symmetrically constricted vesicle. Analytical solutions are obtained by combining a perturbative expansion for small deformations with a variational approach that was previously demonstrated valid at the reference state of an initially spherical vesicle at isotonic conditions. The analytic approximate results are compared with the exact solution obtained from numerical computations, getting a good agreement for all the computed quantities (energy, area, volume, constriction force. We analyze the effects of the spontaneous curvature, the surface tension and the osmotic pressure in these quantities, focusing especially on the constriction force. The more favorable conditions for vesicle constriction are determined, obtaining that smaller constriction forces are required for positive

  15. Measurements of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    All of the technical goals of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) field program which were supported under the Department of Energy research grant ''Measurements of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE'' (DE-FG03-90ER60981) have been met. This has included the measurement of the partial pressures of carbon dioxide (C0(sub 2)) and nitrous oxide (N(sub 2)O) in both the surface ocean and the atmosphere on 24 separate shipboard expedition legs of the WOCE Hydrographic Programme. These measurements were made in the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans over a six-and-a-half year period, and over a distance of nearly 200,000 kilometers of ship track. The total number of measurements, including ocean measurements, air measurements and standard gas measurements, is about 136,000 for each gas, or about 34,000 measurements of each gas in the ocean and in the air. This global survey effort is directed at obtaining a better understanding of the role of the oceans in th e global atmospheric budgets of two important natural and anthropogenic modulators of climate through the ''greenhouse effect'', CO(sub 2) and N(sub 2)O, and an important natural and anthropogenic modulator of the Earth's protective ozone layer through catalytic processes in the stratosphere, N(sub 2)O. For both of these compounds, the oceans play a major role in their global budgets. In the case of CO(sub 2), roughly half of the anthropogenic production through the combustion of fossil fuels has been absorbed by the world's oceans. In the case of N(sub 2)O, roughly a third of the natural flux to the atmosphere originates in the oceans. As the interpretation of the variability in the oceanic distributions of these compounds improves, measurements such as those supported by this research project are playing an increasingly important role in improving our understanding of natural and anthropogenic influences on climate and ozone

  16. Wireless SAW Based Temperature Gradient Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prime Photonics proposes design and development of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) based temperature gradient sensor for instrumentation of thermal protection systems...

  17. Effect of skin surface lipid on the skin permeation of lidocaine from pressure sensitive adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y H; Hosoya, O; Sugibayashi, K; Morimoto, Y

    1994-12-01

    Pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA) tapes containing different concentrations of lidocaine were prepared by a general casting method using styrene-isoprene-styrene block copolymer, and the in vitro skin permeation of lidocaine from each tape was evaluated using diffusion cell and excised hairless rat skin. The skin permeation was proportionally increased by up to 40% lidocaine in the PSA tape and did not change after this concentration. Although the bending point of the steady-state flux via skin concentration curve was found at 40%, saturated concentration or solubility of lidocaine in the tape was estimated to be about 20% by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement. In addition, the steady-state flux of lidocaine through skin from water or silicone fluid suspension (92 or 120 micrograms/cm2.h, respectively) was very similar to those of 40, 50 and 60% tapes (105, 101 and 112 micrograms/cm2.h, respectively). Decrease in the concentration in tapes during the permeation experiment explained only part of these phenomena. To analyze them further, the drug free PSA tape with or without (control) skin surface lipid was affixed to 50% lidocaine PSA tape for 48 h, and the amount of lidocaine crystal in the layered tapes was measured by DSC. The amount was found to be lower in the lipid-containing tape than in the lipid-free tape, suggesting that skin surface lipid can dissolve lidocaine crystal or solid in PSA tape to decrease its thermodynamic activity. Thus it is important to follow the concentration and thermodynamic activity of lidocaine in PSA tape, skin and the interface between the two layers to exactly assess its skin permeation flux.

  18. Highway-railway at-grade crossing structures : trackbed and surface pressure measurements and assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Techniques are described for installing instrumentation within highway/railway crossings - to measure vertical pressures under moving highway and railway loadings - using earth pressure cells. Also, techniques are described for installing instrumenta...

  19. Determination of Surface Fluxes Using a Bowen Ratio System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Abstract. Components of the surface fluxes of the energy balance equation were determined using a Campbell Bowen ratio system. The fluxes are obtained by the energy balance Bowen ratio technique, a gradient method that uses vertical gradients of temperature and vapour pressure in combination with point ...

  20. A nurse-led randomised trial of pressure-relieving support surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E Andrea; Nixon, Jane; Mason, Su; Barrow, Helen; Phillips, Angela; Cullum, Nicky

    2003-05-01

    A nurse-led trial is currently collecting data comparing interventions for the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers. The aim is to provide reliable guidance on the relative merits of alternating-pressure mattresses and overlays for people at moderate to high risk of pressure ulceration. This paper outlines the main objectives, methodology and progress of the study.

  1. Development of a commercial Transducer for Measuring Pressure and Friction on the Model Die Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Bo; Ravn, Bjarne Gottlieb; Wanheim, Tarras

    2001-01-01

    deflection in the tool causes incorrect shape of the final component. The dinemsions of the die-cavity have to be corrected taking into account die deflection due to the high internal pressure. The modelling material technique is suitable for measuring internal pressure, but so far only a transducer...... to measure normal pressure has been available....

  2. Pressure and surface tension of soild-liquid interface using Tarazona density functional theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available   The weighted density functional theory proposed by Tarazona is applied to study the solid-liquid interface. In the last two decades the weighted density functional became a useful tool to consider the properties of inhomogeneous liquids. In this theory, the role of the size of molecules or the particles of which the matter is composed, was found to be important. In this resarch we study a hard sphere fluid beside a hard wall. For this study the liquid is an inhomogeneous system. We use the definition of the direct correlation function as a second derivative of free energy with respect to the density. We use this definition and the definition of the weighting function, then we minimize the grand potential with respect to the density to get the Euler Lagrange equation and we obtain an integral equation to find the inhomogeneous density profile. The obtained density profile as a function of the distance from the wall, for different bulk density is plotted in three dimensions. We also calculate the pressure and compare it with the Carnahan-starling results, and finally we obtained the surface tension at liquid-solid interface and compared it with the results of Monte Carlo simulation.

  3. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinov, Daniil; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine; Guerra, Vasco

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1–5 Torr and discharge currents ∼40–120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O 3 * , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O 3 * is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established. (paper)

  4. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, Daniil; Guerra, Vasco; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine

    2013-10-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1-5 Torr and discharge currents ˜40-120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O_3^{*} , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O_3^{*} is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O2(a 1Δg) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established.

  5. Optimizing pressurized liquid extraction of microbial lipids using the response surface method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescut, J; Severac, E; Molina-Jouve, C; Uribelarrea, J-L

    2011-01-21

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the determination of optimum extraction parameters to reach maximum lipid extraction yield with yeast. Total lipids were extracted from oleaginous yeast (Rhodotorula glutinis) using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The effects of extraction parameters on lipid extraction yield were studied by employing a second-order central composite design. The optimal condition was obtained as three cycles of 15 min at 100°C with a ratio of 144 g of hydromatrix per 100 g of dry cell weight. Different analysis methods were used to compare the optimized PLE method with two conventional methods (Soxhlet and modification of Bligh and Dyer methods) under efficiency, selectivity and reproducibility criteria thanks to gravimetric analysis, GC with flame ionization detector, High Performance Liquid Chromatography linked to Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (HPLC-ELSD) and thin-layer chromatographic analysis. For each sample, the lipid extraction yield with optimized PLE was higher than those obtained with referenced methods (Soxhlet and Bligh and Dyer methods with, respectively, a recovery of 78% and 85% compared to PLE method). Moreover, the use of PLE led to major advantages such as an analysis time reduction by a factor of 10 and solvent quantity reduction by 70%, compared with traditional extraction methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Surface Roughness, Oxidation, and Temperature on the Emissivity of Reactor Pressure Vessel Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J. L. [University of Wisconsin–Madison, Department of Engineering Physics, Madison, Wisconsin; Jo, H. [University of Wisconsin–Madison, Department of Engineering Physics, Madison, Wisconsin; Tirawat, R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Concentrating Solar Power Group, Golden, Colorado; Blomstrand, K. [University of Wisconsin–Madison, Department of Engineering Physics, Madison, Wisconsin; Sridharan, K. [University of Wisconsin–Madison, Department of Engineering Physics, Madison, Wisconsin

    2017-08-31

    Thermal radiation will be an important mode of heat transfer in future high-temperature reactors and in off-normal high-temperature scenarios in present reactors. In this work, spectral directional emissivities of two reactor pressure vessel (RPV) candidate materials were measured at room temperature after exposure to high-temperature air. In the case of SA508 steel, significant increases in emissivity were observed due to oxidation. In the case of Grade 91 steel, only very small increases were observed under the tested conditions. Effects of roughness were also investigated. To study the effects of roughening, unexposed samples of SA508 and Grade 91 steel were roughened via one of either grinding or shot-peening before being measured. Significant increases were observed only in samples having roughness exceeding the roughness expected of RPV surfaces. While the emissivity increases for SA508 from oxidation were indeed significant, the measured emissivity coefficients were below that of values commonly used in heat transfer models. Based on the observed experimental data, recommendations for emissivity inputs for heat transfer simulations are provided.

  7. Surface complexation modeling of groundwater arsenic mobility: Results of a forced gradient experiment in a Red River flood plain aquifer, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Søren; Postma, Dieke; Larsen, Flemming; Nhan, Pham Quy; Hoa, Le Quynh; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Long, Tran Vu; Viet, Pham Hung; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    2012-12-01

    Three surface complexation models (SCMs) developed for, respectively, ferrihydrite, goethite and sorption data for a Pleistocene oxidized aquifer sediment from Bangladesh were used to explore the effect of multicomponent adsorption processes on As mobility in a reduced Holocene floodplain aquifer along the Red River, Vietnam. The SCMs for ferrihydrite and goethite yielded very different results. The ferrihydrite SCM favors As(III) over As(V) and has carbonate and silica species as the main competitors for surface sites. In contrast, the goethite SCM has a greater affinity for As(V) over As(III) while PO43- and Fe(II) form the predominant surface species. The SCM for Pleistocene aquifer sediment resembles most the goethite SCM but shows more Si sorption. Compiled As(III) adsorption data for Holocene sediment was also well described by the SCM determined for Pleistocene aquifer sediment, suggesting a comparable As(III) affinity of Holocene and Pleistocene aquifer sediments. A forced gradient field experiment was conducted in a bank aquifer adjacent to a tributary channel to the Red River, and the passage in the aquifer of mixed groundwater containing up to 74% channel water was observed. The concentrations of As (SCM correctly predicts desorption for As(III) but for Si and PO43- it predicts an increased adsorption instead of desorption. The goethite SCM correctly predicts desorption of both As(III) and PO43- but failed in the prediction of Si desorption. These results indicate that the prediction of As mobility, by using SCMs for synthetic Fe-oxides, will be strongly dependent on the model chosen. The SCM based on the Pleistocene aquifer sediment predicts the desorption of As(III), PO43- and Si quite superiorly, as compared to the SCMs for ferrihydrite and goethite, even though Si desorption is still somewhat under-predicted. The observation that a SCM calibrated on a different sediment can predict our field results so well suggests that sediment based SCMs may be a

  8. Contact pressure distribution during the polishing process of ceramic tiles: A laboratory investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sani, A S A; Hamedon, Z; Azhari, A; Sousa, F J P

    2016-01-01

    During the polishing process of porcelain tiles the difference in scratching speed between innermost and peripheral abrasives leads to pressure gradients linearly distributed along the radial direction of the abrasive tool. The aim of this paper is to investigate such pressure gradient in laboratory scale. For this purpose polishing tests were performed on ceramic tiles according to the industrial practices using a custom-made CNC tribometer. Gradual wear on both abrasives and machined surface of the floor tile were measured. The experimental results suggested that the pressure gradient tends to cause an inclination of the abraded surfaces, which becomes stable after a given polishing period. In addition to the wear depth of the machined surface, the highest value of gloss and finest surface finish were observed at the lowest point of the worn out surface of the ceramic floor tile corresponding to the point of highest pressure and lowest scratching speed. (paper)

  9. Contact pressure distribution during the polishing process of ceramic tiles: A laboratory investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, A. S. A.; Sousa, F. J. P.; Hamedon, Z.; Azhari, A.

    2016-02-01

    During the polishing process of porcelain tiles the difference in scratching speed between innermost and peripheral abrasives leads to pressure gradients linearly distributed along the radial direction of the abrasive tool. The aim of this paper is to investigate such pressure gradient in laboratory scale. For this purpose polishing tests were performed on ceramic tiles according to the industrial practices using a custom-made CNC tribometer. Gradual wear on both abrasives and machined surface of the floor tile were measured. The experimental results suggested that the pressure gradient tends to cause an inclination of the abraded surfaces, which becomes stable after a given polishing period. In addition to the wear depth of the machined surface, the highest value of gloss and finest surface finish were observed at the lowest point of the worn out surface of the ceramic floor tile corresponding to the point of highest pressure and lowest scratching speed.

  10. Seasonal Variations of the Earth's Gravitational Field: An Analysis of Atmospheric Pressure, Ocean Tidal, and Surface Water Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, D,; Gross, R.S.; Dickey, J.

    1996-01-01

    Monthly mean gravitational field parameters (denoted here as C(sub even)) that represent linear combinations of the primarily even degree zonal spherical harmonic coefficients of the Earth's gravitational field have been recovered using LAGEOS I data and are compared with those derived from gridded global surface pressure data of the National meteorological center (NMC) spanning 1983-1992. The effect of equilibrium ocean tides and surface water variations are also considered. Atmospheric pressure and surface water fluctuations are shown to be the dominant cause of observed annual C(sub even) variations. Closure with observations is seen at the 1sigma level when atmospheric pressure, ocean tide and surface water effects are include. Equilibrium ocean tides are shown to be the main source of excitation at the semiannual period with closure at the 1sigma level seen when both atmospheric pressure and ocean tide effects are included. The inverted barometer (IB) case is shown to give the best agreement with the observation series. The potential of the observed C(sub even) variations for monitoring mass variations in the polar regions of the Earth and the effect of the land-ocean mask in the IB calculation are discussed.

  11. FE Calculations of J-Integrals in a Constrained Elastomeric Disk with Crack Surface Pressure and Isothermal Load

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ching, H. K; Liu, C. T; Yen, S. C

    2004-01-01

    .... For the linear analysis, material compressibility was modeled with Poisson's varying form 0.48 to 0.4999. In addition, with the presence of the crack surface pressure, the J-integral was modified by including an additional line integral...

  12. Fermi surface properties of AB3 (A = Y, La; B = Pb, In, Tl) intermetallic compounds under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ram, Swetarekha; Kanchana, V; Svane, Axel

    2013-01-01

    The electronic structures, densities of states, Fermi surfaces and elastic properties of AB3 (A = La, Y; B = Pb, In, Tl) compounds are studied under pressure using the full-potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the local density approximation for the exchange–correlation f...

  13. Operation method for wall surface of pressure suppression chamber of reactor container and floating scaffold used for the method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Tetsuo; Kounomaru, Toshimi; Saito, Koichi.

    1996-01-01

    A floating scaffold is provisionally disposed in adjacent with the wall surface of pool water of a pressure suppression chamber while being floated on the surface of the pool water before the drainage of the pool water from the pressure vessel. The floating scaffold has guide rollers sandwiching a bent tube of an existent facility so that the horizontal movement is restrained, and is movable only in a vertical direction depending on the change of water level of the pool water. In addition, a handrail for preventing dropping, and a provisional illumination light are disposed. When pool water in the pressure suppression chamber is drained, the water level of the pool water is lowered in accordance with the amount of drained water. The floating scaffold floating on the water surface is lowered while being guided by the bent tube, and the operation position is lowered. An operator riding on the floating scaffold inspects the wall surfaces of the pressure chamber and conducts optional repair and painting. (I.N.)

  14. Correlation of surface pressure and hue of planarizable push–pull chromophores at the air/water interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Neuhaus

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is currently not possible to directly measure the lateral pressure of a biomembrane. Mechanoresponsive fluorescent probes are an elegant solution to this problem but it requires first the establishment of a direct correlation between the membrane surface pressure and the induced color change of the probe. Here, we analyze planarizable dithienothiophene push–pull probes in a monolayer at the air/water interface using fluorescence microscopy, grazing-incidence angle X-ray diffraction, and infrared reflection–absorption spectroscopy. An increase of the lateral membrane pressure leads to a well-packed layer of the ‘flipper’ mechanophores and a clear change in hue above 18 mN/m. The fluorescent probes had no influence on the measured isotherm of the natural phospholipid DPPC suggesting that the flippers probe the lateral membrane pressure without physically changing it. This makes the flipper probes a truly useful addition to the membrane probe toolbox.

  15. Demonstration of a Piston Plug feed System for Feeding Coal/Biomass Mixtures across a Pressure Gradient for Application to a Commercial CBTL System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santosh Gangwal

    2011-06-30

    Producing liquid transportation fuels and power via coal and biomass to liquids (CBTL) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) processes can significantly improve the nation's energy security. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 mandates increasing renewable fuels nearly 10-fold to >2.3 million barrels per day by 2022. Coal is abundantly available and coal to liquids (CTL) plants can be deployed today, but they will not become sustainable without large scale CO{sub 2} capture and storage. Co-processing of coal and biomass in CBTL processes in a 60 to 40 ratio is an attractive option that has the potential to produce 4 million barrels of transportation fuels per day by 2020 at the same level of CO{sub 2} emission as petroleum. In this work, Southern Research Institute (Southern) has made an attempt to address one of the major barriers to the development of large scale CBTL processes - cost effective/reliable dry-feeding of coal-biomass mixtures into a high pressure vessel representative of commercial entrained-flow gasifiers. Present method for dry coal feeding involves the use of pressurized lock-hopper arrangements that are not only very expensive with large space requirements but also have not been proven for reliably feeding coal-biomass mixtures without the potential problems of segregation and bridging. The project involved the development of a pilot-scale 250 lb/h high pressure dry coal-biomass mixture feeder provided by TKEnergi and proven for feeding biomass at a scale up to 6 ton/day. The aim of this project is to demonstrate cost effective feeding of coal-biomass mixtures (50:50 to 70:30) made from a variety of coals (bituminous, lignite) and biomass (wood, corn stover, switch grass). The feeder uses a hydraulic piston-based approach to produce a series of plugs of the mixture that act as a seal against high back-pressure of the gasification vessel in to which the mixture is being fed. The plugs are then fed one by one via a

  16. Double-Twisted Conductive Smart Threads Comprising a Homogeneously and a Gradient-Coated Thread for Multidimensional Flexible Pressure-Sensing Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong

    2016-03-17

    Fiber-based, flexible pressure-sensing systems have attracted attention recently due to their promising application as electronic skins. Here, a new kind of flexible pressure-sensing device based on a polydimethylsiloxane membrane instrumented with double-twisted smart threads (DTSTs) is reported. DTSTs are made of two conductive threads obtained by coating cotton threads with carbon nanotubes. One thread is coated with a homogeneous thickness of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to detect the intensity of an applied load and the other is coated with a graded thickness of SWCNTs to identify the position of the load along the thread. The mechanism and capacity of DTSTs to accurately sense an applied load are systematically analyzed. Results demonstrate that the fabricated 1D, 2D, and 3D sensing devices can be used to predict both the intensity and the position of an applied load. The sensors feature high sensitivity (between ≈0.1% and 1.56% kPa) and tunable resolution, good cycling resilience (>104 cycles), and a short response time (minimum 2.5 Hz). The presented strategy is a viable alternative for the design of simple, low-cost pressure sensors.

  17. Critical heat flux on micro-structured zircaloy surfaces for flow boiling of water at low pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, C.; Miassoedov, A.; Schulenberg, T.; Wetzel, T.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of surface structure on critical heat flux for flow boiling of water was investigated for Zircaloy tubes in a vertical annular test section. The objectives were to find suitable surface modification processes for Zircaloy tubes and to test their critical heat flux performance in comparison to the smooth tube. Surface structures with micro-channels, porous layer, oxidized layer, and elevations in micro- and nano-scale were produced on a section of a Zircaloy cladding tube. These modified tubes were tested in an internally heated vertical annulus with a heated length of 326 mm and an inner and outer diameter of 9.5 and 18 mm. The experiments were performed with mass fluxes of 250 and 400 kg/(m 2 s), outlet pressures between 120 and 300 kPa, and constant inlet subcooling enthalpy of 167 kJ/kg. Only a small influence of modified surface structures on critical heat flux was observed for the pressure of 120 kPa in the present test section geometry. However, with increasing pressure the critical heat flux could increase up to 29% using the surface structured tubes with micro-channels, porous and oxidized layers. Capillary effects and increased nucleation site density are assumed to improve the critical heat flux performance. (authors)

  18. Device for positioning ultrasonic probes and/or television cameras on the outer surface of reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zipser, R.; Dose, G.F.

    1977-01-01

    The device makes possible periodical in-service inspections of welding seams and material of a reactor pressure vessel without local human presence. A 'support ring' encloses the pressure vessel in a horizontal plane with free space. It is vertically moved up and down in the space between pressure vessel and thermal shield by means of tackles. At a control desk placed in a protected area its movement is controlled and its vertical position is indicated. A 'rotating track' with its own drive is rotating remote-controlled on the 'support ring'. By a combination of the vertical with the rotating movement, an ultrasonic probe placed removably on the 'rotating hack', or a television camera will be brought to any position on the cylindrical circumference of the pressure vessel. Special devices extend the radius of action, in upward direction for inspecting the welding seams of the coolant nozzles, and in downward direction for the inspection of welds on the hemispherical bottom of the pressure vessel or on the outlet pipe nozzle placed there. The device remains installed during reactor operation, but is moved down to the lower horizontal surface of the thermal shield. Parts which are sensible to radiation like probes or television cameras and special devices will then be removed respectively mounted before beginning an inspection compaign. This position may be reached by the lower access in the biological shield and through an opening in the horizontal surface of the thermal shield. (HP) [de

  19. Tropical Pacific sea-surface temperatures and preceding sea level pressure anomalies in the subtropical North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce T.

    2003-12-01

    The correspondence of sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies to changes in antecedent large-scale sea level pressure anomalies is investigated using reanalysis data. By statistically examining linearly coupled precursor sea level pressure fields and subsequent SST fields for different lag periods, it is possible to isolate a precursor mode of sea level pressure (SLP) variability in the central subtropical North Pacific that precedes variations in the January-March El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) by approximately 12-15 months. A sea level pressure index, which captures the important characteristics of this precursor mode of variability, is developed and evaluated. It is shown that both analyzed and observed versions of the index are significantly correlated with the January-March ENSO one year later. The SLP index is then used to examine the evolution of the surface circulation and temperature structures leading up to mature ENSO events. Initially, the January-March subtropical North Pacific SLP anomalies are associated with changes in the intensity of the subtropical trade wind regime over the North Pacific, as well as with SST anomalies over the eastern equatorial Pacific and subtropical central Pacific. In agreement with the correlation statistics associated with the SLP and lagged NINO3.4 indices, both the sea level pressure field and the SST field subsequently develop ENSO-like structures over the course of the following year. Significant discussion of these results and pertinent areas of future research are provided within the broader context of the ENSO system.

  20. Vertical structure of pore pressure under surface gravity waves on a steep, megatidal, mixed sand-gravel-cobble beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Tristan B.; Hay, Alex E.

    2017-01-01

    The vertical structure of surface gravity wave-induced pore pressure is investigated within the intertidal zone of a natural, steeply sloping, megatidal, mixed sand-gravel-cobble beach. Results from a coherent vertical array of buried pore pressure sensors are presented in terms of signal phase lag and attenuation as functions of oscillatory forcing frequency and burial depth. Comparison of the observations with the predictions of a theoretical poro-elastic bed response model indicates that the l