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Sample records for surface potential map

  1. Corrected body surface potential mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzke, Gerhard; Kindt, Carsten; Hetzer, Roland

    2007-02-01

    In the method for body surface potential mapping described here, the influence of thorax shape on measured ECG values is corrected. The distances of the ECG electrodes from the electrical heart midpoint are determined using a special device for ECG recording. These distances are used to correct the ECG values as if they had been measured on the surface of a sphere with a radius of 10 cm with its midpoint localized at the electrical heart midpoint. The equipotential lines of the electrical heart field are represented on the virtual surface of such a sphere. It is demonstrated that the character of a dipole field is better represented if the influence of the thorax shape is reduced. The site of the virtual reference electrode is also important for the dipole character of the representation of the electrical heart field.

  2. Application of Volta potential mapping to determine metal surface defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, A.; Thierry, D.

    2007-01-01

    As a rule, stress or fatigue cracks originate from various surface imperfections, such as pits, inclusions or locations showing a residual stress. It would be very helpful for material selection to be able to predict the likelihood of environment-assisted cracking or pitting corrosion. By using Scanning Kelvin Probe (the vibrating capacitor with a spatial resolution of 80 μm) the profiling of metal electron work function (Volta potential) in air is applied to the metal surfaces showing residual stress, MnS inclusions and wearing. The Volta potential is influenced by the energy of electrons at the Fermi level and drops generally across the metal/oxide/air interfaces. Inclusions (e.g. MnS) impair continuity of the passive film that locally decreases Volta potential. The stress applied gives rise to dislocations, microcracks and vacancies in the metal and the surface oxide. The defects decrease Volta and corrosion potentials; reduce the overvoltage for processes of passivity breakdown and anodic metal dissolution. These 'anodic' defects can be visualized in potential mapping that can help us to predict locations with higher risk of pitting corrosion or cracking

  3. Dipyridamole Body Surface Potential Mapping: Noninvasive Differentiation of Syndrome X from Coronary Artery Disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boudík, F.; Anger, Z.; Aschermann, M.; Vojáček, J.; Tomečková, Marie

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2002), s. 181-191 ISSN 0022-0736 R&D Projects: GA MZd IZ4038 Keywords : body surface potential mapping * dipyridamole * coronary artery disease * syndrome X Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.599, year: 2002

  4. Exercise body surface potential mapping in single and multiple coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montague, T.J.; Witkowski, F.X.; Miller, R.M.; Johnstone, D.E.; MacKenzie, R.B.; Spencer, C.A.; Horacek, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    Body surface ST integral maps were recorded in 36 coronary artery disease (CAD) patients at: rest; peak, angina-limited exercise; and, 1 and 5 min of recovery. They were compared to maps of 15 CAD patients who exercised to fatigue, without angina, and eight normal subjects. Peak exercise heart rates were similar (NS) in all groups. With exercise angina, patients with two and three vessel CAD had significantly (p less than 0.05) greater decrease in the body surface sum of ST integral values than patients with single vessel CAD. CAD patients with exercise fatigue, in the absence of angina, had decreased ST integrals similar (NS) to patients with single vessel CAD who manifested angina and the normal control subjects. There was, however, considerable overlap among individuals; some patients with single vessel CAD had as much exercise ST integral decrease as patients with three vessel CAD. All CAD patients had persistent ST integral decreases at 5 min of recovery and there was a direct correlation of the recovery and peak exercise ST changes. Exercise ST changes correlated, as well, with quantitative CAD angiographic scores, but not with thallium perfusion scores. These data suggest exercise ST integral body surface mapping allows quantitation of myocardium at ischemic risk in patients with CAD, irrespective of the presence or absence of ischemic symptoms during exercise. A major potential application of this technique is selection of CAD therapy guided by quantitative assessment of ischemic myocardial risk

  5. Mining for diagnostic information in body surface potential maps: A comparison of feature selection techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCullagh Paul J

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In body surface potential mapping, increased spatial sampling is used to allow more accurate detection of a cardiac abnormality. Although diagnostically superior to more conventional electrocardiographic techniques, the perceived complexity of the Body Surface Potential Map (BSPM acquisition process has prohibited its acceptance in clinical practice. For this reason there is an interest in striking a compromise between the minimum number of electrocardiographic recording sites required to sample the maximum electrocardiographic information. Methods In the current study, several techniques widely used in the domains of data mining and knowledge discovery have been employed to mine for diagnostic information in 192 lead BSPMs. In particular, the Single Variable Classifier (SVC based filter and Sequential Forward Selection (SFS based wrapper approaches to feature selection have been implemented and evaluated. Using a set of recordings from 116 subjects, the diagnostic ability of subsets of 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 32 electrocardiographic recording sites have been evaluated based on their ability to correctly asses the presence or absence of Myocardial Infarction (MI. Results It was observed that the wrapper approach, using sequential forward selection and a 5 nearest neighbour classifier, was capable of choosing a set of 24 recording sites that could correctly classify 82.8% of BSPMs. Although the filter method performed slightly less favourably, the performance was comparable with a classification accuracy of 79.3%. In addition, experiments were conducted to show how (a features chosen using the wrapper approach were specific to the classifier used in the selection model, and (b lead subsets chosen were not necessarily unique. Conclusion It was concluded that both the filter and wrapper approaches adopted were suitable for guiding the choice of recording sites useful for determining the presence of MI. It should be noted however

  6. Mapping the Diffusion Potential of a Reconstructed Au(111) Surface at Nanometer Scale with 2D Molecular Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Shi-Chao; Xie Nan; Gong Hui-Qi; Guo Yang; Shan Xin-Yan; Lu Xing-Hua; Sun Qian

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption and diffusion behaviors of benzene molecules on an Au(111) surface are investigated by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. A herringbone surface reconstruction of the Au(111) surface is imaged with atomic resolution, and significantly different behaviors are observed for benzene molecules adsorbed on step edges and terraces. The electric field induced modification in the molecular diffusion potential is revealed with a 2D molecular gas model, and a new method is developed to map the diffusion potential over the reconstructed Au(111) surface at the nanometer scale. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  7. XML-BSPM: an XML format for storing Body Surface Potential Map recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Raymond R; Finlay, Dewar D; Nugent, Chris D; Moore, George

    2010-05-14

    The Body Surface Potential Map (BSPM) is an electrocardiographic method, for recording and displaying the electrical activity of the heart, from a spatial perspective. The BSPM has been deemed more accurate for assessing certain cardiac pathologies when compared to the 12-lead ECG. Nevertheless, the 12-lead ECG remains the most popular ECG acquisition method for non-invasively assessing the electrical activity of the heart. Although data from the 12-lead ECG can be stored and shared using open formats such as SCP-ECG, no open formats currently exist for storing and sharing the BSPM. As a result, an innovative format for storing BSPM datasets has been developed within this study. The XML vocabulary was chosen for implementation, as opposed to binary for the purpose of human readability. There are currently no standards to dictate the number of electrodes and electrode positions for recording a BSPM. In fact, there are at least 11 different BSPM electrode configurations in use today. Therefore, in order to support these BSPM variants, the XML-BSPM format was made versatile. Hence, the format supports the storage of custom torso diagrams using SVG graphics. This diagram can then be used in a 2D coordinate system for retaining electrode positions. This XML-BSPM format has been successfully used to store the Kornreich-117 BSPM dataset and the Lux-192 BSPM dataset. The resulting file sizes were in the region of 277 kilobytes for each BSPM recording and can be deemed suitable for example, for use with any telemonitoring application. Moreover, there is potential for file sizes to be further reduced using basic compression algorithms, i.e. the deflate algorithm. Finally, these BSPM files have been parsed and visualised within a convenient time period using a web based BSPM viewer. This format, if widely adopted could promote BSPM interoperability, knowledge sharing and data mining. This work could also be used to provide conceptual solutions and inspire existing formats

  8. High-precision geologic mapping to evaluate the potential for seismic surface rupture at TA-55, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, J.N.; Lavine, A.; Vaniman, D.; WoldeGabriel, G.

    1998-06-01

    In this report the authors document results of high-precision geologic mapping in the vicinity of TA-55 that has been done to identify parts of the southern portion of the Rendija Canyon Fault, or any other faults, with the potential for seismic surface rupture. To assess the potential for surface rupture at TA-55, an area of approximately 3 square miles that includes the Los Alamos County Landfill and Twomile, Mortandad, and Sandia Canyons has been mapped in detail. Map units are mostly cooling or flow units within the Tshirege Member (1.2 Ma) of the Bandelier Tuff. Stratigraphic markers that are useful for determining offsets in the map area include a distinct welding break at or near the cooling Unit 2-Unit 3 contact, and the Unit 3-Unit 4 contact. At the County Landfill the contact between the Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff and overlying Quaternary alluvium has also been mapped. The mapping indicates that there is no faulting in the near-surface directly below TA-55, and that the closest fault is about 1500 feet west of the Plutonium Facility. Faulting is more abundant on the western edge of the map area, west of TA-48 in uppermost Mortandad Canyon, upper Sandia Canyon, and at the County Landfill. Measured vertical offsets on the faults range from 1 to 8 feet on mapped Bandelier Tuff contacts. Faulting exposed at the Los Alamos County Landfill has deformed a zone over 1000 feet wide, and has a net vertical down-to-the-west displacement of at least 15 feet in the Bandelier Tuff. Individual faults at the landfill have from less than 1 foot to greater than 15 feet of vertical offset on the Bandelier Tuff. Most faults in the landfill trend N-S, N20W, or N45E. Results of the mapping indicate that the Rendija Canyon Fault does not continue directly south to TA-55. At present, the authors have insufficient data to connect faulting they have mapped to areas of known faulting to the north or south of the study area

  9. Usefulness of ventricular endocardial electric reconstruction from body surface potential maps to noninvasively localize ventricular ectopic activity in patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dakun; Sun, Jian; Li, Yigang; He, Bin

    2013-06-01

    As radio frequency (RF) catheter ablation becomes increasingly prevalent in the management of ventricular arrhythmia in patients, an accurate and rapid determination of the arrhythmogenic site is of important clinical interest. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the inversely reconstructed ventricular endocardial current density distribution from body surface potential maps (BSPMs) can localize the regions critical for maintenance of a ventricular ectopic activity. Patients with isolated and monomorphic premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) were investigated by noninvasive BSPMs and subsequent invasive catheter mapping and ablation. Equivalent current density (CD) reconstruction (CDR) during symptomatic PVCs was obtained on the endocardial ventricular surface in six patients (four men, two women, years 23-77), and the origin of the spontaneous ectopic activity was localized at the location of the maximum CD value. Compared with the last (successful) ablation site (LAS), the mean and standard deviation of localization error of the CDR approach were 13.8 and 1.3 mm, respectively. In comparison, the distance between the LASs and the estimated locations of an equivalent single moving dipole in the heart was 25.5 ± 5.5 mm. The obtained CD distribution of activated sources extending from the catheter ablation site also showed a high consistency with the invasively recorded electroanatomical maps. The noninvasively reconstructed endocardial CD distribution is suitable to predict a region of interest containing or close to arrhythmia source, which may have the potential to guide RF catheter ablation.

  10. Mapping the environmental risk potential on surface water of pesticide contamination in the Prosecco's vineyard terraced landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Patricia; Ferrarese, Francesco; Loddo, Donato; Eugenio Pappalardo, Salvatore; Varotto, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    Intensive cropping systems today represent a paramount issue in terms of environmental impacts, since agricultural pollutants can constitute a potential threat to surface water, non-target organisms and aquatic ecosystems. Levels of pesticide concentrations in surface waters are indeed unquestionably correlated to crop and soil management practices at field-scale. Due to the numerous applications of pesticides required, orchards and vineyards can represent relevant non-point sources for pesticide contamination of water bodies, mainly prompted by soil erosion, surface runoff and spray drift. To reduce risks of pesticide contamination of surface water, the Directive 2009/128/CET imposed the local implementation of agricultural good practices and mitigation actions such as the use of vegetative buffer filter strips and hedgerows along river and pond banks. However, implementation of mitigation actions is often difficult, especially in extremely fragmented agricultural landscapes characterized by a complex territorial matrix set up on urban sprawling, frequent surface water bodies, important geomorphological processes and protected natural areas. Typically, such landscape matrix is well represented by the, Prosecco-DOCG vineyards area (NE of Italy, Province of Treviso) which lays on hogback hills of conglomerate, marls and sandstone that ranges between 50 and 500 m asl. Moreover such vineyards landscape is characterized by traditional and non-traditional agricultural terraces The general aim of this paper is to identify areas of surface water bodies with high potential risk of pesticide contamination from surrounding vineyards in the 735 ha of Lierza river basin (Refrontolo, TV), one of the most representative terraced landscape of the Prosecco-DOCG area. Specific aims are i) mapping terraced Prosecco-DOCG vineyards, ii) classifying potential risk from pesticide of the different areas. Remote sensing technologies such as four bands aerial photos (RGB+NIR) and Light

  11. Potential of EnMAP spaceborne imaging spectroscopy for the prediction of common surface soil properties and expected accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrillat, Sabine; Foerster, Saskia; Steinberg, Andreas; Stevens, Antoine; Segl, Karl

    2016-04-01

    There is a renewed awareness of the finite nature of the world's soil resources, growing concern about soil security, and significant uncertainties about the carrying capacity of the planet. As a consequence, soil scientists are being challenged to provide regular assessments of soil conditions from local through to global scales. However, only a few countries have the necessary survey and monitoring programs to meet these new needs and existing global data sets are out-of-date. A particular issue is the clear demand for a new area-wide regional to global coverage with accurate, up-to-date, and spatially referenced soil information as expressed by the modeling scientific community, farmers and land users, and policy and decision makers. Soil spectroscopy from remote sensing observations based on studies from the laboratory scale to the airborne scale has been shown to be a proven method for the quantitative prediction of key soil surface properties in local areas for exposed soils in appropriate surface conditions such as low vegetation cover and low water content. With the upcoming launch of the next generation of hyperspectral satellite sensors in the next 3 to 5 years (EnMAP, HISUI, PRISMA, SHALOM), a great potential for the global mapping and monitoring of soil properties is appearing. Nevertheless, the capabilities to extend the soil properties current spectral modeling from local to regional scales are still to be demonstrated using robust methods. In particular, three central questions are at the forefront of research nowadays: a) methodological developments toward improved algorithms and operational tools for the extraction of soil properties, b) up scaling from the laboratory into space domain, and c) demonstration of the potential of upcoming satellite systems and expected accuracy of soil maps. In this study, airborne imaging spectroscopy data from several test sites are used to simulate EnMAP satellite images at 30 m scale. Then, different soil

  12. Wildfire potential mapping over the state of Mississippi: A land surface modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Cooke; Georgy V. Mostovoy; Valentine G. Anantharaj; W. Matt Jolly

    2012-01-01

    A relationship between the likelihood of wildfires and various drought metrics (soil moisture-based fire potential indices) were examined over the southern part of Mississippi. The following three indices were tested and used to simulate spatial and temporal wildfire probability changes: (1) the accumulated difference between daily precipitation and potential...

  13. ThermoMap. Interactive analysis and information system for the area-selected evaluation of the near-surface geothermal potential; ThermoMap. Interaktives Analyse- und Auskunftssystem zur flaechenhaften Abschaetzung des oberflaechennahen geothermischen Potenzials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertemann, David [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (DE). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie (Exogene Dynamik); Psyk, Mario [REHAU AG and CO, Erlangen-Eltersdorf (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The project ThermoMap funded by the European Commission enables a comprehensive assessment of the near-surface geothermal energy potential from already existing geoscientific data sets. Currently, twelve partners from nine EU Member States are involved.

  14. Preliminary results of trench mapping at the site of prospective surface facilities for the potential Yucca Mountain repository, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesling, J.R.; Swan, F.H.; Thomas, A.P.; Angell, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    Mapping and trenching studies are yielding data needed to evaluate the surface faulting potential within Midway Valley, a half graben bounded by west-dipping normal faults on the northeast margin of Yucca Mountain. These studies document the presence of two north-trending zones of fractures within Quaternary deposits along the west-central part of the Midway Valley half-graben block. The westernmost zone of fractures, located along the eastern base of Exile Hill, overlies a complex zone of bedrock faulting and may be related to an apparent down-on-the-east step in the contact between bedrock and colluvium. Fractures striking ∼N15E extend upwards from this apparent bedrock step through early (?) to middle (?) Pleistocene colluvium. The fractures do not extend into the overlying late Pleistocene colluvium. No vertical or lateral separation of the probably middle to late Pleistocene colluvium across fractures can be detected with a resolution of 5 cm or less in most cases. The Quaternary deposits are much thicker along the eastern zone of fractures and bedrock was not exposed. The presence of continuous thin layers within the alluvial strata demonstrate the absence of any detectable vertical or lateral separation of the middle (?) Pleistocene deposits across the fractures within the eastern zone with a high degree of confidence. The results of the authors studies indicate that faults within the west-central part of the Midway Valley structural block have had little or no displacement since at least the mid Quaternary. Therefore, potential for surface fault rupture in this area is extremely low

  15. Epicardial potentials computed from the body surface potential map using inverse electrocardiography and an individualised torso model improve sensitivity for acute myocardial infarction diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Michael J; Finlay, Dewar D; Guldenring, Daniel; Bond, Raymond R; McCann, Aaron J; Scott, Peter J; Adgey, Jennifer A; Harbinson, Mark T

    2017-12-01

    Epicardial potentials (EPs) derived from the body surface potential map (BSPM) improve acute myocardial infarction (AMI) diagnosis. In this study, we compared EPs derived from the 80-lead BSPM using a standard thoracic volume conductor model (TVCM) with those derived using a patient-specific torso model (PSTM) based on body mass index (BMI). Consecutive patients presenting to both the emergency department and pre-hospital coronary care unit between August 2009 and August 2011 with acute ischaemic-type chest pain at rest were enrolled. At first medical contact, 12-lead electrocardiograms and BSPMs were recorded. The BMI for each patient was calculated. Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) was sampled 12 hours after symptom onset. Patients were excluded from analysis if they had any ECG confounders to interpretation of the ST-segment. A cardiologist assessed the 12-lead ECG for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction by Minnesota criteria and the BSPM. BSPM ST-elevation (STE) was ⩾0.2 mV in anterior, ⩾0.1 mV in lateral, inferior, right ventricular or high right anterior and ⩾0.05 mV in posterior territories. To derive EPs, the BSPM data were interpolated to yield values at 352 nodes of a Dalhousie torso. Using an inverse solution based on the boundary element method, EPs at 98 cardiac nodes positioned within a standard TVCM were derived. The TVCM was then scaled to produce a PSTM using a model developed from computed tomography in 48 patients of varying BMIs, and EPs were recalculated. EPs >0.3 mV defined STE. A cardiologist blinded to both the 12-lead ECG and BSPM interpreted the EP map. AMI was defined as cTnT ⩾0.1 µg/L. Enrolled were 400 patients (age 62 ± 13 years; 57% male); 80 patients had exclusion criteria. Of the remaining 320 patients, the BMI was an average of 27.8 ± 5.6 kg/m 2 . Of these, 180 (56%) had AMI. Overall, 132 had Minnesota STE on ECG (sensitivity 65%, specificity 89%) and 160 had BSPM STE (sensitivity 81%, specificity 90

  16. Surface Relief of Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Manuel F.; Almeida, Jose B.

    1989-02-01

    We will describe in this communication a noncont act method of measuring surface profile, it does not require any surface preparation, and it can be used with a very large range of surfaces from highly reflecting to non reflecting ones and as complex as textile surfaces. This method is reasonably immune to dispersion and diffraction, which usually make very difficult the application of non contact profilometry methods to a wide range of materials and situations, namely on quality control systems in industrial production lines. The method is based on the horizontal shift of the bright spot on a horizontal surface when this is illuminated with an oblique beam and moved vertically. in order to make the profilometry the sample is swept by an oblique light beam and the bright spot position is compared with a reference position. The bright spot must be as small as possible, particularly in very irregular surfaces; so the light beam diameter must be as small as possible and the incidence angle must not be too small. The sensivity of a system based on this method will be given, mostly, by the reception optical system.

  17. Mapping stellar surface features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noah, P.V.

    1987-01-01

    New photometric and spectroscopic observations of the RS Canum Venaticorum binaries Sigma Geminorum and UX Arietis are reported along with details of the Doppler-imaging program SPOTPROF. The observations suggest that the starspot activity on Sigma Gem has decreased to 0.05 magnitude in two years. A photometric spot model for September 1984 to January 1985 found that a single spot covering 2% of the surface and 1000 K cooler than the surrounding photosphere could model the light variations. Equivalent-width observations contemporaneous with the photometric observations did not show any significant variations. Line-profile models from SPOTPROF predict that the variation of the equivalent width of the 6393 A Fe I line should be ∼ 1mA. Photometric observations of UX Ari from January 1984 to March 1985 show an 0.3 magnitude variation indicating a large spot group must cover the surface. Contemporaneous spectroscopic observations show asymmetric line profiles. The Doppler imaging and the photometric light-curve models were used in an iterative method to describe the stellar surface-spot distribution and successfully model both the photometric and the spectroscopic variations

  18. Integrable mappings via rational elliptic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Teruhisa

    2004-01-01

    We present a geometric description of the QRT map (which is an integrable mapping introduced by Quispel, Roberts and Thompson) in terms of the addition formula of a rational elliptic surface. By this formulation, we classify all the cases when the QRT map is periodic; and show that its period is 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6. A generalization of the QRT map which acts birationally on a pencil of K3 surfaces, or Calabi-Yau manifolds, is also presented

  19. Sorption Energy Maps of Clay Mineral Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cygan, Randall T.; Kirkpatrick, R. James

    1999-01-01

    A molecular-level understanding of mineral-water interactions is critical for the evaluation and prediction of the sorption properties of clay minerals that may be used in various chemical and radioactive waste disposal methods. Molecular models of metal sorption incorporate empirical energy force fields, based on molecular orbital calculations and spectroscopic data, that account for Coulombic, van der Waals attractive, and short-range repulsive energies. The summation of the non-bonded energy terms at equally-spaced grid points surrounding a mineral substrate provides a three dimensional potential energy grid. The energy map can be used to determine the optimal sorption sites of metal ions on the exposed surfaces of the mineral. By using this approach, we have evaluated the crystallographic and compositional control of metal sorption on the surfaces of kaolinite and illite. Estimates of the relative sorption energy and most stable sorption sites are derived based on a rigid ion approximation

  20. 3D silicon breast surface mapping via structured light profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairavan, R.; Ong, N. R.; Sauli, Z.; Kirtsaeng, S.; Sakuntasathien, S.; Shahimin, M. M.; Alcain, J. B.; Lai, S. L.; Paitong, P.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    Digital fringe projection technique is one of the promising optical methods for 3D surface imaging as it demonstrates non contact and non invasive characteristics. The potential of this technique matches the requirement for human body evaluation, as it is vital for disease diagnosis and for treatment option selection. Thus, the digital fringe projection has addressed this requirement with its wide clinical related application and studies. However, the application of this technique for 3D surface mapping of the breast is very minimal. Hence, in this work, the application of digital fringe projection for 3D breast surface mapping is reported. Phase shift fringe projection technique was utilized to perform the 3D breast surface mapping. Maiden results have confirmed the feasibility of using the digital fringe projection method for 3D surface mapping of the breast and it can be extended for breast cancer detection.

  1. Mapping of groundwater radon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aekerblom, G.; Lindgren, J.

    1997-01-01

    The domestic use of water with elevated radon concentration may represent a public health hazard, partly due to the release of radon to the indoor air. While only a limited number of countries have implemented regulations with respect to radon in water, many more are considering doing so. The compulsory limits proposed by Swedish authorities are 100 Bq/1 for public water, while water from private wells is not to exceed 1000 Bq/1. Furthermore, it is recommended that water with a radon content above 500 Bq/1 should not be given to children under five years of age. In Sweden, the estimated number of wells with radon levels above 1000 Bq/1 exceeds 10,000, with a considerable amount in excess of 10,000 Bq/1. The highest radon concentration in a well supplying drinking water encountered so far is 57,000 Bq/1. Radon levels exceeding 500 Bq/1 are almost exclusively found in wells drilled into bedrock and in springs with intramontaneous water. Elevated ground water radon levels require that the water has passed through bedrock with elevated concentration of uranium, or through fractures with coatings of minerals containing enhanced concentrations of radium-226. Intramontaneous water from areas with uranium-bearing rock types (e.g. uranium-rich granites, pegmatites and vulcanites) often manifests elevated radon levels. Routines for the establishment of risk maps focusing on water are currently under development. The backbone of the process is the access to high spatial resolution radiometric information together with bedrock and soil information on a detailed scale (1:50,000). This information is available from the Geological Survey of Sweden, which is routinely carrying out airborne measurements at an altitude of 30 m and a line spacing of 200 m. While some 60% of Sweden is covered up to now, 75 % is expected to be covered within the next ten years. Other available databases utilized in the risk mapping process include radon measurements in wells, geochemical data from

  2. Conformal mapping on Riemann surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Cohn, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    The subject matter loosely called ""Riemann surface theory"" has been the starting point for the development of topology, functional analysis, modern algebra, and any one of a dozen recent branches of mathematics; it is one of the most valuable bodies of knowledge within mathematics for a student to learn.Professor Cohn's lucid and insightful book presents an ideal coverage of the subject in five pans. Part I is a review of complex analysis analytic behavior, the Riemann sphere, geometric constructions, and presents (as a review) a microcosm of the course. The Riemann manifold is introduced in

  3. Filtering Color Mapped Textures and Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Heitz , Eric; Nowrouzezahrai , Derek; Poulin , Pierre; Neyret , Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Color map textures applied directly to surfaces, to geometric microsurface details, or to procedural functions (such as noise), are commonly used to enhance visual detail. Their simplicity and ability to mimic a wide range of realistic appearances have led to their adoption in many rendering problems. As with any textured or geometric detail, proper filtering is needed to reduce aliasing when viewed across a range of distances, but accurate and efficient color map filt...

  4. Complete Surface Mapping of ICF Shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, R.B.; Olson, D.; Huang, H.; Gibson, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion shells have previously been evaluated on the basis of microscopic examination for local defects and limited surface profiling to represent their average fluctuation power. Since defects are local, and don't always have visible edges, this approach both misses some important fluctuations and doesn't properly represent the spatially dependent surface fluctuation power. We have taken the first step toward correcting this problem by demonstrating the capability to completely map the surface of a NIF shell with the resolution to account for all modes. This allows complete accounting of all the surface fluctuations. In the future this capability could be used for valuable shells to generate a complete r(θ, φ) surface map for accurate 3-D modeling of a shot

  5. COMPLETE SURFACE MAPPING OF ICF SHELLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STEPHENS, R.B.; OLSON, D.; HUANG, H.; GIBSON, J.B.

    2003-09-01

    OAK-B135 Inertial confinement fusion shells have previously been evaluated on the basis of microscopic examination for local defects and limited surface profiling to represent their average fluctuation power. Since defects are local, and don't always have visible edges, this approach both misses some important fluctuations and doesn't properly represent the spatially dependent surface fluctuation power. they have taken the first step toward correcting this problem by demonstrating the capability to completely map the surface of a NIF shell with the resolution to account for all modes. This allows complete accounting of all the surface fluctuations. In the future this capability could be used for valuable shells to generate a complete r(θ,ψ) surface map for accurate 3-D modeling of a shot

  6. Potential photosynthesis of crop surfaces.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de C.T.

    1959-01-01

    A formula for calculating the potential photosynthesis of a closed crop surface is proposed, assuming that the leaves of the crop are not arranged in any definite direction. In the Netherlands, values for potential photosynthesis vary from 290 kg. CH2O/ha./day in June to 50 kg./ha./day in December.

  7. Potentials of surfaces in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of a body in space is determined by a balance between various charging currents such as the transfer of charge from plasma particles, photoemission, and secondary electron emission. These processes are evaluated for bodies in the solar system and in interstellar space under the headings; an overview of charging, survey of early work on charging, charging processes, effects of non-isotropic plasmas and magnetic and electric fields, calculation of surface potentials, differential charging, potential barriers and discharge processes, measurements of potential, potential modification and control on spacecraft, and astrophysical applications. (U.K.)

  8. Fermi surface mapping: Techniques and visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotenberg, E.; Denlinger, J.D.; Kevan, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission (ARP) of valence bands is a mature technique that has achieved spectacular success in band-mapping metals, semiconductors, and insulators. The purpose of the present study was the development of experimental and analytical techniques in ARP which take advantage of third generation light sources. Here the authors studied the relatively simple Cu surface in preparation for other metals. Copper and related metals themselves are of current interest, especially due to its role as an interlayer in spin valves and other magnetic heterostructures. A major goal of this study was the development of a systematic technique to quickly (i.e. in a few hours of synchrotron beamtime) measure the FS and separate it into bulk and surface FS's. Often, one needs to avoid bulk features altogether, which one can achieve by carefully mapping their locations in k-space. The authors will also show how they systematically map Fermi surfaces throughout large volumes of k-space, and, by processing the resulting volume data sets, provide intuitive pictures of FS's, both bulk and surface

  9. Methodology developed to make the Quebec indoor radon potential map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: jean-philippe.drolet@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre (ETE-INRS), 490 de la Couronne, G1K 9A9 Quebec (Canada); Martel, Richard [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre (ETE-INRS), 490 de la Couronne, G1K 9A9 Quebec (Canada); Poulin, Patrick [Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ), 945 avenue Wolfe, G1V 5B3 Quebec (Canada); Dessau, Jean-Claude [Agence de la santé et des services sociaux des Laurentides, 1000 rue Labelle, J7Z 5 N6 Saint-Jérome (Canada)

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a relevant approach to predict the indoor radon potential based on the combination of the radiogeochemical data and the indoor radon measurements in the Quebec province territory (Canada). The Quebec ministry of health asked for such a map to identify the radon-prone areas to manage the risk for the population related to indoor radon exposure. Three radiogeochemical criteria including (1) equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys, (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments, (3) bedrock and surficial geology were combined with 3082 basement radon concentration measurements to identify the radon-prone areas. It was shown that it is possible to determine thresholds for the three criteria that implied statistically significant different levels of radon potential using Kruskal–Wallis one way analyses of variance by ranks. The three discretized radiogeochemical datasets were combined into a total predicted radon potential that sampled 98% of the studied area. The combination process was also based on Kruskal–Wallis one way ANOVA. Four statistically significant different predicted radon potential levels were created: low, medium, high and very high. Respectively 10 and 13% of the dwellings exceed the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} in low and medium predicted radon potentials. These proportions rise up to 22 and 45% respectively for high and very high predicted radon potentials. This predictive map of indoor radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was validated using a map of confirmed radon exposure in homes based on the basement radon measurements. It was shown that the map of predicted radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was reliable to identify radon-prone areas even in zones where no indoor radon measurement exists. - Highlights: • 5 radiogeochemical datasets were used to map the geogenic indoor radon potential. • An indoor radon potential was determined for

  10. Methodology developed to make the Quebec indoor radon potential map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe; Martel, Richard; Poulin, Patrick; Dessau, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a relevant approach to predict the indoor radon potential based on the combination of the radiogeochemical data and the indoor radon measurements in the Quebec province territory (Canada). The Quebec ministry of health asked for such a map to identify the radon-prone areas to manage the risk for the population related to indoor radon exposure. Three radiogeochemical criteria including (1) equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys, (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments, (3) bedrock and surficial geology were combined with 3082 basement radon concentration measurements to identify the radon-prone areas. It was shown that it is possible to determine thresholds for the three criteria that implied statistically significant different levels of radon potential using Kruskal–Wallis one way analyses of variance by ranks. The three discretized radiogeochemical datasets were combined into a total predicted radon potential that sampled 98% of the studied area. The combination process was also based on Kruskal–Wallis one way ANOVA. Four statistically significant different predicted radon potential levels were created: low, medium, high and very high. Respectively 10 and 13% of the dwellings exceed the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m 3 in low and medium predicted radon potentials. These proportions rise up to 22 and 45% respectively for high and very high predicted radon potentials. This predictive map of indoor radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was validated using a map of confirmed radon exposure in homes based on the basement radon measurements. It was shown that the map of predicted radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was reliable to identify radon-prone areas even in zones where no indoor radon measurement exists. - Highlights: • 5 radiogeochemical datasets were used to map the geogenic indoor radon potential. • An indoor radon potential was determined for each

  11. Highly accurate surface maps from profilometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicus, Kate M.; Nelson, Jessica D.; Mandina, Mike P.

    2013-04-01

    Many aspheres and free-form optical surfaces are measured using a single line trace profilometer which is limiting because accurate 3D corrections are not possible with the single trace. We show a method to produce an accurate fully 2.5D surface height map when measuring a surface with a profilometer using only 6 traces and without expensive hardware. The 6 traces are taken at varying angular positions of the lens, rotating the part between each trace. The output height map contains low form error only, the first 36 Zernikes. The accuracy of the height map is ±10% of the actual Zernike values and within ±3% of the actual peak to valley number. The calculated Zernike values are affected by errors in the angular positioning, by the centering of the lens, and to a small effect, choices made in the processing algorithm. We have found that the angular positioning of the part should be better than 1?, which is achievable with typical hardware. The centering of the lens is essential to achieving accurate measurements. The part must be centered to within 0.5% of the diameter to achieve accurate results. This value is achievable with care, with an indicator, but the part must be edged to a clean diameter.

  12. Using computerised surface wound mapping to compare the potential medical effectiveness of Enhanced Protection Under Body Armour Combat Shirt collar designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, John; Allanson-Bailey, L C; Hunt, N C; Delaney, R; Hepper, A E; Lewis, E A

    2015-03-01

    Protecting the neck from explosively propelled fragments has traditionally been achieved through a collar attached to the ballistic vest. An Enhanced Protection Under Body Armour Combat Shirt (EP-UBACS) collar has been identified as an additional method of providing neck protection but limited evidence as to its potential medical effectiveness exists to justify its procurement. Entry wound locations and resultant medical outcomes were determined using Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) for all fragmentation neck wounds sustained by UK soldiers between 01 January 2010 and 31 December 2011. Data were prospectively entered into a novel computerised tool base and comparisons made between three EP-UBACS neck collar designs in terms of predicted reduction in AIS scores. All collars reduced AIS scores, with the greatest reduction provided by designs incorporating increased standoff from the neck and an additional semi-circle of ballistic material underneath the collar at the front and back. This technique confirms that reinforcing the neck collar of an EP-UBACS would be expected to reduce injury severity from neck wounds. However, without knowledge of entry wound locations for injuries to other body areas as well as the use of AIS scores without clinical or pathological verification its further use in the future may be limited. The ability to overlay any armour design onto a standardised human was potentially the most useful part of this tool and we would recommend developing this technique using underlying anatomical structures and not just the skin surface. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Mapping geogenic radon potential by regression kriging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pásztor, László [Institute for Soil Sciences and Agricultural Chemistry, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Environmental Informatics, Herman Ottó út 15, 1022 Budapest (Hungary); Szabó, Katalin Zsuzsanna, E-mail: sz_k_zs@yahoo.de [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Science, Szent István University, Páter Károly u. 1, Gödöllő 2100 (Hungary); Szatmári, Gábor; Laborczi, Annamária [Institute for Soil Sciences and Agricultural Chemistry, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Environmental Informatics, Herman Ottó út 15, 1022 Budapest (Hungary); Horváth, Ákos [Department of Atomic Physics, Eötvös University, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A, 1117 Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-02-15

    Radon ({sup 222}Rn) gas is produced in the radioactive decay chain of uranium ({sup 238}U) which is an element that is naturally present in soils. Radon is transported mainly by diffusion and convection mechanisms through the soil depending mainly on the physical and meteorological parameters of the soil and can enter and accumulate in buildings. Health risks originating from indoor radon concentration can be attributed to natural factors and is characterized by geogenic radon potential (GRP). Identification of areas with high health risks require spatial modeling, that is, mapping of radon risk. In addition to geology and meteorology, physical soil properties play a significant role in the determination of GRP. In order to compile a reliable GRP map for a model area in Central-Hungary, spatial auxiliary information representing GRP forming environmental factors were taken into account to support the spatial inference of the locally measured GRP values. Since the number of measured sites was limited, efficient spatial prediction methodologies were searched for to construct a reliable map for a larger area. Regression kriging (RK) was applied for the interpolation using spatially exhaustive auxiliary data on soil, geology, topography, land use and climate. RK divides the spatial inference into two parts. Firstly, the deterministic component of the target variable is determined by a regression model. The residuals of the multiple linear regression analysis represent the spatially varying but dependent stochastic component, which are interpolated by kriging. The final map is the sum of the two component predictions. Overall accuracy of the map was tested by Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation. Furthermore the spatial reliability of the resultant map is also estimated by the calculation of the 90% prediction interval of the local prediction values. The applicability of the applied method as well as that of the map is discussed briefly. - Highlights: • A new method

  14. Mapping geogenic radon potential by regression kriging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pásztor, László; Szabó, Katalin Zsuzsanna; Szatmári, Gábor; Laborczi, Annamária; Horváth, Ákos

    2016-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) gas is produced in the radioactive decay chain of uranium ( 238 U) which is an element that is naturally present in soils. Radon is transported mainly by diffusion and convection mechanisms through the soil depending mainly on the physical and meteorological parameters of the soil and can enter and accumulate in buildings. Health risks originating from indoor radon concentration can be attributed to natural factors and is characterized by geogenic radon potential (GRP). Identification of areas with high health risks require spatial modeling, that is, mapping of radon risk. In addition to geology and meteorology, physical soil properties play a significant role in the determination of GRP. In order to compile a reliable GRP map for a model area in Central-Hungary, spatial auxiliary information representing GRP forming environmental factors were taken into account to support the spatial inference of the locally measured GRP values. Since the number of measured sites was limited, efficient spatial prediction methodologies were searched for to construct a reliable map for a larger area. Regression kriging (RK) was applied for the interpolation using spatially exhaustive auxiliary data on soil, geology, topography, land use and climate. RK divides the spatial inference into two parts. Firstly, the deterministic component of the target variable is determined by a regression model. The residuals of the multiple linear regression analysis represent the spatially varying but dependent stochastic component, which are interpolated by kriging. The final map is the sum of the two component predictions. Overall accuracy of the map was tested by Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation. Furthermore the spatial reliability of the resultant map is also estimated by the calculation of the 90% prediction interval of the local prediction values. The applicability of the applied method as well as that of the map is discussed briefly. - Highlights: • A new method, regression

  15. Spatial mapping of renewable energy potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandra, T.V. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Energy Research Group, CES RNO 215, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Shruthi, B.V. [Energy Research Group, CES RNO 215, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2007-09-15

    An energy resource that is renewed by nature and whose supply is not affected by the rate of consumption is often termed as renewable energy. The need to search for renewable, alternate and non-polluting sources of energy assumes top priority for self-reliance in the regional energy supply. This demands an estimation of available energy resources spatially to evolve better management strategies for ensuring sustainability of resources. The spatial mapping of availability and demand of energy resources would help in the integrated regional energy planning through an appropriate energy supply-demand matching. This paper discusses the application of Geographical Information System (GIS) to map the renewable energy potential talukwise in Karnataka State, India. Taluk is an administrative division in the federal set-up in India to implement developmental programmes like dissemination of biogas, improved stoves, etc. Hence, this paper focuses talukwise mapping of renewable energy (solar, wind, bioenergy and small hydroenergy) potential for Karnataka using GIS. GIS helps in spatial and temporal analyses of the resources and demand and also aids as Decision Support System while implementing location-specific renewable energy technologies. Regions suitable for tapping solar energy are mapped based on global solar radiation data, which provides a picture of the potential. Coastal taluks in Uttara Kannada have higher global solar radiation during summer (6.31 kWh/m{sup 2}), monsoon (4.16 kWh/m{sup 2}) and winter (5.48 kWh/m{sup 2}). Mapping of regions suitable for tapping wind energy has been done based on wind velocity data, and it shows that Chikkodi taluk, Belgaum district, has higher potential during summer (6.06 m/s), monsoon (8.27 m/s) and winter (5.19 m/s). Mysore district has the maximum number of small hydropower plants with a capacity of 36 MW. Talukwise computation of bioenergy availability from agricultural residue, forest, horticulture, plantation and livestock

  16. Mapping Irrigation Potential in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow

  17. A New Approach for Studying Bond Rupture/Closure of a Spiro Benzopyran Photochromic Material: Reactivity Descriptors Derived from Frontier Orbitals and DFT Computed Electrostatic Potential Energy Surface Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. A. Abdel-Mottaleb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on computations technique within the framework of the TD-DFT theory for studying the relationship between structure-properties of reversible conversion of photochromic materials. Specifically, we report on 1′,3′-dihydro-8-methoxy-1′,3′,3′-trimethyl-6-nitrospiro[2H-1-benzopyran-2,2′-(2H-indole] (SP and its isomers. TD-DFT calculated UV-Vis electronic spectra of the closed and open isomers of this photochromic material are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. Moreover, this paper reports on the results of theoretical investigations of reactivity indices that may govern the conversion between spiropyrans and its isomers. In addition, the solvent and rigidity of the medium significantly control the thermal bleaching of the photogenerated colored isomers and hence the switch ability pattern of the photochromic material. The effect of molecular structure computed by DFT in gas-phase and solvents on Cspiro-O bond length has been shown to correlate with photochromic properties. For this compound, DFT optimized geometry could be used to predict photochromism. Furthermore, in an attempt to predict the driving force for MC → SP, this work explores, for the first time, profitable exploitation of the calculated and visualized mapped electrostatic potential energy surfaces (ESP map. Interestingly, it seems that the electrostatic potential forces over the molecular fragments govern spirobond rupture/closure reactions. Thermodynamically, all-trans-colored isomer (CTT is the most stable merocyanine-like form.

  18. Potential utility of the thematic mapper for surface mine monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irons, J.R.; Lachowski, H.M.

    1981-01-01

    One of many potential applications of the thematic mapper (TM) is surface mine monitoring. To assess this potential, data acquired by an aircraft multispectral scanner over Pennsylvania surface mines were preprocessed to simulate the anticipated spectral, spatial, and radiometric characteristics of TM data. False color imagery and thematic maps were derived from the simulated data and compared to imagery and maps derived from LANDSAT multispectral scanner subsystems data. On the basis of this comparison, TM data should definitely increase the detail and accuracy of remotely acquired surface mine information and may enable the remote determination of compliance with reclamation regulations

  19. Electrostatic potential map modelling with COSY Infinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, J.A.; Baartman, R.; Planche, T.; Saminathan, S.

    2016-01-01

    COSY Infinity (Makino and Berz, 2005) is a differential-algebra based simulation code which allows accurate calculation of transfer maps to arbitrary order. COSY’s existing internal procedures were modified to allow electrostatic elements to be specified using an array of field potential data from the midplane. Additionally, a new procedure was created allowing electrostatic elements and their fringe fields to be specified by an analytic function. This allows greater flexibility in accurately modelling electrostatic elements and their fringe fields. Applied examples of these new procedures are presented including the modelling of a shunted electrostatic multipole designed with OPERA, a spherical electrostatic bender, and the effects of different shaped apertures in an electrostatic beam line.

  20. Mapping ecosystem services potential in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are understood as the benefits that humans get from ecosystems functions. They are divided in providing, regulating, supporting and cultural. The correct management of ES is fundamental to achieve sustainable development goals. A good assessment of ES potential can be obtained using GIS techniques, in order to have a spatial dimension of ES distribution. This will help to have a better territorial planning, improve ES capacity, and have more benefits. ES potential analysis can be carried out based on the ES matrix developed by Burkhard et al. (2009). This method is based on the attribution a rank from 0 to 5 (0= no capacity to 5=very high relevant capacity) to the land use classes of the corine land cover (CLC). This represents an important advantage since a determined land use can be related with a certain number of services. The objective of this work is to Map the ES potential in Lithuania. The results showed that Lithuania has a high potential for regulating services, followed by cultural and provisioning services. Urban areas provide a very small amount of services, contrary to forest, where the highest potential is observed. The most comon land covers in Lithuania are non-irrigated arable land, complex cultivation patterns, mixed and coniferous forest. Total and regulating and cultural ES had dispersed pattern showing that they are scattered in the territory. They are located mainly in forested and coastal areas. In relation to provisioning services they had a clustered distribution, and they were mainly observed in the central part of Lithuania. References Burkhard B, Kroll F, Müller F, Windhorst W. 2009. Landscapes' capacities to provide ecosystem services - a concept for land-cover based assessments. Landsc. Online. 15:1-22

  1. Mapping the Excited State Potential Energy Surface of a Retinal Chromophore Model with Multireference and Equation-of-Motion Coupled-Cluster Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozem, Samer; Melaccio, Federico; Lindh, Roland; Krylov, Anna I; Granovsky, Alexander A; Angeli, Celestino; Olivucci, Massimo

    2013-10-08

    The photoisomerization of the retinal chromophore of visual pigments proceeds along a complex reaction coordinate on a multidimensional surface that comprises a hydrogen-out-of-plane (HOOP) coordinate, a bond length alternation (BLA) coordinate, a single bond torsion and, finally, the reactive double bond torsion. These degrees of freedom are coupled with changes in the electronic structure of the chromophore and, therefore, the computational investigation of the photochemistry of such systems requires the use of a methodology capable of describing electronic structure changes along all those coordinates. Here, we employ the penta-2,4-dieniminium (PSB3) cation as a minimal model of the retinal chromophore of visual pigments and compare its excited state isomerization paths at the CASSCF and CASPT2 levels of theory. These paths connect the cis isomer and the trans isomer of PSB3 with two structurally and energetically distinct conical intersections (CIs) that belong to the same intersection space. MRCISD+Q energy profiles along these paths provide benchmark values against which other ab initio methods are validated. Accordingly, we compare the energy profiles of MRPT2 methods (CASPT2, QD-NEVPT2, and XMCQDPT2) and EOM-SF-CC methods (EOM-SF-CCSD and EOM-SF-CCSD(dT)) to the MRCISD+Q reference profiles. We find that the paths produced with CASSCF and CASPT2 are topologically and energetically different, partially due to the existence of a "locally excited" region on the CASPT2 excited state near the Franck-Condon point that is absent in CASSCF and that involves a single bond, rather than double bond, torsion. We also find that MRPT2 methods as well as EOM-SF-CCSD(dT) are capable of quantitatively describing the processes involved in the photoisomerization of systems like PSB3.

  2. Electrocardiographic markers of ischemia during mental stress testing in postinfarction patients. Role of body surface mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosimini, E.; Galli, M.; Guagliumi, G.; Giubbini, R.; Tavazzi, L.

    1991-01-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease, radionuclide investigations have documented a high incidence of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in the absence of significant electrocardiographic changes and/or angina. To investigate the causes of the low electrocardiographic sensitivity, we recorded body surface maps during mental arithmetic in 22 normal volunteers and 37 postinfarction patients with residual exercise ischemia. Myocardial perfusion was studied with thallium-201 or technetium-99 (SESTAMIBI) planar scans. In 14 patients, body surface maps were also recorded during atrial pacing at the heart rate values achieved during mental stress. While taking the body surface maps, the area from J point to 80 msec after this point (ST-80) was analyzed by integral maps, difference maps, and departure maps. The body surface mapping criteria for ischemia were a new negative area on the integral maps, a negative potential of more than 2 SD from mean normal values on the difference maps, and a negative departure index of more than 2. Scintigraphy showed asymptomatic myocardial hypoperfusion in 33 patients. Eight patients had significant ST segment depression. The ST-80 integral and difference maps identified 17 ischemic patients. Twenty-four patients presented abnormal departure maps. One patient presented ST depression and abnormal body surface maps without reversible tracer defect. In 14 of 14 patients, atrial pacing did not reproduce the body surface map abnormalities. The analyses of the other electrocardiographic variables showed that in patients with mental stress-induced perfusion defects, only changes of T apex-T offset (aT-eT) interval in Frank leads and changes of maximum negative potential value of aT-eT integral maps significantly differed from those of normal subjects

  3. Reproducibility of crop surface maps extracted from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) derived digital surface maps

    KAUST Repository

    Parkes, Stephen

    2016-10-25

    Crop height measured from UAVs fitted with commercially available RGB cameras provide an affordable alternative to retrieve field scale high resolution estimates. The study presents an assessment of between flight reproducibility of Crop Surface Maps (CSM) extracted from Digital Surface Maps (DSM) generated by Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithms. Flights were conducted over a centre pivot irrigation system covered with an alfalfa crop. An important step in calculating the absolute crop height from the UAV derived DSM is determining the height of the underlying terrain. Here we use automatic thresholding techniques applied to RGB vegetation index maps to classify vegetated and soil pixels. From interpolation of classified soil pixels, a terrain map is calculated and subtracted from the DSM. The influence of three different thresholding techniques on CSMs are investigated. Median Alfalfa crop heights determined with the different thresholding methods varied from 18cm for K means thresholding to 13cm for Otsu thresholding methods. Otsu thresholding also gave the smallest range of crop heights and K means thresholding the largest. Reproducibility of median crop heights between flight surveys was 4-6cm for all thresholding techniques. For the flight conducted later in the afternoon shadowing caused soil pixels to be classified as vegetation in key locations around the domain, leading to lower crop height estimates. The range of crop heights was similar for both flights using K means thresholding (35-36cm), local minimum thresholding depended on whether raw or normalised RGB intensities were used to calculate vegetation indices (30-35cm), while Otsu thresholding had a smaller range of heights and varied most between flights (26-30cm). This study showed that crop heights from multiple survey flights are comparable, however, they were dependent on the thresholding method applied to classify soil pixels and the time of day the flight was conducted.

  4. Reproducibility of crop surface maps extracted from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) derived digital surface maps

    KAUST Repository

    Parkes, Stephen; McCabe, Matthew; Al-Mashhawari, Samir K.; Rosas, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Crop height measured from UAVs fitted with commercially available RGB cameras provide an affordable alternative to retrieve field scale high resolution estimates. The study presents an assessment of between flight reproducibility of Crop Surface Maps (CSM) extracted from Digital Surface Maps (DSM) generated by Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithms. Flights were conducted over a centre pivot irrigation system covered with an alfalfa crop. An important step in calculating the absolute crop height from the UAV derived DSM is determining the height of the underlying terrain. Here we use automatic thresholding techniques applied to RGB vegetation index maps to classify vegetated and soil pixels. From interpolation of classified soil pixels, a terrain map is calculated and subtracted from the DSM. The influence of three different thresholding techniques on CSMs are investigated. Median Alfalfa crop heights determined with the different thresholding methods varied from 18cm for K means thresholding to 13cm for Otsu thresholding methods. Otsu thresholding also gave the smallest range of crop heights and K means thresholding the largest. Reproducibility of median crop heights between flight surveys was 4-6cm for all thresholding techniques. For the flight conducted later in the afternoon shadowing caused soil pixels to be classified as vegetation in key locations around the domain, leading to lower crop height estimates. The range of crop heights was similar for both flights using K means thresholding (35-36cm), local minimum thresholding depended on whether raw or normalised RGB intensities were used to calculate vegetation indices (30-35cm), while Otsu thresholding had a smaller range of heights and varied most between flights (26-30cm). This study showed that crop heights from multiple survey flights are comparable, however, they were dependent on the thresholding method applied to classify soil pixels and the time of day the flight was conducted.

  5. Creating Geologically Based Radon Potential Maps for Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overfield, B.; Hahn, E.; Wiggins, A.; Andrews, W. M., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Radon potential in the United States, Kentucky in particular, has historically been communicated using a single hazard level for each county; however, physical phenomena are not controlled by administrative boundaries, so single-value county maps do not reflect the significant variations in radon potential in each county. A more accurate approach uses bedrock geology as a predictive tool. A team of nurses, health educators, statisticians, and geologists partnered to create 120 county maps showing spatial variations in radon potential by intersecting residential radon test kit results (N = 60,000) with a statewide 1:24,000-scale bedrock geology coverage to determine statistically valid radon-potential estimates for each geologic unit. Maps using geology as a predictive tool for radon potential are inherently more detailed than single-value county maps. This mapping project revealed that areas in central and south-central Kentucky with the highest radon potential are underlain by shales and karstic limestones.

  6. Mapping severe fire potential across the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett H. Davis

    2016-01-01

    The Fire Severity Mapping System (FIRESEV) project is an effort to provide critical information and tools to fire managers that enhance their ability to assess potential ecological effects of wildland fire. A major component of FIRESEV is the development of a Severe Fire Potential Map (SFPM), a geographic dataset covering the contiguous United States (CONUS) that...

  7. Molecular surface mesh generation by filtering electron density map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giard, Joachim; Macq, Benoît

    2010-01-01

    Bioinformatics applied to macromolecules are now widely spread and in continuous expansion. In this context, representing external molecular surface such as the Van der Waals Surface or the Solvent Excluded Surface can be useful for several applications. We propose a fast and parameterizable algorithm giving good visual quality meshes representing molecular surfaces. It is obtained by isosurfacing a filtered electron density map. The density map is the result of the maximum of Gaussian functions placed around atom centers. This map is filtered by an ideal low-pass filter applied on the Fourier Transform of the density map. Applying the marching cubes algorithm on the inverse transform provides a mesh representation of the molecular surface.

  8. Molecular Surface Mesh Generation by Filtering Electron Density Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Giard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioinformatics applied to macromolecules are now widely spread and in continuous expansion. In this context, representing external molecular surface such as the Van der Waals Surface or the Solvent Excluded Surface can be useful for several applications. We propose a fast and parameterizable algorithm giving good visual quality meshes representing molecular surfaces. It is obtained by isosurfacing a filtered electron density map. The density map is the result of the maximum of Gaussian functions placed around atom centers. This map is filtered by an ideal low-pass filter applied on the Fourier Transform of the density map. Applying the marching cubes algorithm on the inverse transform provides a mesh representation of the molecular surface.

  9. Air transport pilots' information priorities for surface moving maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-13

    The use of a surface map display for operations on or near the airport surface (taxi out, takeoff, final approach and landing, taxi in) is expected to enhance safety. There is a lack of research, however, detailing how the airport surface should be d...

  10. Mapping variation in radon potential both between and within geological units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J C H; Appleton, J D

    2005-01-01

    Previously, the potential for high radon levels in UK houses has been mapped either on the basis of grouping the results of radon measurements in houses by grid squares or by geological units. In both cases, lognormal modelling of the distribution of radon concentrations was applied to allow the estimated proportion of houses above the UK radon Action Level (AL, 200 Bq m -3 ) to be mapped. This paper describes a method of combining the grid square and geological mapping methods to give more accurate maps than either method can provide separately. The land area is first divided up using a combination of bedrock and superficial geological characteristics derived from digital geological map data. Each different combination of geological characteristics may appear at the land surface in many discontinuous locations across the country. HPA has a database of over 430 000 houses in which long-term measurements of radon concentration have been made, and whose locations are accurately known. Each of these measurements is allocated to the appropriate bedrock-superficial geological combination underlying it. Taking each geological combination in turn, the spatial variation of radon potential is mapped, treating the combination as if it were continuous over the land area. All of the maps of radon potential within different geological combinations are then combined to produce a map of variation in radon potential over the whole land surface

  11. Atom-surface potentials and atom interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babb, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Long-range atom-surface potentials characterize the physics of many actual systems and are now measurable spectroscopically in deflection of atomic beams in cavities or in reflection of atoms in atomic fountains. For a ground state, spherically symmetric atom the potential varies as -1/R 3 near the wall, where R is the atom-surface distance. For asymptotically large distances the potential is weaker and goes as -1/R 4 due to retardation arising from the finite speed of light. This diminished interaction can also be interpreted as a Casimir effect. The possibility of measuring atom-surface potentials using atomic interferometry is explored. The particular cases studied are the interactions of a ground-state alkali-metal atom and a dielectric or a conducting wall. Accurate descriptions of atom-surface potentials in theories of evanescent-wave atomic mirrors and evanescent wave-guided atoms are also discussed. (author)

  12. Scanning Surface Potential Microscopy of Spore Adhesion on Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ida [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chung, Eunhyea [Georgia Institute of Technology; Kweon, Hyojin [Georgia Institute of Technology; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The adhesion of spores of Bacillus anthracis - the cause of anthrax and a likely biological threat - to solid surfaces is an important consideration in cleanup after an accidental or deliberate release. However, because of safety concerns, directly studying B. anthracis spores with advanced instrumentation is problematic. As a first step, we are examining the electrostatic potential of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which is a closely related species that is often used as a simulant to study B. anthracis. Scanning surface potential microscopy (SSPM), also known as Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM), was used to investigate the influence of relative humidity (RH) on the surface electrostatic potential of Bt that had adhered to silica, mica, or gold substrates. AFM/SSPM side-by-side images were obtained separately in air, at various values of RH, after an aqueous droplet with spores was applied on each surface and allowed to dry before measurements. In the SSPM images, a negative potential on the surface of the spores was observed compared with that of the substrates. The surface potential decreased as the humidity increased. Spores were unable to adhere to a surface with an extremely negative potential, such as mica.

  13. Pseudo-periodic maps and degeneration of Riemann surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    The first part of the book studies pseudo-periodic maps of a closed surface of genus greater than or equal to two. This class of homeomorphisms was originally introduced by J. Nielsen in 1944 as an extension of periodic maps. In this book, the conjugacy classes of the (chiral) pseudo-periodic mapping classes are completely classified, and Nielsen’s incomplete classification is corrected. The second part applies the results of the first part to the topology of degeneration of Riemann surfaces. It is shown that the set of topological types of all the singular fibers appearing in one-parameter holomorphic families of Riemann surfaces is in a bijective correspondence with the set of conjugacy classes of the pseudo-periodic maps of negative twists. The correspondence is given by the topological monodromy.

  14. Molecular polarization potential maps of the nucleic acid bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkorta, I.; Perez, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Ab initio calculations at the SCF level were carried out to compute the polarization potential map NM of the nucleic acid bases: cytosine, thymine, uracil, adedine, and guanine. For this purpose, the Dunning's 9s5p basis set contracted to a split-valence, was selected to perform the calculations. The molecular polarization potential (MPP) at each point was evaluated by the difference between the interaction energy of the molecule with a unit point charge and the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) at that point. MEPS and MPPS for the different molecules were computed with a density of 5 points/Angstrom 2 on the van der Waals surface of each molecule, defined using the van der Waals radii. Due to the symmetry of the molecules, only half the points were computed. The total number of points calculated was 558 for cytosine, 621 for thymine, 526 for uracil, 666 for adenine, and 699 for guanine. The results of these calculations are analyzed in terms of their implications on the molecular interactions between pairs of nucleic acid bases. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. Ray-map migration of transmitted surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2016-08-25

    Near-surface normal faults can sometimes separate two distinct zones of velocity heterogeneity, where the medium on one side of the fault has a faster velocity than on the other side. Therefore, the slope of surface-wave arrivals in a common-shot gather should abruptly change near the surface projection of the fault. We present ray-map imaging method that migrates transmitted surface waves to the fault plane, and therefore it roughly estimates the orientation, depth, and location of the near-surface fault. The main benefits of this method are that it is computationally inexpensive and robust in the presence of noise.

  16. Valence bond model potential energy surface for H4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, D.M.; Brown, N.J.

    1980-01-01

    Potential energy surfaces for the H 4 system are derived using the valence bond procedure. An ab initio evaluation of the valence bond energy expression is described and some of its numerical properties are given. Next, four semiempirical evaluations of the valence bond energy are defined and parametrized to yield reasonable agreement with various ab initio calculations of H 4 energies. Characteristics of these four H 4 surfaces are described by means of tabulated energy minima and equipotential contour maps for selected geometrical arrangements of the four nuclei

  17. Surface mineral maps of Afghanistan derived from HyMap imaging spectrometer data, version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a new version of surface mineral maps derived from HyMap imaging spectrometer data collected over Afghanistan in the fall of 2007. This report also describes the processing steps applied to the imaging spectrometer data. The 218 individual flight lines composing the Afghanistan dataset, covering more than 438,000 square kilometers, were georeferenced to a mosaic of orthorectified Landsat images. The HyMap data were converted from radiance to reflectance using a radiative transfer program in combination with ground-calibration sites and a network of cross-cutting calibration flight lines. The U.S. Geological Survey Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA) was used to generate two thematic maps of surface minerals: a map of iron-bearing minerals and other materials, which have their primary absorption features at the shorter wavelengths of the reflected solar wavelength range, and a map of carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials, which have their primary absorption features at the longer wavelengths of the reflected solar wavelength range. In contrast to the original version, version 2 of these maps is provided at full resolution of 23-meter pixel size. The thematic maps, MICA summary images, and the material fit and depth images are distributed in digital files linked to this report, in a format readable by remote sensing software and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The digital files can be downloaded from http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/787/downloads/.

  18. Multi-Beam Surface Lidar for Lunar and Planetary Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufton, Jack L.; Garvin, James B.

    1998-01-01

    Surface lidar techniques are now being demonstrated in low Earth orbit with a single beam of pulsed laser radiation at 1064 nm that profiles the vertical structure of Earth surface landforms along the nadir track of a spacecraft. In addition, a profiling laser altimeter, called MOLA, is operating in elliptical Martian orbit and returning surface topography data. These instruments form the basis for suggesting an improved lidar instrument that employs multiple beams for extension of sensor capabilities toward the goal of true, 3-dimensional mapping of the Moon or other similar planetary surfaces. In general the lidar waveform acquired with digitization of a laser echo can be used for laser distance measurement (i.e. range-to-the-surface) by time-of-flight measurement and for surface slope and shape measurements by examining the detailed lidar waveform. This is particularly effective when the intended target is the lunar surface or another planetary body free of any atmosphere. The width of the distorted return pulse is a first order measure of the surface incidence angle, a combination of surface slope and laser beam pointing. Assuming an independent and absolute (with respect to inertial space) measurement of laser beam pointing on the spacecraft, it is possible to derive a surface slope with-respect-to the mean planetary surface or its equipotential gravity surface. Higher-order laser pulse distortions can be interpreted in terms of the vertical relief of the surface or reflectivity variations within the area of the laser beam footprint on the surface.

  19. Heat capacity mapping mission (HCMM) thermal surface water mapping and its correlation to LANDSAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colvocoresses, A.P.

    1980-03-01

    Graphics are presented which show HCMM mapped water-surface temperature in Lake Anna, a 13,000 dendrically-shaped lake which provides cooling for a nuclear power plant in Virginia. The HCMM digital data, produced by NASA were processed by NOAA/NESS into image and line-printer form. A LANDSAT image of the lake illustrates the relationship between MSS band 7 data and the HCMM data as processed by the NASA image processing facility which transforms the data to the same distortion-free hotline oblique Mercator projection. Spatial correlation of the two images is relatively simple by either digital or analog means and the HCMM image has a potential accuracy approaching the 80 m of the original LANDSAT data. While it is difficult to get readings that are not diluted by radiation from cooler adjacent land areas in narrow portions of the lake, digital data indicated by the line-printer display five different temperatures for open-water areas. Where the water surface response was not diluted by land areas, the temperature difference recorded by HCMM corresponds to in situ readings with rsme on the order of 1 C

  20. Map-based model of the cardiac action potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, Evgeny A.; Osipov, Grigory V.; Chan, C.K.; Suykens, Johan A.K.

    2011-01-01

    A simple computationally efficient model which is capable of replicating the basic features of cardiac cell action potential is proposed. The model is a four-dimensional map and demonstrates good correspondence with real cardiac cells. Various regimes of cardiac activity, which can be reproduced by the proposed model, are shown. Bifurcation mechanisms of these regimes transitions are explained using phase space analysis. The dynamics of 1D and 2D lattices of coupled maps which model the behavior of electrically connected cells is discussed in the context of synchronization theory. -- Highlights: → Recent experimental-data based models are complicated for analysis and simulation. → The simplified map-based model of the cardiac cell is constructed. → The model is capable for replication of different types of cardiac activity. → The spatio-temporal dynamics of ensembles of coupled maps are investigated. → Received data are analyzed in context of biophysical processes in the myocardium.

  1. Map-based model of the cardiac action potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, Evgeny A., E-mail: genie.pavlov@gmail.com [Department of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Nizhny Novgorod State University, 23, Gagarin Avenue, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Osipov, Grigory V. [Department of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Nizhny Novgorod State University, 23, Gagarin Avenue, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Chan, C.K. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, 128 Sec. 2, Academia Road, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Suykens, Johan A.K. [K.U. Leuven, ESAT-SCD/SISTA, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Heverlee) (Belgium)

    2011-07-25

    A simple computationally efficient model which is capable of replicating the basic features of cardiac cell action potential is proposed. The model is a four-dimensional map and demonstrates good correspondence with real cardiac cells. Various regimes of cardiac activity, which can be reproduced by the proposed model, are shown. Bifurcation mechanisms of these regimes transitions are explained using phase space analysis. The dynamics of 1D and 2D lattices of coupled maps which model the behavior of electrically connected cells is discussed in the context of synchronization theory. -- Highlights: → Recent experimental-data based models are complicated for analysis and simulation. → The simplified map-based model of the cardiac cell is constructed. → The model is capable for replication of different types of cardiac activity. → The spatio-temporal dynamics of ensembles of coupled maps are investigated. → Received data are analyzed in context of biophysical processes in the myocardium.

  2. Sea surface temperature mapping using a thermal infrared scanner

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R; Pandya, R; Mathur, K.M.; Charyulu, R; Rao, L.V.G.

    1 metre water column below the sea surface. A thermal infrared scanner developed by the Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad was operated on board R.V. Gaveshani in April/May 1984 for mapping SST over the eastern Arabian Sea. SST values...

  3. Groupoid extensions of mapping class representations for bordered surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Bene, Alex; Penner, Robert

    2009-01-01

    by explicit formulae depending upon six essential cases, and the kernel and image of the groupoid representation are computed. Furthermore, this provides groupoid extensions of any representation of the mapping class group that factors through its action on the fundamental group of the surface including...

  4. Use of roughness maps in visualisation of surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Rantanen, Jukka; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2005-01-01

    monohydrate, theophylline anhydrate, sodium chloride and potassium chloride. The roughness determinations were made by a laser profilometer. The new matrix method gives detailed roughness maps, which are able to show local variations in surface roughness values and provide an illustrative picture...

  5. Potential energy surface of alanine polypeptide chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2006-01-01

    The multidimensional potential energy surfaces of the peptide chains consisting of three and six alanine (Ala) residues have been studied with respect to the degrees of freedom related to the twist of these molecules relative to the peptide backbone (these degrees of freedom are responsible...

  6. Predictive mapping of the acidifying potential for acid sulfate soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boman, A; Beucher, Amélie; Mattbäck, S

    Developing methods for the predictive mapping of the potential environmental impact from acid sulfate soils is important because recent studies (e.g. Mattbäck et al., under revision) have shown that the environmental hazards (e.g. leaching of acidity) related to acid sulfate soils vary depending...... on their texture (clay, silt, sand etc.). Moreover, acidity correlates, not only with the sulfur content, but also with the electrical conductivity (EC) measured after incubation. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) data collected from an EM38 proximal sensor also enabled the detailed mapping of acid sulfate soils...... over a field (Huang et al., 2014).This study aims at assessing the use of EMI data for the predictive mapping of the acidifying potential in an acid sulfate soil area in western Finland. Different supervised classification modelling techniques, such as Artificial Neural Networks (Beucher et al., 2015...

  7. Re-discovering surface mass spectrometry: chemical mapping from micro to macro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, K.G.; O' Keefe, D.P

    2004-06-15

    New developments in electronics, devices, micro-encapsulation, and other areas demand the ability to acquire molecularly-specific information from smaller and smaller features. ToF-SIMS provides molecularly-specific mass spectral data, but sufficient high-mass signal has historically been difficult to obtain from organic/polymeric surfaces in the point-mapping mode of operation. Use of chemometric data reduction methods and the development of heavier primary ion sources enhance and extend the chemical information in the mapping data. Large-area chemical mapping via sample stage rastering has also opened up new applications. This capability allows single-experiment mapping of large or multiple features, provides information on surface uniformity over end-use-relevant areas, and offers potential for combinatorial and other screening applications. Examples of these applications are presented.

  8. Mapping optimal areas of ecosystem services potential in Vilnius (Lithuania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Cerda, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Maps are fundamental to understand the spatial pattern of natural and human impacts on the landscape (Brevik et al., 2016; Lavado Contador et al., 2009; Pereira et al., 2010a,b). Urban areas are subjected to an intense human pressure (Beniston et al., 2015), contributing to the degradation of the ecosystems, reducing their capacity to provide services in quality and quantity (Requier-Desjardins et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2011). Environments that can provide a high number and quality of ecosystem services (ES) must be identified and managed correctly, since are spaces that can mitigate the impacts of human settlements and improve their quality. thus is of major importance have identify the areas that can provide better ES (Deppelegrin and Pereira, 2015). The aim of this work is to identify areas with high ES potential in Vilnius city. Here, we identified a total of 4 different land uses, agricultural areas (32.48%), water bodies (1.46%), forest and semi-natural (31.91%) areas and artificial surfaces (34.16%). CORINE land cover 2006 was used as base information to classify ES potential. The assessment of each land cover potential was carried out using expert assessment. Each land use type was ranked from 0 (no potential) to 5 (High potential). In this work the sum of total regulating, providing and cultural ES were assessed. The areas with optimal ES were the ones with the sum of all ranks equal or higher than the 3rd Quartil of each distribution. After identifying these areas, data was mapped using ArcGIS software. The results showed that on average Vilnius city has a higher potential for regulating services (20.35±15.92), followed by cultural (14.43±8.81) and providing (14.26±8.87). There was a significant correlation among the different type of services. Regulating vs cultural (0.92, p<0.001), regulating vs providing (0.72, p<0.001) and providing vs cultural (0.65, p<0.001). The results of Morans I autocorrelation index showed that regulating (Z-score: 10

  9. The role of house surveys in geological radon potential mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, K.

    1997-01-01

    Because radon levels vary widely between apparently identical buildings on the same geological unit, no map can predict the radon level in an individual building. Maps can, however, give the probability that a building in a particular locality is above a threshold of radon concentration such as a reference or action level. The probability may be calculated for a particular building type or for a mixture of building types. In the latter case the probability is in effect an estimate of the proportion of buildings above the threshold level. Alternatively maps can provide estimates of the mean radon levels in buildings by area. Maps showing the geographical variation in probability that new or existing building will exceed a radon reference level are used to prevent excessive exposures to radon. The information may be used in various ways, such as to target information campaigns encouraging measurement of radon levels in homes or to modify regulations for new buildings. The data which are used to provide the estimates of the proportion of buildings above a threshold may be radon measurements results from a sample of buildings, or may be indirect indicators such as ground radium concentrations, emanation coefficients and permeability measurements. Consistency in radon measurement protocols and detailed positional information are prerequisites for mapping radon prone areas based upon house data. Grouping building radon measurements by geological formation and superficial cover can produce radon potential maps which are more spatially accurate than grid square maps and more accurate in estimating numbers of homes affected than mapping based only on measuring geological and pedagogical properties

  10. Remote compositional mapping of lunar titanium and surface maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Larson, S. M.; Singer, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    Lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) is a potential resource capable of providing oxygen for life support and spacecraft propellant for future lunar bases. Estimates of TiO2 content in mature mare soils can be made using an empirical relation between the 400/500 nm reflectance ratio and TiO2 wt percent. A TiO2 abundance map was constructed for the entire near-side lunar maria accurate to + or - 2 wt percent TiO2 using CCD images obtained at the Tumamoc Hill 0.5 m telescope in Tucson, employing bandpass filters centered at 400 and 560 nm. Highest TiO2 regions in the maria are located in western Mare Tranquillitatis. Greater contrast differences between regions on the lunar surface can be obtained using 400/730 nm ratio images. The relation might well be refined to accommodate this possibly more sensitive indicator of TiO2 content. Another potential lunar resource is solar wind-implanted He-3 which may be used as a fuel for fusion reactors. Relative soil maturity, as determined by agglutinate content, can be estimated from 950/560 nm ration images. Immature soils appear darker in this ratio since such soils contain abundant pyroxene grains which cause strong absorption centered near 950 nm due Fe(2+) crystal field transitions. A positive correlation exists between the amount of He-3 and TiO2 content in lunar soils, suggesting that regions high in TiO2 should also be high in He-3. Reflectance spectrophotometry in the region 320 to 870 nm was also obtained for several regions. Below about 340 nm, these spectra show variations in relative reflectance that are caused by as yet unassigned near-UV absorptions due to compositional differences.

  11. SAR China Land Mapping Project: Development, Production and Potential Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lu; Guo, Huadong; Liu, Guang; Fu, Wenxue; Yan, Shiyong; Song, Rui; Ji, Peng; Wang, Xinyuan

    2014-01-01

    Large-area, seamless synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mosaics can reflect overall environmental conditions and highlight general trends in observed areas from a macroscopic standpoint, and effectively support research at the global scale, which is in high demand now across scientific fields. The SAR China Land Mapping Project (SCLM), supported by the Digital Earth Science Platform Project initiated and managed by the Center for Earth Observation and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CEODE), is introduced in this paper. This project produced a large-area SAR mosaic dataset and generated the first complete seamless SAR map covering the entire land area of China using EnviSat-ASAR images. The value of the mosaic map is demonstrated by some potential applications in studies of urban distribution, rivers and lakes, geologic structures, geomorphology and paleoenvironmental change

  12. Multi-channel Analysis of Passive Surface Waves (MAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J.; Cheng, F. Mr; Xu, Z.; Wang, L.; Shen, C.; Liu, R.; Pan, Y.; Mi, B.; Hu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Urbanization is an inevitable trend in modernization of human society. In the end of 2013 the Chinese Central Government launched a national urbanization plan—"Three 100 Million People", which aggressively and steadily pushes forward urbanization. Based on the plan, by 2020, approximately 100 million people from rural areas will permanently settle in towns, dwelling conditions of about 100 million people in towns and villages will be improved, and about 100 million people in the central and western China will permanently settle in towns. China's urbanization process will run at the highest speed in the urbanization history of China. Environmentally friendly, non-destructive and non-invasive geophysical assessment method has played an important role in the urbanization process in China. Because human noise and electromagnetic field due to industrial life, geophysical methods already used in urban environments (gravity, magnetics, electricity, seismic) face great challenges. But humanity activity provides an effective source of passive seismic methods. Claerbout pointed out that wavefileds that are received at one point with excitation at the other point can be reconstructed by calculating the cross-correlation of noise records at two surface points. Based on this idea (cross-correlation of two noise records) and the virtual source method, we proposed Multi-channel Analysis of Passive Surface Waves (MAPS). MAPS mainly uses traffic noise recorded with a linear receiver array. Because Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves can produces a shear (S) wave velocity model with high resolution in shallow part of the model, MPAS combines acquisition and processing of active source and passive source data in a same flow, which does not require to distinguish them. MAPS is also of ability of real-time quality control of noise recording that is important for near-surface applications in urban environment. The numerical and real-world examples demonstrated that MAPS can be

  13. Etalon (standard) for surface potential distribution produced by electric activity of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szathmáry, V; Ruttkay-Nedecký, I

    1981-01-01

    The authors submit etalon (standard) equipotential maps as an aid in the evaluation of maps of surface potential distributions in living subjects. They were obtained by measuring potentials on the surface of an electrolytic tank shaped like the thorax. The individual etalon maps were determined in such a way that the parameters of the physical dipole forming the source of the electric field in the tank corresponded to the mean vectorcardiographic parameters measured in a healthy population sample. The technique also allows a quantitative estimate of the degree of non-dipolarity of the heart as the source of the electric field.

  14. Contribution of body surface mapping to clinical outcome after surgical ablation of postinfarction ventricular tachycardia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dessel, Pascal F.; van Hemel, Norbert M.; Groenewegen, Arne Sippens; de Bakker, Jacques M.; Linnebank, André C.; Defauw, Jo J.

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the influence of body surface mapping on outcome of ventricular antiarrhythmic surgery. Preoperative mapping is advocated to optimize map-guided antiarrhythmic surgery of postinfarction ventricular tachycardia. We sequentially analyzed the results of catheter activation

  15. Dynamic Corneal Surface Mapping with Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, S.; Gualini, M. M. S.

    2013-06-01

    In view of the fast advancement in ophthalmic technology and corneal surgery, there is a strong need for the comprehensive mapping and characterization techniques for corneal surface. Optical methods with precision non-contact approaches have been found to be very useful for such bio measurements. Along with the normal mapping approaches, elasticity of corneal surface has an important role in its characterization and needs to be appropriately measured or estimated for broader diagnostics and better prospective surgical results, as it has important role in the post-op corneal surface reconstruction process. Use of normal corneal topographic devices is insufficient for any intricate analysis since these devices operate at relatively moderate resolution. In the given experiment, Pulsed Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry has been utilized along with an excitation mechanism to measure the dynamic response of the sample cornea. A Pulsed ESPI device has been chosen for the study because of its micron-level resolution and other advantages in real-time deformation analysis. A bovine cornea has been used as a sample in the subject experiment. The dynamic response has been taken on a chart recorder and it is observed that it does show a marked deformation at a specific excitation frequency, which may be taken as a characteristic elasticity parameter for the surface of that corneal sample. It was seen that outside resonance conditions the bovine cornea was not that much deformed. Through this study, the resonance frequency and the corresponding corneal deformations are mapped and plotted in real time. In these experiments, data was acquired and processed by FRAMES plus computer analysis system. With some analysis of the results, this technique can help us to refine a more detailed corneal surface mathematical model and some preliminary work was done on this. Such modelling enhancements may be useful for finer ablative surgery planning. After further experimentation

  16. Atlas of the Colombian coal, Potential map and rank: Map 5-09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulido Gonzalez, Orlando

    1999-01-01

    With the presentation of the Atlas of Coal to scale 1:500.000, it is sought to show to big features the location of the different areas with coal in Colombia, associating with the geologic units, the potential and the range. In the Map 5-09, the formations that include the coal are defined as Umir, Guaduas, Limbo, (Los Cuervos), San Fernando, (Carbonera), defined as Kst, Ksgt and Pgt. For the potential an arbitrary scale settled down, in the following way: in the first place bigger to 1000 million tons; between 1000 and 100; between 100 and 10 and lastly smaller to 10 million tons. These figures are represented in the map by triangles with colors that they are equal before to the figures mentioned. Keeping in mind the scale, it was opted to report the potential in the category of the hypothetical resources; when the resources or reserves are established, they are also reported. As for the range, in the map it is indicated by means of symbols that should be taken as a domain or tendency of the coal in each area in general. The the coal rank understood as the transformation that has reached along the geologic evolution is what is mentioned as anthracitic coal, semi-anthracitic, bituminous low in volatile, bituminous middle in volatile, bituminous high in volatile A, B and C, sub-bituminous and lastly the lignite. For each map are mentioned that there are determined

  17. Surface Mineralogy Mapping of Ceres from the Dawn Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, T. B.; Zambon, F.

    2017-12-01

    Ceres' surface composition is of special interest because it is a window into the interior state and the past evolution of this dwarf planet. Disk-integrated telescopic spectral observations indicated that Ceres' surface is hydroxylated, similar to but not exactly the same as some of the carbonaceous chondrite classes of meteorites. Furthermore, Ceres' bulk density is low, indicating significant water content. The Dawn mission in orbit around Ceres, provided a new and larger set of observations on the mineralogy, molecular and elemental composition, and their distributions in association with surface features and geology. A set of articles was prepared, from which this presentation is derived, that is the first treatment of the entire surface composition of Ceres using the complete High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) Dawn Ceres data set and the calibrations from all the Dawn instruments. This report provides a current and comprehensive view of Ceres' surface composition and integrates them into general conclusions. Ceres' surface composition shows a fairly uniform distribution of NH4- and Mg-phyllosilicates, carbonates, mixed with a dark component. The widespread presence of phyllosilicates, and salts on Ceres' surface is indicative of the presence of aqueous alteration processes, which involved the whole dwarf planet. There is also likely some contamination by low velocity infall, as seen on Vesta, but it is more difficult to distinguish this infall from native Ceres material, unlike for the Vesta case.

  18. Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, L.B. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to calculate accurate potential energy surfaces (PES) for both reactive and nonreactive systems. To do this the electronic Schrodinger equation must be solved. Our approach to this problem starts with multiconfiguration self-consistent field (MCSCF) reference wavefunctions. These reference wavefunctions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to accurately describe changes in electronic structure over a broad range of geometries. Electron correlation effects are included via multireference, singles and doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) calculations. With this approach, the authors are able to provide useful predictions of the energetics for a broad range of systems.

  19. Mapping the global land surface using 1 km AVHRR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, D.T.; Eidenshink, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The scientific requirements for mapping the global land surface using 1 km advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data have been set forth by the U.S. Global Change Research Program; the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP); The United Nations; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); the Committee on Earth Observations Satellites; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to planet Earth (MTPE) program. Mapping the global land surface using 1 km AVHRR data is an international effort to acquire, archive, process, and distribute 1 km AVHRR data to meet the needs of the international science community. A network of AVHRR receiving stations, along with data recorded by NOAA, has been acquiring daily global land coverage since April 1, 1992. A data set of over 70,000 AVHRR images is archived and distributed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center, and the European Space Agency. Under the guidance of the IGBP, processing standards have been developed for calibration, atmospheric correction, geometric registration, and the production of global 10-day maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composites. The major uses of the composites are for the study of surface vegetation condition, mapping land cover, and deriving biophysical characteristics of terrestrial ecosystems. A time-series of 54 10-day global vegetation index composites for the period of April 1, 1992 through September 1993 has been produced. The production of a time-series of 33 10-day global vegetation index composites using NOAA-14 data for the period of February 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995 is underway. The data products are available from the USGS, in cooperation with NASA's MTPE program and other international organizations.

  20. Explorations in topology map coloring, surfaces and knots

    CERN Document Server

    Gay, David

    2013-01-01

    Explorations in Topology, Second Edition, provides students a rich experience with low-dimensional topology (map coloring, surfaces, and knots), enhances their geometrical and topological intuition, empowers them with new approaches to solving problems, and provides them with experiences that will help them make sense of future, more formal topology courses. The book's innovative story-line style models the problem-solving process, presents the development of concepts in a natural way, and engages students in meaningful encounters with the material. The updated end-of-chapter investigation

  1. Mapping human brain networks with cortico-cortical evoked potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Corey J.; Honey, Christopher J.; Mégevand, Pierre; Entz, Laszlo; Ulbert, Istvan; Mehta, Ashesh D.

    2014-01-01

    The cerebral cortex forms a sheet of neurons organized into a network of interconnected modules that is highly expanded in humans and presumably enables our most refined sensory and cognitive abilities. The links of this network form a fundamental aspect of its organization, and a great deal of research is focusing on understanding how information flows within and between different regions. However, an often-overlooked element of this connectivity regards a causal, hierarchical structure of regions, whereby certain nodes of the cortical network may exert greater influence over the others. While this is difficult to ascertain non-invasively, patients undergoing invasive electrode monitoring for epilepsy provide a unique window into this aspect of cortical organization. In this review, we highlight the potential for cortico-cortical evoked potential (CCEP) mapping to directly measure neuronal propagation across large-scale brain networks with spatio-temporal resolution that is superior to traditional neuroimaging methods. We first introduce effective connectivity and discuss the mechanisms underlying CCEP generation. Next, we highlight how CCEP mapping has begun to provide insight into the neural basis of non-invasive imaging signals. Finally, we present a novel approach to perturbing and measuring brain network function during cognitive processing. The direct measurement of CCEPs in response to electrical stimulation represents a potentially powerful clinical and basic science tool for probing the large-scale networks of the human cerebral cortex. PMID:25180306

  2. Mapping the lattice-vibration potential using terahertz pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpa, C. L.; Tóth, Gy; Hebling, J.

    2018-02-01

    We develop a method for mapping the anharmonic lattice potential using the time-dependent electric field of the transmitted pulse through thin sample supported by a substrate of non-negligible thickness. Assuming linear propagation in the substrate we fully take into account internal reflection in it while the sample can show arbitrary nonlinear response. We examine the effect of frequency averaging appropriate for broad-band pulse and compare the results taking into account the full frequency dependence. We illustrate the procedure applying it to a model based on recently observed ferroelectric soft mode nonlinearity in SrTiO3.

  3. Mapping gullies, dunes, lava fields, and landslides via surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Karolina; Pfeifer, Norbert; Landtwing, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Gully erosion is a widespread and significant process involved in soil and land degradation. Mapping gullies helps to quantify past, and anticipate future, soil losses. Digital terrain models offer promising data for automatically detecting and mapping gullies especially in vegetated areas, although methods vary widely measures of local terrain roughness are the most varied and debated among these methods. Rarely do studies test the performance of roughness metrics for mapping gullies, limiting their applicability to small training areas. To this end, we systematically explored how local terrain roughness derived from high-resolution Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data can aid in the unsupervised detection of gullies over a large area. We also tested expanding this method for other landforms diagnostic of similarly abrupt land-surface changes, including lava fields, dunes, and landslides, as well as investigating the influence of different roughness thresholds, resolutions of kernels, and input data resolution, and comparing our method with previously published roughness algorithms. Our results show that total curvature is a suitable metric for recognising analysed gullies and lava fields from LiDAR data, with comparable success to that of more sophisticated roughness metrics. Tested dunes or landslides remain difficult to distinguish from the surrounding landscape, partly because they are not easily defined in terms of their topographic signature.

  4. Mapping Carrier Dynamics on Material Surfaces in Space and Time using Scanning Ultrafast Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jingya

    2016-02-25

    Selectively capturing the ultrafast dynamics of charge carriers on materials surfaces and at interfaces is crucial to the design of solar cells and optoelectronic devices. Despite extensive research efforts over the past few decades, information and understanding about surface-dynamical processes, including carrier trapping and recombination remains extremely limited. A key challenge is to selectively map such dynamic processes, a capability that is hitherto impractical by time-resolved laser techniques, which are limited by the laser’s relatively large penetration depth and consequently they record mainly bulk information. Such surface dynamics can only be mapped in real space and time by applying four-dimensional (4D) scanning ultrafast electron microscopy (S-UEM), which records snapshots of materials surfaces with nanometer spatial and sub-picosecond temporal resolutions. In this method, the secondary electron (SE) signal emitted from the sample’s surface is extremely sensitive to the surface dynamics and is detected in real time. In several unique applications, we spatially and temporally visualize the SE energy gain and loss, the charge carrier dynamics on the surface of InGaN nanowires and CdSe single crystals and its powder film. We also provide the mechanisms for the observed dynamics, which will be the foundation for future potential applications of S-UEM to a wide range of studies on material surfaces and device interfaces.

  5. Mapping Carrier Dynamics on Material Surfaces in Space and Time using Scanning Ultrafast Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jingya; Adhikari, Aniruddha; Shaheen, Basamat; Yang, Haoze; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2016-01-01

    Selectively capturing the ultrafast dynamics of charge carriers on materials surfaces and at interfaces is crucial to the design of solar cells and optoelectronic devices. Despite extensive research efforts over the past few decades, information and understanding about surface-dynamical processes, including carrier trapping and recombination remains extremely limited. A key challenge is to selectively map such dynamic processes, a capability that is hitherto impractical by time-resolved laser techniques, which are limited by the laser’s relatively large penetration depth and consequently they record mainly bulk information. Such surface dynamics can only be mapped in real space and time by applying four-dimensional (4D) scanning ultrafast electron microscopy (S-UEM), which records snapshots of materials surfaces with nanometer spatial and sub-picosecond temporal resolutions. In this method, the secondary electron (SE) signal emitted from the sample’s surface is extremely sensitive to the surface dynamics and is detected in real time. In several unique applications, we spatially and temporally visualize the SE energy gain and loss, the charge carrier dynamics on the surface of InGaN nanowires and CdSe single crystals and its powder film. We also provide the mechanisms for the observed dynamics, which will be the foundation for future potential applications of S-UEM to a wide range of studies on material surfaces and device interfaces.

  6. Mapping surface properties of sinusoidal roughness standards by TPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X; Rubert, P

    2005-01-01

    We report our investigation on the surface properties of sinusoidal roughness standards made from pure electroformed nickel. Two specimens having a sinusoidal profile with nominal R a of 0.36 μm and a peak spacing of 25 μm are chosen for this investigation. One specimen is further treated with a hard protective coating of nickel-boron. The surface topography, friction, hardness and Young's modulus of the specimens were measured by a novel instrument, the multi-function Tribological Probe Microscope (TPM). The results show that hardness of these two specimens is 14.1 GPa for uncoated specimen and 25.7 GPa for the coated one, while the Young's modulus is 188 GPa and 225 GPa, respectively. The ramping force was set to 3mN for both the specimens and the effect of the tip penetration was investigated by comparing the topography measurements before and after hardness mapping. It has been found out that there is no significant change in the averaged profiles over the scanned area, which indicates the topography distortion seen in the multi-function mapping, is recoverable. Cross correlation between topography and its corresponding hardness/Young's modulus has been carried out and the result will be discussed in the paper

  7. Potentiometric-surface map, 1993, Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucci, P.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The revised potentiometric surface map here, using mainly 1993 average water levels, updates earlier maps of this area. Water levels are contoured with 20-m intervals, with additional 0.5-m contours in the small-gradient area SE of Yucca Mountain. Water levels range from 728 m above sea level SE of Yucca to 1,034 m above sea level north of Yucca. Potentiometric levels in the deeper parts of the volcanic rock aquifer range from 730 to 785 m above sea level. The potentiometric surface can be divided into 3 regions: A small gradient area E and SE of Yucca, a moderate-gradient area on the west side of Yucca, and a large-gradient area to the N-NE of Yucca. Water levels from wells at Yucca were examined for yearly trends (1986-93) using linear least-squares regression. Of the 22 wells, three had significant positive trends. The trend in well UE-25 WT-3 may be influenced by monitoring equipment problems. Tends in USW WT-7 and USW WTS-10 are similar; both are located near a fault west of Yucca; however another well near that fault exhibited no significant trend

  8. Surface registration technique for close-range mapping applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Ayman F.; Cheng, Rita W. T.

    2006-08-01

    Close-range mapping applications such as cultural heritage restoration, virtual reality modeling for the entertainment industry, and anatomical feature recognition for medical activities require 3D data that is usually acquired by high resolution close-range laser scanners. Since these datasets are typically captured from different viewpoints and/or at different times, accurate registration is a crucial procedure for 3D modeling of mapped objects. Several registration techniques are available that work directly with the raw laser points or with extracted features from the point cloud. Some examples include the commonly known Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm and a recently proposed technique based on matching spin-images. This research focuses on developing a surface matching algorithm that is based on the Modified Iterated Hough Transform (MIHT) and ICP to register 3D data. The proposed algorithm works directly with the raw 3D laser points and does not assume point-to-point correspondence between two laser scans. The algorithm can simultaneously establish correspondence between two surfaces and estimates the transformation parameters relating them. Experiment with two partially overlapping laser scans of a small object is performed with the proposed algorithm and shows successful registration. A high quality of fit between the two scans is achieved and improvement is found when compared to the results obtained using the spin-image technique. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm for registering 3D laser scanning data in close-range mapping applications to help with the generation of complete 3D models.

  9. Data-driven mapping of the potential mountain permafrost distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluigi, Nicola; Lambiel, Christophe; Kanevski, Mikhail

    2017-07-15

    Existing mountain permafrost distribution models generally offer a good overview of the potential extent of this phenomenon at a regional scale. They are however not always able to reproduce the high spatial discontinuity of permafrost at the micro-scale (scale of a specific landform; ten to several hundreds of meters). To overcome this lack, we tested an alternative modelling approach using three classification algorithms belonging to statistics and machine learning: Logistic regression, Support Vector Machines and Random forests. These supervised learning techniques infer a classification function from labelled training data (pixels of permafrost absence and presence) with the aim of predicting the permafrost occurrence where it is unknown. The research was carried out in a 588km 2 area of the Western Swiss Alps. Permafrost evidences were mapped from ortho-image interpretation (rock glacier inventorying) and field data (mainly geoelectrical and thermal data). The relationship between selected permafrost evidences and permafrost controlling factors was computed with the mentioned techniques. Classification performances, assessed with AUROC, range between 0.81 for Logistic regression, 0.85 with Support Vector Machines and 0.88 with Random forests. The adopted machine learning algorithms have demonstrated to be efficient for permafrost distribution modelling thanks to consistent results compared to the field reality. The high resolution of the input dataset (10m) allows elaborating maps at the micro-scale with a modelled permafrost spatial distribution less optimistic than classic spatial models. Moreover, the probability output of adopted algorithms offers a more precise overview of the potential distribution of mountain permafrost than proposing simple indexes of the permafrost favorability. These encouraging results also open the way to new possibilities of permafrost data analysis and mapping. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  11. Optical mapping of optogenetically shaped cardiac action potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sarah A.; Lee, Shin-Rong; Tung, Leslie; Yue, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Light-mediated silencing and stimulation of cardiac excitability, an important complement to electrical stimulation, promises important discoveries and therapies. To date, cardiac optogenetics has been studied with patch-clamp, multielectrode arrays, video microscopy, and an all-optical system measuring calcium transients. The future lies in achieving simultaneous optical acquisition of excitability signals and optogenetic control, both with high spatio-temporal resolution. Here, we make progress by combining optical mapping of action potentials with concurrent activation of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) or halorhodopsin (eNpHR3.0), via an all-optical system applied to monolayers of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM). Additionally, we explore the capability of ChR2 and eNpHR3.0 to shape action-potential waveforms, potentially aiding the study of short/long QT syndromes that result from abnormal changes in action potential duration (APD). These results show the promise of an all-optical system to acquire action potentials with precise temporal optogenetics control, achieving a long-sought flexibility beyond the means of conventional electrical stimulation. PMID:25135113

  12. Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1988-01-01

    The minimum energy path for the addition of a hydrogen atom to N2 is characterized in CASSCF/CCI calculations using the (4s3p2d1f/3s2p1d) basis set, with additional single point calculations at the stationary points of the potential energy surface using the (5s4p3d2f/4s3p2d) basis set. These calculations represent the most extensive set of ab initio calculations completed to date, yielding a zero point corrected barrier for HN2 dissociation of approx. 8.5 kcal mol/1. The lifetime of the HN2 species is estimated from the calculated geometries and energetics using both conventional Transition State Theory and a method which utilizes an Eckart barrier to compute one dimensional quantum mechanical tunneling effects. It is concluded that the lifetime of the HN2 species is very short, greatly limiting its role in both termolecular recombination reactions and combustion processes.

  13. Active and Passive Remote Sensing Data Time Series for Flood Detection and Surface Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioresita, Filsa; Puissant, Anne; Stumpf, André; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2017-04-01

    As a consequence of environmental changes surface waters are undergoing changes in time and space. A better knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of surface waters resources becomes essential to support sustainable policies and development activities. Especially because surface waters, are not only a vital sweet water resource, but can also pose hazards to human settlements and infrastructures through flooding. Floods are a highly frequent disaster in the world and can caused huge material losses. Detecting and mapping their spatial distribution is fundamental to ascertain damages and for relief efforts. Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an effective way to monitor surface waters bodies over large areas since it provides excellent temporal coverage and, all-weather day-and-night imaging capabilities. However, emergent vegetation, trees, wind or flow turbulence can increase radar back-scatter returns and pose problems for the delineation of inundated areas. In such areas, passive remote sensing data can be used to identify vegetated areas and support the interpretation of SAR data. The availability of new Earth Observation products, for example Sentinel-1 (active) and Sentinel-2 (passive) imageries, with both high spatial and temporal resolution, have the potential to facilitate flood detection and monitoring of surface waters changes which are very dynamic in space and time. In this context, the research consists of two parts. In the first part, the objective is to propose generic and reproducible methodologies for the analysis of Sentinel-1 time series data for floods detection and surface waters mapping. The processing chain comprises a series of pre-processing steps and the statistical modeling of the pixel value distribution to produce probabilistic maps for the presence of surface waters. Images pre-processing for all Sentinel-1 images comprise the reduction SAR effect like orbit errors, speckle noise, and geometric effects. A modified

  14. Photoinduced surface voltage mapping study for large perovskite single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaojing; Liu, Yucheng; Gao, Fei; Yang, Zhou [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, National Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Liu, Shengzhong, E-mail: liusz@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, National Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, iChEM, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2016-05-02

    Using a series of illumination sources, including white light (tungsten-halogen lamp), 445-nm, 532-nm, 635-nm, and 730-nm lasers, the surface photovoltage (SPV) images were mapped for centimeter-sized CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbX{sub 3} (X = Cl, Br, I) perovskite single crystals using Kelvin probe force microscopy. The significant SPV signals were observed to be wavelength-dependent. We attribute the appreciable SPV to the built-in electric field in the space charge region. This study shines light into the understanding of photoinduced charge generation and separation processes at nanoscale to help advance the development of perovskite solar cells, optoelectronics, laser, photodetector, and light-emitting diode (LED).

  15. Revised potentiometric-surface map, Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, E.M.; Luckey, R.R.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The revised potentiometric-surface map presented in this report updates earlier maps of the Yucca Mountain area using mainly 1988 average water levels. Because of refinements in the corrections to the water-level measurements, these water levels have increased accuracy and precision over older values. The small-gradient area to the southeast of Yucca Mountain is contoured with a 0.25-meter interval and ranges in water-level altitude from 728.5 to 73 1.0 meters. Other areas with different water levels, to the north and west of Yucca Mountain, are illustrated with shaded patterns. The potentiometric surface can be divided into three regions: (1) A small-gradient area to the southeast of Yucca Mountain, which may be explained by flow through high-transmissivity rocks or low ground-water flux through the area; (2) A moderate-gradient area, on the western side of Yucca Mountain, where the water-level altitude ranges from 775 to 780 meters, and appears to be impeded by the Solitario Canyon Fault and a splay of that fault; and (3) A large-gradient area, to the north-northeast of Yucca Mountain, where water level altitude ranges from 738 to 1,035 meters, possibly as a result of a semi-perched groundwater system. Water levels from wells at Yucca Mountain were examined for yearly trends using linear least-squares regression. Data from five wells exhibited trends which were statistically significant, but some of those may be a result of slow equilibration of the water level from drilling in less permeable rocks. Adjustments for temperature and density changes in the deep wells with long fluid columns were attempted, but some of the adjusted data did not fit the surrounding data and, thus, were not used

  16. Developing index maps of water-harvest potential in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The food security problem in Africa is tied to the small farmer, whose subsistence farming relies heavily on rain-fed agriculture. A dry spell lasting two to three weeks can cause a significant yield reduction. A small-scale irrigation scheme from small-capacity ponds can alleviate this problem. This solution would require a water harvest mechanism at a farm level. In this study, we looked at the feasibility of implementing such a water harvest mechanism in drought prone parts of Africa. A water balance study was conducted at different watershed levels. Runoff (watershed yield) was estimated using the SCS curve number technique and satellite derived rainfall estimates (RFE). Watersheds were delineated from the Africa-wide HYDRO-1K digital elevation model (DEM) data set in a GIS environment. Annual runoff volumes that can potentially be stored in a pond during storm events were estimated as the product of the watershed area and runoff excess estimated from the SCS Curve Number method. Estimates were made for seepage and net evaporation losses. A series of water harvest index maps were developed based on a combination of factors that took into account the availability of runoff, evaporation losses, population density, and the required watershed size needed to fill a small storage reservoir that can be used to alleviate water stress during a crop growing season. This study presents Africa-wide water-harvest index maps that could be used for conducting feasibility studies at a regional scale in assessing the relative differences in runoff potential between regions for the possibility of using ponds as a water management tool. ?? 2004 American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  17. Large area optical mapping of surface contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Guilherme; Canning, John; Padden, Whayne; Martelli, Cicero; Dligatch, Svetlana

    2017-09-04

    Top-down contact angle measurements have been validated and confirmed to be as good if not more reliable than side-based measurements. A range of samples, including industrially relevant materials for roofing and printing, has been compared. Using the top-down approach, mapping in both 1-D and 2-D has been demonstrated. The method was applied to study the change in contact angle as a function of change in silver (Ag) nanoparticle size controlled by thermal evaporation. Large area mapping reveals good uniformity for commercial Aspen paper coated with black laser printer ink. A demonstration of the forensic and chemical analysis potential in 2-D is shown by uncovering the hidden CsF initials made with mineral oil on the coated Aspen paper. The method promises to revolutionize nanoscale characterization and industrial monitoring as well as chemical analyses by allowing rapid contact angle measurements over large areas or large numbers of samples in ways and times that have not been possible before.

  18. Cancer Risk Map for the Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss calculations of the median and 95th percentile cancer risks on the surface of Mars for different solar conditions. The NASA Space Radiation Cancer Risk 2010 model is used to estimate gender and age specific cancer incidence and mortality risks for astronauts exploring Mars. Organ specific fluence spectra and doses for large solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) at various levels of solar activity are simulated using the HZETRN/QMSFRG computer code, and the 2010 version of the Badhwar and O Neill GCR model. The NASA JSC propensity model of SPE fluence and occurrence is used to consider upper bounds on SPE fluence for increasing mission lengths. In the transport of particles through the Mars atmosphere, a vertical distribution of Mars atmospheric thickness is calculated from the temperature and pressure data of Mars Global Surveyor, and the directional cosine distribution is implemented to describe the spherically distributed atmospheric distance along the slant path at each elevation on Mars. The resultant directional shielding by Mars atmosphere at each elevation is coupled with vehicle and body shielding for organ dose estimates. Astronaut cancer risks are mapped on the global topography of Mars, which was measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter. Variation of cancer risk on the surface of Mars is due to a 16-km elevation range, and the large difference is obtained between the Tharsis Montes (Ascraeus, Pavonis, and Arsia) and the Hellas impact basin. Cancer incidence risks are found to be about 2-fold higher than mortality risks with a disproportionate increase in skin and thyroid cancers for all astronauts and breast cancer risk for female astronauts. The number of safe days on Mars to be below radiation limits at the 95th percent confidence level is reported for several Mission design scenarios.

  19. A coastal surface seawater analyzer for nitrogenous nutrient mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masserini, Robert T.; Fanning, Kent A.; Hendrix, Steven A.; Kleiman, Brittany M.

    2017-11-01

    Satellite-data-based modeling of chlorophyll indicates that ocean waters in the mesosphere category are responsible for the majority of oceanic net primary productivity. Coastal waters, which frequently have surface chlorophyll values in the mesosphere range and have strong horizontal chlorophyll gradients and large temporal variations. Thus programs of detailed coastal nutrient surveys are essential to the study of the dynamics of oceanic net primary productivity, along with land use impacts on estuarine and coastal ecosystems. The degree of variability in these regions necessitates flexible instrumentation capable of near real-time analysis to detect and monitor analytes of interest. This work describes the development of a portable coastal surface seawater analyzer for nutrient mapping that can simultaneously elucidate with high resolution the distribution of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium - the three principal nitrogenous inorganic nutrients in coastal systems. The approach focuses on the use of pulsed xenon flash lamps to construct an analyzer which can be adapted to any automated chemistry with fluorescence detection. The system has two heaters, on-the-fly standardization, on-board data logging, an independent 24 volt direct current power supply, internal local operating network, a 12 channel peristaltic pump, four rotary injection/selection valves, and an intuitive graphical user interface. Using the methodology of Masserini and Fanning (2000) the detection limits for ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate plus nitrite were 11, 10, and 22 nM, respectively. A field test of the analyzer in Gulf of Mexico coastal waters demonstrated its ability to monitor and delineate the complexity of inorganic nitrogen nutrient enrichments within a coastal system.

  20. Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required. For each type of hemicellulose, a complex mixture of enzymes is required for complete conversion to fermentable monosaccharides. In plant-biomass degrading fungi, these enzymes are regulated and released by complex regulatory structures. In this study, we present a methodology for evaluating the potential of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list of 188 genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes from Aspergillus niger, thus forming an analysis framework, which can be queried. Combination of this information network with gene expression analysis on mono- and polysaccharide substrates has allowed elucidation of concerted gene expression from this organism. One such example is the identification of a full set of extracellular polysaccharide-acting genes for the degradation of oat spelt xylan. Conclusions The mapping of plant polysaccharide structures along with the corresponding enzymatic activities is a powerful framework for expression analysis of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Applying this network-based approach, we provide the first genome-scale characterization of all genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes identified in A. niger. PMID:22799883

  1. Mapping neuroplastic potential in brain-damaged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbet, Guillaume; Maheu, Maxime; Costi, Emanuele; Lafargue, Gilles; Duffau, Hugues

    2016-03-01

    It is increasingly acknowledged that the brain is highly plastic. However, the anatomic factors governing the potential for neuroplasticity have hardly been investigated. To bridge this knowledge gap, we generated a probabilistic atlas of functional plasticity derived from both anatomic magnetic resonance imaging results and intraoperative mapping data on 231 patients having undergone surgery for diffuse, low-grade glioma. The atlas includes detailed level of confidence information and is supplemented with a series of comprehensive, connectivity-based cluster analyses. Our results show that cortical plasticity is generally high in the cortex (except in primary unimodal areas and in a small set of neural hubs) and rather low in connective tracts (especially associative and projection tracts). The atlas sheds new light on the topological organization of critical neural systems and may also be useful in predicting the likelihood of recovery (as a function of lesion topology) in various neuropathological conditions-a crucial factor in improving the care of brain-damaged patients. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. IRAS surface brightness maps of reflection nebulae in the Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelaz, Michael W.; Werner, M. W.; Sellgren, K.

    1987-01-01

    Surface brightness maps at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns were made of a 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg area of the reflection nebulae in the Pleiades by coadding IRAS scans of this region. Emission is seen surrounding 17 Tau, 20 Tau, 23 Tau, and 25 Tau in all four bands, coextensive with the visible reflection nebulosity, and extending as far as 30 arcminutes from the illuminating stars. The infrared energy distributions of the nebulae peak in the 100 micron band, but up to 40 percent of the total infrared power lies in the 12 and 25 micron bands. The brightness of the 12 and 25 micron emission and the absence of temperature gradients at these wavelengths are inconsistent with the predictions of equilibrium thermal emission models. The emission at these wavelengths appears to be the result of micron nonequilibrium emission from very small grains, or from molecules consisting of 10-100 carbon atoms, which have been excited by ultraviolet radiation from the illuminating stars.

  3. Mapping the geogenic radon potential of the eastern Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiano, Jesús G.; Alonso, Hector; Arnedo, Miguel. A.; Tejera, Alicia; Martel, Pablo; Gil, Juan M.; Rodriguez, Rafael; González, Jonay

    2014-05-01

    using a calibrated nomogram. As results, maps of radon in soils have been developed for the three islands to identify areas where may appear high activity concentrations of radon due to natural sources. Finally to determine the radon potential of soils analyzed we applied a procedure to classify the radon areas in several levels of risk using the measured values of radon activity concentration and soil permeability. Acknowledgments: This work was financed by the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) through a grant in its R&D program 2009 and by the European Development Fund (ERDF) through a research project program 2007 granted by Canary Agency for Research, Innovation and Information Society (ACIISI) of the Canary Islands.

  4. Simultaneous Localization and Mapping for Planetary Surface Mobility, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ProtoInnovations, LLC and Carnegie Mellon University have formed a partnership to commercially develop localization and mapping technologies for planetary rovers....

  5. Research note: Mapping spatial patterns in sewer age, material, and proximity to surface waterways to infer sewer leakage hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Kristina G.; Bain, Daniel J.

    2018-01-01

    Identifying areas where deteriorating sewer infrastructure is in close proximity to surface waterways is needed to map likely connections between sewers and streams. We present a method to estimate sewer installation year and deterioration status using historical maps of the sewer network, parcel-scale property assessment data, and pipe material. Areas where streams were likely buried into the sewer system were mapped by intersecting the historical stream network derived from a 10-m resolution digital elevation model with sewer pipe locations. Potential sewer leakage hotspots were mapped by identifying where aging sewer pipes are in close proximity (50-m) to surface waterways. Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA), indicated 41% of the historical stream length was lost or buried and the potential interface between sewers and streams is great. The co-location of aging sewer infrastructure (>75 years old) near stream channels suggests that 42% of existing streams are located in areas with a high potential for sewer leakage if sewer infrastructure fails. Mapping the sewer-stream interface provides an approach to better understand areas were failing sewers may contribute a disproportional amount of nutrients and other pathogens to surface waterways.

  6. Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Mikael R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required. For each type of hemicellulose, a complex mixture of enzymes is required for complete conversion to fermentable monosaccharides. In plant-biomass degrading fungi, these enzymes are regulated and released by complex regulatory structures. In this study, we present a methodology for evaluating the potential of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list of 188 genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes from Aspergillus niger, thus forming an analysis framework, which can be queried. Combination of this information network with gene expression analysis on mono- and polysaccharide substrates has allowed elucidation of concerted gene expression from this organism. One such example is the identification of a full set of extracellular polysaccharide-acting genes for the degradation of oat spelt xylan. Conclusions The mapping of plant polysaccharide structures along with the corresponding enzymatic activities is a powerful framework for expression analysis of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Applying this network-based approach, we provide the first genome-scale characterization of all genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes identified in A. niger.

  7. Mapping the global depth to bedrock for land surface modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, W.; Hengl, T.; Yuan, H.; Dai, Y. J.; Zhang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Depth to bedrock serves as the lower boundary of land surface models, which controls hydrologic and biogeochemical processes. This paper presents a framework for global estimation of Depth to bedrock (DTB). Observations were extracted from a global compilation of soil profile data (ca. 130,000 locations) and borehole data (ca. 1.6 million locations). Additional pseudo-observations generated by expert knowledge were added to fill in large sampling gaps. The model training points were then overlaid on a stack of 155 covariates including DEM-based hydrological and morphological derivatives, lithologic units, MODIS surfacee reflectance bands and vegetation indices derived from the MODIS land products. Global spatial prediction models were developed using random forests and Gradient Boosting Tree algorithms. The final predictions were generated at the spatial resolution of 250m as an ensemble prediction of the two independently fitted models. The 10-fold cross-validation shows that the models explain 59% for absolute DTB and 34% for censored DTB (depths deep than 200 cm are predicted as 200 cm). The model for occurrence of R horizon (bedrock) within 200 cm does a good job. Visual comparisons of predictions in the study areas where more detailed maps of depth to bedrock exist show that there is a general match with spatial patterns from similar local studies. Limitation of the data set and extrapolation in data spare areas should not be ignored in applications. To improve accuracy of spatial prediction, more borehole drilling logs will need to be added to supplement the existing training points in under-represented areas.

  8. Raman mapping of intact biofilms on stainless steel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each slide under the Raman Microscope was mapped for approximately 18.5 hours with a dimension of 36x36 that provides a greater result compared to doing a smaller dimension scan. The results from the Raman Mapping show the location and position of how the bacteria are growing scattered or straight a...

  9. Structural mapping based on potential field and remote sensing data ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swarnapriya Chowdari

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... to comprehend the tectonic development of the ... software for the analysis and interpretation of G– .... The application of remote sensing for mapping ..... Pf1 and Pf2 show profile locations adopted for joint G–M modelling.

  10. Method for Pre-Conditioning a Measured Surface Height Map for Model Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin

    2012-01-01

    This software allows one to up-sample or down-sample a measured surface map for model validation, not only without introducing any re-sampling errors, but also eliminating the existing measurement noise and measurement errors. Because the re-sampling of a surface map is accomplished based on the analytical expressions of Zernike-polynomials and a power spectral density model, such re-sampling does not introduce any aliasing and interpolation errors as is done by the conventional interpolation and FFT-based (fast-Fourier-transform-based) spatial-filtering method. Also, this new method automatically eliminates the measurement noise and other measurement errors such as artificial discontinuity. The developmental cycle of an optical system, such as a space telescope, includes, but is not limited to, the following two steps: (1) deriving requirements or specs on the optical quality of individual optics before they are fabricated through optical modeling and simulations, and (2) validating the optical model using the measured surface height maps after all optics are fabricated. There are a number of computational issues related to model validation, one of which is the "pre-conditioning" or pre-processing of the measured surface maps before using them in a model validation software tool. This software addresses the following issues: (1) up- or down-sampling a measured surface map to match it with the gridded data format of a model validation tool, and (2) eliminating the surface measurement noise or measurement errors such that the resulted surface height map is continuous or smoothly-varying. So far, the preferred method used for re-sampling a surface map is two-dimensional interpolation. The main problem of this method is that the same pixel can take different values when the method of interpolation is changed among the different methods such as the "nearest," "linear," "cubic," and "spline" fitting in Matlab. The conventional, FFT-based spatial filtering method used to

  11. Mapping Surface Heat Fluxes by Assimilating SMAP Soil Moisture and GOES Land Surface Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Steele-Dunne, Susan C.; Farhadi, Leila; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-12-01

    Surface heat fluxes play a crucial role in the surface energy and water balance. In situ measurements are costly and difficult, and large-scale flux mapping is hindered by surface heterogeneity. Previous studies have demonstrated that surface heat fluxes can be estimated by assimilating land surface temperature (LST) and soil moisture to determine two key parameters: a neutral bulk heat transfer coefficient (CHN) and an evaporative fraction (EF). Here a methodology is proposed to estimate surface heat fluxes by assimilating Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) soil moisture data and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) LST data into a dual-source (DS) model using a hybrid particle assimilation strategy. SMAP soil moisture data are assimilated using a particle filter (PF), and GOES LST data are assimilated using an adaptive particle batch smoother (APBS) to account for the large gap in the spatial and temporal resolution. The methodology is implemented in an area in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. Assessment against in situ observations suggests that soil moisture and LST estimates are in better agreement with observations after assimilation. The RMSD for 30 min (daytime) flux estimates is reduced by 6.3% (8.7%) and 31.6% (37%) for H and LE on average. Comparison against a LST-only and a soil moisture-only assimilation case suggests that despite the coarse resolution, assimilating SMAP soil moisture data is not only beneficial but also crucial for successful and robust flux estimation, particularly when the uncertainties in the model estimates are large.

  12. Green's functions potential fields on surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Melnikov, Yuri A

    2017-01-01

    This book is comprehensive in its classical mathematical physics presentation, providing the reader with detailed instructions for obtaining Green's functions from scratch. Green's functions is an instrument easily accessible to practitioners who are engaged in design and exploitation of machines and structures in modern engineering practice. To date, there are no books available on the market that are devoted to the Green's function formalism for equations covered in this volume. The reader, with an undergraduate background in applied mathematics, can become an active user of the Green's function approach. For the first time, Green's functions are discussed for a specific class of problems dealing with potential fields induced in thin-wall structures and therefore, the reader will have first-hand access to a novel issue. This Work is accessible to researchers in applied mathematics, mechanics, and relevant disciplines such as engineering, as well as to upper level undergraduates and graduate students.

  13. ST-T isointegral analysis of exercise stress body surface mapping for identifying ischemic areas in patients with angina pectoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, T.; Kawakubo, K.; Toda, I.; Mashima, S.; Ohtake, T.; Iio, M.; Sugimoto, T.

    1988-01-01

    ST-T isointegral analysis of body surface mapping was used in an attempt to localize ischemic areas on exercise tests. In 28 patients with angina pectoris and 10 healthy subjects, body surface potential was recorded with 87 leads, and ST isopotential and ST-T isointegral maps were constructed. In all 10 healthy subjects, the basic pattern of the ST-T isointegral map showed no significant change after exercise. In 23 of 28 patients with angina pectoris (82%), alterations in the ST-T isointegral map after exercise were observed. They were divided into four types (anterior, inferoposterior, lateral, and global) according to the distribution of negative values, which were well correlated with the extent of ischemic area determined by thallium myocardial scintigraphy and coronary angiography. The postexercise ST-T isointegral map was normalized after administration of nitroglycerin in four of five patients. In five patients (18%) who did not show abnormalities on the postexercise ST-T isointegral map, the magnitude of maximal ST depression was significantly smaller than that observed in the other 23 patients with angina pectoris (0.14 vs 0.23 mV on the average, p less than 0.05). It was concluded that the exercise test with ST-T isointegral mapping is a new method for noninvasive detection of location and severity of ischemic regions

  14. Surface Potential of Polycrystalline Hematite in Aqueous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajana Preočanin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface potential of polycrystalline hematite in aqueous sodium perchlorate environment as a function of pH was examined. Surface potential of hematite was obtained from measured electrode potential of a nonporous polycrystalline hematite electrode. Acidic solution was titrated with base, and the backward titration with acid was performed. Substantial hysteresis was obtained which enabled location of the point of zero potential and equilibrium values of surface potentials. The theoretical interpretation of the equilibrium data was performed by applying the surface complexation model and the thermodynamic equilibrium constants for the first and the second step of surface protonation was obtained as logK1∘=11.3;logK2∘=2.8.

  15. Preliminary Correlation Map of Geomorphic Surfaces in North-Central Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2005-01-01

    This correlation map (scale = 1:12,000) presents the results of a mapping initiative that was part of the comprehensive site characterization required to operate the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility located in northern Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site. Eight primary map units are recognized for Quaternary surfaces: remnants of six alluvial fan or terrace surfaces, one unit that includes colluvial aprons associated with hill slopes, and one unit for anthropogenically disturbed surfaces. This surficial geology map provides fundamental data on natural processes for reconstruction of the Quaternary history of northern Frenchman Flat, which in turn will aid in the understanding of the natural processes that act to develop the landscape, and the time-frames involved in landscape development. The mapping was conducted using color and color-infrared aerial photographs and field verification of map unit composition and boundaries. Criteria for defining the map unit composition of geomorphic surface units are based on relative geomorphic position, landform morphology, and degree of preservation of surface morphology. The bedrock units identified on this map were derived from previous published mapping efforts and are included for completeness

  16. Repulsive Casimir-Polder potential by a negative reflecting surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi-Zhang

    2015-07-01

    We present a scheme to generate an all-range long repulsive Casimir-Polder potential between a perfect negative reflecting surface and a ground-state atom. The repulsive potential is stable and does not decay with time. The Casimir-Polder potential is proportional to z-2 at short atom-surface distances and to z-4 at long atom-surface distances. Because of these advantages, this potential can help in building quantum reflectors, quantum levitating devices, and waveguides for matter waves.

  17. Taking potential probability function maps to the local scale and matching them with land use maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Saryu; Sinha, Vinayak; Sinha, Baerbel

    2013-04-01

    Source-Receptor models have been developed using different methods. Residence-time weighted concentration back trajectory analysis and Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) are the two most popular techniques for identification of potential sources of a substance in a defined geographical area. Both techniques use back trajectories calculated using global models and assign values of probability/concentration to various locations in an area. These values represent the probability of threshold exceedances / the average concentration measured at the receptor in air masses with a certain residence time over a source area. Both techniques, however, have only been applied to regional and long-range transport phenomena due to inherent limitation with respect to both spatial accuracy and temporal resolution of the of back trajectory calculations. Employing the above mentioned concepts of residence time weighted concentration back-trajectory analysis and PSCF, we developed a source-receptor model capable of identifying local and regional sources of air pollutants like Particulate Matter (PM), NOx, SO2 and VOCs. We use 1 to 30 minute averages of concentration values and wind direction and speed from a single receptor site or from multiple receptor sites to trace the air mass back in time. The model code assumes all the atmospheric transport to be Lagrangian and linearly extrapolates air masses reaching the receptor location, backwards in time for a fixed number of steps. We restrict the model run to the lifetime of the chemical species under consideration. For long lived species the model run is limited to 180 trees/gridsquare); moderate concentrations for agricultural lands with low tree density (1.5-2.5 ppbv for 250 μg/m3 for traffic hotspots in Chandigarh City are observed. Based on the validation against the land use maps, the model appears to do an excellent job in source apportionment and identifying emission hotspots. Acknowledgement: We thank the IISER

  18. Effects of surface-mapping corrections and synthetic-aperture focusing techniques on ultrasonic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barna, B.A.; Johnson, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Improvements in ultrasonic imaging that can be obtained using algorithms that map the surface of targets are evaluated. This information is incorporated in the application of synthetic-aperture focusing techniques which also have the potential to improve image resolution. Images obtained using directed-beam (flat) transducers and the focused transducers normally used for synthetic-aperture processing are quantitatively compared by using no processing, synthetic-aperture processing with no corrections for surface variations, and synthetic-aperture processing with surface mapping. The unprocessed images have relatively poor lateral resolutions because echoes from two adjacent reflectors show interference effects which prevent their identification even if the spacing is larger than the single-hole resolution. The synthetic-aperture-processed images show at least a twofold improvement in lateral resolution and greatly reduced interference effects in multiple-hole images compared to directed-beam images. Perhaps more importantly, in images of test blocks with substantial surface variations portions of the image are displaced from their actual positions by several wavelengths. To correct for this effect an algorithm has been developed for calculating the surface variations. The corrected images produced using this algorithm are accurate within the experimental error. In addition, the same algorithm, when applied to the directed-beam data, produced images that are not only accurately positioned, but that also have a resolution comparable to conventional synthetic-aperture-processed images obtained from focused-transducer data. This suggests that using synthetic-aperture processing on the type of data normally collected during directed-beam ultrasonic inspections would eliminate the need to rescan for synthetic-aperture enhancement

  19. Frequency response in surface-potential driven electrohydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing, Louise Wellendorph; Smistrup, Kristian; Pedersen, Christian Møller

    2006-01-01

    Using a Fourier approach we offer a general solution to calculations of slip velocity within the circuit description of the electrohydrodynamics in a binary electrolyte confined by a plane surface with a modulated surface potential. We consider the case with a spatially constant intrinsic surface...... capacitance where the net flow rate is, in general, zero while harmonic rolls as well as time-averaged vortexlike components may exist depending on the spatial symmetry and extension of the surface potential. In general, the system displays a resonance behavior at a frequency corresponding to the inverse RC...

  20. Pure Surface Texture Mapping Technology and it's Application for Mirror Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Feng Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the study of pure surface texture mapping technology, pure texture surface rendering method is proposed. The method is combined pure surface texture rendering and view mirror, real-time rendering has an index of refraction, reflection, and the flow of water ripple effect. Through the experimental verification of the validity of the algorithm.

  1. Calibration and Industrial Application of Instrument for Surface Mapping based on AFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Kofod, Niels; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the calibration and application of an integrated system for topographic characterisation of fine surfaces on large workpieces. The system, consisting of an atomic force microscope mounted on a coordinate measuring machine, was especially designed for surface mapping, i.e., mea...... consisting of a steel sphere with a polished surface having 3 nm roughness....

  2. Geomorphic Surface Maps of Northern Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, Southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale (1:6000) surficial geology maps of northern Frenchman Flat were developed in 1995 as part of comprehensive site characterization required to operate a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in that area. Seven surficial geology maps provide fundamental data on natural processes and are the platform needed to reconstruct the Quaternary history of northern Frenchman Flat. Reconstruction of the Quaternary history provides an understanding of the natural processes that act to develop the landscape, and the time-frames involved in landscape development. The mapping was conducted using color and color-infrared aerial photographs and field verification of map unit composition and boundaries. Criteria for defining the map unit composition of geomorphic surface units are based on relative geomorphic position, landform morphology, and degree of preservation of surface morphology. Seven geomorphic surfaces (Units 1 through 7) are recognized, spanning from the early Quaternary to present time

  3. Surface Geophysical Measurements for Locating and Mapping Ice-Wedges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Tomaskovicova, Sonia; Larsen, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    to test the applicability of DC electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to identifying and mapping ice-wedge occurrences. The site is located in Central West Greenland, and the ice-wedges are found in a permafrozen peat soil with an active layer of about 30 cm. ERT...

  4. Analytical Retrieval of Global Land Surface Emissivity Maps at AMSR-E passive microwave frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; Temimi, M.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2009-12-01

    Land emissivity is a crucial boundary condition in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) modeling. Land emissivity is also a key indicator of land surface and subsurface properties. The objective of this study, supported by NOAA-NESDIS, is to develop global land emissivity maps using AMSR-E passive microwave measurements along with several ancillary data. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) database has been used to obtain several inputs for the proposed approach such as land surface temperature, cloud mask and atmosphere profile. The Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) has been used to estimate upwelling and downwelling atmospheric contributions. Although it is well known that correction of the atmospheric effect on brightness temperature is required at higher frequencies (over 19 GHz), our preliminary results have shown that a correction at 10.7 GHz is also necessary over specific areas. The proposed approach is based on three main steps. First, all necessary data have been collected and processed. Second, a global cloud free composite of AMSR-E data and corresponding ancillary images is created. Finally, monthly composting of emissivity maps has been performed. AMSR-E frequencies at 6.9, 10.7, 18.7, 36.5 and 89.0 GHz have been used to retrieve the emissivity. Water vapor information obtained from ISCCP (TOVS data) was used to calculate upwelling, downwelling temperatures and atmospheric transmission in order to assess the consistency of those derived from the CRTM model. The frequent land surface temperature (LST) determination (8 times a day) in the ISCCP database has allowed us to assess the diurnal cycle effect on emissivity retrieval. Differences in magnitude and phase between thermal temperature and low frequencies microwave brightness temperature have been noticed. These differences seem to vary in space and time. They also depend on soil texture and thermal inertia. The proposed methodology accounts for these factors and

  5. Nanoscale Surface Photovoltage Mapping of 2D Materials and Heterostructures by Illuminated Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Shearer, Melinda J.

    2018-02-01

    Nanomaterials are interesting for a variety of applications, such as optoelectronics and photovoltaics. However, they often have spatial heterogeneity, i.e. composition change or physical change in the topography or structure, which can lead to varying properties that would influence their applications. New techniques must be developed to understand and correlate spatial heterogeneity with changes in electronic properties. Here we highlight the technique of surface photovoltage-Kelvin probe force microscopy (SPV-KFM), which is a modified version of non-contact atomic force microscopy capable of imaging not only the topography and surface potential, but also the surface photovoltage on the nanoscale. We demonstrate its utility in probing monolayer WSe2-MoS2 lateral heterostructures, which form an ultrathin p-n junction promising for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. We show surface photovoltage maps highlighting the different photoresponse of the two material regions as a result of the effective charge separation across this junction. Additionally, we study the variations between different heterostructure flakes and emphasize the importance of controlling the synthesis and transfer of these materials to obtain consistent properties and measurements.

  6. Nanoscale Surface Photovoltage Mapping of 2D Materials and Heterostructures by Illuminated Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Shearer, Melinda J.; Li, Ming-yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Jin, Song; Hamers, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    Nanomaterials are interesting for a variety of applications, such as optoelectronics and photovoltaics. However, they often have spatial heterogeneity, i.e. composition change or physical change in the topography or structure, which can lead to varying properties that would influence their applications. New techniques must be developed to understand and correlate spatial heterogeneity with changes in electronic properties. Here we highlight the technique of surface photovoltage-Kelvin probe force microscopy (SPV-KFM), which is a modified version of non-contact atomic force microscopy capable of imaging not only the topography and surface potential, but also the surface photovoltage on the nanoscale. We demonstrate its utility in probing monolayer WSe2-MoS2 lateral heterostructures, which form an ultrathin p-n junction promising for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. We show surface photovoltage maps highlighting the different photoresponse of the two material regions as a result of the effective charge separation across this junction. Additionally, we study the variations between different heterostructure flakes and emphasize the importance of controlling the synthesis and transfer of these materials to obtain consistent properties and measurements.

  7. Pre-LBA CABARE Mapped Land Surface and Vegetation Characteristics, Rondonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface parameter digital maps of vegetation, soil, and topography were obtained for Rondonia, Brazil, covering the 5x5 degree region bounded by 13-8 degrees S and...

  8. Pre-LBA CABARE Mapped Land Surface and Vegetation Characteristics, Rondonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Surface parameter digital maps of vegetation, soil, and topography were obtained for Rondonia, Brazil, covering the 5x5 degree region bounded by 13-8...

  9. Isointegral analysis of body surface maps for the assessment of location and size of myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonooka, I.; Kubota, I.; Watanabe, Y.; Tsuiki, K.; Yasui, S.

    1983-01-01

    To estimate the location and size of myocardial infarction (MI), an isointegral mapping technique was adopted from among various body surface electrocardiographic mapping techniques. QRS isointegral and departure maps were made in 35 patients with MI. These patients were separated into 3 groups, based on the location of MI: anterior, inferior, and anterior plus inferior. The severity and location of MI were estimated by thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging and the degree of scintigraphic defect was represented by a defect score. The extent of MI was expected to be reflected on the QRS isointegral maps as a distribution of negative QRS complex time-integral values. However, the extent and the location of MI were hardly detectable by the original maps. A departure mapping technique was then devised to observe the distribution of departure index on the body surface. Particular attention was given to the area where the departure index was less than -2, and this area was expected to reflect the location and size of specific abnormality of isointegral map due to MI. There were strong correlations between departure area and defect score in the anterior and inferior MI cases (r . 0.88 and r . 0.79, respectively). However, patients with anterior MI plus inferior MI showed no such correlation. Q-wave mapping was compared with QRS isointegral mapping, and QRS isointegral mapping was found to be more accurate in the estimation of the location and size of MI than Q wave mapping. Thus, QRS isointegral mapping, especially departure mapping, is more useful and convenient for detecting the location and size of MI than methods such as isopotential and Q wave mapping

  10. Surface motion and confinement potential for a microwave confined corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensley, D.L.

    1979-07-01

    Approximate time dependent solutions for surface velocities and potentials are given for a plane polarized microwave field confining a hot, over-dense plasma corona. Steady state solutions to Poissons' equation can be applied to the time dependent case, provided transit time effects are included. The product of ion pressure and potential wave (surface) velocity gives an average heating rate approx. 7/32 NKT 0 V/sub theta/ directly to the ions

  11. Ray-map migration of transmitted surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-01-01

    Near-surface normal faults can sometimes separate two distinct zones of velocity heterogeneity, where the medium on one side of the fault has a faster velocity than on the other side. Therefore, the slope of surface-wave arrivals in a common

  12. Surface kinetic temperature mapping using satellite spectral data in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result revealed that despite the limited topographic differences of the rift lakes and their proximity, the surface kinetic temperature difference is high, mainly due to groundwater and surface water fluxes. From thermal signature analysis two hot springs below the lake bed of Ziway were discovered. The various hot springs ...

  13. Permutation invariant potential energy surfaces for polyatomic reactions using atomistic neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, Brian [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Zhao, Bin; Guo, Hua, E-mail: hguo@unm.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Li, Jun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Jiang, Bin [Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-06-14

    The applicability and accuracy of the Behler-Parrinello atomistic neural network method for fitting reactive potential energy surfaces is critically examined in three systems, H + H{sub 2} → H{sub 2} + H, H + H{sub 2}O → H{sub 2} + OH, and H + CH{sub 4} → H{sub 2} + CH{sub 3}. A pragmatic Monte Carlo method is proposed to make efficient choice of the atom-centered mapping functions. The accuracy of the potential energy surfaces is not only tested by fitting errors but also validated by direct comparison in dynamically important regions and by quantum scattering calculations. Our results suggest this method is both accurate and efficient in representing multidimensional potential energy surfaces even when dissociation continua are involved.

  14. Permutation invariant potential energy surfaces for polyatomic reactions using atomistic neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, Brian; Zhao, Bin; Guo, Hua; Li, Jun; Jiang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The applicability and accuracy of the Behler-Parrinello atomistic neural network method for fitting reactive potential energy surfaces is critically examined in three systems, H + H 2 → H 2 + H, H + H 2 O → H 2 + OH, and H + CH 4 → H 2 + CH 3 . A pragmatic Monte Carlo method is proposed to make efficient choice of the atom-centered mapping functions. The accuracy of the potential energy surfaces is not only tested by fitting errors but also validated by direct comparison in dynamically important regions and by quantum scattering calculations. Our results suggest this method is both accurate and efficient in representing multidimensional potential energy surfaces even when dissociation continua are involved.

  15. Recent characterization activities of Midway Valley as a potential repository surface facility site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.D.; Wesling, J.R.; Swan, F.H.; Bullard, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Midway Valley, located at the eastern base of Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, has been identified as a possible location for the surface facilities of a potential high-level nuclear-waste repository. This structural and topographic valley is bounded by two north- trending, down-to-the-west normal faults: the Paintbrush Canyon fault on the east and the Bow Ridge fault on the west. Surface and near-surface geological data have been acquired from Midway Valley during the past three years with particular emphasis on evaluating the existence of Quaternary faults. A detailed (1:6000) surficial geological map has been prepared based on interpretation of new and existing aerial photographs, field mapping, soil pits, and trenches. No evidence was found that would indicate displacement of these surficial deposits along previously unrecognized faults. However, given the low rates of Quaternary faulting and the extensive areas that are covered by late Pleistocene to Holocene deposits south of Sever Wash, Quaternary faulting between known faults cannot be precluded based on surface evidence alone. Middle to late Pleistocene alluvial fan deposits (Unit Q3) exist at or near the surface throughout Midway Valley. Confidence is increased that the potential for surface fault rupture in Midway Valley can be assessed by excavations that expose the deposits and soils associated with Unit Q3 or older units (middle Pleistocene or earlier)

  16. A Classical Potential to Model the Adsorption of Biological Molecules on Oxidized Titanium Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Julian; Ciacchi, Lucio Colombi

    2011-02-08

    The behavior of titanium implants in physiological environments is governed by the thin oxide layer that forms spontaneously on the metal surface and mediates the interactions with adsorbate molecules. In order to study the adsorption of biomolecules on titanium in a realistic fashion, we first build up a model of an oxidized Ti surface in contact with liquid water by means of extensive first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. Taking the obtained structure as reference, we then develop a classical potential to model the Ti/TiOx/water interface. This is based on the mapping with Coulomb and Lennard-Jones potentials of the adsorption energy landscape of single water and ammonia molecules on the rutile TiO2(110) surface. The interactions with arbitrary organic molecules are obtained via standard combination rules to established biomolecular force fields. The transferability of our potential to the case of organic molecules adsorbing on the oxidized Ti surface is checked by comparing the classical potential energy surfaces of representative systems to quantum mechanical results at the level of density functional theory. Moreover, we calculate the heat of immersion of the TiO2 rutile surface and the detachment force of a single tyrosine residue from steered molecular dynamics simulations, finding good agreement with experimental reference data in both cases. As a first application, we study the adsorption behavior of the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide on the oxidized titanium surface, focusing particularly on the calculation of the free energy of desorption.

  17. Osteogenic potential of laser modified and conditioned titanium zirconium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P David Charles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The osseointegration of dental implant is related to their composition and surface treatment. Titanium zirconium (TiZr has been introduced as an alternative to the commercially pure titanium and its alloys as dental implant material, which is attributed to its superior mechanical and biological properties. Surface treatments of TiZr have been introduced to enhance their osseointegration ability; however, reliable, easy to use surface modification technique has not been established. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd-YAG laser surface treatment of TiZr implant alloy on their osteogenic potential. Materials and Methods: Twenty disc-shaped samples of 5 mm diameter and 2 mm height were milled from the TiZr alloy ingot. The polished discs were ultrasonically cleaned in distilled water. Ten samples each were randomly selected as Group A control samples and Group B consisted of Nd-YAG laser surface etched and conditioned test samples. These were evaluated for cellular response. Cellular adhesion and proliferation were quantified, and the results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric analysis. Cellular morphology was observed using electron and epiflurosence microscopy. Results: Nd-YAG laser surface modified and conditioned TiZr samples increased the osteogenic potential. Conclusion: Nd-YAG laser surface modification of TiZr, improves the cellular activity, surface roughness, and wettability, thereby increasing the osteogenic potential.

  18. An atlas of the smaller maps in orientable and nonorientable surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, David

    2000-01-01

    Maps are beguilingly simple structures with deep and ubiquitous properties. They arise in an essential way in many areas of mathematics and mathematical physics, but require considerable time and computational effort to generate. Few collected drawings are available for reference, and little has been written, in book form, about their enumerative aspects. An Atlas of the Smaller Maps in Orientable and Nonorientable Surfaces is the first book to provide complete collections of maps along with their vertex and face partitions, number of rootings, and an index number for cross referencing. It provides an explanation of axiomatization and encoding, and serves as an introduction to maps as a combinatorial structure. The Atlas lists the maps first by genus and number of edges, and gives the embeddings of all graphs with at most five edges in orientable surfaces, thus presenting the genus distribution for each graph. Exemplifying the use of the Atlas, the authors explore two substantial conjectures with origins in ...

  19. Potential energy surfaces for nucleon exchanging in dinuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianfeng; Xu Hushan; Li Wenfei; Zuo Wei; Li Junqing; Wang Nan; Zhao Enguang

    2003-01-01

    The experimental measurements have provided the evidence that the suppression of fusion cross-section caused by quasi-fission is very important for the synthesis of super-heavy nuclei by heavy ion collisions. The potential energy surface due to the nucleon transfer in the collision process is the driven potential, which governs the nucleon transfer, so that governs the competition between the fusion and quasi-fission. The dinuclear system potential energy surface also gives the information about the optimum projectile-target combination, as well as the optimum excitation energy for the synthesis of super-heavy nuclei by heavy ion collisions

  20. Biaxial potential of surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznacheev, Anatoly; Pozhidaev, Evgeny; Rudyak, Vladimir; Emelyanenko, Alexander V.; Khokhlov, Alexei

    2018-04-01

    A biaxial surface potential Φs of smectic-C* surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals (SSFLCs) is introduced in this paper to explain the experimentally observed electric-field dependence of polarization P˜cell(E ) , in particular the shape of the static hysteresis loops. Our potential consists of three independent parts. The first nonpolar part Φn describes the deviation of the prime director n (which is the most probable orientation of the long molecular axes) from the easy alignment axis R , which is located in the boundary surface plane. It is introduced in the same manner as the uniaxial Rapini potential. The second part Φp of the potential is a polar term associated with the presence of the polar axis in a FLC. The third part Φm relates to the inherent FLC biaxiality, which has not been taken into consideration previously. The Φm part takes into account the deviations of the secondary director m (which is the most probable orientation of the short molecular axes) from the normal to the boundary surface. The overall surface potential Φs, which is a sum of Φn,Φp , and Φm, allows one to model the conditions when either one, two, or three minima of the SSFLC cell free energy are realized depending on the biaxiality extent. A monodomain or polydomain structure, as well as the bistability or monostability of SSFLC cells, depends on the number of free-energy minima, as confirmed experimentally. In this paper, we analyze the biaxiality impact on the FLC alignment. We also answer the question of whether the bistable or monostable structure can be formed in an SSFLC cell. Our approach is essentially based on a consideration of the biaxial surface potential, while the uniaxial surface potential cannot adequately describe the experimental observations in the FLC.

  1. Functional and structural mapping of human cerebral cortex: solutions are in the surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Essen, D. C.; Drury, H. A.; Joshi, S.; Miller, M. I.

    1998-01-01

    The human cerebral cortex is notorious for the depth and irregularity of its convolutions and for its variability from one individual to the next. These complexities of cortical geography have been a chronic impediment to studies of functional specialization in the cortex. In this report, we discuss ways to compensate for the convolutions by using a combination of strategies whose common denominator involves explicit reconstructions of the cortical surface. Surface-based visualization involves reconstructing cortical surfaces and displaying them, along with associated experimental data, in various complementary formats (including three-dimensional native configurations, two-dimensional slices, extensively smoothed surfaces, ellipsoidal representations, and cortical flat maps). Generating these representations for the cortex of the Visible Man leads to a surface-based atlas that has important advantages over conventional stereotaxic atlases as a substrate for displaying and analyzing large amounts of experimental data. We illustrate this by showing the relationship between functionally specialized regions and topographically organized areas in human visual cortex. Surface-based warping allows data to be mapped from individual hemispheres to a surface-based atlas while respecting surface topology, improving registration of identifiable landmarks, and minimizing unwanted distortions. Surface-based warping also can aid in comparisons between species, which we illustrate by warping a macaque flat map to match the shape of a human flat map. Collectively, these approaches will allow more refined analyses of commonalities as well as individual differences in the functional organization of primate cerebral cortex.

  2. Spatial potential ripples of azimuthal surface modes in topological insulator Bi2Te3 nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Rojo, Miguel; Zhang, Yingjie; Manzano, Cristina V; Alvaro, Raquel; Gooth, Johannes; Salmeron, Miquel; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol

    2016-01-11

    Topological insulators (TI) nanowires (NW) are an emerging class of structures, promising both novel quantum effects and potential applications in low-power electronics, thermoelectrics and spintronics. However, investigating the electronic states of TI NWs is complicated, due to their small lateral size, especially at room temperature. Here, we perform scanning probe based nanoscale imaging to resolve the local surface potential landscapes of Bi2Te3 nanowires (NWs) at 300 K. We found equipotential rings around the NWs perimeter that we attribute to azimuthal 1D modes. Along the NW axis, these modes are altered, forming potential ripples in the local density of states, due to intrinsic disturbances. Potential mapping of electrically biased NWs enabled us to accurately determine their conductivity which was found to increase with the decrease of NW diameter, consistent with surface dominated transport. Our results demonstrate that TI NWs can pave the way to both exotic quantum states and novel electronic devices.

  3. Band mapping of surface states vs. adsorbate coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotenberg, E.; Kevan, S.D.; Denlinger, J.D.; Chung, Jin-Wook

    1997-01-01

    The theory of electron bands, which arises from basic quantum mechanical principles, has been the cornerstone of solid state physics for over 60 years. Simply put, an energy band is an electron state in a solid whose energy varies with its momentum (similar to, but with a more complicated dependence than, how a free electron's energy is proportional to its momentum squared). Much attention over the last 15 years has been given to the study of band structure of surfaces and interfaces, especially as the applications of these two-dimensional systems have become increasingly important to industry and science. The ultraESCA endstation at beamline 7.01 at the Advanced Light Source was developed for very high-energy - (∼50 meV) and angular - ( 12 photons/sec) makes the detailed study of the evolution of bands possible. The authors are interested in learning how, when one forms a chemical bond between a metal and an overlaying atom or molecule, the resulting charge transfer to or from the adsorbate affects the surface bands. In some cases of interest, intermediate coverages lead to different band structure than at the extremes of clean and saturated surfaces. Surfaces of tungsten are particularly interesting, as their atomic geometry has been shown to be exquisitely sensitive to both the surface vibrational and electronic properties. In this study, the authors looked at the surface bands of tungsten ((110) surface), as a function both of coverage and mass of overlaying atoms. The adsorbed atoms were hydrogen and the alkali atoms lithium and cesium

  4. Mapping the surface of Escherichia coli peptide deformylase by NMR with organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byerly, Douglas W; McElroy, Craig A; Foster, Mark P

    2002-07-01

    Identifying potential ligand binding sites on a protein surface is an important first step for targeted structure-based drug discovery. While performing control experiments with Escherichia coli peptide deformylase (PDF), we noted that the organic solvents used to solubilize some ligands perturbed many of the same resonances in PDF as the small molecule inhibitors. To further explore this observation, we recorded (15)N HSQC spectra of E. coli peptide deformylase (PDF) in the presence of trace quantities of several simple organic solvents (acetone, DMSO, ethanol, isopropanol) and identified their sites of interaction from local perturbation of amide chemical shifts. Analysis of the protein surface structure revealed that the ligand-induced shift perturbations map to the active site and one additional surface pocket. The correlation between sites of solvent and inhibitor binding highlights the utility of organic solvents to rapidly and effectively validate and characterize binding sites on proteins prior to designing a drug discovery screen. Further, the solvent-induced perturbations have implications for the use of organic solvents to dissolve candidate ligands in NMR-based screens.

  5. Mapping global surface water inundation dynamics using synergistic information from SMAP, AMSR2 and Landsat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J.; Kimball, J. S.; Galantowicz, J. F.; Kim, S.; Chan, S.; Reichle, R. H.; Jones, L. A.; Watts, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    A method to monitor global land surface water (fw) inundation dynamics was developed by exploiting the enhanced fw sensitivity of L-band (1.4 GHz) passive microwave observations from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. The L-band fw (fwLBand) retrievals were derived using SMAP H-polarization brightness temperature (Tb) observations and predefined L-band reference microwave emissivities for water and land endmembers. Potential soil moisture and vegetation contributions to the microwave signal were represented from overlapping higher frequency Tb observations from AMSR2. The resulting fwLBand global record has high temporal sampling (1-3 days) and 36-km spatial resolution. The fwLBand annual averages corresponded favourably (R=0.84, pretrievals showed favourable classification accuracy for water (commission error 31.84%; omission error 28.08%) and land (commission error 0.82%; omission error 0.99%) and seasonal wet and dry periods when compared to independent water maps derived from Landsat-8 imagery. The new fwLBand algorithms and continuing SMAP and AMSR2 operations provide for near real-time, multi-scale monitoring of global surface water inundation dynamics, potentially benefiting hydrological monitoring, flood assessments, and global climate and carbon modeling.

  6. Mapping potential acid sulfate soils in Denmark using legacy data and LiDAR-based derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beucher, Amélie; Adhikari, Kabindra; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    drainage of areas classified as potential a.s. soilswithout prior permission fromenvironmental authorities. Themapping of these soils was first conducted in the 1980’s.Wetlands, inwhich Danish potential a.s. soils mostly occur,were targeted and the soilswere surveyed through conventional mapping....... In this study, a probability map for potential a.s. soil occurrence was constructed for thewetlands located in Jutland, Denmark (c. 6500 km2), using the digital soilmapping (DSM) approach. Among the variety of available DSM techniques, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were selected. More than 8000 existing...... of environmental variables. The overall prediction accuracy based on a 30% hold-back validation data reached 70%. Furthermore, the conventional map indicated 32% of the study area (c. 2100 km2) as having a high frequency for potential a.s. soils while the digital map displayed about 46% (c. 3000 km2) as high...

  7. Massive calculations of electrostatic potentials and structure maps of biopolymers in a distributed computing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akishina, T.P.; Ivanov, V.V.; Stepanenko, V.A.

    2013-01-01

    Among the key factors determining the processes of transcription and translation are the distributions of the electrostatic potentials of DNA, RNA and proteins. Calculations of electrostatic distributions and structure maps of biopolymers on computers are time consuming and require large computational resources. We developed the procedures for organization of massive calculations of electrostatic potentials and structure maps for biopolymers in a distributed computing environment (several thousands of cores).

  8. Electrocorticographic Temporal Alteration Mapping: A Clinical Technique for Mapping the Motor Cortex with Movement-Related Cortical Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehan Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose electrocorticographic temporal alteration mapping (ETAM for motor cortex mapping by utilizing movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs within the low-frequency band [0.05-3] Hz. This MRCP waveform-based temporal domain approach was compared with the state-of-the-art electrocorticographic frequency alteration mapping (EFAM, which is based on frequency spectrum dynamics. Five patients (two epilepsy cases and three tumor cases were enrolled in the study. Each patient underwent intraoperative direct electrocortical stimulation (DECS procedure for motor cortex localization. Moreover, the patients were required to perform simple brisk wrist extension task during awake craniotomy surgery. Cross-validation results showed that the proposed ETAM method had high sensitivity (81.8% and specificity (94.3% in identifying sites which exhibited positive DECS motor responses. Moreover, although the sensitivity of the ETAM and EFAM approaches was not significantly different, ETAM had greater specificity compared with EFAM (94.3 vs. 86.1%. These results indicate that for the intraoperative functional brain mapping, ETAM is a promising novel approach for motor cortex localization with the potential to reduce the need for cortical electrical stimulation.

  9. Mapping physicochemical surface modifications of flame-treated polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Farris

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate how the surface morphology of polypropylene (PP is influenced by the surface activation mediated by a flame obtained using a mixture of air and propane under fuel-lean (equivalence ratio φ = 0.98 conditions. Morphological changes observed on flamed samples with smooth (S, medium (M, and high (H degree of surface roughness were attributed to the combined effect of a chemical mechanism (agglomeration and ordering of partially oxidized intermediate-molecular-weight material with a physical mechanism (flattening of the original roughness by the flame’s high temperature. After two treatments, the different behavior of the samples in terms of wettability was totally reset, which made an impressive surface energy of ~43 mJ•m–2 possible, which is typical of more hydrophilic polymers (e.g., polyethylene terephthalate – PET. In particular, the polar component was increased from 1.21, 0.08, and 0.32 mJ•m–2 (untreated samples to 10.95, 11.20, and 11.17 mJ•m–2 for the flamed samples S, M, and H, respectively, an increase attributed to the insertion of polar functional groups (hydroxyl and carbonyl on the C–C backbone, as demonstrated by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results.

  10. Face recognition based on depth maps and surface curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gaile G.

    1991-09-01

    This paper explores the representation of the human face by features based on the curvature of the face surface. Curature captures many features necessary to accurately describe the face, such as the shape of the forehead, jawline, and cheeks, which are not easily detected from standard intensity images. Moreover, the value of curvature at a point on the surface is also viewpoint invariant. Until recently range data of high enough resolution and accuracy to perform useful curvature calculations on the scale of the human face had been unavailable. Although several researchers have worked on the problem of interpreting range data from curved (although usually highly geometrically structured) surfaces, the main approaches have centered on segmentation by signs of mean and Gaussian curvature which have not proved sufficient in themselves for the case of the human face. This paper details the calculation of principal curvature for a particular data set, the calculation of general surface descriptors based on curvature, and the calculation of face specific descriptors based both on curvature features and a priori knowledge about the structure of the face. These face specific descriptors can be incorporated into many different recognition strategies. A system that implements one such strategy, depth template comparison, giving recognition rates between 80% and 90% is described.

  11. Titan's Surface Temperatures Maps from Cassini - CIRS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Anderson, C. M.; Samuelson, R. E.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.

    2009-09-01

    The Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) observations of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, are providing us with the ability to detect the surface temperature of the planet by studying its outgoing radiance through a spectral window in the thermal infrared at 19 μm (530 cm-1) characterized by low opacity. Since the first acquisitions of CIRS Titan data the instrument has gathered a large amount of spectra covering a wide range of latitudes, longitudes and local times. We retrieve the surface temperature and the atmospheric temperature profile by modeling proper zonally averaged spectra of nadir observations with radiative transfer computations. Our forward model uses the correlated-k approximation for spectral opacity to calculate the emitted radiance, including contributions from collision induced pairs of CH4, N2 and H2, haze, and gaseous emission lines (Irwin et al. 2008). The retrieval method uses a non-linear least-squares optimal estimation technique to iteratively adjust the model parameters to achieve a spectral fit (Rodgers 2000). We show an accurate selection of the wide amount of data available in terms of footprint diameter on the planet and observational conditions, together with the retrieved results. Our results represent formal retrievals of surface brightness temperatures from the Cassini CIRS dataset using a full radiative transfer treatment, and we compare to the earlier findings of Jennings et al. (2009). In future, application of our methodology over wide areas should greatly increase the planet coverage and accuracy of our knowledge of Titan's surface brightness temperature. References: Irwin, P.G.J., et al.: "The NEMESIS planetary atmosphere radiative transfer and retrieval tool" (2008). JQSRT, Vol. 109, pp. 1136-1150, 2008. Rodgers, C. D.: "Inverse Methods For Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice". World Scientific, Singapore, 2000. Jennings, D.E., et al.: "Titan's Surface Brightness Temperatures." Ap. J. L., Vol. 691, pp. L103-L

  12. The Contribution of Surface Potential to Diverse Problems in Electrostatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horenstein, M

    2015-01-01

    Electrostatics spans many different subject areas. Some comprise “good electrostatics,” where charge is used for desirable purposes. Such areas include industrial manufacturing, electrophotography, surface modification, precipitators, aerosol control, and MEMS. Other areas comprise “bad electrostatics,” where charge is undesirable. Such areas include hazardous discharges, ESD, health effects, nuisance triboelectrification, particle contamination, and lightning. Conference proceedings such as this one inevitably include papers grouped around these topics. One common thread throughout is the surface potential developed when charge resides on an insulator surface. Often, the charged insulator will be in intimate contact with a ground plane. At other times, the charged insulator will be isolated. In either case, the resulting surface potential is important to such processes as propagating brush discharges, charge along a moving web, electrostatic biasing effects in MEMS, non-contacting voltmeters, field-effect transistor sensors, and the maximum possible charge on a woven fabric. (paper)

  13. Sliding surface searching method for slopes containing a potential weak structural surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijun Yao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Weak structural surface is one of the key factors controlling the stability of slopes. The stability of rock slopes is in general concerned with set of discontinuities. However, in soft rocks, failure can occur along surfaces approaching to a circular failure surface. To better understand the position of potential sliding surface, a new method called simplex-finite stochastic tracking method is proposed. This method basically divides sliding surface into two parts: one is described by smooth curve obtained by random searching, the other one is polyline formed by the weak structural surface. Single or multiple sliding surfaces can be considered, and consequently several types of combined sliding surfaces can be simulated. The paper will adopt the arc-polyline to simulate potential sliding surface and analyze the searching process of sliding surface. Accordingly, software for slope stability analysis using this method was developed and applied in real cases. The results show that, using simplex-finite stochastic tracking method, it is possible to locate the position of a potential sliding surface in the slope.

  14. Soil and gas and radon entry potentials for substructure surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.; Sextro, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on measurement techniques and parameters that describe the potential for areas of a building substructure to have high soil gas and radon entry rates which have been developed. Flows and pressures measured at test holes in substructure surfaces while the substructure was intentionally depressurized were used in a highly simplified electrical circuit to model the substructure/soil network. Data from four New Jersey houses indicate that the soil was a factor of two to six times more resistant to soil gas flow than substructure surfaces, concrete slab floors, including perimeter gaps, cracks, and other penetrations, were approximately five times more resistant to soil gas movement than hollow block walls, and radon entry potentials were highest for slab floors. These indices of entry potential may be useful for characterizing the relative leakiness of below-grade substructure surfaces and for determining the selection and placement of radon control systems

  15. Time-dependent image potential at a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alducin, M.; Diez Muino, R.; Juaristi, J.I.

    2003-01-01

    Transient effects in the image potential induced by a point charge suddenly created in front of a metal surface are studied. The time evolution of the image potential is calculated using linear response theory. Two different time scales are defined: (i) the time required for the creation of the image potential and (ii) the time it takes to converge to its stationary value. Their dependence on the distance of the charge to the surface is discussed. The effect of the electron gas damping is also analyzed. For a typical metallic density, the order of magnitude of the creation time is 0.1 fs, whereas for a charge created close to the surface the convergence time is around 1-2 fs

  16. Guided asteroid deflection by kinetic impact: Mapping keyholes to an asteroid's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesley, S.; Farnocchia, D.

    2014-07-01

    range from around 1 for a porous, compressible body producing negligible ejecta, to 2 when the ejecta momentum matches the spacecraft momentum, and as high as 5--10 for rocky bodies that produce large, high-velocity ejecta fragments. If the impactor hits the centerpoint of a spherical asteroid the momentum of the escaping ejecta directly adds to the momentum of the impacting asteroid, but if the impact is oblique then the ejecta and spacecraft momenta are added to the asteroid in vector sum. This suggests the possibility that for a given intercept trajectory the asteroid deflection could include guidance by targeting an oblique impact that could steer the asteroid Δ V to a more optimal direction that is different from the relative velocity direction of the spacecraft. An oblique impact decreases the net Δ V magnitude, and yet could significantly increase the net deflection at the time of the threatening Earth encounter. We use asteroid (101955) Bennu, which is the target of the OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission and which has a series of potential Earth impacts in the years from 2175--2196, as an example to demonstrate the effectiveness of the oblique impact. These future potential impacts will occur if the asteroid passes through one of a series of keyholes when the asteroid passes the Earth at roughly the lunar distance from the Earth in 2135. To study the Bennu deflection problem we simulate a hypervelocity spacecraft impact on Bennu in March 2021, after the OSIRIS-REx mission is complete. In our example, the spacecraft arrives from approximately the sunward direction, and targeting ahead or behind the center of the asteroid allows non-negligible transverse accelerations for modest values of β. A given impact location on the asteroid surface yields a given Δ V vector, and our approach starts by mapping the net Δ V components on the surface for an assumed value of β. Knowing the mapping from impact location to Δ V and also the mapping from Δ V to the

  17. Surface potential domains on lamellar P3OT structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-GarcIa, B [Departamento Fisica, Facultad de Quimica (Campus Espinardo), Universidad de Murcia, E-30100 Murcia (Spain); Abad, J [Departamento Fisica, Facultad de Quimica (Campus Espinardo), Universidad de Murcia, E-30100 Murcia (Spain); Urbina, A [Departamento Electronica, TecnologIa de Computadoras y Proyectos, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, E-30202 Cartagena (Spain); Colchero, J [Departamento Fisica, Facultad de Quimica (Campus Espinardo), Universidad de Murcia, E-30100 Murcia (Spain); Palacios-Lidon, E [Departamento Fisica, Facultad de Quimica (Campus Espinardo), Universidad de Murcia, E-30100 Murcia (Spain)

    2008-02-13

    In this work the electrostatic properties of poly(3-octylthiophene) thin films have been studied on a nanometer scale by means of electrostatic force microscopy and Kelvin probe microscopy (KPM). The KPM images reveal that different surface contact potential domains coexist on the polymer surface. This result, together with additional capacitance measurements, indicates that the potential domains are related to the existence of dipoles due to different molecular arrangements. Finally, capacitance measurements as a function of the tip-sample bias voltage show that in all regions large band bending effects take place.

  18. Surface potential domains on lamellar P3OT structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-GarcIa, B; Abad, J; Urbina, A; Colchero, J; Palacios-Lidon, E

    2008-01-01

    In this work the electrostatic properties of poly(3-octylthiophene) thin films have been studied on a nanometer scale by means of electrostatic force microscopy and Kelvin probe microscopy (KPM). The KPM images reveal that different surface contact potential domains coexist on the polymer surface. This result, together with additional capacitance measurements, indicates that the potential domains are related to the existence of dipoles due to different molecular arrangements. Finally, capacitance measurements as a function of the tip-sample bias voltage show that in all regions large band bending effects take place

  19. An adaptive interpolation scheme for molecular potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Larsson, Elisabeth; Heryudono, Alfa

    2016-08-01

    The calculation of potential energy surfaces for quantum dynamics can be a time consuming task—especially when a high level of theory for the electronic structure calculation is required. We propose an adaptive interpolation algorithm based on polyharmonic splines combined with a partition of unity approach. The adaptive node refinement allows to greatly reduce the number of sample points by employing a local error estimate. The algorithm and its scaling behavior are evaluated for a model function in 2, 3, and 4 dimensions. The developed algorithm allows for a more rapid and reliable interpolation of a potential energy surface within a given accuracy compared to the non-adaptive version.

  20. Reversible Compositional Control of Oxide Surfaces by Electrochemical Potentials

    KAUST Repository

    Mutoro, Eva

    2012-01-05

    Perovskite oxides can exhibit a wide range of interesting characteristics such as being catalytically active and electronically/ionically conducting, and thus, they have been used in a number of solid-state devices such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and sensors. As the surface compositions of perovskites can greatly influence the catalytic properties, knowing and controlling their surface compositions is crucial to enhance device performance. In this study, we demonstrate that the surface strontium (Sr) and cobalt (Co) concentrations of perovskite-based thin films can be controlled reversibly at elevated temperatures by applying small electrical potential biases. The surface compositional changes of La 0.8Sr 0.2CoO 3-δ (LSC 113), (La 0.5Sr 0.5) 2CoO 4±δ (LSC 214), and LSC 214-decorated LSC 113 films (LSC 113/214) were investigated in situ by utilizing synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), where the largest changes of surface Sr were found for the LSC 113/214 surface. These findings offer the potential of reversibly controlling the surface functionality of perovskites. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  1. Lunar Surface Potential Increases during Terrestrial Bow Shock Traversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Hills, H. Kent; Halekas, Jasper; Farrell, William M.; Delory, Greg T.; Espley, Jared; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard R.; Kasper, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. We present an analysis of Apollo 14 SIDE "resonance" events that indicate the lunar surface potential increases when the Moon traverses the dawn bow shock. By analyzing Wind spacecraft crossings of the terrestrial bow shock at approximately this location and employing current balancing models of the lunar surface, we suggest causes for the increasing potential. Determining the origin of this phenomenon will improve our ability to predict the lunar surface potential in support of human exploration as well as provide models for the behavior of other airless bodies when they traverse similar features such as interplanetary shocks, both of which are goals of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's Dynamic Response of the Environment At the Moon (DREAM) team.

  2. On the Gauss Map of Surfaces of Revolution with Lightlike Axis in Minkowski 3-Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghao Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By studying the Gauss map G and Laplace operator Δh of the second fundamental form h, we will classify surfaces of revolution with a lightlike axis in 3-dimensional Minkowski space and also obtain the surface of Enneper of the 2nd kind, the surface of Enneper of the 3rd kind, the de Sitter pseudosphere, and the hyperbolic pseudosphere that satisfy condition ΔhG=ΛG, Λ being a 3×3 real matrix.

  3. Developing Coastal Surface Roughness Maps Using ASTER and QuickBird Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joe; Berglund, Judith; Davis, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation regards one element of a larger project on the integration of NASA science models and data into the Hazards U.S. Multi-Hazard (HAZUS-MH) Hurricane module for hurricane damage and loss risk assessment. HAZUS-MH is a decision support tool being developed by the National Institute of Building Sciences for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). It includes the Hurricane Module, which employs surface roughness maps made from National Land Cover Data (NLCD) maps to estimate coastal hurricane wind damage and loss. NLCD maps are produced and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey. This presentation discusses an effort to improve upon current HAZUS surface roughness maps by employing ASTER multispectral classifications with QuickBird "ground reference" imagery.

  4. Mapping visual cortex in monkeys and humans using surface-based atlases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Essen, D. C.; Lewis, J. W.; Drury, H. A.; Hadjikhani, N.; Tootell, R. B.; Bakircioglu, M.; Miller, M. I.

    2001-01-01

    We have used surface-based atlases of the cerebral cortex to analyze the functional organization of visual cortex in humans and macaque monkeys. The macaque atlas contains multiple partitioning schemes for visual cortex, including a probabilistic atlas of visual areas derived from a recent architectonic study, plus summary schemes that reflect a combination of physiological and anatomical evidence. The human atlas includes a probabilistic map of eight topographically organized visual areas recently mapped using functional MRI. To facilitate comparisons between species, we used surface-based warping to bring functional and geographic landmarks on the macaque map into register with corresponding landmarks on the human map. The results suggest that extrastriate visual cortex outside the known topographically organized areas is dramatically expanded in human compared to macaque cortex, particularly in the parietal lobe.

  5. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for Glacier Hazards Assessment: Application to Predicting the Potential for Glacier Lake Outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfaro, R.; Kargel, J. S.; Fink, W.; Bishop, M. P.

    2010-12-01

    Glaciers and ice sheets are among the largest unstable parts of the solid Earth. Generally, glaciers are devoid of resources (other than water), are dangerous, are unstable and no infrastructure is normally built directly on their surfaces. Areas down valley from large alpine glaciers are also commonly unstable due to landslide potential of moraines, debris flows, snow avalanches, outburst floods from glacier lakes, and other dynamical alpine processes; yet there exists much development and human occupation of some disaster-prone areas. Satellite remote sensing can be extremely effective in providing cost-effective and time- critical information. Space-based imagery can be used to monitor glacier outlines and their lakes, including processes such as iceberg calving and debris accumulation, as well as changing thicknesses and flow speeds. Such images can also be used to make preliminary identifications of specific hazardous spots and allows preliminary assessment of possible modes of future disaster occurrence. Autonomous assessment of glacier conditions and their potential for hazards would present a major advance and permit systematized analysis of more data than humans can assess. This technical leap will require the design and implementation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms specifically designed to mimic glacier experts’ reasoning. Here, we introduce the theory of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) as an AI tool for predicting and assessing natural hazards in alpine glacier environments. FCM techniques are employed to represent expert knowledge of glaciers physical processes. A cognitive model embedded in a fuzzy logic framework is constructed via the synergistic interaction between glaciologists and AI experts. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed AI methodology as applied to predicting hazards in glacier environments, we designed and implemented a FCM that addresses the challenging problem of autonomously assessing the Glacier Lake Outburst Flow

  6. Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Giese, Malene; de Vries, Ronald P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required....... For each type of hemicellulose, a complex mixture of enzymes is required for complete conversion to fermentable monosaccharides. In plant-biomass degrading fungi, these enzymes are regulated and released by complex regulatory structures. In this study, we present a methodology for evaluating the potential...... of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results: Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list...

  7. Mapping Hfq-RNA interaction surfaces using tryptophan fluorescence quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kirsten E.; Orans, Jillian; Kovach, Alexander R.; Link, Todd M.; Brennan, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Hfq is a posttranscriptional riboregulator and RNA chaperone that binds small RNAs and target mRNAs to effect their annealing and message-specific regulation in response to environmental stressors. Structures of Hfq-RNA complexes indicate that U-rich sequences prefer the proximal face and A-rich sequences the distal face; however, the Hfq-binding sites of most RNAs are unknown. Here, we present an Hfq-RNA mapping approach that uses single tryptophan-substituted Hfq proteins, all of which retain the wild-type Hfq structure, and tryptophan fluorescence quenching (TFQ) by proximal RNA binding. TFQ properly identified the respective distal and proximal binding of A15 and U6 RNA to Gram-negative Escherichia coli (Ec) Hfq and the distal face binding of (AA)3A, (AU)3A and (AC)3A to Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) Hfq. The inability of (GU)3G to bind the distal face of Sa Hfq reveals the (R-L)n binding motif is a more restrictive (A-L)n binding motif. Remarkably Hfq from Gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) binds (GU)3G on its proximal face. TFQ experiments also revealed the Ec Hfq (A-R-N)n distal face-binding motif should be redefined as an (A-A-N)n binding motif. TFQ data also demonstrated that the 5′-untranslated region of hfq mRNA binds both the proximal and distal faces of Ec Hfq and the unstructured C-terminus. PMID:24288369

  8. Optimized surface-slab excited-state muffin-tin potential and surface core level shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundgren, J.

    2003-01-01

    An optimized muffin-tin (MT) potential for surface slabs with preassigned surface core-level shifts (SCLS's) is presented. By using the MT radii as adjustable parameters the model is able to conserve the definition of the SCLS with respect to the bulk and concurrently to generate a potential that is continuous at the MT radii. The model is conceived for elastic electron scattering in a surface slab with exchange-correlation interaction described by the local density approximation. The model employs two data bases for the self-energy of the signal electron (after Hedin and Lundqvist or Sernelius). The potential model is discussed in detail with two surface structures Be(101-bar0), for which SCLS's are available, and Cu(111)p(2x2)Cs, in which the close-packed radii of the atoms are extremely different. It is considered plausible that tensor LEED based on an optimized MT potential can be used for determining SCLS's

  9. Tuning the surface potential of Ag surfaces by chemisorption of oppositely-oriented thiolated carborane dipoles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lübben, J.F.; Baše, Tomáš; Rupper, P.; Künniger, T.; Macháček, Jan; Guimond, S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 354, č. 1 (2011), s. 168-174 ISSN 0021-9797 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400320901 Keywords : Adsorption * Thiolated carboranes * Silver surface * Surface potential * X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.070, year: 2011

  10. A surface plasmon resonance assay for characterisation and epitope mapping of anti-GLP-1 antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Lasse; Gurevich, Leonid

    2018-04-19

    The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been subject to substantial pharmaceutical research regarding the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, quantification of GLP-1 levels remains complicated due to the low circulation concentration and concurrent existence of numerous metabolites, homologous peptides, and potentially introduced GLP-1 receptor agonists. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) facilitates real-time monitoring allowing a more detailed characterisation of the interaction compared with conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). In this paper, we describe the development of the first SPR assays for characterisation of anti-GLP-1 antibodies for ELISA purposes. Binding responses were obtained on covalently immobilised anti-GLP-1 antibodies at 12°C, 25°C, and 40°C and fitted to a biomolecular (1:1) interaction model showing association rates of 1.01 × 10 3 to 4.54 × 10 3  M -1  s -1 and dissociation rates of 3.56 × 10 -5 to 1.56 × 10 -3  s -1 leading to affinities of 35.2 to 344 nM, depending on the temperature. Determination of thermodynamic properties revealed an enthalpy driven interaction (ΔH polar amino acids (ΔC p  < 0). Pair-wise epitope mapping was performed on captured anti-GLP-1 antibodies followed by subsequent interaction with GLP-1 (7-36) and other anti-GLP-1 antibodies. A global evaluation of every binding response led to an epitope map elucidating the potential of various anti-GLP-1 antibody pairs for sandwich ELISA and hence pinpointing the optimal antibody combinations. The SPR assays proved capable of providing vital information for ELISA development endorsing it as a useful optimisation tool. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A chord diagrammatic presentation of the mapping class group of a once bordered surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bene, Alex

    2010-01-01

    of Teichmüller space with a discrete set objects. In particular, it leads to an infinite, but combinatorially simple, presentation of the mapping class group of an orientable surface. In this note, we give a presentation of a full mapping class group equivariant subgroupoid of the Ptolemy groupoid......The Ptolemy groupoid is a combinatorial groupoid generated by elementary moves on marked trivalent fatgraphs with three types of relations. Through the fatgraph decomposition of Teichmüller space, the Ptolemy groupoid is a mapping class group equivariant subgroupoid of the fundamental path groupoid...

  12. A Chord Diagrammatic Presentation of the Mapping Class Group of a Once Bordered Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bene, Alex

    groupoid of Teichm\\"uller space with a discrete set objects. In particular, it leads to an infinite, but combinatorially simple, presentation of the mapping class group of an orientable surface. In this note, we give a presentation of a full mapping class group equivariant subgroupoid of the Ptolemy......The Ptolemy groupoid is a combinatorial groupoid generated by elementary moves on marked trivalent fatgraphs with three types of relations. Through the fatgraph decomposition of Teichm\\"uller space, the Ptolemy groupoid is a mapping class group equivariant subgroupoid of the fundamental path...

  13. A statistical nanomechanism of biomolecular patterning actuated by surface potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ting; Lin, Chih-Hao

    2011-02-01

    Biomolecular patterning on a nanoscale/microscale on chip surfaces is one of the most important techniques used in vitro biochip technologies. Here, we report upon a stochastic mechanics model we have developed for biomolecular patterning controlled by surface potential. The probabilistic biomolecular surface adsorption behavior can be modeled by considering the potential difference between the binding and nonbinding states. To verify our model, we experimentally implemented a method of electroactivated biomolecular patterning technology and the resulting fluorescence intensity matched the prediction of the developed model quite well. Based on this result, we also experimentally demonstrated the creation of a bovine serum albumin pattern with a width of 200 nm in 5 min operations. This submicron noncovalent-binding biomolecular pattern can be maintained for hours after removing the applied electrical voltage. These stochastic understandings and experimental results not only prove the feasibility of submicron biomolecular patterns on chips but also pave the way for nanoscale interfacial-bioelectrical engineering.

  14. Regional quantitative analysis of cortical surface maps of FDG PET images

    CERN Document Server

    Protas, H D; Hayashi, K M; Chin Lung, Yu; Bergsneider, M; Sung Cheng, Huang

    2006-01-01

    Cortical surface maps are advantageous for visualizing the 3D profile of cortical gray matter development and atrophy, and for integrating structural and functional images. In addition, cortical surface maps for PET data, when analyzed in conjunction with structural MRI data allow us to investigate, and correct for, partial volume effects. Here we compared quantitative regional PET values based on a 3D cortical surface modeling approach with values obtained directly from the 3D FDG PET images in various atlas-defined regions of interest (ROIs; temporal, parietal, frontal, and occipital lobes). FDG PET and 3D MR (SPGR) images were obtained and aligned to ICBM space for 15 normal subjects. Each image was further elastically warped in 2D parameter space of the cortical surface, to align major cortical sulci. For each point within a 15 mm distance of the cortex, the value of the PET intensity was averaged to give a cortical surface map of FDG uptake. The average PET values on the cortical surface map were calcula...

  15. Waste-surface mapping of the Fernald K-65 silos using a structured light measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Dinkins, M.A.; Rowe, J.C.; Selleck, C.B.; Jacoboski, D.L.

    1992-10-01

    A remotely operated surface-mapping measurement system was developed by the Robotics ampersand Process Systems Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in the K-65 waste-storage silos at Fernald, Ohio. The mapping system used three infrared line-generating laser diodes as illumination sources and three high-resolution, low-lux, calibrated, black-and-white, charge-coupled-device video cameras as receivers. These components were combined to form structured light source range and direction sensors with six different possible emitter-receiver pairs. A technology demonstration and predeployment tests were performed at Fernald using the empty Silo 4 into which was placed rectangular objects of known dimensions. These objects were scanned by the structured light sources to demonstrate functionality and verify that the system was giving sufficiently accurate range data in three dimensions. The structured light sources were deployed in Silos 1 and 2 to scan the waste surfaces. The resulting data were merged to create three-dimensional maps of those surfaces. A bentonite clay cap was placed over the waste surfaces and surface maps were obtained. The change in surface height before and after bentonite addition was utilized as a measure of clay cap thickness

  16. Mapping of upper electronic reaction surfaces by tuned laser photolysis and by absorption and emission spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, M.A.

    1989-07-01

    Potential energy surfaces for photorotamerization of two intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded molecules, o-hydroxybenzaldehyde (OHBA) and methyl salicylate (MS), isolated in cryogenic matrices have been spectroscopically mapped. In addition, the external heavy atom effect of krypton and xenon matrices on the coupling between the S 1 and T 1 surfaces of 4-(dimethylamino)benzonitrile has been examined. Heavy atom matrices are known to increase rates of spin-forbidden processes. The phosphorescence intensity of DMABN increases in krypton and xenon matrices, while the fluorescence intensity, and phosphorescence and fluorescence lifetimes, decrease. These effects are interpreted in terms of a model in which the phosphorescence rate constant increases 300-fold in xenon compared to argon, while the rate constants for intersystem crossing and nonradiative relaxation from the triplet state increase by factors of less than 5. Lifetime measurements in argon matrices doped with heavy atoms indicate that even one heavy atom neighbor has a significant effect on both singlet and triplet lifetimes. 78 refs., 35 figs., 15 tabs

  17. Estimating surface soil erosion losses and mapping erosion risk for Yusufeli micro-catchment (Artvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tüfekçioğlu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sheet erosion, one of the most important types of water erosion, takes place on the top soil as tiny soil layer movement that affects lake and stream ecosystem. This type of erosion is very important because the productive soil layer on the top soil can be lost in a very short period of time. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of surface (sheet and rill soil erosion, and to identify areas under high erosion risk within the study area at Yusufeli province in Artvin by using RUSLE erosion methodology. As a result of the study it was found that the average annual potential soil loss by surface erosion was 3.6 ton ha-1yr-1. Additionally, the maps produced and conclusions reached by the study revealed that the areas of high erosion risk were identified spatially and measures to control erosion on some of these high risk areas can be possible with appropriate erosion control techniques.

  18. Mapping 2000 2010 Impervious Surface Change in India Using Global Land Survey Landsat Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Panshi; Huang, Chengquan; Brown De Colstoun, Eric C.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding and monitoring the environmental impacts of global urbanization requires better urban datasets. Continuous field impervious surface change (ISC) mapping using Landsat data is an effective way to quantify spatiotemporal dynamics of urbanization. It is well acknowledged that Landsat-based estimation of impervious surface is subject to seasonal and phenological variations. The overall goal of this paper is to map 200-02010 ISC for India using Global Land Survey datasets and training data only available for 2010. To this end, a method was developed that could transfer the regression tree model developed for mapping 2010 impervious surface to 2000 using an iterative training and prediction (ITP) approach An independent validation dataset was also developed using Google Earth imagery. Based on the reference ISC from the validation dataset, the RMSE of predicted ISC was estimated to be 18.4%. At 95% confidence, the total estimated ISC for India between 2000 and 2010 is 2274.62 +/- 7.84 sq km.

  19. Hybrid geomorphological maps as the basis for assessing geoconservation potential in Lech, Vorarlberg (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijmonsbergen, Harry; de Jong, Mat; Anders, Niels; de Graaff, Leo; Cammeraat, Erik

    2013-04-01

    Geoconservation potential is, in our approach, closely linked to the spatial distribution of geomorphological sites and thus, geomorphological inventories. Detailed geomorphological maps are translated, using a standardized workflow, into polygonal maps showing the potential geoconservation value of landforms. A new development is to semi-automatically extract in a GIS geomorphological information from high resolution topographical data, such as LiDAR, and combine this with conventional data types (e.g. airphotos, geological maps) into geomorphological maps. Such hybrid digital geomorphological maps are also easily translated into digital information layers which show the geoconservation potential in an area. We present a protocol for digital geomorphological mapping illustrated with an example for the municipality of Lech in Vorarlberg (Austria). The protocol consists of 5 steps: 1. data preparation, 2. generating training and validation samples, 3. parameterization, 4. feature extraction, and 5. assessing classification accuracy. The resulting semi-automated digital geomorphological map is then further validated, in two ways. Firstly, the map is manually checked with the help of a series of digital datasets (e.g. airphotos) in a digital 3D environment, such as ArcScene. The second validation is field visit, which preferably occurs in parallel to the digital evaluation, so that updates are quickly achieved. The final digital and coded geomorphological information layer is converted into a potential geoconservation map by weighting and ranking the landforms based on four criteria: scientific relevance, frequency of occurrence, disturbance, and environmental vulnerability. The criteria with predefined scores for the various landform types are stored in a separate GIS attribute table, which is joined to the attribute table of the hybrid geomorphological information layer in an automated procedure. The results of the assessment can be displayed as the potential

  20. Terrain Correction on the moving equal area cylindrical map projection of the surface of a reference ellipsoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, A.; Safari, A.; Grafarend, E.

    2003-04-01

    An operational algorithm for computing the ellipsoidal terrain correction based on application of closed form solution of the Newton integral in terms of Cartesian coordinates in the cylindrical equal area map projected surface of a reference ellipsoid has been developed. As the first step the mapping of the points on the surface of a reference ellipsoid onto the cylindrical equal area map projection of a cylinder tangent to a point on the surface of reference ellipsoid closely studied and the map projection formulas are computed. Ellipsoidal mass elements with various sizes on the surface of the reference ellipsoid is considered and the gravitational potential and the vector of gravitational intensity of these mass elements has been computed via the solution of Newton integral in terms of ellipsoidal coordinates. The geographical cross section areas of the selected ellipsoidal mass elements are transferred into cylindrical equal area map projection and based on the transformed area elements Cartesian mass elements with the same height as that of the ellipsoidal mass elements are constructed. Using the close form solution of the Newton integral in terms of Cartesian coordinates the potential of the Cartesian mass elements are computed and compared with the same results based on the application of the ellipsoidal Newton integral over the ellipsoidal mass elements. The results of the numerical computations show that difference between computed gravitational potential of the ellipsoidal mass elements and Cartesian mass element in the cylindrical equal area map projection is of the order of 1.6 × 10-8m^2/s^2 for a mass element with the cross section size of 10 km × 10 km and the height of 1000 m. For a 1 km × 1 km mass element with the same height, this difference is less than 1.5 × 10-4 m^2}/s^2. The results of the numerical computations indicate that a new method for computing the terrain correction based on the closed form solution of the Newton integral in

  1. SU-E-J-193: Application of Surface Mapping in Detecting Swallowing for Head-&-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, D; Xie, X; Mehta, V; Shepard, D [Swedish Cancer Institute, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Recent evidence is emerging that long term swallowing function may be improved after radiotherapy for head-&-neck cancer if doses are limited to certain swallowing structures. Immobilization of patients with head-&-neck cancer is typically done with a mask. This mask, however, doesn’t limit patient swallowing. Patient voluntary or involuntary swallowing may introduce significant tumor motion, which can lead to suboptimal delivery. In this study, we have examined the feasibility of using surface mapping technology to detect patient swallowing during treatment and evaluated its magnitude. Methods: The C-RAD Catalyst system was used to detect the patient surface map. A volunteer lying on the couch was used to simulate the patient under treatment. A virtual marker was placed near the throat and was used to monitor the swallowing action. The target motion calculated by the Catalyst system through deformable registration was also collected. Two treatment isocenters, one placed close to the throat and the other placed posterior to the base-of-tongue, were used to check the sensitivity of surface mapping technique. Results: When the patient’s throat is not in the shadow of the patient’s chest, the Catalyst system can clearly identify the swallowing motion. In our tests, the vertical motion of the skin can reach to about 5mm. The calculated target motion can reach up to 1 cm. The magnitude of this calculated target motion is more dramatic when the plan isocenter is closer to the skin surface, which suggests that the Catalyst motion tracking technique is more sensitive to the swallowing motion with a shallower isocenter. Conclusion: Surface mapping can clearly identify patient swallowing during radiation treatment. This information can be used to evaluate the dosimetric impact of the involuntary swallowing. It may also be used to potentially gate head-&-neck radiation treatments. A prospective IRB approved study is currently enrolling patients in our

  2. Surface peptide mapping of protein I and protein III of four strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Whole cells and isolated outer membranes (OMs) of four strains of gonococci were surface radioiodinated with either lactoperoxidase or Iodogen (Pierce Chemical Co., Rockford, Ill.). These preparations were solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate and subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Surface-radioiodinated protein I (PI) and PIII bands were excised from the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels and digested with alpha-chymotrypsin, and the resultant 125 I-peptide fragments were resolved by high-voltage electrophoresis and thin-layer chromatography (i.e., surface peptide mapping). Radioemitting peptidic fragments were visualized by autoradiography. Results demonstrated that the PI molecule of each gonococcal strain studied had unique iodinatable peptides exposed on the surface of whole cells and OMs, whereas PIIIs appeared to have the same portion of the molecule exposed on the surface of bacteria or OMs, regardless of the gonococcal strain from which they were isolated. Many more radiolabeled peptides were seen in surface peptide maps of PIs from radiolabeled OMs than in those from radioiodinated whole cells, whereas different peptidic fragments were seen in the surface peptide maps of PIIIs from radiolabeled OMs than were seen in those from radiolabeled whole cells. These data suggest that PI may contribute strain-specific antigenic determinants and PIII may contribute cross-reactive determinants and that the surface exposure of PI and PIII is different in isolated OMs than in the OM of intact gonococci

  3. Potential fields on the ventricular surface of the exposed dog heart during normal excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisi, G; Macchi, E; Baruffi, S; Spaggiari, S; Taccardi, B

    1983-06-01

    We studied the normal spread of excitation on the anterior and posterior ventricular surface of open-chest dogs by recording unipolar electrograms from an array of 1124 electrodes spaced 2 mm apart. The array had the shape of the ventricular surface of the heart. The electrograms were processed by a computer and displayed as epicardial equipotential maps at 1-msec intervals. Isochrone maps also were drawn. Several new features of epicardial potential fields were identified: (1) a high number of breakthrough points; (2) the topography, apparent widths, velocities of the wavefronts and the related potential drop; (3) the topography of positive potential peaks in relation to the wavefronts. Fifteen to 24 breakthrough points were located on the anterior, and 10 to 13 on the posterior ventricular surface. Some were in previously described locations and many others in new locations. Specifically, 3 to 5 breakthrough points appeared close to the atrioventricular groove on the anterior right ventricle and 2 to 4 on the posterior heart aspect; these basal breakthrough points appeared when a large portion of ventricular surface was still unexcited. Due to the presence of numerous breakthrough points on the anterior and posterior aspect of the heart which had not previously been described, the spread of excitation on the ventricular surface was "mosaic-like," with activation wavefronts spreading in all directions, rather than radially from the two breakthrough points, as traditionally described. The positive potential peaks which lay ahead of the expanding wavefronts moved along preferential directions which were probably related to the myocardial fiber direction.

  4. Eastern Denali Fault surface trace map, eastern Alaska and Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Adrian M.; Haeussler, Peter J.

    2017-05-04

    We map the 385-kilometer (km) long surface trace of the right-lateral, strike-slip Denali Fault between the Totschunda-Denali Fault intersection in Alaska, United States and the village of Haines Junction, Yukon, Canada. In Alaska, digital elevation models based on light detection and ranging and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data enabled our fault mapping at scales of 1:2,000 and 1:10,000, respectively. Lacking such resources in Yukon, we developed new structure-from-motion digital photogrammetry products from legacy aerial photos to map the fault surface trace at a scale of 1:10,000 east of the international border. The section of the fault that we map, referred to as the Eastern Denali Fault, did not rupture during the 2002 Denali Fault earthquake (moment magnitude 7.9). Seismologic, geodetic, and geomorphic evidence, along with a paleoseismic record of past ground-rupturing earthquakes, demonstrate Holocene and contemporary activity on the fault, however. This map of the Eastern Denali Fault surface trace complements other data sets by providing an openly accessible digital interpretation of the location, length, and continuity of the fault’s surface trace based on the accompanying digital topography dataset. Additionally, the digitized fault trace may provide geometric constraints useful for modeling earthquake scenarios and related seismic hazard.

  5. Communication: Fitting potential energy surfaces with fundamental invariant neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Kejie; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Dong H., E-mail: zhangdh@dicp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics and Center for Theoretical Computational Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, People’s Republic of China and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, People’s Republic of China. (China)

    2016-08-21

    A more flexible neural network (NN) method using the fundamental invariants (FIs) as the input vector is proposed in the construction of potential energy surfaces for molecular systems involving identical atoms. Mathematically, FIs finitely generate the permutation invariant polynomial (PIP) ring. In combination with NN, fundamental invariant neural network (FI-NN) can approximate any function to arbitrary accuracy. Because FI-NN minimizes the size of input permutation invariant polynomials, it can efficiently reduce the evaluation time of potential energy, in particular for polyatomic systems. In this work, we provide the FIs for all possible molecular systems up to five atoms. Potential energy surfaces for OH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} were constructed with FI-NN, with the accuracy confirmed by full-dimensional quantum dynamic scattering and bound state calculations.

  6. Detailed mapping of surface units on Mars with HRSC color data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, J.-Ph.; Wendt, L.; McCord, T. B.; Neukum, G.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction: Making use of HRSC color data Mapping outcrops of clays, sulfates and ferric oxides are basis information to derive the climatic, tectonic and volcanic evolution of Mars, especially the episodes related to the presence of liquid water. The challenge is to resolve spatially the outcrops and to distinguish these components from the globally-driven deposits like the iron oxide-rich bright red dust and the basaltic dark sands. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) onboard Mars-Express has five color filters in the visible and near infrared that are designed for visual interpretation and mapping various surface units [1]. It provides also information on the topography at scale smaller than a pixel (roughness) thanks to the different geometry of observation for each color channel. The HRSC dataset is the only one that combines global coverage, 200 m/pixel spatial resolution or better and filtering colors of light. The present abstract is a work in progress (to be submitted to Planetary and Space Science) that shows the potential and limitations of HRSC color data as visual support and as multispectral images. Various methods are described from the most simple to more complex ones in order to demonstrate how to make use of the spectra, because of the specific steps of processing they require [2-4]. The objective is to broaden the popularity of HRSC color data, as they could be used more widely by the scientific community. Results prove that imaging spectrometry and HRSC color data complement each other for mapping outcrops types. Example regions of interest HRSC is theoretically sensitive to materials with absorption features in the visible and near-infrared up to 1 μm. Therefore, oxide-rich red dust and basalts (pyroxenes) can be mapped, as well as very bright components like water ice [5, 6]. Possible detection of other materials still has to be demonstrated. We first explore regions where unusual mineralogy appears clearly from spectral data. Hematite

  7. A case study for the integration of predictive mineral potential maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Saro; Oh, Hyun-Joo; Heo, Chul-Ho; Park, Inhye

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to elaborate on the mineral potential maps using various models and verify the accuracy for the epithermal gold (Au) — silver (Ag) deposits in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment assuming that all deposits shared a common genesis. The maps of potential Au and Ag deposits were produced by geological data in Taebaeksan mineralized area, Korea. The methodological framework consists of three main steps: 1) identification of spatial relationships 2) quantification of such relationships and 3) combination of multiple quantified relationships. A spatial database containing 46 Au-Ag deposits was constructed using GIS. The spatial association between training deposits and 26 related factors were identified and quantified by probabilistic and statistical modelling. The mineral potential maps were generated by integrating all factors using the overlay method and recombined afterwards using the likelihood ratio model. They were verified by comparison with test mineral deposit locations. The verification revealed that the combined mineral potential map had the greatest accuracy (83.97%), whereas it was 72.24%, 65.85%, 72.23% and 71.02% for the likelihood ratio, weight of evidence, logistic regression and artificial neural network models, respectively. The mineral potential map can provide useful information for the mineral resource development.

  8. Adhesion mapping of chemically modified and poly(ethylene oxide)-grafted glass surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Jogikalmath, G.; Stuart, J.K.; Pungor, A.; Hlady, V.

    1999-01-01

    Two-dimensional mapping of the adhesion pull-off forces was used to study the origin of surface heterogeneity in the grafted poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) layer. The variance of the pull-off forces measured over the μm-sized regions after each chemical step of modifying glass surfaces was taken to be a measure of the surface chemical heterogeneity. The attachment of γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy silane (GPS) to glass decreased the pull-off forces relative to the clean glass and made the surface mo...

  9. Surface contact potential patches and Casimir force measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. J.; Sushkov, A. O.; Lamoreaux, S. K.; Dalvit, D. A. R.

    2010-01-01

    We present calculations of contact potential surface patch effects that simplify previous treatments. It is shown that, because of the linearity of Laplace's equation, the presence of patch potentials does not affect an electrostatic calibration of a two-plate Casimir measurement apparatus. Using models that include long-range variations in the contact potential across the plate surfaces, a number of experimental observations can be reproduced and explained. For these models, numerical calculations show that if a voltage is applied between the plates which minimizes the force, a residual electrostatic force persists, and that the minimizing potential varies with distance. The residual force can be described by a fit to a simple two-parameter function involving the minimizing potential and its variation with distance. We show the origin of this residual force by use of a simple parallel capacitor model. Finally, the implications of a residual force that varies in a manner different from 1/d on the accuracy of previous Casimir measurements is discussed.

  10. He-, Ne-, and Ar-phosgene intermolecular potential energy surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munteanu, Cristian R.; Henriksen, Christian; Felker, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Using the CCSD(T) model, we evaluated the intermolecular potential energy surfaces of the He-, Ne-, and Ar-phosgene complexes. We considered a representative number of intermolecular geometries for which we calculated the corresponding interaction energies with the augmented (He complex) and doub...... of the complexes, providing valuable results for future experimental investigations. Comparing our results to those previously available for other phosgene complexes, we suggest that the results for Cl2-phosgene should be revised....

  11. Electronic structure, molecular bonding and potential energy surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedenberg, K. [Ames Laboratory, IA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    By virtue of the universal validity of the generalized Born-Oppenheimer separation, potential energy surfaces (PES`) represent the central conceptual as well as quantitative entities of chemical physics and provide the basis for the understanding of most physicochemical phenomena in many diverse fields. The research in this group deals with the elucidation of general properties of PES` as well as with the quantitative determination of PES` for concrete systems, in particular pertaining to reactions involving carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen molecules.

  12. Surface deformation during an action potential in pearled cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussel, Matan; Fillafer, Christian; Ben-Porath, Gal; Schneider, Matthias F.

    2017-11-01

    Electric pulses in biological cells (action potentials) have been reported to be accompanied by a propagating cell-surface deformation with a nanoscale amplitude. Typically, this cell surface is covered by external layers of polymer material (extracellular matrix, cell wall material, etc.). It was recently demonstrated in excitable plant cells (Chara braunii) that the rigid external layer (cell wall) hinders the underlying deformation. When the cell membrane was separated from the cell wall by osmosis, a mechanical deformation, in the micrometer range, was observed upon excitation of the cell. The underlying mechanism of this mechanical pulse has, to date, remained elusive. Herein we report that Chara cells can undergo a pearling instability, and when the pearled fragments were excited even larger and more regular cell shape changes were observed (˜10 -100 μ m in amplitude). These transient cellular deformations were captured by a curvature model that is based on three parameters: surface tension, bending rigidity, and pressure difference across the surface. In this paper these parameters are extracted by curve-fitting to the experimental cellular shapes at rest and during excitation. This is a necessary step to identify the mechanical parameters that change during an action potential.

  13. Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces and computational methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, R. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project involves the development, implementation, and application of theoretical methods for the calculation and characterization of potential energy surfaces involving molecular species that occur in hydrocarbon combustion. These potential energy surfaces require an accurate and balanced treatment of reactants, intermediates, and products. This difficult challenge is met with general multiconfiguration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) and multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) methods. In contrast to the more common single-reference electronic structure methods, this approach is capable of describing accurately molecular systems that are highly distorted away from their equilibrium geometries, including reactant, fragment, and transition-state geometries, and of describing regions of the potential surface that are associated with electronic wave functions of widely varying nature. The MCSCF reference wave functions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to describe qualitatively the changes in the electronic structure over the broad range of geometries of interest. The necessary mixing of ionic, covalent, and Rydberg contributions, along with the appropriate treatment of the different electron-spin components (e.g. closed shell, high-spin open-shell, low-spin open shell, radical, diradical, etc.) of the wave functions, are treated correctly at this level. Further treatment of electron correlation effects is included using large scale multireference CI wave functions, particularly including the single and double excitations relative to the MCSCF reference space. This leads to the most flexible and accurate large-scale MRSDCI wave functions that have been used to date in global PES studies.

  14. Mapping current and potential distribution of non-native Prosopis juliflora in the Afar region of Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewodros T Wakie

    Full Text Available We used correlative models with species occurrence points, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS vegetation indices, and topo-climatic predictors to map the current distribution and potential habitat of invasive Prosopis juliflora in Afar, Ethiopia. Time-series of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Indices (EVI and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI with 250 m2 spatial resolution were selected as remote sensing predictors for mapping distributions, while WorldClim bioclimatic products and generated topographic variables from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission product (SRTM were used to predict potential infestations. We ran Maxent models using non-correlated variables and the 143 species- occurrence points. Maxent generated probability surfaces were converted into binary maps using the 10-percentile logistic threshold values. Performances of models were evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve (AUC. Our results indicate that the extent of P. juliflora invasion is approximately 3,605 km2 in the Afar region (AUC  = 0.94, while the potential habitat for future infestations is 5,024 km2 (AUC  = 0.95. Our analyses demonstrate that time-series of MODIS vegetation indices and species occurrence points can be used with Maxent modeling software to map the current distribution of P. juliflora, while topo-climatic variables are good predictors of potential habitat in Ethiopia. Our results can quantify current and future infestations, and inform management and policy decisions for containing P. juliflora. Our methods can also be replicated for managing invasive species in other East African countries.

  15. Mapping current and potential distribution of non-native Prosopis juliflora in the Afar region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakie, Tewodros T; Evangelista, Paul H; Jarnevich, Catherine S; Laituri, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    We used correlative models with species occurrence points, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices, and topo-climatic predictors to map the current distribution and potential habitat of invasive Prosopis juliflora in Afar, Ethiopia. Time-series of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Indices (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) with 250 m2 spatial resolution were selected as remote sensing predictors for mapping distributions, while WorldClim bioclimatic products and generated topographic variables from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission product (SRTM) were used to predict potential infestations. We ran Maxent models using non-correlated variables and the 143 species- occurrence points. Maxent generated probability surfaces were converted into binary maps using the 10-percentile logistic threshold values. Performances of models were evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Our results indicate that the extent of P. juliflora invasion is approximately 3,605 km2 in the Afar region (AUC  = 0.94), while the potential habitat for future infestations is 5,024 km2 (AUC  = 0.95). Our analyses demonstrate that time-series of MODIS vegetation indices and species occurrence points can be used with Maxent modeling software to map the current distribution of P. juliflora, while topo-climatic variables are good predictors of potential habitat in Ethiopia. Our results can quantify current and future infestations, and inform management and policy decisions for containing P. juliflora. Our methods can also be replicated for managing invasive species in other East African countries.

  16. Investigation of the surface potential of TiO2 (110) by frequency-modulation Kelvin probe force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Lili; Li, Yan Jun; Kamijyo, Takeshi; Naitoh, Yoshitaka; Sugawara, Yasuhiro

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the surface potential distribution on a TiO2 (110)-1 × 1 surface by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and atom-dependent bias-distance spectroscopic mapping. The experimental results demonstrate that the local contact potential difference increases on twofold-coordinated oxygen sites, and decreases on OH defects and fivefold-coordinated Ti sites. We propose a qualitative model to explain the origin of the surface potential of TiO2 (110). We qualitatively calculate the surface potential induced by chemical potential and permanent surface dipole. The calculated results agree with our experimental ones. Therefore, we suggest that the surface potential of TiO2 (110) is dominated not only by the permanent surface dipole between the tip apex atom and surface, but also by the dipoles induced by the chemical interaction between the tip and sample. The KPFM technique demonstrate the possibility of investigation of the charge transfer phenomenon on TiO2 surface under gas conditions. It is useful for the elucidation of the mechanism of the catalytic reactions.

  17. A Simple Numerical Body Surface Mapping Parameter Signifies Successful Percutaneous Coronary Artery Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyi, Gábor; Kirschner, Róbert; Szűcs, Endre; Préda, István; Duray, Gábor; Medvegy, Nóra; Horvath, Bálint; Medvegy, Mihály

    2016-03-01

    In coronary artery disease (CAD), body surface potential mapping (BSPM) may reveal minor electrical potential changes appearing in the depolarization phase even if pathological changes are absent on the conventional 12-lead ECG. We hypothesized that a simple BSPM parameter, Max/Min signifies successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Ninety-two adult Caucasian patients with stable CAD and positive exercise test underwent coronary angiography. Seventy patients (age, 59 ± 8; 46 males) were revascularized by PCI (left anterior descending [LAD] in 38, right [RCA] in 17 and left circumflex [LCX] coronary artery in 15). Control groups contained 22 patients (age, 60 ± 8; 14 males) without intervention and 35 healthy subjects (age, 58 ± 2; 15 males). Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, transthoracic echocardiography) and Max/Min BSPM parameter (63-lead Montreal system) were evaluated before and 4-40 days following coronary angiography. Max/Min was defined by the ratio of the highest maximum to the deepest minimum potential of all leads recorded by BSPM. Before PCI, Max/Min value of patients with LAD lesion (0.83 [0.74; 0.93]) was significantly lower while that with RCA lesion (1.63 [1.35; 1.99]) was significantly higher than that of healthy group (1.01 [0.970; 1.13]) (P intervention. LVEF significantly increased (from 46.50% [43.00; 51.00] to 49.00% [46.00; 51.00]) only after LAD PCI. Max/Min parameter is suitable to follow patients after LAD and RCA PCI. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Guided selective deposition of nanoparticles by tuning of the surface potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklöf, J.; Stolaś, A.; Herzberg, M.; Pekkari, A.; Tebikachew, B.; Gschneidtner, T.; Lara-Avila, S.; Hassenkam, T.; Moth-Poulsen, K.

    2017-07-01

    Guided deposition of nanoparticles onto different substrates is of great importance for a variety of applications such as biosensing, targeted cancer therapy, anti-bacterial coatings and single molecular electronics. It is therefore important to gain an understanding of what parameters are involved in the deposition of nanoparticles. In this work we have deposited 60 nm, negatively charged, citrate stabilized gold nanoparticles onto microstructures consisting of six different materials, (vanadium (V), silicon dioxide (SiO2), gold (Au), aluminum (Al), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni)). The samples have then been investigated by scanning electron microscopy to extract the particle density. The surface potential was calculated from the measured surface charge density maps measured by atomic force microscopy while the samples were submerged in a KCl water solution. These values were compared with literature values of the isoelectric points (IEP) of different oxides formed on the metals in an ambient environment. According to measurements, Al had the highest surface potential followed by Ni and Cu. The same trend was observed for the nanoparticle densities. No particles were found on V, SiO2 and Au. The literature values of the IEP showed a different trend compared to the surface potential measurements concluding that IEP is not a reliable parameter for the prediction of NP deposition. Contribution to the Focus Issue Self-assemblies of Inorganic and Organic Nanomaterials edited by Marie-Paule Pileni.

  19. Nuclear momentum distribution and potential energy surface in hexagonal ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Morrone, Joseph; Car, Roberto; Parrinello, Michele

    2011-03-01

    The proton momentum distribution in ice Ih has been recently measured by deep inelastic neutron scattering and calculated from open path integral Car-Parrinello simulation. Here we report a detailed investigation of the relation between momentum distribution and potential energy surface based on both experiment and simulation results. The potential experienced by the proton is largely harmonic and characterized by 3 principal frequencies, which can be associated to weighted averages of phonon frequencies via lattice dynamics calculations. This approach also allows us to examine the importance of quantum effects on the dynamics of the oxygen nuclei close to the melting temperature. Finally we quantify the anharmonicity that is present in the potential acting on the protons. This work is supported by NSF and by DOE.

  20. Intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of propane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Robert

    2017-03-21

    A six-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for the interaction of two rigid propane molecules was determined from supermolecular ab initio calculations up to the coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations level of theory for 9452 configurations. An analytical site-site potential function with 14 sites per molecule was fitted to the calculated interaction energies. To validate the analytical PES, the second virial coefficient and the dilute gas shear viscosity and thermal conductivity of propane were computed. The dispersion part of the potential function was slightly adjusted such that quantitative agreement with the most accurate experimental data for the second virial coefficient at room temperature was achieved. The adjusted PES yields values for the three properties that are in very good agreement with the best experimental data at all temperatures.

  1. MRD-CI potential surfaces using balanced basis sets. IV. The H2 molecule and the H3 surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J.S.; Kruus, E.

    1986-01-01

    The utility of midbond functions in molecular calculations was tested in two cases where the correct results are known: the H 2 potential curve and the collinear H 3 potential surface. For H 2 , a variety of basis sets both with and without bond functions was compared to the exact nonrelativistic potential curve of Kolos and Wolniewicz [J. Chem. Phys. 43, 2429 (1965)]. It was found that optimally balanced basis sets at two levels of quality were the double zeta single polarization plus sp bond function basis (BF1) and the triple zeta double polarization plus two sets of sp bond function basis (BF2). These gave bond dissociation energies D/sub e/ = 4.7341 and 4.7368 eV, respectively (expt. 4.7477 eV). Four basis sets were tested for basis set superposition errors, which were found to be small relative to basis set incompleteness and therefore did not affect any conclusions regarding basis set balance. Basis sets BF1 and BF2 were used to construct potential surfaces for collinear H 3 , along with the corresponding basis sets DZ*P and TZ*PP which contain no bond functions. Barrier heights of 12.52, 10.37, 10.06, and 9.96 kcal/mol were obtained for basis sets DZ*P, TZ*PP, BF1, and BF2, respectively, compared to an estimated limiting value of 9.60 kcal/mol. Difference maps, force constants, and relative rms deviations show that the bond functions improve the surface shape as well as the barrier height

  2. Globalland30 Mapping Capacity of Land Surface Water in Thessaly, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Manakos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Geomatics Center of China (NGCC produced Global Land Cover (GlobalLand30 maps with 30 m spatial resolution for the years 2000 and 2009–2010, responding to the need for harmonized, accurate, and high-resolution global land cover data. This study aims to assess the mapping accuracy of the land surface water layer of GlobalLand30 for 2009–2010. A representative Mediterranean region, situated in Greece, is considered as the case study area, with 2009 as the reference year. The assessment is realized through an object-based comparison of the GlobalLand30 water layer with the ground truth and visually interpreted data from the Hellenic Cadastre fine spatial resolution (0.5 m orthophoto map layer. GlobCover 2009, GlobCorine 2009, and GLCNMO 2008 corresponding thematic layers are utilized to show and quantify the progress brought along with the increment of the spatial resolution, from 500 m to 300 m and finally to 30 m with the newly produced GlobalLand30 maps. GlobalLand30 detected land surface water areas show a 91.9% overlap with the reference data, while the coarser resolution products are restricted to lower accuracies. Validation is extended to the drainage network elements, i.e., rivers and streams, where GlobalLand30 outperforms the other global map products, as well.

  3. Dynamic Electron Correlation Effects on the Ground State Potential Energy Surface of a Retinal Chromophore Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozem, Samer; Huntress, Mark; Schapiro, Igor; Lindh, Roland; Granovsky, Alexander A; Angeli, Celestino; Olivucci, Massimo

    2012-11-13

    The ground state potential energy surface of the retinal chromophore of visual pigments (e.g., bovine rhodopsin) features a low-lying conical intersection surrounded by regions with variable charge-transfer and diradical electronic structures. This implies that dynamic electron correlation may have a large effect on the shape of the force fields driving its reactivity. To investigate this effect, we focus on mapping the potential energy for three paths located along the ground state CASSCF potential energy surface of the penta-2,4-dieniminium cation taken as a minimal model of the retinal chromophore. The first path spans the bond length alternation coordinate and intercepts a conical intersection point. The other two are minimum energy paths along two distinct but kinetically competitive thermal isomerization coordinates. We show that the effect of introducing the missing dynamic electron correlation variationally (with MRCISD) and perturbatively (with the CASPT2, NEVPT2, and XMCQDPT2 methods) leads, invariably, to a stabilization of the regions with charge transfer character and to a significant reshaping of the reference CASSCF potential energy surface and suggesting a change in the dominating isomerization mechanism. The possible impact of such a correction on the photoisomerization of the retinal chromophore is discussed.

  4. Surface materials map of Afghanistan: iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Dudek, Kathleen B.; Livo, Keith E.

    2012-01-01

    This map shows the distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of HyMap imaging spectrometer data of Afghanistan. Using a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) WB-57 aircraft flown at an altitude of ~15,240 meters or ~50,000 feet, 218 flight lines of data were collected over Afghanistan between August 22 and October 2, 2007. The HyMap data were converted to apparent surface reflectance, then further empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap data was compared to the spectral features of reference entries in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, ice, and snow. This map shows the spatial distribution of iron-bearing minerals and other materials having diagnostic absorptions at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. These absorptions result from electronic processes in the minerals. Several criteria, including (1) the reliability of detection and discrimination of minerals using the HyMap spectrometer data, (2) the relative abundance of minerals, and (3) the importance of particular minerals to studies of Afghanistan's natural resources, guided the selection of entries in the reference spectral library and, therefore, guided the selection of mineral classes shown on this map. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated. Minerals having similar spectral features were less easily discriminated, especially where the minerals were not particularly abundant and (or) where vegetation cover reduced the absorption strength of mineral features. Complications in reflectance calibration also affected the detection and identification of minerals.

  5. Surface materials map of Afghanistan: carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Dudek, Kathleen B.; Livo, Keith E.

    2012-01-01

    This map shows the distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of HyMap imaging spectrometer data of Afghanistan. Using a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) WB-57 aircraft flown at an altitude of ~15,240 meters or ~50,000 feet, 218 flight lines of data were collected over Afghanistan between August 22 and October 2, 2007. The HyMap data were converted to apparent surface reflectance, then further empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap data was compared to the spectral features of reference entries in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, ice, and snow. This map shows the spatial distribution of minerals that have diagnostic absorption features in the shortwave infrared wavelengths. These absorption features result primarily from characteristic chemical bonds and mineralogical vibrations. Several criteria, including (1) the reliability of detection and discrimination of minerals using the HyMap spectrometer data, (2) the relative abundance of minerals, and (3) the importance of particular minerals to studies of Afghanistan's natural resources, guided the selection of entries in the reference spectral library and, therefore, guided the selection of mineral classes shown on this map. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated. Minerals having similar spectral features were less easily discriminated, especially where the minerals were not particularly abundant and (or) where vegetation cover reduced the absorption strength of mineral features. Complications in reflectance calibration also affected the detection and identification of minerals.

  6. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in the musi basin using remote sensing data and gis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganapuram, Sreedhar; Vijaya Kumar, G.T.; Murali Krishna, I.V.; Kahya, Ercan; Demirel, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the groundwater availability for agriculture in the Musi basin. Remote sensing data and geographic information system were used to locate potential zones for groundwater in the Musi basin. Various maps (i.e., base, hydrogeomorphological, geological,

  7. Using the Large Fire Simulator System to map wildland fire potential for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaWen Hollingsworth; James Menakis

    2010-01-01

    This project mapped wildland fire potential (WFP) for the conterminous United States by using the large fire simulation system developed for Fire Program Analysis (FPA) System. The large fire simulation system, referred to here as LFSim, consists of modules for weather generation, fire occurrence, fire suppression, and fire growth modeling. Weather was generated with...

  8. Potential effects of groundwater and surface water contamination in an urban area, Qus City, Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Fathy; Khalil, Ramadan

    2018-05-01

    The potential effects of anthropogenic activities, in particular, unsafe sewage disposal practices, on shallow groundwater in an unconfined aquifer and on surface water were evaluated within an urban area by the use of hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and bacteriological analyses. Physicochemical and bacteriological data was obtained from forty-five sampling points based on33 groundwater samples from variable depths and 12 surface water samples. The pollution sources are related to raw sewage and wastewater discharges, agricultural runoff, and wastewater from the nearby Paper Factory. Out of the 33 groundwater samples studied, 17 had significant concentrations of NO3-, Cl- and SO42-, and high bacteria counts. Most of the water samples from the wells contained high Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr. The majority of surface water samples presented high NO3- concentrations and high bacteria counts. A scatter plot of HCO3- versus Ca indicates that 58% of the surface water samples fall within the extreme contamination zone, while the others are within the mixing zone; whereas 94% of groundwater samples showed evidence of mixing between groundwater and wastewater. The bacteriological assessment showed that all measured surface and groundwater samples contained Escherichia coli and total coliform bacteria. A risk map delineated four classes of contamination, namely, those sampling points with high (39.3%), moderate (36.3%), low (13.3%), and very low (11.1%) levels of contamination. Most of the highest pollution points were in the middle part of the urban area, which suffers from unmanaged sewage and industrial effluents. Overall, the results demonstrate that surface and groundwater in Qus City are at high risk of contamination by wastewater since the water table is shallow and there is a lack of a formal sanitation network infrastructure. The product risk map is a useful tool for prioritizing zones that require immediate mitigation and monitoring.

  9. The inventorying and mapping of landslide potential in Manado – Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithel Kumajas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Landslide constitutes a frequent problem occurs in Manado. It happens for many times from year to year and brings both material disadvantage and casualty. The way and hilly topography of Manado, unstabel geological condition, high rainfall, and the improper land use are assumed to be the trigger for the problem. The objective of this study is to inventory and map landslide potential area as well as to design the preventive plan. Mapping method employs spatial approach by using land unit as the analysis unit. The technique of analysis applies the assistance of GIS with its ArcView soft ware. The result of mapping shows that the level landslide potential from potential until very potential category in Manado is 1.815,72 Ha; potential is 1282,10 ha and very potential category is 533,62 ha. The faktors cause the landslide comprise of rocky declivity, high rainfall, and the condition of stone as well as the unstabel and porous soil. The existence of Cesar zone extends to the center of the city and the use of settlement land located in improper zone become the trigger that quicken the occurrence of landslide. The strategy implemented to manage the landslide potential area can be carried out through 1 law enforcement in relation to city lay out, 2 landslide prevention through civil and vegetative technique, 3 the improvement of social consciousness of the danger of landslide disaster and the attempt for social empowerment, and 4 the provision of the landslide potential danger map as the ground for policy making in the effort to manage the landslide disaster.

  10. Measuring surface flow velocity with smartphones: potential for citizen observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, Steven V.; Chen, Zichong; Brauchli, Tristan; Huwald, Hendrik

    2014-05-01

    Stream flow velocity is an important variable for discharge estimation and research on sediment dynamics. Given the influence of the latter on rating curves (stage-discharge relations), and the relative scarcity of direct streamflow measurements, surface velocity measurements can offer important information for, e.g., flood warning, hydropower, and hydrological science and engineering in general. With the growing amount of sensing and computing power in the hands of more outdoorsy individuals, and the advances in image processing techniques, there is now a tremendous potential to obtain hydrologically relevant data from motivated citizens. This is the main focus of the interdisciplinary "WeSenseIt" project, a citizen observatory of water. In this subproject, we investigate the feasibility of stream flow surface velocity measurements from movie clips taken by (smartphone-) cameras. First results from movie-clip derived velocity information will be shown and compared to reference measurements.

  11. Physisorption of an electron in deep surface potentials off a dielectric surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, R. L.; Bronold, F. X.; Fehske, H.

    2011-01-01

    We study phonon-mediated adsorption and desorption of an electron at dielectric surfaces with deep polarization-induced surface potentials where multiphonon transitions are responsible for electron energy relaxation. Focusing on multiphonon processes due to the nonlinearity of the coupling between the external electron and the acoustic bulk phonon triggering the transitions between surface states, we calculate electron desorption times for graphite, MgO, CaO, Al 2 O 3 , and SiO 2 and electron sticking coefficients for Al 2 O 3 , CaO, and SiO 2 . To reveal the kinetic stages of electron physisorption, we moreover study the time evolution of the image-state occupancy and the energy-resolved desorption flux. Depending on the potential depth and the surface temperature, we identify two generic scenarios: (i) adsorption via trapping in shallow image states followed by relaxation to the lowest image state and desorption from that state via a cascade through the second strongly bound image state in not too deep potentials, and (ii) adsorption via trapping in shallow image states but followed by a relaxation bottleneck retarding the transition to the lowest image state and desorption from that state via a one-step process to the continuum in deep potentials.

  12. GIS based optimal impervious surface map generation using various spatial data for urban nonpoint source management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cholyoung; Kim, Kyehyun; Lee, Hyuk

    2018-01-15

    Impervious surfaces are mainly artificial structures such as rooftops, roads, and parking lots that are covered by impenetrable materials. These surfaces are becoming the major causes of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution in urban areas. The rapid progress of urban development is increasing the total amount of impervious surfaces and NPS pollution. Therefore, many cities worldwide have adopted a stormwater utility fee (SUF) that generates funds needed to manage NPS pollution. The amount of SUF is estimated based on the impervious ratio, which is calculated by dividing the total impervious surface area by the net area of an individual land parcel. Hence, in order to identify the exact impervious ratio, large-scale impervious surface maps (ISMs) are necessary. This study proposes and assesses various methods for generating large-scale ISMs for urban areas by using existing GIS data. Bupyeong-gu, a district in the city of Incheon, South Korea, was selected as the study area. Spatial data that were freely offered by national/local governments in S. Korea were collected. First, three types of ISMs were generated by using the land-cover map, digital topographic map, and orthophotographs, to validate three methods that had been proposed conceptually by Korea Environment Corporation. Then, to generate an ISM of higher accuracy, an integration method using all data was proposed. Error matrices were made and Kappa statistics were calculated to evaluate the accuracy. Overlay analyses were performed to examine the distribution of misclassified areas. From the results, the integration method delivered the highest accuracy (Kappa statistic of 0.99) compared to the three methods that use a single type of spatial data. However, a longer production time and higher cost were limiting factors. Among the three methods using a single type of data, the land-cover map showed the highest accuracy with a Kappa statistic of 0.91. Thus, it was judged that the mapping method using the land

  13. Spatial data analysis and integration for regional-scale geothermal potential mapping, West Java, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Barritt, Sally D. [Department of Earth Systems Analysis, International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Enschede (Netherlands); Wibowo, Hendro; Sumintadireja, Prihadi [Laboratory of Volcanology and Geothermal, Geology Department, Institute of Technology Bandung (ITB), Bandung (Indonesia)

    2008-06-15

    Conceptual modeling and predictive mapping of potential for geothermal resources at the regional-scale in West Java are supported by analysis of the spatial distribution of geothermal prospects and thermal springs, and their spatial associations with geologic features derived from publicly available regional-scale spatial data sets. Fry analysis shows that geothermal occurrences have regional-scale spatial distributions that are related to Quaternary volcanic centers and shallow earthquake epicenters. Spatial frequency distribution analysis shows that geothermal occurrences have strong positive spatial associations with Quaternary volcanic centers, Quaternary volcanic rocks, quasi-gravity lows, and NE-, NNW-, WNW-trending faults. These geological features, with their strong positive spatial associations with geothermal occurrences, constitute spatial recognition criteria of regional-scale geothermal potential in a study area. Application of data-driven evidential belief functions in GIS-based predictive mapping of regional-scale geothermal potential resulted in delineation of high potential zones occupying 25% of West Java, which is a substantial reduction of the search area for further exploration of geothermal resources. The predicted high potential zones delineate about 53-58% of the training geothermal areas and 94% of the validated geothermal occurrences. The results of this study demonstrate the value of regional-scale geothermal potential mapping in: (a) data-poor situations, such as West Java, and (b) regions with geotectonic environments similar to the study area. (author)

  14. Pharmaceutical and biomedical potential of surface engineered dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Jitendra; Gupta, Umesh; Jain, Narendra Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Dendrimers are hyperbranched, globular, monodisperse, nanometric polymeric architecture, having definite molecular weight, shape, and size (which make these an inimitable and optimum carrier molecule in pharmaceutical field). Dendritic architecture is having immense potential over the other carrier systems, particularly in the field of drug delivery because of their unique properties, such as structural uniformity, high purity, efficient membrane transport, high drug pay load, targeting potential, and good colloidal, biological, and shelf stability. Despite their enormous applicability in different areas, the inherent cytotoxicity, reticuloendothelial system (RES) uptake, drug leakage, immunogenicity, and hemolytic toxicity restricted their use in clinical applications, which is primarily associated with cationic charge present on the periphery due to amine groups. To overcome this toxic nature of dendrimers, some new types of nontoxic, biocompatible, and biodegradable dendrimers have been developed (e.g., polyester dendrimer, citric acid dendrimer, arginine dendrimer, carbohydrate dendrimers, etc.). The surface engineering of parent dendrimers is graceful and convenient strategy, which not only shields the positive charge to make this carrier more biomimetic but also improves the physicochemical and biological behavior of parent dendrimers. Thus, surface modification chemistry of parent dendrimers holds promise in pharmaceutical applications (such as solubilization, improved drug encapsulation, enhanced gene transfection, sustained and controlled drug release, intracellular targeting) and in the diagnostic field. Development of multifunctional dendrimer holds greater promise toward the biomedical applications because a number of targeting ligands determine specificity in the same manner as another type of group would secure stability in biological milieu and prolonged circulation, whereas others facilitate their transport through cell membranes. Therefore, as a

  15. Wide-Baseline Stereo-Based Obstacle Mapping for Unmanned Surface Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Xiaozheng; Wang, Han

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a wide-baseline stereo-based static obstacle mapping approach for unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). The proposed approach eliminates the complicated calibration work and the bulky rig in our previous binocular stereo system, and raises the ranging ability from 500 to 1000 m with a even larger baseline obtained from the motion of USVs. Integrating a monocular camera with GPS and compass information in this proposed system, the world locations of the detected static obstacles are reconstructed while the USV is traveling, and an obstacle map is then built. To achieve more accurate and robust performance, multiple pairs of frames are leveraged to synthesize the final reconstruction results in a weighting model. Experimental results based on our own dataset demonstrate the high efficiency of our system. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to address the task of wide-baseline stereo-based obstacle mapping in a maritime environment. PMID:29617293

  16. Riemannian metric optimization on surfaces (RMOS) for intrinsic brain mapping in the Laplace-Beltrami embedding space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahm, Jin Kyu; Shi, Yonggang

    2018-05-01

    Surface mapping methods play an important role in various brain imaging studies from tracking the maturation of adolescent brains to mapping gray matter atrophy patterns in Alzheimer's disease. Popular surface mapping approaches based on spherical registration, however, have inherent numerical limitations when severe metric distortions are present during the spherical parameterization step. In this paper, we propose a novel computational framework for intrinsic surface mapping in the Laplace-Beltrami (LB) embedding space based on Riemannian metric optimization on surfaces (RMOS). Given a diffeomorphism between two surfaces, an isometry can be defined using the pullback metric, which in turn results in identical LB embeddings from the two surfaces. The proposed RMOS approach builds upon this mathematical foundation and achieves general feature-driven surface mapping in the LB embedding space by iteratively optimizing the Riemannian metric defined on the edges of triangular meshes. At the core of our framework is an optimization engine that converts an energy function for surface mapping into a distance measure in the LB embedding space, which can be effectively optimized using gradients of the LB eigen-system with respect to the Riemannian metrics. In the experimental results, we compare the RMOS algorithm with spherical registration using large-scale brain imaging data, and show that RMOS achieves superior performance in the prediction of hippocampal subfields and cortical gyral labels, and the holistic mapping of striatal surfaces for the construction of a striatal connectivity atlas from substantia nigra. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Surface characterization of hemodialysis membranes based on streaming potential measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C; Jacobasch, H J; Reichelt, G

    1995-01-01

    Hemodialysis membranes made from cellulose (CUPROPHAN, HEMOPHAN) and sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES) were characterized using the streaming potential technique to determine the zeta potential at their interfaces against well-defined aqueous solutions of varied pH and potassium chloride concentrations. Streaming potential measurements enable distinction between different membrane materials. In addition to parameters of the electrochemical double layer at membrane interfaces, thermodynamic characteristics of adsorption of different solved species were evaluated. For that aim a description of double layer formation as suggested by Börner and Jacobasch (in: Electrokinetic Phenomena, p. 231. Institut für Technologie der Polymere, Dresden (1989)) was applied which is based on the generally accepted model of the electrochemical double layer according to Stern (Z. Elektrochemie 30, 508 (1924)) and Grahame (Chem. Rev. 41, 441 (1947)). The membranes investigated show different surface acidic/basic and polar/nonpolar behavior. Furthermore, alterations of membrane interfaces through adsorption processes of components of biologically relevant solutions were shown to be detectable by streaming potential measurements.

  18. Forces on nuclei moving on autoionizing molecular potential energy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2017-01-14

    Autoionization of molecular systems occurs in diatomic molecules and in small biochemical systems. Quantum chemistry packages enable calculation of complex potential energy surfaces (CPESs). The imaginary part of the CPES is associated with the autoionization decay rate, which is a function of the molecular structure. Molecular dynamics simulations, within the framework of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, require the definition of a force field. The ability to calculate the forces on the nuclei in bio-systems when autoionization takes place seems to rely on an understanding of radiative damages in RNA and DNA arising from the release of slow moving electrons which have long de Broglie wavelengths. This work addresses calculation of the real forces on the nuclei moving on the CPES. By using the transformation of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, previously used by Madelung, we proved that the classical forces on nuclei moving on the CPES correlated with the gradient of the real part of the CPES. It was proved that the force on the nuclei of the metastable molecules is time independent although the probability to detect metastable molecules exponentially decays. The classical force is obtained from the transformed Schrödinger equation when ℏ=0 and the Schrödinger equation is reduced to the classical (Newtonian) equations of motion. The forces on the nuclei regardless on what potential energy surface they move (parent CPES or product real PESs) vary in time due to the autoionization process.

  19. Mapping surface charge density of lipid bilayers by quantitative surface conductivity microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Lasse Hyldgaard; Fuhs, Thomas; Dong, Mingdong

    2016-01-01

    Local surface charge density of lipid membranes influences membrane-protein interactions leading to distinct functions in all living cells, and it is a vital parameter in understanding membrane-binding mechanisms, liposome design and drug delivery. Despite the significance, no method has so far...

  20. Conductance maps of quantum rings due to a local potential perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, M D; Peeters, F M; Chaves, A; Farias, G A

    2013-12-11

    We performed a numerical simulation of the dynamics of a Gaussian shaped wavepacket inside a small sized quantum ring, smoothly connected to two leads and exposed to a perturbing potential of a biased atomic force microscope tip. Using the Landauer formalism, we calculated conductance maps of this system in the case of single and two subband transport. We explain the main features in the conductance maps as due to the AFM tip influence on the wavepacket phase and amplitude. In the presence of an external magnetic field, the tip modifies the ϕ0 periodic Aharonov-Bohm oscillation pattern into a ϕ0/2 periodic Al'tshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillation pattern. Our results in the case of multiband transport suggest tip selectivity to higher subbands, making them more observable in the total conductance map.

  1. Surface strain rate colour map of the Tatra Mountains region (Slovakia based on GNSS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednárik Martin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The surface deformation of the Tatra Mountains region in Western Carpathians can nowadays be studied directly thanks to precise geodetic measurements using the GNSS. The strain or stress tensor field is, however, a rather complex “data structure” difficult to present legibly and with sufficient resolution in the form of a classical map. A novel and promising approach to the solution of this problem is coding the three principal strain or stress values into the three colour channels (red, green, blue of an RGB colour. In our previous study, the colour depended on the stress tensor shape descriptors. In the current study, the adapted colouring scheme uses a subset of shape descriptors common to stress and strain, which differ only in the scaling factor. In this manner, we generate the colour map of the surface strain rate field, where the colour of each grid point carries the information about the shape of the strain rate tensor at that point. The resulting strain rate colour map can be displayed simultaneously with the map of the faults or elevations and be easily checked for the data or interpolation method errors and incompatibility with the geophysical and geological expectations.

  2. Note: Electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface with scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Xu, Chunkai; Zhang, Panke; Li, Zhean; Chen, Xiangjun

    2016-08-01

    We report a novel scanning probe electron energy spectrometer (SPEES) which combines a double toroidal analyzer with a scanning tunneling microscope to achieve both topography imaging and electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface in situ. The spatial resolution of spectroscopy mapping is determined to be better than 0.7 ± 0.2 μm at a tip sample distance of 7 μm. Meanwhile, the size of the field emission electron beam spot on the surface is also measured, and is about 3.6 ± 0.8 μm in diameter. This unambiguously demonstrates that the spatial resolution of SPEES technique can be much better than the size of the incident electron beam.

  3. Note: Electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface with scanning tunneling microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Meng; Xu, Chunkai, E-mail: xuck@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: xjun@ustc.edu.cn; Zhang, Panke; Li, Zhean; Chen, Xiangjun, E-mail: xuck@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: xjun@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China and Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2016-08-15

    We report a novel scanning probe electron energy spectrometer (SPEES) which combines a double toroidal analyzer with a scanning tunneling microscope to achieve both topography imaging and electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface in situ. The spatial resolution of spectroscopy mapping is determined to be better than 0.7 ± 0.2 μm at a tip sample distance of 7 μm. Meanwhile, the size of the field emission electron beam spot on the surface is also measured, and is about 3.6 ± 0.8 μm in diameter. This unambiguously demonstrates that the spatial resolution of SPEES technique can be much better than the size of the incident electron beam.

  4. Note: Electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface with scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Meng; Xu, Chunkai; Zhang, Panke; Li, Zhean; Chen, Xiangjun

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel scanning probe electron energy spectrometer (SPEES) which combines a double toroidal analyzer with a scanning tunneling microscope to achieve both topography imaging and electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface in situ. The spatial resolution of spectroscopy mapping is determined to be better than 0.7 ± 0.2 μm at a tip sample distance of 7 μm. Meanwhile, the size of the field emission electron beam spot on the surface is also measured, and is about 3.6 ± 0.8 μm in diameter. This unambiguously demonstrates that the spatial resolution of SPEES technique can be much better than the size of the incident electron beam.

  5. A Novel Sensory Mapping Design for Bipedal Walking on a Sloped Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao-Min Wu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an environment recognition method for bipedal robots using a time-delay neural network. For a robot to walk in a varying terrain, it is desirable that the robot can adapt to any environment encountered in real-time. This paper aims to develop a sensory mapping unit to recognize environment types from the input sensory data based on an artificial neural network approach. With the proposed sensory mapping design, a bipedal walking robot can obtain real-time environment information and select an appropriate walking pattern accordingly. Due to the time-dependent property of sensory data, the sensory mapping is realized by using a time-delay neural network. The sensory data of earlier time sequences combined with current sensory data are sent to the neural network. The proposed method has been implemented on the humanoid robot NAO for verification. Several interesting experiments were carried out to verify the effectiveness of the sensory mapping design. The mapping design is validated for the uphill, downhill and flat surface cases, where three types of environment can be recognized by the NAO robot online.

  6. Exploring the potential offered by legacy soil databases for ecosystem services mapping of Central African soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoodt, Ann; Baert, Geert; Van Ranst, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Central African soil resources are characterised by a large variability, ranging from stony, shallow or sandy soils with poor life-sustaining capabilities to highly weathered soils that recycle and support large amounts of biomass. Socio-economic drivers within this largely rural region foster inappropriate land use and management, threaten soil quality and finally culminate into a declining soil productivity and increasing food insecurity. For the development of sustainable land use strategies targeting development planning and natural hazard mitigation, decision makers often rely on legacy soil maps and soil profile databases. Recent development cooperation financed projects led to the design of soil information systems for Rwanda, D.R. Congo, and (ongoing) Burundi. A major challenge is to exploit these existing soil databases and convert them into soil inference systems through an optimal combination of digital soil mapping techniques, land evaluation tools, and biogeochemical models. This presentation aims at (1) highlighting some key characteristics of typical Central African soils, (2) assessing the positional, geographic and semantic quality of the soil information systems, and (3) revealing its potential impacts on the use of these datasets for thematic mapping of soil ecosystem services (e.g. organic carbon storage, pH buffering capacity). Soil map quality is assessed considering positional and semantic quality, as well as geographic completeness. Descriptive statistics, decision tree classification and linear regression techniques are used to mine the soil profile databases. Geo-matching as well as class-matching approaches are considered when developing thematic maps. Variability in inherent as well as dynamic soil properties within the soil taxonomic units is highlighted. It is hypothesized that within-unit variation in soil properties highly affects the use and interpretation of thematic maps for ecosystem services mapping. Results will mainly be based

  7. Mapping Surface Broadband Albedo from Satellite Observations: A Review of Literatures on Algorithms and Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Qu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface albedo is one of the key controlling geophysical parameters in the surface energy budget studies, and its temporal and spatial variation is closely related to the global climate change and regional weather system due to the albedo feedback mechanism. As an efficient tool for monitoring the surfaces of the Earth, remote sensing is widely used for deriving long-term surface broadband albedo with various geostationary and polar-orbit satellite platforms in recent decades. Moreover, the algorithms for estimating surface broadband albedo from satellite observations, including narrow-to-broadband conversions, bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF angular modeling, direct-estimation algorithm and the algorithms for estimating albedo from geostationary satellite data, are developed and improved. In this paper, we present a comprehensive literature review on algorithms and products for mapping surface broadband albedo with satellite observations and provide a discussion of different algorithms and products in a historical perspective based on citation analysis of the published literature. This paper shows that the observation technologies and accuracy requirement of applications are important, and long-term, global fully-covered (including land, ocean, and sea-ice surfaces, gap-free, surface broadband albedo products with higher spatial and temporal resolution are required for climate change, surface energy budget, and hydrological studies.

  8. Adhesion mapping of chemically modified and poly(ethylene oxide)-grafted glass surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogikalmath, G; Stuart, J K; Pungor, A; Hlady, V

    1999-08-01

    Two-dimensional mapping of the adhesion pull-off forces was used to study the origin of surface heterogeneity in the grafted poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) layer. The variance of the pull-off forces measured over the μm-sized regions after each chemical step of modifying glass surfaces was taken to be a measure of the surface chemical heterogeneity. The attachment of γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy silane (GPS) to glass decreased the pull-off forces relative to the clean glass and made the surface more uniform. The subsequent hydrolysis of the terminal epoxide groups resulted in a larger surface heterogeneity which was modeled by two populations of the terminal hydroxyl groups, each with its own distribution of adhesion forces and force variance. The activation of the hydroxyls with carbonyldiimmidazole (CDI) healed the surface and lowered its adhesion, however, the force variance remained rather large. Finally, the grafting of the α,ω-diamino poly(ethyleneoxide) chains to the CDI-activated glass largely eliminated adhesion except at a few discrete regions. The adhesion on the PEO grafted layer followed the Poisson distribution of the pull-off forces. With the exception of the glass surface, a correlation between the water contact angles and the mean pull-off forces measured with the Si(3)N(4) tip surfaces was found for all modified glass surfaces.

  9. Surface-wave potential for triggering tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    Source processes commonly posed to explain instances of remote dynamic triggering of tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor by surface waves include frictional failure and various modes of fluid activation. The relative potential for Love- and Rayleigh-wave dynamic stresses to trigger tectonic tremor through failure on critically stressed thrust and vertical strike-slip faults under the Coulomb-Griffith failure criteria as a function of incidence angle is anticorrelated over the 15- to 30-km-depth range that hosts tectonic tremor. Love-wave potential is high for strike-parallel incidence on low-angle reverse faults and null for strike-normal incidence; the opposite holds for Rayleigh waves. Love-wave potential is high for both strike-parallel and strike-normal incidence on vertical, strike-slip faults and minimal for ~45?? incidence angles. The opposite holds for Rayleigh waves. This pattern is consistent with documented instances of tremor triggered by Love waves incident on the Cascadia mega-thrust and the San Andreas fault (SAF) in central California resulting from shear failure on weak faults (apparent friction, ????? 0.2). However, documented instances of tremor triggered by surface waves with strike-parallel incidence along the Nankai megathrust beneath Shikoku, Japan, is associated primarily with Rayleigh waves. This is consistent with the tremor bursts resulting from mixed-mode failure (crack opening and shear failure) facilitated by near-lithostatic ambient pore pressure, low differential stress, with a moderate friction coefficient (?? ~ 0.6) on the Nankai subduction interface. Rayleigh-wave dilatational stress is relatively weak at tectonic tremor source depths and seems unlikely to contribute significantly to the triggering process, except perhaps for an indirect role on the SAF in sustaining tremor into the Rayleigh-wave coda that was initially triggered by Love waves.

  10. Mapping paddy rice planting areas through time series analysis of MODIS land surface temperature and vegetation index data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geli; Xiao, Xiangming; Dong, Jinwei; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Qin, Yuanwei; Zhou, Yuting; Wang, Jie; Menarguez, Michael Angelo; Biradar, Chandrashekhar

    2015-08-01

    Knowledge of the area and spatial distribution of paddy rice is important for assessment of food security, management of water resources, and estimation of greenhouse gas (methane) emissions. Paddy rice agriculture has expanded rapidly in northeastern China in the last decade, but there are no updated maps of paddy rice fields in the region. Existing algorithms for identifying paddy rice fields are based on the unique physical features of paddy rice during the flooding and transplanting phases and use vegetation indices that are sensitive to the dynamics of the canopy and surface water content. However, the flooding phenomena in high latitude area could also be from spring snowmelt flooding. We used land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to determine the temporal window of flooding and rice transplantation over a year to improve the existing phenology-based approach. Other land cover types (e.g., evergreen vegetation, permanent water bodies, and sparse vegetation) with potential influences on paddy rice identification were removed (masked out) due to their different temporal profiles. The accuracy assessment using high-resolution images showed that the resultant MODIS-derived paddy rice map of northeastern China in 2010 had a high accuracy (producer and user accuracies of 92% and 96%, respectively). The MODIS-based map also had a comparable accuracy to the 2010 Landsat-based National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) of China in terms of both area and spatial pattern. This study demonstrated that our improved algorithm by using both thermal and optical MODIS data, provides a robust, simple and automated approach to identify and map paddy rice fields in temperate and cold temperate zones, the northern frontier of rice planting.

  11. [Application Progress of Three-dimensional Laser Scanning Technology in Medical Surface Mapping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yonghong; Hou, He; Han, Yuchuan; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Xianfeng; Wang, Mingshi

    2016-04-01

    The booming three-dimensional laser scanning technology can efficiently and effectively get spatial three-dimensional coordinates of the detected object surface and reconstruct the image at high speed,high precision and large capacity of information.Non-radiation,non-contact and the ability of visualization make it increasingly popular in three-dimensional surface medical mapping.This paper reviews the applications and developments of three-dimensional laser scanning technology in medical field,especially in stomatology,plastic surgery and orthopedics.Furthermore,the paper also discusses the application prospects in the future as well as the biomedical engineering problems it would encounter with.

  12. Whole brain diffeomorphic metric mapping via integration of sulcal and gyral curves, cortical surfaces, and images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jia; Younes, Laurent; Qiu, Anqi

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm for whole brain registration where sulcal and gyral curves, cortical surfaces, and intensity images are simultaneously carried from one subject to another through a flow of diffeomorphisms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the diffeomorphic metric from one brain to another is derived in a shape space of intensity images and point sets (such as curves and surfaces) in a unified manner. We describe the Euler–Lagrange equation associated with this algorithm with respect to momentum, a linear transformation of the velocity vector field of the diffeomorphic flow. The numerical implementation for solving this variational problem, which involves large-scale kernel convolution in an irregular grid, is made feasible by introducing a class of computationally friendly kernels. We apply this algorithm to align magnetic resonance brain data. Our whole brain mapping results show that our algorithm outperforms the image-based LDDMM algorithm in terms of the mapping accuracy of gyral/sulcal curves, sulcal regions, and cortical and subcortical segmentation. Moreover, our algorithm provides better whole brain alignment than combined volumetric and surface registration (Postelnicu et al., 2009) and hierarchical attribute matching mechanism for elastic registration (HAMMER) (Shen and Davatzikos, 2002) in terms of cortical and subcortical volume segmentation. PMID:21281722

  13. Modelling and analysis of flux surface mapping experiments on W7-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazerson, Samuel; Otte, Matthias; Bozhenkov, Sergey; Sunn Pedersen, Thomas; Bräuer, Torsten; Gates, David; Neilson, Hutch; W7-X Team

    2015-11-01

    The measurement and compensation of error fields in W7-X will be key to the device achieving high beta steady state operations. Flux surface mapping utilizes the vacuum magnetic flux surfaces, a feature unique to stellarators and heliotrons, to allow direct measurement of magnetic topology, and thereby allows a highly accurate determination of remnant magnetic field errors. As will be reported separately at this meeting, the first measurements confirming the existence of nested flux surfaces in W7-X have been made. In this presentation, a synthetic diagnostic for the flux surface mapping diagnostic is presented. It utilizes Poincaré traces to construct an image of the flux surface consistent with the measured camera geometry, fluorescent rod sweep plane, and emitter beam position. Forward modeling of the high-iota configuration will be presented demonstrating an ability to measure the intrinsic error field using the U.S. supplied trim coil system on W7-X, and a first experimental assessment of error fields in W7-X will be presented. This work has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy.

  14. Real-space Mapping of Surface Trap States in CIGSe Nanocrystals using 4D Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Bose, Riya

    2016-05-26

    Surface trap states in semiconductor copper indium gallium selenide nanocrystals (NCs) which serve as undesirable channels for non-radiative carrier recombination, remain a great challenge impeding the development of solar and optoelectronics devices based on these NCs. In order to design efficient passivation techniques to minimize these trap states, a precise knowledge about the charge carrier dynamics on the NCs surface is essential. However, selective mapping of surface traps requires capabilities beyond the reach of conventional laser spectroscopy and static electron microscopy; it can only be accessed by using a one-of-a-kind, second-generation four-dimensional scanning ultrafast electron microscope (4D S-UEM) with sub-picosecond temporal and nanometer spatial resolutions. Here, we precisely map the surface charge carrier dynamics of copper indium gallium selenide NCs before and after surface passivation in real space and time using S-UEM. The time-resolved snapshots clearly demonstrate that the density of the trap states is significantly reduced after zinc sulfide (ZnS) shelling. Furthermore, removal of trap states and elongation of carrier lifetime are confirmed by the increased photocurrent of the self-biased photodetector fabricated using the shelled NCs.

  15. Real-space Mapping of Surface Trap States in CIGSe Nanocrystals using 4D Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Bose, Riya; Bera, Ashok; Parida, Manas R.; Adhikari, Aniruddha; Shaheen, Basamat; Alarousu, Erkki; Sun, Jingya; Wu, Tao; Bakr, Osman; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2016-01-01

    Surface trap states in semiconductor copper indium gallium selenide nanocrystals (NCs) which serve as undesirable channels for non-radiative carrier recombination, remain a great challenge impeding the development of solar and optoelectronics devices based on these NCs. In order to design efficient passivation techniques to minimize these trap states, a precise knowledge about the charge carrier dynamics on the NCs surface is essential. However, selective mapping of surface traps requires capabilities beyond the reach of conventional laser spectroscopy and static electron microscopy; it can only be accessed by using a one-of-a-kind, second-generation four-dimensional scanning ultrafast electron microscope (4D S-UEM) with sub-picosecond temporal and nanometer spatial resolutions. Here, we precisely map the surface charge carrier dynamics of copper indium gallium selenide NCs before and after surface passivation in real space and time using S-UEM. The time-resolved snapshots clearly demonstrate that the density of the trap states is significantly reduced after zinc sulfide (ZnS) shelling. Furthermore, removal of trap states and elongation of carrier lifetime are confirmed by the increased photocurrent of the self-biased photodetector fabricated using the shelled NCs.

  16. Map of natural gamma radiation in Spain: radiometric characterization of different types of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Mahou, E.; Fernandez Amigot, J.A.; Botas Medina, J.

    1997-01-01

    The gamma radioactivity flowing from ground and rocks is due to the presence in these of uranium, thorium and potassium-40. The method of radiometric characterization depends on the purpose of the undertaking. Radiometric characterization can be realized on big surfaces (tens or hundreds of square kilometres studied on a national scale), medium size surfaces (50 to 1000 square kilometres, for example, in epidemiological or biological studies in areas with a determined radiometric background) small surfaces of less than 50 square kilometres (industrial sites, pre-operational studies, etc.). This article considers aspects of radiometric characterization on surfaces of interest and describes the contribution of the MARNA (Natural Provisional Radiation Map of Spain) Project selection and radiometric characterization

  17. Potential and limitations of using soil mapping information to understand landscape hydrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Terribile

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the following points: how can whole soil data from normally available soil mapping databases (both conventional and those integrated by digital soil mapping procedures be usefully employed in hydrology? Answering this question requires a detailed knowledge of the quality and quantity of information embedded in and behind a soil map.

    To this end a description of the process of drafting soil maps was prepared (which is included in Appendix A of this paper. Then a detailed screening of content and availability of soil maps and database was performed, with the objective of an analytical evaluation of the potential and the limitations of soil data obtained through soil surveys and soil mapping. Then we reclassified the soil features according to their direct, indirect or low hydrologic relevance. During this phase, we also included information regarding whether this data was obtained by qualitative, semi-quantitative or quantitative methods. The analysis was performed according to two main points of concern: (i the hydrological interpretation of the soil data and (ii the quality of the estimate or measurement of the soil feature.

    The interaction between pedology and hydrology processes representation was developed through the following Italian case studies with different hydropedological inputs: (i comparative land evaluation models, by means of an exhaustive itinerary from simple to complex modelling applications depending on soil data availability, (ii mapping of soil hydrological behaviour for irrigation management at the district scale, where the main hydropedological input was the application of calibrated pedo-transfer functions and the Hydrological Function Unit concept, and (iii flood event simulation in an ungauged basin, with the functional aggregation of different soil units for a simplified soil pattern.

    In conclusion, we show that special care is required in handling data from soil

  18. High-density surface EMG maps from upper-arm and forearm muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas-Martínez Monica

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background sEMG signal has been widely used in different applications in kinesiology and rehabilitation as well as in the control of human-machine interfaces. In general, the signals are recorded with bipolar electrodes located in different muscles. However, such configuration may disregard some aspects of the spatial distribution of the potentials like location of innervation zones and the manifestation of inhomogineties in the control of the muscular fibers. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of motor unit action potentials has recently been assessed with activation maps obtained from High Density EMG signals (HD-EMG, these lasts recorded with arrays of closely spaced electrodes. The main objective of this work is to analyze patterns in the activation maps, associating them with four movement directions at the elbow joint and with different strengths of those tasks. Although the activation pattern can be assessed with bipolar electrodes, HD-EMG maps could enable the extraction of features that depend on the spatial distribution of the potentials and on the load-sharing between muscles, in order to have a better differentiation between tasks and effort levels. Methods An experimental protocol consisting of isometric contractions at three levels of effort during flexion, extension, supination and pronation at the elbow joint was designed and HD-EMG signals were recorded with 2D electrode arrays on different upper-limb muscles. Techniques for the identification and interpolation of artifacts are explained, as well as a method for the segmentation of the activation areas. In addition, variables related to the intensity and spatial distribution of the maps were obtained, as well as variables associated to signal power of traditional single bipolar recordings. Finally, statistical tests were applied in order to assess differences between information extracted from single bipolar signals or from HD-EMG maps and to analyze

  19. Stabilized quasi-Newton optimization of noisy potential energy surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Bastian; Goedecker, Stefan; Alireza Ghasemi, S.; Roy, Shantanu

    2015-01-01

    Optimizations of atomic positions belong to the most commonly performed tasks in electronic structure calculations. Many simulations like global minimum searches or characterizations of chemical reactions require performing hundreds or thousands of minimizations or saddle computations. To automatize these tasks, optimization algorithms must not only be efficient but also very reliable. Unfortunately, computational noise in forces and energies is inherent to electronic structure codes. This computational noise poses a severe problem to the stability of efficient optimization methods like the limited-memory Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno algorithm. We here present a technique that allows obtaining significant curvature information of noisy potential energy surfaces. We use this technique to construct both, a stabilized quasi-Newton minimization method and a stabilized quasi-Newton saddle finding approach. We demonstrate with the help of benchmarks that both the minimizer and the saddle finding approach are superior to comparable existing methods

  20. Experimental survey of the potential energy surfaces associated with fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britt, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the experimental determination of the properties of the potential energy surface associated with fission is reviewed. The importance of nuclear symmetry effects on the calculation of fission widths is demonstrated. Evidence is presented for the fragmentation of the mass-asymmetric second barrier in the thorium region and the axial asymmetric first barrier in the californium region. Detailed analyses of experimental data suggest the presence of two parallel second barriers; the normal mass-asymmetric, axial-symmetric barrier and a slightly higher mass-symmetric, axial-asymmetric barrier. Experimental barrier parameters are determined systematically and compared with calculations from various theoretical models. Techniques for expanding fission probability measurements to higher energies are discussed. (author)

  1. Stabilized quasi-Newton optimization of noisy potential energy surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Bastian; Goedecker, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.goedecker@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Alireza Ghasemi, S. [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195-1159, IR-Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roy, Shantanu [Computational and Systems Biology, Biozentrum, University of Basel, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-01-21

    Optimizations of atomic positions belong to the most commonly performed tasks in electronic structure calculations. Many simulations like global minimum searches or characterizations of chemical reactions require performing hundreds or thousands of minimizations or saddle computations. To automatize these tasks, optimization algorithms must not only be efficient but also very reliable. Unfortunately, computational noise in forces and energies is inherent to electronic structure codes. This computational noise poses a severe problem to the stability of efficient optimization methods like the limited-memory Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno algorithm. We here present a technique that allows obtaining significant curvature information of noisy potential energy surfaces. We use this technique to construct both, a stabilized quasi-Newton minimization method and a stabilized quasi-Newton saddle finding approach. We demonstrate with the help of benchmarks that both the minimizer and the saddle finding approach are superior to comparable existing methods.

  2. Mapping industrial networks as an approach to identify inter-organisational collaborative potential in new product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parraguez, Pedro; Maier, Anja

    2012-01-01

    . Consequently, identifying and selecting potential partners to establish collaboration agreements can be a key activity in the new product development process. This paper explores the implications of mapping industrial networks with the purpose of identifying inter-organisational collaborative potential...

  3. Mapping the geogenic radon potential: methodology and spatial analysis for central Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabó, Katalin Zsuzsanna; Jordan, Gyozo; Horváth, Ákos; Szabó, Csaba

    2014-01-01

    A detailed geogenic radon potential (GRP) mapping based on field soil gas radon and soil gas permeability measurements was carried out in this study. A conventional continuous variable approach was used in this study for GRP determination and to test its applicability to the selected area of Hungary. Spatial pattern of soil gas radon concentration, soil permeability and GRP and the relationship between geological formations and these parameters were studied by performing detailed spatial analysis. Exploratory data analysis revealed that higher soil gas radon activity concentration and GRP characterizes the mountains and hills than the plains. The highest values were found in the proluvial–deluvial sediments, rock debris on the downhill slopes eroded from hills. Among the Quaternary sediments, which characterize the study area, the fluvial sediment has the highest values, which are also located in the hilly areas. The lowest values were found in the plain areas covered by drift sand, fluvioeolic sand, fluvial sand and loess. As a conclusion, radon is related to the sediment cycle in the study area. A geogenic radon risk map was created, which assists human health risk assessment and risk reduction since it indicates the potential of the source of indoor radon. The map shows that low and medium geogenic radon potential characterizes the study area in central Hungary. High risk occurs only locally. The results reveal that Quaternary sediments are inhomogeneous from a radon point of view, fluvial sediment has medium GRP, whereas the other rock formations such as drift sand, fluioeolic sand, fluvial sand and loess, found in the study area, have low GRP. - Highlights: • First geogenic radon potential map in Hungary. • Low and medium GRP characterizes the study area (Middle Hungary). • Mainly quaternary sediments characterizes the study area. • Radon is related to the erosion and deposition of the sediment cycle

  4. High-resolution topography along surface rupture of the 16 October 1999 Hector Mine, California (Mw 7.1) from airborne laser swath mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnutt, K.W.; Borsa, A.; Glennie, C.; Minster, J.-B.

    2002-01-01

    In order to document surface rupture associated with the Hector Mine earthquake, in particular, the area of maximum slip and the deformed surface of Lavic Lake playa, we acquired high-resolution data using relatively new topographic-mapping methods. We performed a raster-laser scan of the main surface breaks along the entire rupture zone, as well as along an unruptured portion of the Bullion fault. The image of the ground surface produced by this method is highly detailed, comparable to that obtained when geologists make particularly detailed site maps for geomorphic or paleoseismic studies. In this case, however, for the first time after a surface-rupturing earthquake, the detailed mapping is along the entire fault zone rather than being confined to selected sites. These data are geodetically referenced, using the Global Positioning System, thus enabling more accurate mapping of the rupture traces. In addition, digital photographs taken along the same flight lines can be overlaid onto the precise topographic data, improving terrain visualization. We demonstrate the potential of these techniques for measuring fault-slip vectors.

  5. Accuracy Analysis of a Robotic Radionuclide Inspection and Mapping System for Surface Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauer, Georg F.; Kawa, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The mapping of localized regions of radionuclide contamination in a building can be a time consuming and costly task. Humans moving hand-held radiation detectors over the target areas are subject to fatigue. A contamination map based on manual surveys can contain significant operator-induced inaccuracies. A Fanuc M16i light industrial robot has been configured for installation on a mobile aerial work platform, such as a tall forklift. When positioned in front of a wall or floor surface, the robot can map the radiation levels over a surface area of up to 3 m by 3 m. The robot's end effector is a commercial alpha-beta radiation sensor, augmented with range and collision avoidance sensors to ensure operational safety as well as to maintain a constant gap between surface and radiation sensors. The accuracy and repeatability of the robotically conducted contamination surveys is directly influenced by the sensors and other hardware employed. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of various non-contact sensors for gap measurement, and the means to compensate for predicted systematic errors that arise during the area survey scans. The range sensor should maintain a constant gap between the radiation counter and the surface being inspected. The inspection robot scans the wall surface horizontally, moving down at predefined vertical intervals after each scan in a meandering pattern. A number of non-contact range sensors can be employed for the measurement of the gap between the robot end effector and the wall. The nominal gap width was specified as 10 mm, with variations during a single scan not to exceed ± 2 mm. Unfinished masonry or concrete walls typically exhibit irregularities, such as holes, gaps, or indentations in mortar joints. These irregularities can be sufficiently large to indicate a change of the wall contour. The responses of different sensor types to the wall irregularities vary, depending on their underlying principles of operation. We explored

  6. Helicity and potential vorticity in the surface boundary layer turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkhetiani, Otto; Kurgansky, Michael; Koprov, Boris; Koprov, Victor

    2016-04-01

    An experimental measurement of all three components of the velocity and vorticity vectors, as well as the temperature and its gradient, and potential vorticity, has been developed using four acoustic anemometers. Anemometers were placed at vertices of a tetrahedron, the horizontal base of which was a rectangular triangle with equal legs, and the upper point was exactly above the top of the right angle. The distance from the surface to the tetrahedron its base was 5.5 m, and the lengths of legs and a vertical edge were 5 m. The measurements were carried out of total duration near 100 hours both in stable and unstable stratification conditions (at the Tsimlyansk Scientific Station in a uniform area of virgin steppe 700 x 650 m, August 2012). A covariance-correlation matrix for turbulent variations in all measured values has been calculated. In the daytime horizontal and vertical components of the helicity are of the order of -0.03 and +0.01 m s-2, respectively. The nighttime signs remain unchanged, but the absolute values are several times smaller. It is confirmed also by statistics of a relative helicity. The cospectra and spectral correlation coefficients have been calculated for all helicity components. The time variations in the components of "instantaneous" relative helicity and potential vorticity are considered. Connections of helicity with Monin-Obukhov length and the wind vertical profile structure are discussed. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (Project No 14-27-00134).

  7. Atomic resolution electrostatic potential mapping of graphene sheets by off-axis electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, David, E-mail: david.cooper@cea.fr [University Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054, Grenoble (France); Pan, Cheng-Ta; Haigh, Sarah [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-21

    Off-axis electron holography has been performed at atomic resolution with the microscope operated at 80 kV to provide electrostatic potential maps from single, double, and triple layer graphene. These electron holograms have been reconstructed in order to obtain information about atomically resolved and mean inner potentials. We propose that off-axis electron holography can now be used to measure the electrical properties in a range of two-dimensional semiconductor materials and three dimensional devices comprising stacked layers of films to provide important information about their electrical properties.

  8. Atomic resolution electrostatic potential mapping of graphene sheets by off-axis electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, David; Pan, Cheng-Ta; Haigh, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Off-axis electron holography has been performed at atomic resolution with the microscope operated at 80 kV to provide electrostatic potential maps from single, double, and triple layer graphene. These electron holograms have been reconstructed in order to obtain information about atomically resolved and mean inner potentials. We propose that off-axis electron holography can now be used to measure the electrical properties in a range of two-dimensional semiconductor materials and three dimensional devices comprising stacked layers of films to provide important information about their electrical properties.

  9. Value of epicardial potential maps in localizing pre-excitation sites for radiofrequency ablation. A simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hren, Rok

    1998-06-01

    Using computer simulations, we systematically investigated the limitations of an inverse solution that employs the potential distribution on the epicardial surface as an equivalent source model in localizing pre-excitation sites in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. A model of the human ventricular myocardium that features an anatomically accurate geometry, an intramural rotating anisotropy and a computational implementation of the excitation process based on electrotonic interactions among cells, was used to simulate body surface potential maps (BSPMs) for 35 pre-excitation sites positioned along the atrioventricular ring. Two individualized torso models were used to account for variations in torso boundaries. Epicardial potential maps (EPMs) were computed using the L-curve inverse solution. The measure for accuracy of the localization was the distance between a position of the minimum in the inverse EPMs and the actual site of pre-excitation in the ventricular model. When the volume conductor properties and lead positions of the torso were precisely known and the measurement noise was added to the simulated BSPMs, the minimum in the inverse EPMs was at 12 ms after the onset on average within cm of the pre-excitation site. When the standard torso model was used to localize the sites of onset of the pre-excitation sequence initiated in individualized male and female torso models, the mean distance between the minimum and the pre-excitation site was cm for the male torso and cm for the female torso. The findings of our study indicate that a location of the minimum in EPMs computed using the inverse solution can offer non-invasive means for pre-interventional planning of the ablative treatment.

  10. A wafer mapping technique for residual stress in surface micromachined films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiavone, G; Murray, J; Smith, S; Walton, A J; Desmulliez, M P Y; Mount, A R

    2016-01-01

    The design of MEMS devices employing movable structures is crucially dependant on the mechanical behaviour of the deposited materials. It is therefore important to be able to fully characterize the micromachined films and predict with confidence the mechanical properties of patterned structures. This paper presents a characterization technique that enables the residual stress in MEMS films to be mapped at the wafer level by using microstructures released by surface micromachining. These dedicated MEMS test structures and the associated measurement techniques are used to extract localized information on the strain and Young’s modulus of the film under investigation. The residual stress is then determined by numerically coupling this data with a finite element analysis of the structure. This paper illustrates the measurement routine and demonstrates it with a case study using electrochemically deposited alloys of nickel and iron, particularly prone to develop high levels of residual stress. The results show that the technique enables wafer mapping of film non-uniformities and identifies wafer-to-wafer differences. A comparison between the results obtained from the mapping technique and conventional wafer bow measurements highlights the benefits of using a procedure tailored to films that are non-uniform, patterned and surface-micromachined, as opposed to simple standard stress extraction methods. The presented technique reveals detailed information that is generally unexplored when using conventional stress extraction methods such as wafer bow measurements. (paper)

  11. Evaluation of Surface Water Harvesting Potential in Aq Emam Watershed System in the Golestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s. nazaryan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Given its low and sparse precipitation both in spatial and temporal scales, Iran is nestled in an arid and semiarid part of the world. On the other hand, because of population growth, urbanization and the development of agriculture and industry sector is frequently encountered with increasing water demand. The increasing trend of water demand will widen the gap between water supply and demand in the future. This, in turn, necessitates urgent attention to the fundamentals of economic planning and allocation of water resources. Considering the limited resources and the declining water table and salinization of groundwater, especially in semi-arid areas forces us to exploit surface waters. When we evaluate the various methods of collecting rainwater, surface water that is the outcome of rainfall-runoff responses in a basin, is found to be a potential source of water and it can be useful to meet some of our water demand if managed properly. Water shortages in arid areas are critical, serious and persistent. Thus, water harvesting is an effective and economic goal. The most important step in the implementation of rain water harvesting systems is proper site selection that could cause significant savings in time and cost. In this study the potential of surface waters in the Aq Emam catchment in the east Golestan province was evaluated. The purpose of this study is to provide a framework for locating areas with water harvesting potential. Materials and Methods: For spatial evaluation of potential runoff, first, the amount of runoff is calculated using curve number and runoff potential maps were prepared with three classes: namely, the potential for low, medium and high levels. Finally, to identify suitable areas for rain water harvesting, rainfall maps, soil texture, slope and land use were weighted and multiplied based on their importance in order to determine the appropriate areas to collect runoff Results and Discussion : The results

  12. The multifractal structure of satellite sea surface temperature maps can be used to obtain global maps of streamlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Turiel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Earth observation satellites provide information about many relevant variables of the ocean-climate system, such as temperature, moisture, aerosols, etc. However, to retrieve the velocity field, which is the most relevant dynamical variable, is still a technological challenge, specially in the case of oceans. New processing techniques, emerged from the theory of turbulent flows, have come to assist us in this task. In this paper, we show that multifractal techniques applied to new Sea Surface Temperature satellite products opens the way to build maps of ocean currents with unprecedented accuracy. With the application of singularity analysis, we show that global ocean circulation patterns can be retrieved in a daily basis. We compare these results with high-quality altimetry-derived geostrophic velocities, finding a quite good correspondence of the observed patterns both qualitatively and quantitatively; and this is done for the first time on a global basis, even for less active areas. The implications of this findings from the perspective both of theory and of operational applications are discussed.

  13. Development of potential map for landslides by comparing instability indices of various time periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jie-Lun; Tian, Yu-Qing; Chen, Yie-Ruey; Tsai, Kuang-Jung

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, extreme rainfall events occur frequently and induced serious landslides and debris flow disasters in Taiwan. The instability indices will differ when using landslide maps of different time periods. We analyzed the landslide records during the period year, 2008 2012, the landslide area contributed 0.42% 2.94% of the total watershed area, the 2.94% was caused by the typhoon Morakot in August, 2009, which brought massive rainfall in which the cumulative maximum rainfall was up to 2900 mm. We analyzed the instability factors including elevation, slope, aspect, soil, and geology. And comparing the instability indices by using individual landslide map of 2008 2012, the landslide maps of the union of the five years, and interaction of the five years. The landslide area from union of the five years contributed 3.71%,the landslide area from interaction of the five years contributed 0.14%. In this study, Kriging was used to establish the susceptibility map in selected watershed. From interaction of the five years, we found the instability index above 4.3 can correspond to those landslide records. The potential landslide area of the selected watershed, where collapses occur more likely, belongs to high level and medium-high level; the area is 13.43% and 3.04% respectively.

  14. Revisiting the Therapeutic Potential of Bothrops jararaca Venom: Screening for Novel Activities Using Connectivity Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Alves Nicolau

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Snake venoms are sources of molecules with proven and potential therapeutic applications. However, most activities assayed in venoms (or their components are of hemorrhagic, hypotensive, edematogenic, neurotoxic or myotoxic natures. Thus, other relevant activities might remain unknown. Using functional genomics coupled to the connectivity map (C-map approach, we undertook a wide range indirect search for biological activities within the venom of the South American pit viper Bothrops jararaca. For that effect, venom was incubated with human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7 followed by RNA extraction and gene expression analysis. A list of 90 differentially expressed genes was submitted to biosimilar drug discovery based on pattern recognition. Among the 100 highest-ranked positively correlated drugs, only the antihypertensive, antimicrobial (both antibiotic and antiparasitic, and antitumor classes had been previously reported for B. jararaca venom. The majority of drug classes identified were related to (1 antimicrobial activity; (2 treatment of neuropsychiatric illnesses (Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, depression, and epilepsy; (3 treatment of cardiovascular diseases, and (4 anti-inflammatory action. The C-map results also indicated that B. jararaca venom may have components that target G-protein-coupled receptors (muscarinic, serotonergic, histaminergic, dopaminergic, GABA, and adrenergic and ion channels. Although validation experiments are still necessary, the C-map correlation to drugs with activities previously linked to snake venoms supports the efficacy of this strategy as a broad-spectrum approach for biological activity screening, and rekindles the snake venom-based search for new therapeutic agents.

  15. Nano surface engineering of Mn 2 O 3 for potential light-harvesting application

    KAUST Repository

    Kar, Prasenjit; Sardar, Samim; Ghosh, Srabanti; Parida, Manas R.; Liu, Bo; Mohammed, Omar F.; Lemmens, Peter; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Manganese oxides are well known applied materials including their use as efficient catalysts for various environmental applications. Multiple oxidation states and their change due to various experimental conditions are concluded to be responsible for their multifaceted functionality. Here we demonstrate that the interaction of a small organic ligand with one of the oxide varieties induces completely new optical properties and functionalities (photocatalysis). We have synthesized Mn2O3 microspheres via a hydrothermal route and characterized them using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and elemental mapping (EDAX). When the microspheres are allowed to interact with the biologically important small ligand citrate, nanometer-sized surface functionalized Mn2O3 (NPs) are formed. Raman and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy confirm the covalent attachment of the citrate ligand to the dangling bond of Mn at the material surface. While cyclic voltammetry (CV) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirm multiple surface charge states after the citrate functionalization of the Mn2O3 NPs, new optical properties of the surface engineered nanomaterials in terms of absorption and emission emerge consequently. The engineered material offers a novel photocatalytic functionality to the model water contaminant methylene blue (MB). The effect of doping other metal ions including Fe3+ and Cu2+ on the optical and catalytic properties is also investigated. In order to prepare a prototype for potential environmental application of water decontamination, we have synthesized and duly functionalized the material on the extended surface of a stainless steel metal mesh (size 2 cm × 1.5 cm, pore size 150 μm × 200 μm). We demonstrate that the functionalized mesh always works as a "physical" filter of suspended particulates. However, it works as a "chemical" filter (photocatalyst) for the potential water soluble contaminant (MB) in the presence

  16. Retrieval Algorithms for Road Surface Modelling Using Laser-Based Mobile Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antero Kukko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Automated processing of the data provided by a laser-based mobile mapping system will be a necessity due to the huge amount of data produced. In the future, vehiclebased laser scanning, here called mobile mapping, should see considerable use for road environment modelling. Since the geometry of the scanning and point density is different from airborne laser scanning, new algorithms are needed for information extraction. In this paper, we propose automatic methods for classifying the road marking and kerbstone points and modelling the road surface as a triangulated irregular network. On the basis of experimental tests, the mean classification accuracies obtained using automatic method for lines, zebra crossings and kerbstones were 80.6%, 92.3% and 79.7%, respectively.

  17. Mapping Soil Erosion Factors and Potential Erosion Risk for the National Park "Central Balkan"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Diliana; Malinov, Ilia

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion is widely recognised environmental problem. The report aims at presenting the main results from assessment and mapping of the factors of sheet water erosion and the potential erosion risk on the territory of National Park "Central Balkan". For this purpose, the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was used for predicting soil loss from erosion. The influence of topography (LS-factor) and soil erodibility (K-factor) was assessed using small-scale topographic and soil maps. Rainfall erosivity (R-factor) was calculated from data of rainfalls with amounts exceeding 9.5 mm from 14 hydro-meteorological stations. The values of the erosion factors (R, K and LS) were presented for the areas of forest, sub-alpine and alpine zones. Using the methods of GIS, maps were plotted presenting the area distribution among the classes of the soil erosion factors and the potential risk in the respective zones. The results can be used for making accurate decisions for soil conservation and sustainable land management in the park.

  18. Evaluation of the potential for surface faulting at TA-63. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbe, T.; Sawyer, J.; Springer, J.; Olig, S.; Hemphill-Haley, M.; Wong, I.; Reneau, S.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes an investigation of the potential for surface faulting at the proposed sites for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RL)WF) and the Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility at TA-63 and TA-52 (hereafter TA-63), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This study was performed by Woodward-Clyde Federal Services (WCFS) at the request of the LANL. The projections of both the Guaje Mountain and Rendija Canyon faults are mapped in the vicinity of TA-63. Based on results obtained in the ongoing Seismic Hazard Evaluation Program of the LANL, displacement may have occurred on both the Guaje Mountain and Rendija Canyon faults in the past 11,000 years (Holocene time). Thus, in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders and Standards for seismic hazards evaluations and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Regulations for seismic standard requirements, a geologic study of the proposed TA-63 site was conducted

  19. Digital map and situation surface: a team-oriented multidisplay workspace for network enabled situation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Geisler, Jürgen; Bader, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    System concepts for network enabled image-based ISR (intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance) is the major mission of Fraunhofer IITB's applied research in the area of defence and security solutions. For the TechDemo08 as part of the NATO CNAD POW Defence against terrorism Fraunhofer IITB advanced a new multi display concept to handle the shear amount and high complexity of ISR data acquired by networked, distributed surveillance systems with the objective to support the generation of a common situation picture. Amount and Complexity of ISR data demands an innovative man-machine interface concept for humans to deal with it. The IITB's concept is the Digital Map & Situation Surface. This concept offers to the user a coherent multi display environment combining a horizontal surface for the situation overview from the bird's eye view, an attached vertical display for collateral information and so-called foveatablets as personalized magic lenses in order to obtain high resolved and role-specific information about a focused areaof- interest and to interact with it. In the context of TechDemo08 the Digital Map & Situation Surface served as workspace for team-based situation visualization and analysis. Multiple sea- and landside surveillance components were connected to the system.

  20. Landing Site Selection and Surface Traverse Planning using the Lunar Mapping & Modeling Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Chang, G.; Bui, B.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Kim, R.; Dodge, K.; Malhotra, S.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP), is a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools for users to access mapped lunar data products (including image mosaics, digital elevation models, etc.) from past and current lunar missions (e.g., Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Apollo, etc.), and to perform in-depth analyses to support lunar surface mission planning and system design for future lunar exploration and science missions. It has been widely used by many scientists mission planners, as well as educators and public outreach (e.g., Google Lunar XPRICE teams, RESOLVE project, museums etc.) This year, LMMP was used by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI)'s Lunar Exploration internship program to perform lighting analysis and local hazard assessments, such as, slope, surface roughness and crater/boulder distribution to research landing sites and surface pathfinding and traversal. Our talk will include an overview of LMMP, a demonstration of the tools as well as a summary of the LPI Lunar Exploration summer interns' experience in using those tools.

  1. High-resolution three-dimensional mapping of semiconductor dopant potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twitchett, AC; Yates, TJV; Newcomb, SB

    2007-01-01

    Semiconductor device structures are becoming increasingly three-dimensional at the nanometer scale. A key issue that must be addressed to enable future device development is the three-dimensional mapping of dopant distributions, ideally under "working conditions". Here we demonstrate how a combin......Semiconductor device structures are becoming increasingly three-dimensional at the nanometer scale. A key issue that must be addressed to enable future device development is the three-dimensional mapping of dopant distributions, ideally under "working conditions". Here we demonstrate how...... a combination of electron holography and electron tomography can be used to determine quantitatively the three-dimensional electrostatic potential in an electrically biased semiconductor device with nanometer spatial resolution....

  2. Radiometric maps of Israel - Partial contribution to the understanding of potential radon emanations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulkan, U.; Shirav, M.

    1997-01-01

    An airborne radiometric survey over parts of Israel was carried out in 1981. The system was comprised from 10 Nal 4 inch x 4 inch x 16 inch detectors, arranged in 4,4 and 2 sensors, with total volume of 1560 inch 3 , and one 4 inch x 4 inch x 16 inch uplooking Nal detector. Flight nominal height was 400 feet. It was found that the Mount Scopus Group (of Senonian origin) is the main source for high uranium - phosphorite rocks of this group contain up to 150 ppm U. Comparing the eU radiometric map with a map of potential radon emanation from rock units, reveals a fair correlation - high radon emanation usually follow the distribution of the Mount Scopus Group in Israel. The correlation between the two maps is excellent over arid terrain where soil cover is missing, whereas over semi-arid - humid areas (western and northern Israel), where soil and cultivation covers are developed, the eU levels over Mount Scopus Group's outcrops are much lower due to absorption of the radiation, and do not depict the full radon potential. Detailed mapping of radon hazards usually exhibit poor correlation between airborne eU data and direct pore radon measurements, even in arid terrain. This phenomenon is attributed to the fact that a radon ''source rock'' (e.g. phosphorite) could be covered with a few up to some tenths of meters of uranium-barren rock. About 0.5 meter cover is enough to absorb all radiation, causing very low airborne eU readings, while the radon free way in this rock is about 10 meters, yielding high pore radon levels when directly measured

  3. Potential Energy Surface of NO on Pt(997: Adsorbed States and Surface Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tsukahara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential energy surface (PES of NO on Pt(997 has been elucidated: the adsorption states and diffusion processes of NO on Pt(997 at low coverage were investigated by using infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM. When NO molecules adsorb on a surface at a low temperature (11 K, each molecule transiently migrates on the surface from the first impact point to a possible adsorption site. We found that there are four stable adsorption sites for NO on Pt(997: a bridge site of the upper step, an fcc- (or hcp- hollow site of the terrace, an on-top site of the terrace, and an fcc-hollow site of the lower step. At higher temperatures above 45 K, NO molecules start to migrate thermally to more stable adsorption sites on a terrace, and they are finally trapped at the bridge sites of the step, which are the most stable among the four sites.

  4. Direct Measurement of Surface Dissolution Rates in Potential Nuclear Waste Forms: The Example of Pyrochlore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Cornelius; Finkeldei, Sarah; Brandt, Felix; Bosbach, Dirk; Luttge, Andreas

    2015-08-19

    The long-term stability of ceramic materials that are considered as potential nuclear waste forms is governed by heterogeneous surface reactivity. Thus, instead of a mean rate, the identification of one or more dominant contributors to the overall dissolution rate is the key to predict the stability of waste forms quantitatively. Direct surface measurements by vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) and their analysis via material flux maps and resulting dissolution rate spectra provide data about dominant rate contributors and their variability over time. Using pyrochlore (Nd2Zr2O7) pellet dissolution under acidic conditions as an example, we demonstrate the identification and quantification of dissolution rate contributors, based on VSI data and rate spectrum analysis. Heterogeneous surface alteration of pyrochlore varies by a factor of about 5 and additional material loss by chemo-mechanical grain pull-out within the uppermost grain layer. We identified four different rate contributors that are responsible for the observed dissolution rate range of single grains. Our new concept offers the opportunity to increase our mechanistic understanding and to predict quantitatively the alteration of ceramic waste forms.

  5. Airport surface moving map displays: OpEval-2 evaluation results and future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livack, Garret; McDaniel, James I.; Battiste, Vernol

    2001-08-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), in cooperation with the Cargo Airline Association (CAA) and three of its member airlines (Airborne Express, Federal Express, and United Parcel Service), have embarked upon an aggressive yet phased approach to introduce new Free Flight-enabling technologies into the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS). General aviation is also actively involved, represented primarily by the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA). These new technologies being evaluated include advanced cockpit avionics and a complimentary ground infrastructure. In support of this initiative, a series of operational evaluations (OpEvals) have been conducted or are planned. The OpEvals have evaluated in-flight as well as airport surface movement applications. Results from the second OpEval, conducted at Louisville, Kentucky in October 2000, indicated that runway incursions might be significantly reduced with the introduction of a cockpit-based moving map system derived from emerging technologies. An additional OpEval is planned to evaluate the utility of an integrated cockpit and airport surface architecture that provides enhanced pilot and controller awareness of airport surface operations. It is believed that the combination of such an airborne and a ground-based system best addresses many of the safety issues surrounding airport surface operations. Such a combined system would provide both flight crews and controllers with a common awareness, or shared picture of airport surface operations.

  6. Mapping Global Ocean Surface Albedo from Satellite Observations: Models, Algorithms, and Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Fan, X.; Yan, H.; Li, A.; Wang, M.; Qu, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Ocean surface albedo (OSA) is one of the important parameters in surface radiation budget (SRB). It is usually considered as a controlling factor of the heat exchange among the atmosphere and ocean. The temporal and spatial dynamics of OSA determine the energy absorption of upper level ocean water, and have influences on the oceanic currents, atmospheric circulations, and transportation of material and energy of hydrosphere. Therefore, various parameterizations and models have been developed for describing the dynamics of OSA. However, it has been demonstrated that the currently available OSA datasets cannot full fill the requirement of global climate change studies. In this study, we present a literature review on mapping global OSA from satellite observations. The models (parameterizations, the coupled ocean-atmosphere radiative transfer (COART), and the three component ocean water albedo (TCOWA)), algorithms (the estimation method based on reanalysis data, and the direct-estimation algorithm), and datasets (the cloud, albedo and radiation (CLARA) surface albedo product, dataset derived by the TCOWA model, and the global land surface satellite (GLASS) phase-2 surface broadband albedo product) of OSA have been discussed, separately.

  7. Mapping Impervious Surfaces Globally at 30m Resolution Using Landsat Global Land Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown de Colstoun, E.; Huang, C.; Wolfe, R. E.; Tan, B.; Tilton, J.; Smith, S.; Phillips, J.; Wang, P.; Ling, P.; Zhan, J.; Xu, X.; Taylor, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    Impervious surfaces, mainly artificial structures and roads, cover less than 1% of the world's land surface (1.3% over USA). Regardless of the relatively small coverage, impervious surfaces have a significant impact on the environment. They are the main source of the urban heat island effect, and affect not only the energy balance, but also hydrology and carbon cycling, and both land and aquatic ecosystem services. In the last several decades, the pace of converting natural land surface to impervious surfaces has increased. Quantitatively monitoring the growth of impervious surface expansion and associated urbanization has become a priority topic across both the physical and social sciences. The recent availability of consistent, global scale data sets at 30m resolution such as the Global Land Survey from the Landsat satellites provides an unprecedented opportunity to map global impervious cover and urbanization at this resolution for the first time, with unprecedented detail and accuracy. Moreover, the spatial resolution of Landsat is absolutely essential to accurately resolve urban targets such a buildings, roads and parking lots. With long term GLS data now available for the 1975, 1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010 time periods, the land cover/use changes due to urbanization can now be quantified at this spatial scale as well. In the Global Land Survey - Imperviousness Mapping Project (GLS-IMP), we are producing the first global 30 m spatial resolution impervious cover data set. We have processed the GLS 2010 data set to surface reflectance (8500+ TM and ETM+ scenes) and are using a supervised classification method using a regression tree to produce continental scale impervious cover data sets. A very large set of accurate training samples is the key to the supervised classifications and is being derived through the interpretation of high spatial resolution (~2 m or less) commercial satellite data (Quickbird and Worldview2) available to us through the unclassified

  8. Method for estimating potential wetland extent by utilizing streamflow statistics and flood-inundation mapping techniques: Pilot study for land along the Wabash River near Terre Haute, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon H.; Ritz, Christian T.; Arvin, Donald V.

    2012-01-01

    Potential wetland extents were estimated for a 14-mile reach of the Wabash River near Terre Haute, Indiana. This pilot study was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The study showed that potential wetland extents can be estimated by analyzing streamflow statistics with the available streamgage data, calculating the approximate water-surface elevation along the river, and generating maps by use of flood-inundation mapping techniques. Planning successful restorations for Wetland Reserve Program (WRP) easements requires a determination of areas that show evidence of being in a zone prone to sustained or frequent flooding. Zone determinations of this type are used by WRP planners to define the actively inundated area and make decisions on restoration-practice installation. According to WRP planning guidelines, a site needs to show evidence of being in an "inundation zone" that is prone to sustained or frequent flooding for a period of 7 consecutive days at least once every 2 years on average in order to meet the planning criteria for determining a wetland for a restoration in agricultural land. By calculating the annual highest 7-consecutive-day mean discharge with a 2-year recurrence interval (7MQ2) at a streamgage on the basis of available streamflow data, one can determine the water-surface elevation corresponding to the calculated flow that defines the estimated inundation zone along the river. By using the estimated water-surface elevation ("inundation elevation") along the river, an approximate extent of potential wetland for a restoration in agricultural land can be mapped. As part of the pilot study, a set of maps representing the estimated potential wetland extents was generated in a geographic information system (GIS) application by combining (1) a digital water-surface plane representing the surface of inundation elevation that sloped in the downstream

  9. Coupled iterated map models of action potential dynamics in a one-dimensional cable of cardiac cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shihong; Xie Yuanfang; Qu Zhilin

    2008-01-01

    Low-dimensional iterated map models have been widely used to study action potential dynamics in isolated cardiac cells. Coupled iterated map models have also been widely used to investigate action potential propagation dynamics in one-dimensional (1D) coupled cardiac cells, however, these models are usually empirical and not carefully validated. In this study, we first developed two coupled iterated map models which are the standard forms of diffusively coupled maps and overcome the limitations of the previous models. We then determined the coupling strength and space constant by quantitatively comparing the 1D action potential duration profile from the coupled cardiac cell model described by differential equations with that of the coupled iterated map models. To further validate the coupled iterated map models, we compared the stability conditions of the spatially uniform state of the coupled iterated maps and those of the 1D ionic model and showed that the coupled iterated map model could well recapitulate the stability conditions, i.e. the spatially uniform state is stable unless the state is chaotic. Finally, we combined conduction into the developed coupled iterated map model to study the effects of coupling strength on wave stabilities and showed that the diffusive coupling between cardiac cells tends to suppress instabilities during reentry in a 1D ring and the onset of discordant alternans in a periodically paced 1D cable

  10. Revisiting Renewable Energy Map in Indonesia: Seasonal Hydro and Solar Energy Potential for Rural Off-Grid Electrification (Provincial Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyuono Ruri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the acceleration of renewable energy diffusion in Indonesia as well as achieving the national energy mix target, renewable energy map is essential to provide useful information to build renewable energy system. This work aims at updating the renewable energy potential map, i.e. hydro and solar energy potential, with a revised model based on the global climate data. The renewable energy map is intended to assist the design off-grid system by hydropower plant or photovoltaic system, particularly for rural electrification. Specifically, the hydro energy map enables the stakeholders to determine the suitable on-site hydro energy technology (from pico-hydro, micro-hydro, mini-hydro to large hydropower plant. Meanwhile, the solar energy map depicts not only seasonal solar energy potential but also estimated energy output from photovoltaic system.

  11. Effect of surface roughness and surface modification of indium tin oxide electrode on its potential response to tryptophan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Md. Zaved Hossain; Nakanishi, Takuya; Kuroiwa, Shigeki; Hoshi, Yoichi; Osaka, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We examine factors affecting potential response of ITO electrode to tryptophan. → Surface roughness of ITO electrode affects the stability of its rest potential. → Surface modification is effective for ITO electrode with a certain roughness. → Optimum values of work function exist for potential response of ITO to tryptophan. - Abstract: The effect of surface modification of indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode on its potential response to tryptophan was investigated for ITO substrates with different surface roughness. It was found that a small difference in surface roughness, between ∼1 and ∼2 nm of R a evaluated by atomic force microscopy, affects the rest potential of ITO electrode in the electrolyte. A slight difference in In:Sn ratio at the near surface of the ITO substrates, measured by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and Auger electron spectroscopy is remarkable, and considered to relate with surface roughness. Interestingly, successive modification of the ITO surface with aminopropylsilane and disuccinimidyl suberate, of which essentiality to the potential response to indole compounds we previously reported, improved the stability of the rest potential and enabled the electrodes to respond to tryptophan in case of specimens with R a values ranging between ∼2 and ∼3 nm but not for those with R a of ∼1 nm. It was suggested that there are optimum values of effective work function of ITO for specific potential response to tryptophan, which can be obtained by the successive modification of ITO surface.

  12. A new method for automated discontinuity trace mapping on rock mass 3D surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojun; Chen, Jianqin; Zhu, Hehua

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an automated discontinuity trace mapping method on a 3D surface model of rock mass. Feature points of discontinuity traces are first detected using the Normal Tensor Voting Theory, which is robust to noisy point cloud data. Discontinuity traces are then extracted from feature points in four steps: (1) trace feature point grouping, (2) trace segment growth, (3) trace segment connection, and (4) redundant trace segment removal. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify optimal values for the parameters used in the proposed method. The optimal triangular mesh element size is between 5 cm and 6 cm; the angle threshold in the trace segment growth step is between 70° and 90°; the angle threshold in the trace segment connection step is between 50° and 70°, and the distance threshold should be at least 15 times the mean triangular mesh element size. The method is applied to the excavation face trace mapping of a drill-and-blast tunnel. The results show that the proposed discontinuity trace mapping method is fast and effective and could be used as a supplement to traditional direct measurement of discontinuity traces.

  13. Agriculture pest and disease risk maps considering MSG satellite data and land surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques da Silva, J. R.; Damásio, C. V.; Sousa, A. M. O.; Bugalho, L.; Pessanha, L.; Quaresma, P.

    2015-06-01

    Pest risk maps for agricultural use are usually constructed from data obtained from in-situ meteorological weather stations, which are relatively sparsely distributed and are often quite expensive to install and difficult to maintain. This leads to the creation of maps with relatively low spatial resolution, which are very much dependent on interpolation methodologies. Considering that agricultural applications typically require a more detailed scale analysis than has traditionally been available, remote sensing technology can offer better monitoring at increasing spatial and temporal resolutions, thereby, improving pest management results and reducing costs. This article uses ground temperature, or land surface temperature (LST), data distributed by EUMETSAT/LSASAF (with a spatial resolution of 3 × 3 km (nadir resolution) and a revisiting time of 15 min) to generate one of the most commonly used parameters in pest modeling and monitoring: "thermal integral over air temperature (accumulated degree-days)". The results show a clear association between the accumulated LST values over a threshold and the accumulated values computed from meteorological stations over the same threshold (specific to a particular tomato pest). The results are very promising and enable the production of risk maps for agricultural pests with a degree of spatial and temporal detail that is difficult to achieve using in-situ meteorological stations.

  14. Descriptive Characteristics of Surface Water Quality in Hong Kong by a Self-Organising Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan An

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, principal component analysis (PCA and a self-organising map (SOM were used to analyse a complex dataset obtained from the river water monitoring stations in the Tolo Harbor and Channel Water Control Zone (Hong Kong, covering the period of 2009–2011. PCA was initially applied to identify the principal components (PCs among the nonlinear and complex surface water quality parameters. SOM followed PCA, and was implemented to analyze the complex relationships and behaviors of the parameters. The results reveal that PCA reduced the multidimensional parameters to four significant PCs which are combinations of the original ones. The positive and inverse relationships of the parameters were shown explicitly by pattern analysis in the component planes. It was found that PCA and SOM are efficient tools to capture and analyze the behavior of multivariable, complex, and nonlinear related surface water quality data.

  15. Descriptive Characteristics of Surface Water Quality in Hong Kong by a Self-Organising Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yan; Zou, Zhihong; Li, Ranran

    2016-01-08

    In this study, principal component analysis (PCA) and a self-organising map (SOM) were used to analyse a complex dataset obtained from the river water monitoring stations in the Tolo Harbor and Channel Water Control Zone (Hong Kong), covering the period of 2009-2011. PCA was initially applied to identify the principal components (PCs) among the nonlinear and complex surface water quality parameters. SOM followed PCA, and was implemented to analyze the complex relationships and behaviors of the parameters. The results reveal that PCA reduced the multidimensional parameters to four significant PCs which are combinations of the original ones. The positive and inverse relationships of the parameters were shown explicitly by pattern analysis in the component planes. It was found that PCA and SOM are efficient tools to capture and analyze the behavior of multivariable, complex, and nonlinear related surface water quality data.

  16. Nanoscale surface potential imaging of the photocatalytic TiO2 films on aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Dirscherl, Kai; Canulescu, Stela

    2013-01-01

    in the surface potential of TiO2 coatings upon UV-illumination are closely correlated to the band gap and thickness of the coatings. The inhomogeneity surface potential distribution of a 100 nm TiO2 film indicates a heterogeneous coating. Transition to a homogeneous surface potential distribution was observed...

  17. Concise Review: Cell Surface N-Linked Glycoproteins as Potential Stem Cell Markers and Drug Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boheler, Kenneth R; Gundry, Rebekah L

    2017-01-01

    Stem cells and their derivatives hold great promise to advance regenerative medicine. Critical to the progression of this field is the identification and utilization of antibody-accessible cell-surface proteins for immunophenotyping and cell sorting-techniques essential for assessment and isolation of defined cell populations with known functional and therapeutic properties. Beyond their utility for cell identification and selection, cell-surface proteins are also major targets for pharmacological intervention. Although comprehensive cell-surface protein maps are highly valuable, they have been difficult to define until recently. In this review, we discuss the application of a contemporary targeted chemoproteomic-based technique for defining the cell-surface proteomes of stem and progenitor cells. In applying this approach to pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), these studies have improved the biological understanding of these cells, led to the enhanced use and development of antibodies suitable for immunophenotyping and sorting, and contributed to the repurposing of existing drugs without the need for high-throughput screening. The utility of this latter approach was first demonstrated with human PSCs (hPSCs) through the identification of small molecules that are selectively toxic to hPSCs and have the potential for eliminating confounding and tumorigenic cells in hPSC-derived progeny destined for research and transplantation. Overall, the cutting-edge technologies reviewed here will accelerate the development of novel cell-surface protein targets for immunophenotyping, new reagents to improve the isolation of therapeutically qualified cells, and pharmacological studies to advance the treatment of intractable diseases amenable to cell-replacement therapies. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:131-138. © 2016 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  18. Surface processing: existing and potential applications of ultraviolet light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzocco, Lara; Nicoli, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Solid foods represent optimal matrices for ultraviolet processing with effects well beyond nonthermal surface disinfection. UV radiation favors hormetic response in plant tissues and degradation of toxic compound on the product surface. Photoinduced reactions can also provide unexplored possibilities to steer structure and functionality of food biopolymers. The possibility to extensively exploit this technology will depend on availability of robust information about efficacious processing conditions and adequate strategies to completely and homogeneously process food surface.

  19. Mapping of soil organic carbon stocks for spatially explicit assessments of climate change mitigation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vågen, Tor-Gunnar; Winowiecki, Leigh A

    2013-01-01

    Current methods for assessing soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks are generally not well suited for understanding variations in SOC stocks in landscapes. This is due to the tedious and time-consuming nature of the sampling methods most commonly used to collect bulk density cores, which limits repeatability across large areas, particularly where information is needed on the spatial dynamics of SOC stocks at scales relevant to management and for spatially explicit targeting of climate change mitigation options. In the current study, approaches were explored for (i) field-based estimates of SOC stocks and (ii) mapping of SOC stocks at moderate to high resolution on the basis of data from four widely contrasting ecosystems in East Africa. Estimated SOC stocks for 0–30 cm depth varied both within and between sites, with site averages ranging from 2 to 8 kg m −2 . The differences in SOC stocks were determined in part by rainfall, but more importantly by sand content. Results also indicate that managing soil erosion is a key strategy for reducing SOC loss and hence in mitigation of climate change in these landscapes. Further, maps were developed on the basis of satellite image reflectance data with multiple R-squared values of 0.65 for the independent validation data set, showing variations in SOC stocks across these landscapes. These maps allow for spatially explicit targeting of potential climate change mitigation efforts through soil carbon sequestration, which is one option for climate change mitigation and adaptation. Further, the maps can be used to monitor the impacts of such mitigation efforts over time. (letter)

  20. Water deficit and water surplus maps for Brazil, based on FAO Penman-Monteith potential evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalton Evandro Machado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The climatological water balance (CWB proposed by Thornthwaite and Mather (1957 is a useful tool for agricultural planning. This method requires the soil water holding capacity (SWHC, rainfall (R and potential evapotranspiration (PET data as input. Among the methods used to estimate PET, the one proposed by Thornthwaite (1948 is the simplest and the most used in Brazil, however it presents limitations of use, which is caused by its empirical relationships. When Thornthwaite PET method is used into the CWB, the errors associated to PET are transferred to the output variables, mainly water deficit (WD and water surplus (WS. As all maps of WD and WS for Brazil are based on Thornthwaite PET, the objective of this study was to produce new maps of these variables considering Penman-Monteith PET. For this purpose, monthly normal climate data base (1961-1990 from Brazilian Meteorological Service (INMET, with 219 locations in all country, was used. PET data were estimated by Thornthwaite (TH and FAO Penman-Monteith (PM methods. PET, from both methods, and R data were used to estimate the CWB for a SWHC of 100 mm, having as results actual ET (AET, WD and WS. Results obtained with PET from the two methods were compared by regression analysis. The results showed that TH method underestimated annual PM PET by 13% in 84% of the places. Such underestimation also led to AET and WD underestimations of 7% (in 69% of places and 40% (in 83% of places, respectively. For WS, the use of TH PET data in the CWB resulted in overestimations of about 80% in 78% of places. The differences observed in the CWB variables resulted in changes in the maps of WD and WS for Brazil. These new maps, based on PM PET, provide more accurate information, mainly for agricultural and hydrological planning and irrigation and drainage projects purposes.

  1. A Surface Soil Radioactivity Mapping Has Been Carried Out at Muria Peninsula, Central Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soepradto-Tjokrokardono; Nasrun-Syamsul; Supardjo-AS; Djodi-R-Mappa; Kurnia-Setyawan W

    2004-01-01

    The air of this mapping is to gain exposure dose value of the soil surface of Muria Peninsula. Central Java, in the area of 75 km radius from Ujung Lemah Abang. Lemah Abang is the proposed site of the first indonesian nuclear Power Plant. A radioactivity data obtained in 1995/1996 to 1998/1999 researches has been used for input data. For further analysis, a conversation factor multiplication is applied. This conversation factor is obtained from linear regression equation of the relationship between radioactivity and exposure values gained from re-measured randomly 44 points which are representative for high, medium, and low radiation areas obtained in 1995/1996 to 1998/1999 activities and it taking soil samples. The conversation data result is being constructed of the Surface Exposure Dose Map of Muria Peninsula. Those data show that the exposure dose of northern slope of Muria Volcano is relatively higher than that of southern slope, it means be harmonizing to the soil sample radioactivity values. The maximum radioactivity value of the soil samples is 3,56.10 -2 Bq/gram (α radiation), 8,22.10 -1 Bq/gram (β radiation) and 6,20.10 -1 Bq/gram (γ radiation) and the minimum values are 4,44 10 -3 Bq/gram (α radiation), 1,50. 10 -1 Bq/gram (β radiation) and 4,09. 10 -2 Bq/gram (γ radiation). (author)

  2. A new capture fraction method to map how pumpage affects surface water flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, S.A.; Reeves, H.W.; Dickinson, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    All groundwater pumped is balanced by removal of water somewhere, initially from storage in the aquifer and later from capture in the form of increase in recharge and decrease in discharge. Capture that results in a loss of water in streams, rivers, and wetlands now is a concern in many parts of the United States. Hydrologists commonly use analytical and numerical approaches to study temporal variations in sources of water to wells for select points of interest. Much can be learned about coupled surface/groundwater systems, however, by looking at the spatial distribution of theoretical capture for select times of interest. Development of maps of capture requires (1) a reasonably well-constructed transient or steady state model of an aquifer with head-dependent flow boundaries representing surface water features or evapotranspiration and (2) an automated procedure to run the model repeatedly and extract results, each time with a well in a different location. This paper presents new methods for simulating and mapping capture using three-dimensional groundwater flow models and presents examples from Arizona, Oregon, and Michigan. Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association. No claim to original US government works.

  3. Mapping and Analysis of Forest and Land Fire Potential Using Geospatial Technology and Mathematical Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, M D H; Mahmud, M; Reba, M N M; S, L W

    2014-01-01

    Forest and land fire can cause negative implications for forest ecosystems, biodiversity, air quality and soil structure. However, the implications involved can be minimized through effective disaster management system. Effective disaster management mechanisms can be developed through appropriate early warning system as well as an efficient delivery system. This study tried to focus on two aspects, namely by mapping the potential of forest fire and land as well as the delivery of information to users through WebGIS application. Geospatial technology and mathematical modeling used in this study for identifying, classifying and mapping the potential area for burning. Mathematical models used is the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), while Geospatial technologies involved include remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS) and digital field data collection. The entire Selangor state was chosen as our study area based on a number of cases have been reported over the last two decades. AHP modeling to assess the comparison between the three main criteria of fuel, topography and human factors design. Contributions of experts directly involved in forest fire fighting operations and land comprising officials from the Fire and Rescue Department Malaysia also evaluated in this model. The study found that about 32.83 square kilometers of the total area of Selangor state are the extreme potential for fire. Extreme potential areas identified are in Bestari Jaya and Kuala Langat High Ulu. Continuity of information and terrestrial forest fire potential was displayed in WebGIS applications on the internet. Display information through WebGIS applications is a better approach to help the decision-making process at a high level of confidence and approximate real conditions. Agencies involved in disaster management such as Jawatankuasa Pengurusan Dan Bantuan Bencana (JPBB) of District, State and the National under the National Security Division and the Fire and Rescue

  4. Mapping and Analysis of Forest and Land Fire Potential Using Geospatial Technology and Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, M. D. H.; Mahmud, M.; Reba, M. N. M.; S, L. W.

    2014-02-01

    Forest and land fire can cause negative implications for forest ecosystems, biodiversity, air quality and soil structure. However, the implications involved can be minimized through effective disaster management system. Effective disaster management mechanisms can be developed through appropriate early warning system as well as an efficient delivery system. This study tried to focus on two aspects, namely by mapping the potential of forest fire and land as well as the delivery of information to users through WebGIS application. Geospatial technology and mathematical modeling used in this study for identifying, classifying and mapping the potential area for burning. Mathematical models used is the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), while Geospatial technologies involved include remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS) and digital field data collection. The entire Selangor state was chosen as our study area based on a number of cases have been reported over the last two decades. AHP modeling to assess the comparison between the three main criteria of fuel, topography and human factors design. Contributions of experts directly involved in forest fire fighting operations and land comprising officials from the Fire and Rescue Department Malaysia also evaluated in this model. The study found that about 32.83 square kilometers of the total area of Selangor state are the extreme potential for fire. Extreme potential areas identified are in Bestari Jaya and Kuala Langat High Ulu. Continuity of information and terrestrial forest fire potential was displayed in WebGIS applications on the internet. Display information through WebGIS applications is a better approach to help the decision-making process at a high level of confidence and approximate real conditions. Agencies involved in disaster management such as Jawatankuasa Pengurusan Dan Bantuan Bencana (JPBB) of District, State and the National under the National Security Division and the Fire and Rescue

  5. Magnetic surface mapping with highly transparent screens on the Auburn Torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwell, G.J.; Gandy, R.F.; Henderson, M.A.; Hanson, J.D.; Swanson, D.G.; Bush, C.J.; Colchin, R.J.; England, A.C.; Lee, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    In stellarator-type magnetic confinement devices (of which the torsatron is one), the magnetic field is produced entirely by external, current-carrying coils. Two methods for mapping magnetic surfaces in the Auburn Torsatron were tested and compared, both of which involve the use of highly transparent screens. The first method consists of coating the screen with a phosphor that emits light when struck by electrons emitted by an electron gun. A pattern representative of a magnetic surface is formed on the screen, and this pattern is recorded photographically. The second method uses an uncoated screen to collect electrons emitted from an emissive probe, which is scanned over a poloidal cross section of the torus. Under certain conditions, the collected current is a constant over a particular magnetic surface so that a contour plot of the current versus position is equivalent to a plot of the magnetic surfaces. Parametric studies of the two methods are presented, and the effectiveness of each technique is discussed

  6. Manifestation of an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP Model on Fire Potential Zonation Mapping in Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Kumar Chhetri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Even though fewer people die as a result of fire than other natural disasters, such as earthquake, flood, landslide, etc., the average loss of property due to fire is high. Kathmandu Metropolitan City is becoming more vulnerable to fire due to haphazard urbanization and increase in population. To control problems due to fire, systematic studies are necessary, including fire potential mapping and risk assessment. This study applies an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method in Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal for generation of fire potential zonation map. The fire potential zonation map is prepared on the basis of available data of land use, fuel stations, and population density. This map shows that 58.04% of the study area falls under low fire potential zone, 32.92% falls under moderate fire potential zone and 9.04% falls under high fire potential zone. The map is also validated through major past fire incidents. The results show that the predicted fire potential zones are found to be in good agreement with past fire incidents, and, hence, the map can be used for future land-use planning.

  7. Surface grafted polymer brushes: potential applications in dengue biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratela, Fernando Jose Costa; Higa, Olga Zazuco, E-mail: ozahiga@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Faria, Henrique Antonio Mendonca de; Queiroz, Alvaro Antonio Alencar de, E-mail: alencar@unifei.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica e Quimica

    2013-07-01

    A polymer brush membrane-based ultrasensitive biosensor for dengue diagnosis was constructed using poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) brushes immobilized onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) films. LDPE surface films were initially modified by Ar{sup +} ion irradiation to activate the polymer surface. Subsequently, graft polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto the activated LDPE surface was carried out under aqueous conditions to create patterned polymer brushes of PHEMA. The grafted PHEMA brushes were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle analysis. The SEM observations showed that selective surface activation with Ar+ implantation and graft polymerization on the selectively activated surface had occurred. The PHEMA brushes were electrically characterized in the presence of concentrations of human immunoglobulin (IgG). The proposed amperometric biosensor was successfully used for determination of IgG in physiologic samples with excellent responses. (author)

  8. Surface grafted polymer brushes: potential applications in dengue biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratela, Fernando Jose Costa; Higa, Olga Zazuco; Faria, Henrique Antonio Mendonca de; Queiroz, Alvaro Antonio Alencar de

    2013-01-01

    A polymer brush membrane-based ultrasensitive biosensor for dengue diagnosis was constructed using poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) brushes immobilized onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) films. LDPE surface films were initially modified by Ar + ion irradiation to activate the polymer surface. Subsequently, graft polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto the activated LDPE surface was carried out under aqueous conditions to create patterned polymer brushes of PHEMA. The grafted PHEMA brushes were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle analysis. The SEM observations showed that selective surface activation with Ar+ implantation and graft polymerization on the selectively activated surface had occurred. The PHEMA brushes were electrically characterized in the presence of concentrations of human immunoglobulin (IgG). The proposed amperometric biosensor was successfully used for determination of IgG in physiologic samples with excellent responses. (author)

  9. The development and mapping of functional markers in Fragaria and their transferability and potential for mapping in other genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, D J; Rys, A; Nier, S; Simpson, D W; Tobutt, K R

    2007-01-01

    We have developed 46 primer pairs from exon sequences flanking polymorphic introns of 23 Fragaria gene sequences and one Malus sequence deposited in the EMBL database. Sequencing of a set of the PCR products amplified with the novel primer pairs in diploid Fragaria showed the products to be homologous to the sequences from which the primers were originally designed. By scoring the segregation of the 24 genes in two diploid Fragaria progenies FV x FN (F. vesca x F. nubicola F(2)) and 815 x 903BC (F. vesca x F. viridis BC(1)) 29 genetic loci at discrete positions on the seven linkage groups previously characterised could be mapped, bringing to 35 the total number of known function genes mapped in Fragaria. Twenty primer pairs, representing 14 genes, amplified a product of the expected size in both Malus and Prunus. To demonstrate the applicability of these gene-specific loci to comparative mapping in Rosaceae, five markers that displayed clear polymorphism between the parents of a Malus and a Prunus mapping population were selected. The markers were then scored and mapped in at least one of the two additional progenies.

  10. A Method to Analyze the Potential of Optical Remote Sensing for Benthic Habitat Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Garcia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the number and type of benthic classes that are able to be spectrally identified in shallow water remote sensing is important in understanding its potential for habitat mapping. Factors that impact the effectiveness of shallow water habitat mapping include water column turbidity, depth, sensor and environmental noise, spectral resolution of the sensor and spectral variability of the benthic classes. In this paper, we present a simple hierarchical clustering method coupled with a shallow water forward model to generate water-column specific spectral libraries. This technique requires no prior decision on the number of classes to output: the resultant classes are optically separable above the spectral noise introduced by the sensor, image based radiometric corrections, the benthos’ natural spectral variability and the attenuating properties of a variable water column at depth. The modeling reveals the effect reducing the spectral resolution has on the number and type of classes that are optically distinct. We illustrate the potential of this clustering algorithm in an analysis of the conditions, including clustering accuracy, sensor spectral resolution and water column optical properties and depth that enabled the spectral distinction of the seagrass Amphibolis antartica from benthic algae.

  11. Solar resources and power potential mapping in Vietnam using satellite-derived and GIS-based information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polo, J.; Bernardos, A.; Navarro, A.A.; Fernandez-Peruchena, C.M.; Ramírez, L.; Guisado, María V.; Martínez, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Satellite-based, reanalysis data and measurements are combined for solar mapping. • Plant output modeling for PV and CSP results in simple expressions of solar potential. • Solar resource, solar potential are used in a GIS for determine technical solar potential. • Solar resource and potential maps of Vietnam are presented. - Abstract: The present paper presents maps of the solar resources in Vietnam and of the solar potential for concentrating solar power (CSP) and for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) technology. The mapping of solar radiation components has been calculated from satellite-derived data combined with solar radiation derived from sunshine duration and other additional sources of information based on reanalysis for several atmospheric and meteorological parameters involved. Two scenarios have been selected for the study of the solar potential: CSP Parabolic Trough of 50 MWe and grid-connected Flat Plate PV plant of around 1 MWe. For each selected scenario plant performance simulations have been computed for developing simple expressions that allow the estimation of the solar potential from the annual solar irradiation and the latitude of every site in Vietnam. Finally, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used for combining the solar potential with the land availability according each scenario to deliver the technical solar potential maps of Vietnam

  12. Vectorial mapping of noncollinear antiferromagnetic structure of semiconducting FeSe surface with spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, K. F.; Yang, Fang; Song, Y. R. [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Xiaole [Institute of Natural Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chen, Xianfeng [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Canhua; Qian, Dong; Gao, C. L., E-mail: clgao@sjtu.edu.cn; Jia, Jin-Feng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing (China); Luo, Weidong, E-mail: wdluo@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Institute of Natural Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing (China)

    2016-02-08

    Antiferromagnetic semiconductors gain increasing interest due to their possible application in spintronics. Using spin polarized scanning tunneling microscopy operating in a vector field, we mapped the noncollinear antiferromagnetic spin structure of a semiconducting hexagonal FeSe surface on the atomic scale. The surface possesses an in-plane compensated Néel structure which is further confirmed by first-principles calculations.

  13. Vectorial mapping of noncollinear antiferromagnetic structure of semiconducting FeSe surface with spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, K. F.; Yang, Fang; Song, Y. R.; Zhang, Xiaole; Chen, Xianfeng; Liu, Canhua; Qian, Dong; Gao, C. L.; Jia, Jin-Feng; Luo, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Antiferromagnetic semiconductors gain increasing interest due to their possible application in spintronics. Using spin polarized scanning tunneling microscopy operating in a vector field, we mapped the noncollinear antiferromagnetic spin structure of a semiconducting hexagonal FeSe surface on the atomic scale. The surface possesses an in-plane compensated Néel structure which is further confirmed by first-principles calculations

  14. Surface density mapping of natural tissue by a scanning haptic microscope (SHM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Takeshi; Oie, Tomonori; Takamizawa, Keiichi; Murayama, Yoshinobu; Fukuda, Toru; Omata, Sadao; Nakayama, Yasuhide

    2013-02-01

    To expand the performance capacity of the scanning haptic microscope (SHM) beyond surface mapping microscopy of elastic modulus or topography, surface density mapping of a natural tissue was performed by applying a measurement theory of SHM, in which a frequency change occurs upon contact of the sample surface with the SHM sensor - a microtactile sensor (MTS) that vibrates at a pre-determined constant oscillation frequency. This change was mainly stiffness-dependent at a low oscillation frequency and density-dependent at a high oscillation frequency. Two paragon examples with extremely different densities but similar macroscopic elastic moduli in the range of natural soft tissues were selected: one was agar hydrogels and the other silicon organogels with extremely low (less than 25 mg/cm(3)) and high densities (ca. 1300 mg/cm(3)), respectively. Measurements were performed in saline solution near the second-order resonance frequency, which led to the elastic modulus, and near the third-order resonance frequency. There was little difference in the frequency changes between the two resonance frequencies in agar gels. In contrast, in silicone gels, a large frequency change by MTS contact was observed near the third-order resonance frequency, indicating that the frequency change near the third-order resonance frequency reflected changes in both density and elastic modulus. Therefore, a density image of the canine aortic wall was subsequently obtained by subtracting the image observed near the second-order resonance frequency from that near the third-order resonance frequency. The elastin-rich region had a higher density than the collagen-rich region.

  15. An improved method for Multipath Hemispherical Map (MHM) based on Trend Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiren; Chen, Wen; Dong, Danan; Yu, Chao

    2017-04-01

    Among various approaches developed for detecting the multipath effect in high-accuracy GNSS positioning, Only MHM (Multipath Hemispherical Map) and SF (Sidereal Filtering) can be implemented to real-time GNSS data processing. SF is based on the time repeatability of satellites which just suitable for static environment, while the spatiotemporal repeatability-based MHM is applicable not only for static environment but also for dynamic carriers with static multipath environment such as ships and airplanes, and utilizes much smaller number of parameters than ASF. However, the MHM method also has certain defects. Since the MHM take the mean of residuals from the grid as the filter value, it is more suitable when the multipath regime is medium to low frequency. Now existing research data indicate that the newly advanced Sidereal Filtering (ASF) method perform better with high frequency multipath reduction than MHM by contrast. To solve the above problem and improve MHM's performance on high frequency multipath, we combined binary trend surface analysis method with original MHM model to effectively analyze particular spatial distribution and variation trends of multipath effect. We computed trend surfaces of the residuals within a grid by least-square procedures, and chose the best results through the moderate successive test. The enhanced MHM grid was constructed from a set of coefficients of the fitted equation instead of mean value. According to the analysis of the actual observation, the improved MHM model shows positive effect on high frequency multipath reduction, and significantly reduced the root mean square (RMS) value of the carrier residuals. Keywords: Trend Surface Analysis; Multipath Hemispherical Map; high frequency multipath effect

  16. Fuzzy logic-based assessment for mapping potential infiltration areas in low-gradient watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz Londoño, Orlando Mauricio; Romanelli, Asunción; Lima, María Lourdes; Massone, Héctor Enrique; Martínez, Daniel Emilio

    2016-07-01

    This paper gives an account of the design a logic-based approach for identifying potential infiltration areas in low-gradient watersheds based on remote sensing data. This methodological framework is applied in a sector of the Pampa Plain, Argentina, which has high level of agricultural activities and large demands for groundwater supplies. Potential infiltration sites are assessed as a function of two primary topics: hydrologic and soil conditions. This model shows the state of each evaluated subwatershed respecting to its potential contribution to infiltration mainly based on easily measurable and commonly used parameters: drainage density, geomorphologic units, soil media, land-cover, slope and aspect (slope orientation). Mapped outputs from the logic model displayed 42% very low-low, 16% moderate, 41% high-very high contribution to potential infiltration in the whole watershed. Subwatersheds in the upper and lower section were identified as areas with high to very high potential infiltration according to the following media features: low drainage density (drainage plain and, dunes and beaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Geohazard reconnaissance mapping for potential rock boulder fall using low altitude UAV photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan Kumar, N.; Ashraf Mohamad Ismail, Mohd; Sukor, Nur Sabahiah Abdul; Cheang, William

    2018-05-01

    This paper discusses potential applications of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for evaluation of risk immediately with photos and 3-dimensional digital element. Aerial photography using UAV ready to give a powerful technique for potential rock boulder fall recognition. High-resolution outputs from this method give the chance to evaluate the site for potential rock boulder falls spatially. The utilization of UAV to capture the aerial photos is a quick, reliable, and cost-effective technique contrasted with terrestrial laser scanning method. Reconnaissance of potential rock boulder susceptible to fall is very crucial during the geotechnical investigation. This process is essential in the view of the rock fall hazards nearby site before the beginning of any preliminary work. Photogrammetric applications have empowered the automated way to deal with identification of rock boulder susceptible to fall by recognizing the location, size, and position. A developing examination of the utilization of digital photogrammetry gives numerous many benefits for civil engineering application. These advancements have made important contributions to our capabilities to create the geohazard map on potential rock boulder fall.

  18. Mapping the Agulhas Current from space: an assessment of ASAR surface current velocities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rouault, MJ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Over 2 years of surface current information collected in the Agulhas Current region and derived from the Doppler centroid anomalies of Envisat’s advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR) are examined. The sources of errors and potential use of ASAR...

  19. Passive language mapping combining real-time oscillation analysis with cortico-cortical evoked potentials for awake craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Yukie; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Kapeller, Christoph; Prueckl, Robert; Takeuchi, Fumiya; Anei, Ryogo; Ritaccio, Anthony; Guger, Christoph; Kamada, Kyousuke

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Electrocortical stimulation (ECS) is the gold standard for functional brain mapping; however, precise functional mapping is still difficult in patients with language deficits. High gamma activity (HGA) between 80 and 140 Hz on electrocorticography is assumed to reflect localized cortical processing, whereas the cortico-cortical evoked potential (CCEP) can reflect bidirectional responses evoked by monophasic pulse stimuli to the language cortices when there is no patient cooperation. The authors propose the use of "passive" mapping by combining HGA mapping and CCEP recording without active tasks during conscious resections of brain tumors. METHODS Five patients, each with an intraaxial tumor in their dominant hemisphere, underwent conscious resection of their lesion with passive mapping. The authors performed functional localization for the receptive language area, using real-time HGA mapping, by listening passively to linguistic sounds. Furthermore, single electrical pulses were delivered to the identified receptive temporal language area to detect CCEPs in the frontal lobe. All mapping results were validated by ECS, and the sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. RESULTS Linguistic HGA mapping quickly identified the language area in the temporal lobe. Electrical stimulation by linguistic HGA mapping to the identified temporal receptive language area evoked CCEPs on the frontal lobe. The combination of linguistic HGA and frontal CCEPs needed no patient cooperation or effort. In this small case series, the sensitivity and specificity were 93.8% and 89%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The described technique allows for simple and quick functional brain mapping with higher sensitivity and specificity than ECS mapping. The authors believe that this could improve the reliability of functional brain mapping and facilitate rational and objective operations. Passive mapping also sheds light on the underlying physiological mechanisms of language in the human brain.

  20. EVALUATION MODEL FOR PAVEMENT SURFACE DISTRESS ON 3D POINT CLOUDS FROM MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Aoki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate the pavement surface distress for maintenance planning of road pavement using 3D point clouds from Mobile Mapping System (MMS. The issue on maintenance planning of road pavement requires scheduled rehabilitation activities for damaged pavement sections to keep high level of services. The importance of this performance-based infrastructure asset management on actual inspection data is globally recognized. Inspection methodology of road pavement surface, a semi-automatic measurement system utilizing inspection vehicles for measuring surface deterioration indexes, such as cracking, rutting and IRI, have already been introduced and capable of continuously archiving the pavement performance data. However, any scheduled inspection using automatic measurement vehicle needs much cost according to the instruments’ specification or inspection interval. Therefore, implementation of road maintenance work, especially for the local government, is difficult considering costeffectiveness. Based on this background, in this research, the methodologies for a simplified evaluation for pavement surface and assessment of damaged pavement section are proposed using 3D point clouds data to build urban 3D modelling. The simplified evaluation results of road surface were able to provide useful information for road administrator to find out the pavement section for a detailed examination and for an immediate repair work. In particular, the regularity of enumeration of 3D point clouds was evaluated using Chow-test and F-test model by extracting the section where the structural change of a coordinate value was remarkably achieved. Finally, the validity of the current methodology was investigated by conducting a case study dealing with the actual inspection data of the local roads.

  1. Mapping of local argon impingement on a virtual surface: an insight for gas injection during FEBID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanzenboeck, H.D.; Hochleitner, G.; Mika, J.; Shawrav, M.M.; Gavagnin, M.; Bertagnolli, E. [Vienna University of Technology, Institute for Solid State Electronics, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-12-15

    During the last decades, focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) has become a successful approach for direct-write fabrication of nanodevices. Such a deposition technique relies on the precursor supply to the sample surface which is typically accomplished by a gas injection system using a tube-shaped injector nozzle. This precursor injection strategy implies a position-dependent concentration gradient on the surface, which affects the geometry and chemistry of the final nanodeposit. Although simulations already proposed the local distribution of nozzle-borne gas molecules impinging on the surface, this isolated step in the FEBID process has never been experimentally measured yet. This work experimentally investigates the local distribution of impinging gas molecules on the sample plane, isolating the direct impingement component from surface diffusion or precursor depletion by deposition. The experimental setup used in this work maps and quantifies the local impinging rate of argon gas over the sample plane. This setup simulates the identical conditions for a precursor molecule during FEBID. Argon gas was locally collected with a sniffer tube, which is directly connected to a residual gas analyzer for quantification. The measured distribution of impinging gas molecules showed a strong position dependence. Indeed, a 300-μm shift of the deposition area to a position further away from the impingement center spot resulted in a 50 % decrease in the precursor impinging rate on the surface area. With the same parameters, the precursor distribution was also simulated by a Monte Carlo software by Friedli and Utke and showed a good correlation between the empirical and the simulated precursor distribution. The results hereby presented underline the importance of controlling the local precursor flux conditions in order to obtain reproducible and comparable deposition results in FEBID. (orig.)

  2. Mapping of local argon impingement on a virtual surface: an insight for gas injection during FEBID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanzenboeck, H.D.; Hochleitner, G.; Mika, J.; Shawrav, M.M.; Gavagnin, M.; Bertagnolli, E.

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) has become a successful approach for direct-write fabrication of nanodevices. Such a deposition technique relies on the precursor supply to the sample surface which is typically accomplished by a gas injection system using a tube-shaped injector nozzle. This precursor injection strategy implies a position-dependent concentration gradient on the surface, which affects the geometry and chemistry of the final nanodeposit. Although simulations already proposed the local distribution of nozzle-borne gas molecules impinging on the surface, this isolated step in the FEBID process has never been experimentally measured yet. This work experimentally investigates the local distribution of impinging gas molecules on the sample plane, isolating the direct impingement component from surface diffusion or precursor depletion by deposition. The experimental setup used in this work maps and quantifies the local impinging rate of argon gas over the sample plane. This setup simulates the identical conditions for a precursor molecule during FEBID. Argon gas was locally collected with a sniffer tube, which is directly connected to a residual gas analyzer for quantification. The measured distribution of impinging gas molecules showed a strong position dependence. Indeed, a 300-μm shift of the deposition area to a position further away from the impingement center spot resulted in a 50 % decrease in the precursor impinging rate on the surface area. With the same parameters, the precursor distribution was also simulated by a Monte Carlo software by Friedli and Utke and showed a good correlation between the empirical and the simulated precursor distribution. The results hereby presented underline the importance of controlling the local precursor flux conditions in order to obtain reproducible and comparable deposition results in FEBID. (orig.)

  3. Mapping of local argon impingement on a virtual surface: an insight for gas injection during FEBID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzenboeck, H. D.; Hochleitner, G.; Mika, J.; Shawrav, M. M.; Gavagnin, M.; Bertagnolli, E.

    2014-12-01

    During the last decades, focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) has become a successful approach for direct-write fabrication of nanodevices. Such a deposition technique relies on the precursor supply to the sample surface which is typically accomplished by a gas injection system using a tube-shaped injector nozzle. This precursor injection strategy implies a position-dependent concentration gradient on the surface, which affects the geometry and chemistry of the final nanodeposit. Although simulations already proposed the local distribution of nozzle-borne gas molecules impinging on the surface, this isolated step in the FEBID process has never been experimentally measured yet. This work experimentally investigates the local distribution of impinging gas molecules on the sample plane, isolating the direct impingement component from surface diffusion or precursor depletion by deposition. The experimental setup used in this work maps and quantifies the local impinging rate of argon gas over the sample plane. This setup simulates the identical conditions for a precursor molecule during FEBID. Argon gas was locally collected with a sniffer tube, which is directly connected to a residual gas analyzer for quantification. The measured distribution of impinging gas molecules showed a strong position dependence. Indeed, a 300-µm shift of the deposition area to a position further away from the impingement center spot resulted in a 50 % decrease in the precursor impinging rate on the surface area. With the same parameters, the precursor distribution was also simulated by a Monte Carlo software by Friedli and Utke and showed a good correlation between the empirical and the simulated precursor distribution. The results hereby presented underline the importance of controlling the local precursor flux conditions in order to obtain reproducible and comparable deposition results in FEBID.

  4. Mapping of Synaptic-Neuronal Impairment on the Brain Surface through Fluctuation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musha, Toshimitsu; Kurachi, Takayoshi; Suzuki, Naohoro; Kosugi, Yukio

    2005-01-01

    Increase of demented population year by year is becoming a serious social problem to be solved urgently. The most effective way to block this increase is in its early detection by means of an inexpensive, non-invasive, sensitive, reliable and easy-to-operate diagnosis method. We have developed a method satisfying these requirements by using scalp potential fluctuations. We have collected 21ch EEG and SPECT data of 25 very mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) (MMSE=26±1.8), moderately severe AD (MMSE=15.3±6.4) and age-matched normal controls. As AD progresses, local synaptic-neuronal activity becomes abnormal, either more unstable or more inactive than in normal state. Such abnormality is detected in terms of normalized power variance (NPV) of a scalp potential recorded with a scalp electrode. The z-score is defined by z = ((NPV of a subject) - (mean NPV of normal subjects))/(standard deviation of NPV of normal subjects). Correlation of a measured z-score map with the mean z-score map for AD patients characterizes likelihood to AD, in terms of which AD is discriminated from normal with 75% of true positive and 25% false negative probability. By introducing two thresholds, we have 90% of true positive and 10% of false negative discrimination

  5. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 1 - GIS mapping of potential renewable energy resources in the CVRD. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. The first task in the project was the production of a series of thematic GIS maps and associated databases of potential renewable energy resources in the CVRD. The renewable energy sources mapped were solar, wind, micro hydro, and biomass (residues and waste). Other sources were also discussed (e.g. geothermal heat) but not mapped due to lack of spatially explicit input data. The task 1 findings are detailed in this report. (LN)

  6. Cold atoms near surfaces: designing potentials by sculpturing wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Pietra, Leonardo; Aigner, Simon; Hagen, Christoph vom; Lezec, Henri J; Schmiedmayer, Joerg

    2005-01-01

    The magnetic trapping potentials for atoms on atom chips are determined by the current flow pattern in the chip wires. By modifying the wire shape using focused ion beam nano-machining we can design specialized current flow patterns and therefore micro-design the magnetic trapping potentials. We give designs for a barrier, a quantum dot, and a double well or double barrier and show preliminary experiments with ultra cold atoms in these designed potentials

  7. Towards automated electron holographic tomography for 3D mapping of electrostatic potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Daniel, E-mail: Daniel.Wolf@Triebenberg.de [Triebenberg Laboratory, Institute of Structure Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Lubk, Axel; Lichte, Hannes [Triebenberg Laboratory, Institute of Structure Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Friedrich, Heiner [Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    Electron-holographic tomography (EHT), that is, the combination of off-axis electron holography with electron tomography, was successfully applied for the quantitative 3D mapping of electrostatic potentials at the nanoscale. Here we present the first software package (THOMAS) for semi-automated acquisition of holographic tilt series, a prerequisite for efficient data collection. Using THOMAS, the acquisition time for a holographic tilt series, consisting of object and reference holograms, is reduced by a factor of five on average, compared to the previous, completely manual approaches. Moreover, the existing software packages for retrieving amplitude and phase information from electron holograms have been extended, now including a one-step procedure for holographic tilt series reconstruction. Furthermore, a modified SIRT algorithm (WSIRT) was implemented for the quantitative 3D reconstruction of the electrostatic potential from the aligned phase tilt series. Finally, the application of EHT to a polystyrene latex sphere test-specimen and a pn-doped Ge 'needle'-shaped specimen are presented, illustrating the quantitative character of EHT. For both specimens the mean inner potential (MIP) values were accurately determined from the reconstructed 3D potential. For the Ge specimen, additionally the 'built-in' voltage across the pn junction of 0.5 V was obtained.

  8. Analyzing the Potential for Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) Photogrammetry in Estimating Surface Deformations at a Geothermal Fiel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, H.; Burnett, J.; Sladek, C.; Wing, M.; Feigl, K. L.; Selker, J. S.; Tyler, S.; Team, P.

    2016-12-01

    UAS systems equipped with a variety of spectral imaging devices are increasingly incorporated in spatial environmental assessments of continental surfaces (e.g., digital elevation maps, vegetative coverage classifications, surface temperatures). This presented work performed by the UAS team at the Center for Transformative Environmental Monitoring Programs (AirCTEMPS) examines the potential to measure small (sub-cm) deformation from a geothermal injection experiment at Brady's geothermal field in western Nevada (USA). Areal mapping of the 700 x 270 m area of interest was conducted with a nadir pointing Sony A5100 digital camera onboard an autopiloted quadcopter. A total of 16 ground control points were installed using a TopCon GR3 GPS receiver. Two such mapping campaigns were conducted with one before and one after an anticipated surface deformation event. A digital elevation map (DEM) for each time period was created from over 1500 images having 80% overlap/sidelap by using structure from motion (SfM) via Agisoft Photoscan software. The resulting DEM resolution was 8 mm/pixel with residual aerial triangulation errors was < 5 mm. We present preliminary results from an optimized workflow which achieved errors and average differential DEM heights between campaigns at the cm-scale which is broader than the maximum expected deformation. Despite the disconnect between error and deformation severity, this study presents a unique application of sub-cm UAS-based DEMs and further distinguishes itself by comparing results to concurrent Interferometric Synthetic Radar (InSAR). The intent of our study and presentation of results is to streamline, cross-validate, and share methods to encourage further adoption of UAS imagery into the standard toolkit for environmental surface sensing across spatial scales.

  9. Comprehensive personal RF-EMF exposure map and its potential use in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rubio, Jesus; Najera, Alberto; Arribas, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, numerous epidemiological studies, which deal with the potential effects of mobile phone antennas on health, have almost exclusively focused on their distance to mobile phone base stations. Although it is known that this is not the best approach to the problem, this situation occurs due to the numerous difficulties when determining the personal exposure to the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). However, due to the rise of personal exposimeters, the evolution of spatial statistics, the development of geographical information systems and the use of powerful software, new alternatives are available to deal with these epidemiological studies and thus overcome the aforementioned difficulties. Using these tools, this paper presents a lattice map of personal RF-EMF exposure from exterior mobile phone base stations, covering the entire 110 administrative regions in the city of Albacete (Spain). For this purpose, we used a personal exposimeter, Satimo EME Spy 140 model, performing measurements every 4s The exposimeter was located inside the plastic basket of a bicycle, whose versatility permitted the access to all the zones of the city. Once the exposure map was prepared, its relation with the known antenna locations was studied. The 64 mobile telephone antennas of the city were also georeferenced; the randomness of both variables (exposure and antennas) were studied by means of the Moran's I test. Results showed that the distribution of the antennas follows a grouped pattern (pbased on the mean exposure values to RF-EMF in these sections. The displayed map would permit the execution of more accurate epidemiological studies, since it would be possible to compare the exposure measurements with the incidence data of a disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Large Scale Mapping of Coastal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwin, N; Ahmad, A; Zainon, O

    2014-01-01

    Many countries in the tropical region are covered with cloud for most of the time, hence, it is difficult to get clear images especially from high resolution satellite imagery. Aerial photogrammetry can be used but most of the time the cloud problem still exists. Today, this problem could be solved using a system known as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) where the aerial images can be acquired at low altitude and the system can fly under the cloud. The UAV system could be used in various applications including mapping coastal area. The UAV system is equipped with an autopilot system and automatic method known as autonomous flying that can be utilized for data acquisition. To achieve high resolution imagery, a compact digital camera of high resolution was used to acquire the aerial images at an altitude. In this study, the UAV system was employed to acquire aerial images of a coastal simulation model at low altitude. From the aerial images, photogrammetric image processing was executed to produce photogrammetric outputs such a digital elevation model (DEM), contour line and orthophoto. In this study, ground control point (GCP) and check point (CP) were established using conventional ground surveying method (i.e total station). The GCP is used for exterior orientation in photogrammetric processes and CP for accuracy assessment based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). From this study, it was found that the UAV system can be used for large scale mapping of coastal simulation model with accuracy at millimeter level. It is anticipated that the same system could be used for large scale mapping of real coastal area and produces good accuracy. Finally, the UAV system has great potential to be used for various applications that require accurate results or products at limited time and less man power

  11. Renewable energy: GIS-based mapping and modelling of potentials and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Thomas; Biberacher, Markus; Schardinger, Ingrid.; Gadocha, Sabine; Zocher, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    Worldwide demand of energy is growing and will continue to do so for the next decades to come. IEA has estimated that global primary energy demand will increase by 40 - 50% from 2003 to 2030 (IEA, 2005) depending on the fact whether currently contemplated energy policies directed towards energy-saving and fuel-diversification will be effectuated. The demand for Renewable Energy (RE) is undenied but clear figures and spatially disaggregated potentials for the various energy carriers are very rare. Renewable Energies are expected to reduce pressures on the environment and CO2 production. In several studies in Germany (North-Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony) and Austria we studied the current and future pattern of energy production and consumption. In this paper we summarize and benchmark different RE carriers, namely wind, biomass (forest and non-forest, geothermal, solar and hydro power. We demonstrate that GIS-based scalable and flexible information delivery sheds new light on the prevailing metaphor of GIS as a processing engine serving needs of users more on demand rather than through ‘maps on stock'. We compare our finding with those of several energy related EU-FP7 projects in Europe where we have been involved - namely GEOBENE, REACCESS, ENERGEO - and demonstrate that more and more spatial data will become available together with tools that allow experts to do their own analyses and to communicate their results in ways which policy makers and the public can readily understand and use as a basis for their own actions. Geoportals in combination with standardised geoprocessing today supports the older vision of an automated presentation of data on maps, and - if user privileges are given - facilities to interactively manipulate these maps. We conclude that the most critical factor in modelling energy supply and demand remain the economic valuation of goods and services, especially the forecast of future end consumer energy costs.

  12. The use of mapped geology as a predictor of radon potential in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Robin J; Smethurst, Mark A; Ganerød, Guri V; Finne, Ingvild; Rudjord, Anne Liv

    2017-01-01

    Radon exposure is considered to cause several hundred fatalities from lung-cancer each year in Norway. A national map identifying areas which are likely to be exposed to elevated radon concentrations would be a useful tool for decision-making authorities, and would be particularly important in areas where only few indoor radon measurements exist. An earlier Norwegian study (Smethurst et al. 2008) produced radon hazard maps by examining the relationship between airborne gamma-ray spectrometry, bedrock and drift geology, and indoor radon. The study was limited to the Oslo region where substantial indoor radon and airborne equivalent uranium datasets were available, and did not attempt to test the statistical significance of relationships, or to quantify the confidence of its predictions. While it can be anticipated that airborne measurements may have useful predictive power for indoor radon, airborne measurement coverage in Norway is at present sparse; to provide national coverage of radon hazard estimates, a good understanding of the relationship between geology and indoor radon is therefore important. In this work we use a new enlarged (n = 34,563) form of the indoor radon dataset with national coverage, and we use it to examine the relationship between geology and indoor radon concentrations. We use this relationship to characterise geological classes by their radon potential, and we produce a national radon hazard map which includes confidence limits on the likelihood of areas having elevated radon concentrations, and which covers the whole of mainland Norway, even areas where little or no indoor radon data are available. We find that bedrock and drift geology classes can account for around 40% of the total observed variation in radon potential. We test geology-based predictions of RP (radon potential) against locally-derived estimates of RP, and produce classification matrices with kappa values in the range 0.37-0.56. Our classifier has high predictive value

  13. IRAS surface brightness maps of visible reflection nebulae: evidence for non-equilibrium infrared emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelaz, M.W.; Werner, M.W.; Sellgren, K.

    1986-01-01

    Surface brightness maps at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns of 16 visible reflection nebulae were extracted from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) database. The maps were produced by coadding IRAS survey scans over areas centered on the illuminating stars, and have spatial resolutions of 0.9' x 4' at 12 and 25 microns, 1.8' x 4.5' at 60 microns, and 3.6' x 5' at 100 microns. Extended emission in the four IRAS bandpasses was detected in fourteen of the reflection nebulae. The IRAS data were used to measure the flux of the infrared emission associated with each source. The energy distributions show that the 12 micron flux is greater than the 25 micron flux in 11 of the nebulae, and the peak flux occurs in the 60 or 100 micron bandpass in all 16 nebular. The 60 and 100 micron flux can be approximated by blackbodies with temperatures between 30 and 50 K, consistent with temperatures expected from extrapolation of greybody fits to the 60 and 100 micron data. The excess 12 and 25 micron emission is attributed to a nonequilibrium process such as emission from thermal fluctuations of very small grains excited by single ultraviolet photons, or emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) excited by ultraviolet radiation. The common features of the energy distributions of the 16 reflection nebulae, also seen in the reflection nebulae associated with the Pleiades, suggest that PAHs or very small grains may be found in most reflection nebulae

  14. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAP) for ginseng components by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Bélanger, Jacqueline M R; Paré, J R Jocelyn

    2003-03-26

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to predict optimum conditions for microwave-assisted extraction-a MAP technology-of saponin components from ginseng roots. A central composite design was used to monitor the effect of ethanol concentration (30-90%, X(1)) and extraction time (30-270 s, X(2)) on dependent variables, such as total extract yield (Y(1)), crude saponin content (Y(2)), and saponin ratio (Y(3)), under atmospheric pressure conditions when focused microwaves were applied at an emission frequency of 2450 MHz. In MAP under pre-established conditions, correlation coefficients (R (2)) of the models for total extract yield and crude saponin were 0.9841 (p extraction conditions were predicted for each variable as 52.6% ethanol and 224.7 s in extract yield and as 77.3% ethanol and 295.1 s in crude saponins, respectively. Estimated maximum values at predicted optimum conditions were in good agreement with experimental values.

  15. Potential Biosignificant Interest and Surface Activity of Efficient Heterocyclic Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Refat; Althagafi, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Some functionalized pyridine and fused system derivatives were synthesized using enaminonitrile derivative 5 as a starting material for the reaction, with various reagents under different conditions. Propoxylation of these compounds using different moles of propylene oxide (3, 5 and 7 moles) leads to a novel group of surface active agents. The antimicrobial and surface activities of the synthesized compounds were investigated. Most of the evaluated compounds proved to be active as antibacterial and antifungal agents and showed good surface activity, which makes them suitable for diverse applications such as the manufacturing of emulsifiers, cosmetics, drugs, pesticides, etc. Additionally, biodegradation testing exhibits significant breakdown within six to seven days, and hence, lowers the toxicity to human beings and becomes environmentally friendly.

  16. Nuclear stimulated desorption as a potential tool for surface study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nir, Dror.

    1993-03-01

    The described research work constitutes a base for an experimental method to be implemented in the study of solid surfaces. Nuclear Stimulated Desorption (NSD) is a new mode of experimentation in thin film and surface physics. It Is based on the interplay between nuclear phenomena (reactions and spontaneous decays), and atomic - scale induced effects on surfaces and very thin films. One may distinguish between two generically different relationships between the two. First, the dynamics of the nuclear reaction -primarily the recoil of the nucleus - may effect the position of the atom or molecule containing it. Second, the nuclear reaction (or decay) may serve as an analytical indicator of the whereabouts of the atom, or molecule, in question. In nuclear stimulated desorption, both thee aspects combine in an essential way. Namely, one employs a series of two consecutive decays (normally weak decays or isomeric transition) . The first of these decays causes the nucleus to desorb from a surface onto which it had been placed; the second serves to determine the position of the daughter and thereby the characteristics of the primary desorption . The essential feature in NSD is that it occurs almost exclusively from the outermost surface layer. This is because we choose to work with nuclei whose recoil energy Is of the same order of magnitude of the binding energy of the atom to the surface . Furthermore, the desorption probability and its angular (and temporal) characteristics, depend on the features (topology, morphology) of its immediate neighborhood. This work describes experiments which were designed to give relevant, phenomenological information about the outgoing flux of the radioactive daughters (for specifically chosen nuclear species) , and in particular the magnitude of the flux, its time dependence and its charged state. In addition. the basic phenomena itself is being distinguished from competing processes (thermal desorption, in particular). We will now

  17. Functional mapping of the sensorimotor cortex: combined use of magnetoencephalography, functional MRI, and motor evoked potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, T.; Fujii, K.; Fukui, M.; Mizushima, A.; Matsumoto, S.; Hasuo, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Tobimatsu, S.

    1995-01-01

    Combined use of magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (f-MRI), and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) was carried out on one patient in an attempt to localise precisely a structural lesion to the central sulcus. A small cyst in the right frontoparietal region was thought to be the cause of generalised seizures in an otherwise asymptomatic woman. First the primary sensory cortex was identified with magnetic source imaging (MSI) of somatosensory evoked magnetic fields using MEG and MRI. Second, the motor area of the hand was identified using f-MRI during handsqueezing. Then transcranial magnetic stimulation localised the hand motor area on the scalp, which was mapped onto the MRI. There was a good agreement between MSI, f-MRI and MEP as to the location of the sensorimotor cortex and its relationship to the lesion. Multimodality mapping techniques may thus prove useful in the precise localisation of cortical lesions, and in the preoperative determination of the best treatment for peri-rolandic lesions. (orig.)

  18. Functional mapping of the sensorimotor cortex: combined use of magnetoencephalography, functional MRI, and motor evoked potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morioka, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Neurological Inst., Kyshu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fujii, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Neurological Inst., Kyshu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukui, M. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Neurological Inst., Kyshu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Mizushima, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Matsumoto, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Hasuo, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Tobimatsu, S. [Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology, Neurological Inst., Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    Combined use of magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (f-MRI), and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) was carried out on one patient in an attempt to localise precisely a structural lesion to the central sulcus. A small cyst in the right frontoparietal region was thought to be the cause of generalised seizures in an otherwise asymptomatic woman. First the primary sensory cortex was identified with magnetic source imaging (MSI) of somatosensory evoked magnetic fields using MEG and MRI. Second, the motor area of the hand was identified using f-MRI during handsqueezing. Then transcranial magnetic stimulation localised the hand motor area on the scalp, which was mapped onto the MRI. There was a good agreement between MSI, f-MRI and MEP as to the location of the sensorimotor cortex and its relationship to the lesion. Multimodality mapping techniques may thus prove useful in the precise localisation of cortical lesions, and in the preoperative determination of the best treatment for peri-rolandic lesions. (orig.)

  19. Mapping and potentials for biogas resources in Norway; Kartlegging og potensial for biogassressurser i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raadal, Hanne Lerche

    2007-12-15

    The report represents an interim report in the project 'E6 as biogas road from Gothenburg to Oslo' and is a cooperation between this project and the project SNAB (Swedish-Norwegian solutions for waste and biproducts), an Interreg IIIA-financed project.A detailed mapping of potential biogas resources in Norwegian and Swedish municipality within the area is completed. Totally it is mapped 155 000 tons biogas resources in the form of easily decomposable organic waste and mud and 730 000 tons biogas resources in the form of manure. Upscaled to Norwegian conditions, this represents 2,1 TWh biogas approx 5% of Norway's total consumption of propellant in road transport sector. Completed scenarios for optimal utilization of biogas resources have showed that production of propellant gives the best climate effect. It is important to emphasize that the presumption which the analysis is based on, is important for the results.Different kinds of propellants are compared with basis in miscellaneous life-cycle literature data. The results shows that biogas based on waste and mud for propellant is among the most environmental friendly biofuels. (AG). 13 refs., tabs., figs

  20. Mapping the ecological dimensions and potential distributions of endangered relic shrubs in western Ordos biodiversity center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Geng-Ping; Li, Hui-Qi; Zhao, Li; Man, Liang; Liu, Qiang

    2016-05-20

    Potential distributions of endemic relic shrubs in western Ordos were poorly mapped, which hindered our implementation of proper conservation. Here we investigated the applicability of ecological niche modeling for endangered relic shrubs to detect areas of priority for biodiversity conservation and analyze differences in ecological niche spaces used by relic shrubs. We applied ordination and niche modeling techniques to assess main environmental drivers of five endemic relic shrubs in western Ordos, namely, Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, Amygdalus mongolica, Helianthemum songaricum, Potaninia mongolica, and Tetraena mongolica. We calculated niche overlap metrics in gridded environmental spaces and compared geographical projections of ecological niches to determine similarities and differences of niches occupied by relic shrubs. All studied taxa presented different responses to environmental factors, which resulted in a unique combination of niche conditions. Precipitation availability and soil quality characteristics play important roles in the distributions of most shrubs. Each relic shrub is constrained by a unique set of environmental conditions, the distribution of one species cannot be implied by the distribution of another, highlighting the inadequacy of one-fits-all type of conservation measure. Our stacked habitat suitability maps revealed regions around Yellow River, which are highly suitable for most species, thereby providing high conservation value.

  1. A Commune-Level Groundwater Potential Map for the Republic of Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Díaz-Alcaide

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater represents an essential resource in sub-Saharan Africa, where several hundred million people rely on aquifers for domestic supply. This paper presents a method to map groundwater potential in the Republic of Mali based on a spatially-distributed database of 26,040 boreholes. The database includes exhaustive information on key parameters such as borehole location, success rate of borehole production, depth, yield, static groundwater level or water quality. Representative variables were classified and interpreted jointly to develop a groundwater potential index for each of the 703 communes in Mali. This provides a methodological novelty because groundwater potential studies typically rely on indirect indicators such as lineaments, slope, soil moisture and landforms. Also, such large borehole databases have seldom been used to estimate groundwater potential. The highest indexes were obtained for the areas in and around the River Niger’s Inner Delta, including southern Tombouctou and the central parts of the Ségou and Mopti Regions. The lower Precambrian formations, which include the country’s thoroughly populated southern plateau, had moderate scores. The lowest groundwater potential was found in the northern part of the Kayes and Koulikoro Regions, as well as in the entire region of Kidal. By providing results at the commune scale, these outcomes show that groundwater potential across the country’s geological and hydrogeological units can be highly variable, and that local and regional-scale information may be useful for groundwater management purposes. These results are policy-relevant in a context of rapid change and population growth, where groundwater resources can be expected to be increasingly relied upon in the coming years.

  2. Development of GIS-based Wind Potential Map of Makkah Province, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyar, Z. A.; Zaigham, N. A.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Mahar, G. A.; Eusufi, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    Global energy scenario is changing drastically toward decline, as new major discoveries of fossil fuel are not coming up significantly on regional basis. In case of Saudi Arabia, one of the largest fossil fuel producers, the major oil fields have started exhausting significantly as revealed from the literature research study. Considering the future energy crisis, different other renewable options presently have became imperative to be consider anticipating for the national development. Wind energy in one of them. The development of wind energy technology requires the baseline data relevant to the wind trends and their potentials. Under the present study, an attempt has been made to develop wind power density map of the Makkah Province of Saudi Arabia based on the meteorological data collected at different sparsely located weather stations. GIS application has provided a good option to interpolate the gap areas between the sparsely located weather recording stations. This paper describe the methodology and results of the present study.

  3. Atlas of the Colombian coal, Potential map and rank: Map 5-09; Atlas de los carbones colombianos. Mapa de potencial y rango: Plancha 5-09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulido Gonzalez, Orlando

    1999-07-01

    With the presentation of the Atlas of Coal to scale 1:500.000, it is sought to show to big features the location of the different areas with coal in Colombia, associating with the geologic units, the potential and the range. In the Map 5-09, the formations that include the coal are defined as Umir, Guaduas, Limbo, (Los Cuervos), San Fernando, (Carbonera), defined as Kst, Ksgt and Pgt. For the potential an arbitrary scale settled down, in the following way: in the first place bigger to 1000 million tons; between 1000 and 100; between 100 and 10 and lastly smaller to 10 million tons. These figures are represented in the map by triangles with colors that they are equal before to the figures mentioned. Keeping in mind the scale, it was opted to report the potential in the category of the hypothetical resources; when the resources or reserves are established, they are also reported. As for the range, in the map it is indicated by means of symbols that should be taken as a domain or tendency of the coal in each area in general. The the coal rank understood as the transformation that has reached along the geologic evolution is what is mentioned as anthracitic coal, semi-anthracitic, bituminous low in volatile, bituminous middle in volatile, bituminous high in volatile A, B and C, sub-bituminous and lastly the lignite. For each map are mentioned that there are determined.

  4. Computerized mappings of the cerebral cortex: a multiresolution flattening method and a surface-based coordinate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, H. A.; Van Essen, D. C.; Anderson, C. H.; Lee, C. W.; Coogan, T. A.; Lewis, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    We present a new method for generating two-dimensional maps of the cerebral cortex. Our computerized, two-stage flattening method takes as its input any well-defined representation of a surface within the three-dimensional cortex. The first stage rapidly converts this surface to a topologically correct two-dimensional map, without regard for the amount of distortion introduced. The second stage reduces distortions using a multiresolution strategy that makes gross shape changes on a coarsely sampled map and further shape refinements on progressively finer resolution maps. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by creating flat maps of the entire cerebral cortex in the macaque monkey and by displaying various types of experimental data on such maps. We also introduce a surface-based coordinate system that has advantages over conventional stereotaxic coordinates and is relevant to studies of cortical organization in humans as well as non-human primates. Together, these methods provide an improved basis for quantitative studies of individual variability in cortical organization.

  5. Mapping Precipitation Patterns from the Stable Isotopic Composition of Surface Waters: Olympic Peninsula, Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, A. M.; Brandon, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    Available data indicate that large and persistent precipitation gradients are tied to topography at scales down to a few kilometers, but precipitation patterns in the majority of mountain ranges are poorly constrained at scales less than tens of kilometers. A lack of knowledge of precipitation patterns hampers efforts to understand the processes of orographic precipitation and identify the relationships between geomorphic evolution and climate. A new method for mapping precipitation using the stable isotopic composition of surface waters is tested in the Olympic Mountains of Washington State. Measured δD and δ18O of 97 samples of surface water are linearly related and nearly inseparable from the global meteoric water line. A linear orographic precipitation model extended to include in effects of isotopic fractionation via Rayleigh distillation predicts precipitation patterns and isotopic composition of surface water. Seven parameters relating to the climate and isotopic composition of source water are used. A constrained random search identifies the best-fitting parameter set. Confidence intervals for parameter values are defined and precipitation patterns are determined. Average errors for the best-fitting model are 4.8 permil in δD. The difference between the best fitting model and other models within the 95% confidence interval was less than 20%. An independent high-resolution precipitation climatology documents precipitation gradients similar in shape and magnitude to the model derived from surface water isotopic composition. This technique could be extended to other mountain ranges, providing an economical and fast assessment of precipitation patterns requiring minimal field work.

  6. Fasciculation potentials in high-density surface EMG.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, G.; Kleine, B.U.; Stegeman, D.F.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Zwarts, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Fasciculation potentials (FPs) are observed in healthy individuals, but also in patients with neurogenic disorders. The exact site of origin and the clinical relevance in distinguishing, for example, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) from other neurogenic diseases based on specific characteristics

  7. Effect of potential attraction term on surface tension of ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, N.; Khordad, R.; Rezaei, G.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we have studied the effect of attraction term of molecular potential on surface tension of ionic liquids (ILs). For this purpose, we have introduced two different potential models to obtain analytical expressions for the surface tension of ILs. The introduced potential models have different attraction terms. The obtained surface tensions in this work have been compared with other theoretical methods and also experimental data. Using the calculated surface tension, the sound velocity is also estimated. We have studied the structural effects on the surface tensions of imidazolium-based ionic liquids. It is found that the cation alkyl chain length and the anion size play important roles to the surface tension of the selected ionic liquids. The calculated surface tensions show a good harmony with experimental data. It is clear that the attraction term of molecular potential has an important role on surface tension and sound velocity of our system.

  8. Mapping Global Potential Risk of Mango Sudden Decline Disease Caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leonardo S. S.; Alfenas, Acelino C.; Neven, Lisa G.; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M.

    2016-01-01

    The Mango Sudden Decline (MSD), also referred to as Mango Wilt, is an important disease of mango in Brazil, Oman and Pakistan. This fungus is mainly disseminated by the mango bark beetle, Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Stebbing), by infected plant material, and the infested soils where it is able to survive for long periods. The best way to avoid losses due to MSD is to prevent its establishment in mango production areas. Our objectives in this study were to: (1) predict the global potential distribution of MSD, (2) identify the mango growing areas that are under potential risk of MSD establishment, and (3) identify climatic factors associated with MSD distribution. Occurrence records were collected from Brazil, Oman and Pakistan where the disease is currently known to occur in mango. We used the correlative maximum entropy based model (MaxEnt) algorithm to assess the global potential distribution of MSD. The MaxEnt model predicted suitable areas in countries where the disease does not already occur in mango, but where mango is grown. Among these areas are the largest mango producers in the world including India, China, Thailand, Indonesia, and Mexico. The mean annual temperature, precipitation of coldest quarter, precipitation seasonality, and precipitation of driest month variables contributed most to the potential distribution of MSD disease. The mango bark beetle vector is known to occur beyond the locations where MSD currently exists and where the model predicted suitable areas, thus showing a high likelihood for disease establishment in areas predicted by our model. Our study is the first to map the potential risk of MSD establishment on a global scale. This information can be used in designing strategies to prevent introduction and establishment of MSD disease, and in preparation of efficient pest risk assessments and monitoring programs. PMID:27415625

  9. 3D Surface Mapping of Capsule Fill-Tube Assemblies used in Laser-Driven Fusion Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buice, E S; Alger, E T; Antipa, N A; Bhandarkar, S D; Biesiada, T A; Conder, A D; Dzenitis, E G; Flegel, M S; Hamza, A V; Heinbockel, C L; Horner, J; Johnson, M A; Kegelmeyer, L M; Meyer, J S; Montesanti, R C; Reynolds, J L; Taylor, J S; Wegner, P J

    2011-02-18

    This paper presents the development of a 3D surface mapping system used to measure the surface of a fusion target Capsule Fill-Tube Assembly (CFTA). The CFTA consists of a hollow Ge-doped plastic sphere, called a capsule, ranging in outer diameter between 2.2 mm and 2.6 mm and an attached 150 {micro}m diameter glass-core fill-tube that tapers down to a 10{micro} diameter at the capsule. The mapping system is an enabling technology to facilitate a quality assurance program and to archive 3D surface information of each capsule used in fusion ignition experiments that are currently being performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The 3D Surface Mapping System is designed to locate and quantify surface features with a height of 50 nm and 300 nm in width or larger. Additionally, the system will be calibrated such that the 3D measured surface can be related to the capsule surface angular coordinate system to within 0.25 degree (1{sigma}), which corresponds to approximately 5 {micro}m linear error on the capsule surface.

  10. 3D Surface Mapping of Capsule Fill-Tube Assemblies used in Laser-Driven Fusion Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buice, E.S.; Alger, E.T.; Antipa, N.A.; Bhandarkar, S.D.; Biesiada, T.A.; Conder, A.D.; Dzenitis, E.G.; Flegel, M.S.; Hamza, A.V.; Heinbockel, C.L.; Horner, J.; Johnson, M.A.; Kegelmeyer, L.M.; Meyer, J.S.; Montesanti, R.C.; Reynolds, J.L.; Taylor, J.S.; Wegner, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a 3D surface mapping system used to measure the surface of a fusion target Capsule Fill-Tube Assembly (CFTA). The CFTA consists of a hollow Ge-doped plastic sphere, called a capsule, ranging in outer diameter between 2.2 mm and 2.6 mm and an attached 150 (micro)m diameter glass-core fill-tube that tapers down to a 10(micro) diameter at the capsule. The mapping system is an enabling technology to facilitate a quality assurance program and to archive 3D surface information of each capsule used in fusion ignition experiments that are currently being performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The 3D Surface Mapping System is designed to locate and quantify surface features with a height of 50 nm and 300 nm in width or larger. Additionally, the system will be calibrated such that the 3D measured surface can be related to the capsule surface angular coordinate system to within 0.25 degree (1σ), which corresponds to approximately 5 (micro)m linear error on the capsule surface.

  11. Near-surface geothermal potential assessment of the region Leogang - Saalbach-Hinterglemm in Salzburg, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottig, Magdalena; Rupprecht, Doris; Hoyer, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Within the EU-funded Alpine Space project GRETA (Near-surface Geothermal Resources in the Territory of the Alpine space), a potential assessment for the use of near-surface geothermal energy is being performed. The focus region for Austria is represented by the two communities Leogang and Saalbach-Hinterglemm where settlements are located in altitudes of about 800 - 1.000 m. In these communities, as well as in large parts of the alpine space region in Austria, winter sports tourism is an important economic factor. The demand for heating and domestic hot water in this region of about 6.000 inhabitants rises significantly in the winter months due to around 2 million guest nights per year. This makes clear why the focus is on touristic infrastructure like alpine huts or hotels. It is a high-altitude area with a large number of remote houses, thus district-heating is not ubiquitous - thus, near-surface geothermal energy can be a useful solution for a self-sufficient energy supply. The objective of detailed investigation within the project is, to which extent the elevation, the gradient and the orientation of the hillside influence the geothermal usability of the shallow underground. To predict temperatures in depths of up to 100 m and therefore make statements on the geothermal usability of a certain piece of land, it is necessary to attain a precise ground-temperature map which reflects the upper model boundary. As there are no ground temperature measurement stations within the region, the GBA has installed four monitoring stations. Two are located in the valley, at altitudes of about 800 m, and two in higher altitudes of about 1.200 m, one on a south- and one on a north-slope. Using a software invented by the University of Soil Sciences in Vienna a ground-temperature map will be calculated. The calculation is based on climatic data considering parameters like soil composition. Measured values from the installed monitoring stations will help to validate or to

  12. Potential controls of isoprene in the surface ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, S. C.; Andrews, S. J.; Airs, R.; Arnold, S. R.; Bouman, H. A.; Brewin, R. J. W.; Chance, R. J.; Cummings, D.; Dall'Olmo, G.; Lewis, A. C.; Minaeian, J. K.; Reifel, K. M.; Small, A.; Tarran, G. A.; Tilstone, G. H.; Carpenter, L. J.

    2017-04-01

    Isoprene surface ocean concentrations and vertical distribution, atmospheric mixing ratios, and calculated sea-to-air fluxes spanning approximately 125° of latitude (80°N-45°S) over the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans are reported. Oceanic isoprene concentrations were associated with a number of concurrently monitored biological variables including chlorophyll a (Chl a), photoprotective pigments, integrated primary production (intPP), and cyanobacterial cell counts, with higher isoprene concentrations relative to all respective variables found at sea surface temperatures greater than 20°C. The correlation between isoprene and the sum of photoprotective carotenoids, which is reported here for the first time, was the most consistent across all cruises. Parameterizations based on linear regression analyses of these relationships perform well for Arctic and Atlantic data, producing a better fit to observations than an existing Chl a-based parameterization. Global extrapolation of isoprene surface water concentrations using satellite-derived Chl a and intPP reproduced general trends in the in situ data and absolute values within a factor of 2 between 60% and 85%, depending on the data set and algorithm used.

  13. In situ mapping of radionuclides in subsurface and surface soils: 1994 Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilk, A.J.; Hubbard, C.W.; Knopf, M.A.; Abel, K.H.

    1995-04-01

    Uranium production and support facilities at several DOE sites occasionally caused local contamination of some surface and subsurface soils. The thorough cleanup of these sites is a major public concern and a high priority for the US Department of Energy, but before any effective remedial protocols can be established, the three-dimensional distributions of target contaminants must be characterized. Traditional means of measuring radionuclide activities in soil are cumbersome, expensive, time-consuming, and often do not accurately reflect conditions over very large areas. New technologies must be developed, or existing ones improved, to allow cheaper, faster, and safer characterization of radionuclides in soils at these sites. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was tasked with adapting, developing, and demonstrating technologies to measure uranium in surface and subsurface soils. In partial completion of this effort, PNL developed an improved in situ gamma-ray spectrometry system to satisfy the technical requirements. This document summarizes fiscal-year 1994 efforts at PNL to fulfill requirements for TTP number-sign 321103 (project number-sign 19307). These requirements included (a) developing a user-friendly software package for reducing field-acquired gamma-ray spectra, (b) constructing an improved data-acquisition hardware system for use with high-purity germanium detectors, (c) ensuring readiness to conduct field mapping exercises as specified by the sponsor, (d) evaluating the in situ gamma-ray spectrometer for the determination of uranium depth distribution, and (e) documenting these efforts

  14. High-Resolution Mapping of Urban Surface Water Using ZY-3 Multi-Spectral Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Yao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate information of urban surface water is important for assessing the role it plays in urban ecosystem services under the content of urbanization and climate change. However, high-resolution monitoring of urban water bodies using remote sensing remains a challenge because of the limitation of previous water indices and the dark building shadow effect. To address this problem, we proposed an automated urban water extraction method (UWEM which combines a new water index, together with a building shadow detection method. Firstly, we trained the parameters of UWEM using ZY-3 imagery of Qingdao, China. Then we verified the algorithm using five other sub-scenes (Aksu, Fuzhou, Hanyang, Huangpo and Huainan ZY-3 imagery. The performance was compared with that of the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI. Results indicated that UWEM performed significantly better at the sub-scenes with kappa coefficients improved by 7.87%, 32.35%, 12.64%, 29.72%, 14.29%, respectively, and total omission and commission error reduced by 61.53%, 65.74%, 83.51%, 82.44%, and 74.40%, respectively. Furthermore, UWEM has more stable performances than NDWI’s in a range of thresholds near zero. It reduces the over- and under-estimation issues which often accompany previous water indices when mapping urban surface water under complex environmental conditions.

  15. Laser electro-optic system for rapid three-dimensional /3-D/ topographic mapping of surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, M. D.; Altschuler, B. R.; Taboada, J.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the generic utility of a robot in a factory/assembly environment could be substantially enhanced by providing a vision capability to the robot. A standard videocamera for robot vision provides a two-dimensional image which contains insufficient information for a detailed three-dimensional reconstruction of an object. Approaches which supply the additional information needed for the three-dimensional mapping of objects with complex surface shapes are briefly considered and a description is presented of a laser-based system which can provide three-dimensional vision to a robot. The system consists of a laser beam array generator, an optical image recorder, and software for controlling the required operations. The projection of a laser beam array onto a surface produces a dot pattern image which is viewed from one or more suitable perspectives. Attention is given to the mathematical method employed, the space coding technique, the approaches used for obtaining the transformation parameters, the optics for laser beam array generation, the hardware for beam array coding, and aspects of image acquisition.

  16. Point contact tunneling spectroscopy apparatus for large scale mapping of surface superconducting properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groll, Nickolas; Pellin, Michael J. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); Zasadzinksi, John F. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Proslier, Thomas, E-mail: prolier@anl.gov [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    We describe the design and testing of a point contact tunneling spectroscopy device that can measure material surface superconducting properties (i.e., the superconducting gap Δ and the critical temperature T{sub C}) and density of states over large surface areas with size up to mm{sup 2}. The tip lateral (X,Y) motion, mounted on a (X,Y,Z) piezo-stage, was calibrated on a patterned substrate consisting of Nb lines sputtered on a gold film using both normal (Al) and superconducting (PbSn) tips at 1.5 K. The tip vertical (Z) motion control enables some adjustment of the tip-sample junction resistance that can be measured over 7 orders of magnitudes from a quasi-ohmic regime (few hundred Ω) to the tunnel regime (from tens of kΩ up to few GΩ). The low noise electronic and LabVIEW program interface are also presented. The point contact regime and the large-scale motion capabilities are of particular interest for mapping and testing the superconducting properties of macroscopic scale superconductor-based devices.

  17. Mapping Current and Potential Distribution of Non-Native Prosopis juliflora in the Afar Region of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Wakie, Tewodros T.; Evangelista, Paul H.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Laituri, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    We used correlative models with species occurrence points, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices, and topo-climatic predictors to map the current distribution and potential habitat of invasive Prosopis juliflora in Afar, Ethiopia. Time-series of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Indices (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) with 250 m2 spatial resolution were selected as remote sensing predictors for mapping distributions, while WorldClim bioclim...

  18. Surface chemistry dependent immunostimulative potential of porous silicon nanoplatforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Fernández, Tahia D; Mäkilä, Ermei M; Le Guével, Xavier; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Kaasalainen, Martti H; Salonen, Jarno J; Hirvonen, Jouni T; Santos, Hélder A

    2014-11-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been suggested for immunotherapy applications in order to optimize the delivery of immuno-stimulative or -suppressive molecules. However, low attention towards the impact of the NPs' physicochemical properties has presented a major hurdle for developing efficient immunotherapeutic agents. Here, the effects of porous silicon (PSi) NPs with different surface chemistries were evaluated on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) and lymphocytes in order to highlight the importance of the NPs selection in immuno-stimulative or -suppressive treatment. Although all the PSi NPs showed high biocompatibility, only thermally oxidized PSi (TOPSi) and thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (THCPSi) NPs were able to induce very high rate of immunoactivation by enhancing the expression of surface co-stimulatory markers of the MDDCs (CD80, CD83, CD86, and HLA-DR), inducing T-cell proliferation, and also the secretion of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α). These results indicated a balanced increase in the secretion of Th1, Th2, and Treg cytokines. Moreover, undecylenic acid functionalized THCPSi, as well as poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid) conjugated to (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane functionalized thermally carbonized PSi and polyethyleneimine conjugated undecylenic acid functionalized THCPSi NPs showed moderate immunoactivation due to the mild increase in the above-mentioned markers. By contrast, thermally carbonized PSi (TCPSi) and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane functionalized TCPSi NPs did not induce any immunological responses, suggesting that their application could be in the delivery of immunosuppressive molecules. Overall, our findings suggest all the NPs containing more nitrogen or oxygen on the outermost backbone layer have lower immunostimulatory effect than NPs with higher C-H structures on the surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. MAPPING OF TOURISM POTENTIAL: THE PRECONDITIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN CONTINENTAL CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Banožić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Many Croatian scientists indicate that there are significant opportunities in tourism that can beneficially influence the overall socio-economic development of Croatia. It is recognised that Croatia has to follow more closely the contemporary tourism trends, in which much greater attention is given to ecology, the cultural identity of the destination, active vacations, service quality and selective forms of tourism development. There is also agreement that the clean sea, the coast, and the abundance of natural and cultural beauty are the advantages of Croatia’s tourism supply in the maritime part of the country. However, there are some discussions that the Continental part of Croatia is also abundant in natural beauty, cultural wealth, and gastronomy, and that it has many other underutilised tourism potentials. Different viewpoints on tourism in Croatia are based on statistical indicators, such as the level of development of tourist regions expressed through investments in infrastructure, the number of employed and the direct benefit of tourism to the economy. Despite the fact that the Continental part of Croatia abounds in tourism potential, what is offered is recognised only locally. This problem has negative impacts at the strategic level, as project planning and financing need to have a regional dimension. Some authors (Kušen, 1999; Koščak, 1998; Krippendorf, 1986; Müller, 1994; Stabler, 1996; Travis et al., 1994 have developed a cadastre of tourism potential, which has never been implemented. Therefore, this paper aims to map the tourism potentials of Continental Croatia by using the triple helix model, based on which regional tourism can be developed and future project funding ensured.

  20. Extension of a He-H2 potential energy surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raczkowski, A.W.; Lester, W.A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The CI surface of Tsapline and Kutzelnigg is extended to smaller H 2 -He separations. Defining R as the H 2 -He distance, r as the H 2 separation, and γ as the angle between them, the ab initio values are fit to a Legendre series in cosγ retaining the first three (even) terms with the coefficients given as analytic functions of R and r to facilitate semiclassical scattering computations. The fit is quantitative for 1.0 approximately r/2+1. (Auth.)

  1. An accurate global potential energy surface, dipole moment surface, and rovibrational frequencies for NH3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2008-12-01

    A global potential energy surface (PES) that includes short and long range terms has been determined for the NH3 molecule. The singles and doubles coupled-cluster method that includes a perturbational estimate of connected triple excitations and the internally contracted averaged coupled-pair functional electronic structure methods have been used in conjunction with very large correlation-consistent basis sets, including diffuse functions. Extrapolation to the one-particle basis set limit was performed and core correlation and scalar relativistic contributions were included directly, while the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction was added. Our best purely ab initio PES, denoted "mixed," is constructed from two PESs which differ in whether the ic-ACPF higher-order correlation correction was added or not. Rovibrational transition energies computed from the mixed PES agree well with experiment and the best previous theoretical studies, but most importantly the quality does not deteriorate even up to 10300cm-1 above the zero-point energy (ZPE). The mixed PES was improved further by empirical refinement using the most reliable J =0-2 rovibrational transitions in the HITRAN 2004 database. Agreement between high-resolution experiment and rovibrational transition energies computed from our refined PES for J =0-6 is excellent. Indeed, the root mean square (rms) error for 13 HITRAN 2004 bands for J =0-2 is 0.023cm-1 and that for each band is always ⩽0.06cm-1. For J =3-5 the rms error is always ⩽0.15cm-1. This agreement means that transition energies computed with our refined PES should be useful in the assignment of new high-resolution NH3 spectra and in correcting mistakes in previous assignments. Ideas for further improvements to our refined PES and for extension to other isotopolog are discussed.

  2. Remote sensing for mapping soil moisture and drainage potential in semi-arid regions: Applications to the Campidano plain of Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, Rébecca; Bernier, Monique; Paniconi, Claudio; Chokmani, Karem; Melis, Massimo; Soddu, Antonino; Talazac, Manon; Lafortune, Francois-Xavier

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of radar (ENVISAT ASAR and RADARSAT-2) and LANDSAT data to generate reliable soil moisture maps to support water management and agricultural practice in Mediterranean regions, particularly during dry seasons. The study is based on extensive field surveys conducted from 2005 to 2009 in the Campidano plain of Sardinia, Italy. A total of 12 small bare soil fields were sampled for moisture, surface roughness, and texture values. From field scale analysis with ENVISAT ASAR (C-band, VV polarized, descending mode, incidence angle from 15.0° to 31.4°), an empirical model for estimating bare soil moisture was established, with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.85. LANDSAT TM5 images were also used for soil moisture estimation using the TVX slope (temperature/vegetation index), and in this case the best linear relationship had an R(2) of 0.81. A cross-validation on the two empirical models demonstrated the potential of C-band SAR data for estimation of surface moisture, with and R(2) of 0.76 (bias +0.3% and RMSE 7%) for ENVISAT ASAR and 0.54 (bias +1.3% and RMSE 5%) for LANDSAT TM5. The two models developed at plot level were then applied over the Campidano plain and assessed via multitemporal and spatial analyses, in the latter case against soil permeability data from a pedological map of Sardinia. Encouraging estimated soil moisture (ESM) maps were obtained for the SAR-based model, whereas the LANDSAT-based model would require a better field data set for validation, including ground data collected on vegetated fields. ESM maps showed sensitivity to soil drainage qualities or drainage potential, which could be useful in irrigation management and other agricultural applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Calculation of surface potentials at the silica–water interface using molecular dynamics: Challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Benjamin M.; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton; Green, Nicolas G.; Shibuta, Yasushi; Sakata, Toshiya

    2018-04-01

    Continuum-based methods are important in calculating electrostatic properties of interfacial systems such as the electric field and surface potential but are incapable of providing sufficient insight into a range of fundamentally and technologically important phenomena which occur at atomistic length-scales. In this work a molecular dynamics methodology is presented for interfacial electric field and potential calculations. The silica–water interface was chosen as an example system, which is highly relevant for understanding the response of field-effect transistors sensors (FET sensors). Detailed validation work is presented, followed by the simulated surface charge/surface potential relationship. This showed good agreement with experiment at low surface charge density but at high surface charge density the results highlighted challenges presented by an atomistic definition of the surface potential. This methodology will be used to investigate the effect of surface morphology and biomolecule addition; both factors which are challenging using conventional continuum models.

  4. Potential use and challenges of functional connectivity mapping in intractable epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Todd Constable

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the use of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data to assess functional connectivity in the human brain for surgical planning in intractable epilepsy. This approach has the potential to predict outcomes for a given surgical procedure based on the pre-surgical functional organization of the brain. Functional connectivity can also identify cortical regions that are organized differently in epilepsy patients either as a direct function of the disease or through indirect compensatory responses. Functional connectivity mapping can also potentially help identify epileptogenic tissue, whether this is a single focal location or a network of seizure-generating tissues and this information can assist in guiding the implantation of electrodes for invasive monitoring. This review covers the basics of connectivity analysis and discusses particular issues associated with analyzing such data. These issues include how to define nodes, as well as differences between connectivity analyses of individual nodes, groups of nodes, and whole-brain assessment at the voxel level. The need for arbitrary thresholds in some connectivity analyses is discussed and a solution to this problem is reviewed. Overall, functional connectivity analysis is becoming an important tool for assessing functional brain organization in surgical planning in epilepsy.

  5. The c-map, Tits Satake subalgebras and the search for N = 2 inflaton potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fre, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino (Italy); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); INFN, Torino (Italy); Sorin, A.S. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Laboratory of High Energy Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Trigiante, M. [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we address the general problem of including inflationary models exhibiting Starobinsky-like potentials into (symmetric) N = 2 supergravities. This is done by gauging suitable abelian isometries of the hypermultiplet sector and then truncating the resulting theory to a single scalar field. By using the characteristic properties of the global symmetry groups of the N = 2 supergravities we are able to make a general statement on the possible α-attractor models which can obtained upon truncation. We find that in symmetric N = 2 models group theoretical constraints restrict the allowed values of the parameter α to be α = 1, (2)/(3), (1)/(3). This confirms and generalizes results recently obtained in the literature. Our analysis heavily relies on the mathematical structure of symmetric N = 2 supergravities, in particular on the so called c-map connection between Quaternionic Kaehler manifolds starting from Special Kaehler ones. A general statement on the possible consistent truncations of the gauged models, leading to Starobinsky-like potentials, requires the essential help of Tits Satake universality classes. The paper is mathematically selfcontained and aims at presenting the involved mathematical structures to a public not only of physicists but also of mathematicians. To this end the main mathematical structures and the general gauging procedure of N = 2 supergravities is reviewed in some detail. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Multifractal and Singularity Maps of soil surface moisture distribution derived from 2D image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumbrera, Ramiro; Millán, Humberto; Martín-Sotoca, Juan Jose; Pérez Soto, Luis; Sanchez, Maria Elena; Tarquis, Ana Maria

    2016-04-01

    methods for mapping geochemical anomalies caused by buried sources and for predicting undiscovered mineral deposits in covered areas. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 122, 55-70. Cumbrera, R., Ana M. Tarquis, Gabriel Gascó, Humberto Millán (2012) Fractal scaling of apparent soil moisture estimated from vertical planes of Vertisol pit images. Journal of Hydrology (452-453), 205-212. Martin Sotoca; J.J. Antonio Saa-Requejo, Juan Grau and Ana M. Tarquis (2016). Segmentation of singularity maps in the context of soil porosity. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 18, EGU2016-11402. Millán, H., Cumbrera, R. and Ana M. Tarquis (2016) Multifractal and Levy-stable statistics of soil surface moisture distribution derived from 2D image analysis. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 40(3), 2384-2395.

  7. Surface Map Traffic Intent Displays and Net-Centric Data-link Communications for NextGen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kevin J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Jones, Denise R.; Allamandola, Angela S.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.

    2009-01-01

    By 2025, U.S. air traffic is predicted to increase three fold and may strain the current air traffic management system, which may not be able to accommodate this growth. In response to this challenge, a revolutionary new concept has been proposed for U.S. aviation operations, termed the Next Generation Air Transportation System or "NextGen". Many key capabilities are being identified to enable NextGen, including the use of data-link communications. Because NextGen represents a radically different approach to air traffic management and requires a dramatic shift in the tasks, roles, and responsibilities for the flight deck, there are numerous research issues and challenges that must be overcome to ensure a safe, sustainable air transportation system. Flight deck display and crew-vehicle interaction concepts are being developed that proactively investigate and overcome potential technology and safety barriers that might otherwise constrain the full realization of NextGen. The paper describes simulation research, conducted at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center, examining data-link communications and traffic intent data during envisioned four-dimensional trajectory (4DT)-based and equivalent visual (EV) surface operations. Overall, the results suggest that controller pilot data-link communications (CPDLC) with the use of mandatory pilot read-back of all clearances significantly enhanced situation awareness for 4DT and EV surface operations. The depiction of graphical traffic state and intent information on the surface map display further enhanced off-nominal detection and pilot qualitative reports of safety and awareness.

  8. Influence of surface conductivity on the apparent zeta potential of calcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Leroy, Philippe; Heberling, Frank; Devau, Nicolas; Jougnot, Damien; Chiaberge, Christophe

    2016-04-15

    Zeta potential is a physicochemical parameter of particular importance in describing the surface electrical properties of charged porous media. However, the zeta potential of calcite is still poorly known because of the difficulty to interpret streaming potential experiments. The Helmholtz-Smoluchowski (HS) equation is widely used to estimate the apparent zeta potential from these experiments. However, this equation neglects the influence of surface conductivity on streaming potential. We present streaming potential and electrical conductivity measurements on a calcite powder in contact with an aqueous NaCl electrolyte. Our streaming potential model corrects the apparent zeta potential of calcite by accounting for the influence of surface conductivity and flow regime. We show that the HS equation seriously underestimates the zeta potential of calcite, particularly when the electrolyte is diluted (ionic strength ⩽ 0.01 M) because of calcite surface conductivity. The basic Stern model successfully predicted the corrected zeta potential by assuming that the zeta potential is located at the outer Helmholtz plane, i.e. without considering a stagnant diffuse layer at the calcite-water interface. The surface conductivity of calcite crystals was inferred from electrical conductivity measurements and computed using our basic Stern model. Surface conductivity was also successfully predicted by our surface complexation model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamic potential and surface morphology study of sertraline membrane sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, M.M.; Issa, Y.M.; Hassib, H.B.; Mohammed, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    New rapid, sensitive and simple electrometric method was developed to determine sertraline hydrochloride (Ser-Cl) in its pure raw material and pharmaceutical formulations. Membrane sensors based on heteropolyacids as ion associating material were prepared. Silicomolybdic acid (SMA), silicotungstic acid (STA) and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) were used. The slope and limit of detection are 50.00, 60.00 and 53.24 mV/decade and 2.51, 5.62 and 4.85 μmol L−1 for Ser-ST, Ser-PM and Ser-SM membrane sensors, respectively. Linear range is 0.01–10.00 for the three sensors. These new sensors were used for the potentiometric titration of Ser-Cl using sodium tetraphenylborate as titrant. The surface morphologies of the prepared membranes with and without the modifier (ion-associate) were studied using scanning and atomic force microscopes. PMID:26257944

  10. Color Shaded-Relief and Surface-Classification Maps of the Fish Creek Area, Harrison Bay Quadrangle, Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Houseknecht, David W.; Amoroso, Lee; Meares, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The northeastern part of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) has become an area of active petroleum exploration during the past five years. Recent leasing and exploration drilling in the NPRA requires the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to manage and monitor a variety of surface activities that include seismic surveying, exploration drilling, oil-field development drilling, construction of oil-production facilities, and construction of pipelines and access roads. BLM evaluates a variety of permit applications, environmental impact studies, and other documents that require rapid compilation and analysis of data pertaining to surface and subsurface geology, hydrology, and biology. In addition, BLM must monitor these activities and assess their impacts on the natural environment. Timely and accurate completion of these land-management tasks requires elevation, hydrologic, geologic, petroleum-activity, and cadastral data, all integrated in digital formats at a higher resolution than is currently available in nondigital (paper) formats. To support these land-management tasks, a series of maps was generated from remotely sensed data in an area of high petroleum-industry activity (fig. 1). The maps cover an area from approximately latitude 70?00' N. to 70?30' N. and from longitude 151?00' W. to 153?10' W. The area includes the Alpine oil field in the east, the Husky Inigok exploration well (site of a landing strip) in the west, many of the exploration wells drilled in NPRA since 2000, and the route of a proposed pipeline to carry oil from discovery wells in NPRA to the Alpine oil field. This map area is referred to as the 'Fish Creek area' after a creek that flows through the region. The map series includes (1) a color shaded-relief map based on 5-m-resolution data (sheet 1), (2) a surface-classification map based on 30-m-resolution data (sheet 2), and (3) a 5-m-resolution shaded relief-surface classification map that combines the shaded

  11. Mapping epistemic cultures and learning potential of participants in citizen science projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabh, Priya; Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; O'Donoghue, Rob; Schudel, Ingrid

    2016-06-01

    The ever-widening scope and range of global change and interconnected systemic risks arising from people-environment relationships (social-ecological risks) appears to be increasing concern among, and involvement of, citizens in an increasingly diversified number of citizen science projects responding to these risks. We examined the relationship between epistemic cultures in citizen science projects and learning potential related to matters of concern. We then developed a typology of purposes and a citizen science epistemic-cultures heuristic and mapped 56 projects in southern Africa using this framework. The purpose typology represents the range of knowledge-production purposes, ranging from laboratory science to social learning, whereas the epistemic-cultures typology is a relational representation of scientist and citizen participation and their approach to knowledge production. Results showed an iterative relationship between matters of fact and matters of concern across the projects; the nexus of citizens' engagement in knowledge-production activities varied. The knowledge-production purposes informed and shaped the epistemic cultures of all the sampled citizen science projects, which in turn influenced the potential for learning within each project. Through a historical review of 3 phases in a long-term river health-monitoring project, we found that it is possible to evolve the learning curve of citizen science projects. This evolution involved the development of scientific water monitoring tools, the parallel development of pedagogic practices supporting monitoring activities, and situated engagement around matters of concern within social activism leading to learning-led change. We conclude that such evolutionary processes serve to increase potential for learning and are necessary if citizen science is to contribute to wider restructuring of the epistemic culture of science under conditions of expanding social-ecological risk. © 2016 Society for

  12. Evaluation of potential surface rupture and review of current seismic hazards program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the authors review and evaluation of the existing seismic hazards program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The report recommends that the original program be augmented with a probabilistic analysis of seismic hazards involving assignment of weighted probabilities of occurrence to all potential sources. This approach yields a more realistic evaluation of the likelihood of large earthquake occurrence particularly in regions where seismic sources may have recurrent intervals of several thousand years or more. The report reviews the locations and geomorphic expressions of identified fault lines along with the known displacements of these faults and last know occurrence of seismic activity. Faults are mapped and categorized into by their potential for actual movement. Based on geologic site characterization, recommendations are made for increased seismic monitoring; age-dating studies of faults and geomorphic features; increased use of remote sensing and aerial photography for surface mapping of faults; the development of a landslide susceptibility map; and to develop seismic design standards for all existing and proposed facilities at LANL

  13. Toward the detection of the triatomic negative ion SPN-: Spectroscopy and potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Tarek; Hochlaf, Majdi; Francisco, Joseph S.

    2018-04-01

    High level theoretical calculations using coupled-cluster theory were performed to provide an accurate description of the electronic structure, spectroscopic properties, and stability of the triatomic negative ion comprising S, N, and P. The adiabatic electron affinities (AEAs) and vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of PNS, SPN, PSN, and cyc-PSN were calculated. The predicted AEA and VDE of the linear SPN isomer are large: 2.24 and 3.04 eV, respectively. The potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the lowest-lying electronic states of the SPN- isomer along the PN and SP bond lengths and bond angle were mapped. A set of spectroscopic parameters for SPN-, PNS-, and PSN- in their electronic ground states is obtained from the 3D PESs to help detect these species in the gas phase. The electronic excited state SPN-(12A″) is predicted to be stable with a long lifetime calculated to be 189.7 μs. The formation of SPN- in its electronic ground state through the bimolecular collision between S- + PN and N + PS- is also discussed.

  14. Electrohydrodynamics of binary electrolytes driven by modulated surface potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Olesen, Laurits Højgaard; Belmon, L.

    2005-01-01

    We study the electrohydrodynamics of the Debye screening layer that arises in an aqueous binary solution near a planar insulating wall when applying a spatially modulated ac voltage. Combining this with first order perturbation theory we establish the governing equations for the full nonequilibrium...... problem and obtain analytic solutions in the bulk for the pressure and velocity fields of the electrolyte and for the electric potential. We find good agreement between the numerics of the full problem and the analytics of the linear theory. Our work provides the theoretical foundations of circuit models...

  15. Oxathiiranes 8 On the OCS2 Singlet Potential Energy Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    1982-01-01

    The reaction between atomic oxygen and carbon disulfide is predicted to lead to at least two primary products, which are the dithiiranone (1) and the oxathiirane-thione (2) and/or the carbon disulfide S-oxide (4). The possible intramolecular equilibria 1 ⇄ 2, 1 ⇄ 3, 2 ⇄ 4, and 2 ⇄ 5 as well...... as the fragmentations of the possible intermediates 1–5 have been studied theoretically within the semiempirical cndo/B framework as conceivable ground-state reactions. On the basis of mo correlations and potential energy changes along the reaction paths, supplementary with previously reported experimental data...

  16. Global Distribution of Shallow Water on Mars: Neutron Mapping of Summer-Time Surface by HEND/Odyssey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Tretyakov, V. I.; Boynton, W.; Hamara, D.; Shinohara, C.; Saunders, R. S.; Drake, D.

    2003-01-01

    Orbital mapping of induced neutrons and gamma-rays by Odyssey has recently successfully proven the applicability of nuclear methods for studying of the elementary composition of Martian upper-most subsurface. In particular, the suite of Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) has discovered the presence of large water-ice rich regions southward and northward on Mars. The data of neutron mapping of summer-time surface are presented below from the Russian High Energy Neutron Spectrometer (HEND), which is a part of GRS suite. These maps represent the content of water in the soil for summer season at Southern and Northern hemispheres, when the winter deposit of CO2 is absent on the surface. The seasonal evolution of CO2 coverage on Mars is the subject of the complementary paper.

  17. Intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusius, Johann-Philipp; Hellmann, Robert; Hassel, Egon; Bich, Eckard

    2014-10-28

    A six-dimensional potential energy hypersurface (PES) for two interacting rigid ethylene oxide (C2H4O) molecules was determined from high-level quantum-chemical ab initio calculations. The counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory was utilized to determine interaction energies for 10178 configurations of two molecules. An analytical site-site potential function with 19 sites per ethylene oxide molecule was fitted to the interaction energies and fine tuned to agree with data for the second acoustic virial coefficient from accurate speed of sound measurements. The PES was validated by computing the second virial coefficient, shear viscosity, and thermal conductivity. The values of these properties are substantiated by the best experimental data as they tend to fall within the uncertainty intervals and also obey the experimental temperature functions, except for viscosity, where experimental data are insufficient. Due to the lack of reliable data, especially for the transport properties, our calculated values are currently the most accurate estimates for these properties of ethylene oxide.

  18. Global 30m 2000-2014 Surface Water Dynamics Map Derived from All Landsat 5, 7, and 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, A.; Hansen, M.

    2015-12-01

    Water is critical for human life, agriculture, and ecosystems. A better understanding of where it is and how it is changing will enable better management of this valuable resource and guide protection of sensitive ecological areas. Global water maps have typically been representations of surface water at one given time. However, there is both seasonal and interannual variability: rivers meander, lakes disappear, floods arise. To address this ephemeral nature of water, in this study University of Maryland has developed a method that analyzes every Landsat 5, 7, and 8 scene from 1999-2015 to produce global seasonal maps (Winter, Spring, Summer, Fall) of surface water dynamics from 2000-2014. Each Landsat scene is automatically classified into land, water, cloud, haze, shadow, and snow via a decision tree algorithm. The land and water observations are aggregated per pixel into percent occurrence of water in a 3 year moving window for each meteorological season. These annual water percentages form a curve for each season that is discretized into a continuous 3 band RGB map. Frequency of water observation and type of surface water change (loss, gain, peak, or dip) is clearly seen through brightness and hue respectively. Additional data layers include: the year the change began, peak year, minimum year, and the year the change process ended. Currently these maps have been created for 18 1°x1° test tiles scattered around the world, and a portion of the September-November map over Bangladesh is shown below. The entire Landsat archive from 1999-2015 will be processed through a partnership with Google Earth Engine to complete the global product in the coming months. In areas where there is sufficient satellite data density (e.g. the United States), this project could be expanded to 1984-2015. This study provides both scientific researchers and the public an understandable, temporally rich, and globally consistent map showing surface water changes over time.

  19. 3D Printed Potential and Free Energy Surfaces for Teaching Fundamental Concepts in Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliakin, Danil S.; Zaari, Ryan R.; Varganov, Sergey A.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching fundamental physical chemistry concepts such as the potential energy surface, transition state, and reaction path is a challenging task. The traditionally used oversimplified 2D representation of potential and free energy surfaces makes this task even more difficult and often confuses students. We show how this 2D representation can be…

  20. Ab Initio and DFT Potential Energy Surfaces for Cyanuric Chloride Reactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pai, Sharmila

    1998-01-01

    ... on the potential energy surface were calculated using the 6-31G and 6-311 +Gbasis sets. DFT(B3LYP) geometry optimizations and zero-point corrections for critical points on the potential energy surface were calculated with the 6-31G, 6-311...

  1. Hot-electron-mediated desorption rates calculated from excited-state potential energy surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Gavnholt, Jeppe; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    We present a model for desorption induced by (multiple) electronic transitions [DIET (DIMET)] based on potential energy surfaces calculated with the delta self-consistent field extension of density-functional theory. We calculate potential energy surfaces of CO and NO molecules adsorbed on variou...

  2. Characterization of electrical conductivity of carbon fiber reinforced plastic using surface potential distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikunaga, Kazuya; Terasaki, Nao

    2018-04-01

    A new method of evaluating electrical conductivity in a structural material such as carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) using surface potential is proposed. After the CFRP was charged by corona discharge, the surface potential distribution was measured by scanning a vibrating linear array sensor along the object surface with a high spatial resolution over a short duration. A correlation between the weave pattern of the CFRP and the surface potential distribution was observed. This result indicates that it is possible to evaluate the electrical conductivity of a material comprising conducting and insulating regions.

  3. Mid-infrared thermal imaging for an effective mapping of surface materials and sub-surface detachments in mural paintings: integration of thermography and thermal quasi-reflectography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffara, C.; Parisotto, S.; Mariotti, P. I.

    2015-06-01

    Cultural Heritage is discovering how precious is thermal analysis as a tool to improve the restoration, thanks to its ability to inspect hidden details. In this work a novel dual mode imaging approach, based on the integration of thermography and thermal quasi-reflectography (TQR) in the mid-IR is demonstrated for an effective mapping of surface materials and of sub-surface detachments in mural painting. The tool was validated through a unique application: the "Monocromo" by Leonardo da Vinci in Italy. The dual mode acquisition provided two spatially aligned dataset: the TQR image and the thermal sequence. Main steps of the workflow included: 1) TQR analysis to map surface features and 2) to estimate the emissivity; 3) projection of the TQR frame on reference orthophoto and TQR mosaicking; 4) thermography analysis to map detachments; 5) use TQR to solve spatial referencing and mosaicking for the thermal-processed frames. Referencing of thermal images in the visible is a difficult aspect of the thermography technique that the dual mode approach allows to solve in effective way. We finally obtained the TQR and the thermal maps spatially referenced to the mural painting, thus providing the restorer a valuable tool for the restoration of the detachments.

  4. Self-organizing adaptive map: autonomous learning of curves and surfaces from point samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piastra, Marco

    2013-05-01

    Competitive Hebbian Learning (CHL) (Martinetz, 1993) is a simple and elegant method for estimating the topology of a manifold from point samples. The method has been adopted in a number of self-organizing networks described in the literature and has given rise to related studies in the fields of geometry and computational topology. Recent results from these fields have shown that a faithful reconstruction can be obtained using the CHL method only for curves and surfaces. Within these limitations, these findings constitute a basis for defining a CHL-based, growing self-organizing network that produces a faithful reconstruction of an input manifold. The SOAM (Self-Organizing Adaptive Map) algorithm adapts its local structure autonomously in such a way that it can match the features of the manifold being learned. The adaptation process is driven by the defects arising when the network structure is inadequate, which cause a growth in the density of units. Regions of the network undergo a phase transition and change their behavior whenever a simple, local condition of topological regularity is met. The phase transition is eventually completed across the entire structure and the adaptation process terminates. In specific conditions, the structure thus obtained is homeomorphic to the input manifold. During the adaptation process, the network also has the capability to focus on the acquisition of input point samples in critical regions, with a substantial increase in efficiency. The behavior of the network has been assessed experimentally with typical data sets for surface reconstruction, including suboptimal conditions, e.g. with undersampling and noise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Multi-pollutant surface objective analyses and mapping of air quality health index over North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaud, Alain; Ménard, Richard; Zaïtseva, Yulia; Anselmo, David

    2016-01-01

    Air quality, like weather, can affect everyone, but responses differ depending on the sensitivity and health condition of a given individual. To help protect exposed populations, many countries have put in place real-time air quality nowcasting and forecasting capabilities. We present in this paper an optimal combination of air quality measurements and model outputs and show that it leads to significant improvements in the spatial representativeness of air quality. The product is referred to as multi-pollutant surface objective analyses (MPSOAs). Moreover, based on MPSOA, a geographical mapping of the Canadian Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is also presented which provides users (policy makers, public, air quality forecasters, and epidemiologists) with a more accurate picture of the health risk anytime and anywhere in Canada and the USA. Since pollutants can also behave as passive atmospheric tracers, they provide information about transport and dispersion and, hence, reveal synoptic and regional meteorological phenomena. MPSOA could also be used to build air pollution climatology, compute local and national trends in air quality, and detect systematic biases in numerical air quality (AQ) models. Finally, initializing AQ models at regular time intervals with MPSOA can produce more accurate air quality forecasts. It is for these reasons that the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) in collaboration with the Air Quality Research Division (AQRD) of Environment Canada has recently implemented MPSOA in their daily operations.

  6. Mapping cellular hierarchy by single-cell analysis of the cell surface repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guoji; Luc, Sidinh; Marco, Eugenio; Lin, Ta-Wei; Peng, Cong; Kerenyi, Marc A; Beyaz, Semir; Kim, Woojin; Xu, Jian; Das, Partha Pratim; Neff, Tobias; Zou, Keyong; Yuan, Guo-Cheng; Orkin, Stuart H

    2013-10-03

    Stem cell differentiation pathways are most often studied at the population level, whereas critical decisions are executed at the level of single cells. We have established a highly multiplexed, quantitative PCR assay to profile in an unbiased manner a panel of all commonly used cell surface markers (280 genes) from individual cells. With this method, we analyzed over 1,500 single cells throughout the mouse hematopoietic system and illustrate its utility for revealing important biological insights. The comprehensive single cell data set permits mapping of the mouse hematopoietic stem cell differentiation hierarchy by computational lineage progression analysis. Further profiling of 180 intracellular regulators enabled construction of a genetic network to assign the earliest differentiation event during hematopoietic lineage specification. Analysis of acute myeloid leukemia elicited by MLL-AF9 uncovered a distinct cellular hierarchy containing two independent self-renewing lineages with different clonal activities. The strategy has broad applicability in other cellular systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Project CONVERGE: Initial Results From the Mapping of Surface Currents in Palmer Deep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statscewich, H.; Kohut, J. T.; Winsor, P.; Oliver, M. J.; Bernard, K. S.; Cimino, M. A.; Fraser, W.

    2016-02-01

    The Palmer Deep submarine canyon on the Western Antarctic Peninsula provides a conduit for upwelling of relatively warm, nutrient rich waters which enhance local primary production and support a food web productive enough to sustain a large top predator biomass. In an analysis of ten years of satellite-tagged penguins, Oliver et al. (2013) showed that circulation features associated with tidal flows may be a key driver of nearshore predator distributions. During diurnal tides, the penguins feed close to their breeding colonies and during semi-diurnal tides, the penguins make foraging trips to the more distant regions of Palmer Deep. It is hypothesized that convergent features act to concentrate primary producers and aggregate schools of krill that influence the behavior of predator species. The initial results from a six month deployment of a High Frequency Radar network in Palmer Deep are presented in an attempt to characterize and quantify convergent features. During a three month period from January through March 2015, we conducted in situ sampling consisting of multiple underwater glider deployments, small boat acoustic surveys of Antarctic krill, and penguin ARGOS-linked satellite telemetry and time-depth recorders (TDRs). The combination of real-time surface current maps with adaptive in situ sampling introduces High Frequency Radar to the Antarctic in a way that allows us to rigorously and efficiently test the influence of local tidal processes on top predator foraging ecology.

  8. On understanding the relationship between structure in the potential surface and observables in classical dynamics: A functional sensitivity analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judson, R.S.; Rabitz, H.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between structure in the potential surface and classical mechanical observables is examined by means of functional sensitivity analysis. Functional sensitivities provide maps of the potential surface, highlighting those regions that play the greatest role in determining the behavior of observables. A set of differential equations for the sensitivities of the trajectory components are derived. These are then solved using a Green's function method. It is found that the sensitivities become singular at the trajectory turning points with the singularities going as eta -3 /sup // 2 , with eta being the distance from the nearest turning point. The sensitivities are zero outside of the energetically and dynamically allowed region of phase space. A second set of equations is derived from which the sensitivities of observables can be directly calculated. An adjoint Green's function technique is employed, providing an efficient method for numerically calculating these quantities. Sensitivity maps are presented for a simple collinear atom--diatom inelastic scattering problem and for two Henon--Heiles type Hamiltonians modeling

  9. Remote sensing of potential lunar resources. 2: High spatial resolution mapping of spectral reflectance ratios and implications for nearside mare TiO2 content`

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendrez, David E.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Larson, Stephen M.; Singer, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    High spatial resolution maps illustrating variations in spectral reflectance 400/560 nm ratio values have been generated for the following mare regions: (1) the border between southern Mare Serenitatis and northern Mare Tranquillitatis (including the MS-2 standard area and Apollo 17 landing site), (2) central Mare Tranquillitatis, (3) Oceanus Procellarum near Seleucus, and (4) southern Oceanus Procellarum and Flamsteed. We have also obtained 320-1000 nm reflectance spectra of several sites relative to MS-2 to facilitate scaling of the images and provide additional information on surface composition. Inferred TiO2 abundances for these mare regions have been determined using an empirical calibration which relates the weight percent TiO2 in mature mare regolith to the observed 400/560 nm ratio. Mare areas with high TiO2 abundances are probably rich in ilmenite (FeTiO3) a potential lunar resource. The highest potential TiO2 concentrations we have identified in the nearside maria occur in central Mare Tranquillitatis. Inferred TiO2 contents for these areas are greater than 9 wt% and are spatially consistent with the highest-TiO2 regions mapped previously at lower spatial resolution. We note that the morphology of surface units with high 400/560 nm ratio values increases in complexity at higher spatial resolutions. Comparisons have been made with previously published geologic maps, Lunar Orbiter IV, and ground-based images, and some possible morphologic correlatins have been found between our mapped 400/560 nm ratio values and volcanic landforms such as lava flows, mare domes, and collapse pits.

  10. Event-related potentials during word mapping to object shape predict toddlers’ vocabulary size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina eBorgström

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds’ (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24 ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object mapping. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences predicted productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development.

  11. Marine Benthic Habitats and Seabed Suitability Mapping for Potential Ocean Current Energy Siting Offshore Southeast Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Mulcan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the legal framework for ocean current energy policy and regulation to develop a metric for assessing the biological and geological characteristics of a seabed area with respect to the siting of OCE devices, a framework of criteria by which to assess seabed suitability (seabed suitability framework that can facilitate the siting, and implementation of ocean current energy (OCE projects. Seafloor geology and benthic biological data were analyzed in conjunction with seafloor core sample geostatistical interpolation to locate suitable substrates for OCE anchoring. Existing submarine cable pathways were considered to determine pathways for power transmission cables that circumvent biologically sensitive areas. Suitability analysis indicates that areas east of the Miami Terrace and north of recently identified deep-sea coral mounds are the most appropriate for OCE siting due to abundance of sand/sediment substrate, existing underwater cable route access, and minimal biological presence (i.e., little to no benthic communities. Further reconnaissance requires higher resolution maps of geological substrate and benthic community locations to identify specific OCE development locations, classify benthic conditions, and minimize potentially negative OCE environmental impacts.

  12. Mapping the electrostatic potential of Au nanoparticles using hybrid electron holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsoy-Keskinbora, Cigdem; Boothroyd, Chris B; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; van Aken, Peter A; Koch, Christoph T

    2016-06-01

    Electron holography is a powerful technique for characterizing electrostatic potentials, charge distributions, electric and magnetic fields, strain distributions and semiconductor dopant distributions with sub-nm spatial resolution. Mapping internal electrostatic and magnetic fields within nanoparticles and other low-dimensional materials by TEM requires both high spatial resolution and high phase sensitivity. Carrying out such an analysis fully quantitatively is even more challenging, since artefacts such as dynamical electron scattering may strongly affect the measurement. In-line electron holography, one of the variants of electron holography, features high phase sensitivity at high spatial frequencies, but suffers from inefficient phase recovery at low spatial frequencies. Off-axis electron holography, in contrast, can recover low spatial frequency phase information much more reliably, but is less effective in retrieving phase information at high spatial frequencies when compared to in-line holography. We investigate gold nanoparticles using hybrid electron holography at both atomic-resolution and intermediate magnification. Hybrid electron holography is a novel technique that synergistically combines off-axis and in-line electron holography, allowing the measurement of the complex wave function describing the scattered electrons with excellent signal-to-noise properties at both high and low spatial frequencies. The effect of dynamical electron scattering is minimized by beam tilt averaging. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrating future scenario‐based crop expansion and crop conditions to map switchgrass biofuel potential in eastern Nebraska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2018-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has been evaluated as one potential source for cellulosic biofuel feedstocks. Planting switchgrass in marginal croplands and waterway buffers can reduce soil erosion, improve water quality, and improve regional ecosystem services (i.e. it serves as a potential carbon sink). In previous studies, we mapped high risk marginal croplands and highly erodible cropland buffers that are potentially suitable for switchgrass development, which would improve ecosystem services and minimally impact food production. In this study, we advance our previous study results and integrate future crop expansion information to develop a switchgrass biofuel potential ensemble map for current and future croplands in eastern Nebraska. The switchgrass biomass productivity and carbon benefits (i.e. NEP: net ecosystem production) for the identified biofuel potential ensemble areas were quantified. The future scenario‐based (‘A1B’) land use and land cover map for 2050, the US Geological Survey crop type and Compound Topographic Index (CTI) maps, and long‐term (1981–2010) averaged annual precipitation data were used to identify future crop expansion regions that are suitable for switchgrass development. Results show that 2528 km2 of future crop expansion regions (~3.6% of the study area) are potentially suitable for switchgrass development. The total estimated biofuel potential ensemble area (including cropland buffers, marginal croplands, and future crop expansion regions) is 4232 km2 (~6% of the study area), potentially producing 3.52 million metric tons of switchgrass biomass per year. Converting biofuel ensemble regions to switchgrass leads to potential carbon sinks (the total NEP for biofuel potential areas is 0.45 million metric tons C) and is environmentally sustainable. Results from this study improve our understanding of environmental conditions and ecosystem services of current and future cropland systems in eastern Nebraska and provide

  14. Potential surfaces in symmetric heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, G.; Piller, C.; Mignen, J.; Raffray, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The entrance channel in symmetric heavy-ion reactions is studied in the liquid-drop model approach including the nuclear proximity energy and allowing ellipsoidal deformations of the colliding nuclei. In the whole mass range a sudden transition occurs from oblate to prolate shapes when the proximity forces become important. This strongly affects the effective moment of inertia. The ellipsoidal deformations reduce the fusion barrier width for light systems and lower the potential barrier height for medium and heavy nuclei. The results are in agreement with the empirical effective barrier shift determined by Aguiar et al for the 58 Ni + 58 Ni, 74 Ge + 74 Ge and 80 Se + 80 Se systems. The sub-barrier fusion enhancement in heavy-ion reactions might be explained by the slowness of the process. Below the static fusion barrier, the reaction time is long; allowing some adiabaticity and deformations of the colliding ions. Above the barrier, the reaction is more sudden and the deformation degree of freedom is frozen

  15. Characterization of the thrombogenic potential of surface oxides on stainless steel for implant purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, C.-C.; Shih, C.-M.; Su, Y.-Y.; Chang, M.-S.; Lin, S.-J.

    2003-01-01

    Marketed stents are manufactured from various metals and passivated with different degrees of surface oxidation. The functional surface oxides on the degree of antithrombotic potential were explored through a canine femoral extracorporeal circuit model. Related properties of these oxide films were studied by open-circuit potential, current density detected at open-circuit potential, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Auger spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy. Experimental evidences showed that blood clot weight after a 30-min follow-up was significantly lower for the stainless steel wire passivated with amorphous oxide (AO) compared to the wire passivated with polycrystalline oxide (PO) or commercial as-received wire coils (AS). Surface characterizations showed that a stable negative current density at open-circuit potential and a significant lower potential were found for the wire surface passivated with AO than for the surface passivated with PO. Time constant of AO is about 25 times larger than that of polycrystalline oxide. Significant difference in oxide grain sizes was found between PO and AO. Surface chemistries revealed by the AES and XPS spectra indicated the presence of a Cr- and oxygen-rich surface oxide for AO, and a Fe-rich and oxygen-lean surface oxide for PO. These remarkable characteristics of AO surface film might have a potential to provide for excellent antithrombotic characteristics for the 316L stainless steel stents

  16. Mapping surface temperature variability on a debris-covered glacier with an unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijenbrink, P. D. A.; Litt, M.; Shea, J. M.; Treichler, D.; Koch, I.; Immerzeel, W.

    2016-12-01

    progresses, and the influence of ice on debris surface temperature reduces considerably. Many patterns are revealed that cannot be detected from the Landsat data, both on small spatial and temporal scales. The high detail the UAV-borne thermal imagery provides in time and space has great potential in the research of debris cover and its characteristics.

  17. The Random-Map Technique: Enhancing Mind-Mapping with a Conceptual Combination Technique to Foster Creative Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malycha, Charlotte P.; Maier, Günter W.

    2017-01-01

    Although creativity techniques are highly recommended in working environments, their effects have been scarcely investigated. Two cognitive processes are often considered to foster creative potential and are, therefore, taken as a basis for creativity techniques: knowledge activation and conceptual combination. In this study, both processes were…

  18. Interatomic potentials from rainbow scattering of keV noble gas atoms under axial surface channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, A.; Wethekam, S.; Mertens, A.; Maass, K.; Winter, H.; Gaertner, K.

    2005-01-01

    For grazing scattering of keV Ne and Ar atoms from a Ag(1 1 1) and a Cu(1 1 1) surface under axial surface channeling conditions we observe well defined peaks in the angular distributions for scattered projectiles. These peaks can be attributed to 'rainbow-scattering' and are closely related to the geometry of potential energy surfaces which can be approximated by the superposition of continuum potentials along strings of atoms in the surface plane. The dependence of rainbow angles on the scattering geometry provides stringent tests on the scattering potentials. From classical trajectory calculations based on universal (ZBL), adjusted Moliere (O'Connor and Biersack), and individual interatomic potentials we obtain corresponding rainbow angles for comparison with the experimental data. We find good overall agreement with the experiments for a description of trajectories based on adjusted Moliere and individual potentials, whereas the agreement is poorer for potentials with ZBL screening

  19. Albedo and land surface temperature shift in hydrocarbon seepage potential area, case study in Miri Sarawak Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman, A.; Rahman, M. Z. A.; Busu, I.

    2014-02-01

    The presence of hydrocarbon seepage is generally associated with rock or mineral alteration product exposures, and changes of soil properties which manifest with bare development and stress vegetation. This alters the surface thermodynamic properties, changes the energy balance related to the surface reflection, absorption and emission, and leads to shift in albedo and LST. Those phenomena may provide a guide for seepage detection which can be recognized inexpensively by remote sensing method. District of Miri is used for study area. Available topographic maps of Miri and LANDSAT ETM+ were used for boundary construction and determination albedo and LST. Three land use classification methods, namely fixed, supervised and NDVI base classifications were employed for this study. By the intensive land use classification and corresponding statistical comparison was found a clearly shift on albedo and land surface temperature between internal and external seepage potential area. The shift shows a regular pattern related to vegetation density or NDVI value. In the low vegetation density or low NDVI value, albedo of internal area turned to lower value than external area. Conversely in the high vegetation density or high NDVI value, albedo of internal area turned to higher value than external area. Land surface temperature of internal seepage potential was generally shifted to higher value than external area in all of land use classes. In dense vegetation area tend to shift the temperature more than poor vegetation area.

  20. Albedo and land surface temperature shift in hydrocarbon seepage potential area, case study in Miri Sarawak Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suherman, A; Rahman, M Z A; Busu, I

    2014-01-01

    The presence of hydrocarbon seepage is generally associated with rock or mineral alteration product exposures, and changes of soil properties which manifest with bare development and stress vegetation. This alters the surface thermodynamic properties, changes the energy balance related to the surface reflection, absorption and emission, and leads to shift in albedo and LST. Those phenomena may provide a guide for seepage detection which can be recognized inexpensively by remote sensing method. District of Miri is used for study area. Available topographic maps of Miri and LANDSAT ETM+ were used for boundary construction and determination albedo and LST. Three land use classification methods, namely fixed, supervised and NDVI base classifications were employed for this study. By the intensive land use classification and corresponding statistical comparison was found a clearly shift on albedo and land surface temperature between internal and external seepage potential area. The shift shows a regular pattern related to vegetation density or NDVI value. In the low vegetation density or low NDVI value, albedo of internal area turned to lower value than external area. Conversely in the high vegetation density or high NDVI value, albedo of internal area turned to higher value than external area. Land surface temperature of internal seepage potential was generally shifted to higher value than external area in all of land use classes. In dense vegetation area tend to shift the temperature more than poor vegetation area

  1. CosmoQuest - Mapping Surface Features Across the Inner Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Jennifer A.; Richardson, Matthew; Gay, Pamela L.; Lehan, Cory; Owens, Ryan; Robbins, Stuart J.; DellaGiustina, Daniella; Bennett, Carina; Runco, Susan; Graff, Paige

    2017-10-01

    The CosmoQuest Virtual Research Facility allows research scientists to work together with citizen scientists in ‘big data’ investigations. Some research requires the examination of vast numbers of images - partnering with engaged and trained citizen scientists allows for that research to be completed in a thorough and timely manner. The techniques used by CosmoQuest to collect impact crater data have been validated to ensure robustness (Robbins et al., 2014), and include software tools that accurately identify crater clusters, and multiple crater identifications. CosmoQuest has current or up-and-coming projects that span much of the inner solar system. “Moon Mappers” gives the public a chance to learn about the importance of cratered surfaces, and investigate factors that effect the identification and measurement of impact craters such as incidence angle. In the “Mars Mappers” program citizens map small craters in valley networks. These will be used to estimate times of ancient water flow. In “Mercury Mappers” the public learns about other issues related to crater counting, such as secondaries. On Mercury, secondaries appear to dominate counts up to 10km. By mapping these craters, we will be able to better understand the maximum diameter of secondaries relative to the parent primary. The public encounters Vesta in “Vesta Mappers,” a project that contributes data to the overall crater counting efforts on that body. Asteroid investigations do not end there - the OSIRIS-REx team is collaborating with CosmoQuest to create a science campaign to generate boulder and crater counting datasets of the asteroid Bennu. This “Bennu Mappers” project will inform the final selection of the sample return site. The Earth is the target for the “Image Detective” project, which uses the 2 million images returned from crewed space flight. These images are rich in information about our changing Earth, as well as phenomena like aurora. Citizens tag these images

  2. Surface Water Mapping from Suomi NPP-VIIRS Imagery at 30 m Resolution via Blending with Landsat Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the dynamics of surface water using remotely sensed data generally requires both high spatial and high temporal resolutions. One effective and popular approach for achieving this is image fusion. This study adopts a widely accepted fusion model, the Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (ESTARFM, for blending the newly available coarse-resolution Suomi NPP-VIIRS data with Landsat data in order to derive water maps at 30 m resolution. The Pan-sharpening technique was applied to preprocessing NPP-VIIRS data to achieve a higher-resolution before blending. The modified Normalized Difference Water Index (mNDWI was employed for mapping surface water area. Two fusion alternatives, blend-then-index (BI or index-then-blend (IB, were comparatively analyzed against a Landsat derived water map. A case study of mapping Poyang Lake in China, where water distribution pattern is complex and the water body changes frequently and drastically, was conducted. It has been revealed that the IB method derives more accurate results with less computation time than the BI method. The BI method generally underestimates water distribution, especially when the water area expands radically. The study has demonstrated the feasibility of blending NPP-VIIRS with Landsat for achieving surface water mapping at both high spatial and high temporal resolutions. It suggests that IB is superior to BI for water mapping in terms of efficiency and accuracy. The finding of this study also has important reference values for other blending works, such as image blending for vegetation cover monitoring.

  3. Maps of surface activity of 137Cs of Slovakia on scale 1:200 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluch, A.

    2005-05-01

    The present set of maps (13 maps) arose from the geological project 'Re-ambulation of 137 Cs radioactivity map of Slovakia at scales 1:200 000 and 1:500 000' in phase of indicative geological survey of environmental factors. Maps document the state of contamination of the territory of Slovakia by one of the radioisotopes cesium-137 at the reference date 01.01.2005. In solving of geological tasks were used all available relevant data on measurements of 137 Cs activity from the whole territory of the Slovak Republic for the period from 1990 to 2003 from results of air and ground gamma spectrometric measurements. (authors)

  4. Mapping watershed potential to contribute phosphorus from geologic materials to receiving streams, southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terziotti, Silvia; Hoos, Anne B.; Harned, Douglas; Garcia, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    As part of the southeastern United States SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) water-quality model implementation, the U.S. Geological Survey created a dataset to characterize the contribution of phosphorus to streams from weathering and erosion of surficial geologic materials. SPARROW provides estimates of total nitrogen and phosphorus loads in surface waters from point and nonpoint sources. The characterization of the contribution of phosphorus from geologic materials is important to help separate the effects of natural or background sources of phosphorus from anthropogenic sources of phosphorus, such as municipal wastewater or agricultural practices. The potential of a watershed to contribute phosphorus from naturally occurring geologic materials to streams was characterized by using geochemical data from bed-sediment samples collected from first-order streams in relatively undisturbed watersheds as part of the multiyear U.S. Geological Survey National Geochemical Survey. The spatial pattern of bed-sediment phosphorus concentration is offered as a tool to represent the best available information at the regional scale. One issue may weaken the use of bed-sediment phosphorus concentration as a surrogate for the potential for geologic materials in the watershed to contribute to instream levels of phosphorus-an unknown part of the variability in bed-sediment phosphorus concentration may be due to the rates of net deposition and processing of phosphorus in the streambed rather than to variability in the potential of the watershed's geologic materials to contribute phosphorus to the stream. Two additional datasets were created to represent the potential of a watershed to contribute phosphorus from geologic materials disturbed by mining activities from active mines and inactive mines.

  5. Multiscale radar mapping of surface melt over mountain glaciers in High Mountain Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, N.; McDonald, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    Glacier melt dominates input for many hydrologic systems in the Himalayan Hindukush region that feed rivers that are critical for downstream ecosystems and hydropower generation in this highly populated area. Deviation in seasonal surface melt timing and duration with a changing climate has the potential to affect up to a billion people on the Indian Subcontinent. Satellite-borne microwave remote sensing has unique capabilities that allow monitoring of numerous landscape processes associated with snowmelt and freeze/thaw state, without many of the limitations in optical-infrared sensors such as solar illumination or atmospheric conditions. The onset of regional freeze/thaw and surface melting transitions determine important surface hydrologic variables like river discharge. Theses regional events are abrupt therefore difficult to observe with low-frequency observation sensors. Recently launched synthetic aperture radar (SAR) onboard the Sentinel-1 A and B satellites from the European Space Agency (ESA) provide wide-swath and high spatial resolution (50-100 m) C-Band SAR observations with observations frequencies not previously available, on the order of 8 to 16 days. The Sentinel SARs provide unique opportunity to study freeze/thaw and mountain glacier melt dynamics at process level scales, spatial and temporal. The melt process of individual glaciers, being fully resolved by imaging radar, will inform on the radiometric scattering physics associated with surface hydrology during the transition from melted to thawed state and during refreeze. Backscatter observations, along with structural information about the surface will be compared with complimentary coarse spatial resolution C-Band radar scatterometers, Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT Met Op A+B), to understand the sub-pixel contribution of surface melting and freeze/thaw signals. This information will inform on longer-scale records of backscatter from ASCAT, 2006-2017. We present a comparison of polarimetric C

  6. Post Mortem Validation of MRI-Identified Veins on the Surface of the Cerebral Cortex as Potential Landmarks for Neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Grabner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Image-guided neurosurgery uses information from a wide spectrum of methods to inform the neurosurgeon's judgement about which tissue to resect and which to spare. Imaging data are registered to the patient's skull so that they correspond to the intraoperative macro- and microscopic view. The correspondence between imaging and optical systems breaks down during surgery, however, as a result of cerebro-spinal fluid drain age, tissue resection, and gravity-based brain shift. In this work we investigate whether a map of surface veins, automatically segmented from MRI, could serve as additional reference system.Methods: Gradient-echo based T2*-weighted imaging was performed on two human cadavers heads using a 7 Tesla MRI scanner. Automatic vessel segmentation was performed using the Frangi vesselness filter, and surface renderings of vessels compared with photographs of the surface of the brain following craniotomy.Results: A high level of correspondence was established between vessel maps and the post autopsy photographs. Corresponding veins, including the prominent superior anastomotic veins, could be identified in all brain lobes.Conclusion: Automatic surface vessel segmentation is feasible and the high correspondence to post autopsy photographs indicates that they could be used as an additional reference system for image-guided neurosurgery in order to maintain the correspondence between imaging and optical systems.This has the advantage over a skull-based reference system that veins are clearly visible to the surgeon and move and deform with the underlying tissue, potentially making this surface net of landmarks robust to brain shift.

  7. Exploring the spatio-temporal interrelation between groundwater and surface water by using the self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-Ting; Chang, Li-Chiu; Chang, Fi-John

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we propose a soft-computing methodology to visibly explore the spatio-temporal groundwater variations of the Kuoping River basin in southern Taiwan. The self-organizing map (SOM) is implemented to investigate the interactive mechanism between surface water and groundwater over the river basin based on large high-dimensional data sets coupled with their occurrence times. We find that extracting the occurrence time from each 30-day moving average data set in the clustered neurons of the SOM is a crucial step to learn the spatio-temporal interaction between surface water and groundwater. We design 2-D Topological Bubble Map to summarize all the groundwater values of four aquifers in a neuron, which can visibly explore the major features of the groundwater in the vertical direction. The constructed SOM topological maps nicely display that: (1) the groundwater movement, in general, extends from the eastern area to the western, where groundwater in the eastern area can be easily recharged from precipitation in wet seasons and discharged into streams during dry seasons due to the high permeability in this area; (2) the water movements in the four aquifers of the study area are quite different, and the seasonal variations of groundwater in the second and third aquifers are larger than those of the others; and (3) the spatial distribution and seasonal variations of groundwater and surface water are comprehensively linked together over the constructed maps to present groundwater characteristics and the interrelation between groundwater and surface water. The proposed modeling methodology not only can classify the large complex high-dimensional data sets into visible topological maps to effectively facilitate the quantitative status of regional groundwater resources but can also provide useful elaboration for future groundwater management.

  8. Surface effects on mean inner potentials studied using density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, Robert S., E-mail: robert.pennington@uni-ulm.de [Institute for Experimental Physics, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Boothroyd, Chris B.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre and Peter Grüneberg Institute, Forschungzentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Quantitative materials characterization using electron holography frequently requires knowledge of the mean inner potential, but reported experimental mean inner potential measurements can vary widely. Using density functional theory, we have simulated the mean inner potential for materials with a range of different surface conditions and geometries. We use both “thin-film” and “nanowire” specimen geometries. We consider clean bulk-terminated surfaces with different facets and surface reconstructions using atom positions from both structural optimization and experimental data and we also consider surfaces both with and without adsorbates. We find that the mean inner potential is surface-dependent, with the strongest dependency on surface adsorbates. We discuss the outlook and perspective for future mean inner potential measurements. - Highlights: • Density functional theory (DFT) is used to simulate mean inner potentials (MIP). • Applications for MIP electron holography measurements are considered. • MIPs are found to be surface-dependent, for thin-film and nanowire geometries. • The DFT simulation precision is extensively tested for multiple materials. • Surface adsorbates can create a strong positive or negative effect.

  9. Potentially hazardous substances in surface waters. II. Cholinesterase inhibitors in Dutch surface waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greve, P.A.; Freudenthal, J.; Wit, S.L.

    1972-01-01

    Several analytical methods were employed to determine the concentrations of cholinesterase inhibitors in several Dutch surface waters. An Auto-Analyzer method was used for screening purposes; thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for identification and

  10. A dataset mapping the potential biophysical effects of vegetation cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duveiller, Gregory; Hooker, Josh; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2018-02-01

    Changing the vegetation cover of the Earth has impacts on the biophysical properties of the surface and ultimately on the local climate. Depending on the specific type of vegetation change and on the background climate, the resulting competing biophysical processes can have a net warming or cooling effect, which can further vary both spatially and seasonally. Due to uncertain climate impacts and the lack of robust observations, biophysical effects are not yet considered in land-based climate policies. Here we present a dataset based on satellite remote sensing observations that provides the potential changes i) of the full surface energy balance, ii) at global scale, and iii) for multiple vegetation transitions, as would now be required for the comprehensive evaluation of land based mitigation plans. We anticipate that this dataset will provide valuable information to benchmark Earth system models, to assess future scenarios of land cover change and to develop the monitoring, reporting and verification guidelines required for the implementation of mitigation plans that account for biophysical land processes.

  11. The potentially neglected culprit of DC surface flashover: electron migration under temperature gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanyang; Hu, Jun; Lin, Chuanjie; He, Jinliang

    2017-06-12

    This report intends to reveal the role of electron migration and its effects in triggering direct current (DC) surface flashover under temperature gradient conditions when using epoxy-based insulating composites. The surface potential and the surface flashover voltage are both measured using insulators that are bridged between two thermo-regulated electrodes. The space charge injection and migration properties under different temperature are detected. The results show that the surface potential rises significantly because of electron migration near the high voltage (HV) electrode under high temperature conditions, thus creating an "analogous ineffective region". The expansion of this "analogous ineffective region" results in most of the voltage drop occurring near the ground electrode, which serves as an important factor triggering positive streamers across the insulation surface. This work is helpful in understanding of DC surface flashover mechanism from a new perspective and also has important significance in design of a suitable DC insulator to avoid surface flashover problem.

  12. Blanding’s Turtle (Emydoidea blandingii Potential Habitat Mapping Using Aerial Orthophotographic Imagery and Object Based Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J. King

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Blanding’s turtle (Emydoidea blandingii is a threatened species under Canada’s Species at Risk Act. In southern Québec, field based inventories are ongoing to determine its abundance and potential habitat. The goal of this research was to develop means for mapping of potential habitat based on primary habitat attributes that can be detected with high-resolution remotely sensed imagery. Using existing spring leaf-off 20 cm resolution aerial orthophotos of a portion of Gatineau Park where some Blanding’s turtle observations had been made, habitat attributes were mapped at two scales: (1 whole wetlands; (2 within wetland habitat features of open water, vegetation (used for camouflage and thermoregulation, and logs (used for spring sun-basking. The processing steps involved initial pixel-based classification to eliminate most areas of non-wetland, followed by object-based segmentations and classifications using a customized rule sequence to refine the wetland map and to map the within wetland habitat features. Variables used as inputs to the classifications were derived from the orthophotos and included image brightness, texture, and segmented object shape and area. Independent validation using field data and visual interpretation showed classification accuracy for all habitat attributes to be generally over 90% with a minimum of 81.5% for the producer’s accuracy of logs. The maps for each attribute were combined to produce a habitat suitability map for Blanding’s turtle. Of the 115 existing turtle observations, 92.3% were closest to a wetland of the two highest suitability classes. High-resolution imagery combined with object-based classification and habitat suitability mapping methods such as those presented provide a much more spatially explicit representation of detailed habitat attributes than can be obtained through field work alone. They can complement field efforts to document and track turtle activities and can contribute to

  13. Mapping Deep Low Velocity Zones in Alaskan Arctic Coastal Permafrost using Seismic Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, S.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Dreger, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Permafrost degradation may be an important amplifier of climate change; Thawing of near-surface sediments holds the potential of increasing greenhouse gas emissions due to microbial decomposition of preserved organic carbon. Recently, the characterization of "deep" carbon pools (several meters below the surface) in circumpolar frozen ground has increased the estimated amount of soil carbon to three times higher than what was previously thought. It is therefore potentially important to include the characteristics and processes of deeper permafrost strata (on the orders of a few to tens of meters below surface) in climate models for improving future predictions of accessible carbon and climate feedbacks. This extension is particularly relevant if deeper formations are not completely frozen and may harbor on-going microbial activity despite sub-zero temperatures. Unfortunately, the characterization of deep permafrost systems is non-trivial; logistics and drilling constraints often limit direct characterization to relatively shallow units. Geophysical measurements, either surface or airborne, are often the most effective tools for evaluating these regions. Of the available geophysical techniques, the analysis of seismic surface waves (e.g. MASW) has several unique advantages, mainly the ability to provide field-scale information with good depth resolution as well as penetration (10s to 100s of m with small portable sources). Surface wave methods are also able to resolve low velocity regions, a class of features that is difficult to characterize using traditional P-wave refraction methods. As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE-Arctic) project, we conducted a three-day seismic field survey (May 12 - 14, 2012) at the Barrow Environmental Observatory, which is located within the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain. Even though permafrost at the study site is continuous, ice-rich and thick (>= 350m), our Multichannel Analysis of

  14. Surface potential-governed cellular osteogenic differentiation on ferroelectric polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bolin; Zhang, Bo; Zhuang, Junjun; Wang, Qi; Dong, Lingqing; Cheng, Kui; Weng, Wenjian

    2018-05-02

    Surface potential of biomaterials can dramatically influence cellular osteogenic differentiation. In this work, a wide range of surface potential on ferroelectric polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) films was designed to get insight into the interfacial interaction of cell-charged surface. The P(VDF-TrFE) films poled by contact electric poling at various electric fields obtained well stabilized surface potential, with wide range from -3 to 915 mV. The osteogenic differentiation level of cells cultured on the films was strongly dependent on surface potential and reached the optimum at 391 mV in this system. Binding specificity assay indicated that surface potential could effectively govern the binding state of the adsorbed fibronectin (FN) with integrin. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulation further revealed that surface potential brought a significant difference in the relative distance between RGD and synergy PHSRN sites of adsorbed FN, resulting in a distinct integrin-FN binding state. These results suggest that the full binding of integrin α5β1 with both RGD and PHSRN sites of FN possesses a strong ability to activate osteogenic signaling pathway. This work sheds light on the underlying mechanism of osteogenic differentiation behavior on charged material surfaces, and also provides a guidance for designing a reasonable charged surface to enhance osteogenic differentiation. The ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) films with steady and a wide range of surface potential were designed to understand underlying mechanism of cell-charged surface interaction. The results showed that the charged surface well favored upregulation of osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells, and more importantly, a highest level occurred on the film with a moderate surface potential. Experiments and molecular dynamics simulation demonstrated that the surface potential could govern fibronectin conformation and then the integrin-fibronectin binding. We propose that a full binding

  15. Mapping wetland loss and restoration potential in Flanders (Belgium: an ecosystem service perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Decleer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the case of Flanders (northern part of Belgium we present an integrated approach to calculate accurate losses of wetlands, potentials for restoration, and their ecosystem services supplies and illustrate how these insights can be used to evaluate and support policy making. Flanders lost about 75% of its wetland habitats in the past 50-60 years, with currently only 68,000 ha remaining, often in a more or less degraded state. For five different wetland categories (excluding open waters we calculated that restoration of lost wetland is still possible for an additional total area of about 147,000 ha, assuming that, with time and appropriate measures and techniques, the necessary biophysical and ecological conditions can more or less be restored or created. Wetland restoration opportunities were mapped according to an open and forested landscape scenario. Despite the fact that for 49,000 ha wetland restoration is justifiable by the actual presence of an appropriate spatial planning and/or protection status, the official Flemish nature policy only foresees 7,400 to 10,600 ha of additional wetland (open waters excluded by 2050. The benefits of a more ambitious wetland restoration action program are underpinned by an explorative and quantified analysis of ecosystem service supply for each of the two scenarios, showing that the strongly increased supply of several important regulating and cultural ecosystem services might outweigh the decrease of food production, especially if extensive farming on temporary wet soils remains possible. Finally, we discuss the challenges of wetland restoration policies for biodiversity conservation and climate change.

  16. Mapping the electrostatic potential of Au nanoparticles using hybrid electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozsoy-Keskinbora, Cigdem, E-mail: c.ozsoy@fkf.mpg.de [Stuttgart Center for Electron Microscopy, Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Boothroyd, Chris B.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Aken, Peter A. van [Stuttgart Center for Electron Microscopy, Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Koch, Christoph T. [Structure Research & Electron Microscopy group, Department of Physics, Humboldt University of Berlin, Newtonstraße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Electron holography is a powerful technique for characterizing electrostatic potentials, charge distributions, electric and magnetic fields, strain distributions and semiconductor dopant distributions with sub-nm spatial resolution. Mapping internal electrostatic and magnetic fields within nanoparticles and other low-dimensional materials by TEM requires both high spatial resolution and high phase sensitivity. Carrying out such an analysis fully quantitatively is even more challenging, since artefacts such as dynamical electron scattering may strongly affect the measurement. In-line electron holography, one of the variants of electron holography, features high phase sensitivity at high spatial frequencies, but suffers from inefficient phase recovery at low spatial frequencies. Off-axis electron holography, in contrast, can recover low spatial frequency phase information much more reliably, but is less effective in retrieving phase information at high spatial frequencies when compared to in-line holography. We investigate gold nanoparticles using hybrid electron holography at both atomic-resolution and intermediate magnification. Hybrid electron holography is a novel technique that synergistically combines off-axis and in-line electron holography, allowing the measurement of the complex wave function describing the scattered electrons with excellent signal-to-noise properties at both high and low spatial frequencies. The effect of dynamical electron scattering is minimized by beam tilt averaging. - Highlights: • Hybrid electron holography approach applied to Au nanoparticles. • Proof of principle of atomic resolution hybrid electron holography experiment demonstrated. • Dynamical scattering artifacts decrease by varying the illumination direction. • The effect of the number of iterations and noise on the low spatial frequencies in the phase are discussed.

  17. Imaging modes for potential mapping in semiconductor devices by electron holography with improved lateral resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sickmann, Jan, E-mail: jan.sickmann@triebenberg.de [Triebenberg Laboratory, Institute of Structure Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Formanek, Petr; Linck, Martin [Triebenberg Laboratory, Institute of Structure Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Muehle, Uwe [Institut fuer Werkstoffwissenschaft, Technische Universitaet Bergakademie Freiberg, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Lichte, Hannes [Triebenberg Laboratory, Institute of Structure Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Electron holography is the highest resolving tool for dopant profiling at nanometre-scale resolution. In order to measure the object areas of interest in a hologram, both a wide field of view and a sufficient lateral resolution are required. The usual path of rays for recording holograms with an electron biprism using the standard objective lens does not meet these requirements, because the field of view amounts to some 10 nm only, however, at a resolution of 0.1 nm better than needed here. Therefore, instead of the standard objective lens, the Lorentz lens is widely used for holography of semiconductors, since it provides a field of view up to 1000 nm at a sufficient lateral resolution of about 10 nm. Since the size of semiconductor structures is steadily shrinking, there is now a need for better lateral resolution at an appropriate field of view. Therefore, additional paths of rays for recording holograms are studied with special emphasis on the parameters field of view and lateral resolution. The findings allow an optimized scheme with a field of view of 200 nm and a lateral resolution of 3.3 nm filling the gap between the existing set-ups. In addition, the Lorentz lens is no longer required for investigation of non-magnetic materials, since the new paths of rays are realized with the standard objective lens and diffraction lens. An example proves the applicability of this arrangement for future semiconductor technology. -- Research highlights: {yields} Imaging modes for potential mapping in semiconductor devices by electron holography. {yields} Using objective and diffraction lens for imaging instead of Lorentz lens. {yields} Detailed investigation of four different paths of rays and its basic parameters for holographic application: field of view, lateral resolution, signal resolution. {yields} Measuring the phase profile of a field effect transistor with 3 nm lateral resolution at field of view of 200 nm.

  18. Mapping of potential heat sources for heat pumps for district heating in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Rasmus; Persson, Urban

    2016-01-01

    The ambitious policy in Denmark on having a 100% renewable energy supply in 2050 requires radical changes to the energy systems to avoid an extensive and unsustainable use of biomass resources. Currently, wind power is being expanded and the increasing supply of electricity is slowly pushing the CHP (combined heat and power) plants out of operation, reducing the energy efficiency of the DH (district heating) supply. Here, large heat pumps for district heating is a frequently mentioned solution as a flexible demand for electricity and an energy efficient heat producer. The idea is to make heat pump use a low temperature waste or ambient heat source, but it has so far been very unclear which heat sources are actually available for this purpose. In this study eight categories of heat sources are analysed for the case of Denmark and included in a detailed spatial analysis where the identified heat sources are put in relation to the district heating areas and the corresponding demands. The analysis shows that potential heat sources are present near almost all district heating areas and that sea water most likely will have to play a substantial role as a heat source in future energy systems in Denmark. - Highlights: • The availability of heat sources for heat pumps in Denmark are mapped and quantified. • A novel methodology for assessment of low temperature industrial excess heat is presented. • There are heat sources available for 99% of district heating networks in Denmark. • The concentration of heat sources is generally bigger around bigger cities than smaller. • Ambient temperature heat sources will be more needed in district heating of big cities.

  19. Mapping the electrostatic potential of Au nanoparticles using hybrid electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsoy-Keskinbora, Cigdem; Boothroyd, Chris B.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Aken, Peter A. van; Koch, Christoph T.

    2016-01-01

    Electron holography is a powerful technique for characterizing electrostatic potentials, charge distributions, electric and magnetic fields, strain distributions and semiconductor dopant distributions with sub-nm spatial resolution. Mapping internal electrostatic and magnetic fields within nanoparticles and other low-dimensional materials by TEM requires both high spatial resolution and high phase sensitivity. Carrying out such an analysis fully quantitatively is even more challenging, since artefacts such as dynamical electron scattering may strongly affect the measurement. In-line electron holography, one of the variants of electron holography, features high phase sensitivity at high spatial frequencies, but suffers from inefficient phase recovery at low spatial frequencies. Off-axis electron holography, in contrast, can recover low spatial frequency phase information much more reliably, but is less effective in retrieving phase information at high spatial frequencies when compared to in-line holography. We investigate gold nanoparticles using hybrid electron holography at both atomic-resolution and intermediate magnification. Hybrid electron holography is a novel technique that synergistically combines off-axis and in-line electron holography, allowing the measurement of the complex wave function describing the scattered electrons with excellent signal-to-noise properties at both high and low spatial frequencies. The effect of dynamical electron scattering is minimized by beam tilt averaging. - Highlights: • Hybrid electron holography approach applied to Au nanoparticles. • Proof of principle of atomic resolution hybrid electron holography experiment demonstrated. • Dynamical scattering artifacts decrease by varying the illumination direction. • The effect of the number of iterations and noise on the low spatial frequencies in the phase are discussed.

  20. Mapping cultural ecosystem services: A framework to assess the potential for outdoor recreation across the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paracchini, M.L.; Zulian, G.; Kopperoinen, L.; Maes, J.; Schagner, J.P.; Termansen, M.; Zandersen, M.; Perez-Soba, M.; Scholefield, P.A.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-01-01

    Research on ecosystem services mapping and valuing has increased significantly in recent years. However, compared to provisioning and regulating services, cultural ecosystem services have not yet been fully integrated into operational frameworks. One reason for this is that transdisciplinarity is

  1. Road-Mapping the Way Forward for Sentinel-3 STM SAR-Mode Waveform Retracking over Water Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Cotton, David; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Martin-Puig, Cristina; Ray, Chris; Clarizia, Maria Paola; Gommenginger, Christine

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of the preparation activities for the Sentinel-3 Topography Mission, ESA launched an R&D project on SAR Altimetry and Applications over Ocean, Coastal zones and Inland waters. The main objective was to design a novel processing algorithm over ocean surface that would run in the Sentinel-3 ground segment to provide unprecedented quality altimeter measurements over ocean surfaces when in SAR mode. Also coastal zones and inland waters were the targets of research to derive new models and re-trackers for these difficult measurements. Innovative physically based models have been developed for near-nadir ocean altimetric waveforms in SAR-Mode and subsequently implemented in prototype ocean SAR re-trackers to perform the validation. A Detailed Processing Model Document was delivered for implementation in the Sentinel-3 Topography Mission Ground Segment. In this paper, we present the approach used to date within SAMOSA and the heritage behind the latest SAMOSA2 model. The SAMOSA2 model offers a complete description of SAR altimeter echoes from ocean surfaces, expressed in the form of maps of reflected power in delay and Doppler space. SAMOSA2 is able to account for an elliptical antenna pattern, mispointing errors in roll and yaw, errors in range cell migration correction, surface scattering pattern, non-linear ocean wave statistics and spherical Earth surface effects. SAMOSA2 addresses some of the known limitations of the earlier SAMOSA1 model, in particular with regards to sensitivity to mispointing. Due to its truly comprehensive character, the full SAMOSA2 model is a complicated semi-analytical formulation that still relies on some numerical integrations. The need for numerical integrations significantly impacts the computation time and raises problems of numerical stability once implemented operationally in a re-tracker scheme. This has potentially serious implications that could prevent the implementation of SAMOSA2 in operational re-tracker schemes

  2. DARC: Mapping Surface Topography by Ray-Casting for Effective Virtual Screening at Protein Interaction Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowthaman, Ragul; Miller, Sven A; Rogers, Steven; Khowsathit, Jittasak; Lan, Lan; Bai, Nan; Johnson, David K; Liu, Chunjing; Xu, Liang; Anbanandam, Asokan; Aubé, Jeffrey; Roy, Anuradha; Karanicolas, John

    2016-05-12

    Protein-protein interactions represent an exciting and challenging target class for therapeutic intervention using small molecules. Protein interaction sites are often devoid of the deep surface pockets presented by "traditional" drug targets, and crystal structures reveal that inhibitors typically engage these sites using very shallow binding modes. As a consequence, modern virtual screening tools developed to identify inhibitors of traditional drug targets do not perform as well when they are instead deployed at protein interaction sites. To address the need for novel inhibitors of important protein interactions, here we introduce an alternate docking strategy specifically designed for this regime. Our method, termed DARC (Docking Approach using Ray-Casting), matches the topography of a surface pocket "observed" from within the protein to the topography "observed" when viewing a potential ligand from the same vantage point. We applied DARC to carry out a virtual screen against the protein interaction site of human antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1 and found that four of the top-scoring 21 compounds showed clear inhibition in a biochemical assay. The Ki values for these compounds ranged from 1.2 to 21 μM, and each had ligand efficiency comparable to promising small-molecule inhibitors of other protein-protein interactions. These hit compounds do not resemble the natural (protein) binding partner of Mcl-1, nor do they resemble any known inhibitors of Mcl-1. Our results thus demonstrate the utility of DARC for identifying novel inhibitors of protein-protein interactions.

  3. SAFARI 2000 AVHRR-derived Land Surface Temperature Maps, Africa, 1995-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key indicator of land surface states, and can provide information on surface-atmosphere heat and mass fluxes, vegetation water...

  4. SAFARI 2000 AVHRR-derived Land Surface Temperature Maps, Africa, 1995-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key indicator of land surface states, and can provide information on surface-atmosphere heat and mass fluxes,...

  5. The Development of 3d Sub-Surface Mapping Scheme and its Application to Martian Lobate Debris Aprons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, H.; Kim, J.

    2017-07-01

    The Shallow Subsurface Radar (SHARAD), a sounding radar equipped on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), has produced highly valuable information about the Martian subsurface. In particular, the complicated substructures of Mars such as polar deposit, pedestal crater and the other geomorphic features involving possible subsurface ice body has been successfully investigated by SHARAD. In this study, we established a 3D subsurface mapping strategy employing the multiple SHARAD profiles. A number of interpretation components of SHARAD signals were integrated into a subsurface mapping scheme using radargram information and topographic data, then applied over a few mid latitude Lobate Debris Aprons (LDAs). From the identified subsurface layers of LDA, and the GIS data base incorporating the other interpretation outcomes, we are expecting to trace the origin of LDAs. Also, the subsurface mapping scheme developed in this study will be further applied to other interesting Martian geological features such as inter crater structures, aeolian deposits and fluvial sediments. To achieve higher precision sub-surface mapping, the clutter simulation employing the high resolution topographic data and the upgraded clustering algorithms assuming multiple sub-surface layers will be also developed.

  6. Surface Temperature Mapping of the University of Northern Iowa Campus Using High Resolution Thermal Infrared Aerial Imageries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Sugumaran

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project was to map the surface temperature of the University of Northern Iowa campus using high-resolution thermal infrared aerial imageries. A thermal camera with a spectral bandwidth of 3.0-5.0 μm was flown at the average altitude of 600 m, achieving ground resolution of 29 cm. Ground control data was used to construct the pixelto-temperature conversion model, which was later used to produce temperature maps of the entire campus and also for validation of the model. The temperature map then was used to assess the building rooftop conditions and steam line faults in the study area. Assessment of the temperature map revealed a number of building structures that may be subject to insulation improvement due to their high surface temperatures leaks. Several hot spots were also identified on the campus for steam pipelines faults. High-resolution thermal infrared imagery proved highly effective tool for precise heat anomaly detection on the campus, and it can be used by university facility services for effective future maintenance of buildings and grounds.

  7. Surface Temperature Mapping of the University of Northern Iowa Campus Using High Resolution Thermal Infrared Aerial Imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Alexander; Sugumaran, Ramanathan

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this project was to map the surface temperature of the University of Northern Iowa campus using high-resolution thermal infrared aerial imageries. A thermal camera with a spectral bandwidth of 3.0-5.0 μm was flown at the average altitude of 600 m, achieving ground resolution of 29 cm. Ground control data was used to construct the pixel- to-temperature conversion model, which was later used to produce temperature maps of the entire campus and also for validation of the model. The temperature map then was used to assess the building rooftop conditions and steam line faults in the study area. Assessment of the temperature map revealed a number of building structures that may be subject to insulation improvement due to their high surface temperatures leaks. Several hot spots were also identified on the campus for steam pipelines faults. High-resolution thermal infrared imagery proved highly effective tool for precise heat anomaly detection on the campus, and it can be used by university facility services for effective future maintenance of buildings and grounds. PMID:27873800

  8. 2D Analytical Modeling of Magnetic Vector Potential in Surface Mounted and Surface Inset Permanent Magnet Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jabbari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A 2D analytical method for magnetic vector potential calculation in inner rotor surface mounted and surface inset permanent magnet machines considering slotting effects, magnetization orientation and winding layout has been proposed in this paper. The analytical method is based on the resolution of Laplace and Poisson equations as well as Maxwell equation in quasi- Cartesian coordinate by using sub-domain method and hyperbolic functions. The developed method is applied on the performance computation of two prototypes surface mounted permanent magnet motors and two prototypes surface inset permanent magnet motors. A radial and a parallel magnetization orientation is considered for each type of motor. The results of these models are validated through FEM method.

  9. A comparative assessment of GIS-based data mining models and a novel ensemble model in groundwater well potential mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi, Seyed Amir; Moghaddam, Davood Davoodi; Kalantar, Bahareh; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Kisi, Ozgur

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, application of ensemble models has been increased tremendously in various types of natural hazard assessment such as landslides and floods. However, application of this kind of robust models in groundwater potential mapping is relatively new. This study applied four data mining algorithms including AdaBoost, Bagging, generalized additive model (GAM), and Naive Bayes (NB) models to map groundwater potential. Then, a novel frequency ratio data mining ensemble model (FREM) was introduced and evaluated. For this purpose, eleven groundwater conditioning factors (GCFs), including altitude, slope aspect, slope angle, plan curvature, stream power index (SPI), river density, distance from rivers, topographic wetness index (TWI), land use, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and lithology were mapped. About 281 well locations with high potential were selected. Wells were randomly partitioned into two classes for training the models (70% or 197) and validating them (30% or 84). AdaBoost, Bagging, GAM, and NB algorithms were employed to get groundwater potential maps (GPMs). The GPMs were categorized into potential classes using natural break method of classification scheme. In the next stage, frequency ratio (FR) value was calculated for the output of the four aforementioned models and were summed, and finally a GPM was produced using FREM. For validating the models, area under receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was calculated. The ROC curve for prediction dataset was 94.8, 93.5, 92.6, 92.0, and 84.4% for FREM, Bagging, AdaBoost, GAM, and NB models, respectively. The results indicated that FREM had the best performance among all the models. The better performance of the FREM model could be related to reduction of over fitting and possible errors. Other models such as AdaBoost, Bagging, GAM, and NB also produced acceptable performance in groundwater modelling. The GPMs produced in the current study may facilitate groundwater exploitation

  10. Quantum Nuclear Extension of Electron Nuclear Dynamics on Folded Effective-Potential Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, B.; Deumens, E.; Ohrn, Y.

    2014-01-01

    A perennial problem in quantum scattering calculations is accurate theoretical treatment of low energy collisions. We propose a method of extracting a folded, nonadiabatic, effective potential energy surface from electron nuclear dynamics (END) trajectories; we then perform nuclear wave packet...

  11. On quantum motion of particle in linear potential bounded by perfectly reflecting plane and parabolic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokotilovskij, Yu.N.

    1999-01-01

    The motion of a particle in the linear potential bounded by an inclined plane or parabolic surfaces is considered. The quantization of energy and wave functions is obtained numerically by the separation of the variables method

  12. Quantifying the potential for reservoirs to secure future surface water yields in the world’s largest river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Parkinson, Simon; Gidden, Matthew; Byers, Edward; Satoh, Yusuke; Riahi, Keywan; Forman, Barton

    2018-04-01

    Surface water reservoirs provide us with reliable water supply, hydropower generation, flood control and recreation services. Yet reservoirs also cause flow fragmentation in rivers and lead to flooding of upstream areas, thereby displacing existing land-use activities and ecosystems. Anticipated population growth and development coupled with climate change in many regions of the globe suggests a critical need to assess the potential for future reservoir capacity to help balance rising water demands with long-term water availability. Here, we assess the potential of large-scale reservoirs to provide reliable surface water yields while also considering environmental flows within 235 of the world’s largest river basins. Maps of existing cropland and habitat conservation zones are integrated with spatially-explicit population and urbanization projections from the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways to identify regions unsuitable for increasing water supply by exploiting new reservoir storage. Results show that even when maximizing the global reservoir storage to its potential limit (∼4.3–4.8 times the current capacity), firm yields would only increase by about 50% over current levels. However, there exist large disparities across different basins. The majority of river basins in North America are found to gain relatively little firm yield by increasing storage capacity, whereas basins in Southeast Asia display greater potential for expansion as well as proportional gains in firm yield under multiple uncertainties. Parts of Europe, the United States and South America show relatively low reliability of maintaining current firm yields under future climate change, whereas most of Asia and higher latitude regions display comparatively high reliability. Findings from this study highlight the importance of incorporating different factors, including human development, land-use activities, and climate change, over a time span of multiple decades and across a range of different

  13. Mapping possible flowpaths of contaminants through surface and cross-borehole spectral time-domain induced polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bording, Thue Sylvester; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Maurya, Pradip Kumar

    Traditional methods for mapping possible flowpaths of contaminants in sedimentary environments by boreholes may often be insufficient. Additional information may be acquired by geophysical methods. In the present study, cross-borehole and surface measurements were performed using time-domain indu......-domain induced polarization (TDIP). After measurements the entire test site was dug out, and the geology was described. A 2D spectral inversion of the combined dataset is presented, which is in great correspondence with the observed geology....

  14. Characterizing the surface charge of synthetic nanomembranes by the streaming potential method

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Subhra; Conlisk, A. T.; Kanani, Dharmesh M.; Zydney, Andrew L.; Fissell, William H.; Roy, Shuvo

    2010-01-01

    The inference of the surface charge of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated and uncoated silicon membranes with nanoscale pore sizes from streaming potential measurements in the presence of finite electric double layer (EDL) effects is studied theoretically and experimentally. The developed theoretical model for inferring the pore wall surface charge density from streaming potential measurements is applicable to arbitrary pore cross-sectional shapes and accounts for the effect of finite salt conc...

  15. Ion-step method for surface potential sensing of silicon nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan William; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel stimulus-response method for surface potential sensing of silicon nanowire (Si NW) field-effect transistors. When an "ion-step" from low to high ionic strength is given as a stimulus to the gate oxide surface, an increase of double layer capacitance is therefore expected.

  16. Map showing selected surface-water data for the Nephi 30 x 60-minute quadrangle, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Don

    1984-01-01

    This is one of a series of maps that describe the geology and related natural resources of the Nephi 30 x 60 minute quadrangle, Utah. Streamflow records used to compile this map were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Transportation. The principal runoff-producing areas shown on the map were delineated from a work map (scale 1:250,000) compiled to estimate water yields in Utah (Bagley and others, 1964). Sources of information about recorded floods resulting from cloudbursts included Woolley (1946) and Butler and Marsell (1972); sources of information about the chemical quality of streamflow included Hahl and Cabell (1965) Mundorff (1972 and 1974), and Waddell and others (1982).

  17. Map showing selected surface-water data for the Huntington 30 x 60-minute quadrangle, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Don

    1984-01-01

    This is one of a series of maps that describe the geology and related natural resources of the Huntington 30 x 60-minute quadrangle, Utah. Streamflow records used to compile this map were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Transportation. The principal runoff-producing area shown on the map was delineated from a work map (scale 1:250,000) compiled to estimate water yields in Utah (Bagley and others, 1964). Sources of information about recorded floods resulting from cloudbursts included Woolley (1946) and Butler and Marsell (1972); sources of information about the chemical quality of streamflow included Mundorff (1972) and Mundorff and Thompson (1982).

  18. Map showing selected surface-water data for the Manti 30 x 60-minute Quadrangle, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Don

    1984-01-01

    This is one of a series of maps that describe the geology and related natural resources of the Manti 30 x 60 minute quadrangle. Streamflow records used to compile this map were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Transportation. The principal runoff-producing areas shown on the map were delineated from a work map (scale 1:250,000) compiled to estimate water yields in Utah (Bagley and others, 1964). Sources of information about recorded floods resulting from cloudbursts included Woolley (1946) and Butler and Marsell (1972); sources of information about the chemical quality of streamflow included Hahl and Cabell (1965) and Mundorff and Thompson (1982).

  19. Map showing selected surface-water data for the Price 30 x 60-minute Quadrangle, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Don

    1984-01-01

    This is one of a series of maps that describe the geology and related natural resources of the Price 30 x 60-minute quadrangle, Utah. Streamflow records used to compile this map were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Transportation. The principal runoff-producing areas shown on the map were delineated from a work map (scale 1:250,000) compiled to estimate water yields in Utah (Bagley and others, 1964). Sources of information about recorded floods resulting from cloudbursts included Woolley (1946) and Butler and Marsell (1972); sources of information about the chemical quality of streamflow included Mundorff (1972; 1977), and Waddell and others (1982).

  20. Influence of Stress Connected with Moving to a New Farm on Potentially MAP-Infected Mouflons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribylova-Dziedzinska, Radka; Slana, Iva; Lamka, Jiri; Pavlik, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    There is no European legislation concerning paratuberculosis that requires that imported animals be kept in quarantine and commonly they are directly released into areas with other animals. In this study, detection of latent infection of paratuberculosis in healthy mouflons previously diagnosed as paratuberculosis-free, but originating from a real time quantitative PCR- (qPCR-) positive herd, occurred after their transport to a new farm. During a twelve-day quarantine period, all mouflons irregularly shed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in faeces, and in a small number of cases also in milk. After the animals were released from quarantine, MAP was detected for a further two days, after which, testing was negative, except in one case. Therefore, the stress connected with transport, novel environment, dietary change, or limited area with high density of animals might have contributed to the induction of paratuberculosis and the shedding of MAP from the animals, previously diagnosed as MAP-negative. According to these results, the keeping of imported animals in quarantine and their examination for MAP presence not only before the transport but also afterwards should be recommended. The designation of a particular area of a farm as a quarantine enclosure could help to mitigate the impact of stress caused by a confined space with a high density of animals.

  1. Delta self-consistent field method to obtain potential energy surfaces of excited molecules on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavnholt, Jeppe; Olsen, Thomas; Engelund, Mads

    2008-01-01

    is a density-functional method closely resembling standard density-functional theory (DFT), the only difference being that in Delta SCF one or more electrons are placed in higher lying Kohn-Sham orbitals instead of placing all electrons in the lowest possible orbitals as one does when calculating the ground......-state energy within standard DFT. We extend the Delta SCF method by allowing excited electrons to occupy orbitals which are linear combinations of Kohn-Sham orbitals. With this extra freedom it is possible to place charge locally on adsorbed molecules in the calculations, such that resonance energies can...... be estimated, which is not possible in traditional Delta SCF because of very delocalized Kohn-Sham orbitals. The method is applied to N2, CO, and NO adsorbed on different metallic surfaces and compared to ordinary Delta SCF without our modification, spatially constrained DFT, and inverse...

  2. Mapping land water and energy balance relations through conditional sampling of remote sensing estimates of atmospheric forcing and surface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Leila; Entekhabi, Dara; Salvucci, Guido

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we develop and apply a mapping estimation capability for key unknown parameters that link the surface water and energy balance equations. The method is applied to the Gourma region in West Africa. The accuracy of the estimation method at point scale was previously examined using flux tower data. In this study, the capability is scaled to be applicable with remotely sensed data products and hence allow mapping. Parameters of the system are estimated through a process that links atmospheric forcing (precipitation and incident radiation), surface states, and unknown parameters. Based on conditional averaging of land surface temperature and moisture states, respectively, a single objective function is posed that measures moisture and temperature-dependent errors solely in terms of observed forcings and surface states. This objective function is minimized with respect to parameters to identify evapotranspiration and drainage models and estimate water and energy balance flux components. The uncertainty of the estimated parameters (and associated statistical confidence limits) is obtained through the inverse of Hessian of the objective function, which is an approximation of the covariance matrix. This calibration-free method is applied to the mesoscale region of Gourma in West Africa using multiplatform remote sensing data. The retrievals are verified against tower-flux field site data and physiographic characteristics of the region. The focus is to find the functional form of the evaporative fraction dependence on soil moisture, a key closure function for surface and subsurface heat and moisture dynamics, using remote sensing data.

  3. Improving maps of ice-sheet surface elevation change using combined laser altimeter and stereoscopic elevation model data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Howat, I. M.; Tscherning, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    We combine the complementary characteristics of laser altimeter data and stereoscopic digital elevation models (DEMs) to construct high-resolution (_100 m) maps of surface elevations and elevation changes over rapidly changing outlet glaciers in Greenland. Measurements from spaceborne and airborne...... laser altimeters have relatively low errors but are spatially limited to the ground tracks, while DEMs have larger errors but provide spatially continuous surfaces. The principle of our method is to fit the DEM surface to the altimeter point clouds in time and space to minimize the DEM errors and use...... that surface to extrapolate elevations away from altimeter flight lines. This reduces the DEM registration errors and fills the gap between the altimeter paths. We use data from ICESat and ATM as well as SPOT 5 DEMs from 2007 and 2008 and apply them to the outlet glaciers Jakobshavn Isbræ (JI...

  4. Streaming potential revisited: the influence of convection on the surface conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Rakesh; Garg, Abhinandan; Barz, Dominik P J

    2014-09-16

    Electrokinetic phenomena play an important role in the electrical characterization of surfaces. In terms of planar or porous substrates, streaming potential and/or streaming current measurements can be used to determine the zeta potential of the substrates in contact with aqueous electrolytes. In this work, we perform electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements to infer the electrical resistance in a microchannel with the same conditions as for a streaming potential experiment. Novel correlations are derived to relate the streaming current and streaming potential to the Reynolds number of the channel flow. Our results not only quantify the influence of surface conductivity, and here especially the contribution of the stagnant layer, but also reveal that channel resistance and therefore zeta potential are influenced by the flow in the case of low ionic strengths. We conclude that convection can have a significant impact on the electrical double layer configuration which is reflected by changes in the surfaces conductivity.

  5. Surface Complexation Modeling of Calcite Zeta Potential Measurement in Mixed Brines for Carbonate Wettability Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J.; Zeng, Y.; Biswal, S. L.; Hirasaki, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    We presents zeta potential measurements and surface complexation modeling (SCM) of synthetic calcite in various conditions. The systematic zeta potential measurement and the proposed SCM provide insight into the role of four potential determining cations (Mg2+, SO42- , Ca2+ and CO32-) and CO2 partial pressure in calcite surface charge formation and facilitate the revealing of calcite wettability alteration induced by brines with designed ionic composition ("smart water"). Brines with varying potential determining ions (PDI) concentration in two different CO2 partial pressure (PCO2) are investigated in experiments. Then, a double layer SCM is developed to model the zeta potential measurements. Moreover, we propose a definition for contribution of charged surface species and quantitatively analyze the variation of charged species contribution when changing brine composition. After showing our model can accurately predict calcite zeta potential in brines containing mixed PDIs, we apply it to predict zeta potential in ultra-low and pressurized CO2 environments for potential applications in carbonate enhanced oil recovery including miscible CO2 flooding and CO2 sequestration in carbonate reservoirs. Model prediction reveals that pure calcite surface will be positively charged in all investigated brines in pressurized CO2 environment (>1atm). Moreover, the sensitivity of calcite zeta potential to CO2 partial pressure in the various brine is found to be in the sequence of Na2CO3 > Na2SO4 > NaCl > MgCl2 > CaCl2 (Ionic strength=0.1M).

  6. Potential of Pest and Host Phenological Data in the Attribution of Regional Forest Disturbance Detection Maps According to Causal Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William; Norman Steve; Christie, William

    2014-01-01

    Near real time forest disturbance detection maps from MODIS NDVI phenology data have been produced since 2010 for the conterminous U.S., as part of the on-line ForWarn national forest threat early warning system. The latter has been used by the forest health community to identify and track many regional forest disturbances caused by multiple biotic and abiotic damage agents. Attribution of causal agents for detected disturbances has been a goal since project initiation in 2006. Combined with detailed cover type maps, geospatial pest phenology data offer a potential means for narrowing the candidate causal agents responsible for a given biotic disturbance. U.S. Aerial Detection Surveys (ADS) employ such phenology data. Historic ADS products provide general locational data on recent insect-induced forest type specific disturbances that may help in determining candidate causal agents for MODIS-based disturbance maps, especially when combined with other historic geospatial disturbance data (e.g., wildfire burn scars and drought maps). Historic ADS disturbance detection polygons can show severe and extensive regional forest disturbances, though they also can show polygons with sparsely scattered or infrequent disturbances. Examples will be discussed that use various historic disturbance data to help determine potential causes of MODIS-detected regional forest disturbance anomalies.

  7. Skin denervation does not alter cortical potentials to surface concentric electrode stimulation: A comparison with laser evoked potentials and contact heat evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Cesa, S; Di Stefano, G; Leone, C; Pepe, A; Galosi, E; Alu, F; Fasolino, A; Cruccu, G; Valeriani, M; Truini, A

    2018-01-01

    In the neurophysiological assessment of patients with neuropathic pain, laser evoked potentials (LEPs), contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) and the evoked potentials by the intraepidermal electrical stimulation via concentric needle electrode are widely agreed as nociceptive specific responses; conversely, the nociceptive specificity of evoked potentials by surface concentric electrode (SE-PREPs) is still debated. In this neurophysiological study we aimed at verifying the nociceptive specificity of SE-PREPs. We recorded LEPs, CHEPs and SE-PREPs in eleven healthy participants, before and after epidermal denervation produced by prolonged capsaicin application. We also used skin biopsy to verify the capsaicin-induced nociceptive nerve fibre loss in the epidermis. We found that whereas LEPs and CHEPs were suppressed after capsaicin-induced epidermal denervation, the surface concentric electrode stimulation of the same denervated skin area yielded unchanged SE-PREPs. The suppression of LEPs and CHEPs after nociceptive nerve fibre loss in the epidermis indicates that these techniques are selectively mediated by nociceptive system. Conversely, the lack of SE-PREP changes suggests that SE-PREPs do not provide selective information on nociceptive system function. Capsaicin-induced epidermal denervation abolishes laser evoked potentials (LEPs) and contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs), but leaves unaffected pain-related evoked potentials by surface concentric electrode (SE-PREPs). These findings suggest that unlike LEPs and CHEPs, SE-PREPs are not selectively mediated by nociceptive system. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  8. Mapping surface disturbance of energy-related infrastructure in southwest Wyoming--An assessment of methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaine, Stephen S.; O'Donnell, Michael S.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Baer, Lori; Fancher, Tammy; McBeth, Jamie; McDougal, Robert R.; Waltermire, Robert; Bowen, Zachary H.; Diffendorfer, James; Garman, Steven; Hanson, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated how well three leading information-extraction software programs (eCognition, Feature Analyst, Feature Extraction) and manual hand digitization interpreted information from remotely sensed imagery of a visually complex gas field in Wyoming. Specifically, we compared how each mapped the area of and classified the disturbance features present on each of three remotely sensed images, including 30-meter-resolution Landsat, 10-meter-resolution SPOT (Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre), and 0.6-meter resolution pan-sharpened QuickBird scenes. Feature Extraction mapped the spatial area of disturbance features most accurately on the Landsat and QuickBird imagery, while hand digitization was most accurate on the SPOT imagery. Footprint non-overlap error was smallest on the Feature Analyst map of the Landsat imagery, the hand digitization map of the SPOT imagery, and the Feature Extraction map of the QuickBird imagery. When evaluating feature classification success against a set of ground-truthed control points, Feature Analyst, Feature Extraction, and hand digitization classified features with similar success on the QuickBird and SPOT imagery, while eCognition classified features poorly relative to the other methods. All maps derived from Landsat imagery classified disturbance features poorly. Using the hand digitized QuickBird data as a reference and making pixel-by-pixel comparisons, Feature Extraction classified features best overall on the QuickBird imagery, and Feature Analyst classified features best overall on the SPOT and Landsat imagery. Based on the entire suite of tasks we evaluated, Feature Extraction performed best overall on the Landsat and QuickBird imagery, while hand digitization performed best overall on the SPOT imagery, and eCognition performed worst overall on all three images. Error rates for both area measurements and feature classification were prohibitively high on Landsat imagery, while QuickBird was time and cost prohibitive for

  9. Potential energy surfaces of adsorbates on periodic substrates: Application of the Morse theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pick, Štěpán

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 4 (2009), 045403-1-5 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : adsorbed layers * Morse potential * potential energy surfaces * substrates Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.475, year: 2009

  10. Surface potential measurement of negative-ion-implanted insulators by analysing secondary electron energy distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyota, Yoshitaka; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Nagumo, Syoji; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo; Sakai, Shigeki.

    1994-01-01

    The negative ion implantation method we have proposed is a noble technique which can reduce surface charging of isolated electrodes by a large margin. In this paper, the way to specify the surface potential of negative-ion-implanted insulators by the secondary electron energy analysis is described. The secondary electron energy distribution is obtained by a retarding field type energy analyzer. The result shows that the surface potential of fused quartz by negative-ion implantation (C - with the energy of 10 keV to 40 keV) is negatively charged by only several volts. This surface potential is extremely low compared with that by positive-ion implantation. Therefore, the negative-ion implantation is a very effective method for charge-up free implantation without charge compensation. (author)

  11. Potential energy surface from spectroscopic data in the photodissociation of polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hwa Joong; Kim, Young Sik

    2001-01-01

    The time-dependent tracking inversion method is studied to extract the potential energy surface of the electronic excited state in the photodissociation of triatomic molecules. Based on the relay of the regularized inversion procedure and time-dependent wave packet propagation, the algorithm extracts the underlying potential energy surface piece by tracking the time-dependent data, which can be synthesized from Raman excitation profiles. We have demonstrated the algorithm to extract the potential energy surface of electronic excited state for NO 2 molecule where the wave packet split on a saddle-shaped surface. Finally, we describe the merits of the time-dependent tracking inversion method compared with the time-dependent inversion method and discussed several extensions of the algorithm

  12. MODELING THE ANOMALY OF SURFACE NUMBER DENSITIES OF GALAXIES ON THE GALACTIC EXTINCTION MAP DUE TO THEIR FIR EMISSION CONTAMINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, Toshiya; Suto, Yasushi; Taruya, Atsushi; Yahata, Kazuhiro [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kayo, Issha [Department of Physics, Toho University, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8510 (Japan); Nishimichi, Takahiro, E-mail: kashiwagi@utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    The most widely used Galactic extinction map is constructed assuming that the observed far-infrared (FIR) fluxes come entirely from Galactic dust. According to the earlier suggestion by Yahata et al., we consider how FIR emission of galaxies affects the SFD map. We first compute the surface number density of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 galaxies as a function of the r-band extinction, A {sub r,} {sub SFD}. We confirm that the surface densities of those galaxies positively correlate with A {sub r,} {sub SFD} for A {sub r,} {sub SFD} < 0.1, as first discovered by Yahata et al. for SDSS DR4 galaxies. Next we construct an analytical model to compute the surface density of galaxies, taking into account the contamination of their FIR emission. We adopt a log-normal probability distribution for the ratio of 100 μm and r-band luminosities of each galaxy, y ≡ (νL){sub 100} {sub μm}/(νL) {sub r}. Then we search for the mean and rms values of y that fit the observed anomaly, using the analytical model. The required values to reproduce the anomaly are roughly consistent with those measured from the stacking analysis of SDSS galaxies. Due to the limitation of our statistical modeling, we are not yet able to remove the FIR contamination of galaxies from the extinction map. Nevertheless, the agreement with the model prediction suggests that the FIR emission of galaxies is mainly responsible for the observed anomaly. Whereas the corresponding systematic error in the Galactic extinction map is 0.1-1 mmag, it is directly correlated with galaxy clustering and thus needs to be carefully examined in precision cosmology.

  13. Surface mapping and drilling of extinct seafloor massive sulphide deposits (eSMS) from the TAG Hydrothermal Field, 26oN: A tale of two `Jaspers'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobbs, I. J.; Lusty, P.; Petersen, S.; Murton, B. J.

    2017-12-01

    Two extinct seafloor massive sulphide (eSMS) deposits within the TAG hydrothermal field, 26oN, mid-Atlantic ridge, were mapped and drilled: Southern Mound and the newly discovered `Rona Mound'. Surface mapping was undertaken by combining high definition video footage and high resolution bathymetry to interpret surface geological and geomorphological features. Drill core was recovered using the BGS RD2 robotic drilling rig. Surface mapping of the mounds revealed a superficial cover of carbonate and iron-oxyhydroxides sediments, observed to directly overly oxide coated sulphide material within fault scarps, which dissect the flanks of both mounds. Drilling at the summits of the mounds revealed similar stratigraphy to the mapping, with the addition of a coherent and dense layer of red-coloured silica-rich `jasper', up to 3m thick, underlying the sediments and overlying unoxidised massive sulphides. The jasper mineralogy is dominated by silica, with minor iron oxides and rare disseminated sulphides. It displays a range of complex textures including filamentous and dendritic iron oxides often coated in silica. Drill core samples show the material to be porous, but relatively impermeable. Strong and positive Eu (REE) anomalies indicates a hydrothermal origin with little evidence of a seawater signature (lack of negative Ce anomaly). Silica precipitation is associated with low temperature hydrothermal activity, chert and jasper materials are locally present within the nearby hydrothermally active TAG mound and are more widespread at low-temperature diffuse hydrothermal sites such as within the MESO field. We interpret the `jasper' layers to be a common product, formed during the waning, low temperature, stage of the hydrothermal cycle which may form an impermeable and resistant `cap' that protects the underlying massive sulphide ore body from oxidation and dissolution. The formation of a `jasper cap' could act automatically to preserve eSMS deposits when hydrothermal

  14. Biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes on stainless steel surface and biotransfer potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Maciel Mattos de Oliveira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An experimental model was proposed to study biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 on AISI 304 (#4 stainless steel surface and biotransfer potential during this process. In this model, biofilm formation was conducted on the surface of stainless steel coupons, set on a stainless steel base with 4 divisions, each one supporting 21 coupons. Trypic Soy Broth was used as bacterial growth substrate, with incubation at 37 ºC and stirring of 50 rpm. The number of adhered cells was determined after 3, 48, 96, 144, 192 and 240 hours of biofilm formation and biotransfer potential from 96 hours. Stainless steel coupons were submitted to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM after 3, 144 and 240 hours. Based on the number of adhered cells and SEM, it was observed that L. monocytogenes adhered rapidly to the stainless steel surface, with mature biofilm being formed after 240 hours. The biotransfer potential of bacterium to substrate occurred at all the stages analyzed. The rapid capacity of adhesion to surface, combined with biotransfer potential throughout the biofilm formation stages, make L. monocytogenes a potential risk to the food industry. Both the experimental model developed and the methodology used were efficient in the study of biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes on stainless steel surface and biotransfer potential.

  15. Biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes on stainless steel surface and biotransfer potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Maíra Maciel Mattos; Brugnera, Danilo Florisvaldo; Alves, Eduardo; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf

    2010-01-01

    An experimental model was proposed to study biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 on AISI 304 (#4) stainless steel surface and biotransfer potential during this process. In this model, biofilm formation was conducted on the surface of stainless steel coupons, set on a stainless steel base with 4 divisions, each one supporting 21 coupons. Trypic Soy Broth was used as bacterial growth substrate, with incubation at 37 °C and stirring of 50 rpm. The number of adhered cells was determined after 3, 48, 96, 144, 192 and 240 hours of biofilm formation and biotransfer potential from 96 hours. Stainless steel coupons were submitted to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) after 3, 144 and 240 hours. Based on the number of adhered cells and SEM, it was observed that L. monocytogenes adhered rapidly to the stainless steel surface, with mature biofilm being formed after 240 hours. The biotransfer potential of bacterium to substrate occurred at all the stages analyzed. The rapid capacity of adhesion to surface, combined with biotransfer potential throughout the biofilm formation stages, make L. monocytogenes a potential risk to the food industry. Both the experimental model developed and the methodology used were efficient in the study of biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes on stainless steel surface and biotransfer potential.

  16. Disordered electrical potential observed on the surface of SiO2 by electric field microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GarcIa, N; Yan Zang; Ballestar, A; Barzola-Quiquia, J; Bern, F; Esquinazi, P

    2010-01-01

    The electrical potential on the surface of ∼300 nm thick SiO 2 grown on single-crystalline Si substrates has been characterized at ambient conditions using electric field microscopy. Our results show an inhomogeneous potential distribution with fluctuations up to ∼0.4 V within regions of 1 μm. The potential fluctuations observed at the surface of these usual dielectric holders of graphene sheets should induce strong variations in the graphene charge densities and provide a simple explanation for some of the anomalous behaviors of the transport properties of graphene.

  17. Alteration zone mapping for detecting potential mineralized areas in Kaladawan of north altyn tagh using ASTER data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-gui, Zhou; Bai-lin, Chen; Xing-tong, Chen; Zheng-le, Chen

    2014-01-01

    The Kaladawan area has been found developing intense hydrothermal altered rocks associated with mineralized area such as Kaladaban Pb-Zn deposit, A-bei Ag-Pb depositduring earlier geological investigations.Yet the sparse vegetation cover and excellent bedrock exposure make it a suitable place for the use of remote sensing methods for lithological mapping. ASTER data has been used in this study to identify alteration zones, and then to detect potential mineralized areas. Band ratio and PCA procedures were applied based on the analysis of spectral properties of typical alteration minerals. Band 4/2 and mineralogic indices proposed by Ninomiya were designed to map the distribution of Fe-oxides and alteration zones. Selected bands combinations were transformed in a PCA procedure to map the Al-OH, Mg-OH, CO 3 2− and Fe-oxides altered minerals. The analysis focused on the spatial distribution of hydrothermal altered minerals. Band ratio result images including both Fe-oxides and mineralogic indices show high-level similarity with the PCA transform procedure. They both show intense hydrothermal alteration zone in Kaladaban,west Kaladawan and A-bei area. Hence, these areas are considered to have potential for further mineralogic exploration. The results were validated by field work in the Kaladaban and west Kaladawan area,indicating that this method can be a useful tool for detecting potential mineralization area in Kaladawan and similar areas elsewhere

  18. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Description of the bedrock geological map at the ground surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Bergman, Torbjoern (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Isaksson, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Petersson, Jesper (SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    A description of the bedrock geological map of the ground surface at the Forsmark site is presented here. This map is essentially a 2D model for the distribution of different types of rock unit on this surface. Besides showing the distribution of these rock units, the bedrock geological map also displays the distribution of some deformation zones that intersect the ground surface. It also presents information bearing on the position and form of outcrops, the location and projection of boreholes drilled during the site investigation programme, subordinate rock types, the occurrence of abandoned mines or exploration prospects, measurements of ductile structures in outcrops, inferred form lines, key minerals, and the occurrence of mylonite and cataclastic rock. Bedrock data from outcrops and excavations, airborne and ground magnetic data and information from the uppermost part of boreholes have all been used in the construction of the geological map. The description has also made use of complementary analytical data bearing on the composition and age of the rocks as well gamma-ray spectrometry and gravity data. Uncertainty in the position of the boundaries between rock units over the mapped area are addressed in a qualitative manner. Four model versions of the bedrock geological map have been delivered to SKB's GIS database (bedrock geological map, Forsmark, versions 1.1, 1.2, 2.2 and 2.3) at different times during the site investigation programme. The Forsmark area is situated along the coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Uppland, Sweden, in a region where the overall level of ductile strain in the bedrock is high. This high-strain region extends several tens of kilometres across the WNW-ENE to NW-SE strike of the rocks in this part of the Fennoscandian Shield. At Forsmark, the coastal region is composed partly of high-strain belts, which formed under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions, and partly of tectonic lenses, where the bedrock is also affected by

  19. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Description of the bedrock geological map at the ground surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Bergman, Torbjoern; Isaksson, Hans; Petersson, Jesper

    2008-12-01

    A description of the bedrock geological map of the ground surface at the Forsmark site is presented here. This map is essentially a 2D model for the distribution of different types of rock unit on this surface. Besides showing the distribution of these rock units, the bedrock geological map also displays the distribution of some deformation zones that intersect the ground surface. It also presents information bearing on the position and form of outcrops, the location and projection of boreholes drilled during the site investigation programme, subordinate rock types, the occurrence of abandoned mines or exploration prospects, measurements of ductile structures in outcrops, inferred form lines, key minerals, and the occurrence of mylonite and cataclastic rock. Bedrock data from outcrops and excavations, airborne and ground magnetic data and information from the uppermost part of boreholes have all been used in the construction of the geological map. The description has also made use of complementary analytical data bearing on the composition and age of the rocks as well gamma-ray spectrometry and gravity data. Uncertainty in the position of the boundaries between rock units over the mapped area are addressed in a qualitative manner. Four model versions of the bedrock geological map have been delivered to SKB's GIS database (bedrock geological map, Forsmark, versions 1.1, 1.2, 2.2 and 2.3) at different times during the site investigation programme. The Forsmark area is situated along the coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Uppland, Sweden, in a region where the overall level of ductile strain in the bedrock is high. This high-strain region extends several tens of kilometres across the WNW-ENE to NW-SE strike of the rocks in this part of the Fennoscandian Shield. At Forsmark, the coastal region is composed partly of high-strain belts, which formed under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions, and partly of tectonic lenses, where the bedrock is also affected by

  20. Surface potential measurement on contact resistance of amorphous-InGaZnO thin film transistors by Kelvin probe force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiheng; Xu, Guangwei; Wang, Wei; Lu, Congyan; Lu, Nianduan; Ji, Zhuoyu; Li, Ling; Liu, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Contact resistance plays an important role in amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs). In this paper, the surface potential distributions along the channel have been measured by using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) on operating a-IGZO TFTs, and sharp potential drops at the edges of source and drain were observed. The source and drain contact resistances can be extracted by dividing sharp potential drops with the corresponding drain to source current. It is found that the contact resistances could not be neglected compared with the whole channel resistances in the a-IGZO TFT, and the contact resistances decrease remarkably with increasing gate biased voltage. Our results suggest that the contact resistances can be controlled by tuning the gate biased voltage. Moreover, a transition from gradual channel approximation to space charge region was observed through the surface potential map directly when TFT operating from linear regime to saturation regime.

  1. Probing surface charge potentials of clay basal planes and edges by direct force measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongying; Bhattacharjee, Subir; Chow, Ross; Wallace, Dean; Masliyah, Jacob H; Xu, Zhenghe

    2008-11-18

    The dispersion and gelation of clay suspensions have major impact on a number of industries, such as ceramic and composite materials processing, paper making, cement production, and consumer product formulation. To fundamentally understand controlling mechanisms of clay dispersion and gelation, it is necessary to study anisotropic surface charge properties and colloidal interactions of clay particles. In this study, a colloidal probe technique was employed to study the interaction forces between a silica probe and clay basal plane/edge surfaces. A muscovite mica was used as a representative of 2:1 phyllosilicate clay minerals. The muscovite basal plane was prepared by cleavage, while the edge surface was obtained by a microtome cutting technique. Direct force measurements demonstrated the anisotropic surface charge properties of the basal plane and edge surface. For the basal plane, the long-range forces were monotonically repulsive within pH 6-10 and the measured forces were pH-independent, thereby confirming that clay basal planes have permanent surface charge from isomorphic substitution of lattice elements. The measured interaction forces were fitted well with the classical DLVO theory. The surface potentials of muscovite basal plane derived from the measured force profiles were in good agreement with those reported in the literature. In the case of edge surfaces, the measured forces were monotonically repulsive at pH 10, decreasing with pH, and changed to be attractive at pH 5.6, strongly suggesting that the charge on the clay edge surfaces is pH-dependent. The measured force profiles could not be reasonably fitted with the classical DLVO theory, even with very small surface potential values, unless the surface roughness was considered. The surface element integration (SEI) method was used to calculate the DLVO forces to account for the surface roughness. The surface potentials of the muscovite edges were derived by fitting the measured force profiles with the

  2. Surface mapping via unsupervised classification of remote sensing: application to MESSENGER/MASCS and DAWN/VIRS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amore, M.; Le Scaon, R.; Helbert, J.; Maturilli, A.

    2017-12-01

    Machine-learning achieved unprecedented results in high-dimensional data processing tasks with wide applications in various fields. Due to the growing number of complex nonlinear systems that have to be investigated in science and the bare raw size of data nowadays available, ML offers the unique ability to extract knowledge, regardless the specific application field. Examples are image segmentation, supervised/unsupervised/ semi-supervised classification, feature extraction, data dimensionality analysis/reduction.The MASCS instrument has mapped Mercury surface in the 400-1145 nm wavelength range during orbital observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft. We have conducted k-means unsupervised hierarchical clustering to identify and characterize spectral units from MASCS observations. The results display a dichotomy: a polar and equatorial units, possibly linked to compositional differences or weathering due to irradiation. To explore possible relations between composition and spectral behavior, we have compared the spectral provinces with elemental abundance maps derived from MESSENGER's X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS).For the Vesta application on DAWN Visible and infrared spectrometer (VIR) data, we explored several Machine Learning techniques: image segmentation method, stream algorithm and hierarchical clustering.The algorithm successfully separates the Olivine outcrops around two craters on Vesta's surface [1]. New maps summarizing the spectral and chemical signature of the surface could be automatically produced.We conclude that instead of hand digging in data, scientist could choose a subset of algorithms with well known feature (i.e. efficacy on the particular problem, speed, accuracy) and focus their effort in understanding what important characteristic of the groups found in the data mean. [1] E Ammannito et al. "Olivine in an unexpected location on Vesta's surface". In: Nature 504.7478 (2013), pp. 122-125.

  3. Surface potential of methyl isobutyl carbinol adsorption layer at the air/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Chi M; Nakahara, Hiromichi; Shibata, Osamu; Moroi, Yoshikiyo; Le, Thu N; Ang, Ha M

    2012-01-26

    The surface potential (ΔV) and surface tension (γ) of MIBC (methyl isobutyl carbinol) were measured on the subphase of pure water and electrolyte solutions (NaCl at 0.02 and 2 M). In contrast to ionic surfactants, it was found that surface potential gradually increased with MIBC concentration. The ΔV curves were strongly influenced by the presence of NaCl. The available model in literature, in which surface potential is linearly proportional to surface excess, failed to describe the experimental data. Consequently, a new model, employing a partial charge of alcohol adsorption layer, was proposed. The new model predicted the experimental data consistently for MIBC in different NaCl solutions. However, the model required additional information for ionic impurity to predict adsorption in the absence of electrolyte. Such inclusion of impurities is, however, unnecessary for industrial applications. The modeling results successfully quantify the influence of electrolytes on surface potential of MIBC, which is critical for froth stability.

  4. Electrocardiogram: his bundle potentials can be recorded noninvasively beat by beat on surface electrocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaopin; Liu, Renguang; Chang, Qinghua; Xu, Zhaolong; Zhang, Yingjie; Pan, Dianzhu

    2017-03-15

    The micro waveform of His bundle potential can't be recorded beat-to-beat on surface electrocardiogram yet. We have found that the micro-wavelets before QRS complex may be related to atrioventricular conduction system potentials. This study is to explore the possibility of His bundle potential can be noninvasively recorded on surface electrocardiogram. We randomized 65 patients undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation of paroxysmal superventricular tachycardia (exclude overt Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome) to receive "conventional electrocardiogram" and "new electrocardiogram" before the procedure. His bundle electrogram was collected during the procedure. Comparative analysis of PA s (PA interval recorded on surface electrocardiogram), AH s (AH interval recorded on surface electrocardiogram) and HV s (HV interval recorded on surface electrocardiogram) interval recorded on surface "new electrocardiogram" and PA, AH, HV interval recorded on His bundle electrogram was investigated. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between groups in HV s interval (49.63 ± 6.19 ms) and HV interval (49.35 ± 6.49 ms). Results of correlational analysis found that HV S interval was significantly positively associated with HV interval (r = 0.929; P electrocardiogram. Noninvasive His bundle potential tracing might represent a new method for locating the site of atrioventricular block and identifying the origin of a wide QRS complex.

  5. Multivariate tensor-based morphometry on surfaces: application to mapping ventricular abnormalities in HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yalin; Zhang, Jie; Gutman, Boris; Chan, Tony F; Becker, James T; Aizenstein, Howard J; Lopez, Oscar L; Tamburo, Robert J; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2010-02-01

    Here we developed a new method, called multivariate tensor-based surface morphometry (TBM), and applied it to study lateral ventricular surface differences associated with HIV/AIDS. Using concepts from differential geometry and the theory of differential forms, we created mathematical structures known as holomorphic one-forms, to obtain an efficient and accurate conformal parameterization of the lateral ventricular surfaces in the brain. The new meshing approach also provides a natural way to register anatomical surfaces across subjects, and improves on prior methods as it handles surfaces that branch and join at complex 3D junctions. To analyze anatomical differences, we computed new statistics from the Riemannian surface metrics-these retain multivariate information on local surface geometry. We applied this framework to analyze lateral ventricular surface morphometry in 3D MRI data from 11 subjects with HIV/AIDS and 8 healthy controls. Our method detected a 3D profile of surface abnormalities even in this small sample. Multivariate statistics on the local tensors gave better effect sizes for detecting group differences, relative to other TBM-based methods including analysis of the Jacobian determinant, the largest and smallest eigenvalues of the surface metric, and the pair of eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix. The resulting analysis pipeline may improve the power of surface-based morphometry studies of the brain. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mapping of Proteomic Composition on the Surfaces of Bacillus spores by Atomic Force Microscopy-based Immunolabeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plomp, M; Malkin, A J

    2008-06-02

    Atomic force microscopy provides a unique capability to image high-resolution architecture and structural dynamics of pathogens (e.g. viruses, bacteria and bacterial spores) at near molecular resolution in native conditions. Further development of atomic force microscopy in order to enable the correlation of pathogen protein surface structures with specific gene products is essential to understand the mechanisms of the pathogen life cycle. We have applied an AFM-based immunolabeling technique for the proteomic mapping of macromolecular structures through the visualization of the binding of antibodies, conjugated with nanogold particles, to specific epitopes on Bacillus spore surfaces. This information is generated while simultaneously acquiring the surface morphology of the pathogen. The immunospecificity of this labeling method was established through the utilization of specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies that target spore coat and exosporium epitopes of Bacillus atrophaeus and Bacillus anthracis spores.

  7. In-situ potential risk dependence of environmental radon concentration mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo B, L.; Horvath, A.; Mark, G.; Kasztovszky, Z.; Toth, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this study we present the importance of a close mesh measurements for radon concentration mapping and we demonstrate its necessity when dose calculations are involved. Our results indicate that large errors may be derived from data related to large area mapped with measurements considered characteristic; mean value of a selected region. We point out also that from place to place distant 30 cm radon concentration in the soil at the relaxation depth of 70 cm may differ by a factor of 2 or more. Waters of household wells were monitored also for information on the radon dynamic behaviour. We conclude that for effective dose calculations, particularly in areas with high radon concentration gradient and relatively high population density, the approximate spatial scale variation should be replaced by a systematic dose mesh sampling approach. (authors). 13 refs., 3 figs

  8. CONSTRAINING THE MILKY WAY POTENTIAL WITH A SIX-DIMENSIONAL PHASE-SPACE MAP OF THE GD-1 STELLAR STREAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koposov, Sergey E.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Hogg, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The narrow GD-1 stream of stars, spanning 60 0 on the sky at a distance of ∼10 kpc from the Sun and ∼15 kpc from the Galactic center, is presumed to be debris from a tidally disrupted star cluster that traces out a test-particle orbit in the Milky Way halo. We combine Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometry, USNO-B astrometry, and SDSS and Calar Alto spectroscopy to construct a complete, empirical six-dimensional (6D) phase-space map of the stream. We find that an eccentric orbit in a flattened isothermal potential describes this phase-space map well. Even after marginalizing over the stream orbital parameters and the distance from the Sun to the Galactic center, the orbital fit to GD-1 places strong constraints on the circular velocity at the Sun's radius V c = 224 ± 13 km s -1 and total potential flattening q Φ = 0.87 +0.07 -0.04 . When we drop any informative priors on V c , the GD-1 constraint becomes V c = 221 ± 18 km s -1 . Our 6D map of GD-1, therefore, yields the best current constraint on V c and the only strong constraint on q Φ at Galactocentric radii near R ∼ 15 kpc. Much, if not all, of the total potential flattening may be attributed to the mass in the stellar disk, so the GD-1 constraints on the flattening of the halo itself are weak: q Φ,halo > 0.89 at 90% confidence. The greatest uncertainty in the 6D map and the orbital analysis stems from the photometric distances, which will be obviated by GAIA.

  9. Comparison of Degrees of Potential-Energy-Surface Anharmonicity for Complexes and Clusters with Hydrogen Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovskaya, E. N.; Doroshenko, I. Yu.; Pogorelov, V. E.; Vaskivskyi, Ye. V.; Pitsevich, G. A.

    2018-01-01

    Previously calculated multidimensional potential-energy surfaces of the MeOH monomer and dimer, water dimer, malonaldehyde, formic acid dimer, free pyridine-N-oxide/trichloroacetic acid complex, and protonated water dimer were analyzed. The corresponding harmonic potential-energy surfaces near the global minima were constructed for series of clusters and complexes with hydrogen bonds of different strengths based on the behavior of the calculated multidimensional potential-energy surfaces. This enabled the introduction of an obvious anharmonicity parameter for the calculated potential-energy surfaces. The anharmonicity parameter was analyzed as functions of the size of the analyzed area near the energy minimum, the number of points over which energies were compared, and the dimensionality of the solved vibrational problem. Anharmonicity parameters for potential-energy surfaces in complexes with strong, medium, and weak H-bonds were calculated under identical conditions. The obtained anharmonicity parameters were compared with the corresponding diagonal anharmonicity constants for stretching vibrations of the bridging protons and the lengths of the hydrogen bridges.

  10. Mapping surface flow in low gradient areas with thermal remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christian; Petersen, Rasmus Jes; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    of drainage input into the buffer system and 2) the flow path of the water. The TIR imagery was collected by a UAV (eBee from SenseFly) with a thermal camera (ThermoMap from SenseFly) at early spring in 2016 and 2017. The surveys are conducted in cold periods where discharging drainage water (and groundwater...

  11. The sea surface currents as a potential factor in the estimation and monitoring of wave energy potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodiatis, George; Galanis, George; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Stylianoy, Stavros; Liakatas, Aristotelis

    2015-04-01

    The use of wave energy as an alternative renewable is receiving attention the last years under the shadow of the economic crisis in Europe and in the light of the promising corresponding potential especially for countries with extended coastline. Monitoring and studying the corresponding resources is further supported by a number of critical advantages of wave energy compared to other renewable forms, like the reduced variability and the easier adaptation to the general grid, especially when is jointly approached with wind power. Within the framework, a number of countries worldwide have launched research and development projects and a significant number of corresponding studies have been presented the last decades. However, in most of them the impact of wave-sea surface currents interaction on the wave energy potential has not been taken into account neglecting in this way a factor of potential importance. The present work aims at filling this gap for a sea area with increased scientific and economic interest, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Based on a combination of high resolution numerical modeling approach with advanced statistical tools, a detailed analysis is proposed for the quantification of the impact of sea surface currents, which produced from downscaling the MyOcean-FO regional data, to wave energy potential. The results although spatially sensitive, as expected, prove beyond any doubt that the wave- sea surface currents interaction should be taken into account for similar resource analysis and site selection approaches since the percentage of impact to the available wave power may reach or even exceed 20% at selected areas.

  12. Statistical mapping of zones of focused groundwater/surface-water exchange using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakanyamale, Kisa; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Slater, Lee D.

    2013-01-01

    Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) increasingly is used to map zones of focused groundwater/surface-water exchange (GWSWE). Previous studies of GWSWE using FO-DTS involved identification of zones of focused GWSWE based on arbitrary cutoffs of FO-DTS time-series statistics (e.g., variance, cross-correlation between temperature and stage, or spectral power). New approaches are needed to extract more quantitative information from large, complex FO-DTS data sets while concurrently providing an assessment of uncertainty associated with mapping zones of focused GSWSE. Toward this end, we present a strategy combining discriminant analysis (DA) and spectral analysis (SA). We demonstrate the approach using field experimental data from a reach of the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford 300 Area site. Results of the combined SA/DA approach are shown to be superior to previous results from qualitative interpretation of FO-DTS spectra alone.

  13. A Fire Severity Mapping System (FSMS) for real-time management applications and long term planning: Developing a map of the landscape potential for severe fire in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory K. Dillon; Zachary A. Holden; Penny Morgan; Bob Keane

    2009-01-01

    The Fire Severity Mapping System project is geared toward providing fire managers across the western United States with critical information for dealing with and planning for the ecological effects of wildfire at multiple levels of thematic, spatial, and temporal detail. For this project, we are developing a comprehensive, west-wide map of the landscape potential for...

  14. Ventricular filling slows epicardial conduction and increases action potential duration in an optical mapping study of the isolated rabbit heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Derrick; Mills, Robert W.; Schettler, Jan; Narayan, Sanjiv M.; Omens, Jeffrey H.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; McCullough, A. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanical stimulation can induce electrophysiologic changes in cardiac myocytes, but how mechanoelectric feedback in the intact heart affects action potential propagation remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Changes in action potential propagation and repolarization with increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure from 0 to 30 mmHg were investigated using optical mapping in isolated perfused rabbit hearts. With respect to 0 mmHg, epicardial strain at 30 mmHg in the anterior left ventricle averaged 0.040 +/- 0.004 in the muscle fiber direction and 0.032 +/- 0.006 in the cross-fiber direction. An increase in ventricular loading increased average epicardial activation time by 25%+/- 3% (P action potential duration at 20% repolarization (APD20) but did at 80% repolarization (APD80), from 179 +/- 7 msec to 207 +/- 5 msec (P action potential duration by a load-dependent mechanism that may not involve stretch-activated channels.

  15. Self-consistent density functional calculation of the image potential at a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, J; Alvarellos, J E; Chacon, E; GarcIa-Gonzalez, P

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that the exchange-correlation (XC) potential at a metal surface has an image-like asymptotic behaviour given by -1/4(z-z 0 ), where z is the coordinate perpendicular to the surface. Using a suitable fully non-local functional prescription, we evaluate self-consistently the XC potential with the correct image behaviour for simple jellium surfaces in the range of metallic densities. This allows a proper comparison between the corresponding image-plane position, z 0 , and other related quantities such as the centroid of an induced charge by an external perturbation. As a by-product, we assess the routinely used local density approximation when evaluating electron density profiles, work functions, and surface energies by focusing on the XC effects included in the fully non-local description

  16. Self-consistent density functional calculation of the image potential at a metal surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, J [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Apartado 60141, 28080 Madrid (Spain); Alvarellos, J E [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Apartado 60141, 28080 Madrid (Spain); Chacon, E [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); GarcIa-Gonzalez, P [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Apartado 60141, 28080 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-04

    It is well known that the exchange-correlation (XC) potential at a metal surface has an image-like asymptotic behaviour given by -1/4(z-z{sub 0}), where z is the coordinate perpendicular to the surface. Using a suitable fully non-local functional prescription, we evaluate self-consistently the XC potential with the correct image behaviour for simple jellium surfaces in the range of metallic densities. This allows a proper comparison between the corresponding image-plane position, z{sub 0}, and other related quantities such as the centroid of an induced charge by an external perturbation. As a by-product, we assess the routinely used local density approximation when evaluating electron density profiles, work functions, and surface energies by focusing on the XC effects included in the fully non-local description.

  17. Modeling Solar-Wind Heavy-Ions' Potential Sputtering of Lunar KREEP Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Meyer, F. W.; Harris, R. P.; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Recent laboratory data suggest that potential sputtering may be an important weathering mechanism that can affect the composition of both the lunar surface and its tenuous exosphere; its role and implications, however, remain unclear. Using a relatively simple kinetic model, we will demonstrate that solar-wind heavy ions induced sputtering of KREEP surfaces is critical in establishing the timescale of the overall solar-wind sputtering process of the lunar surface. We will also also show that potential sputtering leads to a more pronounced and significant differentiation between depleted and enriched surface elements. We briefly discuss the impacts of enhanced sputtering on the composition of the regolith and the exosphere, as well as of solar-wind sputtering as a source of hydrogen and water on the moon.

  18. High volume hydraulic fracturing operations: potential impacts on surface water and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrdjen, Igor; Lee, Jiyoung

    2016-08-01

    High volume, hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) processes, used to extract natural gas and oil from underground shale deposits, pose many potential hazards to the environment and human health. HVHF can negatively affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air matrices with potential pollutants. Due to the relatively novel nature of the process, hazards to surface waters and human health are not well known. The purpose of this article is to link the impacts of HVHF operations on surface water integrity, with human health consequences. Surface water contamination risks include: increased structural failure rates of unconventional wells, issues with wastewater treatment, and accidental discharge of contaminated fluids. Human health risks associated with exposure to surface water contaminated with HVHF chemicals include increased cancer risk and turbidity of water, leading to increased pathogen survival time. Future research should focus on modeling contamination spread throughout the environment, and minimizing occupational exposure to harmful chemicals.

  19. Reconstruction of the Tip-Surface Interaction Potential by Analysis of the Brownian Motion of an Atomic Force Microscope Tip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, O.H.; Kuipers, L.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    2000-01-01

    The thermal movement of an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip is used to reconstruct the tip-surface interaction potential. If a tip is brought into the vicinity of a surface, its movement is governed by the sum of the harmonic cantilever potential and the tip-surface interaction potential. By

  20. Near-Surface Geophysical Mapping of the Hydrological Response to an Intense Rainfall Event at the Field Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, G.; Vanderlinden, K.; Giraldez, J. V.; Espejo, A. J.; Muriel, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    Soil moisture plays an important role in a wide variety of biogeochemical fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system and governs the (eco)hydrological response of a catchment to an external forcing such as rainfall. Near-surface electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors that measure the soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) provide a fast and non-invasive means for characterizing this response at the field or catchment scale through high-resolution time-lapse mapping. Here we show how ECa maps, obtained before and after an intense rainfall event of 125 mm h-1, elucidate differences in soil moisture patterns and hydrologic response of an experimental field as a consequence of differed soil management. The dryland field (Vertisol) was located in SW Spain and cropped with a typical wheat-sunflower-legume rotation. Both, near-surface and subsurface ECa (ECas and ECad, respectively), were measured using the EM38-DD EMI sensor in a mobile configuration. Raw ECa measurements and Mean Relative Differences (MRD) provided information on soil moisture patterns while time-lapse maps were used to evaluate the hydrologic response of the field. ECa maps of the field, measured before and after the rainfall event showed similar patterns. The field depressions where most of water and sediments accumulated had the highest ECa and MRD values. The SE-oriented soil, which was deeper and more exposed to sun and wind, showed the lowest ECa and MRD. The largest differences raised in the central part of the field where a high ECa and MRD area appeared after the rainfall event as a consequence of the smaller soil depth and a possible subsurface flux concentration. Time-lapse maps of both ECa and MRD were also similar. The direct drill plots showed higher increments of ECa and MRD as a result of the smaller runoff production. Time-lapse ECa increments showed a bimodal distribution differentiating clearly the direct drill from the conventional and minimum tillage plots. However this kind

  1. Biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes on stainless steel surface and biotransfer potential

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Maíra Maciel Mattos de; Brugnera,Danilo Florisvaldo; Alves,Eduardo; Piccoli,Roberta Hilsdorf

    2010-01-01

    An experimental model was proposed to study biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 on AISI 304 (#4) stainless steel surface and biotransfer potential during this process. In this model, biofilm formation was conducted on the surface of stainless steel coupons, set on a stainless steel base with 4 divisions, each one supporting 21 coupons. Trypic Soy Broth was used as bacterial growth substrate, with incubation at 37 ?C and stirring of 50 rpm. The number of adhered cells was de...

  2. Intraoperative cochlear nerve mapping with the mobile cochlear nerve compound action potential tracer in vestibular schwannoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Takuya; Fujitsu, Kazuhiko; Kaku, Shogo; Ichikawa, Teruo; Miyahara, Kosuke; Okada, Tomu; Tanino, Shin; Uriu, Yasuhiro; Murayama, Yuichi

    2018-05-18

    OBJECTIVE The authors describe the usefulness and limitations of the cochlear nerve compound action potential (CNAP) mobile tracer (MCT) that they developed to aid in cochlear nerve mapping during vestibular schwannoma surgery (VSS) for hearing preservation. METHODS This MCT device requires no more than 2 seconds for stable placement on the nerve to obtain the CNAP and thus is able to trace the cochlear nerve instantaneously. Simultaneous bipolar and monopolar recording is possible. The authors present the outcomes of 18 consecutive patients who underwent preoperative useful hearing (defined as class I or II of the Gardner-Robertson classification system) and underwent hearing-preservation VSS with the use of the MCT. Mapping was considered successful when it was possible to detect and trace the cochlear nerve. RESULTS Mapping of the cochlear nerve was successful in 13 of 18 patients (72.2%), and useful hearing was preserved in 11 patients (61.1%). Among 8 patients with large tumors (Koos grade 3 or 4), the rate of successful mapping was 62.5% (5 patients). The rate of hearing preservation in patients with large tumors was 50% (4 patients). CONCLUSIONS In addition to microsurgical presumption of the arrangement of each nerve, frequent probing on and around an unidentified nerve and comparison of each waveform are advisable with the use of both more sensitive monopolar and more location-specific bipolar MCT. MCT proved to be useful in cochlear nerve mapping and may consequently be helpful in hearing preservation. The authors discuss some limitations and problems with this device.

  3. Image potential resonances of the aluminum (100) surface; Bildpotentialresonanzen der Aluminium-(100)-Oberflaeche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Matthias

    2011-07-08

    Image-potential resonances on the (100) surface of pure Aluminum are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experiments are conducted both energy- and time-resolved using the method of two-photon photoemission spectroscopy. The main attention of the theoretical examination and extensive numerical calculations is devoted to the interaction between surface and bulk states. Image-potential resonances on Al(100) are a system in which a complete series of discrete Rydberg states strongly couples to a continuum of states. As a simple metal it also provides a good opportunity to test theoretical models of the structure of the potential at metal surfaces. This work represents the first high-resolution investigation of image-potential resonances with such strong resonance character. For the first time, it is demonstrated experimentally that isolated image-potential resonances exist on an Aluminum surface. On the (100) surface of Aluminum the second through fifth image-potential resonance are resolved and both, their energies and lifetimes are measured. The binding energies of the image-potential resonances form a Rydberg series of states {epsilon}{sub n}=-(0,85 eV)/((n+a){sup 2}). Within the accuracy of the measurement it is not necessary to introduce a quantum defect a (a=0.022{+-}0.035). Using angle-resolved two-photon photoemission spectroscopy the effective mass of electrons in the second image-potential resonance is measured to 1.01{+-}0.11 electron masses. The lifetimes of the resonances increase as {tau}{sub n} = (1.0{+-}0.2)fs.n{sup 3} starting from n=2. Calculations using the density matrix formalism show that the experimentally observed lifetimes can be explained well by electrons decaying into the bulk. The effect of resonance trapping leads to extended lifetimes in the process. Contrary to common theoretical models of image-potential states at metal surfaces the first image-potential resonance cannot be observed in two-photon photoemission on Al(100

  4. Potential-induced structural transitions of DL-homocysteine monolayers on Au(111) electrode surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Demetriou, Anna; Welinder, Anne Christina

    2005-01-01

    Monolayers of homocysteine on Au(111)-surfaces have been investigated by voltammetry, in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and subtractively normalised interfacial Fourier transform spectroscopy (SNIFTIRS). A pair of sharp voltammetric peaks build up in the potential range 0 to -0.1 V (vs...... potentials at pH 7.7. The molecules pack into highly ordered domains around the peak potential. High-resolution in situ STM reveals a (root 3 x 5) R30 degrees lattice with three homocysteine molecules in each unit cell. The adlayer changes into disordered structures on either side of the peak potential...

  5. Potential of near-surface geothermal heat - Experiences from the planning practice; Potential der oberflaechennahen Geothermie. Erfahrungen aus der Planungspraxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuebert, Markus; Kuntz, David; Walker-Hertkorn, Simone [systherma GmbH, Planungsbuero fuer Erdwaermesysteme, Starzach-Felldorf (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Near-surface geothermal applications as a heat source for ground source heat pump systems are an approved energy source in the area of residential buildings. Within the commercial range, the near-surface geothermal energy also can supply coldness in order to cool buildings. In the contribution under consideration, a flow chart of a geothermal project is presented by examining the feasibility up to the acceptance of work. With this approach it is possible to exhaust optimally the geothermal potential at a location including the trades and planners involved. In particular, the significance of the preliminary design for the entire later smooth course of the project is to be stated. Practical examples for possible operational areas of the geothermal energy and to their borders are described.

  6. The geo-genic radon potential map of the aspiring 'Buzau Land' Geo-park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldovan, M. C.; Burghele, B. D.; Roba, C. A.; Sferle, T. L.; Buterez, C.; Mitrofan, H.

    2017-01-01

    Mapping the geo-genic radon potential in Buzau County is part of a research project aiming to apply research for sustainable development and economic growth following the principles of geo-conservation in order to support the 'Buzau Land' UNESCO Geo-park initiative. The mapping of geo-genic radon will be used as an overview for planning purposes. The main geological formations of the studied area were identified as Cretaceous and Paleogene flysch, included in a thin-skinned nappes pile and consisting of alternating sandstones, marls, clays and, subordinately, conglomerates, all tightly folded or faulted. Significant variations in the concentration of radon were therefore determined in the ground. However, no high values were determined, the maximum measured activity concentration being 101.6 kBq m -3 . (authors)

  7. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilagavathi, N; Subramani, T; Suresh, M; Karunanidhi, D

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to introduce the remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in mapping the groundwater potential zones. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to map the groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Charnockites and fissile hornblende biotite gneiss are the major rock types in this region. Dunites and peridodites are the ultramafic rocks which cut across the foliation planes of the gneisses and are highly weathered. It comprises magnesite and chromite deposits which are excavated by five mining companies by adopting bench mining. The thickness of weathered and fracture zone varies from 2.2 to 50 m in gneissic formation and 5.8 to 55 m in charnockite. At the contacts of gneiss and charnockite, the thickness ranges from 9.0 to 90.8 m favoring good groundwater potential. The mine lease area is underlined by fractured and sheared hornblende biotite gneiss where groundwater potential is good. Water catchment tanks in this area of 5 km radius are small to moderate in size and are only seasonal. They remain dry during summer seasons. As perennial water resources are remote, the domestic and agricultural activities in this region depend mainly upon the groundwater resources. The mines are located in gently slope area, and accumulation of water is not observed except in mine pits even during the monsoon period. Therefore, it is essential to map the groundwater potential zones for proper management of the aquifer system. Satellite imageries were also used to extract lineaments, hydrogeomorphic landforms, drainage patterns, and land use, which are the major controlling factors for the occurrence of groundwater. Various thematic layers pertaining to groundwater existence such as geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, lineament, lineament density, drainage, drainage density, slope, and soil were generated using GIS tools. By integrating all the above thematic layers based on the ranks and

  8. Evaluation of Logistic Regression and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline Models for Groundwater Potential Mapping Using R and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study mapped and analyzed groundwater potential using two different models, logistic regression (LR and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, and compared the results. A spatial database was constructed for groundwater well data and groundwater influence factors. Groundwater well data with a high potential yield of ≥70 m3/d were extracted, and 859 locations (70% were used for model training, whereas the other 365 locations (30% were used for model validation. We analyzed 16 groundwater influence factors including altitude, slope degree, slope aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, topographic wetness index, stream power index, sediment transport index, distance from drainage, drainage density, lithology, distance from fault, fault density, distance from lineament, lineament density, and land cover. Groundwater potential maps (GPMs were constructed using LR and MARS models and tested using a receiver operating characteristics curve. Based on this analysis, the area under the curve (AUC for the success rate curve of GPMs created using the MARS and LR models was 0.867 and 0.838, and the AUC for the prediction rate curve was 0.836 and 0.801, respectively. This implies that the MARS model is useful and effective for groundwater potential analysis in the study area.

  9. Fine-Mapping of Common Genetic Variants Associated with Colorectal Tumor Risk Identified Potential Functional Variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Du

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified many common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with colorectal cancer risk. These SNPs may tag correlated variants with biological importance. Fine-mapping around GWAS loci can facilitate detection of functional candidates and additional independent risk variants. We analyzed 11,900 cases and 14,311 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colon Cancer Family Registry. To fine-map genomic regions containing all known common risk variants, we imputed high-density genetic data from the 1000 Genomes Project. We tested single-variant associations with colorectal tumor risk for all variants spanning genomic regions 250-kb upstream or downstream of 31 GWAS-identified SNPs (index SNPs. We queried the University of California, Santa Cruz Genome Browser to examine evidence for biological function. Index SNPs did not show the strongest association signals with colorectal tumor risk in their respective genomic regions. Bioinformatics analysis of SNPs showing smaller P-values in each region revealed 21 functional candidates in 12 loci (5q31.1, 8q24, 11q13.4, 11q23, 12p13.32, 12q24.21, 14q22.2, 15q13, 18q21, 19q13.1, 20p12.3, and 20q13.33. We did not observe evidence of additional independent association signals in GWAS-identified regions. Our results support the utility of integrating data from comprehensive fine-mapping with expanding publicly available genomic databases to help clarify GWAS associations and identify functional candidates that warrant more onerous laboratory follow-up. Such efforts may aid the eventual discovery of disease-causing variant(s.

  10. Exploring potential of pearl millet germplasm association panel for association mapping of drought tolerance traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepmala Sehgal

    Full Text Available A pearl millet inbred germplasm association panel (PMiGAP comprising 250 inbred lines, representative of cultivated germplasm from Africa and Asia, elite improved open-pollinated cultivars, hybrid parental inbreds and inbred mapping population parents, was recently established. This study presents the first report of genetic diversity in PMiGAP and its exploitation for association mapping of drought tolerance traits. For diversity and genetic structure analysis, PMiGAP was genotyped with 37 SSR and CISP markers representing all seven linkage groups. For association analysis, it was phenotyped for yield and yield components and morpho-physiological traits under both well-watered and drought conditions, and genotyped with SNPs and InDels from seventeen genes underlying a major validated drought tolerance (DT QTL. The average gene diversity in PMiGAP was 0.54. The STRUCTURE analysis revealed six subpopulations within PMiGAP. Significant associations were obtained for 22 SNPs and 3 InDels from 13 genes under different treatments. Seven SNPs associations from 5 genes were common under irrigated and one of the drought stress treatments. Most significantly, an important SNP in putative acetyl CoA carboxylase gene showed constitutive association with grain yield, grain harvest index and panicle yield under all treatments. An InDel in putative chlorophyll a/b binding protein gene was significantly associated with both stay-green and grain yield traits under drought stress. This can be used as a functional marker for selecting high yielding genotypes with 'stay green' phenotype under drought stress. The present study identified useful marker-trait associations of important agronomics traits under irrigated and drought stress conditions with genes underlying a major validated DT-QTL in pearl millet. Results suggest that PMiGAP is a useful panel for association mapping. Expression patterns of genes also shed light on some physiological mechanisms underlying

  11. High-resolution, real-time mapping of surface soil moisture at the field scale using ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambot, S.; Minet, J.; Slob, E.; Vereecken, H.; Vanclooster, M.

    2008-12-01

    Measuring soil surface water content is essential in hydrology and agriculture as this variable controls important key processes of the hydrological cycle such as infiltration, runoff, evaporation, and energy exchanges between the earth and the atmosphere. We present a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method for automated, high-resolution, real-time mapping of soil surface dielectric permittivity and correlated water content at the field scale. Field scale characterization and monitoring is not only necessary for field scale management applications, but also for unravelling upscaling issues in hydrology and bridging the scale gap between local measurements and remote sensing. In particular, such methods are necessary to validate and improve remote sensing data products. The radar system consists of a vector network analyzer combined with an off-ground, ultra-wideband monostatic horn antenna, thereby setting up a continuous-wave steeped-frequency GPR. Radar signal analysis is based on three-dimensional electromagnetic inverse modelling. The forward model accounts for all antenna effects, antenna-soil interactions, and wave propagation in three-dimensional multilayered media. A fast procedure was developed to evaluate the involved Green's function, resulting from a singular, complex integral. Radar data inversion is focused on the surface reflection in the time domain. The method presents considerable advantages compared to the current surface characterization methods using GPR, namely, the ground wave and common reflection methods. Theoretical analyses were performed, dealing with the effects of electric conductivity on the surface reflection when non-negligible, and on near-surface layering, which may lead to unrealistic values for the surface dielectric permittivity if not properly accounted for. Inversion strategies are proposed. In particular the combination of GPR with electromagnetic induction data appears to be promising to deal with highly conductive soils

  12. Mapping wetlands and surface water in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America: Chapter 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rover, Jennifer R.; Mushet, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is one of the most highly productive wetland regions in the world. Prairie Pothole wetlands serve as a primary feeding and breeding habitat for more than one-half of North America’s waterfowl population, as well as a variety of songbirds, waterbirds, shorebirds, and other wildlife. During the last century, extensive land conversions from grassland with wetlands to cultivated cropland and grazed pastureland segmented and reduced wetland habitat. Inventorying and characterizing remaining wetland habitat is critical for the management of wetland ecosystem services. Remote sensing technologies are often utilized for mapping and monitoring wetlands. This chapter presents background specific to the PPR and discusses approaches employed in mapping its wetlands before presenting a case study.

  13. Scanning Electron Microscope Mapping System Developed for Detecting Surface Defects in Fatigue Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kantzos, Peter T.

    2002-01-01

    An automated two-degree-of-freedom specimen positioning stage has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to map and mon