WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface porous stationary

  1. Planar spatial correlations, anisotropy, and specific surface area of stationary random porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    An earlier result of the author showed that an anisotropic spatial correlation function of a random porous medium could be used to compute the specific surface area when it is stationary as well as anisotropic by first performing a three-dimensional radial average and then taking the first derivative with respect to lag at the origin. This result generalized the earlier result for isotropic porous media of Debye et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 28, 679 (1957)]. The present article provides more detailed information about the use of spatial correlation functions for anisotropic porous media and in particular shows that, for stationary anisotropic media, the specific surface area can be related to the derivative of the two-dimensional radial average of the correlation function measured from cross sections taken through the anisotropic medium. The main concept is first illustrated using a simple pedagogical example for an anisotropic distribution of spherical voids. Then, a general derivation of formulas relating the derivative of the planar correlation functions to surface integrals is presented. When the surface normal is uniformly distributed (as is the case for any distribution of spherical voids), our formulas can be used to relate a specific surface area to easily measurable quantities from any single cross section. When the surface normal is not distributed uniformly (as would be the case for an oriented distribution of ellipsoidal voids), our results show how to obtain valid estimates of specific surface area by averaging measurements on three orthogonal cross sections. One important general observation for porous media is that the surface area from nearly flat cracks may be underestimated from measurements on orthogonal cross sections if any of the cross sections happen to lie in the plane of the cracks. This result is illustrated by taking the very small aspect ratio (penny-shaped crack) limit of an oblate spheroid, but holds for other types of flat surfaces as well

  2. Tentacle-type zwitterionic stationary phase prepared by surface-initiated graft polymerization of 3-[N,N-dimethyl-N-(methacryloyloxyethyl)-ammonium] propanesulfonate through peroxide groups tethered on porous silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Irgum, Knut

    2002-09-15

    A novel stationary phase with tentacle-type zwitterionic interaction layer was synthesized by free radical graft polymerization of 3-[N,N-dimethyl-N-(methacryloyloxyethyl)ammonium]propanesulfonate (SPE) from the surface of Kromasil porous silica particles. The polymerization was initiated by thermal cleavage of tert-butylperoxy groups covalently attached to the particle surface, and the material therefore carries a tentacle-type polymeric interaction layer with 3-sulfopropylbetaine functional moieties. The composition of the surface graft was determined by elemental analysis, and the surface charge was measured using photon correlation spectroscopy. The measured zeta-potentials were close to 0 and nearly independent of pH, and the tentacle character of the interactive layers were evident from the lack of colloidal stability in the absence of salt (antipolyelectrolytic behavior) and a marked increase in column back-pressure when the concentration of perchloric acid or perchlorate salt was increased. The chromatographic properties were evaluated on columns packed with the functionalized material, and it was shown that this zwitterionic stationary phase could simultaneously and independently separate inorganic anions and cations using aqueous solutions of perchloric acid or perchlorate salts as eluents. The material was also capable of separating two acidic and three basic proteins in a single run, using gradient salt elution at constant pH.

  3. Surface transport processes in charged porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabitto, Jorge; Tsouris, Costas

    2017-07-15

    Surface transport processes are very important in chemistry, colloidal sciences, engineering, biology, and geophysics. Natural or externally produced charges on surfaces create electrical double layers (EDLs) at the solid-liquid interface. The existence of the EDLs produces several complex processes including bulk and surface transport of ions. In this work, a model is presented to simulate bulk and transport processes in homogeneous porous media comprising big pores. It is based on a theory for capacitive charging by ideally polarizable porous electrodes without Faradaic reactions or specific adsorption of ions. A volume averaging technique is used to derive the averaged transport equations in the limit of thin electrical double layers. Description of the EDL between the electrolyte solution and the charged wall is accomplished using the Gouy-Chapman-Stern (GCS) model. The surface transport terms enter into the average equations due to the use of boundary conditions for diffuse interfaces. Two extra surface transports terms appear in the closed average equations. One is a surface diffusion term equivalent to the transport process in non-charged porous media. The second surface transport term is a migration term unique to charged porous media. The effective bulk and transport parameters for isotropic porous media are calculated solving the corresponding closure problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Axially symmetric, stationary gravitational field equations and pseudospherical surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomimatsu, Akira.

    1981-04-01

    For axially symmetric, stationary gravitational field equations, a new Lax pair of the inverse scattering method is presented from a geometrical point of view. The metric coefficient e sup(2γ) (= -g sub(rho rho)g sub(tt)sup(-1)) is taken as the basic field variable, which satisfies an equation describing pseudospherical surfaces, i.e., surfaces of constant negative Gaussian curvature. The equations for other metric coefficients are also discussed. (author)

  5. Film condensation on a porous vertical surface in a porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinuma, C.D.; Liu, C.Y.; Ismail, K.A.R.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of dry saturated steam film condensation by natural convection on a porous surface in a porous medium is presented. Through the classical Darcy law for flow in porous medium and the approximations considered in the Boundary layer theory, it is shown that the analytical solution exists only when the normal velocity to the porous wall is inversly proportional to the square root of the distance along the plate. (E.G.) [pt

  6. [Preparation of 1 µm non-porous C18 silica gel stationary phase for chiral-pressurized capillary electrochromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yangfang; Wang, Hui; Wang, Guiming; Wang, Yan; Gu, Xue; Yan, Chao

    2015-03-01

    Non-porous C18 silica gel stationary phase (1 µm) was prepared and applied to chiral separation in pressurized capillary electrochromatography (pCEC) for the enantioseparation of various basic compounds. The non-porous silica particles (1 µm) were synthesized using modified St6ber method. C18 stationary phase (1 µm) was prepared by immobilization of chloro-dimethyl-octadecylsilane. Using carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin (CM-β-CD) as the chiral additive, the pCEC conditions including the content of acetonitrile (ACN), concentration of buffer, pH, the concentration of chiral additive and flow rate as well as applied voltage were investigated to obtain the optimal pCEC conditions for the separation of four basic chiral compounds. The column provided an efficiency of up to 190,000 plates/m. Bupropion hydrochloride, clenbuterol hydrochloride, metoprolol tartrate, and esmolol hydrochloride were baseline separated under the conditions of 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate buffer at pH 4. 0 with 20% (v/ v) acetonitrile, and 15 mmol/L CM-β-CD as the chiral additive. The applied voltage was 2 kV and flow rate was 0.03 mL/min with splitting ratio of 300:1. The resolution were 1.55, 2.82, 1. 69, 1. 70 for bupropion hydrochloride, clenbuterol hydrochloride, metoprolol tartrate, esmolol hydrochloride, respectively. The C18 coverage was improved by repeating silylation method. The synthesized 1 µm C18 packings have better mechanical strength and longer service life because of the special, non-porous structure. The column used in pCEC mode showed better separation of the racemates and a higher rate compared with those used in the capillary liquid chromatography (cLC) mode. This study provided an alternative way for the method of pCEC enantioseparation with chiral additives in the mobile phase and demonstrated the feasibility of micron particle stationary phase in chiral separation.

  7. Porosity-dependent fractal nature of the porous silicon surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, N.; Dariani, R. S., E-mail: dariani@alzahra.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Alzahra University, Tehran, 1993893973 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Porous silicon films with porosity ranging from 42% to 77% were fabricated by electrochemical anodization under different current density. We used atomic force microscopy and dynamic scaling theory for deriving the surface roughness profile and processing the topography of the porous silicon layers, respectively. We first compared the topography of bare silicon surface with porous silicon and then studied the effect of the porosity of porous silicon films on their scaling behavior by using their self-affinity nature. Our work demonstrated that silicon compared to the porous silicon films has the highest Hurst parameter, indicating that the formation of porous layer due to the anodization etching of silicon surface leads to an increase of its roughness. Fractal analysis revealed that the evolution of the nanocrystallites’ fractal dimension along with porosity. Also, we found that both interface width and Hurst parameter are affected by the increase of porosity.

  8. Implication of surface modified NZVI particle retention in the porous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Retention of surface-modified nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles in the porous media near the point of injection has been reported in the recent studies. Retention of excess particles in porous media can alter the media properties. The main objectives of this study are, therefore, to evaluate the effect of particle ...

  9. Correlation between surface microstructure and optical properties of porous silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Rhramezani Sani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available   We have studied the effect of increasing porosity and its microstructure surface variation on the optical and dielectric properties of porous silicon. It seems that porosity, as the surface roughness within the range of a few microns, shows quantum effect in the absorption and reflection process of porous silicon. Optical constants of porous silicon at normal incidence of light with wavelength in the range of 250-3000 nm have been calculated by Kramers-Kroning method. Our experimental analysis shows that electronic structure and dielectric properties of porous silicon are totally different from silicon. Also, it shows that porous silicon has optical response in the visible region. This difference was also verified by effective media approximation (EMA.

  10. Asymptotic analysis of stationary adiabatic premixed flames in porous inert media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Fernando M.; Oliveira, Amir A.M. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Fachini, Fernando F. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, 12630-000 Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2009-01-15

    The structure of adiabatic premixed flames within porous inert media is investigated using the asymptotic expansion method. For this, the flame structure is divided into three characteristic length scales. The two innermost length scales, the gas-phase diffusion length scale and the reaction length scale, are the same scales defined in the classical premixed flame structure analysis. The outermost length scale, the solid-phase diffusion length scale, is related to the heat conduction in the porous matrix. The differences among these three characteristic length-scales result in large temperature differences between the phases and justify the application of asymptotic expansions to determine an approximate (analytical) solution. Since the main focus of this work is the examination of the processes in the outer and the first inner regions, the simplest kinetic mechanism of one global step is adopted to represent the fuel and oxygen consumption. Then, the description of the reaction zone is obtained using the large activation energy asymptotic method. The description of the problem of the order of the gas-phase length scale is obtained using the boundary layer expansion. This work evaluates the influence of the equivalence ratio, the ratio of the solid to the gas thermal conductivities, the porosity of the medium and the fuel Lewis number on such flames. A parameter that universalizes the flame properties is then identified and discussed. (author)

  11. Asymptotic analysis of stationary adiabatic premixed flames in porous inert media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Fernando M.; Oliveira, Amir A.M. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Fachini, Fernando F. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, 12630-000 Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2008-11-15

    The structure of adiabatic premixed flames within porous inert media is investigated using the asymptotic expansion method. For this, the flame structure is divided into three characteristic length scales. The two innermost length scales, the gas-phase diffusion length scale and the reaction length scale, are the same scales defined in the classical premixed flame structure analysis. The outermost length scale, the solid-phase diffusion length scale, is related to the heat conduction in the porous matrix. The differences among these three characteristic length-scales result in large temperature differences between the phases and justify the application of asymptotic expansions to determine an approximate (analytical) solution. Since the main focus of this work is the examination of the processes in the outer and the first inner regions, the simplest kinetic mechanism of one global step is adopted to represent the fuel and oxygen consumption. Then, the description of the reaction zone is obtained using the large activation energy asymptotic method. The description of the problem of the order of the gas-phase length scale is obtained using the boundary layer expansion. This work evaluates the influence of the equivalence ratio, the ratio of the solid to the gas thermal conductivities, the porosity of the medium and the fuel Lewis number on such flames. A parameter that universalizes the flame properties is then identified and discussed. (author)

  12. Engineered Surface Properties of Porous Tungsten from Cryogenic Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoop, Julius Malte

    Porous tungsten is used to manufacture dispenser cathodes due to it refractory properties. Surface porosity is critical to functional performance of dispenser cathodes because it allows for an impregnated ceramic compound to migrate to the emitting surface, lowering its work function. Likewise, surface roughness is important because it is necessary to ensure uniform wetting of the molten impregnate during high temperature service. Current industry practice to achieve surface roughness and surface porosity requirements involves the use of a plastic infiltrant during machining. After machining, the infiltrant is baked and the cathode pellet is impregnated. In this context, cryogenic machining is investigated as a substitutionary process for the current plastic infiltration process. Along with significant reductions in cycle time and resource use, surface quality of cryogenically machined un-infiltrated (as-sintered) porous tungsten has been shown to significantly outperform dry machining. The present study is focused on examining the relationship between machining parameters and cooling condition on the as-machined surface integrity of porous tungsten. The effects of cryogenic pre-cooling, rake angle, cutting speed, depth of cut and feed are all taken into consideration with respect to machining-induced surface morphology. Cermet and Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) cutting tools are used to develop high performance cryogenic machining of porous tungsten. Dry and pre-heated machining were investigated as a means to allow for ductile mode machining, yet severe tool-wear and undesirable smearing limited the feasibility of these approaches. By using modified PCD cutting tools, high speed machining of porous tungsten at cutting speeds up to 400 m/min is achieved for the first time. Beyond a critical speed, brittle fracture and built-up edge are eliminated as the result of a brittle to ductile transition. A model of critical chip thickness ( hc ) effects based on cutting

  13. A Stationary One-Equation Turbulent Model with Applications in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, H. B.; Paiva, A.

    2017-05-01

    A one-equation turbulent model is studied in this work in the steady-state and with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions. The considered problem generalizes two distinct approaches that are being used with success in the applications to model different flows through porous media. The novelty of the problem relies on the consideration of the classical Navier-Stokes equations with a feedback forces field, whose presence in the momentum equation will affect the equation for the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) with a new term that is known as the production and represents the rate at which TKE is transferred from the mean flow to the turbulence. By assuming suitable growth conditions on the feedback forces field and on the function that describes the rate of dissipation of the TKE, as well as on the production term, we will prove the existence of the velocity field and of the TKE. The proof of their uniqueness is made by assuming monotonicity conditions on the feedback forces field and on the turbulent dissipation function, together with a condition of Lipschitz continuity on the production term. The existence of a unique pressure, will follow by the application of a standard version of de Rham's lemma.

  14. Porous polymer coatings: a versatile approach to superhydrophobic surfaces**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkin, Pavel A.; Svec, Frantisek

    2009-01-01

    We present a facile and inexpensive approach to superhydrophobic polymer coatings. The method involves the in-situ polymerization of common monomers in the presence of a porogenic solvent to afford superhydrophobic surfaces with the desired combination of micro- and nano-scale roughness. The method is applicable to a variety of substrates and is not limited to small areas or flat surfaces. The polymerized material can be ground into a superhydrophobic powder, which, once applied to a surface, renders it superhydrophobic. The morphology of the porous polymer structure can be efficiently controlled by composition of the polymerization mixture, while surface chemistry can be adjusted by photografting. Morphology control is used to reduce the globule size of the porous architecture from micro down to nanoscale thereby affording a transparent material. The influence of both surface chemistry as well as the length scale of surface roughness on the superhydrophobicity is discussed. PMID:20160978

  15. Dispersive surface waves along partially saturated porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chao, G.; Smeulders, D.M.J.; Van Dongen, M.E.H.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical results for the velocity and attenuation of surface wave modes in fully permeable liquid/partially saturated porous solid plane interfaces are reported in a broadband of frequencies (100?Hz–1?MHz). A modified Biot theory of poromechanics is implemented which takes into account the

  16. Additively manufactured metallic porous biomaterials based on minimal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bobbert, F. S. L.; Lietaert, K.; Eftekhari, Ali Akbar

    2017-01-01

    types of triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) that mimic the properties of bone to an unprecedented level of multi-physics detail. Sixteen different types of porous biomaterials were rationally designed and fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM) from a titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). The topology...

  17. Conciliating surface superhydrophobicities and mechanical strength of porous silicon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuguo; Zhao, Kun; Cheng, Jinchun; Zhang, Junyan

    2011-01-01

    Hydrophobic surfaces on Mechanical stable macroporous silicon films were prepared by electrochemical etching with subsequent octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) modification. The surface morphologies were controlled by current densities and the mechanical properties were adjusted by their corresponding porosities. Contrast with the smooth macroporous silicon films with lower porosities (34.1%) and microporous silicon with higher porosities (97%), the macroporous film with a rough three-dimension (3D) surface and a moderate pore to cross-section area ratio (37.8%, PSi2‧) exhibited both good mechanical strength (Yong' modulus, shear modulus and collapse strength are 64.2, 24.1 and 0.32 GPa, respectively) and surface superhydrophobicity (water contact angle is 158.4 ± 2° and sliding angle is 2.7 ± 1°). This result revealed that the surface hydrophobicities (or the surface roughness) and mechanical strength of porous films could be conciliated by pore to cross-section area ratios control and 3D structures construction. Thus, the superhydrophobic surfaces on mechanical stable porous films could be obtained by 3D structures fabrication on porous film with proper pore to cross-section area ratios.

  18. Antibacterial Behavior of Additively Manufactured Porous Titanium with Nanotubular Surfaces Releasing Silver Ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin Yavari, S.; Loozen, L.; Paganelli, F. L.; Bakhshandeh, S.; Lietaert, K.; Groot, J. A.; Fluit, A. C.; Boel, C. H E; Alblas, J.; Vogely, H. C.; Weinans, H.; Zadpoor, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (3D printing) has enabled fabrication of geometrically complex and fully interconnected porous biomaterials with huge surface areas that could be used for biofunctionalization to achieve multifunctional biomaterials. Covering the huge surface area of such porous titanium with

  19. Bovine serum albumin adsorption on functionalized porous silicon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Li-Lin; Rowell, Nelson L.; Lockwood, David J.; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2004-10-01

    The large surface area within porous Si (pSi) and its strong room temperature photoluminescence (PL) make it an ideal host for biological sensors. In particular, the development of pSi-based optical sensors for DNA, enzyme and other biochemical molecules have become of great interest. Here, we demonstrate that the in-situ monitoring of the pSi PL behaviour can be used as a positive identification of bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein adsorption inside the porous matrix. Electrochemically prepared pSi films were first functionalized with undecylenic acid to produce an organic monolayer covalently attached to the porous silicon surfaces. The acid terminal group also provided favourable BSA binding sites on the pSi matrix sidewalls. In-situ PL spectra showed a gradual red shift (up to 12 meV) in the PL peak energy due to the protein incorporation into the porous matrix. The PL then exhibited a continuous blue shift after saturation of the protein molecules in the pores. This blue shift of the PL peak frequency and a steady increase in the PL intensity is evidence of surface oxidation. Comparing the specular reflectance obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) before and after BSA incubation confirmed the adsorption of protein in the pSi matrix.

  20. The upper surface of an Escherichia coli swarm is stationary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongjing; Turner, Linda; Berg, Howard C

    2010-01-05

    When grown in a rich medium on agar, many bacteria elongate, produce more flagella, and swim in a thin film of fluid over the agar surface in swirling packs. Cells that spread in this way are said to swarm. The agar is a solid gel, with pores smaller than the bacteria, so the swarm/agar interface is fixed. Here we show, in experiments with Escherichia coli, that the swarm/air interface also is fixed. We deposited MgO smoke particles on the top surface of an E. coli swarm near its advancing edge, where cells move in a single layer, and then followed the motion of the particles by dark-field microscopy and the motion of the underlying cells by phase-contrast microscopy. Remarkably, the smoke particles remained fixed (diffusing only a few micrometers) while the swarming cells streamed past underneath. The diffusion coefficients of the smoke particles were smaller over the virgin agar ahead of the swarm than over the swarm itself. Changes between these two modes of behavior were evident within 10-20 microm of the swarm edge, indicating an increase in depth of the fluid in advance of the swarm. The only plausible way that the swarm/air interface can be fixed is that it is covered by a surfactant monolayer pinned at its edges. When a swarm is exposed to air, such a monolayer can markedly reduce water loss. When cells invade tissue, the ability to move rapidly between closely opposed fixed surfaces is a useful trait.

  1. Surface Stress with Non-stationary Weak Winds and Stable Stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrt, L.; Thomas, Christoph K.

    2016-04-01

    The behaviour of turbulent transport in the weak-wind, stably-stratified, boundary layer over land is examined in terms of the non-stationarity of the wind field using measurements from three field programs. These field programs include towers ranging from 12 to 20 m in height and an extensive horizontal network of sonic anemometers. The relationship of the friction velocity to the stratification and non-stationary submeso motions is investigated from several points of view and nominally quantified. The relationship of the turbulence to the stratification is less systematic than expected partly due to enhancement of the turbulence by submeso motions. Cause and effect relationships are difficult to isolate because the non-stationary momentum flux significantly modifies the profile of the non-stationary mean flow. The link between the turbulence and accelerations at the surface is examined in terms of the changing vertical structure of the wind profile and sudden increases in the downward transport of momentum.

  2. Designing porous metallic glass compact enclosed with surface iron oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Young; Park, Hae Jin; Hong, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Young Seok; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Naesung [Hybrid Materials Center (HMC), Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Yongho [Graphene Research Institute (GRI) & HMC, Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Man, E-mail: jinman_park@hotmail.com [Global Technology Center, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd, 129 Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Buem, E-mail: kbkim@sejong.ac.kr [Hybrid Materials Center (HMC), Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • Porous metallic glass compact was developed using electro-discharge sintering process. • Uniform PMGC can only be achieved when low electrical input energy was applied. • Functional iron-oxides were formed on the surface of PMGCs by hydrothermal technique. - Abstract: Porous metallic glass compact (PMGC) using electro-discharge sintering (EDS) process of gas atomized Zr{sub 41.2}Ti{sub 13.8}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 22.5} metallic glass powder was developed. The formation of uniform PMGC can only be achieved when low electrical input energy was applied. Functional iron-oxides were formed on the surface of PMGCs by hydrothermal technique. This finding suggests that PMGC can be applied in the new area such as catalyst via hydrothermal technique and offer a promising guideline for using the metallic glasses as a potential functional application.

  3. Liquid infused porous surfaces for mineral fouling mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Thibaut V J; Neville, Anne; Baudin, Sophie; Smith, Margaret J; Euvrard, Myriam; Bell, Ashley; Wang, Chun; Barker, Richard

    2015-04-15

    Prevention of mineral fouling, known as scale, is a long-standing problem in a wide variety of industrial applications, such as oil production, water treatment, and many others. The build-up of inorganic scale such as calcium carbonate on surfaces and facilities is undesirable as it can result in safety risks and associated flow assurance issues. To date the overwhelming amount of research has mainly focused on chemical inhibition of scale bulk precipitation and little attention has been paid to deposition onto surfaces. The development of novel more environmentally-friendly strategies to control mineral fouling will most probably necessitate a multifunctional approach including surface engineering. In this study, we demonstrate that liquid infused porous surfaces provide an appealing strategy for surface modification to reduce mineral scale deposition. Microporous polypyrrole (PPy) coatings were fabricated onto stainless steel substrates by electrodeposition in potentiostatic mode. Subsequent infusion of low surface energy lubricants (fluorinated oil Fluorinert FC-70 and ionic liquid 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMIm)) into the porous coatings results in liquid-repellent slippery surfaces. To assess their ability to reduce surface scaling the coatings were subjected to a calcium carbonate scaling environment and the scale on the surface was quantified using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). PPy surfaces infused with BMIm (and Fluorinert to a lesser extent) exhibit remarkable antifouling properties with the calcium carbonate deposition reduced by 18 times in comparison to untreated stainless steel. These scaling tests suggest a correlation between the stability of the liquid infused surfaces in artificial brines and fouling reduction efficiency. The current work shows the great potential of such novel coatings for the management of mineral scale fouling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  4. Preparation and study of the porous Si surfaces obtained by electrochemical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Lytovchenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of original results concerning electrochemical formation of porous Si layers and investigation of properties inherent to the formed layers has been presented. The results related with observation of changes in pores’ morphology depending on the etching conditions, correlation of morphology of the porous layers with their surface composition, photoluminescence and structural characteristics, catalytic activity of porous Si based MIS structures as well as theoretical modeling of the kinetics and mechanisms of the porous Si growth have been described.

  5. Porous surface modified bioactive bone cement for enhanced bone bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang He

    Full Text Available Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth.The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant-bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests.The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony defect.Our findings suggested a new bioactive

  6. Dependence of Arctic climate on the latitudinal position of stationary waves and to high-latitudes surface warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yechul; Kang, Sarah M.; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies suggest large uncertainties in the stationary wave response under global warming. Here, we investigate how the Arctic climate responds to changes in the latitudinal position of stationary waves, and to high-latitudes surface warming that mimics the effect of Arctic sea ice loss under global warming. To generate stationary waves in an atmospheric model coupled to slab ocean, a series of experiments is performed where the thermal forcing with a zonal wavenumber-2 (with zero zonal-mean) is prescribed at the surface at different latitude bands in the Northern Hemisphere. When the stationary waves are generated in the subtropics, the cooling response dominates over the warming response in the lower troposphere due to cloud radiative effects. Then, the low-level baroclinicity is reduced in the subtropics, which gives rise to a poleward shift of the eddy driven jet, thereby inducing substantial cooling in the northern high latitudes. As the stationary waves are progressively generated at higher latitudes, the zonal-mean climate state gradually becomes more similar to the integration with no stationary waves. These differences in the mean climate affect the Arctic climate response to high-latitudes surface warming. Additional surface heating over the Arctic is imposed to the reference climates in which the stationary waves are located at different latitude bands. When the stationary waves are positioned at lower latitudes, the eddy driven jet is located at higher latitude, closer to the prescribed Arctic heating. As baroclinicity is more effectively perturbed, the jet shifts more equatorward that accompanies a larger reduction in the poleward eddy transport of heat and momentum. A stronger eddy-induced descending motion creates greater warming over the Arctic. Our study calls for a more accurate simulation of the present-day stationary wave pattern to enhance the predictability of the Arctic warming response in a changing climate.

  7. Surface functional groups in capacitive deionization with porous carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmatifar, Ali; Oyarzun, Diego I.; Palko, James W.; Hawks, Steven A.; Stadermann, Michael; Santiago, Juan G.; Stanford Microfluidics Lab Team; Lawrence Livermore National Lab Team

    2017-11-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a promising technology for removal of toxic ions and salt from water. In CDI, an applied potential of about 1 V to pairs of porous electrodes (e.g. activated carbon) induces ion electromigration and electrostatic adsorption at electrode surfaces. Immobile surface functional groups play a critical role in the type and capacity of ion adsorption, and this can dramatically change desalination performance. We here use models and experiments to study weak electrolyte surface groups which protonate and/or depropotante based on their acid/base dissociation constants and local pore pH. Net chemical surface charge and differential capacitance can thus vary during CDI operation. In this work, we present a CDI model based on weak electrolyte acid/base equilibria theory. Our model incorporates preferential cation (anion) adsorption for activated carbon with acidic (basic) surface groups. We validated our model with experiments on custom built CDI cells with a variety of functionalizations. To this end, we varied electrolyte pH and measured adsorption of individual anionic and cationic ions using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC) techniques. Our model shows good agreement with experiments and provides a framework useful in the design of CDI control schemes.

  8. Inactivation of Avian Influenza Viruses on Porous and Non-porous Surfaces is Enhanced by Elevating Absolute Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, J; Chan, M; VanderZaag, A

    2017-08-01

    This study was to evaluate the effect of absolute humidity (AH), a combined factor of temperature and relative humidity (RH), on inactivation of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) on surfaces. Suspensions of the H9N2 or H6N2 AIV were deposited onto carrier surfaces that were either porous (pine wood) or non-porous (stainless steel, synthetic rubber and glass). The inoculated carriers were incubated at 23, 35 or 45°C with 25% or 55% RH for up to 28 days. After incubation, virus was recovered and quantified by chicken embryo assays. The time required to obtain a log 10 reduction in virus infectivity (D-value) was estimated using a linear regression model. At AH of 5.2 g/m 3 (23°C & 25% RH), both viruses survived up to 14 days on the porous surface and for at least 28 days on the non-porous surfaces. The corresponding D-values for H9N2 and H6N2 were 1.49 and 6.90 days on the porous surface and 7.81 and 12.5 days on the non-porous surfaces, respectively. In comparison, at AH of 9.9 g/m 3 (35°C & 25% RH) or 11.3 g/m 3 (23°C & 55% RH), the D-values for H9N2 and H6N2 dropped to ≤0.76 day on the porous surface and to ≤1.81 days on the non-porous surfaces. As the AH continued to rise from 11.3 to 36.0 g/m 3 , the D-value for both viruses decreased further. The relationship between D-value and AH followed a form of y = ax -b for both viruses. The D-values for H9N2 virus were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those for H6N2 virus. Exposure to ammonia gas at concentrations of 86 and 173 ppm did not significantly alter test results. The findings give evidence that increasing the AH in poultry buildings following an outbreak of disease could greatly reduce the length of time required for their decontamination. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2016.

  9. The synthesis of surface-glycosylated porous monolithic column via aqueous two-phase graft copolymerization and its application in capillary-liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiyue; He, Haiqin; Shu, Yan; Li, Yuxin; Yang, Zihui; Chen, Yingzhuang; Ma, Ming; Chen, Bo

    2016-12-01

    A facile, flexible process was developed for the preparation of surface-glycosylated porous monolithic columns via aqueous two-phase graft copolymerization of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and water-soluble dextran (dextran sulfate). The formation of poly(PEGDA) porous skeletons and surface glycosylation were achieved via a one-step process without pre-modification of the dextran. The synthesis conditions were thoroughly optimized. The optimal monolithic column exhibited a large dry state surface area (greater than 400m 2 /g), and it was evaluated as a hydrophilic liquid chromatography (HILIC) stationary phase. A typical HILIC mechanism was observed at high organic solvent content (≥65% acetonitrile). In addition, the resulting monolithic column demonstrated the potential use in analysis of complex biological sample and enviroment water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of double porous silicon surfaces for enhancement of silicon solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, N. S. M.; Rahim, A. F. A.; Radzali, R.; Mahmood, A.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, design and simulation of double porous silicon surfaces for enhancement of silicon solar cell is carried out. Both single and double porous structures are constructed by using TCAD ATHENA and TCAD DEVEDIT tools of the SILVACO software respectively. After the structures were created, I-V characteristics and spectral response of the solar cell were extracted using ATLAS device simulator. Finally, the performance of the simulated double porous solar cell is compared with the performance of both single porous and bulk-Si solar cell. The results showed that double porous silicon solar cell exhibited 1.8% efficiency compared to 1.3% and 1.2% for single porous silicon and bulk-Si solar cell.

  11. Small-angle and surface scattering from porous and fractal materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, S. K.

    1998-09-18

    We review the basic theoretical methods used to treat small-angle scattering from porous materials, treated as general two-phase systems, and also the basic experimental techniques for carrying out such experiments. We discuss the special forms of the scattering when the materials exhibit mass or surface fractal behavior, and review the results of recent experiments on several types of porous media and also SANS experiments probing the phase behavior of binary fluid mixtures or polymer solutions confined in porous materials. Finally, we discuss the analogous technique of off-specular scattering from surfaces and interfaces which is used to study surface roughness of various kinds.

  12. Surface structure and adsorption properties of ultrafine porous carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xiaofeng; Wang Ce; Zhang Dejiang

    2009-01-01

    Ultrafine porous carbon fibers (UPCFs) were successfully synthesized by chemical activation of electrospun polyacrylonitrile fibers. In the current approach, potassium hydroxide was adopted as activation reagent. UPCFs were systematically evaluated by scanning electron microscope and nitrogen adsorption. The mass ratio of potassium hydroxide to preoxidized fibers, activation temperature and activation time are crucial for producing high quality UPCFs. The relationships between porous structure and process parameters are explored. UPCFs were applied as adsorbent for nitrogen monoxide to be compared with commercial porous carbon fibers.

  13. SURFACE CHEMICAL EFFECTS ON COLLOID STABILITY AND TRANSPORT THROUGH NATURAL POROUS MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface chemical effects on colloidal stability and transport through porous media were investigated using laboratory column techniques. Approximately 100 nm diameter, spherical, iron oxide particles were synthesized as the mobile colloidal phase. The column packing material was ...

  14. Grafting of functionalized polymer on porous silicon surface using Grignard reagent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighilt, F.-Z.; Belhousse, S.; Sam, S.; Hamdani, K.; Lasmi, K.; Chazalviel, J. N.; Gabouze, N.

    2017-11-01

    Recently, considerable attention has been paid to the manipulation and the control of the physicochemical properties of porous silicon surfaces because of their crucial importance to the modern microelectronics industry. Hybrid structures consisting of deposited polymer on porous silicon surfaces are important to applications in microelectronics, photovoltaics and sensors (Ensafi et al., 2016; Kashyout et al., 2015; Osorio et al.; 2015; Hejjo et al., 2002) [1-4]. In many cases, the polymer can provide excellent mechanical and chemical protection of the substrate, changes the electrochemical interface characteristics of the substrate, and provides new ways to the functionalization of porous silicon surfaces for molecular recognition and sensing. In this work, porous silicon surface was modified by anodic treatment in ethynylmagnesium bromide electrolyte leading to the formation of a polymeric layer bearing some bromine substituents. Subsequently, the formed polymer is functionalized with amine molecules containing functional groups (carboxylic acid or pyridine) by a substitution reaction between bromine sites and amine groups (Hofmann reaction). The chemical composition of the modified porous silicon surfaces was investigated and the grafting of polymeric chains and functional groups on the porous silicon surface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) which displayed the principal characteristic peaks attributed to the different functional groups. Furthermore, the surface of the material was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  15. Hydromagnetic Flow and Heat Transfer over a Porous Oscillating Stretching Surface in a Viscoelastic Fluid with Porous Medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Ullah Khan

    Full Text Available An analysis is carried out to study the heat transfer in unsteady two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD second grade fluid over a porous oscillating stretching surface embedded in porous medium. The flow is induced due to infinite elastic sheet which is stretched periodically. With the help of dimensionless variables, the governing flow equations are reduced to a system of non-linear partial differential equations. This system has been solved numerically using the finite difference scheme, in which a coordinate transformation is used to transform the semi-infinite physical space to a bounded computational domain. The influence of the involved parameters on the flow, the temperature distribution, the skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number is shown and discussed in detail. The study reveals that an oscillatory sheet embedded in a fluid-saturated porous medium generates oscillatory motion in the fluid. The amplitude and phase of oscillations depends on the rheology of the fluid as well as on the other parameters coming through imposed boundary conditions, inclusion of body force term and permeability of the porous medium. It is found that amplitude of flow velocity increases with increasing viscoelastic and mass suction/injection parameters. However, it decreases with increasing the strength of the applied magnetic field. Moreover, the temperature of fluid is a decreasing function of viscoelastic parameter, mass suction/injection parameter and Prandtl number.

  16. Damage identification from uniform load surface using continuous and stationary wavelet transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Masoumi

    Full Text Available Derived from flexibility matrix, Uniform Load Surface (ULS is used to identify damages in beam-type structures. This method is beneficial in terms of more participating the lower order modes and having less prone to noise and irregularities in the measured data in comparison with the original flexibility matrix technique. Therefore, these characteristics make this approach a practical tool in the field of damage identification. This paper presents a procedure to employ stationary wavelet transform multi-resolution analysis (SWT-MRA to refine ULS obtained from the damaged structure and then using continuous wavelet transform (CWT for localizing the discontinuity of improved ULS as a sign of damage site. Evaluation of the proposed method is carried out by examining a cantilever beam as a numerical case, where the ULS is formed by using mode shapes of damaged beam and two kinds of wavelets (i.e. symmetrical 4 and bior 6.8 is applied for discerning the induced crack. Moreover, a laboratory test is conducted on a free-free beam to experimentally evaluate the practicability of the technique.

  17. Laminar flow drag reduction on a soft porous media surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenxing; Tambasco, Michael; Mirbod, Parisa

    2017-11-01

    The ability to control flow reduction in microchannels could significantly advance microfluidic-based devices in a wide range of industrial applications including biomedical fields. The aim of this work is to understand the fundamental physics of the laminar skin friction coefficient and the related drag reduction due to the existence of porous media in the pressure-driven flow. We conducted an analytical framework to predict a laminar Newtonian fluid flow and corresponding drag reduction in a rectangular microchannel which coated with various soft random porous media. Specifically, we present predictions of the laminar skin friction coefficient, and drag reduction for pressure-driven flows. We found the laminar drag reduction is strongly depended on the Darcy permeability of porous medium, the thickness of the permeable layer, and the height of the microchannel. To verify the accuracy of our analytical predictions, several pressure-drop experiments were conducted. We chose various combinations of porous material and the morphology of the fibers to achieve a unique height ratio, between the height of two domains, and permeability parameter of porous media for each experiment. We found a good agreement between the experiments and analytical predictions of laminar drag reduction. Supported by NSF Grant CBET#1706766.

  18. Surface heat transfer in a channel with porous insert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gortyshov, Yu. F.

    1993-05-01

    One of the possible ways of the effective intensification is the realization of heat carrier flows in porous structures. For this purpose inserts are placed in moving heat carrier channels. Despite a large number of publications, net-like, fibrous, brush, caked and powder structures of low and mean porosity (epsilon less than or equal to 0.6) are studied. Application of high-porous permeable honeycomb materials (HPHM) shows, that among the the well-known porous materials possessing maximal permeability (penetrability factors are 10(exp -8) ...10(exp -9) sq m). HPHM's have a characteristic three-dimensional net-like honeycomb structure with high repeatability of cells. All the frame substance is concentrated in stripping ribs, which bound each separate cell. In coolant flowing in the channel with porous insert the transfer of energy from the heated wall into the channel interior originates at the expense of the frame material heat conduction and lateral conduction and lateral convective mixing of flow. In this paper we present the results of analytical and experimental heat transfer investigation at forced heat carrier, flowing in the channel that is filled-in by porous HPHM medium.

  19. Sound pressure around dipole source above porous surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezelj, Jurij; Steblaj, Peter; Cudina, Mirko

    2014-06-01

    A technique for in situ measurements of acoustic properties of a fibrous porous material is proposed in this paper. Proposed technique exploits a directivity pattern of a dipole source in its very near field. Theoretical analysis for the proposed technique is based on the Rayleigh integral with a complex reflection included. Results are compared with results of FEM analysis and show that flow resistivity of a porous material placed in the very near field of the dipole source has significant influence on the sound pressure at its ring. Results provide an excellent starting point for the design of the sensor for sound absorption.

  20. Surface waves in a cylindrical borehole through partially-saturated porous solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M. D.

    2018-02-01

    Propagation of surface waves is discussed in a cylindrical borehole through a liquid-saturated porous solid of infinite extent. The porous medium is assumed to be a continuum consisting of a solid skeletal with connected void space occupied by a mixture of two immiscible inviscid fluids. This model also represents the partial saturation when liquid fills only a part of the pore space and gas bubbles span the remaining void space. In this isotropic medium, potential functions identify the existence of three dilatational waves coupled with a shear wave. For propagation of plane harmonic waves along the axially-symmetric borehole, these potentials decay into the porous medium. Boundary conditions are chosen to disallow the discharge of liquid into the borehole through its impervious porous walls. A dispersion equation is derived for the propagation of surface waves along the curved walls of no-liquid (all gas) borehole. A numerical example is studied to explore the existence of cylindrical waves in a particular model of the porous sandstone. True surface waves do not propagate along the walls of borehole when the supporting medium is partially saturated. Such waves propagate only beyond a certain frequency when the medium is fully-saturated porous or an elastic one. Dispersion in the velocity of pseudo surface waves is analysed through the changes in consolidation, saturation degree, capillary pressure or porosity.

  1. Implication of surface modified NZVI particle retention in the porous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Trishikhi Raychoudhury

    2017-06-15

    Jun 15, 2017 ... water velocity. In the third scenario, a constant head condition (Johnson et al. 2013) is assumed, and retention of CMC-NZVI particles and its impli- cations on porous media properties are assessed. In the third scenario, a change in porosity influences hydraulic conductivity and thus Darcy's flow rates. 2.

  2. Surface wave propagation in a swelling porous elastic material under a inviscid liquid layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Kumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation is to study the surface wave propagationin a swelling porous elastic half space under homogeneous inviscidliquid layer. The frequency equation is derive for both swellingporous (SP and without swelling porous (elastic medium (EL medium. The dispersion curves giving the phase velocity and attenuation coefficient with wave number are plotted graphically to depict the effect of swelling porous half space under a homogeneous inviscid liquid layer. The amplitudes of displacement in both SP and EL medium are obtained and are shown graphically. Some special cases are also deduced from the present investigation.

  3. Surface Roughness and Morphology Customization of Additive Manufactured Open Porous Ti6Al4V Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyka, Grzegorz; Kerckhofs, Greet; Papantoniou, Ioannis; Speirs, Mathew; Schrooten, Jan; Wevers, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a production method that enables the building of porous structures with a controlled geometry. However, there is a limited control over the final surface of the product. Hence, complementary surface engineering strategies are needed. In this work, design of experiments (DoE) was used to customize post AM surface treatment for 3D selective laser melted Ti6Al4V open porous structures for bone tissue engineering. A two-level three-factor full factorial design was employed to assess the individual and interactive effects of the surface treatment duration and the concentration of the chemical etching solution on the final surface roughness and beam thickness of the treated porous structures. It was observed that the concentration of the surface treatment solution was the most important factor influencing roughness reduction. The designed beam thickness decreased the effectiveness of the surface treatment. In this case study, the optimized processing conditions for AM production and the post-AM surface treatment were defined based on the DoE output and were validated experimentally. This allowed the production of customized 3D porous structures with controlled surface roughness and overall morphological properties, which can assist in more controlled evaluation of the effect of surface roughness on various functional properties. PMID:28788357

  4. Surface Roughness and Morphology Customization of Additive Manufactured Open Porous Ti6Al4V Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Wevers

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing (AM is a production method that enables the building of porous structures with a controlled geometry. However, there is a limited control over the final surface of the product. Hence, complementary surface engineering strategies are needed. In this work, design of experiments (DoE was used to customize post AM surface treatment for 3D selective laser melted Ti6Al4V open porous structures for bone tissue engineering. A two-level three-factor full factorial design was employed to assess the individual and interactive effects of the surface treatment duration and the concentration of the chemical etching solution on the final surface roughness and beam thickness of the treated porous structures. It was observed that the concentration of the surface treatment solution was the most important factor influencing roughness reduction. The designed beam thickness decreased the effectiveness of the surface treatment. In this case study, the optimized processing conditions for AM production and the post-AM surface treatment were defined based on the DoE output and were validated experimentally. This allowed the production of customized 3D porous structures with controlled surface roughness and overall morphological properties, which can assist in more controlled evaluation of the effect of surface roughness on various functional properties.

  5. C₁₈-bound porous silica monolith particles as a low-cost high-performance liquid chromatography stationary phase with an excellent chromatographic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Faiz; Cheong, Won Jo

    2014-12-01

    Ground porous silica monolith particles with an average particle size of 2.34 μm and large pores (363 Å) exhibiting excellent chromatographic performance have been synthesized on a relatively large scale by a sophisticated sol-gel procedure. The particle size distribution was rather broad, and the d(0.1)/d(0.9) ratio was 0.14. The resultant silica monolith particles were chemically modified with chlorodimethyloctadecylsilane and end-capped with a mixture of hexamethyldisilazane and chlorotrimethylsilane. Very good separation efficiency (185,000/m) and chromatographic resolution were achieved when the C18 -bound phase was evaluated for a test mixture of five benzene derivatives after packing in a stainless-steel column (1.0 mm × 150 mm). The optimized elution conditions were found to be 70:30 v/v acetonitrile/water with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid at a flow rate of 25 μL/min. The column was also evaluated for fast analysis at a flow rate of 100 μL/min, and all the five analytes were eluted within 3.5 min with reasonable efficiency (ca. 60,000/m) and resolution. The strategy of using particles with reduced particle size and large pores (363 Å) combined with C18 modification in addition to partial-monolithic architecture has resulted in a useful stationary phase (C18 -bound silica monolith particles) of low production cost showing excellent chromatographic performance. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. On the Pressure Distribution in a Porous Media under a Spherical Loading Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuyun; Zhu, Zenghao; Nathan, Rungun; Wu, Qianhong

    2017-11-01

    The phenomenon of pressure generation and relaxation inside a porous media is widely observed in biological systems. Herein, we report a biomimetic study to examine the pressure distribution inside a soft porous layer when a spherical loaded surface suddenly impacts on it. A novel experimental setup was developed that includes a fully instrumented spherical piston and a soft fibrous porous layer underneath. Extensive experimental study was performed with different porous materials, different loadings and different sized loading surfaces. The pore pressure generation and the motion of the loading surface were recorded. A novel theoretical model was developed to characterize the pressure field during the process. Excellent agreement was observed between the experimental results and the theoretically predictions. It shows that the pressure generation is governed by the Brinkman parameter, α = h/Kp0.5, where h is the porous layer thickness, and Kp is the undeformed permeability. The study improves our understanding of the dynamic response of soft porous media under rapid compression. It has board impact on the study of transient load bearing in biological systems and industry applications. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF CBET) under Award #1511096.

  7. Two-surface Monte Carlo with basin hopping: quantum mechanical trajectory and multiple stationary points of water cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta

    2008-04-07

    The efficiency of the two-surface monte carlo (TSMC) method depends on the closeness of the actual potential and the biasing potential used to propagate the system of interest. In this work, it is shown that by combining the basin hopping method with TSMC, the efficiency of the method can be increased by several folds. TSMC with basin hopping is used to generate quantum mechanical trajectory and large number of stationary points of water clusters.

  8. Detection of hidden stationary deformations of vibrating surfaces by use of time-averaged digital holographic interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoli, Nazif; Vukicevic, Dalibor

    2004-10-15

    A method of detecting displacements of a surface from its steady-state position to its equilibrium position while it is vibrating has been developed by use of time-average digital holographic interferometry. This method permits extraction of such a hidden deformation by creating two separated systems of interferogram fringes: one corresponding to a time-varying resonantly oscillating optical phase, the other to the stationary phase modification. A mathematical description of the method and illustrative results of experimental verification are presented.

  9. Existence of quasi-stationary neutron and x-ray states near the surface of a deformed single crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Iolin, E

    1999-01-01

    The problem of x-ray or neutron multiply internally reflected inside a bent single crystal plate (Bragg geometry) is considered. It is found that such multiple reflections lead to the existence of quasi-stationary (QS) states. QS states are discrete and correspond to the resonance of motion of the tie point between the front surface and a 'turning place' inside a single crystal. (author)

  10. Assessing a novel contact heater as a new method of recovering explosives traces from porous surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Holly A; Lewis, Simon W; Beardah, Matthew S; NicDaeid, Niamh

    2016-02-01

    It can be very challenging to recover explosives traces from porous surfaces, such as clothing and car seats, compared to non-porous surfaces. The contact heater has been developed as a novel instrument designed to recover explosives traces from porous surfaces. Samples are taken by heating and drawing air across a surface, with the air flowing through a sampling cartridge containing adsorbent polymer beads, which act to trap any recovered explosive material. Any collected explosive can then be eluted from this cartridge using a solvent, prior to analysis. This paper outlines work performed to evaluate the usefulness of the contact heater with regards to the recovery of explosives traces from porous materials. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP) were chosen as two representative explosives for this study. Quantification was performed using GC-MS for EGDN and LC-MS/MS for TATP. Different sampling temperatures, sampling times and elution solvents were investigated. Recovery was trialled from leather, carpet and denim. Recoveries of up to 71% were obtained following optimisation. It was also possible to recover TATP from fabrics exposed to TATP vapour in a vapour-laden jar up to two hours after exposure. The contact heater therefore appears to be a very useful tool for the recovery of explosives traces from porous materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Smart release of doxorubicin loaded on polyetheretherketone (PEEK) surface with 3D porous structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Liping; Sun, Zhenjie; Wang, Donghui; Qiao, Yuqin; Zhu, Hongqin; Ma, Xiaohan; Liu, Xuanyong

    2018-03-01

    It is important to fabricate an implant possessing environment sensitive drug delivery. In this work, the construction of 3D porous structure on polyetheretherketone (PEEK) surface and pH sensitive polymer, chitosan, was introduced. The smart release of doxorubicin can be realized on the 3D porous surface of PEEK loading chitosan. We give a feasible explanation for the effect of chitosan on smart drug release according to Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. Furthermore, the intracellular drug content of the cell cultured on the samples with highest chitosan is significantly higher at pH 4.0, whereas lower at pH 7.4 than other samples. The smart release of doxorubicin via modification with chitosan onto 3D porous PEEK surface paves the way for the application of PEEK in drug loading platform for recovering bone defect caused by malignant bone tumor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental measurements of surface stiffness on water-saturated porous solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, P.B.; Blaho, G. (Department of Welding Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States))

    1994-02-01

    The surface impedance of a fluid/fluid-saturated porous solid interface is defined as the ratio of the pressure difference between the fluids on the two sides of the interface and the volume velocity of the fluid through the surface pores. In most cases, the surface pores are inherently open'' and the surface impedance is negligible when the sample is fully submerged in fluid. On the other hand, due to surface tension, practically closed-pore boundary conditions can prevail at an interface between a nonwetting fluid (e.g., air) and a porous solid saturated with a wetting fluid (e.g., water). This effect is caused by the high stiffness of the microscopic fluid membranes extended by capillary forces over the otherwise open surface pores. We have determined the quasistatic surface stiffness of different water-saturated porous materials by changing the hydrostatic pressure and directly measuring the average surface displacement by an acoustical sensor. Generally, the surface stiffness is proportional to the surface tension of the wetting fluid and inversely proportional to the static permeability of the specimen. For cylindrical pores, the measured surface stiffness is in good agreement with theoretical predictions. For more irregular geometries, such as consolidated spherical beads, the surface stiffness is still inversely proportional to the static permeability but its value is orders of magnitudes lower than for cylindrical pores of comparable permeability.

  13. Study the formation of porous surface layer for a new biomedical titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib Mohammed, Mohsin; Diwan, Abass Ali; Ali, Osamah Ihsan

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, chemical treatment using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidation and subsequent thermal treatment was applied to create a uniform porous layer over the surface of a new metastable β-Ti alloy. The results revealed that this oxidation treatment can create a stable ultrafine porous film over the oxidized surface. This promoted the electrochemical characteristics of H2O2-treated Ti-Zr-Nb (TZN) alloy system, presenting nobler corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid (SBF) comparing with untreated sample.

  14. Fingerprint detection and using intercalated CdSe nanoparticles on non-porous surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algarra, Manuel, E-mail: malgarra67@gmail.com [Centro de Geología da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Geociências, Ambiente e Ordenamemto do Territorio do Porto, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Radotić, Ksenija; Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Mutavdžić, Dragosav; Savić, Aleksandar [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, Kneza Višeslava 1, 11000 Beograd (Serbia); Jiménez-Jiménez, José; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071Málaga (Spain); Silva, Joaquim C.G. Esteves da [Centro de Investigação em Química (CIQ-UP). Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Guerrero-González, Juan José [Policía Científica, Cuerpo Nacional de Policía, Málaga (Spain)

    2014-02-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Fluorescent nanocomposite based on the inclusion of CdSe quantum dots in porous phosphate heterostructures. •Characterized by FTIR, XRD and fluorescence spectroscopies. •Deconvolution of the emission spectra was confirmed by using multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method. •Application for fingerprint detection and analysis on different non-porous surfaces. -- Abstract: A fluorescent nanocomposite based on the inclusion of CdSe quantum dots in porous phosphate heterostructures, functionalized with amino groups (PPH-NH{sub 2}@CdSe), was synthesized, characterized and used for fingerprint detection. The main scopes of this work were first to develop a friendly chemical powder for detecting latent fingerprints, especially in non-porous surfaces; their further intercalation in PPH structure enables not to spread the fluorescent nanoparticles, for that reason very good fluorescent images can be obtained. The fingerprints, obtained on different non-porous surfaces such as iron tweezers, mobile telephone screen and magnetic band of a credit card, treated with this powder emit a pale orange luminescence under ultraviolet excitation. A further image processing consists of contrast enhancement that allows obtaining positive matches according to the information supplied from a police database, and showed to be more effective than that obtained with the non-processed images. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of proposed methods.

  15. Porous silicon photoluminescence modification by colloidal gold nanoparticles: Plasmonic, surface and porosity roles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, M.B. de la; Bornacelli, J.; Nava, R.; Zanella, R.; Reyes-Esqueda, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles on semiconductors are of interest because of the tunable effect of the surface plasmon resonance on the physical properties of the semiconductor. In this work, colloidal gold nanoparticles obtained by two different methods, with an average size of 6.1±2.0 nm and 5.0±2.0 nm, were added to luminescent porous silicon by drop casting. The gold nanoparticles interact with porous silicon by modifying its optical properties such as photoluminescence. That being said, plasmon effects are not the only to be taken into account; as shown in this work, surface chemical modification and porosity also play a key role in the final performance of photoluminescence of a porous silicon–gold nanoparticle hybrid system. -- Highlights: • A hybrid material consisting of porous silicon and gold nanoparticles was fabricated. • Porous silicon/gold nanoparticle hybrid material was made by drop casting. • Influence of plasmonics, surface chemical modification and porosity on the optical behavior of our material was analyzed. • Porosity is proposed as a parameter control to obtain the best effects on luminescence of the hybrid plasmonic material

  16. Fingerprint detection and using intercalated CdSe nanoparticles on non-porous surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algarra, Manuel; Radotić, Ksenija; Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Mutavdžić, Dragosav; Savić, Aleksandar; Jiménez-Jiménez, José; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique; Silva, Joaquim C.G. Esteves da; Guerrero-González, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Fluorescent nanocomposite based on the inclusion of CdSe quantum dots in porous phosphate heterostructures. •Characterized by FTIR, XRD and fluorescence spectroscopies. •Deconvolution of the emission spectra was confirmed by using multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method. •Application for fingerprint detection and analysis on different non-porous surfaces. -- Abstract: A fluorescent nanocomposite based on the inclusion of CdSe quantum dots in porous phosphate heterostructures, functionalized with amino groups (PPH-NH 2 @CdSe), was synthesized, characterized and used for fingerprint detection. The main scopes of this work were first to develop a friendly chemical powder for detecting latent fingerprints, especially in non-porous surfaces; their further intercalation in PPH structure enables not to spread the fluorescent nanoparticles, for that reason very good fluorescent images can be obtained. The fingerprints, obtained on different non-porous surfaces such as iron tweezers, mobile telephone screen and magnetic band of a credit card, treated with this powder emit a pale orange luminescence under ultraviolet excitation. A further image processing consists of contrast enhancement that allows obtaining positive matches according to the information supplied from a police database, and showed to be more effective than that obtained with the non-processed images. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of proposed methods

  17. Porous silicon photoluminescence modification by colloidal gold nanoparticles: Plasmonic, surface and porosity roles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, M.B. de la; Bornacelli, J. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Nava, R. [Centro de Investigación en Energía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico); Zanella, R. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Reyes-Esqueda, J.A., E-mail: betarina@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2014-02-15

    Metal nanoparticles on semiconductors are of interest because of the tunable effect of the surface plasmon resonance on the physical properties of the semiconductor. In this work, colloidal gold nanoparticles obtained by two different methods, with an average size of 6.1±2.0 nm and 5.0±2.0 nm, were added to luminescent porous silicon by drop casting. The gold nanoparticles interact with porous silicon by modifying its optical properties such as photoluminescence. That being said, plasmon effects are not the only to be taken into account; as shown in this work, surface chemical modification and porosity also play a key role in the final performance of photoluminescence of a porous silicon–gold nanoparticle hybrid system. -- Highlights: • A hybrid material consisting of porous silicon and gold nanoparticles was fabricated. • Porous silicon/gold nanoparticle hybrid material was made by drop casting. • Influence of plasmonics, surface chemical modification and porosity on the optical behavior of our material was analyzed. • Porosity is proposed as a parameter control to obtain the best effects on luminescence of the hybrid plasmonic material.

  18. Specific and non-specific interactions on non-porous carbon black surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu, A.; Stoeckli, Fritz; Bradleya, R. H.

    2008-01-01

    The interactions which occur between methanol, ethanol or propanol and the surfaces of non-porous carbon blacks with increasing levels of oxygen chemistry have been studied using adsorption isotherm analysis and immersion calorimetry. Surface oxygen has been controlled by ozone treatment and characterised using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which gives a direct and quantitative measure of surface composition from first-principles, and has not yet been extensively employed in detailed carb...

  19. Manipulation of fluids in three-dimensional porous photonic structures with patterned surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizenberg, Joanna; Burgess, Ian; Mishchenko, Lidiya; Hatton, Benjamin; Loncar, Marko

    2017-12-26

    A three-dimensional porous photonic structure, whose internal pore surfaces can be provided with desired surface properties in a spatially selective manner with arbitrary patterns, and methods for making the same are described. When exposed to a fluid (e.g., via immersion or wicking), the fluid can selectively penetrate the regions of the structure with compatible surface properties. Broad applications, for example in security, encryption and document authentication, as well as in areas such as simple microfluidics and diagnostics, are anticipated.

  20. Advantage Clean & Porous TM new technological methods of surface treatment of dental implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лев Ильич Винников

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was a comparative analysis of the surfaces of dental implants treated with technological methods SLA and RBM to identify their positive and negative characteristics. Based on these results to develop a new process Clean & Porous surface treatment of dental implants to obtain highly, rough and porous surface, which is characteristic for the technology SLA, and absolutely clean surface characteristic of technology RBM, without their disadvantages (unwarranted complete removal of abrasive particles SLA case and the absence of a clear structure of the surface topography in the case of RBM.The structure and purity of the implant surface Straumann, Alfa-Bio, DIO, Finish Line. studied in micrographs obtained by an electron microscope (SEM at the University of Technion (increase 500,2000,3000. To study the chemical properties of the samples, the method of X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, based on an analysis of its X-ray emission energy spectrum.Comparative analysis of the implant surfaces treated with the methods and RBM SLA showed that despite the reliability of these methods, each of them has certain disadvantages (contamination cases alumina particle surface with sufficient structural SLA and craters on the surface organized RBM. Developed by Finish Line Materials and Processes Ltd new technology of surface treatment of dental implants Clean & PorousTM, combining the best characteristics of the methods of SLA and RBM, possible to obtain a well-structured and absolutely clean surface.The proposed new original method Clean & PorousTM treatment of dental implants meet the criteria (roughness, porosity and surface finish of the implant, which provide an ideal osseointegration. Since osseointegration is a key issue in modern implantology it enables to obtain reliable primary fixation of the implant in the bone. From a clinical point of view it reduces the healing of the implant, as well as creating conditions

  1. Structure, composition and morphology of bioactive titanate layer on porous titanium surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinshan; Wang, Xiaohua; Hu, Rui; Kou, Hongchao

    2014-07-01

    A bioactive coating was produced on pore surfaces of porous titanium samples by an amendatory alkali-heat treatment method. Porous titanium was prepared by powder metallurgy and its porosity and average size were 45% and 135 μm, respectively. Coating morphology, coating structure and phase constituents were examined by SEM, XPS and XRD. It was found that a micro-network structure with sizes of bone-like carbonate-hydroxylapatite showing a good biocompatibility was detected on the coating surface. And the redundant Ca advanced the bioactivity of the coating. Thus, the present modification is expected to allow the use of the bioactive porous titanium as artificial bones even under load-bearing conditions.

  2. Engineering durable hydrophobic surfaces on porous alumina ceramics using in-situ formed inorganic-organic hybrid nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Jianqiang; Wang, Junwei; Li, Yanan; Xu, Xin; Chen, Chusheng; Winnubst, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Hydrophobic surfaces are required for a variety of applications owing to their water repellent and self-cleaning properties. In this work, we present a novel approach to prepare durable hydrophobic surfaces on porous ceramics. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film was applied to a porous alumina wafer,

  3. The impact of non-stationary flows on the surface stress in the weak-wind stable boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christoph; Mahrt, Larry

    2016-04-01

    The behaviour of turbulent transport in the weak-wind stably stratified boundary layer is examined in terms of the non-stationarity of the wind field based upon field observations. Extensive sonic anemometer measurements from horizontal networks and vertical towers ranging from 12 to 20 m height and innovative fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing observations were collected from three field programs in moderately sloped terrain with a varying degree of surface heterogeneity, namely the Shallow Cold Pool (SCP) and the Flow Over Snow Surfaces (FLOSS) II experiments in Colorado (USA), and the Advanced Canopy Resolution Experiment (ARCFLO) in Oregon (USA). The relationship of the friction velocity to the stratification and small non-stationary submeso motions is studied from several points of view and nominally quantified. The relationship of the turbulence to the stratification is less systematic than expected due to the important submeso-scale motions. Consequently, the roles of the wind speed and stratification are not adequately accommodated by a single non-dimensional combination, such as the bulk Richardson number. However, cause and effect relationships are difficult to isolate because the non-stationary momentum flux significantly modifies the profile of the non-stationary mean flow. The link between the turbulence and accelerations at the surface is examined in terms of the changing vertical structure of the wind profile and sudden increases of downward transport of momentum. The latter may be significant in explaining the small-scale weak turbulence during stable stratification and deviations from conventional flux-profile relationships. Contrary to expectations, the vertical coherence was strongest for weakest winds and declined fast with increasing velocities, which suggests that submeso-scale motions are much deeper than previously thought.

  4. Interactions between bacteria and solid surfaces in relation to bacterial transport in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    1994-01-01

    Interactions between bacteria and solid surfaces strongly influence the behaviour of bacteria in natural and engineered ecosystems. Many biofilm reactors and terrestrial environments are porous media. The purpose of the research presented in this thesis is to gain a better insight into the

  5. Thermal stability of porous sol-gel phosphosilicates and their surface area stabilisation by lanthanum addition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falco, Lorena; De Mendonca, Mariana Van Den Tempel; Mercadal, Juan J.; Zarubina, Valeriya; Melián-Cabrera, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    The thermal stability of porous sol-gel phosphosilicates was studied by comparing the textural features upon calcination between 400 and 550 °C. A significant loss of surface area and pore volume were observed; the first is due to thermal coarsening of the nanoparticles, and the pore volume

  6. Functionality of porous silicon particles: Surface modification for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallach, D.; Recio Sanchez, G.; Munoz Noval, A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigaciones Biomedicas en Red, Biomateriales, Bioingenieria y Nanomedicina (CIBERbbn) (Spain); Manso Silvan, M., E-mail: miguel.manso@uam.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigaciones Biomedicas en Red, Biomateriales, Bioingenieria y Nanomedicina (CIBERbbn) (Spain); Ceccone, G. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission, 21020 Ispra (Italy); Martin Palma, R.J.; Torres Costa, V.; Martinez Duart, J.M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigaciones Biomedicas en Red, Biomateriales, Bioingenieria y Nanomedicina (CIBERbbn) (Spain)

    2010-05-25

    Porous silicon-based particles (PSps) with tailored physical and biological properties have recently attracted great attention given their biomedical potential. Within this context, the objective of the present work is to optimize the experimental parameters for the formation of biofunctional mesoporous PSps. Their functionality has been studied on the one hand by analyzing the fluorescence characteristics, such as tunable narrow band emission and fluorescence aging for PSps with different molecular capping. With regard to the biofunctional characteristics, two different molecular end-capping processes have been assayed: antifouling polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polar binding amino silanes (APTS), which were evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Both PEG and APTS binding to the particles could be confirmed from the analysis of Si 2p and C 1s XPS core level spectra. The finding that these PSp-molecule conjugates allow the reduction of fluorescence degradation with time in solution is of interest for the development of cellular or tissue markers. From the morphological point of view, PEG termination is of special interest allowing the PSps after an ultrasonic treatment to get spherical shapes in the micron scale. The functionality as solid state dyes is preliminarily evaluated by direct fluorescence imaging.

  7. Functionality of porous silicon particles: Surface modification for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallach, D.; Recio Sanchez, G.; Munoz Noval, A.; Manso Silvan, M.; Ceccone, G.; Martin Palma, R.J.; Torres Costa, V.; Martinez Duart, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Porous silicon-based particles (PSps) with tailored physical and biological properties have recently attracted great attention given their biomedical potential. Within this context, the objective of the present work is to optimize the experimental parameters for the formation of biofunctional mesoporous PSps. Their functionality has been studied on the one hand by analyzing the fluorescence characteristics, such as tunable narrow band emission and fluorescence aging for PSps with different molecular capping. With regard to the biofunctional characteristics, two different molecular end-capping processes have been assayed: antifouling polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polar binding amino silanes (APTS), which were evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Both PEG and APTS binding to the particles could be confirmed from the analysis of Si 2p and C 1s XPS core level spectra. The finding that these PSp-molecule conjugates allow the reduction of fluorescence degradation with time in solution is of interest for the development of cellular or tissue markers. From the morphological point of view, PEG termination is of special interest allowing the PSps after an ultrasonic treatment to get spherical shapes in the micron scale. The functionality as solid state dyes is preliminarily evaluated by direct fluorescence imaging.

  8. Effects of surface active agents on DNAPL migration and distribution in saturated porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhou; Gao, Bin; Xu, Hongxia; Sun, Yuanyuan; Shi, Xiaoqing; Wu, Jichun

    2016-11-15

    Dissolved surface active agents such as surfactant and natural organic matter can affect the distribution and fate of dense nonaqueous liquids (DNAPLs) in soil and groundwater systems. This work investigated how two common groundwater surface active agents, humic acid (HA) and Tween 80, affected tetrachloroethylene (PCE) migration and source zone architecture in saturated porous media under environmentally relevant conditions. Batch experiments were first conducted to measure the contact angles and interfacial tensions (IFT) between PCE and quartz surface in water containing different amount of surface active agents. Results showed that the contact angle increased and IFT decreased with concentration of surface active agent increasing, and Tween 80 was much more effective than HA. Five 2-D flow cell experiments were then conducted. Correspondingly, Tween 80 showed strong effects on the migration and distribution of PCE in the porous media due to its ability to change the medium wettability from water-wet into intermediate/NAPL-wet. The downward migration velocities of the PCE in three Tween 80 cells were slower than those in the other two cells. In addition, the final saturation of the PCE in the cells containing surface active agents was higher than that in the water-only cell. Results from this work indicate that the presence of surface active agents in groundwater may strongly affect the fate and distribution of DNAPL through altering porous medium wettability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. On NaCl efflorescence formation and growth at the surface of a porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veran-Tissoires, S.; Marcoux, M.; Prat, M.

    2012-04-01

    Rocks or building materials are often altered by the presence of dissolved salts. Salt precipitation is one of the main processes damaging the porous matrix. In this context, our study focuses on salt crystallization which results from evaporation at the surface of porous media. These crystallized salt structures are called efflorescence. Efflorescence is an important issue for the conservation of old paintings and frescoes. The challenge is to understand why these structures do not form everywhere at the porous medium surface but at some specific locations and why there exists an exclusion distance around an efflorescence structure where no new efflorescence forms. These behaviours are explained from a visualization experiment, pore-network simulations and a simple efflorescence growth model. A wicking/evaporating experiment is conducted on packings of glass beads (~1mm diameter) contained in a hollow cylinder. The porous sample is open at the bottom where it is in contact with a brine solution. The upper surface is open to external dry air. In this configuration, the sample remains fully saturated and salt precipitation takes place at the sample surface. This setup is set in an enclosure where temperature is kept constant and dry air is maintained, which imposes a nearly uniform evaporation flux over the sample surface. After a few days of evaporation, efflorescence structures appear, grow and remain discrete, i.e. continue to form individual halite structures. Simulations with a 3D pore network model enable us to show that discrete location of efflorescence results from small scale heterogeneities of the beads packing. Locally some menisci are connected to smaller pores which enhance salt transport by advection. The second objective of the study is to understand the mechanism which makes the efflorescence to growth under the form of a set of individual structures. By studying numerically the growth of one efflorescence structure, we observe a global increase of

  10. Laboratory Assessment of the Infiltration Capacity Reduction in Clogged Porous Mixture Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio C. Andrés-Valeri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavements have been used widely across the world to manage urban stormwater. The hydrological behaviour of permeable surfaces is a complex process affected by many factors, such as rainfall intensity, rainfall duration, pavement geometrical conditions, and clogging level of the permeable surface, amongst others. This laboratory study was carried out to assess the influence of clogging level and rainfall intensity on the infiltration capacity of porous mixture surfaces used in Permeable Pavement Systems (PPS. Porous Concrete (PC and Porous Asphalt (PA mixtures with different air void contents (15%, 20%, and 25% were subject to different clogging scenarios by using varying sediment loads (0, 500, and 1000 g/m2. Permeability experiments were carried out for each clogging scenario through a new rainfall simulator specially developed, tailored, and calibrated for the laboratory simulation of a wide range of rainfall events. Permeability measurements were taken under all different scenarios as a result of the combination of the different rainfall events (50, 100, and 150 mm/h simulated over the specimens of porous mixtures and the sediment loads applied to them. The results showed that the PC mixtures tested perform better than the PA ones in terms of infiltration capacity, showing less potential for clogging and being more easily cleaned by the wash-off produced by the simulated rainfall events.

  11. Relationship between specific surface area and spatial correlation functions for anisotropic porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    A result of Debye, Anderson, and Brumberger (P. Debye, H. R. Anderson, Jr., and H. Brumberger, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 679 (1957)) for isotropic porous media states that the derivative of the two-point spatial correlation at the origin is equal to minus one-quarter of the specific surface area. This result is generalized for nonisotropic media by noting that the angular average of the anisotropic two-point spatial correlation function has the same relationship to the specific surface area.

  12. Effects of raw material texture and activation manner on surface area of porous carbons derived from biomass resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Li, Guo-Dong; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2008-11-01

    Porous carbons have been prepared from biomass resources, such as cornstalks, rice straws, pine needles and pinecone hulls, through a simple carbonization and KOH solution activation process. The pore sizes of the obtained porous carbons are mainly distributed in the range of 1-2 nm, whereas the surface areas of the materials vary from 1000 to more than 3000 m(2) g(-1) depending on the raw materials and preparation conditions. It is found that the biomass texture and the activation manner play key roles in determination of surface areas of the porous carbons. In addition, the amount of activation agent, the activation temperature and the activation time also affect the surface area of the porous carbons but to a less extent. The obtained porous carbons with high surface areas show good performance when used as Pt-catalyst supports for cinanamaldehyde hydrogenation.

  13. Nano-hydroxyapatite colloid suspension coated on chemically modified porous silicon by cathodic bias: a suitable surface for cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Alejandra [Escuela de Quimica, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 (Costa Rica); Centro de Electroquimica y Energia Quimica de la Universidad de Costa Rica (CELEQ), Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 (Costa Rica); Gonzalez, Jerson [Escuela de Quimica, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 (Costa Rica); Garcia-Pineres, Alfonso [Escuela de Quimica, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 (Costa Rica); Centro de Investigacion en Biologia Celular y Molecular (CIBCM), Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 (Costa Rica); Montero, Mavis L. [Escuela de Quimica, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 (Costa Rica); Centro de Electroquimica y Energia Quimica de la Universidad de Costa Rica (CELEQ), Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 (Costa Rica); Centro de Ciencia e Ingenieria en Materiales (CICIMA), Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 (Costa Rica)

    2011-06-15

    The properties of porous silicon make it an interesting material for biological applications. However, porous silicon is not an appropriate surface for cell growth. Surface modification is an alternative that could afford a bioactive material. In this work, we report a method to yield materials by modification of the porous silicon surface with hydroxyapatite of nanometric dimensions, produced using an electrochemical process and coated on macroporous silicon substrates by cathodic bias. The chemical nature of the calcium phosphate deposited on the substrates after the experimental process and the amount of cell growth on these surfaces were characterized. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Development and Comparison of Air Pollution Exposure Surfaces Derived from On-Road Mobile Monitoring and Short-Term Stationary Sidewalk Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minet, Laura; Liu, Rick; Valois, Marie-France; Xu, Junshi; Weichenthal, Scott; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2018-03-06

    Land-use regression (LUR) models of air pollutants are frequently developed on the basis of short-term stationary or mobile monitoring approaches, which raises the question of whether these two data collection protocols lead to similar exposure surfaces. In this study, we measured ultrafine particles (UFP) and black carbon (BC) concentrations in Toronto during summer 2016, using two short-term data collection approaches: mobile, involving 3023 road segments sampled on bicycles, and stationary, involving 92 sidewalk locations. We developed four LUR models and exposure surfaces, for the two pollutants and measurement protocols. Coefficients of determination ( R 2 ) varied from 0.434 to 0.525. Various small-scale traffic variables were included in the mobile LUR. Pearson correlation coefficients between the mobile and stationary surfaces were 0.23 for UFP and 0.49 for BC. We also compared the two surfaces using personal exposures from a panel study in Toronto conducted during the same period. The personal exposures differed from the outdoor exposures derived from the combination of GPS information and exposure surfaces. For UFP, the median for personal outdoor exposure was 26 344 part/cm 3 , while the cycling and stationary surfaces predicted medians of 31 201 and 19 057 part/cm 3 . Similar trends were observed for BC, with median exposures of 1764 (personal), 1799 (cycling), and 1469 ng/m 3 (stationary).

  15. Fingermark detection on non-porous and semi-porous surfaces using YVO4:Er,Yb luminescent upconverting particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rongliang; Shimmon, Ronald; McDonagh, Andrew; Maynard, Philip; Lennard, Chris; Roux, Claude

    2012-04-10

    This article describes the use of an anti-Stokes luminescent material (upconverter), yttrium vanadate doped with ytterbium and erbium (YVO(4):Er,Yb), for the development of latent fingermarks on a range of non-porous surfaces. Anti-Stokes luminescent materials emit light at shorter wavelengths than the excitation wavelength. This property is unusual in both natural and artificial materials commonly found as exhibits in forensic science casework. As a result, fingermark detection techniques based on anti-Stokes luminescence are potentially extremely sensitive and selective. Latent fingermarks on non-luminescent and inherently luminescent substrates, including Australian polymer banknotes (a well-known 'difficult' surface), were developed with YVO(4):Er,Yb by dry powder and wet powder techniques. The effectiveness of YVO(4):Er,Yb for fingermark detection was compared with that of cyanoacrylate fuming and of sodium yttrium tetrafluoride doped with ytterbium and erbium (NaYF(4):Er,Yb). The results illustrate some benefit of luminescent up-converting phosphors over traditional luminescence techniques for the detection of latent fingermarks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation and evaluation of surface-bonded tricationic ionic liquid silica as stationary phases for high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lizhen; Shi, Xianzhe; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2015-05-29

    Two tricationic ionic liquids were prepared and then bonded onto the surface of supporting silica materials through "thiol-ene" click chemistry as new stationary phases for high-performance liquid chromatography. The obtained columns of tricationic ionic liquids were evaluated respectively in the reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) mode and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode, and possess ideal column efficiency of 80,000 plates/m in the RPLC mode with naphthalene as the test solute. The tricationic ionic liquid stationary phases exhibit good hydrophobic and shape selectivity to hydrophobic compounds, and RPLC retention behavior with multiple interactions. In the HILIC mode, the retention and selectivity were evaluated through the efficient separation of nucleosides and bases as well as flavonoids, and the typical HILIC retention behavior was demonstrated by investigating retention changes of hydrophilic solutes with water volume fraction in mobile phase. The results show that the tricationic ionic liquid columns possess great prospect for applications in analysis of hydrophobic and hydrophilic samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrokinetics of nanochannels and porous membranes with dynamic surface charges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo

    interesting because it relies on capillary filling, so it avoids the use of external forcing such as electric fields. Basically, during the filling of nanochannels by capillary action, the advancing electrolyte is titrated by deprotonation from the surface. This is observed using the pH-sensitive fluorescent....... Notably, we find that the conductance minimum is mainly caused by hydronium ions, and in our case almost exclusively due to carbonic acid generated from the dissolution of CO2 from the atmosphere. We carry out delicate experiments and measure the conductance of silica nanochannels as a function...... in the literature. Fourth, we use our model to predict a novel phenomenon called currentinduced membrane discharge (CIMD) to explain over-limiting current in ionexchange membranes. The model is based on dynamic surface charges in the membrane in equilibrium with the buffer. However, here we take the next step...

  18. Mass Transfer and MHD Effects on Unsteady Porous Stretching Surface Embedded in a Porous Medium With Variable Heat Flux in The Presence of Heat Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Ramana REDDY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An unsteady two dimensional boundary layer flowof a viscous, incompressible, electrically conducting fluid over aporous stretching surface embedded in a porous medium in thepresence of heat source or sink is studied in chapter 7. Theunsteadiness in the flow and temperature fields is caused by thetime dependence of the stretching velocity and the surface heatflux. The governing partial differential equations aretransformed into a system of ordinary differential equationsusing similarity variables, which is then solved numerically byapplying shooting method using Runge-Kutta method. Thesolution is found to be dependent on the governing parametersincluding the Prandtl number, porous parameter, heat source/sink parameter, suction or injection parameter andunsteadiness parameter. Comparison of numerical results ismade with previously published results under the special cases,and found to be in good agreement. Effects of the Prandtlnumber, porous parameter, heat source /sink parameter, suctionor injection parameter and unsteadiness parameter on the flowand heat transfer are examined.

  19. Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization of Low Molecular Organic Substances on Oxidized Porous Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmigol, I. V.; Alekseev, S. A.; Lavrynenko, O. Yu.; Zaitsev, V. N.; Barbier, D.; Pokrovskiy, V. A.

    Desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS) mass spectra of methylene blue (MB+Cl-) were studied using p+-type oxidized monofunctional porous silicon (PS-OX mono ) free layers. Reduction/protonation processes of methylene blue (MB) dye were investigated. It was shown that SiH x terminal sites on oxidized surface of porous silicon (PS-OX) are not the rate-determining factor for the reduction/protonation in DIOS. Tunneling of electron through the dielectric layer of nanostructures on silicon surface under effect of local electrostatic and electromagnetic fields is considered to be the most significant factor of adsorbate-adsorbent electron exchange and further laser-induced ion formation.

  20. Study on cavitation effect of mechanical seals with laser-textured porous surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T.; Chen, H. l.; Liu, Y. H.; Wang, Q.; Liu, Z. B.; Hou, D. H.

    2012-11-01

    Study on the mechanisms underlying generation of hydrodynamic pressure effect associated with laser-textured porous surface on mechanical seal, is the key to seal and lubricant properties. The theory model of mechanical seals with laser-textured porous surface (LES-MS) based on cavitation model was established. The LST-MS was calculated and analyzed by using Fluent software with full cavitation model and non-cavitation model and film thickness was predicted by the dynamic mesh technique. The results indicate that the effect of hydrodynamic pressure and cavitation are the important reasons to generate liquid film opening force on LST-MS; Cavitation effect can enhance hydrodynamic pressure effect of LST-MS; The thickness of liquid film could be well predicted with the method of dynamic mesh technique on Fluent and it becomes larger as the increasing of shaft speed and the decreasing of pressure.

  1. Study on cavitation effect of mechanical seals with laser-textured porous surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, T; Chen, H l; Liu, Y H; Wang, Q; Liu, Z B; Hou, D H

    2012-01-01

    Study on the mechanisms underlying generation of hydrodynamic pressure effect associated with laser-textured porous surface on mechanical seal, is the key to seal and lubricant properties. The theory model of mechanical seals with laser-textured porous surface (LES-MS) based on cavitation model was established. The LST-MS was calculated and analyzed by using Fluent software with full cavitation model and non-cavitation model and film thickness was predicted by the dynamic mesh technique. The results indicate that the effect of hydrodynamic pressure and cavitation are the important reasons to generate liquid film opening force on LST-MS; Cavitation effect can enhance hydrodynamic pressure effect of LST-MS; The thickness of liquid film could be well predicted with the method of dynamic mesh technique on Fluent and it becomes larger as the increasing of shaft speed and the decreasing of pressure.

  2. A hybrid approach to the surface biofunctionalization of nanostructured porous alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvan, Miguel Manso; Ruiz, Josefa Predestinacion Garcia [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Unidad Asociada GMNF (ICMM-CSIC), 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigaciones Biomedicas en Red, Bioingenieria Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBERbbn) (Spain); Gonzalez, Ruy Sanz [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Velez, Manuel Hernandez [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Unidad Asociada GMNF (ICMM-CSIC), 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    The application of nanostructured porous alumina templates as a solid support in biomedical assays requires a surface biofunctionalization process that has been addressed in this work by an hybrid aminopropyl-triethoxysilane/tetraisopropyl-orthotitanate (APTS/ TIPT) self assembled film. The nanostructured porous alumina templates are activated in a peroxide solution before immersion in the biofunctionalizing APTS/TIPT solution. The biofunctionalization process was followed up by UV-vis spectroscopy, which confirmed the modification of the dielectric structure of the alumina surface. The influence of the biofunctionalization step in an immunological assay was carried out by fluorescence microscopy. Results confirm the gain in activity after the immobilization of an FITC labelled mouse Igg. Specific biological recognition in a bovine serum albumin (BSA)-antiBSA assay is proved afterwards by shifts observed in the reflectance interferograms thus providing a fast biosensing transducer platform. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Enhanced in vitro biocompatibility of ultrafine-grained titanium with hierarchical porous surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, C.Y.; Nie, F.L.; Zheng, Y.F.; Cheng, Y.; Wei, S.C.; Valiev, R.Z.

    2011-01-01

    Bulk ultrafine-grained Ti (UFG Ti) was successfully fabricated by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) technique in the present study, and to further improve its surface biocompatibility, surface modification techniques including sandblasting, acid etching and alkali treatment were employed to produce a hierarchical porous surface. The effect of the above surface treatments on the surface roughness, wettability, electrochemical corrosion behavior, apatite forming ability and cellular behavior of UFG Ti were systematically investigated with the coarse-grained Ti as control. Results show that UFG-Ti with surface modification had no pitting corrosion and presented low corrosion rate in simulated body fluids (SBF). The hierarchical porous surface yielded by surface modification enhanced the ability of UFG Ti to form a complete apatite layer when soaked in SBF and promoted osteoblast-like cells attachment and proliferation in vitro, which promises to have a significant impact on increasing bone-bonding ability and reducing healing time when implanted due to faster tissue integration.

  4. Lubrication and thermal characteristics of mechanical seal with porous surface based on cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huilong, Chen; Muzi, Zuo; Tong, Liu; Yu, Wang; Cheng, Xu; Qiangbo, Wu

    2014-04-01

    The theory model of mechanical seals with laser-textured porous surface (LST-MS) was established. The liquid film of LST-MS was simulated by the Fluent software, using full cavitation model and non-cavitation model separately. Dynamic mesh technique and relationship between viscosity and temperature were applied to simulate the internal flow field and heat characteristics of LST-MS, based on the more accurate cavitation model. Influence of porous depth ratio porous diameter ɛ and porous density SP on lubrication performance and the variation of lubrication and thermal properties with shaft speed and sealing pressure were analyzed. The results indicate that the strongest hydrodynamic pressure effect and the biggest thickness of liquid film are obtained when ɛ and SP are respectively about 0.025 and 0.5 which were thought to be the optimum value. The frictional heat leads to the increase of liquid film temperature and the decrease of medium viscosity with the shaft speed increasing. The hydrodynamic pressure effect increases as shaft speed increasing, however it decreases as the impact of frictional heat.

  5. Enantioselective extraction mediated by a chiral cavitand-salen covalently assembled on a porous silicon surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urso, Alessandro; Tudisco, Cristina; Ballistreri, Francesco P; Condorelli, Guglielmo G; Randazzo, Rosalba; Tomaselli, Gaetano A; Toscano, Rosa M; Trusso Sfrazzetto, Giuseppe; Pappalardo, Andrea

    2014-05-21

    A chiral organic-inorganic hybrid material, based on a porous silicon surface functionalized with a chiral cavitand, was designed and synthesized. The affinity of this device in water toward a bromine-marked alkyl-ammonium salt has been evaluated using XPS detection. UV and CD measurements highlight the enantioselective extraction from a racemic mixture in water of the S-enantiomer of the selected guest (ee ≥ 80%).

  6. Well-defined porous membranes for robust omniphobic surfaces via microfluidic emulsion templating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pingan; Kong, Tiantian; Tang, Xin; Wang, Liqiu

    2017-06-01

    Durability is a long-standing challenge in designing liquid-repellent surfaces. A high-performance omniphobic surface must robustly repel liquids, while maintaining mechanical/chemical stability. However, liquid repellency and mechanical durability are generally mutually exclusive properties for many omniphobic surfaces--improving one performance inevitably results in decreased performance in another. Here we report well-defined porous membranes for durable omniphobic surfaces inspired by the springtail cuticle. The omniphobicity is shown via an amphiphilic material micro-textured with re-entrant surface morphology; the mechanical durability arises from the interconnected microstructures. The innovative fabrication method--termed microfluidic emulsion templating--is facile, cost-effective, scalable and can precisely engineer the structural topographies. The robust omniphobic surface is expected to open up new avenues for diverse applications due to its mechanical and chemical robustness, transparency, reversible Cassie-Wenzel transition, transferability, flexibility and stretchability.

  7. Cavitand-functionalized porous silicon as an active surface for organophosphorus vapor detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudisco, Cristina; Betti, Paolo; Motta, Alessandro; Pinalli, Roberta; Bombaci, Luigi; Dalcanale, Enrico; Condorelli, Guglielmo G

    2012-01-24

    This paper reports on the preparation of a porous silicon-based material covalently functionalized with cavitand receptors suited for the detection of organophosphorus vapors. Two different isomeric cavitands, both containing one acid group at the upper rim, specifically designed for covalent anchoring on silicon, were grafted on H-terminated porous silicon (PSi) by thermal hydrosilylation. The covalently functionalized surfaces and their complexation properties were characterized by combining different analytical techniques, namely X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and mass spectroscopy analysis coupled with thermal desorption experiments. Complexation experiments were performed by exposing both active surfaces and a control surface consisting of PSi functionalized with a structurally similar but inactive methylene-bridged cavitand (MeCav) to dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) vapors. Comparison between active and inactive surfaces demonstrated the recognition properties of the new surfaces. Finally, the nature of the involved interactions, the energetic differences between active and inactive surfaces toward DMMP complexation, and the comparison with a true nerve gas agent (sarin) were studied by DFT modeling. The results revealed the successful grafting reaction, the specific host-guest interactions of the PSi-bonded receptors, and the reversibility of the guest complexation.

  8. Characterization of porous silicon integrated in liquid chromatography chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Verdoold, Vincent; Eghbali, H.; Desmet, G.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2009-01-01

    Properties of porous silicon which are relevant for use of the material as a stationary phase in liquid chromatography chips, like porosity, pore size and specific surface area, were determined with high-resolution SEM and N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms. For the anodization conditions

  9. Long-time stabilization of porous silicon photoluminescence by surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoudi, Be.; Gabouze, N.; Guerbous, L.; Haddadi, M.; Beldjilali, K.

    2007-01-01

    We present results on the photoluminescence (PL) properties of porous silicon (PS) as a function of time. Stabilization of PL from PS has been achieved by replacing silicon-hydrogen bonds terminating the surface with more stable silicon-carbon bonds. The composition of the PS surface was monitored by transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy at intervals of 1 month in ageing time up to 1 year. The position of the maximum PL peak wavelength oscillates between a blue-shift and a red-shift in the 615-660 nm range with time

  10. Droplets on porous hydrophobic surfaces perfused with gas: An air-table for droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourdas, Nikolaos; Stathopoulos, Vassilis; Laboratory of Chemistry; Materials Technology Team

    2016-11-01

    Wetting phenomena on porous hydrophobic surfaces are strongly related to the volume and the pressure of gas pockets resided at the solid-liquid interface. When the porous medium is perfused with gas by means of backpressure an inherently sessile pinned droplet undergoes various changes in its shape, contact angles and mobility. This provides an alternative method for active and controlled droplet actuation, without use of electricity, magnetism, foreign particles etc. Superhydrophobicity is not a prerequisite, electrode fabrication is not needed, the liquid is not affected thermally or chemically etc. In this work we explore this method, study the pertinent underlying mechanisms, and propose some applications. The adequate backpressure for droplet actuation has been measured for various hydrophobic porous surfaces. Backpressure for actuation may be as low as some tens of mbar for some cases, thus providing a rather low-energy demanding alternative. The droplet actuation mechanism has been followed numerically; it entails depinning of the receding contact line and movement, by means of a forward wave propagation reaching on the front of the droplet. Applications in valving water plugs inside open- or closed- channel fluidics will be provided.

  11. Novel production method of porous surface Ti samples for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcellos, Luana Marotta Reis; Oliveira, Fernanda Nascimento; Leite, Daniel de Oliveira; de Vasconcellos, Luis Gustavo Oliveira; do Prado, Renata Falchete; Ramos, Carolina Judica; Graça, Mário Lima de Alencastro; Cairo, Carlos Alberto Alves; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte

    2012-02-01

    A porous implant material with adequate pore structure and the appropriate mechanical properties for bone ingrowth has long been sought. This article presents details of the development, characterization and in vivo evaluations of powder metallurgy-processed titanium samples exhibiting a dense core with an integrated porous surface for biomedical applications. A space-holder method was applied to investigate the effects of different percentages and particle sizes of the urea on bone neoformation in 30 rabbits. The samples were previously characterized using scanning electron microscopy and mechanical testing. After 8 and 12 weeks of implantation, bone ingrowth was histologically and histometrically analyzed and push-out testing was performed. This study demonstrated that the association of a dense core integrated with the greatest number of interconnected pores of the smallest size is a promising biomaterial for bone tissue engineering. This sample exhibits appropriate mechanical properties combined with increased bone ingrowth, providing enhanced resistance to displacement.

  12. Sensitivity enhancement of a surface plasmon resonance sensor using porous metamaterial layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherifi, Abdellatif; Bouhafs, Benamar

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) device with two porous left handed metamaterial (LHM) layers separated by an insulator gap, is investigated. The effect of the insulator gap thickness and its refractive index (RI) on the angular response of the device is analyzed. The results show that the sensitivity of the SPR sensor is enhanced compared to the standard SPR sensors. Here, the multilayer structure is probed with 738 nm-wavelength, and electromagnetic properties of active porous LHM layers are described from the effective medium theory (EMT). Furthermore, in the increase of the porosity from 0 to 0.6, the designed nanocavity exhibits a fundamental SPR mode long-range (LR) type and it can be of interest in high-performance SPR sensing.

  13. Fabrication and surface passivation of porous 6H-SiC by atomic layer deposited films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Weifang; Ou, Yiyu; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2016-01-01

    Porous 6H-SiC samples with different thicknesses were fabricated through anodic etching in diluted hydrofluoric acid. Scanning electron microscope images show that the dendritic pore formation in 6HSiC is anisotropic, which has different lateral and vertical formation rates. Strong photoluminesce......Porous 6H-SiC samples with different thicknesses were fabricated through anodic etching in diluted hydrofluoric acid. Scanning electron microscope images show that the dendritic pore formation in 6HSiC is anisotropic, which has different lateral and vertical formation rates. Strong...... above the 6H-SiC crystal band gap, which suggests that the strong photoluminescence is ascribed to surface state produced during the anodic etching....

  14. The effects of processing parameters on the properties of micro-scale porous surface for a micro-channel reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yanbing; Mei, Deqing; Qian, Miao; Yi, Zoudongyi; Chen, Zichen

    2017-01-01

    To improve the performance of hydrogen production via a microchannel reactor with a porous surface, the process of layered powder sintering and dissolution method is optimized, and the effects of processing parameters on the morphological and mechanical properties of the porous surface structure are studied. Based on the preliminary experiments, three key parameters in the process are the size of the NaCl particle, the compaction pressure, and the sintering temperature. Besides, the porous surface structures are evaluated by the specific surface area and compression strength to optimize the influencing variables. Results show that the specific surface area of porous surface structure is determined mainly by the size of NaCl particle, while the pressure and temperature have little influence unexpectedly within the range of experimental condition. With the increase of temperature and pressure, the compression strength will be enhanced, but the increase of the size of NaCl particles will cause the decrease of compression strength. The optimum compaction pressure, sintering temperature, and size of the NaCl particle are obtained respectively. Finally, the optimum parameters have been used to manufacture the micro-channel catalyst support with a porous surface, and its hydrogen production can be maximumly enhanced by 90% compared with the surface fabricated with NaCl particles of 125–150 µ m. (paper)

  15. Heat Transfer Analysis for Stationary Boundary Layer Slip Flow of a Power-Law Fluid in a Darcy Porous Medium with Plate Suction/Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Asim; Ali, Yasir; Aziz, Taha; Siddique, J I

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the slip effects on the boundary layer flow and heat transfer characteristics of a power-law fluid past a porous flat plate embedded in the Darcy type porous medium. The nonlinear coupled system of partial differential equations governing the flow and heat transfer of a power-law fluid is transformed into a system of nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations by applying a suitable similarity transformation. The resulting system of ordinary differential equations is solved numerically using Matlab bvp4c solver. Numerical results are presented in the form of graphs and the effects of the power-law index, velocity and thermal slip parameters, permeability parameter, suction/injection parameter on the velocity and temperature profiles are examined.

  16. Reinforcement of a porous collagen scaffold with surface-activated PLA fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Huang, Changbin; Feng, Yujie; Liang, Jie; Fan, Yujiang; Gu, Zhongwei; Zhang, Xingdong

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid porous collagen scaffold mechanically reinforced with surface-activated poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fiber was prepared. PLA fibers, 20 mum in diameter and 1 mm in length, were aminolyzed with hexanediamine to introduce free amino groups on the surfaces. After the amino groups were transferred to aldehyde groups by treatment with glutaraldehyde, different amounts (1.5, 3, 5 and 8 mg) of surface-activated PLA fibers were homogeneously mixed with 2 ml type-I collagen solution (pH 2.8, 0.6 wt%). This mixture solution was then freeze-dried and cross-linked to obtain collagen sponges with surface-activated PLA fiber. Scanning electron microscopy observation indicated that the collagen sponges had a highly interconnected porous structure with an average pore size of 170 mum, irrespective of PLA fiber incorporation. The dispersion of surface-activated PLA fibers was homogeneous in collagen sponge, in contrast to unactivated PLA fibers. The compression modulus test results showed that, compared with unactivated PLA fibers, the surface-activated PLA fibers enhanced the resistance of collagen sponge to compression more significantly. Cytotoxicity assay by MTT test showed no cytotoxicity of these collagen sponges. L929 mouse fibroblast cell-culture studies in vitro revealed that the number of L929 cells attached to the collagen sponge with surface-activated PLA fibers, both 6 h and 24 h after seeding, was higher than that in pure collagen sponge and sponge with unactivated PLA fibers. In addition, a better distribution of cells infiltrated in collagen sponge with surface-activated PLA fibers was observed by histological staining. These results indicated that the collagen sponge reinforced with surface-activated PLA fibers is a promising biocompatible scaffold for tissue engineering.

  17. Numerical analysis of non-stationary free surface flow in a Pelton bucket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hana, Morten

    1999-07-01

    Computation and analysis of flow in Pelton buckets have been carried out. First a graphical method is investigated and partially improved. In order to decide whether to improve the method further or disregard it in favour of commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes, a study on numerical methods for free surface flow was carried out. This part of this work concentrates on the theoretical background for different numerical methods, and describes some practical considerations. Although small programs were created based on the literature survey, but only one reported herein, it was soon found that commonly available numerical codes were favourable in use. A code, RIPPLE, was acquired to study the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method in detail. The commercial codes used were Flow-3D and CFX-4. These programs were used in three different cases. First, a simplified 2-dimensional case was verified experimentally. Next, a 3-dimensional fixed jet calculation was carried out. Finally, numerical calculations with relative motion between the jet and buckets were carried out with CFX-4. The conclusion is that commercial CFD codes can replace the graphical method. But careful implementation is needed in order to resolve the special features of Pelton turbines, which are the free surface, the complex geometry and the relative motion between the jet and the bucket.

  18. Evaluation of Heat Losses Behind the Front of the Detonation Moving Along the Metallic Porous Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Golovastov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a computational technique of the heat flow from the hot products of detonation combustion into the porous coating and estimates the efficiency of the coating layer that results in slowing the flame front down with disregard the transverse displacement of the combustion products weight of a hydrogen-air mixture.Initial thermodynamic parameters of combustion products on the porous coating surface have been estimated. A drag (stagnation temperature of flow was determined.The statement of task was to calculate the heat flow into the long cylindrical metal fiber with radius of 15 μm. The reference values of heat capacity and heat diffusivity were used to estimate a thermal diffusivity in a wide range of temperatures. An approximation of the parameters is given for a wide range of temperatures.The calculation algorithm using an explicit four-point scheme is presented. The convergence and accuracy of the results were confirmed. The theoretical estimation using cylindrical Bessel functions was made to prove the accuracy of the results.Total heat loss was estimated using the photos of moving detonation front and hot combustion gases.Comparison of the total heat loss and the amount of energy absorbed by a single fiber allowed us to find that the porous coating thickness, resulting in attenuation of detonation wave, is efficient.

  19. Analysis of Stationary, Photovoltaic-based Surface Power System Designs at the Lunar South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeh, Joshua E.

    2009-01-01

    Combinations of solar arrays and either batteries or regenerative fuel cells are analyzed for a surface power system module at the lunar south pole. The systems are required to produce 5 kW of net electrical power in sunlight and 2 kW of net electrical power during lunar night periods for a 10-year period between 2020 and 2030. Systems-level models for energy conservation, performance, degradation, and mass are used to compare to various systems. The sensitivities of important and/or uncertain variables including battery specific energy, fuel cell operating voltage, and DC-DC converter efficiency are compared to better understand the system. Switching unit efficiency, battery specific energy, and fuel cell operating voltage appear to be important system-level variables for this system. With reasonably sized solar arrays, the regenerative fuel cell system has significantly lower mass than the battery system based on the requirements and assumptions made herein. The total operational time is estimated at about 10,000 hours in battery discharge/fuel cell mode and about 4,000 and 8,000 hours for the battery charge and electrolyzer modes, respectively. The estimated number of significant depth-of-discharge cycles for either energy storage system is less than 100 for the 10-year period.

  20. Surface binding of polypyrrole on porous silicon hollow nanospheres for Li-ion battery anodes with high structure stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fei-Hu; Li, Bo; Fu, Wei; Xiong, Yi-Jun; Wang, Kai-Xue; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2014-09-17

    Uniform porous silicon hollow nano-spheres are prepared without any sacrificial templates through a magnesio-thermic reduction of mesoporous silica hollow nanospheres and surface modified by the following in situ chemical polymerization of polypyrrole. The porous hollow structure and polypyrrole coating contribute significantly to the excellent structure stability and high electrochemical performance of the nanocomposite. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Enhanced solar evaporation of water from porous media, through capillary mediated forces and surface treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canbazoglu, F. M.; Fan, B.; Kargar, A.; Vemuri, K.; Bandaru, P. R., E-mail: pbandaru@ucsd.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The relative influence of the capillary, Marangoni, and hydrophobic forces in mediating the evaporation of water from carbon foam based porous media, in response to incident solar radiation, are investigated. It is indicated that inducing hydrophilic interactions on the surface, through nitric acid treatment of the foams, has a similar effect to reduced pore diameter and the ensuing capillary forces. The efficiency of water evaporation may be parameterized through the Capillary number (Ca), with a lower Ca being preferred. The proposed study is of much relevance to efficient solar energy utilization.

  2. Optimal Design of Slippery Liquid-Infused Porous Surfaces for Enhanced Condensation of Low Surface Tension Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Daniel J.; Lu, Zhengmao; Zhao, Yajing; Antao, Dion; Wilke, Kyle; Wang, Evelyn N.

    Vapor condensation is routinely used as an effective means of transferring heat or separating fluids. Dropwise condensation, where discrete droplets form on the condenser surface, exhibits 5 - 7x higher heat transfer performance than filmwise condensation, where the condensate spreads over the surface. However, promoting dropwise condensation of low surface tension fluids is particularly challenging since the typical hydrophobic condenser coatings used to promote dropwise condensation of water (surface tension 73 mN/m) often do not repel fluids with low surface tensions (<30 mN/m). Recent work has indicated that slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) can promote dropwise condensation of low surface tension fluids by introducing a lubricant immiscible with the condensate into a rough structure on the condenser surface. We developed a detailed model of condensation on SLIPS using the van Oss-Chaudhury-Good theory as a framework to determine the feasibility of any arbitrary solid-lubricant-condensate system, and we validated our model with experimental results. This work enables optimal design of SLIPS for enhanced condensation of low surface tension fluids which promises significant energy savings in applications such as thermal management and power generation.

  3. Effect of Surface Roughness on MHD Couple Stress Squeeze-Film Characteristics between a Sphere and a Porous Plane Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajashekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of couple stress and surface roughness on the MHD squeeze-film lubrication between a sphere and a porous plane surface are analyzed, based upon the thin-film magnetohydrodynamic (MHD theory. Using Stoke’s theory to account for the couple stresses due to the microstructure additives and the Christensen’s stochastic method developed for hydrodynamic lubrication of rough surfaces derives the stochastic MHD Reynolds-type equation. The expressions for the mean MHD squeeze-film pressure, mean load-carrying capacity, and mean squeeze-film time are obtained. The results indicate that the couple stress fluid in the film region enhances the mean MHD squeeze-film pressure, load-carrying capacity, and squeeze-film time. The effect of roughness parameter is to increase (decrease the load-carrying capacity and lengthen the response time for azimuthal (radial roughness patterns as compared to the smooth case. Also, the effect of porous parameter is to decrease the load-carrying capacity and increase the squeeze-film time as compared to the solid case.

  4. Different size biomolecules anchoring on porous silicon surface: fluorescence and reflectivity pores infiltration comparative studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannozzi, Andrea M.; Rossi, Andrea M. [National Institute for Metrological Research, Thermodynamic Division, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Renacco, Chiara; Farano, Alessandro [Ribes Ricecrhe Srl, Via Lavoratori Vittime del Col du Mont 24, 11100 Aosta (Italy); Derosas, Manuela [Biodiversity Srl, Via Corfu 71, 25124 Brescia (Italy); Enrico, Emanuele [National Institute for Metrological Research, Electromagnetism Division, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    The performance of porous silicon optical based biosensors strongly depends on material nanomorphology, on biomolecules distribution inside the pores and on the ability to link sensing species to the pore walls. In this paper we studied the immobilization of biomolecules with different size, such as antibody anti aflatoxin (anti Aflatox Ab, {proportional_to}150 KDa), malate dehydrogenase (MDH, {proportional_to}36KDa) and metallothionein (MT, {proportional_to}6KDa) at different concentrations on mesoporous silicon samples ({proportional_to}15 nm pores diameter). Fluorescence measurements using FITC- labeled biomolecules and refractive index analysis based on reflectivity spectra have been employed together to detect the amount of proteins bound to the surface and to evaluate their diffusion inside the pores. Here we suggest that these two techniques should be used together to have a better understanding of what happens at the porous silicon surface. In fact, when pores dimensions are not perfectly tuned to the protein size a higher fluorescence signal doesn't often correspond to a higher biomolecules distribution inside the pores. When a too much higher concentration of biomolecule is anchored on the surface, steric crowd effects and repulsive interactions probably take over and hinder pores infiltration, inducing a small or absent shift in the fringe pattern even if a higher fluorescence signal is registered. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Surface modification of porous poly(tetrafluoraethylene) film by a simple chemical oxidation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shifang; Li Juan; Suo Jinping; Luo Tianzhi

    2010-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive and environmental chemical treatment process, i.e., treating porous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films by a mixture of potassium permanganate solution and nitric acid, was proposed to improve the hydrophilicity of PTFE. To evaluate the effectiveness of this strong oxidation treatment, contact angle measurement was performed. The effects of treatment time and temperature on the contact angle of PTFE were studied as well. The results showed that the chemical modification decreased contact angle of as-received PTFE film from 133 ± 3 deg. to 30 ± 4 deg. treated at 100 deg. C for 3 h, effectively converting the hydrophobic PTFE to a hydrophilic PTFE matrix. The changes in chemical structure, surface compositions and crystal structure of PTFE were examined by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. It was found that the F/C atomic ratio decreased from untreated 1.65-0.10 treated by the mixture at 100 deg. C for 3 h. Hydrophilic groups such as carbonyl (C=O) and hydroxyl (-OH) were introduced on the surface of PTFE after treatment. Furthermore, hydrophilic compounds K 0.27 MnO 2 .0.54H 2 O was absorbed on the surface of porous PTFE film. Both the introduction of hydrophilic groups and absorption of hydrophilic compounds contribute to the significantly decreased contact angle of PTFE.

  6. Unsteady free convection from a sphere in a porous medium with variable surface temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, Asghar Baradaran

    2011-01-01

    All works on natural convection around a sphere in porous media, except the transient work of Nakayama and Koyama and Nguyen and Paik which are for body of arbitrary geometric configuration, have been conducted only for constant temperature or constant heat flux on its surface. In this paper a transient free convection flow around a sphere with variable surface temperature and embedded in a porous medium has been considered. The temperature of the sphere is suddenly raised and subsequently maintained at values that vary with position on surface. This situation is specially encountered when nuclear wastes, for example, are buried in earth. The method of asymptotic expansions is applied for small Rayleigh numbers up to the second-order of approximation and then a finite-difference scheme is used to solve the problem numerically for finite values of Rayleigh numbers. Transient and steady-state flow and temperature patterns around the sphere are discussed in details and a comparison between numerical and analytical results has been presented. (author)

  7. Thrust Porous Bearing with Rough Surfaces Lubricated by a Rotem-Shinnar Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walicka Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the influence of both bearing surfaces roughness and porosity of one bearing surface on the pressure distribution and load-carrying capacity of a thrust bearing surfaces is discussed. The equations of motion of a pseudo-plastic fluid of Rotem-Shinnar, are used to derive the Reynolds equation. After general considerations on the flow in a bearing clearance and in a porous layer using the Morgan-Cameron approximation and Christensen theory of hydrodynamic lubrication the modified Reynolds equation is obtained. The analytical solutions of this equation for the cases of squeeze film bearing and externally pressurized bearing are presented. As a result one obtains the formulae expressing pressure distribution and load-carrying capacity. Thrust radial bearing with squeezed film is considered as a numerical example.

  8. Porous boron nitride with a high surface area: hydrogen storage and water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Lin, Jing; Xu, Xuewen; Zhang, Xinghua; Xue, Yanming; Mi, Jiao; Mo, Zhaojun; Fan, Ying; Hu, Long; Yang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Jun; Meng, Fanbin; Yuan, Songdong; Tang, Chengchun

    2013-04-19

    We report on the synthesis of high-quality microporous/mesoporous BN material via a facile two-step approach. An extremely high surface area of 1687 m(2) g(-1) and a large pore volume of 0.99 cm(3) g(-1) have been observed in the synthesized BN porous whiskers. The formation of the porous structure was attributed to the group elimination of organic species in a BN precursor, melamine diborate molecular crystal. This elimination method maintained the ordered pore structure and numerous structural defects. The features including high surface area, pore volume and structural defects make the BN whiskers highly suitable for hydrogen storage and wastewater treatment applications. We demonstrate excellent hydrogen uptake capacity of the BN whiskers with high weight adsorption up to 5.6% at room temperature and at the relatively low pressure of 3 MPa. Furthermore, the BN whiskers also exhibit excellent adsorption capacity of methyl orange and copper ions, with the maximum removal capacity of 298.3 and 373 mg g(-1) at 298 K, respectively.

  9. Assessment of agar gel loaded with micro-emulsion for the cleaning of porous surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Gorel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Le système composé d’un gel d’agar-agar et d’une microémulsion présente plusieurs qualités pour extraire des matériaux hydrophobes de couches poreuses. Les propriétés rhéologiques de ce système sont adaptées à un usage en restauration et sont stables pendant plusieurs jours. Les gels permettent la solubilisation du matériau à l’aide de faible quantité de solvant, l’empêchent de créer des auréoles, permettent le contrôle de l’évaporation des solvants et ne laissent pas de résidus de gel dans les pores.Agar gel loaded with micro-emulsion could be used to extract lipophilic materials from porous surfaces. The physical properties of the gels are good enough for a conservation work. They allow the micro-emulsion to flow on the porous surface and to wet it but maintain the micro-emulsion in its structure and prevent the formation of rings. The evaporation of the solvents is slowed down and the gels can be used during a long period.

  10. The effects of surface aging on nanoparticle fate and transport in natural and engineered porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelman, Anjuliee M.

    Nanomaterials will be subjected to various surface transformations in the environment and within water and wastewater treatment systems. A comprehensive understanding of the fate and transport behavior of "aged" nanomaterials in both natural and engineered porous media is required in order to accurately quantify ecological and human health risks. This research sought to (1) evaluate the impact of ultraviolet (UV) light aging on nanoparticle transport in water-saturated porous media; and (2) assess the effects of influent water quality on silver nanoparticle retention and dissolution in ceramic water filters. Additionally, the value of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D) data in nanoparticle fate and transport studies was evaluated by comparing deposition behavior in complementary QCM-D and sand columns experiments. Silver (nAg) and iron oxide nanoparticles exposed to UV light were up to 50% more strongly retained in porous media compared with freshly prepared suspensions due to less negative surface charge and larger aggregate sizes. UV-aged nAg were more prone to dissolution in sand columns, resulting in effluent Ag+ concentrations as high as 1.2 mg/L. In ceramic water filters, dissolution and cation exchange processes controlled silver release into treated water. The use of acidic, high salinity, or high hardness water accelerated oxidative dissolution of the silver coating and resulted in effluent silver concentrations 5-10 times above international drinking water guidelines. Results support the recommendation for a regular filter replacement or silver re-application schedule to ensure ongoing efficacy. Taken in concert, these research findings suggest that oxidative aging of nanomaterial surfaces (either through exposure to UV light or aggressive water chemistries) will alter the fate of nanomaterials in the environment and may decrease the effective lifetime of devices which utilize nanotechnology. Corresponding QCM-D and column experiments revealed that

  11. Pore scale heterogeneity in the mineral distribution and surface area of porous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Peter; Moulton, Kevin; Krevor, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    There are long-standing challenges in characterizing reactive transport in porous media at scales larger than individual pores. This hampers the prediction of the field-scale impact of geochemical processes on fluid flow [1]. This is a source of uncertainty for carbon dioxide injection, which results in a reactive fluid-rock system, particularly in carbonate rock reservoirs. A potential cause is the inability of the continuum approach to incorporate the impact of heterogeneity in pore-scale reaction rates. This results in part from pore-scale heterogeneities in surface area of reactive minerals [2,3]. The objective of this study was to quantify heterogeneity in reactive surface and observe the extent of its non-normal character. In this study we describe our work in using micron-scale x-ray imaging and other spectroscopic techniques for the purpose of describing the statistical distribution of reactive surface area within a porous medium, and identifying specific mineral phases and their distribution in 3-dimensions. Using in-house image processing techniques and auxilary charactersation with thin section, electron microscope and spectroscopic techniques we quantified the surface area of each mineral phase in the x-ray CT images. This quantification was validated against nitrogen BET surface area and backscattered electron imaging measurements of the CT-imaged samples. Distributions in reactive surface area for each mineral phase were constructed by calculating surface areas in thousands of randomly selected subvolume images of the total sample, each normalized to the pore volume in that image. In all samples, there is little correlation between the reactive surface area fraction and the volumetric fraction of a mineral in a bulk rock. Berea sandstone was far less heterogeneous and has a characteristic pore size at which a surface area distribution may be used to quantify heterogeneity. In carbonates, heterogeneity is more complex and surface area must be

  12. Corrosion protection application of slippery liquid-infused porous surface based on aluminum foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Yanjing; Zhang, Haifeng; Chen, Weiping; Liu, Xiaowei

    2017-11-01

    Corrosion is a major problem for metal in marine systems. In this research, we fabricated a slippery liquid-infused porous surface (SLIPS) on the aluminum foil to protect the underneath metal. The as-fabricated samples were characterized with EDS, XRD, SEM, and contact angle meter. And the anti-corrosion property was evaluated by electrochemical measurements. The corrosion current density of SLIPS is ca.2 orders of magnitude lower than that of the untreated aluminum and superhydrophobic surface. And the impedance spectra of the SLIPS shows a large impedance semicircle with a diameter of several hundred kΩ.cm2. The SLIPS exhibits an outstanding corrosion protection capability, thus it has a broad application prospect in marine.

  13. Surface characterisation and electrochemical behaviour of porous titanium dioxide coated 316L stainless steel for orthopaedic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagarajan, S.; Rajendran, N.

    2009-01-01

    Porous titanium dioxide was coated on surgical grade 316L stainless steel (SS) and its role on the corrosion protection and enhanced biocompatibility of the materials was studied. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) were carried out to characterise the surface morphology and also to understand the structure of the as synthesised coating on the substrates. The corrosion behaviour of titanium dioxide coated samples in simulated body fluid was evaluated using polarisation and impedance spectroscopy studies. The results reveal that the titanium dioxide coated 316L SS exhibit a higher corrosion resistance than the uncoated 316L SS. The titanium dioxide coated surface is porous, uniform and also it acts as a barrier layer to metallic substrate and the porous titanium dioxide coating induces the formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the metal surface.

  14. Tantalum implanted entangled porous titanium promotes surface osseointegration and bone ingrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Qiao, Yuqin; Cheng, Mengqi; Jiang, Guofeng; He, Guo; Chen, Yunsu; Zhang, Xianlong; Liu, Xuanyong

    2016-05-01

    Porous Ti is considered to be an ideal graft material in orthopaedic and dental surgeries due to its similar spatial structures and mechanical properties to cancellous bone. In this work, to overcome the bioinertia of Ti, Ta-implanted entangled porous titanium (EPT) was constructed by plasma immersion ion implantation & deposition (PIII&D) method. Ca-implanted and unimplanted EPTs were investigated as control groups. Although no difference was found in surface topography and mechanical performances, both Ca- and Ta-implanted groups had better effects in promoting MG-63 cell viability, proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization than those of unimplanted group. The expression of osteogenic-related markers examined by qRT-PCR and western blotting was upregulated in Ca- and Ta-implanted groups. Moreover, Ta-implanted EPT group could reach a higher level of these effects than that of Ca-implanted group. Enhanced osseointegration of both Ca- and Ta-implanted EPT implants was demonstrated through in vivo experiments, including micro-CT evaluation, push-out test, sequential fluorescent labeling and histological observation. However, the Ta-implanted group possessed more stable and continuous osteogenic activity. Our results suggest that Ta-implanted EPT can be developed as one of the highly efficient graft material for bone reconstruction situations.

  15. Polypropylene nonwoven surface modified through introducing porous microspheres: Preparation, characterization and adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiao; Wei, Junfu; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Xiangyu; Dai, Danyang

    2016-01-01

    A new porous fabric adsorbent (PM/PP nonwoven) was prepared by hydrogen bonding self-assembly method, in which poly(divinylbenzene-co-4-vinylpyridine) microspheres were introduced onto the surface of PP-g-AA (polypropylene grafted acrylic acid) nonwoven. The effects of the main conditions for self-assembly reaction such as mass ratio of microsphere to nonwoven, pH and the grafting degree of acrylic acid were studied. In addition, the adsorption mechanisms and interactions for three VOCs (styrene, cyclohexane, acetone) were systematically elucidated. The resulting 28.2% PM/PP nonwoven obtained a higher adsorption amount (52.8 mg/g) of styrene vapor, which was 88 times greater than that of original PP nonwoven. Meanwhile, the kinetic studies suggested that the Yoon and Nelson model is suitable to describe the adsorption mechanism of styrene over the modified nonwovens. Adsorption and pressure drop data showed that PM/PP nonwoven had good adsorption ability and air permeability due to its abundant functional groups and porous structures. Taken together, it is expected that PM/PP nonwoven would be a promising adsorbent for removal of VOCs from the gas streams.

  16. Surface-Wettability Patterning for Distributing High-Momentum Water Jets on Porous Polymeric Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Uddalok; Chatterjee, Souvick; Sinha Mahapatra, Pallab; Ganguly, Ranjan; Dodge, Richard; Yu, Lisha; Megaridis, Constantine M

    2018-02-07

    Liquid jet impingement on porous materials is particularly important in many applications of heat transfer, filtration, or in incontinence products. Generally, it is desired that the liquid not penetrate the substrate at or near the point of jet impact, but rather be distributed over a wider area before reaching the back side. A facile wettability-patterning technique is presented, whereby a water jet impinging orthogonally on a wettability-patterned nonwoven substrate is distributed on the top surface and through the porous matrix, and ultimately dispensed from prespecified points underneath the sample. A systematic approach is adopted to identify the optimum design that allows for a uniform distribution of the liquid on horizontally mounted substrates of ∼50 cm 2 area, with minimal or no spilling over the sample edges at jet flow rates exceeding 1 L/min. The effect of the location of jet impingement on liquid distribution is also studied, and the design is observed to perform well even under offset jet impact conditions.

  17. Surface Engineering of Porous Silicon Microparticles for Intravitreal Sustained Delivery of Rapamycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Alejandra; Hou, Huiyuan; Moon, Sang Woong; Sailor, Michael J.; Freeman, William R.; Cheng, Lingyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To understand the relationship between rapamycin loading/release and surface chemistries of porous silicon (pSi) to optimize pSi-based intravitreal delivery system. Methods. Three types of surface chemical modifications were studied: (1) pSi-COOH, containing 10-carbon aliphatic chains with terminal carboxyl groups grafted via hydrosilylation of undecylenic acid; (2) pSi-C12, containing 12-carbon aliphatic chains grafted via hydrosilylation of 1-dodecene; and (3) pSiO2-C8, prepared by mild oxidation of the pSi particles followed by grafting of 8-hydrocarbon chains to the resulting porous silica surface via a silanization. Results. The efficiency of rapamycin loading follows the order (micrograms of drug/milligrams of carrier): pSiO2-C8 (105 ± 18) > pSi-COOH (68 ± 8) > pSi-C12 (36 ± 6). Powder X-ray diffraction data showed that loaded rapamycin was amorphous and dynamic drug-release study showed that the availability of the free drug was increased by 6-fold (compared with crystalline rapamycin) by using pSiO2-C8 formulation (P = 0.0039). Of the three formulations in this study, pSiO2-C8-RAP showed optimal performance in terms of simultaneous release of the active drug and carrier degradation, and drug-loading capacity. Released rapamycin was confirmed with the fingerprints of the mass spectrometry and biologically functional as the control of commercial crystalline rapamycin. Single intravitreal injections of 2.9 ± 0.37 mg pSiO2-C8-RAP into rabbit eyes resulted in more than 8 weeks of residence in the vitreous while maintaining clear optical media and normal histology of the retina in comparison to the controls. Conclusions. Porous silicon–based rapamycin delivery system using the pSiO2-C8 formulation demonstrated good ocular compatibility and may provide sustained drug release for retina. PMID:25613937

  18. Optimization of Preparation Program for Biomass Based Porous Active Carbon by Response Surface Methodology Based on Adsorptive Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With waste walnut shell as raw material, biomass based porous active carbon was made by microwave oven method. The effects of microwave power, activation time and mass fraction of phosphoric acid on adsorptive property of biomass based porous active carbon in the process of physical activation of active carbon precursor were studied by response surface method and numerical simulation method, the preparation plan of biomass based porous active carbon was optimized, and the optimal biomass based porous active carbon property was characterized. The results show that three factors affect the adsorptive property of biomass based porous active carbon, but the effect of microwave power is obviously more significant than that of mass fraction of phosphoric acid, and the effect of mass fraction of phosphoric acid is more significant than that of activation time. The optimized preparation conditions are:microwave power is 746W, activation time is 11.2min and mass fraction of phosphoric acid is 85.9% in the process of physical activation of activated carbon precursor by microwave heating method. For the optimal biomass based porous active carbon, the adsorption value of iodine is 1074.57mg/g, adsorption value of methylene blue is 294.4mL/g and gain rate is 52.1%.

  19. Macrostructure-dependent photocatalytic property of high-surface-area porous titania films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kimura

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Porous titania films with different macrostructures were prepared with precise control of condensation degree and density of the oxide frameworks in the presence of spherical aggregates of polystyrene-block-poly(oxyethylene (PS-b-PEO diblock copolymer. Following detailed explanation of the formation mechanisms of three (reticular, spherical, and large spherical macrostructures by the colloidal PS-b-PEO templating, structural variation of the titania frameworks during calcination were investigated by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Then, photocatalytic performance of the macroporous titania films was evaluated through simple degradation experiments of methylene blue under an UV irradiation. Consequently, absolute surface area of the film and crystallinity of the titania frameworks were important for understanding the photocatalytic performance, but the catalytic performance can be improved further by the macrostructural design that controls diffusivity of the targeted molecules inside the film and their accessibility to active sites.

  20. The Effect of Plasma Surface Treatment on a Porous Green Ceramic Film with Polymeric Binder Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun Jeong Woo

    2013-01-01

    To reduce time and energy during thermal binder removal in the ceramic process, plasma surface treatment was applied before the lamination process. The adhesion strength in the lamination films was enhanced by oxidative plasma treatment of the porous green ceramic film with polymeric binding materials. The oxygen plasma characteristics were investigated through experimental parameters and weight loss analysis. The experimental results revealed the need for parameter analysis, including gas material, process time, flow rate, and discharge power, and supported a mechanism consisting of competing ablation and deposition processes. The weight loss analysis was conducted for cyclic plasma treatment rather than continuous plasma treatment for the purpose of improving the film's permeability by suppressing deposition of the ablated species. The cyclic plasma treatment improved the permeability compared to the continuous plasma treatment.

  1. Surface Modification Of The High Temperature Porous Sliding Bearings With Solid Lubricant Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiśniewska-Weinert H.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A surface modification of stainless steel bearing sleeves is developed to improve the tribology characteristics at high temperature. Solid lubricant nano- and microparticles are applied for this purpose. To create the quasi-hydrodynamic lubrication regimes, the solid lubricant powder layer is made by developed pressure impregnation technique. Porous sliding bearing sleeve prototypes were made by powder metallurgy technique. The purpose of the paper is to define the friction and wear characteristics of the sleeves and to determine the influence of sealing of the sliding interface on these characteristics. It is found that application of WS2 sold lubricant nano- and micro-particles and preservation of a particle leakage out of interface allows to achieve at the high temperature the friction coefficients comparable to those at ambient temperature.

  2. Decalin-assisted light emitting porous Si formation and its optical, surface and morphological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatutlu, Ali; Istengir, Sumeyra; Cosgun, Sedat; Seker, Isa; Unal, Bayram

    2017-11-01

    In this research paper, light emitting porous silicon (Lep-Si) samples were fabricated by a surfactant-mediated chemical stain etching solution in order to form homogenous luminescent nanostructures at room temperature. As an industrially important solvent, decalin (decahydronaphtalene) was used as a surfactant in the HF/HNO3 solutions in order to control the etching process. Morphological, surface and optical properties of the Lep-Si samples were examined using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) techniques. These characterization techniques were correlated with the various etching times including depth dependent luminescence profiles for the first time. We report the optimum conditions for production of the most efficient Lep-Si using decalin (decahydronaphtalene) and possible structural origins of light emission using the depth dependent luminescence measurements.

  3. Different effects of surface heterogeneous atoms of porous and non-porous carbonaceous materials on adsorption of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane in aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weifeng; Ni, Jinzhi

    2017-05-01

    The surface heterogeneous atoms of carbonaceous materials (CMs) play an important role in adsorption of organic pollutants. However, little is known about the surface heterogeneous atoms of CMs might generate different effect on adsorption of hydrophobic organic compounds by porous carbonaceous materials - activated carbons (ACs) and non-porous carbonaceous materials (NPCMs). In this study, we observed that the surface oxygen and nitrogen atoms could decrease the adsorption affinity of both ACs and NPCMs for 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TeCA), but the degree of decreasing effects were very different. The increasing content of surface oxygen and nitrogen ([O + N]) caused a sharper decrease in adsorption affinity of ACs (slope of lg (k d /SA) vs [O + N]: -0.098∼-0.16) than that of NPCMs (slope of lg (k d /SA) vs [O + N]: -0.025∼-0.059) for TeCA. It was due to the water cluster formed by the surface hydrophilic atoms that could block the micropores and generate massive invalid adsorption sites in the micropores of ACs, while the water cluster only occupied the surface adsorption sites of NPCMs. Furthermore, with the increasing concentration of dissolved TeCA, the effect of surface area on adsorption affinity of NPCMs for TeCA kept constant while the effect of [O + N] decreased due to the competitive adsorption between water molecule and TeCA on the surface of NPCMs, meanwhile, both the effects of micropore volume and [O + N] on adsorption affinity of ACs for TeCA were decreased due to the mechanism of micropore volume filling. These findings are valuable for providing a deep insight into the adsorption mechanisms of CMs for TeCA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Universal Isotherm Model to Capture Adsorption Uptake and Energy Distribution of Porous Heterogeneous Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2017-08-31

    The adsorbate-adsorbent thermodynamics are complex as it is influenced by the pore size distributions, surface heterogeneity and site energy distribution, as well as the adsorbate properties. Together, these parameters defined the adsorbate uptake forming the state diagrams, known as the adsorption isotherms, when the sorption site energy on the pore surfaces are favorable. The available adsorption models for describing the vapor uptake or isotherms, hitherto, are individually defined to correlate to a certain type of isotherm patterns. There is yet a universal approach in developing these isotherm models. In this paper, we demonstrate that the characteristics of all sorption isotherm types can be succinctly unified by a revised Langmuir model when merged with the concepts of Homotattic Patch Approximation (HPA) and the availability of multiple sets of site energy accompanied by their respective fractional probability factors. The total uptake (q/q*) at assorted pressure ratios (P/P s ) are inextricably traced to the manner the site energies are spread, either naturally or engineered by scientists, over and across the heterogeneous surfaces. An insight to the porous heterogeneous surface characteristics, in terms of adsorption site availability has been presented, describing the unique behavior of each isotherm type.

  5. Surface characterization and effectiveness evaluation of anti-graffiti coatings on highly porous stone materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettieri, Mariateresa; Masieri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    In this study, two commercial sacrificial anti-graffiti systems, provided as water emulsion, were applied on a highly porous stone. The behavior of the anti-graffiti treatments was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance mode (ATR-FTIR), colorimetric tests, and water static contact angle measurements. The presence of a protective coating enhanced the removal of paint sprayed on the stone. However, penetration of the staining agent below the surface, due to the high porosity of the substrate, caused difficulties in eliminating the paint. In fact, repeated cleaning procedures, involving hot water, mechanical action, and chemical removers, did not allow a complete removal of the paint. The examined systems behaved against graffiti in different ways. No affinity between the wax-based product and the paint was observed; nevertheless, this behavior did not result in good anti-graffiti performances. On the contrary, the penetration of the paint into the fluorine-based coating yielded a good anti-graffiti effectiveness, since the stain was easily eliminated from the surfaces. The anti-graffiti coatings survived in limited areas after the cleaning processes, although the studied compounds are suggested as sacrificial products. Such behavior may affect the maintenance activities, when the surface is no longer protected and the coating need to be renewed, since compatibility problems, as well as harmful accumulation, could occur because of further treatments on these surfaces.

  6. The effect of electron beam irradiation on forensic evidence. 1. Latent print recovery on porous and non-porous surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramotowski, Robert S; Regen, Erin M

    2005-03-01

    The recent use of the postal system as a means of delivering anthrax spores via several contaminated envelopes has led to the selective irradiation of mail. These as yet unsolved attacks and the U.S. Postal Service's decision to irradiate certain types of mail has led to some unexpected complications. The high doses of radiation required to destroy biological agents like anthrax are sufficient to induce damage to other materials present in the envelope. There have been reports of damage to many different items that have been subjected to irradiation, including paper, precious gems, plastic, computer discs, and electronics. However, few studies have examined the effect of such treatments on items of forensic interest. In this paper, the authors focused on the impact of the irradiation process on the ability to visualize latent prints. This experiment involved using several donors, substrates (both porous and non-porous), and visualization reagents. The results indicate that the irradiation process can have a detrimental effect on the success of certain visualization reagents.

  7. Effect of Alkali-Acid-Heat Chemical Surface Treatment on Electron Beam Melted Porous Titanium and Its Apatite Forming Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Bsat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced additive manufacturing techniques such as electron beam melting (EBM, can produce highly porous structures that resemble the mechanical properties and structure of native bone. However, for orthopaedic applications, such as joint prostheses or bone substitution, the surface must also be bio-functionalized to promote bone growth. In the current work, EBM porous Ti6Al4V alloy was exposed to an alkali acid heat (AlAcH treatment to bio-functionalize the surface of the porous structure. Various molar concentrations (3, 5, 10M and immersion times (6, 24 h of the alkali treatment were used to determine optimal parameters. The apatite forming ability of the samples was evaluated using simulated body fluid (SBF immersion testing. The micro-topography and surface chemistry of AlAcH treated samples were evaluated before and after SBF testing using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The AlAcH treatment successfully modified the topographical and chemical characteristics of EBM porous titanium surface creating nano-topographical features ranging from 200–300 nm in size with a titania layer ideal for apatite formation. After 1 and 3 week immersion in SBF, there was no Ca or P present on the surface of as manufactured porous titanium while both elements were present on all AlAcH treated samples except those exposed to 3M, 6 h alkali treatment. An increase in molar concentration and/or immersion time of alkali treatment resulted in an increase in the number of nano-topographical features per unit area as well as the amount of titania on the surface.

  8. Effect of Alkali-Acid-Heat Chemical Surface Treatment on Electron Beam Melted Porous Titanium and Its Apatite Forming Ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bsat, S.; Yavari, S.; Munsch, M.; Valstar, E.R.; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced additive manufacturing techniques such as electron beam melting (EBM), can produce highly porous structures that resemble the mechanical properties and structure of native bone. However, for orthopaedic applications, such as joint prostheses or bone substitution, the surface must also be

  9. Hierarchically Porous Carbon Monoliths with High Surface Area from Bridged Poly(silsesquioxane) without Thermal Activation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, G; Kanamori, K; Nakanishi, K; Hanada, T, E-mail: h_george@kuchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    Hierarchically porous carbon monoliths with high specific surface areas have been fabricated by removing nano-sized silica phase from carbon/silica composites pyrolyzed from bridged poly(silsesquioxane). This activation method improves the homogeneity between inner and outer parts of the monoliths compared to the conventional thermal activation methods.

  10. Surface PEG Grafting Density Determines Magnetic Relaxation Properties of Gd-Loaded Porous Nanoparticles for MR Imaging Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Wuyuan; Martinelli, Jonathan; Peters, Joop A.; Hengst, Van Jacob M.A.; Bouwmeester, Hans; Kramer, Evelien; Bonnet, Célia S.; Szeremeta, Frédéric; Tóth, Éva; Djanashvili, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Surface PEGylation of nanoparticles designed for biomedical applications is a common and straightforward way to stabilize the materials for in vivo administration and to increase their circulation time. This strategy becomes less trivial when MRI active porous nanomaterials are concerned as their

  11. Measurements on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces using a porous gamma alumina nanoparticle aggregate mounted on Atomic Force Microscopy cantilevers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Theerthankar; Becker, Thomas; Nair, Balagopal N.

    2010-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements are extensively used for a detailed understanding of molecular and surface forces. In this study, we present a technique for measuring such forces, using an AFM cantilever attached with a porous gamma alumina nanoparticle aggregate. The modified cantilever

  12. Porous structure and surface chemistry of phosphoric acid activated carbon from corncob

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sych, N.V.; Trofymenko, S.I.; Poddubnaya, O.I.; Tsyba, M.M.; Sapsay, V.I.; Klymchuk, D.O.; Puziy, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phosphoric acid activation results in formation of carbons with acidic surface groups. ► Maximum amount of surface groups is introduced at impregnation ratio 1.25. ► Phosphoric acid activated carbons show high capacity to copper. ► Phosphoric acid activated carbons are predominantly microporous. ► Maximum surface area and pore volume achieved at impregnation ratio 1.0. - Abstract: Active carbons have been prepared from corncob using chemical activation with phosphoric acid at 400 °C using varied ratio of impregnation (RI). Porous structure of carbons was characterized by nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. Surface chemistry was studied by IR and potentiometric titration method. It has been shown that porosity development was peaked at RI = 1.0 (S BET = 2081 m 2 /g, V tot = 1.1 cm 3 /g), while maximum amount of acid surface groups was observed at RI = 1.25. Acid surface groups of phosphoric acid activated carbons from corncob includes phosphate and strongly acidic carboxylic (pK = 2.0–2.6), weakly acidic carboxylic (pK = 4.7–5.0), enol/lactone (pK = 6.7–7.4; 8.8–9.4) and phenol (pK = 10.1–10.7). Corncob derived carbons showed high adsorption capacity to copper, especially at low pH. Maximum adsorption of methylene blue and iodine was observed for carbon with most developed porosity (RI = 1.0).

  13. Porous structure and surface chemistry of phosphoric acid activated carbon from corncob

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sych, N.V.; Trofymenko, S.I.; Poddubnaya, O.I.; Tsyba, M.M. [Institute for Sorption and Endoecology Problems, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 13 General Naumov St., 03164 Kyiv (Ukraine); Sapsay, V.I.; Klymchuk, D.O. [M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2 Tereshchenkivska St., 01601 Kyiv (Ukraine); Puziy, A.M., E-mail: alexander.puziy@ispe.kiev.ua [Institute for Sorption and Endoecology Problems, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 13 General Naumov St., 03164 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphoric acid activation results in formation of carbons with acidic surface groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum amount of surface groups is introduced at impregnation ratio 1.25. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphoric acid activated carbons show high capacity to copper. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphoric acid activated carbons are predominantly microporous. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum surface area and pore volume achieved at impregnation ratio 1.0. - Abstract: Active carbons have been prepared from corncob using chemical activation with phosphoric acid at 400 Degree-Sign C using varied ratio of impregnation (RI). Porous structure of carbons was characterized by nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. Surface chemistry was studied by IR and potentiometric titration method. It has been shown that porosity development was peaked at RI = 1.0 (S{sub BET} = 2081 m{sup 2}/g, V{sub tot} = 1.1 cm{sup 3}/g), while maximum amount of acid surface groups was observed at RI = 1.25. Acid surface groups of phosphoric acid activated carbons from corncob includes phosphate and strongly acidic carboxylic (pK = 2.0-2.6), weakly acidic carboxylic (pK = 4.7-5.0), enol/lactone (pK = 6.7-7.4; 8.8-9.4) and phenol (pK = 10.1-10.7). Corncob derived carbons showed high adsorption capacity to copper, especially at low pH. Maximum adsorption of methylene blue and iodine was observed for carbon with most developed porosity (RI = 1.0).

  14. Corona-induced graft polymerization for surface modification of porous polyethersulfone membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Liping; Zhu Baoku; Xu Li; Feng Yongxiang; Liu Fu; Xu Youyi

    2007-01-01

    Graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto porous polyethersulfone (PES) membrane surfaces was developed using corona discharge in atmospheric ambience as an activation process followed by polymerization of AA in aqueous solution. The effects of the corona parameters and graft polymerization conditions on grafting yield (GY) of AA were investigated. The grafting of AA on the PES membranes was confirmed by ATR-FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Porosimetry measurements indicate the average pore diameters and porosities of the modified membranes decrease with the increase of the GY. The hydrophilicity and surface wetting properties of the original and modified membranes were evaluated by observing the dynamic changes of water contact angles. It is found that the grafting of AA occurs not only on the membrane surfaces, but also on the pore walls of the cells inside the membrane. The permeability experiments of protein solution reveal that the grafting of PAA endows the modified membranes with enhanced fluxes and anti-fouling properties. The optimized GY of AA is in the range of 150-200 μg/cm 2 . In addition, the tensile experiments show the corona discharge treatment with the power lower than 150 W yields little damage to the mechanical strength of the membranes

  15. Hydrophilic modification of polyethersulfone porous membranes via a thermal-induced surface crosslinking approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Lijun; Zhao Wenzhen

    2009-01-01

    A thermal-induced surface crosslinking process was employed to perform a hydrophilic surface modification of PES porous membranes. Difunctional poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) was used as the main crosslinking modifier. The addition of trifunctional trimethylolpropane trimethylacrylate (TMPTMA) into the reaction solutions accelerated the crosslinking progress of PEGDA on PES membranes. The membrane surface morphology and chemical composition were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. The mass gains (MG) of the modified membranes could be conveniently modulated by varying the PEGDA concentration and crosslinking time. The measurements of water contact angle showed that the hydrophilicity of PES membranes was remarkably enhanced by the coating of crosslinked PEGDA layer. When a moderate mass gain of about 150 μg/cm 2 was reached, both the permeability and anti-fouling ability of PES membranes could be significantly improved. Excessive mass gain not only contributed little to the anti-fouling ability, but also brought a deteriorated permeability to PES membranes.

  16. Porous structure and surface chemistry of phosphoric acid activated carbon from corncob

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sych, N. V.; Trofymenko, S. I.; Poddubnaya, O. I.; Tsyba, M. M.; Sapsay, V. I.; Klymchuk, D. O.; Puziy, A. M.

    2012-11-01

    Active carbons have been prepared from corncob using chemical activation with phosphoric acid at 400 °C using varied ratio of impregnation (RI). Porous structure of carbons was characterized by nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. Surface chemistry was studied by IR and potentiometric titration method. It has been shown that porosity development was peaked at RI = 1.0 (SBET = 2081 m2/g, Vtot = 1.1 cm3/g), while maximum amount of acid surface groups was observed at RI = 1.25. Acid surface groups of phosphoric acid activated carbons from corncob includes phosphate and strongly acidic carboxylic (pK = 2.0-2.6), weakly acidic carboxylic (pK = 4.7-5.0), enol/lactone (pK = 6.7-7.4; 8.8-9.4) and phenol (pK = 10.1-10.7). Corncob derived carbons showed high adsorption capacity to copper, especially at low pH. Maximum adsorption of methylene blue and iodine was observed for carbon with most developed porosity (RI = 1.0).

  17. Preparation of porous polymer monoliths featuring enhanced surface coverage with gold nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Lv, Yongqin

    2012-10-01

    A new approach to the preparation of porous polymer monoliths with enhanced coverage of pore surface with gold nanoparticles has been developed. First, a generic poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith was reacted with cystamine followed by the cleavage of its disulfide bonds with tris(2-carboxylethyl)phosphine, which liberated the desired thiol groups. Dispersions of gold nanoparticles with sizes varying from 5 to 40. nm were then pumped through the functionalized monoliths. The materials were then analyzed using both energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. We found that the quantity of attached gold was dependent on the size of nanoparticles, with the maximum attachment of more than 60. wt% being achieved with 40. nm nanoparticles. Scanning electron micrographs of the cross sections of all the monoliths revealed the formation of a non-aggregated, homogenous monolayer of nanoparticles. The surface of the bound gold was functionalized with 1-octanethiol and 1-octadecanethiol, and these monolithic columns were used successfully for the separations of proteins in reversed phase mode. The best separations were obtained using monoliths modified with 15, 20, and 30. nm nanoparticles since these sizes produced the most dense coverage of pore surface with gold. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Chloride salt enhancement and stabilization of the photoluminescence from a porous silicon surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gole, James L.; Devincentis, Julie A.; Seals, Lenward; Lillehei, Peter T.; Prokes, S. M.; Dixon, David A.

    2000-02-01

    In a postetch treatment, chloride salts are used to greatly enhance and stabilize the photoluminescence (PL) from a porous silicon (PS) surface. We compare the enhancement and stabilization induced by solutions of the strong acid HCl (H++Cl-), saturated NaCl (in MeOH, where Me denotes methyl), and a tetrabutylammonium perchlorate [TBAP(Cl-)] solution. The extent and duration of the stabilization process and its dependence on the chloride-ion concentration, the identity of the cation, and the solvent composition are outlined and contrasted to strongly quenching NaF (Na++F-) and NaOH (Na++OH-) treatments. Treatment with HCl is found to produce the most efficient enhancement of the PL signal. The H+- and Cl--ion concentrations in solution are critical as the stability of the strong HCl-induced enhancement of the nitrogen-laser-induced luminescence from the PS surface depends, as well, on the presence of methanol. PS surfaces treated in an HCl/H2O solution display a strongly enhanced in situ luminescence, which decays rapidly in an ex situ environment without treatment in ultrahigh-purity (UHP) methanol. Samples treated in an HCl(H2O)/MeOH solution (greater than 2M) maintain their enhancement for extended periods. Chloride-ion stabilization appears independent of the method of preparing the PS structure, implying that chloride salt treatment largely stabilizes the surface structure of the luminescent PS. Scanning electron micrographs demonstrate the profound change that accompanies the HCl treatment of the PS surface. Energy dispersive spectroscopy reveals chloride incorporation into the PS surface at strongly photoluminescent regions. Raman scattering demonstrates that the PL is correlated with the creation of amorphous structural regions. In conjunction with detailed quantum-chemical modeling, in which we examine the derivatization of the PS surface, time-dependent histograms obtained for the HCl-treated systems indicate that the resulting luminescence, initiated

  19. Understanding long-term silver release from surface modified porous titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaram, Anish; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2017-08-01

    Prevention of orthopedic device related infection (ODRI) using antibiotics has met with limited amount of success and is still a big concern during post-surgery. As an alternative, use of silver as an antibiotic treatment to prevent surgical infections is being used due to the well-established antimicrobial properties of silver. However, in most cases silver is used in particulate form with wound dressings or with short-term devices such as catheters but not with load-bearing implants. We hypothesize that strongly adherent silver to load-bearing implants can offer longer term solution to infection in vivo. Keeping that in mind, the focus of this study was to understand the long term release study of silver ions for a period of minimum 6months from silver coated surface modified porous titanium implants. Implants were fabricated using a LENS™ system, a powder based additive manufacturing technique, with at least 25% volume porosity, with and without TiO 2 nanotubes in phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4) to see if the total release of silver ions is within the toxic limit for human cells. Considering the fact that infection sites may reduce the local pH, silver release was also studied in acetate buffer (pH 5.0) for a period of 4weeks. Along with that, the osseointegrative properties as well as cytotoxicity of porous titanium implants were assessed in vivo for a period of 12weeks using a rat distal femur model. In vivo results indicate that porous titanium implants with silver coating show comparable, if not better, biocompatibility and bonding at the bone-implant interface negating any concerns related to toxicity related to silver to normal cells. The current research is based on our recently patented technology, however focused on understanding longer-term silver release to mitigate infection related problems in load-bearing implants that can even arise several months after the surgery. Prevention of orthopedic device related infection using antibiotics has met

  20. Similarity Solution for Combined Free-Forced Convection Past a Vertical Porous Plate in a Porous Medium with a Convective Surface Boundary Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the mathematical implications of the two dimensional viscous steady laminar combined free-forced convective flow of an incompressible fluid over a semi infinite fixed vertical porous plate embedded in a porous medium. It is assumed that the left surface of the plate is heated by convection from a hot fluid which is at a temperature higher than the temperature of the fluid on the right surface of the vertical plate. To achieve numerical consistency for the problem under consideration, the governing non linear partial differential equations are first transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using a similarity variable and then solved numerically under conditions admitting similarity solutions. The effects of the physical parameters of both the incompressible fluid and the vertical plate on the dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles are studied and analysed and the results are depicted both graphically and in a tabular form. Finally, algebraic expressions and the numerical values are obtained for the local skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number.

  1. Capillary pressure in a porous medium with distinct pore surface and pore volume fractal dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deinert, M R; Dathe, A; Parlange, J-Y; Cady, K B

    2008-02-01

    The relationship between capillary pressure and saturation in a porous medium often exhibits a power-law dependence. The physical basis for this relation has been substantiated by assuming that capillary pressure is directly related to the pore radius. When the pore space of a medium exhibits fractal structure this approach results in a power-law relation with an exponent of 3-D(v), where D(v) is the pore volume fractal dimension. However, larger values of the exponent than are realistically allowed by this result have long been known to occur. Using a thermodynamic formulation for equilibrium capillary pressure we show that the standard result is a special case of the more general exponent (3-D(v))(3-D(s)) where D(s) is the surface fractal dimension of the pores. The analysis reduces to the standard result when D(s)=2, indicating a Euclidean relationship between a pore's surface area and the volume it encloses, and allows for a larger value for the exponent than the standard result when D(s)>2 .

  2. Dynamic pore network model of surface heterogeneity in brine-filled porous media for carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jonathan S; Bazylak, Aimy

    2012-06-21

    Trapping of carbon in deep underground brine-filled reservoirs is a promising approach for the reduction of atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions. However, estimation of the amount of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) that can be captured in a given reservoir and the long-term storage stability remain a challenge. One difficulty lies in the estimation of local capillary pressure effects that arise from mineral surface heterogeneity inherent in underground geological formations. As a preliminary step to address this issue, we have performed dynamic pore network modelling (PNM) simulations of two-phase immiscible flow in two-dimensional structured porous media with contact angle heterogeneity under typical reservoir conditions. We begin by characterizing the network with a single, uniform contact angle. We then present saturation patterns for networks with homogeneous and heterogeneous contact angles distributions, based on two common reservoir minerals: quartz and mica, both of which have been well-characterized experimentally for their brine-CO(2) contact angles. At lower flow rates, we found moderately higher saturations for the heterogeneous networks than for the homogeneous ones. To characterize the fingering patterns, we have introduced R as the ratio of filled throats to the total network saturation. Based on this measure, the heterogeneous networks demonstrated thicker fingering patterns than the homogeneous networks. The computed saturation patterns demonstrate the importance of considering surface heterogeneity in pore-scale modelling of deep saline aquifers.

  3. Porous squeeze-film flow

    KAUST Repository

    Knox, D. J.

    2013-11-14

    © 2013 © The authors 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved. The squeeze-film flow of a thin layer of Newtonian fluid filling the gap between a flat impermeable surface moving under a prescribed constant load and a flat thin porous bed coating a stationary flat impermeable surface is considered. Unlike in the classical case of an impermeable bed, in which an infinite time is required for the two surfaces to touch, for a porous bed contact occurs in a finite contact time. Using a lubrication approximation, an implicit expression for the fluid layer thickness and an explicit expression for the contact time are obtained and analysed. In addition, the fluid particle paths are calculated, and the penetration depths of fluid particles into the porous bed are determined. In particular, the behaviour in the asymptotic limit of small permeability, in which the contact time is large but finite, is investigated. Finally, the results are interpreted in the context of lubrication in the human knee joint, and some conclusions are drawn about the contact time of the cartilage-coated femoral condyles and tibial plateau and the penetration of nutrients into the cartilage.

  4. Pore Scale Heterogeneity in the Mineral Distribution, Surface Area and Adsorption in Porous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, P. E. P.; Krevor, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    The impact of heterogeneity in chemical transport and reaction is not understood in continuum (Darcy/Fickian) models of reactive transport. This is manifested in well-known problems such as scale dependent dispersion and discrepancies in reaction rate observations made at laboratory and field scales [1]. Additionally, this is a source of uncertainty for carbon dioxide injection, which produces a reactive fluid-rock system particularly in carbonate rock reservoirs. A potential cause is the inability of the continuum approach to incorporate the impact of heterogeneity in pore-scale reaction rates. This results in part from pore-scale heterogeneities in surface area of reactive minerals [2, 3]. We use x-ray micro tomography to describe the non-normal 3-dimensional distribution of reactive surface area within a porous medium according to distinct mineral groups. Using in-house image processing techniques, thin sections, nitrogen BET surface area, backscattered electron imaging and energy dispersive spectroscopy, we compare the surface area of each mineral phase to those obtained from x-ray CT imagery. In all samples, there is little correlation between the reactive surface area fraction and the volumetric fraction of a mineral in a bulk rock. Berea sandstone was far less heterogeneous and has a characteristic pore size at which a surface area distribution may be used to quantify heterogeneity. In carbonates, heterogeneity is more complex and surface area must be characterized at multiple length scales for an accurate description of reactive transport. We combine the mineral specific surface area characterisation to dynamic tomography, imaging the flow of water and solutes, to observe flow dependent and mineral specific adsorption. The observations may contribute to the incorporation of experimentally based statistical descriptions of pore scale heterogeneity in reactive transport into upscaled models, moving it closer to predictive capabilities for field scale

  5. Fingermark detection on non-porous and semi-porous surfaces using NaYF4:Er,Yb up-converter particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rongliang; Bullock, Elicia; Maynard, Philip; Reedy, Brian; Shimmon, Ronald; Lennard, Chris; Roux, Claude; McDonagh, Andrew

    2011-04-15

    This article describes the first use of an anti-Stokes material, or up-converter, for the development of latent fingermarks on a range of non-porous surfaces. Anti-Stokes materials can absorb long-wavelength light and emit light at a shorter wavelength. This property is unusual in both natural and artificial materials and so fingermark detection techniques based on anti-Stokes luminescence are potentially sensitive and selective. Latent fingermarks on luminescent and non-luminescent substrates, including Australian polymer banknotes (a well-known 'difficult' surface), were developed with sodium yttrium tetrafluoride doped with erbium and ytterbium (NaYF(4):Er,Yb) by dry powder, wet powder, and cyanoacrylate staining techniques. This study illustrates the potential of up-converter phosphors for the detection of latent fingermarks. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fabrication of super slippery sheet-layered and porous anodic aluminium oxide surfaces and its anticorrosion property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tingting; Liu, Qi; Liu, Jingyuan; Yang, Wanlu; Chen, Rongrong; Jing, Xiaoyan; Takahashi, Kazunobu; Wang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Inspired by natural plants such as Nepenthes pitcher plants, super slippery surfaces have been developed to improve the attributes of repellent surfaces. In this report, super slippery porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) surfaces have fabricated by a simple and reproducible method. Firstly, the aluminium substrates were treated by an anodic process producing micro-nano structured sheet-layered pores, and then immersed in Methyl Silicone Oil, Fluororalkylsilane (FAS) and DuPont Krytox, respectively, generating super slippery surfaces. Such a good material with excellent anti-corrosion property through a simple and repeatable method may be potential candidates for metallic application in anti-corrosion and extreme environment.

  7. Effects of etching time on the bottom surface morphology of ultrathin porous alumina membranes for use as masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sun A.; Choi, Yong Chan; Bu, Sang Don

    2012-11-01

    We investigated the effect of etching time on the bottom surface morphologies of ultrathin porous alumina membranes (UT-PAMs) anodized in oxalic and phosphoric acid. The morphology of the bottom surface clearly changed and a unique surface undulation was observed during the etching process. Such an undulation regarding the bottom surface is attributed to the different etching rates between the dome-shaped barrier layer and the hexagonal cell walls. The results suggest that the bottom morphology of UT-PAMs formed after the barrier layer is opened significantly affects the contact area of the bottom side with the substrate. During the initial stage of the opening process for the barrier layer, the porous section will contact the substrate rather than the walls. However, as the etching time increases, the height of the porous section becomes considerably lower than that of the walls, which means that the walls will contact the substrate with a gap between the pores and the substrate. Based on our experimental results, we propose a possible schematic diagram describing the effects of UT-PAMs with differently-shaped bottom surfaces on the shapes of fabricated nanodots when the UT-PAMs are used as masks.

  8. Impact of Fe powder sintering and soldering in production of porous heating surface on flow boiling heat transfer in minichannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depczyński, Wojciech; Piasecki, Artur; Piasecka, Magdalena; Strąk, Kinga

    2017-10-01

    This paper focuses on identification of the impact of porous heated surface on flow boiling heat transfer in a rectangular minichannel. The heated element for Fluorinert FC-72 was a thin plate made of Haynes-230. Infrared thermography was used to determine changes in the temperature on its outer smooth side. The porous surface in contact with the fluid in the minichannel was produced in two processes: sintering or soldering of Fe powder to the plate. The results were presented as relationships between the heat transfer coefficient and the distance from the minichannel inlet and as boiling curves. Results obtained for using a smooth heated plate at the saturated boiling region were also presented to compare. In the subcooled boiling region, at a higher heat flux, the heat transfer coefficient was slightly higher for the surface prepared via soldering. In the saturated boiling region, the local heat transfer coefficients obtained for the smooth plate surface were slightly higher than those achieved from the sintered plate surface. The porous structures formed have low thermal conductivity. This may induce noticeable thermal resistance at the diffusion bridges of the sintered structures, in particular within the saturated boiling region.

  9. Thermomechanical and chemical properties of porous W/liquid Li hybrid systems as plasma-facing self-healing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapat, Aveek; Lang, Eric; Neff, Anton; Allain, Jean Paul

    2017-10-01

    The environmental conditions at the plasma-material interface of a future nuclear fusion reactor interacting will be extreme. The incident plasma will carry heat fluxes of the order of 100's of MWm-2 and particle fluxes that can average 1024 m-2s-1. The fusion reactor wall would need to operate at high temperatures near 800 C and the incident energy of particles will vary from a few eV ions to MeV neutrons. A hybrid system, inspired by self-healing solid-state concepts, combines the ductile phase of liquid Li within a solid phase porous W. The liquid Li serves to control hydrogen retention and provide vapor shielding, within the framework of a tunable porosity to optimize edge plasma conditions [2]. Additionally, the porous interface can also provide for effective defect sinks for high duty cycle neutron damage. The surface chemistry of liquid Li on a porous surface varied with D irradiation is studied and its effect on retention. Prior results with refractory alloys have demonstrated effective wetting properties [3]. These hybrid systems, as well as traditional W samples, are bombarded with 500eV D2+and Ar+ at 230oC and 300oC. The Li, O, and C XPS peaks were examined and compared to controls. Additionally, the porous W is characterized for thermo-mechanical properties. Work supported by USDOE Contract DE- DE-SC0014267.

  10. Anti-graffiti nanocomposite materials for surface protection of a very porous stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licchelli, Maurizio; Malagodi, Marco; Weththimuni, Maduka; Zanchi, Chiara

    2014-09-01

    The preservation of stone substrates from defacement induced by graffiti represents a very challenging task, which can be faced by applying suitable protective agents on the surface. Although different anti-graffiti materials have been developed, it is often found that their effectiveness is unsatisfactory, most of all when applied on very porous stones, e.g. Lecce stone. The aim of this work was to study the anti-graffiti behaviour of new nanocomposite materials obtained by dispersing montmorillonite nanoparticles (layered aluminosilicates with a high-aspect ratio) into a fluorinated polymer matrix (a fluorinated polyurethane based on perfluoropolyether blocks). Polymeric structure was modified by inducing a cross-linking process, in order to produce a durable anti-graffiti coating with enhanced barrier properties. Several composites were prepared using a naturally occurring and an organically modified montmorillonite clay (1, 3, and 5 % w/w concentrations). Materials were applied on Lecce stone specimens, and then their treated surfaces were soiled by a black ink permanent marker or by a black acrylic spray paint. Several repeated staining/cleaning cycles were performed in order to evaluate anti-graffiti effectiveness. Colorimetric measurements were selected to assess the anti-graffiti performance. It was found that the presence of 3 % w/w organically modified montmorillonite in the polymer coating is enough to induce a durable anti-graffiti effect when the stone surface is stained by acrylic paint. Less promising results are obtained when staining by permanent marker is considered as all the investigated treatments afford a reasonable protection from ink only for the first staining/cleaning cycle.

  11. Al/C/MnO2 sandwich nanowalls with highly porous surface for electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuijian; Zhang, Ruizhong; Zhang, Chunmei; Liu, Minmin; Gao, Xiaohui; Ju, Jian; Li, Lei; Chen, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Hierarchical materials supported on metal substrates present promising applications in flexible energy storage and conversion devices. Compared to Au, Ag, Cu, Ni, Ti, W and their alloys, Al, the most abundant metal in the crust has been less used in supercapacitors due to its high activity which makes it unstable in acid and base electrolytes. In this paper, we explore a novel Al/C/MnO2 sandwich structured material for the first time for supercapacitor. Owing to the highly porous and open surface structure and the highly conductive Al/C double core current collector on nanoscale, the Al/C/MnO2 sandwich nanowall arrays supported on Al foil show excellent capacitance performance with a maximum area specific capacitance of 1008.3 mF cm-2 and a high energy density of 35.2 μWh cm-2 at 2 mA cm-2. Moreover, a supercapacitor device with 4 supercapacitors connected in series can power a LED lamp. The present study demonstrates a novel electrode architecture based on Al foil with remarkably high area specific capacitance and stability for promising supercapacitor applications. Our strategy provides a new approach to the fabrication of hierarchical electrode materials from Al metal (could also be extend to other metal substrates) for supercapacitors and other energy storage and conversion devices.

  12. Effect of surface coating composition on quantum dot mobility in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yonggang; Zhu, Huiguang; Becker, Matthew D.; Englehart, Jessica; Abriola, Linda M.; Colvin, Vicki L.; Pennell, Kurt D.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have received considerable attention due to their unique optical and electrical properties. Although substantial research has focused on the potential applications and toxicological impacts of QDs, far less effort has been directed toward understanding their fate and transport in the environment. In this work, the effect of four coatings, polyethylene glycol functionalized polymer (PEGP), carboxyl derivatized polymer (COOHP), linoleic acid (LA), and polyacrylic acid-octylamine (PAA-OA), on the transport and retention of QDs in porous media were evaluated under environmentally relevant conditions. Aqueous QD suspensions (ca. 10 nM) were introduced into water-saturated columns packed with 40–50 mesh Ottawa sand at a pore-water velocity of 7.6 m/day. At an ionic strength (IS) of 3 mM and pH of 7, PEGP-coated QDs were completely retained within the column, while more than 60 % of COOHP-coated QDs were transported through a column run under identical conditions. When PAA-OA and LA were used as coatings, effluent QD recoveries increased to more than 65 and 89 % of the injected mass, respectively. Additionally, a decrease in pH from 9.5 to 5.0, or an increase of IS from 0 to 30 mM reduced the eluted mass of PAA-OA-coated QDs by more than 2 and 15 times, respectively. The relative mobility of coated QDs (LA > PAA-OA > COOHP > PEGP) was consistent with total interaction energy profiles between QDs and sand surfaces calculated based on Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) theory. At an IS of 3 mM (NaCl) and pH 7, a linear correlation was obtained between the fraction of eluted QDs and the magnitude of the primary interaction energy barrier. These findings demonstrate the strong dependence of QD transport on coating type and indicate that interaction energies based on DLVO theory can be used to predict the relative mobility of QDs in porous media

  13. Evaluation of the conditions imposed by the fracture surface geometry on water seepage through fractured porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, Nestor O.; Faybishenko, B.

    2003-01-01

    In order to determine the geometric patterns of the fracture surfaces that imposes conditions on the fluid flow through fractured porous media, a series a fracture models have been analyzed using the RIMAPS technique and the variogram method. Results confirm that the main paths followed by the fluid channels are determined by the surface topography and remain constant during water seepage evolution. Characteristics scale lengths of both situations: fracture surface and the flow of water, are also found. There exists a relationship between the scale lengths corresponding to each situation. (author)

  14. Study of the deposition process of vinpocetine on the surface of porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenshin, A. S.; Polkovnikova, Yu. A.; Seredin, P. V.

    Currently the most prospective way in pharmacotherapy is the obtaining of nanoparticles involving pharmaceutical substances. Application of porous inorganic materials on the basis of silicon is among the main features in solving of this problem. The present work is concerned with the problem of the deposition of pharmaceutical drug with nootropic activity - vinpocetine - into porous silicon. Silicon nanoparticles were obtained by electrochemical anodic etching of Si plates. The process of vinpocetine deposition was studied in dependence of the deposition time. As a result of the investigations it was found that infrared transmission spectra of porous silicon with the deposited vinpocetine revealed the absorption bands characteristic of vinpocetine substance.

  15. The Influence of Selected Fingerprint Enhancement Techniques on Forensic DNA Typing of Epithelial Cells Deposited on Porous Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Li-Chin; Lee, Cheng-Chang; Chen, Chun-Chieh; Lee, James Chun-I; Wang, Sheng-Meng; Huang, Nu-En; Linacre, Adrian; Hsieh, Hsing-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Fingerprints deposited at crime scene can be a source of DNA. Previous reports on the effects of fingerprint enhancement methods have focused mainly on fingermarks deposited in blood or saliva. Here, we evaluate the effects of fingerprint enhancement methods on fingerprints deposited on porous surfaces. We performed real-time quantification and STR typing, the results of which indicated that two methods (iodine fuming and 1,2-indanedione in ethyl acetate enhancement) had no effect on the quantity of DNA isolated and resultant STR alleles when compared to control samples. DNA quantities and allele numbers were lower for samples enhanced with silver nitrate and 1,2-indanedione in acetic acid when compared to control samples. Based on DNA quantity, quality, and observable stochastic effects, our data indicated that iodine fuming and 1,2-indanedione in ethyl acetate were the preferred options for the enhancement of fingerprints on porous surfaces. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces fabricated on aluminum as a barrier to corrosion induced by sulfate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng; Lu, Zhou; Zhang, Dun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) were fabricated over aluminum. • SLIPS depress the adherence of sulfate reducing bacteria in static seawater. • SLIPS inhibit the microbiological corrosion of aluminum in static seawater. • The possible microbiological corrosion protection mechanism of SLIPS is proposed. - Abstract: Microbiological corrosion induced by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) is one of the main threatens to the safety of marine structure. To reduce microbiological corrosion, slippery liquid infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) were designed and fabricated on aluminum substrate by constructing rough aluminum oxide layer, followed by fluorination of the rough layer and infiltration with lubricant. The as-fabricated SLIPS were characterized with wettability measurement, SEM and XPS. Their resistances to microbiological corrosion induced by SRB were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy and electrochemical measurement. It was demonstrated that they present high resistance to bacteria adherence and the resultant microbiological corrosion in static seawater

  17. Effects of pore size, implantation time and nano-surface properties on rat skin ingrowth into percutaneous porous titanium implants

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Brad J.; Prilutsky, Boris I.; Ritter, Jana M.; Kelley, Sean; Popat, Ketul; Pitkin, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The main problem of percutaneous osseointegrated implants is poor skin-implant integration, which may cause infection. This study investigated the effects of pore size (Small, 40–100 microns and Large, 100–160 microns), nanotubular surface treatment (Nano), and duration of implantation (3 and 6 weeks) on skin ingrowth into porous titanium. Each implant type was percutaneously inserted in the back of 35 rats randomly assigned to 7 groups. Implant extrusion rate was measured w...

  18. Porous titania surfaces on titanium with hierarchical macro- and mesoporosities for enhancing cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Guang [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Müller, Werner E.G.; Wang, Xiaohong [ERC Advanced Grant Research Group at the Institute for Physiological Chemistry, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Duesbergweg 6, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Lilja, Louise [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Shen, Zhijian, E-mail: shen@mmk.su.se [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Titanium received a macroporous titania surface layer by anodization, which contains open pores with average pore diameter around 5 μm. An additional mesoporous titania top layer following the contour of the macropores, of 100–200 nm thickness and with a pore diameter of 10 nm, was formed by using the evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method with titanium (IV) tetraethoxide as the precursor. A coherent laminar titania surface layer was thus obtained, creating a hierarchical macro- and mesoporous surface that was characterized by high-resolution electron microscopy. The interfacial bonding between the surface layers and the titanium matrix was characterized by the scratch test that confirmed a stable and strong bonding of titania surface layers on titanium. The wettability to water and the effects on the osteosarcoma cell line (SaOS-2) proliferation and mineralization of the formed titania surface layers were studied systematically by cell culture and scanning electron microscopy. The results proved that the porous titania surface with hierarchical macro- and mesoporosities was hydrophilic that significantly promoted cell attachment and spreading. A synergistic role of the hierarchical macro- and mesoporosities was revealed in terms of enhancing cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization, compared with the titania surface with solo scale topography. - Highlights: • We developed a hierarchical macro- and mesoporous surface layer on titanium. • New surface layer was strong enough to sustain on implant surface. • New surface owned better surface wettability. • New surface can promote SaOS-2 cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization. • Synergistic effects on cell responses occur when two porous structures coexist.

  19. Optimising reversed-phase liquid chromatographic separation of an acidic mixture on a monolithic stationary phase with the aid of response surface methodology and experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Harrison, M; Clark, B J

    2006-02-10

    An optimization strategy for the separation of an acidic mixture by employing a monolithic stationary phase is presented, with the aid of experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM). An orthogonal array design (OAD) OA(16) (2(15)) was used to choose the significant parameters for the optimization. The significant factors were optimized by using a central composite design (CCD) and the quadratic models between the dependent and the independent parameters were built. The mathematical models were tested on a number of simulated data set and had a coefficient of R(2) > 0.97 (n = 16). On applying the optimization strategy, the factor effects were visualized as three-dimensional (3D) response surfaces and contour plots. The optimal condition was achieved in less than 40 min by using the monolithic packing with the mobile phase of methanol/20 mM phosphate buffer pH 2.7 (25.5/74.5, v/v). The method showed good agreement between the experimental data and predictive value throughout the studied parameter space and were suitable for optimization studies on the monolithic stationary phase for acidic compounds.

  20. White light emission from fluorescent SiC with porous surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Weifang; Ou, Yiyu; Fiordaliso, Elisabetta Maria

    2017-01-01

    the bulk fuorescent SiC layer. A high color rendering index of 81.1 has been achieved. Photoluminescence spectra in porous layers fabricated in both commercial n-type and lab grown N-B co-doped 6H-SiC show two emission peaks centered approximately at 460nm and 530nm. Such bluegreen emission phenomenon can......, the photoluminescence intensity from the porous layer was signifcant enhanced by a factor of more than 12. Using a porous layer of moderate thickness (~10µm), high-quality white light emission was realized by combining the independent emissions of blue-green emission from the porous layer and yellow emission from...

  1. Study of the deposition process of vinpocetine on the surface of porous silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Lenshin

    Full Text Available Currently the most prospective way in pharmacotherapy is the obtaining of nanoparticles involving pharmaceutical substances. Application of porous inorganic materials on the basis of silicon is among the main features in solving of this problem. The present work is concerned with the problem of the deposition of pharmaceutical drug with nootropic activity – vinpocetine – into porous silicon. Silicon nanoparticles were obtained by electrochemical anodic etching of Si plates. The process of vinpocetine deposition was studied in dependence of the deposition time. As a result of the investigations it was found that infrared transmission spectra of porous silicon with the deposited vinpocetine revealed the absorption bands characteristic of vinpocetine substance. Keywords: Nanoparticles, Porous silicon, Vinpocetine

  2. VOPcPhO:P3HT composite micro-structures with nano-porous surface morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azmer, Mohamad Izzat [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ahmad, Zubair, E-mail: zubairtarar@qu.edu.qa [Center for Advanced Materials (CAM), Qatar University, P. O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar); Sulaiman, Khaulah, E-mail: khaulah@um.edu.my [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Touati, Farid [Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, Qatar University, P. O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar); Bawazeer, Tahani M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Science, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah (Saudi Arabia); Alsoufi, Mohammad S. [Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering and Islamic Architecture, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • VOPcPhO:P3HT micro-structures with nano-porous surface morphology have been formed. • Multidimensional structures have been formed by electro-spraying technique. • The electro-sprayed films are very promising for the humidity sensors. - Abstract: In this paper, composite micro-structures of Vanadyl 2,9,16,23-tetraphenoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine) (VOPcPhO) and Poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) complex with nano-porous surface morphology have been developed by electro-spraying technique. The structural and morphological characteristics of the VOPcPhO:P3HT composite films have been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The multidimensional VOPcPhO:P3HT micro-structures formed by electro-spraying with nano-porous surface morphology are very promising for the humidity sensors due to the pore sizes in the range of micro to nano-meters scale. The performance of the VOPcPhO:P3HT electro-sprayed sensor is superior in term of sensitivity, hysteresis and response/recovery times as compared to the spin-coated one. The electro-sprayed humidity sensor exhibits ∼3 times and 0.19 times lower hysteresis in capacitive and resistive mode, respectively, as compared to the spin-coated humidity sensor.

  3. Passivation of surface-nanostructured f-SiC and porous SiC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Lu, Weifang; Ou, Yiyu

    The further enhancement of photoluminescence from nanostructured fluorescent silicon carbide (f-SiC) and porous SiC by using atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 is studied in this paper.......The further enhancement of photoluminescence from nanostructured fluorescent silicon carbide (f-SiC) and porous SiC by using atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 is studied in this paper....

  4. A Biomedical Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrate: Functionalized Three-Dimensional Porous Membrane Decorated with Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated a simple, cheap, and functional surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate for biomedical application. Hot spots between two close silver nanoparticles distributed in the skeleton of a three-dimensional porous membrane, especially in the pores, were formed. The dual poles of micropores in the membrane were discussed. The pores could protect the silver nanoparticles in the pores from being oxidized, which makes the membrane effective for a longer period of time. In addition, Staphylococcus aureus cells could be trapped by the micropores and then the Raman signal became stronger, indicating that the functional surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate is reliable.

  5. The porous surface model, a novel experimental system for online quantitative observation of microbial processes under unsaturated conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Or, D.; Gulez, Gamze

    2008-01-01

    of bacterial growth and activity under controlled unsaturated conditions. Bacteria are inoculated on a porous ceramic plate, wetted by a liquid medium. The thickness of the liquid film at the surface of the plate is set by imposing suction, corresponding to soil matric potential, to the liquid medium......Water is arguably the most important constituent of microbial microhabitats due to its control of physical and physiological processes critical to microbial activity. In natural environments, bacteria often live on unsaturated surfaces, in thin (micrometric) liquid films. Nevertheless...

  6. Porous carbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... area in the range of 2500 m2 /gm can be developed by controlled pyrolysis and physical activation of amorphous carbon fibres. Active carbon fibres with unmatchable pore structure and surface characteristics are present and futuristic porous materials for a number of applications from pollution control to energy storage.

  7. Small particle reagent based on crystal violet dye for developing latent fingerprints on non-porous wet surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Rohatgi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Small particle reagent (SPR is a widely used method for developing latent fingerprints on non-porous wet surfaces. SPR based on zinc carbonate hydroxide monohydrate, ZnCo3·2Zn(OH2·H2O – also called basic zinc carbonate – has been formulated. The other ingredients of the formulation are crystal violet dye and a commercial liquid detergent. The composition develops clear, sharp and detailed fingerprints on non-porous items, after these were immersed separately in clean and dirty water for variable periods of time. The ability of the present formulation to detect weak and faint chance prints not only enhances its utility, but also its potentiality in forensic case work investigations. The raw materials used to prepare the SPR are cost-effective and non-hazardous.

  8. Effects of pore size, implantation time, and nano-surface properties on rat skin ingrowth into percutaneous porous titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Brad J; Prilutsky, Boris I; Ritter, Jana M; Kelley, Sean; Popat, Ketul; Pitkin, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The main problem of percutaneous osseointegrated implants is poor skin-implant integration, which may cause infection. This study investigated the effects of pore size (Small, 40-100 μm and Large, 100-160 μm), nanotubular surface treatment (Nano), and duration of implantation (3 and 6 weeks) on skin ingrowth into porous titanium. Each implant type was percutaneously inserted in the back of 35 rats randomly assigned to seven groups. Implant extrusion rate was measured weekly and skin ingrowth into implants was determined histologically after harvesting implants. It was found that all three types of implants demonstrated skin tissue ingrowth of over 30% (at week 3) and 50% (at weeks 4-6) of total implant porous area under the skin; longer implantation resulted in greater skin ingrowth (p skin integration with the potential for a safe seal. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Simulation of dissolution in porous media in three dimensions with lattice Boltzmann, finite-volume, and surface-rescaling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, F.; Cen, J.; Boek, E. S.

    2016-10-01

    We present a pore-scale dissolution model for the simulation of reactive transport in complex porous media such as those encountered in carbon-storage injection processes. We couple a lattice Boltzmann model for flow calculation with a finite-volume method for solving chemical transport equations, and allow the computational grid to change as mineral surfaces are dissolved according to first-order reaction kinetics. We appraise this scheme for use with high Péclet number flows in three-dimensional geometries and show how the popular first-order convection scheme is affected by severe numerical diffusion when grid Péclet numbers exceed unity, and confirm that this can be overcome relatively easily by using a second-order method in conjunction with a flux-limiter function. We then propose a surface rescaling method which uses parabolic elements to counteract errors in surface area exposed by the Cartesian grid and avoid the use of more complex embedded surface methods when surface reaction kinetics are incorporated. Finally, we compute dissolution in an image of a real porous limestone rock sample injected with HCl for different Péclet numbers and obtain dissolution patterns in concordance with theory and experimental observation. A low injection flow rate was shown to lead to erosion of the pore space concentrated at the face of the rock, whereas a high flow rate leads to wormhole formation.

  10. Surface protection treatments of highly porous building stones and sustainability problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calia, Angela; Lettieri, Maria Teresa; Matera, Loredana; Sileo, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The growing attention to the cultural value and the potential touristic attraction of the historic towns has led to increasing activities of rehabilitation and conservation of the historical built heritage. Chemical treatments have become a common practice for the protection of the stone building surface against the decay agents and traditional methods of protection, such as the application of sacrificial layers, have been even more neglected. The use of chemical products on large scale works on the historical built heritage draws the attention towards the sustainability of the conservation treatments, that involve peculiar features with relation to the different types of stones. Sustainability is undoubtedly in terms of human and environmental impact of the used products, so that the use of new formulations based on aqueous solvent should be preferred. Sustainability also means the equilibrium between the required performances of the treatments and the preservation of the original stone properties (colour, permeability, etc), namely harmlessness and effectiveness of the treatments. This can be a critical aspect when we deal with very porous stones, namely having porosity between 30-40%, that are widely used in many countries as traditional building materials. In most cases no information - or very general recommendations - is reported in the technical sheets of the conservation products with reference to the application to these types of stones. Relevant problems of compatibility can arise from the significant amounts absorbed by the high porous structure, as well as in terms of cost effectiveness of the treatments. In this work several calcarenites with different petro-physic characteristics and porosity between 30 and 45% are concerned for the assessment of the performance of two commercial water based products for stone protection, respectively an alcoxy-siloxane with low molecular weight and a modified organo-silane. This activity is a part of the Apulia

  11. DEFINITION OF DENSITY OF THE THERMAL STATIONARY STREAMS ON A SURFACES OF A SLEEVE OF CYLINDER COMBUSTION ENGINE BY A METHOD OF OPTIMUM FILTRATION KALMANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZARENBIN V. G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. At research warmly intensity and thermal weariness of internal combustion engines (ICE the knowledge and the analysis of local temperatures and thermal streams in the basic details forming the chamber of combustion is defining. Theoretically the problem consists in the decision of the equation of heat conductivity at the set features of course of thermal processes on border of bodies. Thus there is a problem of accuracy of the decision since it depends on accuracy of the task of real boundary conditions which can be received only by means of physical experiment and corresponding metrological maintenance. Unlike temperature the thermal stream cannot be measured directly, therefore it define on a difference of temperatures (thermal gradient a method or a calorimetric method. Definition of density of streams with the help as named gauges of a thermal stream when the measured temperatures are used at the decision of a return problem of heat conductivity for chosen thermometric an element is most extended. In this case, except the requirement of one-dimensionality of distribution of temperatures, linearity and the minimum distortion of temperature fields of thermal system, there are considerable difficulties of calculation derivative of the measured temperature. To perspective it is possible to carry methods of researches which it is accepted to name cybernetic diagnostics or identification of systems. Their essence consists that the deformed information on object is compared to its mathematical model and then are defined its condition, parameters or entrance influences by minimization of square-law function are nonviscous. In work definition of density of thermal stationary streams on surfaces of a sleeve of cylinder ICE by a method of optimum filtration Kalmana and also an estimation of their reliability and accuracy is made. Possibility of application of filtration Kalmana is shown at experimental researches in ICE. The purpose

  12. Response surface methodology for the determination of the design space of enantiomeric separations on cinchona-based zwitterionic chiral stationary phases by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi, Rasha Sayed; Lämmerhofer, Michael

    2018-01-26

    Quality-by-Design approach for enantioselective HPLC method development surpasses Quality-by-Testing in offering the optimal separation conditions with the least number of experiments and in its ability to describe the method's Design Space visually which helps to determine enantiorecognition to a significant extent. Although some schemes exist for enantiomeric separations on Cinchona-based zwitterionic stationary phases, the exact design space and the weights by which each of the chromatographic parameters influences the separation have not yet been statistically studied. In the current work, a screening design followed by a Response Surface Methodology optimization design were adopted for enantioseparation optimization of 3 model drugs namely the acidic Fmoc leucine, the amphoteric tryptophan and the basic salbutamol. The screening design proved that the acid/base additives are of utmost importance for the 3 chiral drugs, and that among 3 different pairs of acids and bases, acetic acid and diethylamine is the couple able to provide acceptable resolution at variable conditions. Visualization of the response surface of the retention factor, separation factor and resolution helped describe accurately the magnitude by which each chromatographic factor (% MeOH, concentration and ratio of acid base modifiers) affects the separation while interacting with other parameters. The global optima compromising highest enantioresolution with the least run time for the 3 chiral model drugs varied extremely, where it was best to set low % methanol with equal ratio of acid-base modifiers for the acidic drug, very high % methanol and 10-fold higher concentration of the acid for the amphoteric drug while 20 folds of the base modifier with moderate %methanol were needed for the basic drug. Considering the selected drugs as models for many series of structurally related compounds, the design space defined and the optimum conditions computed are the key for method development on

  13. Comparative studies of H absorption/desorption kinetics and evaporation of liquid lithium in different porous systems and free surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyarzabal, E., E-mail: eider.oyarzabal@externos.ciemat.es [Ass. Euratom-Ciemat, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Calle de Guzmán el Bueno, 133, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Martín-Rojo, A.B. [Ass. Euratom-Ciemat, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Calle de Guzmán el Bueno, 133, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Tabarés, F.L. [Ass. Euratom-Ciemat, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    In the present work, a study of the two most relevant properties of liquid lithium with respect to its suitability as a Plasma Facing Component (PFC) element in a Reactor, namely, its evaporation rate and the uptake/release of hydrogen, eventually leading to the formation of a stable hydride was carried out for Li in different porous systems and Li as a free surface. These properties were characterized in a temperature range of 200–500 °C. The H{sub 2} absorption kinetics at low pressure (<1torr) were measured for the different studied porous systems and then outgassed. Particle balance and chemical analysis were used to assess the retention properties of lithium for each case. Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS) analysis was used for the assessment of possible hydride formation. Evaporation rates were determined by using a Quartz Microbalance (QMB). A significant reduction of the evaporation rate was observed when Li was trapped in a microstructure of sintered stainless steel with a characteristic porous size of 5–10 μm. On the other hand, a negligible rate of H{sub 2} uptake was found at temperatures above 500 °C in all cases.

  14. Flame spray deposition of porous catalysts on surfaces and in microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Susanne; Jensen, Søren; Johansen, Johnny

    2004-01-01

    . With shadow masks, porous catalyst layers can be deposited selectively into microchannels. Using Au/TiO$_2$ as test catalyst and CO-oxidation as test reaction, it is found that the apparent activation energy of the deposited catalyst is similar to what is normally seen for supported gold catalysts...

  15. Tuneable porous carbonaceous materials from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Robin J; Budarin, Vitaly; Luque, Rafael; Clark, James H; Macquarrie, Duncan J

    2009-12-01

    Porous carbon materials are ubiquitous with a wide range of technologically important applications, including separation science, heterogeneous catalyst supports, water purification filters, stationary phase materials, as well as the developing future areas of energy generation and storage applications. Hard template routes to ordered mesoporous carbons are well established, but whilst offering different mesoscopic textural phases, the surface of the material is difficult to chemically post-modify and processing is energy, resource and step intensive. The production of carbon materials from biomass (i.e. sugars or polysaccharides) is a relatively new but rapidly expanding research area. In this tutorial review, we compare and contrast recently reported routes to the preparation of porous carbon materials derived from renewable resources, with examples of our previously reported mesoporous polysaccharide-derived "Starbon" carbonaceous material technology.

  16. Anodized porous titanium coated with Ni-CeO2 deposits for enhancing surface toughness and wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaowei; Ouyang, Chun

    2017-05-01

    In order to make large improvements of surface toughness and wear resistance for pure titanium (Ti) substrate, anodic titanium oxide (ATO) surface with nanoporous structure was coated with the Ni-CeO2 nanocomposite coatings. Regarding TiO2 barrier layer on Ti surface to inhibit its electrochemical activity, pre-treatments were successively processed with anodizing, sensitizing, activating, and then followed by electroless Ni-P film to be acted as an activated layer for electroplating Ni-CeO2 deposits. The existing Pd atoms around ATO nanopores were expected as the heterogeneous nucleation sites for supporting the growing locations of electroless Ni-P film. The innovative of interface design using porous structure was introduced for bonding pinholes to achieve a metallurgical adhesion interface between Ti substrate and surface coatings. Besides the objectives of this work were to elucidate how effects by the adding CeO2 nanoparticles on modifying microstructures and wear mechanisms of Ni-CeO2 nanocomposite coatings. Many efforts of XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and Nanoindentation tests were devoted to comparing different wear behaviors of Ni-CeO2 coatings relative to pure nickel. Results indicated that uniform-distributed Ti nanopores with an average diameter size of ∼200 nm was achieved using the Phosphate-type anodizing solution at DC 150 V. A worn surface without fatigue cracks was observed for TAO surface coated with Ni-CeO2 deposits, showing the existing Ce-rich worn products to be acted as a solid lubricant phase for making a self-healing effect on de-lamination failures. More important, this finding will be the guidelines for Ce-rich precipitations to be expected as the strengthening phase in anodized porous of Ti, Al and Mg alloys for intensifying their surface properties.

  17. Tailored Porous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARTON,THOMAS J.; BULL,LUCY M.; KLEMPERER,WALTER G.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; MCENANEY,BRIAN; MISONO,MAKOTO; MONSON,PETER A.; PEZ,GUIDO; SCHERER,GEORGE W.; VARTULI,JAMES C.; YAGHI,OMAR M.

    1999-11-09

    Tailoring of porous materials involves not only chemical synthetic techniques for tailoring microscopic properties such as pore size, pore shape, pore connectivity, and pore surface reactivity, but also materials processing techniques for tailoring the meso- and the macroscopic properties of bulk materials in the form of fibers, thin films and monoliths. These issues are addressed in the context of five specific classes of porous materials: oxide molecular sieves, porous coordination solids, porous carbons, sol-gel derived oxides, and porous heteropolyanion salts. Reviews of these specific areas are preceded by a presentation of background material and review of current theoretical approaches to adsorption phenomena. A concluding section outlines current research needs and opportunities.

  18. Effects of thermophoresis and variable properties on mixed convection along a vertical wavy surface in a fluid saturated porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbhasayanam Srinivasacharya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of thermophoresis on mixed convection heat and mass transfer flow over a vertical wavy surface in a porous medium with variable properties, namely variable viscosity and variable thermal conductivity. The effect of wavy surface is incorporated into non-dimensional equations by using suitable transformations and then transformed into non-linear ordinary differential equations by employing the similarity transformations and then solved numerically. The transport process of flow, heat and mass transfer in the boundary layer for aiding and opposing flow cases is discussed. The structure of flow, temperature and concentration fields in the Darcy porous media are more pronounced by complex interactions among variable viscosity, variable thermal conductivity, mixed convective parameter, thermophoresis and amplitude of the wavy surface. Increasing thermophoresis parameter enhances velocity profile, concentration distribution and Sherwood number while reduces Nusselt number. As increase in variable viscosity, temperature and concentration distributions are enhanced while velocity profile, Nusselt number and Sherwood numbers are reduced. This study finds applications in aerosol Technology, space technology and processes involving high temperatures.

  19. Evaluation of a coupled model for numerical simulation of a multiphase flow system in a porous medium and a surface fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibi, Yoshihiko; Tomigashi, Akira

    2015-09-01

    Numerical simulations that couple flow in a surface fluid with that in a porous medium are useful for examining problems of pollution that involve interactions among atmosphere, water, and groundwater, including saltwater intrusion along coasts. Coupled numerical simulations of such problems must consider both vertical flow between the surface fluid and the porous medium and complicated boundary conditions at their interface. In this study, a numerical simulation method coupling Navier-Stokes equations for surface fluid flow and Darcy equations for flow in a porous medium was developed. Then, the basic ability of the coupled model to reproduce (1) the drawdown of a surface fluid observed in square-pillar experiments, using pillars filled with only fluid or with fluid and a porous medium and (2) the migration of saltwater (salt concentration 0.5%) in the porous medium using the pillar filled with fluid and a porous medium was evaluated. Simulations that assumed slippery walls reproduced well the results with drawdowns of 10-30 cm when the pillars were filled with packed sand, gas, and water. Moreover, in the simulation of saltwater infiltration by the method developed in this study, velocity was precisely reproduced because the experimental salt concentration in the porous medium after saltwater infiltration was similar to that obtained in the simulation. Furthermore, conditions across the boundary between the porous medium and the surface fluid were satisfied in these numerical simulations of square-pillar experiments in which vertical flow predominated. Similarly, the velocity obtained by the simulation for a system coupling flow in surface fluid with that in a porous medium when horizontal flow predominated satisfied the conditions across the boundary. Finally, it was confirmed that the present simulation method was able to simulate a practical-scale surface fluid and porous medium system. All of these numerical simulations, however, required a great deal of

  20. A Comparison of Streaming and Microelectrophoresis Methods for Obtaining the zeta Potential of Granular Porous Media Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson

    1999-01-01

    The electrokinetic behavior of granular quartz sand in aqueous solution is investigated by both microelectrophoresis and streaming potential methods. zeta potentials of surfaces composed of granular quartz obtained via streaming potential methods are compared to electrophoretic mobility zeta potential values of colloid-sized quartz fragments. The zeta values generated by these alternate methods are in close agreement over a wide pH range and electrolyte concentrations spanning several orders of magnitude. Streaming measurements performed on chemically heterogeneous mixtures of physically homogeneous sand are shown to obey a simple mixing model based on the surface area-weighted average of the streaming potentials associated with the individual end members. These experimental results support the applicability of the streaming potential method as a means of determining the zeta potential of granular porous media surfaces. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  1. Development of latent fingerprints on wet non-porous surfaces with SPR based on basic fuchsin dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Rohatgi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Small particle reagent (SPR is a technique performed to detect latent fingerprints left on wet and moist surfaces based upon the reaction between fatty acid residuals present in the traces and hydrophobic tails of the specific reagent. Those tails are linked to a hydrophilic head of zinc carbonate based formulation to give coloured precipitate. In the present study, we have prepared a novel SPR formulation constituting of zinc carbonate based on basic fuchsin dye for the development of latent fingerprints on wet surfaces. It was shown to develop clear, sharp and detailed fingerprints on non-porous surfaces after these were immersed in water for up to 45 days. The ability of the present formulations to detect weak and chance prints not only enhances its utility, but also its potentiality in forensic casework investigations. The raw materials used to prepare the SPR are cost-effective and non-hazardous.

  2. Monocrystalline silicon surface passivation by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/porous silicon combined treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Rabha, M., E-mail: rabha2222@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l’Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cédria, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Salem, M. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l’Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cédria, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); El Khakani, M.A. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS), 1650, Blvd. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2, 6 Canada (Canada); Bessais, B. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l’Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cédria, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Gaidi, M. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l’Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cédria, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS), 1650, Blvd. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2, 6 Canada (Canada); Emirates college of technology, Millennium Tower, Sheikh Hamdan Street, P.O. Box: 41009, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2013-05-15

    In this paper, we report on the effect of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/porous silicon combined treatment on the surface passivation of monocrystalline silicon (c-Si). Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films with a thickness of 5, 20 and 80 nm are deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). It was demonstrated that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating is a very interesting low temperature solution for surface passivation. The level of surface passivation is determined by techniques based on photoconductance and FTIR. As a result, the effective minority carrier lifetime increase from 2 μs to 7 μs at a minority carrier density (Δn) of 1 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} and the reflectivity reduce from 28% to about 7% after Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PS coating.

  3. Highly porous micro-roughened structures developed on aluminum surface using the jet of rotating arc discharges at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahi, Siavash; Farzaneh, Masoud; Stafford, Luc

    2018-02-01

    Aluminum 6061 samples were exposed to the jet of an atmospheric pressure rotating arc discharge operated in either nitrogen or air. After multiple passes of treatment with an air-based plasma jet at very short source-to-substrate distances, scanning electron microscopy combined with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed a highly porous micro-roughened alumina-based structure on the surface of aluminum. Based on optical emission spectroscopy and high-speed optical imaging of the jet interacting with aluminum samples, it was found that the process is mainly driven by the energy transfer from the plasma source to the surface through transient plasma-transferred arcs. The occurrence of multiple arc discharges over very short time scales can induce rapid phase transformations of aluminum with characteristics similar to the ones usually observed during laser ablation of materials with femto- to nanosecond laser pulses or during the formation of cathode spots on the surface of metals.

  4. Anodized porous titanium coated with Ni-CeO{sub 2} deposits for enhancing surface toughness and wear resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiaowei, E-mail: zhouxiaowei901@163.com; Ouyang, Chun

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Structural design of anodized nanoporous Ti was introduced for bonding pinholes to achieve a metallurgical bonding interface. • Anodized porous Ti substrate was activated by electroless Ni-P film to be acted as transitional layer to deposit Ni-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite coatings. • An analytical model was validated for predicting the Ce-rich worn products as a self-lubricant phase for monitoring wear mechanisms. - Abstract: In order to make large improvements of surface toughness and wear resistance for pure titanium (Ti) substrate, anodic titanium oxide (ATO) surface with nanoporous structure was coated with the Ni-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite coatings. Regarding TiO{sub 2} barrier layer on Ti surface to inhibit its electrochemical activity, pre-treatments were successively processed with anodizing, sensitizing, activating, and then followed by electroless Ni-P film to be acted as an activated layer for electroplating Ni-CeO{sub 2} deposits. The existing Pd atoms around ATO nanopores were expected as the heterogeneous nucleation sites for supporting the growing locations of electroless Ni-P film. The innovative of interface design using porous structure was introduced for bonding pinholes to achieve a metallurgical adhesion interface between Ti substrate and surface coatings. Besides the objectives of this work were to elucidate how effects by the adding CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles on modifying microstructures and wear mechanisms of Ni-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite coatings. Many efforts of XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and Nanoindentation tests were devoted to comparing different wear behaviors of Ni-CeO{sub 2} coatings relative to pure nickel. Results indicated that uniform-distributed Ti nanopores with an average diameter size of ∼200 nm was achieved using the Phosphate-type anodizing solution at DC 150 V. A worn surface without fatigue cracks was observed for TAO surface coated with Ni-CeO{sub 2} deposits, showing the existing Ce-rich worn products to be acted as a

  5. The equivalent incidence angle for porous absorbers backed by a hard surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    experiment using a free-field absorption measurement technique with a source at the equivalent angle. This study investigates the equivalent angle for locally and extendedly reacting porous media mainly by a numerical approach: Numerical minimizations of a cost function that is the difference between...... coefficients by free-field techniques, a broad incidence angle range can be suggested: 20 hi65 for extended reaction and hi65 for locally reacting porous absorbers, if an average difference of 0.05 is allowed.......An equivalent incidence angle is defined as the incidence angle at which the oblique incidence absorption coefficient best approximates the random incidence absorption coefficient. Once the equivalent angle is known, the random incidence absorption coefficient can be estimated by a single...

  6. Surface Characteristics and Catalytic Activity of Copper Deposited Porous Silicon Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yusri Abdul Halim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Porous structured silicon or porous silicon (PS powder was prepared by chemical etching of silicon powder in an etchant solution of HF: HNO3: H2O (1:3:5 v/v. An immersion time of 4 min was sufficient for depositing Cu metal from an aqueous solution of CuSO4 in the presence of HF. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis revealed that the Cu particles aggregated upon an increase in metal content from 3.3 wt% to 9.8 wt%. H2-temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR profiles reveal that re-oxidation of the Cu particles occurs after deposition. Furthermore, the profiles denote the existence of various sizes of Cu metal on the PS. The Cu-PS powders show excellent catalytic reduction on the p-nitrophenol regardless of the Cu loadings.

  7. Porous titania surfaces on titanium with hierarchical macro- and mesoporosities for enhancing cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang; Müller, Werner E G; Wang, Xiaohong; Lilja, Louise; Shen, Zhijian

    2015-02-01

    Titanium received a macroporous titania surface layer by anodization, which contains open pores with average pore diameter around 5 μm. An additional mesoporous titania top layer following the contour of the macropores, of 100-200 nm thickness and with a pore diameter of 10nm, was formed by using the evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method with titanium (IV) tetraethoxide as the precursor. A coherent laminar titania surface layer was thus obtained, creating a hierarchical macro- and mesoporous surface that was characterized by high-resolution electron microscopy. The interfacial bonding between the surface layers and the titanium matrix was characterized by the scratch test that confirmed a stable and strong bonding of titania surface layers on titanium. The wettability to water and the effects on the osteosarcoma cell line (SaOS-2) proliferation and mineralization of the formed titania surface layers were studied systematically by cell culture and scanning electron microscopy. The results proved that the porous titania surface with hierarchical macro- and mesoporosities was hydrophilic that significantly promoted cell attachment and spreading. A synergistic role of the hierarchical macro- and mesoporosities was revealed in terms of enhancing cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization, compared with the titania surface with solo scale topography. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Atomic layer deposition TiO2 coated porous silicon surface: Structural characterization and morphological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iatsunskyi, Igor; Jancelewicz, Mariusz; Nowaczyk, Grzegorz; Kempiński, Mateusz; Peplińska, Barbara; Jarek, Marcin; Załęski, Karol; Jurga, Stefan; Smyntyna, Valentyn

    2015-01-01

    TiO 2 thin films were grown on highly-doped p-Si (100) macro- and mesoporous structures by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using TiCl 4 and deionized water as precursors at 300 °C. The crystalline structure, chemical composition, and morphology of the deposited films and initial silicon nanostructures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mean size of TiO 2 crystallites was determined by TEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy. It was shown that the mean crystallite size and the crystallinity of the TiO 2 are influenced dramatically by the morphology of the porous silicon, with the mesoporous silicon resulting in a much finer grain size and amorphous structure than the macroporous silicon having a partially crystal anatase phase. A simple model of the ALD layer growth inside the pores was presented. - Highlights: • The morphology and chemical composition of TiO 2 and porous Si were established. • The approximate size of TiO 2 nanocrystals was estimated. • The model of the atomic layer deposition coating in the porous Si was presented

  9. Scaling of impact-generated cavity-size for highly porous targets and its application to cometary surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Takaya; Nakamura, Akiko M.

    2017-08-01

    Detailed images of highly porous small bodies show variety of the surface. One of the interesting findings is that the depressions on comets look shallower than the simple craters such as on the moon, that is the depth-to-diameter ratio of the depressions is smaller than ∼0.2. Although the mechanisms for the formation of the depression are controversial; such as collapse after the sublimation of the sub-surface volatile or activities after impact such as sublimation and viscous relaxation, the shape of the cavity formed on the highly-porous surface by impact itself has not been studied much. We performed impact experiments of sintered glass-bead targets with porosities of ∼94% and 87%, as well as gypsum targets with a porosity of ∼50%, and pumice targets with that of 74%. The cavity formed in the porous target by the impact has maximum diameter at some depth from the target surface. This type of cavity is called bulb-shape cavity. In addition to the results of this study, we also compiled the results of previous impact experiments for cavity sizes in which the targets with porosity larger than 30% were used. Then new empirical scaling relations for the maximum diameter and the bulb depth for the wide range of target porosity were obtained. We applied the relations to comets and showed that the surface strength and the particle size of the comet 9P/Tempel 1 are estimated to be of the orders of 101-103 Pa, and, with the assumption of ice grains consisted of monodisperse spheres, to be larger than ∼90 μm, respectively. The ratio of bulb depth to the maximum diameter on a comet derived from the extrapolation of scaling relations expects that the ratio on the weak surface with the strength less than 102 Pa was 0.10 or below, which is smaller than the depth-to-diameter ratio of simple craters, ∼0.2. It suggests a possibility that shallow depressions on comets could be formed only by impact without the need for subsequent activities, such as sublimation and

  10. On the capillary restriction in start-up regimes of liquid metal evaporation from capillary-porous surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosvetov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Evaporation of liquid metals from capillary-porous structures is one of the most effective methods of surface cooling, to which essential heat quantity is delivered at high temperatures. The paper deals with heat flux limitation, caused by incapability of core capillary forces to overcome pressure differential in heat carrier circulation shape in such evaporation regimes, when average length of free path of vapour molecule exceeds core cell size. Suggested are theoretical correlations for determination of critical heat flux density and temperature of liquid surface in starting regimes of liquid metal evaporation from rectangular slots and compound cores with screens made of foil with round perforations. The catculative and experimental values of critical heat flux density in starting regimes of sodium evaporation from rectangular slots satisfactorily agree with each other

  11. Influence of yttria surface modification on high temperature corrosion of porous Ni22Cr alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karczewski, Jakub; Dunst, Katarzyna; Jasinski, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Protective coatings for porous alloys for high temperature use are relatively new materials. Their main drawback is high temperature corrosion. In this work protective coatings based the on Y-precursor infiltrated into the sintered Ni22Cr alloys are studied at 700°C. Effects of the amount...... of the protective phase on the resulting corrosion properties are evaluated in air and humidified hydrogen. Weight gain of the samples, their open porosities and microstructures are analyzed and compared. Results show, that by the addition of even a minor amount of the Y-precursor corrosion rates can be decreased...

  12. Recovery and Disinfection of Two Human Norovirus Surrogates, Feline Calicivirus and Murine Norovirus, from Hard Nonporous and Soft Porous Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeargin, Thomas; Fraser, Angela; Huang, Guohui; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-10-01

    Human norovirus is a leading cause of foodborne disease and can be transmitted through many routes, including environmental exposure to fomites. In this study, both the recovery and inactivation of two human norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV), on hard nonporous surfaces (glass) and soft porous surfaces (polyester and cotton) were evaluated by both plaque assay and reverse transcription quantitative PCR method. Two disinfectants, sodium hypochlorite (8.25%) and accelerated hydrogen peroxide (AHP, at 4.25%) were evaluated for disinfection efficacy. Five coupons per surface type were used to evaluate the recovery of FCV and MNV by sonication and stomaching and the disinfection of each surface type by using 5 ml of disinfectant for a contact time of 5 min. FCV at an initial titer of ca. 7 log PFU/ml was recovered from glass, cotton, and polyester at 6.2, 5.4, and 3.8 log PFU/ml, respectively, compared with 5.5, 5.2, and 4.1 log PFU/ml, respectively, for MNV with an initial titer of ca. 6 log PFU/ml. The use of sodium hypochlorite (5,000 ppm) was able to inactivate both FCV and MNV (3.1 to 5.5 log PFU/ml) below the limit of detection on all three surface types. AHP (2,656 ppm) inactivated FCV (3.1 to 5.5 log PFU/ml) below the limit of detection for all three surface types but achieved minimal inactivation of MNV (0.17 to 1.37 log PFU/ml). Reduction of viral RNA by sodium hypochlorite corresponded to 2.72 to 4.06 log reduction for FCV and 2.07 to 3.04 log reduction for MNV on all three surface types. Reduction of viral RNA by AHP corresponded to 1.89 to 3.4 log reduction for FCV and 0.54 to 0.85 log reduction for MNV. Our results clearly indicate that both virus and surface types significantly influence recovery efficiency and disinfection efficacy. Based on the performance of our proposed testing method, an improvement in virus recovery will be needed to effectively validate virus disinfection of soft porous surfaces.

  13. Metal filled porous carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Adam F [Los Angeles, CA; Vajo, John J [West Hills, CA; Cumberland, Robert W [Malibu, CA; Liu, Ping [Irvine, CA; Salguero, Tina T [Encino, CA

    2011-03-22

    A porous carbon scaffold with a surface and pores, the porous carbon scaffold containing a primary metal and a secondary metal, where the primary metal is a metal that does not wet the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold but wets the surface of the secondary metal, and the secondary metal is interspersed between the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold and the primary metal.

  14. Surface oxidized mesoporous carbons derived from porous silicon as dual polysulfide confinement and anchoring cathodes in lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rachel; Ejorh, Dennis; Share, Keith; Cohn, Adam P.; Douglas, Anna; Muralidharan, Nitin; Tovar, Trenton M.; Pint, Cary L.

    2016-10-01

    Despite widespread focus on porous carbons for lithium-sulfur battery cathode materials, electrode design to preserve mass-specific performance and sustained extended cycling stability remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate electrochemically etched porous silicon as a sacrificial template to produce a new class of functional mesoporous carbons optimized for dual chemical and physical confinement of soluble polysulfides in lithium-sulfur battery cathodes. Melt infiltration loading of sulfur at 60 wt% enables initial discharge capacity of 1350 mAh/gsulfur at rates of 0.1 C - approaching theoretical capacity of 1675 mAh/gsulfur. Cycling performance measured at 0.2 C indicates 81% capacity retention measured over 100 cycles with 830 mAh/gsulfur capacity. Unlike other carbons, this template combines structural properties necessary for sulfur containment and polysulfide confinement to achieve high specific capacity, but also boasts surface-bound oxygen-containing functional groups that are able to chemically anchor the soluble Li2Sn species on the interior of the mesoporous carbon to sustain cycling performance. In turn, this elucidates a scalable and competitive material framework that is capable, without the addition of additional membranes or inactive anchoring materials, of providing the simultaneous anchoring and confinement effects necessary to overcome performance limitations in lithium sulfur batteries.

  15. Numerical analysis of 3D micropolar nanofluid flow induced by an exponentially stretching surface embedded in a porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhani, M.; Nadeem, S.

    2017-10-01

    The present article is devoted to probe the behavior of a three-dimensional micropolar nanofluid over an exponentially stretching surface in a porous medium. The mathematical model is constructed in the form of partial differential equations using the boundary layer approach. Then by employing similarity transformations, the modelled partial differential equations are transformed to ordinary differential equations. The solution of subsequent ODEs is derived by utilizing the BVP-4C technique alongside the shooting scheme. The graphical illustrations are presented to interpret the salient features of pertinent physical parameters on the concerned profiles for different kinds of nanoparticles, namely copper, titania and alumina with water as the base fluid. For a better understanding of the fluid flow, the numerical variation in the local skin friction coefficients, Cfx and Cfy , and local Nusselt number is analyzed through tables. We can see, from the present study, that the omission of porous matrix enhances the flow of the fluid. Microrotation has a decreasing impact on the skin friction whereas it increases the rate of the heat transfer of the nanofluid.

  16. A new approach to surface activation of porous nanomaterials using non-thermal helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriyasart, Farkfun; Ohtani, Masataka; Oh, Jun-Seok; Hatta, Akimitsu; Kobiro, Kazuya

    2017-06-20

    Non-thermal helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment is applied to the surface activation of porous TiO 2 nanoparticle assemblies. Treatment conditions such as the working distance of the plasma discharge, helium gas flow rate, and treatment time are optimized for effective removal of contaminants from the assembly surface. Laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-TOF MS) is applied to detect trace amounts of contaminants on assembly surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations confirm that the nanoparticle assemblies retain their original perfect spherical structures as well as their ultra-fine convex-concave nano-surfaces even after the plasma jet treatment. N 2 adsorption/desorption and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements show no significant changes in their BET specific surface areas and crystal structures, respectively. The plasma jet-treated TiO 2 nanoparticle assemblies show a 3.8 fold improvement in their reaction rate constants for methylene blue degradation and a 2 fold enhancement of their photocurrents under UV irradiation when compared with untreated TiO 2 .

  17. The physicochemical/biological properties of porous tantalum and the potential surface modification techniques to improve its clinical application in dental implantology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yindong; Bao, Chongyun; Wismeijer, Daniel; Wu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    More rapid restoration and more rigid functionality have been pursued for decades in the field of dental implantology. Under such motivation, porous tantalum has been recently introduced to design a novel type of dental implant. Porous tantalum bears interconnected porous structure with pore size ranging from 300 to 600 μm and a porosity of 75–85%. Its elastic modulus (1.3–10 GPa) more closely approximates that of natural cortical (12–18 GPa) and cancellous bone (0.1–0.5 GPa) in comparison with the most commonly used dental materials, such as titanium and titanium alloy (106–115 GPa). Porous tantalum is highly corrosion-resistant and biocompatible. It can significantly enhance the proliferation and differentiation of primary osteoblasts derived from elderly people than titanium. Porous tantalum can allow bone ingrowth and establish not only osseointegration but also osseoincorporation, which will significantly enhance the secondary stability of implants in bone tissue. In this review, we summarize the physicochemical, mechanical and biological properties of porous tantalum. We further discuss the performance of current tantalum dental implants and present the methodologies of surface modifications in order to improve their biological performance

  18. The physicochemical/biological properties of porous tantalum and the potential surface modification techniques to improve its clinical application in dental implantology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yindong [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Bao, Chongyun, E-mail: cybao9933@scu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Wismeijer, Daniel [Department of Oral Implantology and Prosthetic Dentistry, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, VU University Amsterdam and University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wu, Gang, E-mail: g.wu@acta.nl [Department of Oral Implantology and Prosthetic Dentistry, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, VU University Amsterdam and University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-04-01

    More rapid restoration and more rigid functionality have been pursued for decades in the field of dental implantology. Under such motivation, porous tantalum has been recently introduced to design a novel type of dental implant. Porous tantalum bears interconnected porous structure with pore size ranging from 300 to 600 μm and a porosity of 75–85%. Its elastic modulus (1.3–10 GPa) more closely approximates that of natural cortical (12–18 GPa) and cancellous bone (0.1–0.5 GPa) in comparison with the most commonly used dental materials, such as titanium and titanium alloy (106–115 GPa). Porous tantalum is highly corrosion-resistant and biocompatible. It can significantly enhance the proliferation and differentiation of primary osteoblasts derived from elderly people than titanium. Porous tantalum can allow bone ingrowth and establish not only osseointegration but also osseoincorporation, which will significantly enhance the secondary stability of implants in bone tissue. In this review, we summarize the physicochemical, mechanical and biological properties of porous tantalum. We further discuss the performance of current tantalum dental implants and present the methodologies of surface modifications in order to improve their biological performance.

  19. Achieving a slippery, liquid-infused porous surface with anti-icing properties by direct deposition of flame synthesized aerosol nanoparticles on a thermally fragile substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juuti, Paxton; Haapanen, Janne; Stenroos, Christian; Niemelä-Anttonen, Henna; Harra, Juha; Koivuluoto, Heli; Teisala, Hannu; Lahti, Johanna; Tuominen, Mikko; Kuusipalo, Jurkka; Vuoristo, Petri; Mäkelä, Jyrki M.

    2017-04-01

    Slippery, liquid-infused porous surfaces offer a promising route for producing omniphobic and anti-icing surfaces. Typically, these surfaces are made as a coating with expensive and time consuming assembly methods or with fluorinated films and oils. We report on a route for producing liquid-infused surfaces, which utilizes a liquid precursor fed oxygen-hydrogen flame to produce titania nanoparticles deposited directly on a low-density polyethylene film. This porous nanocoating, with thickness of several hundreds of nanometers, is then filled with silicone oil. The produced surfaces are shown to exhibit excellent anti-icing properties, with an ice adhesion strength of ˜12 kPa, which is an order of magnitude improvement when compared to the plain polyethylene film. The surface was also capable of maintaining this property even after cyclic icing testing.

  20. Design of superhydrophobic porous coordination polymers through the introduction of external surface corrugation by the use of an aromatic hydrocarbon building unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Koya Prabhakara; Higuchi, Masakazu; Sumida, Kenji; Furukawa, Shuhei; Duan, Jingui; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2014-07-28

    We demonstrate a new approach to superhydrophobic porous coordination polymers by incorporating an anisotropic crystal morphology featuring a predominant surface that is highly corrugated and terminated by aromatic hydrocarbon moieties. The resulting low-energy surface provides particularly promising hydrophobic properties without the need for postsynthetic modifications or surface processing that would block the porosity of the framework. Consequently, hydrophobic organic molecules and water vapor are able to penetrate the surface and be densely accommodated within the pores, whereas bulk water is repelled as a result of the exterior surface corrugation derived from the aromatic surface groups. This study provides a new strategy for the design and development of superhydrophobic porous materials. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Chemical reaction effect on MHD free convective surface over a moving vertical plate through porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Tripathy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to study the heat and mass transfer effect in a boundary layer flow of an electrically conducting viscous fluid subject to transverse magnetic field past over a moving vertical plate through porous medium in the presence of heat source and chemical reaction. The governing non-linear partial differential equations have been transformed into a two-point boundary value problem using similarity variables and then solved numerically by fourth order Runge–Kutta fourth order method with shooting technique. Graphical results are discussed for non-dimensional velocity, temperature and concentration profiles while numerical values of the skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented in tabular form for various values of parameters controlling the flow system.

  2. A characteristic function to estimate the longitudinal dispersion coefficient in surface water flows over porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofuentes, M.; Polo, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    One-dimensional modelling of solute transport in shallow water flows relies on an accurate approximation of the longitudinal dispersion coefficient, E, especially under transient conditions of the water flow during the solute residence time. Previous approaches have used expressions (e.g., the Rutherford equation) that allow the inclusion of spatiotemporal variability of E during the transport process, but their accuracy is reduced in marked transient regimes since the data were obtained from experimental work in rivers. This work proposes a different approach from experimental work with slow, shallow flows over porous media in fertigation essays, and provides us with a simple, parametric sigmoid function to estimate a priori effective values of E from simple measurements of flow characteristics and variables. The results have been successfully validated and compared to the Rutherford equation approach. Furthermore, the methodology to develop this characteristic function can be easily adapted for application in other practical cases.

  3. Soret and Dufour Effects on Natural Convection Flow Past a Vertical Surface in a Porous Medium with Variable Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. K. Moorthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The heat and mass transfer characteristics of natural convection about a vertical surface embedded in a saturated porous medium subject to variable viscosity are numerically analyzed, by taking into account the diffusion-thermo (Dufour and thermal-diffusion (Soret effects. The governing equations of continuity, momentum, energy, and concentrations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations, using similarity transformations, and then solved by using Runge-Kutta-Gill method along with shooting technique. The parameters of the problem are variable viscosity, buoyancy ratio, Lewis number, Prandtl number, Dufour effect, Soret effect, and Schmidt number. The velocity, temperature, and concentration distributions are presented graphically. The Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also derived and discussed numerically.

  4. Mechanics of the Separating Surface for a Two-Phase Co-current Flow in a Porous Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    A mechanical description of an unsteady two-phase co-current flow in a porous medium is developed based on the analysis of the geometry and motion of the surface separating the two phases. It is demonstrated that the flow should be considered as essentially three-dimensional, even if the phase...... velocities are co-directed, since the phase interface is on average inclined to the direction of the flow. Kinematics of the flow is described, distinguishing between the average velocities of the bulk phases and their velocity near the interface between them. Dynamics of the flow is analyzed by means...... of the extended Maxwell-Stefan formalism, as in our previous paper (Shapiro 2015). Force balances are formulated in the directions parallel and orthogonal to the flow. A complete system of the flow equations, generalizing the traditional Buckley–Leverett and Rappoport–Leas system, is derived. Sample computations...

  5. What is the surface specific area of porous cement-based material? A nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberon, F; Korb, J-P; Petit, D; Morin, V; Bermejo, E

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new NMR method to measure and follow the evolution of the surface specific area, Sp, of a porous cement-based material. This method, that does not require any preliminary drying process, uses nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD), the measurement of spin-lattice relaxation rate as a function of magnetic field strength or nuclear Larmor frequency. The method is applied for three different mortars samples prepared by mixing cement, sand, silica fume, water and superplasticizer with a water to cement ratio w/c=0.25, 0.38 and 0.65, respectively. The evolution of Sp grows linearly with the degree of advancement of chemical reactions measured by thermal heating and we evidence two relaxation processes independent of the w/c ratio.

  6. Al-Si alloy point contact formation and rear surface passivation for silicon solar cells using double layer porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moumni, Besma; Ben Jaballah, Abdelkader; Bessais, Brahim

    2012-01-01

    Lowering the rear surface recombination velocities by a dielectric layer has fascinating advantages compared with the standard fully covered Al back-contact silicon solar cells. In this work the passivation effect by double layer porous silicon (PS) (wide band gap) and the formation of Al-Si alloy in narrow p-type Si point contact areas for rear passivated solar cells are analysed. As revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, we found that a thin passivating aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) layer is formed. Scanning electron microscopy analysis performed in cross sections shows that with bilayer PS, liquid Al penetrates into the openings, alloying with the Si substrate at depth and decreasing the contact resistivity. At the solar cell level, the reduction in the contact area and resistivity leads to a minimization of the fill factor losses.

  7. Magnetic Fluid-Based Squeeze Film Performance in Rotating Curved Porous Circular Plates: The Effect of Deformation and Surface Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Shimpi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aims at analyzing the behaviour of a magnetic fluid based squeeze film between two rotating transversely rough porous circular plates taking bearing deformation into consideration. The results presented in graphical form inform that the transverse surface roughness introduces an adverse effect on the performance characteristics while the magnetic fluid lubricant turn in an improved performance. It is found that the combined effect of rotation and deformation causes significantly reduced load carrying capacity. However, this investigation establishes that the adverse effect of porosity, deformation and standard deviation can be compensated up to some extent by the positive effect of magnetic fluid lubricant in the case of negatively skewed roughness by choosing curvature parameters. To compensate, the rotational inertia needs to have smaller values.

  8. Physical adsorption vs. chemical binding of undecylenic acid on porous silicon surface: a comparative study of differently functionalized materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salonen, J.; Lehto, V.P. [University of Turku (Finland). Department of Physics; Chirvony, V.; Matveeva, E. [Nanophotonics Technology Center, Technical University of Valencia (Spain); Pastor, E.

    2009-07-15

    To imply miscibility to porous silicon (PSi) used for biomedical purposes a number of functionalization methods are employed. In order to distinguish between a non-specific surfactant-like interaction (physical sorption) and chemical binding of unsaturated chemicals (undecylenic acid, UD) to H-terminated PSi surface we studied the two differently treated materials. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGA), BET and FTIR measurements were performed with the PSi powder samples (n+ doped). Changes in surface area, weight loss, calorific effect and chemical composition that accompanied the thermal treatment have shown that the physisorbed UD molecules undergo a chemical process (binding) with the Si-H{sub x} surface groups at about 150 C in both, N{sub 2} inert atmosphere and in a synthetic air, oxidative atmosphere. Controlled conversion of physically sorbed molecules to the chemically attached ones is discussed with respect to methods of surface modification of PSi materials for increasing their biocompatibility. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Selective metallization of polymers using laser induced surface activation (LISA)—characterization and optimization of porous surface topography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Grave, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    was performed on the laser-machined polymer using an Alicona InfiniteFocus® microscope. Based on previous experiments, bearing area curve and its parameters are chosen to characterize the surface. In this paper, by comparison of plateable and non-plateable surfaces, and two types of plateable surface made...

  10. Synthesis of P(AM-co-MAA)/AEM composite microspheres with lichi-like surface structure using porous microgel as template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juxiang; Hu, Daodao; Xue, Min; Yang, Xing

    2014-03-15

    The P(AM-co-MAA)/AEM composite microspheres with lichi-like structure were synthesized by the hydrolysis and condensation of 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl-ammonium chloride (AEM) located within porous poly(acrylamide-co-methylacrylic acid) (P(AM-co-MAA)) microgels in an ammonia water atmosphere. The morphology and composition of the composite microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FI-IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The results indicated that the composite microspheres with lichi-like surface structure could be obtained by controlling the loaded amount of AEM, the hydrolysis-condensation time of AEM, and the cross-linking degree of the porous P(AM-co-MAA) microgels. On the basis of the results, the mechanism on the formation of the microspheres with lichi-like surface structure was proposed. The multiple factors play a role in the formation of the specific surface morphology. The pores of the porous microgels make AEM behavior localized; the migration of AEM along with solvent evaporation leads to the structural change; the hydrolysis-condensation of AEM brings the temporarily structural solidification; the surface tension of hydrophobic AEM in hydrophilic atmosphere induces AEM liquid membrane constriction. Although the mechanism is complicated, the method is very simple. Based on the analogous principle, other composite materials with lichi-like structure could be constructed by altering precursor and porous template. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Variations of Polymer Porous Surface Structures via the Time-Sequenced Dosing of Mixed Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzecionko, Erik; Minařík, Antonín; Smolka, Petr; Minařík, Martin; Humpolíček, Petr; Rejmontová, Petra; Mráček, Aleš; Minaříková, Magda; Gřundělová, Lenka

    2017-02-22

    A new approach to polystyrene surface treatment via the time-sequenced dispensing of good and poor solvent mixtures on the rotating surface of treated substrate is presented in this study. It is demonstrated that the variation of the sequencing together with other variables (e.g., temperature and solvent concentration) affects the size and depth of pores evolving on the polystyrene surface. A model of the surface pore creation, associated with the viscoelastic phase separation, surface tension, and secondary flows caused by temperature variations and the rapid evaporation of the good solvent is proposed. Experimental results of profilometric, goniometric, and optical measurements show that this approach enables the simple and quick preparation of surfaces with various numbers, diameters, and depths of individual pores, which ultimately affects not only the wetting characteristics of the surfaces but also the fate of cells cultivated there. The presented method allows the easy preparation of a large number of structured substrates for effective cell cultivation and proliferation.

  12. Development of high performance nano-porous polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membranes with hydrophilic surface and superior antifouling properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimpour, Ahmad; Madaeni, Sayed Siavash; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Mansourpanah, Yaghoub; Mortazavian, Narmin

    2009-01-01

    Hydrophilic nano-porous polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membranes were developed for milk concentration. The membranes were prepared from new dope solution containing polyethersulfone (PES)/polyvinylpirrolidone (PVP)/polyethyleneglycole (PEG)/cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP)/acrylic acid/Triton X-100 using phase inversion induced by immersion precipitation technique. This casting solution leads to formation of new hydrophilic membranes. The morphological studies were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, the hydrophilicity and performance of membranes were examined by contact angel measurements and cross-flow filtration (pure water flux, milk water permeation, protein rejection and antifouling measurements). The contact angle measurements indicate that a surface with superior hydrophilicity was obtained for PES membranes. Two concentrations of PES (16 and 14.4 wt.%) and two different non-solvents (pure water and mixtures of water and IPA) were used for preparation of membranes. The morphological studies showed that the higher concentration of PES and the presence of IPA in the gelation media results in formation of a membrane with a dense top and sub-layer with small pores on the surface. The pure water flux of membranes was decreased when higher polymer concentration and mixtures of water and IPA were employed for membrane formation. On the other hand, the milk water permeation and protein rejection were increased using mixtures of water and IPA as non-solvent. Furthermore, the fouling analysis of the membranes demonstrated that the membrane surface with fewer tendencies for fouling was obtained.

  13. Measuring surface-area-to-volume ratios in soft porous materials using laser-polarized xenon interphase exchange nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J. P.; Mair, R. W.; Hoffmann, D.; Hrovat, M. I.; Rogers, R. A.; Topulos, G. P.; Walsworth, R. L.; Patz, S.

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate a minimally invasive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique that enables determination of the surface-area-to-volume ratio (S/V) of soft porous materials from measurements of the diffusive exchange of laser-polarized 129Xe between gas in the pore space and 129Xe dissolved in the solid phase. We apply this NMR technique to porous polymer samples and find approximate agreement with destructive stereological measurements of S/V obtained with optical confocal microscopy. Potential applications of laser-polarized xenon interphase exchange NMR include measurements of in vivo lung function in humans and characterization of gas chromatography columns.

  14. Hypercrosslinked large surface area porous polymer monoliths for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography of small molecules featuring zwitterionic functionalities attached to gold nanoparticles held in layered structure

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Yongqin; Lin, Zhixing; Svec, Frantisek

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach to porous polymer monoliths hypercrosslinked to obtain large surface areas and modified with zwitterionic functionalities through the attachment of gold nanoparticles in a layered architecture has been developed. The capillary columns were used for the separation of small molecules in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mode. First, a monolith with a very large surface area of 430 m2/g was prepared by hypercrosslinking from a generic poly(4-methylstyrene-co-vinylben...

  15. Stationary radiation of objects with scattering media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, Inna A

    2001-01-01

    The radiation observed inside or outside a stationary radiator with a scattering medium is a sum of components, each being determined by, first, the primary radiation from some part of the radiator and, second, the probability of this radiation reaching the region where it is observed. In this review, general and rather simple relations between these components are discussed. These relations, unlike the components themselves, are independent of the specific optical characteristics of the object as well as of its geometry, inhomogeneity, etc. In deriving the relations, the situations in which geometrical optics is either applicable or inapplicable to radiation in a scattering medium are considered. For the case where geometrical optics does apply, stationary relations are derived from the probabilistic stationarity condition for radiation passing through the medium, i.e., from the fact that all radiation emitted in a stationary regime disappears with probability unity. Equilibrium relations are derived from the stationary relations in the particular case of a thermal radiator in an isothermal cavity. To derive the stationary relations in the geometrical optics approximation, we obtain general solutions of the linear equation of transfer using the Green function approach. If geometrical optics cannot be applied to a scattering and radiating medium, only relations for the components of outgoing thermal radiation are obtained, and the generalized Kirchhoff law, obtained by Levin and Rytov using statistical radio-physics methods, is employed. In this case, stationary relations are also derived from a probabilistic stationarity condition; the equilibrium relations follow from the stationary ones as well as from the equilibrium condition for radiation in the isothermal cavity. The quantities involved in all the relations obtained are a subject of experimental and computational spectroscopic studies. Examples of current and potential applications are given. The relations

  16. Transport of surface-modified iron nanoparticle in porous media and application to arsenic(III) remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanel, Sushil Raj; Nepal, Dhriti; Manning, Bruce; Choi, Heechul

    2007-01-01

    The surface-modified iron nanoparticles (S-INP) were synthesized, characterized and tested for the remediation of arsenite (As(III)), a well known toxic groundwater contaminant of concern. The S-INP material was fully dispersed in the aqueous phase with a particle size distribution of 2-10 nm estimated from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that an Fe(III) oxide surface film was present on S-INP in addition to the bulk zero-valent Fe 0 oxidation state. Transport of S-INP through porous media packed in 10 cm length column showed particle breakthroughs of 22.1, 47.4 and 60 pore volumes in glass beads, unbaked sand, and baked sand, respectively. Un-modified INP was immobile and aggregated on porous media surfaces in the column inlet area. Results using S-INP pretreated 10 cm sand-packed columns containing ∼2 g of S-INP showed that 100 % of As(III) was removed from influent solutions (flow rate 1.8 mL min -1 ) containing 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 mg L -1 As(III) for 9, 7 and 4 days providing 23.3, 20.7 and 10.4 L of arsenic free water, respectively. In addition, it was found that 100% of As(III) in 0.5 mg/L solution (flow rate 1.8 mL min -1 ) was removed by S-INP pretreated 50 cm sand packed column containing 12 g of S-INP for more than 2.5 months providing 194.4 L of arsenic free water. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) showed S-INP had transformed to elongated, rod-like shaped corrosion product particles after reaction with As(III) in the presence of sand. These results suggest that S-INP has great potential to be used as a mobile, injectable reactive material for in-situ sandy groundwater aquifer treatment of As(III)

  17. Porous carbon with a large surface area and an ultrahigh carbon purity via templating carbonization coupling with KOH activation as excellent supercapacitor electrode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Fei; Gao, Jihui; Liu, Xin; Pi, Xinxin; Yang, Yuqi; Wu, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Simple templating carbonization method was developed to obtain porous carbons. • Surface etching by KOH activation greatly boosts surface area and carbon purity. • The as-obtained porous carbon delivers a high capacitance of 275 F g −1 . • Symmetric supercapacitor can achieved high energy density and power density. - Abstract: Large surface area and good structural stability, for porous carbons, are two crucial requirements to enable the constructed supercapacitors with high capacitance and long cycling lifespan. Herein, we successfully prepare porous carbon with a large surface area (3175 m 2 g −1 ) and an ultrahigh carbon purity (carbon atom ratio of 98.25%) via templating carbonization coupling with KOH activation. As-synthesized MTC-KOH exhibits excellent performances as supercapacitor electrode materials in terms of high specific capacitance and ultrahigh cycling stability. In a three electrode system, MTC-KOH delivers a high capacitance of 275 F g −1 at 0.5 A g −1 and still 120 F g −1 at a high rate of 30 A g −1 . There is almost no capacitance decay even after 10,000 cycles, demonstrating outstanding cycling stability. In comparison, pre-activated MTC with a hierarchical pore structure shows a better rate capability than microporous MTC-KOH. Moreover, the constructed symmetric supercapacitor using MTC-KOH can achieve high energy densities of 8.68 Wh kg −1 and 4.03 Wh kg −1 with the corresponding power densities of 108 W kg −1 and 6.49 kW kg −1 , respectively. Our work provides a simple design strategy to prepare highly porous carbons with high carbon purity for supercapacitors application.

  18. Application of porous material to reduce aerodynamic sound from bluff bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueki, Takeshi; Takaishi, Takehisa; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Arai, Norio

    2010-01-01

    Aerodynamic sound derived from bluff bodies can be considerably reduced by flow control. In this paper, the authors propose a new method in which porous material covers a body surface as one of the flow control methods. From wind tunnel tests on flows around a bare cylinder and a cylinder with porous material, it has been clarified that the application of porous materials is effective in reducing aerodynamic sound. Correlation between aerodynamic sound and aerodynamic force fluctuation, and a surface pressure distribution of cylinders are measured to investigate a mechanism of aerodynamic sound reduction. As a result, the correlation between aerodynamic sound and aerodynamic force fluctuation exists in the flow around the bare cylinder and disappears in the flow around the cylinder with porous material. Moreover, the aerodynamic force fluctuation of the cylinder with porous material is less than that of the bare cylinder. The surface pressure distribution of the cylinder with porous material is quite different from that of the bare cylinder. These facts indicate that aerodynamic sound is reduced by suppressing the motion of vortices because aerodynamic sound is induced by the unstable motion of vortices. In addition, an instantaneous flow field in the wake of the cylinder is measured by application of the PIV technique. Vortices that are shed alternately from the bare cylinder disappear by application of porous material, and the region of zero velocity spreads widely behind the cylinder with porous material. Shear layers between the stationary region and the uniform flow become thin and stable. These results suggest that porous material mainly affects the flow field adjacent to bluff bodies and reduces aerodynamic sound by depriving momentum of the wake and suppressing the unsteady motion of vortices. (invited paper)

  19. Additively manufactured metallic porous biomaterials based on minimal surfaces : A unique combination of topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, F S L; Lietaert, K; Eftekhari, A A; Pouran, B; Ahmadi, S M; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2017-01-01

    Porous biomaterials that simultaneously mimic the topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties of bone are in great demand but are rarely found in the literature. In this study, we rationally designed and additively manufactured (AM) porous metallic biomaterials based on four different

  20. Three-Dimensionally Conformal Porous Microstructured Fabrics via Breath Figures: A Nature-Inspired Approach for Novel Surface Modification of Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jianliang; Xu, Bingang; Tao, Xiaoming

    2017-05-24

    Breath figures (BFs) are a kind of water droplet arrays that can be formed by condensing aqueous vapor onto a cold surface, such as dewy phenomenon on a spider web. This study developed a BF-inspired approach for direct introduction of desired materials onto the textile surfaces with three-dimensionally conformal porous microstructures by the evaporation of solution-coated fabric under high humidity environment, which brings a brand-new kind of modified textiles, three-dimensionally conformal porous microstructured fabrics (CPMFs). Such kind of CPMFs can possess customized multifunctional properties of introduced materials, and meanwhile maintain the inherent properties and unique texture features of fabrics. This nature-inspired BF approach is robust and versatile for customized preparation of CPMFs based on different fabrics with different common polymers. Moreover, it is also feasible for one-step functionalization of CPMFs by the incorporation of nanoparticles (such as titanium dioxide nanoparticles, TiO 2 NPs) into the porous microstructures during the BF process. Comparing to the sample modified without porous microstructures, the resultant TiO 2 NPs-incorporated CPMFs show an obviously enhanced performance on photocatalytic degradation of pollutants under the same ultraviolet irradiation conditions.

  1. The triazine-based porous organic polymer: Novel synthetic strategy for high specific surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Kuen [Dept. of Chemistry, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    A new type of microporous polymer has been successively synthesized via a simple polycondensation reaction with the 2,4-diaminotriazine moiety and dianhydride monomer. Diaminotriazine moieties in M1 especially can provide effective branching sites, resulting in high surface areas up to 1150 m{sup 2} /g. In addition, the specific pore structure of the polyimide POP in its solid state can be modified by the surface activation method. Therefore, it can be expected that the resulting material will be a promising candidate for gas storage, and with this synthetic strategy, various type of derivatives will also be optimized.

  2. Surface tension phenomena in the xylem sap of three diffuse porous temperate tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. K. Christensen-Dalsgaard; M. T. Tyree; P. G. Mussone

    2011-01-01

    In plant physiology models involving bubble nucleation, expansion or elimination, it is typically assumed that the surface tension of xylem sap is equal to that of pure water, though this has never been tested. In this study we collected xylem sap from branches of the tree species Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera and Sorbus...

  3. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of self-assembled thiol monolayers and supported lipid membranes on thin anodic porous alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Salerno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin anodic porous alumina (tAPA was fabricated from a 500 nm thick aluminum (Al layer coated on silicon wafers, through single-step anodization performed in a Teflon electrochemical cell in 0.4 M aqueous phosphoric acid at 110 V. Post-fabrication etching in the same acid allowed obtaining tAPA surfaces with ≈160 nm pore diameter and ≈80 nm corresponding wall thickness to be prepared. The tAPA surfaces were made SERS-active by coating with a thin (≈25 nm gold (Au layer. The as obtained tAPA–Au substrates were incubated first with different thiols, namely mercaptobenzoic acid (MbA and aminothiol (AT, and then with phospholipid vesicles of different composition to form a supported lipid bilayer (SLB. At each step, the SERS substrate functionality was assessed, demonstrating acceptable enhancement (≥100×. The chemisorption of thiols during the first step and the formation of SLB from the vesicles during the second step, were independently monitored by using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D technique. The SLB membranes represent a simplified model system of the living cells membranes, which makes the successful observation of SERS on these films promising in view of the use of tAPA–Au substrates as a platform for the development of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS biosensors on living cells. In the future, these tAPA–Au-SLB substrates will be investigated also for drug delivery of bioactive agents from the APA pores.

  4. Two-phase jet impingement cooling for high heat flux wide band-gap devices using multi-scale porous surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Shailesh N.; Dede, Ercan M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Jet impingement with phase change on multi-scale porous surfaces is investigated. • Porous coated flat, pin-fin, open tunnel, and closed tunnel structures are studied. • Boiling curve, heat transfer coefficient, and pressure drop metrics are reported. • Flow visualization shows vapor removal from the surface is a key aspect of design. • The porous coated pin-fin surface exhibits superior two-phase cooling performance. - Abstract: In the future, wide band-gap (WBG) devices such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride will be widely used in automotive power electronics due to performance advantages over silicon-based devices. The high heat fluxes dissipated by WBG devices pose extreme cooling challenges that demand the use of advanced thermal management technologies such as two-phase cooling. In this light, we describe the performance of a submerged two-phase jet impingement cooler in combination with porous coated heat spreaders and multi-jet orifices. The cooling performance of four different porous coated structures was evaluated using R-245fa as the coolant at sub-cooling of 5 K. The results show that the boiling performance of a pin-fin heat spreader is the highest followed by that for an open tunnel (OPT), closed tunnel (CLT), and flat heat spreader. Furthermore, the flat heat spreader demonstrated the lowest critical heat flux (CHF), while the pin-fin surface sustained a heat flux of 218 W/cm 2 without reaching CHF. The CHF values of the OPT and CLT surfaces were 202 W/cm 2 and 194 W/cm 2 , respectively. The pin-fin heat spreader has the highest two-phase heat transfer coefficient of 97,800 W/m 2 K, while the CLT surface has the lowest heat transfer coefficient of 69,300 W/m 2 K, both at a heat flux of 165 W/cm 2 . The variation of the pressure drop of all surfaces is similar for the entire range of heat fluxes tested. The flat heat spreader exhibited the least pressure drop, 1.73 kPa, while the CLT surface had the highest, 2.17 kPa at a

  5. Infrared study of the oxidation of porous silicon: evidence of surface modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acquaroli, L.N. [INTEC (CONICET-UNL), Santa Fe (Argentina); Brondino, A. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Santa Fe (Argentina); Schmidt, J.A.; Arce, R.D.; Koropecki, R.R. [INTEC (CONICET-UNL), Santa Fe (Argentina); Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2009-07-15

    The evolution of FTIR spectra of PS during oxidation is studied in the range 450-1300 cm{sup -1}. We show that the small scale of the PS structure leads to a significant scattering cross section for Froehlich surface modes associated to stretching modes in siloxane bridges. The kinetics of the evolution of both bulk- and surface-related modes are studied using Principal Component Analysis. As a result, two independent components are found, one of them related to TO modes associated to silicon oxide covering large structures and the other one associated to the oxidation of a distribution of prolate ellipsoids with nanoscopic size. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. High-Surface-Area Porous Platinum Electrodes for Enhanced Charge Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Hu Yelin; Yella Aswani; Guldin Stefan; Schreier Marcel; Stellacci Francesco; Grätzel Michael; Stefik Morgan

    2014-01-01

    Cobalt based electrolytes are highly tunable and have pushed the limits of dye sensitized solar cells enabling higher open circuit voltages and new record effi ciencies. However the performance of these electrolytes and a range of other electrolytes suffer from slow electron transfer at platinum counter electrodes. High surface area platinum would enhance catalysis but pure platinum structures are too expensive in practice. Here a material effi cient host guest architecture is developed that ...

  7. Crystal structure and nanotopographical features on the surface of heat-treated and anodized porous titanium biomaterials produced using selective laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin Yavari, S., E-mail: s.aminyavari@tudelft.nl [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); FT Innovations BV, Braamsluiper 1, 5831 PW Boxmeer (Netherlands); Wauthle, R. [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Section Production Engineering, Machine Design and Automation (PMA), Celestijnenlaan 300B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); LayerWise NV, Kapeldreef 60, Leuven (Belgium); Böttger, A.J. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Schrooten, J. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44 PB 2450, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Weinans, H. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Department of Orthopedics and Department of Rheumatology, UMC Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Zadpoor, A.A. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-01-30

    Porous titanium biomaterials manufactured using additive manufacturing techniques such as selective laser melting are considered promising materials for orthopedic applications where the biomaterial needs to mimic the properties of bone. Despite their appropriate mechanical properties and the ample pore space they provide for bone ingrowth and osseointegration, porous titanium structures have an intrinsically bioinert surface and need to be subjected to surface bio-functionalizing procedures to enhance their in vivo performance. In this study, we used a specific anodizing process to build a hierarchical oxide layer on the surface of porous titanium structures made by selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V ELI powder. The hierarchical structure included both nanotopographical features (nanotubes) and micro-features (micropits). After anodizing, the biomaterial was heat treated in Argon at different temperatures ranging between 400 and 600 °C for either 1 or 2 h to improve its bioactivity. The effects of applied heat treatment on the crystal structure of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes and the nanotopographical features of the surface were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was shown that the transition from the initial crystal structure, i.e. anatase, to rutile occurs between 500 and 600 °C and that after 2 h of heat treatment at 600 °C the crystal structure is predominantly rutile. The nanotopographical features of the surface were found to be largely unchanged for heat treatments carried out at 500 °C or below, whereas they were partially or largely disrupted after heat treatment at 600 °C. The possible implications of these findings for the bioactivity of porous titanium structures are discussed.

  8. Fem Simulation of Triple Diffusive Natural Convection Along Inclined Plate in Porous Medium: Prescribed Surface Heat, Solute and Nanoparticles Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, triple diffusive natural convection under Darcy flow over an inclined plate embedded in a porous medium saturated with a binary base fluid containing nanoparticles and two salts is studied. The model used for the nanofluid is the one which incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. In addition, the thermal energy equations include regular diffusion and cross-diffusion terms. The vertical surface has the heat, mass and nanoparticle fluxes each prescribed as a power law function of the distance along the wall. The boundary layer equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations with the help of group theory transformations. A wide range of parameter values are chosen to bring out the effect of buoyancy ratio, regular Lewis number and modified Dufour parameters of both salts and nanofluid parameters with varying angle of inclinations. The effects of parameters on the velocity, temperature, solutal and nanoparticles volume fraction profiles, as well as on the important parameters of heat and mass transfer, i.e., the reduced Nusselt, regular and nanofluid Sherwood numbers, are discussed. Such problems find application in extrusion of metals, polymers and ceramics, production of plastic films, insulation of wires and liquid packaging.

  9. Effects of radiation and variable viscosity on unsteady MHD flow of a rotating fluid from stretching surface in porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Rashad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the study of unsteady magnetohydrodynamics boundary-layer flow and heat transfer for a viscous laminar incompressible electrically conducting and rotating fluid due to a stretching surface embedded in a saturated porous medium with a temperature-dependent viscosity in the presence of a magnetic field and thermal radiation effects. The fluid viscosity is assumed to vary as an inverse linear function of temperature. The Rosseland diffusion approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. With appropriate transformations, the unsteady MHD boundary layer equations are reduced to local nonsimilarity equations. Numerical solutions of these equations are obtained by using the Runge–Kutta integration scheme as well as the local nonsimilarity method with second order truncation. Comparisons with previously published work have been conducted and the results are found to be in excellent agreement. A parametric study of the physical parameters is conducted and a representative set of numerical results for the velocity in primary and secondary flows as well as the local skin-friction coefficients and the local Nusselt number are illustrated graphically to show interesting features of Darcy number, viscosity-variation, magnetic field, rotation of the fluid, and conduction radiation parameters.

  10. Fem Simulation of Triple Diffusive Natural Convection Along Inclined Plate in Porous Medium: Prescribed Surface Heat, Solute and Nanoparticles Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, M.; Goyal, R.; Bhargava, R.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, triple diffusive natural convection under Darcy flow over an inclined plate embedded in a porous medium saturated with a binary base fluid containing nanoparticles and two salts is studied. The model used for the nanofluid is the one which incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. In addition, the thermal energy equations include regular diffusion and cross-diffusion terms. The vertical surface has the heat, mass and nanoparticle fluxes each prescribed as a power law function of the distance along the wall. The boundary layer equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations with the help of group theory transformations. A wide range of parameter values are chosen to bring out the effect of buoyancy ratio, regular Lewis number and modified Dufour parameters of both salts and nanofluid parameters with varying angle of inclinations. The effects of parameters on the velocity, temperature, solutal and nanoparticles volume fraction profiles, as well as on the important parameters of heat and mass transfer, i.e., the reduced Nusselt, regular and nanofluid Sherwood numbers, are discussed. Such problems find application in extrusion of metals, polymers and ceramics, production of plastic films, insulation of wires and liquid packaging.

  11. Porous Proton- and Chloride-Ion Conducting Layers Based on Ethanolamine Derivatives of PVC on the Surfaces of Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivadze, A. Yu.; Fridman, A. Ya.; Morozova, E. M.; Sokolova, N. P.; Voloshchuk, A. M.; Bardyshev, I. I.; Gorbunov, A. M.; Novikov, A. K.; Polyakova, I. Ya.; Titova, B. N.; Yavich, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    Materials are produced with porous layers based on ethanolamine derivatives of PVC or compounds of active carbon with hydroxyethylcyclam derivatives of PVC with aqua complexes of chloride hydrogen cross-linked with the surface of cellulose or asbestos fabric. Their capacity for sorption with respect to hexane and benzene in the saturated vapor and liquid phases is determined. The dependences of current on voltage in a circuit are determined for bridges composed of these materials in air, and in the vapor and liquid phases of benzene and hexane between 3 M HCl solutions and 3 M HCl solutions containing 3 M CaCl2. It is established that only H+ ions migrate along the bridges between the HCl solutions, and H+ and Cl- ions were the only species that moved along the bridges between the HCl solutions containing CaCl2. The voltages at which the movement of ions starts are determined, and constants characterizing the conductivity of the layers are found. It is shown that these parameters depend on the structure of a layer, the nature of the fabric, and the medium surrounding a bridge.

  12. Determination of the effective thickness of a porous electrode in a flow-through reactor: effect of the specific surface area of stainless steel fibres, used as a porous cathode, during the deposition of Ag(I) ions

    OpenAIRE

    Nava Montes de Oca, José Luis; Oropeza Guzmán, Mercedes T.; Ponce de León Albarrán, Carlos; González García, José; Frías Ferrer, Ángel

    2007-01-01

    This study discusses the use of potential distribution analysis during the deposition of metal ions, at limiting current conditions and determines the optimum electrode thickness at which no hydrogen evolution occurs. The potential distribution studies were carried out on stainless-steel fibres of three different surface areas. The fibres were used as cathodic porous electrodes during the deposition of Ag(I) ions contained in 0.1 mol dm? 3 KNO3 and 0.6 mol dm? 3 NH4OH electrolyte. The compari...

  13. Stationary nonlinear Airy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotti, A.; Faccio, D.; Couairon, A.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Tzortzakis, S.; Abdollahpour, D.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of an additional class of stationary accelerating Airy wave forms that exist in the presence of third-order (Kerr) nonlinearity and nonlinear losses. Numerical simulations and experiments, in agreement with the analytical model, highlight how these stationary solutions sustain the nonlinear evolution of Airy beams. The generic nature of the Airy solution allows extension of these results to other settings, and a variety of applications are suggested.

  14. Surface renewal model for heat transfer calculation between a porous solid wall and an internally heated bubbling pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourniaire, B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: This work has been performed in the frame of the study of severe accident of LWR involving core meltdown and failure of the reactor vessel with molten corium relocation in the reactor pit. One of the main issue in nuclear safety is the estimation of the time when the reactor cavity may fail due to the erosion of the basemat since it would lead to the contamination of the groundwater. The calculation of the basemat erosion velocity requires the knowledge of the heat transfer between the corium pool and the concrete. Due to the gas release (mainly CO 2 and H 2 O) resulting from the concrete erosion, two-phase flow heat transfers occur during molten core concrete interaction (MCCI). Two-phase flow heat transfer between a porous horizontal wall and an internally heated bubbling pool has been already extensively investigated on the experimental side by several authors (Kutateladze and Malenkov, Duignan et al, Bonnet et al, Bilbao y Leon et al). The effect of various parameters such as the physical properties of the fluid or the pool aspect ratio has been studied so that many experimental data are available. From dimensional analysis (Kutateladze-Malenkov, Bonnet et al) or theoretical approach (Konsetov) and from these experimental data, heat transfer correlations have been proposed based on usual non-dimensional groups as Nu, Pr, Ra, etc. Today, the most widely used correlation in MCCI study are those proposed by Konsetov and by Kutateladze and Malenkov. Comparisons of the results of these correlations with available experimental data show that not all tendencies are well reproduced. The main purpose of this paper is to present an alternative heat transfer correlation that can be used in MCCI study. This correlation has been proposed by Deckwer in the frame of the study of heat transfer in bubble column reactors dedicated to chemical engineering. This correlation has been deduced from a theoretical analysis based on a surface renewal

  15. Bio-inspired low frictional surfaces having micro-dimple arrays prepared with honeycomb patterned porous films as wet etching masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Y; Yabu, H

    2015-01-27

    Some kinds of snakes have micro-dimple arrays on their skins and show low frictional properties. Cost-effective and simple preparation methods of surfaces having micro-dimple arrays without burrs have been required. In this study, micro-dimple arrays were successfully prepared on aluminum plates and pipes by using honeycomb patterned porous films as wet etching masks. Resulting surfaces having 5 and 8 μm dimple diameters show low frictional coefficients compared with polished surfaces at a fluid lubrication regime.

  16. Efficient modification of the surface properties of interconnected porous hydroxyapatite by low-pressure low-frequency plasma treatment to promote its biological performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Sung; Moriguchi, Yu; Myoui, Akira; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment at low pressure is found to significantly improve the biological performance of artificial bones made of interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite (IP-CHA). One of the essential parameters associated with their biological performance is hydrophilicity of their exterior surfaces as well as surfaces of inner pores. It is found that plasma treatment at low pressures is highly effective in making the inner pore surfaces more hydrophilic. Preliminary in vivo experiments of plasma-treated IP-CHA artificial bones in rats have shown fast formation of blood vessels in their inner pores, implying the increase in osteoconductivity due to the plasma treatment.

  17. Effects of porous superhydrophilic surfaces on flow boiling critical heat flux in IVR accident scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Atkhen, Kresna; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Azizian, Mohammad Reza; McKrell, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Critical Heat Flux (CHF) plays a key role in nuclear reactor safety both during normal operation as well as in accident scenarios. In particular,when an in-vessel retention (IVR) strategy is used as a severe accident management strategy, the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) cavity is flooded with water, to remove the decay heat from the corium relocated in the lower plenum by conduction through the RPV wall and flow boiling on the outer surface of the RPV. The CHF limit must not be ex...

  18. Ionic liquid-assisted synthesis of Br-modified g-C3N4 semiconductors with high surface area and highly porous structure for photoredox water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuo; Zhang, Yiwei; Wang, Yanyun; Zhou, Yuming; Qiu, Kaibo; Zhang, Chao; Fang, Jiasheng; Sheng, Xiaoli

    2017-12-01

    Coping with the gradually increasing worldwide energy and environmental issues, it is urgent to develop efficient, cheap and visible-light-driven photocatalysts for hydrogen production. Here, we present a facile way to synthesize bromine doped graphitic carbon nitride (CN-BrX) with highly porous structure by using ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-vinylimidazolium bromide) as the Br source and soft-template for the first time, which applied in hydrogen evolution under visible light irradiation. A systematic study is conducted on the optimization in the doping amount. The results find that the as-fabricated CN-BrX photocatalysts possess a uniform porous network with thin walls due to the release of volatile domains and decomposition of ionic liquids. The highly porous structure with the large surface area (≤150 m2/g) benefits the exposure of active sites. Moreover, the bromine modification and porous structure can narrow the band gap, enhance the transportation capability of photogenerated electrons, improve the optical and conductive properties of CN, thus contribute to an outstanding H2 evolution rate under visible light irradiation (120 μmol h-1), which is about 3.6 times higher than pure CN. This work provides a new insight for designing the novel g-C3N4 based photocatalysts for hydrogen production, CO2 conversion and environmental remediation.

  19. Biomass-derived nitrogen-doped porous carbons with tailored hierarchical porosity and high specific surface area for high energy and power density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junting; Niu, Jin; Liu, Mengyue; Ji, Jing; Dou, Meiling; Wang, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Porous carbon materials with hierarchical structures attract intense interest for the development of high-performance supercapacitors. Herein, we demonstrate a facile and efficient strategy to synthesize nitrogen-doped hierarchically porous carbons with tailored porous structure combined with high specific surface area (SSA), which involves a pre-carbonization and a subsequent carbonization combined with KOH activation of silkworm cocoon precursors. Through adjusting the mass ratio of the activator (KOH) to pre-carbonized precursor in the activation process, the hierarchically porous carbon prepared at the mass ratio of 2 (referred to as NHPC-2) possesses a high defect density and a high SSA of 3386 m2 g-1 as well as the relatively high volumetric proportion of mesopores and macropores (45.5%). As a result, the energy density and power density of the symmetric supercapacitor based on NHPC-2 electrode are as high as 34.41 Wh kg-1 and 31.25 kW kg-1 in organic-solvent electrolyte, and are further improved to 112.1 Wh kg-1 and 23.91 kW kg-1 in ionic-liquid electrolyte.

  20. Surface modification induced enhanced CO2 sorption in cucurbit[6]uril, an organic porous material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Midhun; Suzuki, T; Nair, Akhil K; Pillai, Saju; Warrier, K G K; Hareesh, U S; Nair, Balagopal N; Gale, J D

    2017-09-27

    The CO 2 adsorption properties of an organic macrocycle, cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]), have been evaluated through experimental and theoretical studies. Quantum mechanical calculations show that CB[6] is capable of adsorbing the CO 2 molecule selectively within its cavity relative to nitrogen. Adsorption experiments at 298 K and at 1 bar pressure gave a CO 2 adsorption value of 1.23 mmol g -1 for the unmodified material. Significant enhancements in the CO 2 adsorption capacity of the material were experimentally demonstrated through surface modification using physical and chemical methods. Ethanolamine (EA) modified CB[6] provided an excellent sorption selectivity value of 121.4 for CO 2 /N 2 at 323 K and is unique with respect to its discrimination potential between CO 2 and N 2 . The chemical nature of the interaction between CO 2 and amine is shown to be the primary mechanism for the enhanced CO 2 absorption performance.

  1. Variational analysis for simulating free-surface flows in a porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabbir Ahmed

    2003-01-01

    is used to obtain a discrete form of equations for a two-dimensional domain. The matrix characteristics and the stability criteria have been investigated to develop a stable numerical algorithm for solving the governing equation. A computer programme has been written to solve a symmetric positive definite system obtained from the variational finite element analysis. The system of equations is solved using the conjugate gradient method. The solution generates time-varying hydraulic heads in the subsurface. The interfacing free surface between the unsaturated and saturated zones in the variably saturated domain is located, based on the computed hydraulic heads. Example problems are investigated. The finite element solutions are compared with the exact solutions for the example problems. The numerical characteristics of the finite element solution method are also investigated using the example problems.

  2. Response Surface Methodology for Design of Porous Hollow Sphere Thermal Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohani, Nazanin; Pourmahdian, Saeed; Shirkavand Hadavand, Behzad

    2017-11-01

    In this study, response surface method is used for synthesizing polystyrene (PS) as sacrificial templates and optimizing the particle size. Three factors of initiator, stabilizer concentration and also stirring rate were selected as variable factors. Then, three different concentration of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) added to reaction media and core-shell structure with PS core and silica shell was developed. Finally, core-shell structure was changed to hollow silica sphere for using as thermal insulator. We observed that increased initiator concentration caused to larger PS particles, increase the stirring rate caused the smaller PS and also with increased the stabilizer concentration obtained that particle size decrease then after 2.5% began to increase. Also the optimum amount of TEOS was found.

  3. THE EFFECTS OF SURFACE CHEMISTRY ON THE PROPERTIES OF PROTEINS CONFINED IN NANO-POROUS MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, L. M.; O' Neill, H.

    2007-01-01

    The entrapment of proteins using the sol-gel route provides a means to retain its native properties and artifi cially reproduce the molecular crowding and confi nement experienced by proteins in the cell allowing investigation of the physico-chemical and structural properties of biomolecules at the biotic/abiotic interface. The biomolecules are spatially separated and ‘caged’ in the gel structure but solutes can freely permeate the matrix. Thus, properties such as the folding of ensembles of individual molecules can be examined in the absence of aggregation effects that can occur in solution studies. Green fl uorescent protein from Aequorea coerulescens was used as a model protein to examine the unfolding/re-folding properties of protein in silica gels. The recombinant protein was isolated and purifi ed from Escherichia coli extracts by cell lysis, three-phase partitioning, dialysis, and anion exchange chromatography. The purity of the protein was greater than 90% as judged by SDS PAGE gel analysis. Sol-gels were synthesized using tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) in combination with, methyltrimethoxyorthosilane (MTMOS), ethyltrimethoxyorthosilane (ETMOS), 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS). The acid induced denaturation and renaturation of GFP was analyzed by UV-visible, fl uorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies. No renaturation was observed in gels that were made with TMOS only, and in the presence of APTES, MTMOS, and ETMOS. However, in gels that were made with GPTMS, the CD and UV-visible spectra indicated that the protein had refolded. The fl uorescence emission spectrum indicated that approximately 20% of fl uorescence had returned. This study highlights the importance of the surface chemistry of the silica gels for the refolding properties of the entrapped GFP. Future studies will investigate the effect of surface chemistry on the thermal and solvent stability of the entrapped protein.

  4. Effective optimization of surface passivation on porous silicon carbide using atomic layer deposited Al2O3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Weifang; Iwasa, Yoshimi; Ou, Yiyu

    2017-01-01

    Porous silicon carbide (B–N co-doped SiC) produced by anodic oxidation showed strong photoluminescence (PL) at around 520 nm excited by a 375 nm laser. The porous SiC samples were passivated by atomic layer deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) films, resulting in a significant enhancement...... of the PL intensity (up to 689%). The effect of thickness, annealing temperature, annealing duration and precursor purge time on the PL intensity of ALD Al2O3 films was investigated. In order to investigate the penetration depth and passivation effect in porous SiC, the samples were characterized by X...... effective method to enhance the luminescence efficiency of porous SiC....

  5. Numerical treatment for Carreau nanofluid flow over a porous nonlinear stretching surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mohamed R.; Mahny, Kasseb L.; Muhammad, Taseer; Sheikholeslami, Mohsen

    2018-03-01

    The impact of magnetic field and nanoparticles on the two-phase flow of a generalized non-Newtonian Carreau fluid over permeable non-linearly stretching surface has been analyzed in the existence of all suction/injection and thermal radiation. The governing PDEs with congruous boundary condition are transformed into a system of non-linear ODEs with appropriate boundary conditions by using similarity transformation. It solved numerically by using 4th-5th order Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method based on shooting technique. The impacts of non-dimensional controlling parameters on velocity, temperature, and nanoparticles volume concentration profiles are scrutinized with aid of graphs. The Nusselt and the Sherwood numbers are studied at the different situations of the governing parameters. The numerical computations are in excellent consent with previously reported studies. It is found that the heat transfer rate is reduced with an increment of thermal radiation parameter and on contrary of the rising of magnetic field. The opposite trend happens in the mass transfer rate.

  6. Porous coordination polymer with flexibility imparted by coordinatively changeable lithium ions on the pore surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lin-Hua; Lin, Jian-Bin; Liu, Xiao-Min; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Wei-Xiong; Zhang, Jie-Peng; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2010-02-01

    Solvothermal reactions of equimolar zinc acetate, lithium acetate, and 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (H(3)btc) in different mixed solvents yielded isostructural three-dimensional frameworks [LiZn(btc)(cG)].lG [cG and lG denote coordinated and lattice guests, respectively; cG = (nmp)(0.5)(H(2)O)(0.5), lG = (EtOH)(0.5) (1a); cG = H(2)O, lG = EtOH (1b); nmp = N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone] with one-dimensional channels occupied by guest molecules and solvent-coordinated, extrusive Li(+) ions. Thermogravimetry analyses and powder X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that both 1a and 1b can lose all lattice and coordinated guests to form a desolvated phase [LiZn(btc)] (MCF-27, 1) and almost retains the original framework structure. Gas adsorption measurements on 1 confirmed its permanent porosity but suggested a structural transformation from 1a/1b to 1. It is noteworthy that only 1a can undergo a single-crystal to single-crystal (SCSC) transformation into 1 upon desolvation. The crystal structure of 1 revealed that the Li(+) ions were retracted into the channel walls via complementary coordination to the carboxylate oxygen atoms in the framework rather than being exposed on the pore surface. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses were also performed for N(2)- and CO(2)-loaded samples of 1, revealing that the framework remained unchanged when the gases were adsorbed. Although the gas molecules could not be modeled, the residue electrons inside the channels demonstrated that the retracted Li(+) ions still behave as the primary interacting site for CO(2) molecules. Nevertheless, solvent molecules such as H(2)O can readily compete with the framework oxygen atom to retrieve the extrusive Li(+) ions, accompanying the reverse structural transformation, i.e., from 1 to 1a/1b.

  7. Effect of low-concentration rhamnolipid on transport of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 in an ideal porous medium with hydrophilic or hydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hua; Liu, Guansheng; Jiang, Yongbing; Brusseau, Mark L; Liu, Zhifeng; Liu, Yang; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-03-01

    The success of effective bioaugmentation processes for remediation of soil and groundwater contamination requires effective transport of the injected microorganisms in the subsurface environment. In this study, the effect of low concentrations of monorhamnolipid biosurfactant solutions on transport of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an ideal porous medium (glass beads) with hydrophilic or hydrophobic surfaces was investigated by conducting miscible-displacement experiments. Transport behavior was examined for both glucose-grown and hexadecane-grown cells, with low and high surface hydrophobicity, respectively. A clean-bed colloid deposition model was used for determination of deposition rate coefficients. Results show that cells with high surface hydrophobicity exhibit greater retention than cells with low surface hydrophobicity. Rhamnolipid affects cell transport primarily by changing cell surface hydrophobicity, with an additional minor effect by increasing solution ionic strength. There is a good linear relation between k and rhamnolipid-regulated cell surface hydrophobicity presented as bacterial-adhesion-to-hydrocarbon (BATH) rate of cells (R(2)=0.71). The results of this study show the importance of hydrophobic interaction for transport of bacterial cells in silica-based porous media, and the potential of using low-concentration rhamnolipid solutions for facilitating bacterial transport in bioaugmentation efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A combinatorial variation in surface chemistry and pore size of three-dimensional porous poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds modulates the behaviors of mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yingdi; Tan, Ke; Zhou, Yan; Ye, Zhaoyang, E-mail: zhaoyangye@ecust.edu.cn; Tan, Wen-Song

    2016-02-01

    Biomaterial properties play significant roles in controlling cellular behaviors. The objective of the present study was to investigate how pore size and surface chemistry of three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds regulate the fate of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro in combination. First, on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) films, the hydrolytic treatment was found to stimulate the adhesion, spreading and proliferation of human MSCs (hMSCs) in comparison with pristine films, while the aminolysis showed mixed effects. Then, 3D porous PCL scaffolds with varying pore sizes (100–200 μm, 200–300 μm and 300–450 μm) were fabricated and subjected to either hydrolysis or aminolysis. It was found that a pore size of 200–300 μm with hydrolysis in 3D scaffolds was the most favorable condition for growth of hMSCs. Importantly, while a pore size of 200–300 μm with hydrolysis for 1 h supported the best osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, the chondrogenic differentiation was greatest in scaffolds with a pore size of 300–450 μm and treated with aminolysis for 1 h. Taken together, these results suggest that surface chemistry and pore size of 3D porous scaffolds may potentially have a synergistic impact on the behaviors of MSCs. - Highlights: • Surface chemistry of poly(ε-caprolactone) films actively modulates MSC behaviors. • Varying surface chemistry and pore size in combination is enabled in 3D scaffolds. • Surface chemistry and pore size potentially dictate MSC fates in synergy.

  9. Electrokinetics in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luong, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the PhD research on electrokinetics in porous media. Electrokinetic phenomena are induced by the relative motion between a fluid and a solid surface and are directly related to the existence of an electric double layer between the fluid and the solid grain surface.

  10. Fortifying the Bone-Implant Interface Part 1: An In Vitro Evaluation of 3D-Printed and TPS Porous Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBarb, Regina F; Lindsey, Derek P; Bahney, Chelsea S; Woods, Shane A; Wolfe, Mark L; Yerby, Scott A

    2017-01-01

    An aging society and concomitant rise in the incidence of impaired bone health have led to the need for advanced osteoconductive spinal implant surfaces that promote greater biological fixation ( e.g. for interbody fusion cages, sacroiliac joint fusion implants, and artificial disc replacements). Additive manufacturing, i.e. 3D-printing, may improve bone integration by generating biomimetic spinal implant surfaces that mimic bone morphology. Such surfaces may foster an enhanced cellular response compared to traditional implant surfacing processes. This study investigated the response of human osteoblasts to additive manufactured (AM) trabecular-like titanium implant surfaces compared to traditionally machined base material with titanium plasma spray (TPS) coated surfaces, with and without a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. For TPS-coated discs, wrought Ti6Al4V ELI was machined and TPS-coating was applied. For AM discs, Ti6Al4V ELI powder was 3D-printed to form a solid base and trabecular-like porous surface. The HA-coating was applied via a precipitation dip-spin method. Surface porosity, pore size, thickness, and hydrophilicity were characterized. Initial cell attachment, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and calcium production of hFOB cells ( n =5 per group) were measured. Cells on AM discs exhibited expedited proliferative activity. While there were no differences in mean ALP expression and calcium production between TPS and AM discs, calcium production on the AM discs trended 48% higher than on TPS discs ( p =0.07). Overall, HA-coating did not further enhance results compared to uncoated TPS and AM discs. Results demonstrate that additive manufacturing allows for controlled trabecular-like surfaces that promote earlier cell proliferation and trends toward higher calcium production than TPS coating. Results further showed that nanocrystalline HA may not provide an advantage on porous titanium surfaces. Additive manufactured porous

  11. Flow in Porous Media with Special Reference to Breakwater Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O. Holst

    A literature study concerning porous flow is carried out. For the stationary case, the hydraulic radius theory, for which some justification can be given based on Navier-Stokes equations, appears to be adequate. Three different porous flow regimes are identified and the associated flow resistance...

  12. Inclusion of gold nanoparticles in meso-porous silicon for the SERS analysis of cell adhesion on nano-structured surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Coluccio, M.L.

    2016-03-25

    The study and the comprehension of the mechanism of cell adhesion and cell interaction with a substrate is a key point when biology and medicine meet engineering. This is the case of several biomedical applications, from regenerative medicine and tissue engineering to lab on chip and many others, in which the realization of the appropriate artificial surface allows the control of cell adhesion and proliferation. In this context, we aimed to design and develop a fabrication method of mesoporous (MeP) silicon substrates, doped with gold nanoparticles, in which we combine the capability of porous surfaces to support cell adhesion with the SERS capabilities of gold nanoparticles, to understand the chemical mechanisms of cell/surface interaction. MeP Si surfaces were realized by anodization of a Si wafer, creating the device for cell adhesion and growth. Gold nanoparticles were deposited on porous silicon by an electroless technique. We thus obtained devices with superior SERS capabilities, whereby cell activity may be controlled using Raman spectroscopy. MCF-7 breast cancer cells were cultured on the described substrates and SERS maps revealing the different expression and distribution of adhesion molecules were obtained by Raman spectroscopic analyses.

  13. Hierarchical nitrogen-doped porous carbon with high surface area derived from endothelium corneum gigeriae galli for high-performance supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Xiaoting; Hui, K.S.; Zeng, Zhi; Hui, K.N.; Zhang, Luojiang; Mo, Mingyue; Li, Min

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Porous carbons were prepared using endothelium corneum gigeriae galli as precursor. • Surface and structural properties strongly depend on carbonization temperatures. • Resultant carbons possess nitrogen heteroatom and high surface areas. • ECGG-900 sample exhibits excellent electrochemical capacitive performances. - Abstract: Endothelium corneum gigeriae galli derived 3D hierarchical nitrogen-doped porous carbon was for the first time prepared by preliminary carbonization at 450 °C and final KOH activation at high temperatures. The surface and structural properties of the as-synthesized samples are analyzed with Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface analyzer apparatus, X-Ray Diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer. The electrochemical performances are analyzed by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained results show that the sample carbonized at 900 °C possesses the SSA of 2149.9 m 2 g −1 , average micropore diameter of 1.78 nm, and exhibits the highest initial specific capacitance of 198.0 F g −1 at current density of 1 A g −1 in 6 M KOH solution. It retains good specific capacitance retention of 91.6% after 3000 charge/discharge cycles at current density of 2 A g −1

  14. Characterization of Ag-porous silicon nanostructured layer formed by an electrochemical etching of p-type silicon surface for bio-application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.; Al-Mariri, A.; Haj-Mhmoud, N.

    2017-06-01

    Nanostructured layers composed of silver-porous silicon (Ag-PS) have been formed by an electrochemical etching of p-type (1 1 1) silicon substrate in a AgNO3:HF:C2H5OH solution at different etching times (10 min-30 min). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results reveal that the produced layers consist of Ag dendrites and a silicon-rich porous structure. The nanostructuring nature of the layer has been confirmed by spatial micro-Raman scattering and x-ray diffraction techniques. The Ag dendrites exhibit a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum, while the porous structure shows a typical PS Raman spectrum. Upon increasing the etching time, the average size of silicon nanocrystallite in the PS network decreases, while the average size of Ag nanocrystals is slightly affected. In addition, the immobilization of prokaryote Salmonella typhimurium DNA via physical adsorption onto the Ag-PS layer has been performed to demonstrate its efficiency as a platform for detection of biological molecules using SERS.

  15. Wicke-Kallenbach and Graham’s Diffusion Cells; Limits of Application for Low Surface Area Porous Solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Karel; Schneider, Petr; Šolcová, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 18 (2008), s. 4490-4493 ISSN 0009-2509 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : diffusion * permeation * porous media Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.884, year: 2008

  16. Gas flow in the near-surface porous boundary layer of the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko using micro-CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Chariton; Kokou Dadzie, S.; Thomas, Nicolas; Hartogh, Paul; Jorda, Laurent; Kührt, Ekkehard; Whitby, James; Wright, Ian; Zarnecki, John

    2017-04-01

    While ESA's Rosetta mission has formally been completed, the data analysis and interpretation continues. Here, we address the physics of the gas flow at the surface of the comet. Understanding the sublimation of ice at the surface of the nucleus provides the initial boundary condition for studying the inner coma. The gas flow at the surface of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko can be in the rarefaction regime and a non-Maxwellian velocity distribution may be present. In these cases, continuum methods like Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NSF) set of equations are rarely applicable. Discrete particle methods such as Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method are usually adopted. DSMC is currently the dominant numerical method to study rarefied gas flows. It has been widely used to study cometary outflow over past years .1,2. In the present study, we investigate numerically, gas transport near the surface of the nucleus using DSMC. We focus on the outgassing from the near surface boundary layer into the vacuum (˜20 cm above the nucleus surface). Simulations are performed using the open source code dsmcFoam on an unstructured grid. Until now, artificially generated random porous media formed by packed spheres have been used to represent the comet surface boundary layer structure .3. In the present work, we used instead Micro-computerized-tomography (micro-CT) scanned images to provide geologically realistic 3D representations of the boundary layer porous structure. The images are from earth basins. The resolution is relatively high - in the range of some μm. Simulations from different rock samples with high porosity (and comparable to those expected at 67P) are compared. Gas properties near the surface boundary layer are presented and characterized. We have identified effects of the various porous structure properties on the gas flow fields. Temperature, density and velocity profiles have also been analyzed. .1. J.-F. Crifo, G. Loukianov, A. Rodionov and V. Zakharov

  17. Relativistic elasticity of stationary fluid branes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armas, J.; Obers, N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Fluid mechanics can be formulated on dynamical surfaces of arbitrary codimension embedded in a background space-time. This has been the main object of study of the blackfold approach in which the emphasis has primarily been on stationary fluid configurations. Motivated by this approach we show un...

  18. Stationary Double Layers in a Collisionless Magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noriyoshi, Sato; Mieno, Tetsu; Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    1983-01-01

    Stationary double layers are generated in a magnetoplasma by applying potential differences between two heated plates on which the plasma is produced by surface ionization. By measuring the double-layer formation process, a localized potential drop is found to be formed initially in front of the ...

  19. Effect of Variable Viscosity on Vortex Instability of Non-Darcy Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow Adjacent to a Nonisothermal Horizontal Surface in a Porous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Elaiw

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the effect of variable viscosity on the flow and vortex instability for non-Darcy mixed convection boundary layer flow on a nonisothermal horizontal plat surface in a saturated porous medium. The variation of viscosity is expressed as an exponential function of temperature. The analysis of the disturbance flow is based on linear stability theory. The base flow equations and the resulting eigenvalue problem are solved using finite difference schemes. It is found that the variable viscosity effect enhances the heat transfer rate and destabilizes the flow for liquid heating, while the opposite trend is true for gas heating.

  20. Significant effects of the distance between the cyanine dye skeleton and the semiconductor surface on the photoelectrochemical properties of dye-sensitized porous semiconductor electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayama, K.; Hara, K.; Arakawa, H. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research,NIMC, Ibaraki (Japan); Ohga, Y.; Shinpou, A.; Suga, S. [Hayashibara Biochemical Lab., Inc, Okayama (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of a porous TiO{sub 2} electrode sensitized by cyanine dyes increased with decreasing distance between the skeleton of the dye and the TiO{sub 2} surface. The photocurrent of oxide semiconductor electrodes sensitized by a cyanine dye increased with the positive shift of the conduction band potential of the oxide semiconductor in the following order: Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} < TiO{sub 2} < ZnO < SnO{sub 2}. The SnO{sub 2} semiconductor cell showed the best light-to-electric conversion efficiency among the four semiconductors. (author)

  1. Surface Roughness and Elastic Deformation Effects on the Behaviour of the Magnetic Fluid Based Squeeze Film Between Rotating Porous Circular Plates with Concentric Circular Pockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Shimpi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to study and analyze the performance of a magnetic fluid based squeeze film between rotating porous transversely rough circular plates with concentric circular pockets. The porous housing is considered to be elastically negligibly deformable with its contact surface transversely rough. The stochastic film thickness characterizing the random roughness is assumed to be asymmetric with non zero mean and variance. The pressure distribution is obtained by solving the associated stochastically averaged Reynolds equation with appropriate boundary conditions. This results in the calculation of the load carrying capacity. All the results in graphical form establish that the transverse roughness in conjunction with the deformation has a strong negative effect on the performance of the bearing system. The bearing suffers on account of transverse surface roughness in general which probably is due to the fact that the roughness of the bearing surfaces tends to retard the motion of the lubricant resulting in decreased load carrying capacity. However, this negative effect of roughness, porosity and deformation can be minimized by the positive effect of the magnetization parameter in the case of negatively skewed roughness by choosing a suitable combination of pocket radius and rotational inertia. Lastly, the effect of radii ratio is noted to be quite significant.

  2. Stationary Double Layers in a Collisionless Magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noriyoshi, Sato; Mieno, Tetsu; Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    1983-01-01

    Stationary double layers are generated in a magnetoplasma by applying potential differences between two heated plates on which the plasma is produced by surface ionization. By measuring the double-layer formation process, a localized potential drop is found to be formed initially in front...... of the plate on the low-potential side, being accompanied with current limitation. This localized potential drop moves along the plasma column, but finally stops and results in the formation of the stationary double layer in the presence of sufficient plasma supply from the plate on the high-potential side....

  3. Polymer conformation during flow in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawale, D.; Bouwman, G.W.; Sachdev, S.; Zitha, P.L.J.; Kreutzer, M.T.; Rossen, W.R.; Boukany, P.

    2017-01-01

    Molecular conformations of individual polymers during flow through porous media are directly observed by single-DNA imaging in microfluidics. As the Weissenberg number increases during flow (Wi > 1), we observe two types of elastic instabilities: (a) stationary dead-zone and (b) time-dependant

  4. Atomic layer deposition TiO{sub 2} coated porous silicon surface: Structural characterization and morphological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iatsunskyi, Igor, E-mail: igoyat@amu.edu.pl [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, 85 Umultowska str., 61-614, Poznan (Poland); Department of Experimental Physics, Odessa National I.I. Mechnikov University, 42, Pastera str., 65023 Odessa (Ukraine); Jancelewicz, Mariusz; Nowaczyk, Grzegorz [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, 85 Umultowska str., 61-614, Poznan (Poland); Kempiński, Mateusz [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, 85 Umultowska str., 61-614, Poznan (Poland); Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poland (Poland); Peplińska, Barbara [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, 85 Umultowska str., 61-614, Poznan (Poland); Department of Macromolecular Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Jarek, Marcin; Załęski, Karol [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, 85 Umultowska str., 61-614, Poznan (Poland); Jurga, Stefan [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, 85 Umultowska str., 61-614, Poznan (Poland); Department of Macromolecular Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Smyntyna, Valentyn [Department of Experimental Physics, Odessa National I.I. Mechnikov University, 42, Pastera str., 65023 Odessa (Ukraine)

    2015-08-31

    TiO{sub 2} thin films were grown on highly-doped p-Si (100) macro- and mesoporous structures by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using TiCl{sub 4} and deionized water as precursors at 300 °C. The crystalline structure, chemical composition, and morphology of the deposited films and initial silicon nanostructures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mean size of TiO{sub 2} crystallites was determined by TEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy. It was shown that the mean crystallite size and the crystallinity of the TiO{sub 2} are influenced dramatically by the morphology of the porous silicon, with the mesoporous silicon resulting in a much finer grain size and amorphous structure than the macroporous silicon having a partially crystal anatase phase. A simple model of the ALD layer growth inside the pores was presented. - Highlights: • The morphology and chemical composition of TiO{sub 2} and porous Si were established. • The approximate size of TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals was estimated. • The model of the atomic layer deposition coating in the porous Si was presented.

  5. Extension of the carotenoid test to superficially porous C18 bonded phases, aromatic ligand types and new classical C18 bonded phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesellier, E

    2012-11-30

    The recent introduction of new stationary phases for liquid chromatography based on superficially porous particles, called core-shell or fused-core, dramatically improved the separation performances through very high efficiency, due mainly to reduced eddy diffusion. However, few studies have evaluated the retention and selectivity of C18 phases based on such particles, despite some retention order change reported in literature between some of these phases. The carotenoid test has been developed a few years ago in the goal to compare the chromatographic properties of C18 bonded phases. Based on the analysis of carotenoid pigments by using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC), it allows, with a single analysis, to measure three main properties of reversed phase chromatography stationary phases: hydrophobicity, polar surface activity and shape selectivity. Previous studies showed the effect of the endcapping treatment, the bonding density, the pore size, and the type of bonding (monomeric vs. polymeric) on these studied properties, and described the classification map used for a direct column comparison. It was applied to ten ODS superficially porous stationary phases, showing varied chromatographic behaviors amongst these phases. As expected, due to the lower specific surface area, these superficially porous phases are less hydrophobic than the fully porous one. In regards of the polar surface activity (residual silanols) and to the shape selectivity, some of these superficially porous phases display close chromatographic properties (Poroshell 120, Halo C18, Ascentis Express, Accucore C18, Nucleoshell C18 on one side and Aeris Wide pore, Aeris peptide and Kinetex XDB on the other side), whereas others, Kinetex C18 and Halo peptide ES C18 display more specific ones. Besides, they can be compared to classical fully porous phases, in the goal to improve method transfer from fully to superficially porous particles. By the way, the paper also report the extension of

  6. A Finite Difference Scheme for Double-Diffusive Unsteady Free Convection from a Curved Surface to a Saturated Porous Medium with a Non-Newtonian Fluid

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2011-05-14

    In this paper, a finite difference scheme is developed to solve the unsteady problem of combined heat and mass transfer from an isothermal curved surface to a porous medium saturated by a non-Newtonian fluid. The curved surface is kept at constant temperature and the power-law model is used to model the non-Newtonian fluid. The explicit finite difference method is used to solve simultaneously the equations of momentum, energy and concentration. The consistency of the explicit scheme is examined and the stability conditions are determined for each equation. Boundary layer and Boussinesq approximations have been incorporated. Numerical calculations are carried out for the various parameters entering into the problem. Velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are shown graphically. It is found that as time approaches infinity, the values of wall shear, heat transfer coefficient and concentration gradient at the wall, which are entered in tables, approach the steady state values.

  7. Investigation of heat and mass transfer of rotating MHD viscous flow between a stretching sheet and a porous surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheikholeslami, R; Ashorynejad, H.R; Barari, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze hydromagnetic flow between two horizontal plates in a rotating system. The bottom plate is a stretching sheet and the top one is a solid porous plate. Heat transfer in an electrically conducting fluid bounded by two parallel plates is also studied...... in the presence of viscous dissipation. Design/methodology/approach – Differential Transformation Method (DTM) is used to obtain a complete analytic solution for the velocity and temperature fields and the effects of different governing parameters on these fields are discussed through the graphs. Findings...

  8. Facile synthesis of porous graphene-like carbon nitride nanosheets with high surface area and enhanced photocatalytic activity via one-step catalyst-free solution self-polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shikai; Wen, Shengwu; Xu, Xinmei; Huang, Guozhi; Cui, Yifan; Li, Jinyu; Qu, Ailan

    2018-04-01

    Porous graphite carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C3N4) are achieved via one-step catalyst-free solution self-polymerization from a single melamine precursor. The resultant porous g-C3N4 nanosheets with the best photodegradation capacity provided the surface area of 669.15 m2/g, which is superior to the surface area of any other porous g-C3N4 reported. Results showed enhanced adsorption and degradation capacity of methyl orange (MO) under UV-visible light irradiation (λ > 350 nm) compared to bulk g-C3N4. The MO oxidation of the porous g-C3N4 nanosheets is driven mostly by the participation of holes, and secondly by rad O2- and rad OH radicals. This approach shed lights on porous g-C3N4 production simply by self-polycondensation of single functional monomer. It also provided a low-cost and eco-friendly method to facilely mass-produce g-C3N4 nanosheets with high surface area for many potential applications.

  9. Porous Co3O4 nanofibers surface-modified by reduced graphene oxide as a durable, high-rate anode for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Renzong; Zhang, Houpo; Bu, Yunfei; Zhang, Hanyin; Zhao, Bote; Yang, Chenghao

    2017-01-01

    Here we report our findings in synthesis and characterization of porous Co 3 O 4 nanofibers coated with a surface-modification layer, reduced graphene oxide. The unique porous Co 3 O 4 @rGO architecture enables efficient stress relaxation and fast Li + ions and electron transport during discharge/charge cycling. When tested in a half cell, the Co 3 O 4 @rGO electrodes display high Coulombic efficiency, enhanced cyclic stability, and high rate capability (∼900 mAh/g at 1A/g, and ∼600 mAh/g at 5 A/g). The high capacity is contributed by a stable capacity yielded from reversible conversion reactions above 0.8 V vs. Li/Li + , and a increasing capacity induced by the electrolyte decomposition and interfacial storage between 0.8 0.01 V during discahrge. A full cell constructed from a Co 3 O 4 @rGO anode and a LiMn 2 O 4 cathode delivers good capacity retention with operation voltage of ∼2.0 V. These performances are better than those of other full cells using alloy or metal oxide anodes. Our work is a preliminary attempt for practicality of high capacity metal oxide anodes in Li-ion batteries used for the electronic devices.

  10. Significance of porous structure on degradatin of 2,2' dichloro diethyl sulphide and 2 chloroethyl ethyl sulphide on the surface of vanadium oxide nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Beer; Mahato, T H; Srivastava, A K; Prasad, G K; Ganesan, K; Vijayaraghavan, R; Jain, Rajeev

    2011-06-15

    Degradation of the king of chemical warfare agent, 2,2' dichloro diethyl sulphide (HD), and its simulant 2 chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES) were investigated on the surface of porous vanadium oxide nanotubes at room temperature (30 ± 2°C). Reaction kinetics was monitored by GC-FID technique and the reaction products were characterized by GC-MS. Data indicates that HD degraded faster relative to CEES inside the solid decontaminant compared to the reported liquid phase degradation of CEES and HD. Data explores the role of hydrolysis, elimination and oxidation reactions in the detoxification of HD and CEES and the first order rate constant and t(1/2) were calculated to be 0.026 h(-1), 26.6h for CEES and 0.052 h(-1), 13.24h for HD. In this report faster degradation of HD compared to CEES was explained on the basis of porous structure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of the surface concentration of fixed charges in C18-bonded stationary phases on the adsorption process and on the preparative chromatography of small ionizable compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2014-11-06

    The effects of the surface concentration of positive charges attached to the surface of research BEH-C 18 hybrid particles on the overloaded band profiles and the adsorption isotherms of a neutral (caffeine) and a positively charged (nortryptilinium hydrochloride) compounds were measured and investigated. The inverse method (IM) of chromatography was used to determine the isotherm parameters. Three columns were packed with endcapped BEH-C 18 particles doped with three different charge densities on their surfaces (LOW, MEDIUM and HIGH). Two other columns packed with unbonded, non-endcapped, and endcapped BEH-C 18 particles served as standard reference materials. Minor disturbance method (MDM) experiments were conducted with acetonitrile/water mixtures in order to assess qualitatively the surface densities of the fixed positive charges. A more quantitative approach based on the solution of the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation and the decrease of the experimental Henry constant was also applied. The results show that the surface concentrations of the fixed charges in the LOW, MEDIUM and HIGH columns were 0.029, 0.050, and 0.064μmol/m 2 , e.g., close to two orders of magnitude smaller than the surface density of bonded C 18 chains (2.1μmol/m 2 ). The adsorption isotherm of the ionizable compound nortryptilinium onto the BEH-C 18 columns is consistent with a two-sites adsorption model. The density of the high energy sites correlates directly to the total amount of the fixed charges and isolated silanols amidst the C 18 -bonded chains. The amount of low energy sites reflects the specific surface area of the adsorbent. The binding constants on the high- and low-energy adsorption sites are respectively ten and two times lower on the HIGH column than on the reference endcapped column. The active sites are closer to the adsorbent surface than the weak adsorption sites. Finally, a higher production rate of ionizable compounds can be achieved in preparative

  12. The physicochemical/biological properties of porous tantalum and the potential surface modification techniques to improve its clinical application in dental implantology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Bao, C.; Wismeijer, D.; Wu, G.

    2015-01-01

    More rapid restoration and more rigid functionality have been pursued for decades in the field of dental implantology. Under such motivation, porous tantalum has been recently introduced to design a novel type of dental implant. Porous tantalum bears interconnected porous structure with pore size

  13. Thermodynamic Property Surfaces for Adsorption of R507A, R134a, and n -Butane on Pitch-Based Carbonaceous Porous Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2010-10-01

    The thermodynamic property surfaces of R507A, R134a, and n-butane on pitch-based carbonaceous porous material (Maxsorb III) are developed from rigorous classical thermodynamics and experimentally measured adsorption isotherm data. These property fields enable us to compute the entropy, enthalpy, internal energy, and heat of adsorption as a function of pressure, temperature, and the amount of adsorbate. The entropy and enthalpy maps are necessary for the analysis of adsorption cooling cycle and gas storage. We have shown here that it is possible to plot an adsorption cooling cycle on the temperature-entropy (T-s) and enthalpy-uptake (h-x) maps. Copyright © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC 2010.

  14. Transport of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes through silica based porous media: influences of aquatic chemistry, surface chemistry, and natural organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Bitter, Julie L; Smith, Billy A; Fairbrother, D Howard; Ball, William P

    2013-12-17

    This paper provides results from studies of the transport of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (O-MWCNTs) of varying surface oxygen concentrations under a range of aquatic conditions and through uniform silica glass bead media. In the presence of Na(+), the required ionic strength (IS) for maximum particle attachment efficiency (i.e., the critical deposition concentration, or CDC) increased as the surface oxygen concentration of the O-MWCNTs or pH increased, following qualitative tenets of theories based on electrostatic interactions. In the presence of Ca(2+), CDC values were lower than those with Na(+) present, but were no longer sensitive to surface oxygen content, suggesting that Ca(2+) impacts the interactions between O-MWCNTs and glass beads by mechanisms other than electrostatic alone. The presence of Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) decreased the attachment efficiency of O-MWCNTs in the presence of either Na(+) or Ca(2+), but with more pronounced effects when Na(+) was present. Nevertheless, low concentrations of SRNOM (organic carbon) were sufficient to mobilize all O-MWCNTs studied at CaCl2 concentrations as high as 10 mM. Overall, this study reveals that NOM content, pH, and cation type show more importance than surface chemistry in affecting O-MWCNTs deposition during transport through silica-based porous media.

  15. Combined Effect of Surface Nano-Topography and Delivery of Therapeutics on the Adhesion of Tumor Cells on Porous Silicon Substrates

    KAUST Repository

    De Vitis, S.

    2016-02-23

    Porous silicon is a nano material in which pores with different sizes, densities and depths are infiltrated in conventional silicon imparting it augmented properties including biodegradability, biocompatibility, photoluminescence. Here, we realized porous silicon substrates in which the pore size and the fractal dimension were varied over a significant range. We loaded the described substrates with a PtCl(O, O′ − acac)(DMSO) antitumor drug and determined its release profile as a function of pore size over time up to 15 days. We observed that the efficacy of delivery augments with the pore size moving from small (∼ 8nm, efficiency of delivery ∼ 0.2) to large (∼ 55nm, efficiency of delivery ∼ 0.7). Then, we verified the adhesion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells on the described substrates with and without the administration of the antitumor drug. This permitted to decouple and understand the coincidental effects of nano-topography and a controlled dosage of drugs on cell adhesion and growth. While large pore sizes guarantee elevated drug dosages, large fractal dimensions boost cell adhesion on a surface. For the particular case of tumor cells and the delivery of an anti-tumor drug, substrates with a small fractal dimension and large pore size hamper cell growth. The competition between nano-topography and a controlled dosage of drugs may either accelerate or block the adhesion of cells on a nanostructured surface, for applications in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, personalized lab-on-a-chips, and the rational design of implantable drug delivery systems.

  16. On Stationary and Non-stationary Porous Flow in Coarse Granular Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Christensen, Claus

    Traditionally the hydrodynamic response of rubble mound structures are studied in physical models scaled according to the Froude scaling law which neglects viscous forces. This introduces scale effect because the inherent length scaling of the stone diameters creates laminar flow in the regions...... which in prototypes are dominated by turbulent flow. Numerical modelling of the flow do not have this draw back and is therefore attractive....

  17. DEPENDENCE OF THE SURFACE-ENHANCED RAMAN SCATTERING SIGNAL ON THE SHAPE OF SILVER NANOSTRUCTURES GROWN IN THE SiO2 /n-Si POROUS TEMPLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Yakimchuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface-enhanced Raman scattering is a powerful method used in chemoand biosensorics. The aim of this work was to determine the relationship between the signal of Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and the shape of silver nanostructures under the influence of laser radiation with different power.Plasmonic nanostructures were synthesized in silicon dioxide pores on monocrystalline silicon n-type substrate. The pores were formed using ion-track technology and selective chemical etching. Silver deposition was carried out by galvanic displacement method. Synthesis time was chosen as a parameter that allows controlling the shape of a silver deposit in the pores of silicon dioxide on the surface of single-crystal n-silicon during electrodeless deposition. Deposition time directly effects on the shape of metal nanostructures.Analysis of the dynamics of changing the morphology of the metal deposit showed that as the deposition time increases, the metal evolves from individual metallic crystallites within the pores at a short deposition time to dendritic-like nanostructures at a long time. The dependence of the intensity of Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra on the shape of the silver deposit is studied at the powers of a green laser (λ = 532 nm from 2.5 μW to 150 μW on the model dye analyte Rodamin 6G. The optimum shape of the silver deposit and laser power is analyzed from this point of view design of active surfaces for Surface-enhanced Raman scattering with nondestructive control of small concentrations of substances.The silver nanostructures obtained in porous template SiO2 on n-type silicon substrate could be used as plasmon-active surfaces for nondestructive investigations of substances with low concentrations at low laser powers. 

  18. Adsorption behaviors of neutral and ionizable compounds on hybrid stationary phases in the absence (BEH-C18) and the presence (CSH-C18) of immobile surface charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2013-03-22

    The adsorption behaviors of a neutral (caffeine) and a positively charged compound (nortriptylinium) are investigated on two RPLC/hybrid stationary phases, eluted with a low ionic strength buffer (phosphate buffer, W(S)pH 2.63, I=10mM). The first phase, bridge ethylene hybrid (BEH), is neutral at all pHs whereas the second, charged surface hybrid (CSH), contains a protonated ligand at W(W)pH C18 at 20mV and by the subsequent decrease of the equilibrium constant of weak adsorption sites (C18 environment) and removal of the strong adsorption sites (accessible silanols). At the highest sample loadings (5 and 20μL, C=30g/L), the EML and the bi-EML isotherms failed because some adsorbate-adsorbate interactions take place when bulk concentrations exceed 0.2g/L. The experimental data were then successively fitted to an empirical heterogeneous Langmuir-Moreau (LM) explicit isotherm. The best saturation capacities of the empirical heterogeneous LM isotherm is consistent with the manufacturer's estimate of the surface concentration of residual silanols onto the BEH- and CSH-C18 endcapped adsorbent (<0.1μmol/m(2)). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimizing adsorption of blue pigment from wastewater by nano-porous modified Na-bentonite using spectrophotometry based on response surface method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Neshat; Salem, Shiva; Salem, Amin

    2018-03-15

    This work highlighted the effective activation of bentonite paste to produce nano-porous powder for removal of cationic dye from wastewater. The effects of activation parameters such as soda and moisture contents, ageing time and temperature were analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM). The significance of independent variables and their interactions were tested by blending the obtained powders with wastewater and then the adsorption was evaluated, spectrophotometrically. The experiments were carried out by preparation of pastes according to response surface methodology and central composite design, which is the standard method, was used to evaluate the effects and interactions of four factors on the treatment efficiency. RSM was demonstrated as an appropriate approach for optimization of alkali activation. The optimal conditions obtained from the desirable responses were 5.0wt% soda and 45.0wt% moisture, respectively in which the powder activation was carried out at 150°C. In order to well understand the role of nano-structured material on dye removal, the adsorbents were characterized through X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurement. Finally, the analysis clearly demonstrates that the dye removal onto prepared adsorbent is well fitted with Langmuir isotherm compared to the other isotherm models. The low cost of material and facile process support the further development for commercial application purpose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimizing adsorption of blue pigment from wastewater by nano-porous modified Na-bentonite using spectrophotometry based on response surface method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Neshat; Salem, Shiva; Salem, Amin

    2018-03-01

    This work highlighted the effective activation of bentonite paste to produce nano-porous powder for removal of cationic dye from wastewater. The effects of activation parameters such as soda and moisture contents, ageing time and temperature were analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM). The significance of independent variables and their interactions were tested by blending the obtained powders with wastewater and then the adsorption was evaluated, spectrophotometrically. The experiments were carried out by preparation of pastes according to response surface methodology and central composite design, which is the standard method, was used to evaluate the effects and interactions of four factors on the treatment efficiency. RSM was demonstrated as an appropriate approach for optimization of alkali activation. The optimal conditions obtained from the desirable responses were 5.0 wt% soda and 45.0 wt% moisture, respectively in which the powder activation was carried out at 150 °C. In order to well understand the role of nano-structured material on dye removal, the adsorbents were characterized through X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurement. Finally, the analysis clearly demonstrates that the dye removal onto prepared adsorbent is well fitted with Langmuir isotherm compared to the other isotherm models. The low cost of material and facile process support the further development for commercial application purpose.

  1. Stationary plume induced by carbon dioxide dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadal, F.; Meunier, P.; Pouligny, B.; Laurichesse, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, laminar convection flows induced by carbon dioxide absorption are addressed from experimental, numerical and theoretical points of view. A vertical glass tube (of centimetre scale) filled with distilled water is subjected to a sudden increase in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. As a result of the diffusion of the gas into the unsaturated solution, a thin layer of fluid located underneath the surface becomes heavier. This initial density gradient first destabilizes to form a plume, which goes downwards through the entire cell. After a first transient pulsating regime (periodic succession of such Rayleigh-Benard plumes), a stationary flow settles in the tube, which is maintained by the constant supply of gas at the surface. At late stages, this stationary regime is followed by an aperiodic regime, which lasts until the complete saturation of the solution (thermodynamic equilibrium). The present study only focuses on the stationary regime, whose characteristics appear to be almost independent of the Bond number and the aspect ratio but strongly dependent on the chemical Rayleigh number. Three decades of Rayleigh numbers are explored using particle image velocimetry measurements, which allows for a precise determination of the scaling exponents for the vertical velocity amplitude and the plume width. The assumption that gravity and a constant pressure gradient balance the viscous effects enables us to derive an analytic expression for the stationary vertical velocity on the axis, which scales as Ra 2/3 (ln Ra) 1/3 . As a consequence, the width of the plume scales as Ra -1/6 (ln Ra) -1/3 and the mass Nusselt number as (Ra= ln Ra) 1/3 . These scalings are in excellent agreement with the experimental and numerical results. The multiplicative constants of these scalings can also be calculated and show a fairly good agreement if a rigid boundary condition (no-slip) is assumed at the free surface. (authors)

  2. Preparation of Porous Poly(Styrene-Divinylbenzene) Microspheres and Their Modification with Diazoresin for Mix-Mode HPLC Separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Xu, Tao; Cong, Hailin; Peng, Qiaohong; Usman, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    By using the two-step activated swelling method, monodisperse porous poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) (P(S-DVB)) microparticles were successfully synthesized. The influence of porogens, swelling temperatures and crosslinking agents on the porosity of porous microparticles was carefully investigated. Porous P(S-DVB) microparticles were used as a packing material for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Several benzene analogues were effectively separated in a stainless-steel column as short as 75 mm due to the high specific surface area of the porous microparticles. Porous P(S-DVB) microparticles were further sulfonated and subsequently modified with diazoresin (DR) via electrostatic self-assembly and UV (ultraviolet) radiation. After treatment with UV light, the ionic bonding between sulfonated P(S-DVB) and DR was converted into covalent bonding through a unique photochemistry reaction of DR. Depending on the chemical structure of DR and mobile phase composition, the DR-modified P(S-DVB) stationary phase performed different separation mechanisms, including reversed phase (RP) and hydrophilic interactions. Therefore, baseline separations of benzene analogues and organic acids were achieved by using the DR-modified P(S-DVB) particles as packing materials in HPLC. According to the π–π interactional difference between carbon rings of fullerenes and benzene rings of DR, C60 and C70 were also well separated in the HPLC column packed with DR-modified P(S-DVB) particles. PMID:28772801

  3. Infrared optical responses of wurtzite In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N thin films with porous surface morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yew, P., E-mail: paulinevcu@hotmail.com [Institute of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia); School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia); Lee, S.C. [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia); Centre of Excellence for Pre-University Studies, INTI International College Penang, Laureate International University, 1-Z, Lebuh Bukit Jambul, 11900 Penang (Malaysia); Ng, S.S. [Institute of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia); Hassan, H. Abu [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia); Chen, W.L. [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Changhua University of Education, 500, Taiwan, ROC (China); Osipowicz, T.; Ren, M.Q. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119260 (Singapore)

    2016-03-31

    Room temperature infrared (IR) optical responses of wurtzite indium gallium nitride (In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N) in the composition range of 0.174 ≤ x ≤ 0.883 were investigated by the polarized IR reflectance spectroscopy. Analyses of the amplitudes of oscillation fringes in the non-reststrahlen region revealed that the high frequency dielectric constants of the samples were unusually smaller than the values predicted from the Clausius–Mossotti relation. This odd behavior was attributed to the porous surface morphology of the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N samples. The E{sub 1} optical phonon modes of the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N were deduced from the composition dependent reststrahlen features. The obtained values were compared to those calculated through the modified random element iso-displacement (MREI) model. The deviation between the measured data and the MREI model prediction were explained in detail from the aspects of strain, thermal expansion and anharmonic phonon-coupling. Finally, it was found that the large discrepancy of the E{sub 1}(LO) mode is mainly attributed to the effects of the longitudinal phonon–plasmon coupling. - Highlights: • Composition dependence of E{sub 1} modes of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N alloys (x = 0.174 to 0.883) • Dependence of porous morphology on infrared (IR) optical properties • Longitudinal phonon–plasmon coupling obscures determination of E{sub 1}(LO) mode.

  4. Surface sealing using self-assembled monolayers and its effect on metal diffusion in porous low-k dielectrics studied using monoenergetic positron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uedono, Akira, E-mail: uedono.akira.gb@u.tsukuba.ac.jp [Division of Applied Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Armini, Silvia; Zhang, Yu [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Kakizaki, Takeaki [Division of Applied Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard [Department of Physics, Martin Luther University Halle, 06099 Halle (Germany); Anwand, Wolfgang; Wagner, Andreas [Institute for Radiation Physics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pores with cubic pore side lengths of 1.1 and 3.1 nm coexisted in the low-k film. • For the sample without the SAM sealing process, metal atoms diffused from the top Cu/MnN layer into the OSG film and were trapped by the pores. Almost all pore interiors were covered by those metals. • For the sample damaged by a plasma etch treatment before the SAM sealing process, self-assembled molecules diffused into the OSG film, and they were preferentially trapped by larger pores. - Abstract: Surface sealing effects on the diffusion of metal atoms in porous organosilicate glass (OSG) films were studied by monoenergetic positron beams. For a Cu(5 nm)/MnN(3 nm)/OSG(130 nm) sample fabricated with pore stuffing, C{sub 4}F{sub 8} plasma etch, unstuffing, and a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) sealing process, it was found that pores with cubic pore side lengths of 1.1 and 3.1 nm coexisted in the OSG film. For the sample without the SAM sealing process, metal (Cu and Mn) atoms diffused from the top Cu/MnN layer into the OSG film and were trapped by the pores. As a result, almost all pore interiors were covered with those metals. For the sample damaged by an Ar/C{sub 4}F{sub 8} plasma etch treatment before the SAM sealing process, SAMs diffused into the OSG film, and they were preferentially trapped by larger pores. The cubic pore side length in these pores containing self-assembled molecules was estimated to be 0.7 nm. Through this work, we have demonstrated that monoenergetic positron beams are a powerful tool for characterizing capped porous films and the trapping of atoms and molecules by pores.

  5. MHD free convection flow of Eyring–Powell fluid from vertical surface in porous media with Hall/ionslip currents and ohmic dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abdul Gaffar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical study is presented to analyze the nonlinear, non-isothermal, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD free convection boundary layer flow, heat and mass transfer of non-Newtonian Eyring–Powell fluid from a vertical surface in a non-Darcy, isotropic, homogenous porous medium, in the presence of Hall currents and ionslip currents. The governing nonlinear coupled partial differential equations for momentum conservation in the x, and z directions, heat and mass conservation, in the flow regime are transformed from an (x, y, z coordinate system to a (ξ, η coordinate system in terms of dimensionless x-direction velocity (f′ and z-direction velocity (G, dimensionless temperature and concentration functions (θ and ϕ under appropriate boundary conditions. Both Darcian and Forchheimer porous impedances are incorporated in both momentum equations. Computations are also provided for the variation of the x and z direction shear stress components and also heat and mass transfer rates. It is observed that with increasing ɛ, primary velocity, secondary velocity, heat and mass transfer rates are decreased whereas, the temperature, concentration and skin friction are increased. An increasing δ is found to increase primary and secondary velocities, skin friction, heat and mass transfer rates. But the temperature and concentration decrease. Increasing βe and βi are seen to increase primary velocity, skin friction, heat and mass transfer rates whereas secondary velocity, temperature and concentration are decreased. Excellent correlation is achieved with a Nakamura tridiagonal finite difference scheme (NTM. The model finds applications in magnetic materials processing, MHD power generators and purification of crude oils.

  6. Hemolytic properties of synthetic nano- and porous silica particles: the effect of surface properties and the protection by the plasma corona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J; Hedberg, Y; Lundin, M; Odnevall Wallinder, I; Karlsson, H L; Möller, L

    2012-09-01

    Novel silica materials incorporating nanotechnology are promising materials for biomedical applications, but their novel properties may also bring unforeseen behavior in biological systems. Micro-size silica is well documented to induce hemolysis, but little is known about the hemolytic activities of nanostructured silica materials. In this study, the hemolytic properties of synthetic amorphous silica nanoparticles with primary sizes of 7-14 nm (hydrophilic vs. hydrophobic), 5-15 nm, 20 nm and 50 nm, and model meso/macroporous silica particles with pore diameters of 40 nm and 170 nm are investigated. A crystalline silica sample (0.5-10 μm) is included for benchmarking purposes. Special emphasis is given to investigations of how the temperature and solution complexity (solvent, plasma), as well as the physicochemical properties (such as size, surface charge, hydrophobicity and other surface properties), link to the hemolytic activities of these particles. Results suggests the potential importance of small size and large external surface area, as well as surface charge/structure, in the hemolysis of silica particles. Furthermore, a significant correlation is observed between the hemolytic profile of red blood cells and the cytotoxicity profile of human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) induced by nano- and porous silica particles, suggesting a potential universal mechanism of action. Importantly, the results generated suggest that the protective effect of plasma towards silica nanoparticle-induced hemolysis as well as cytotoxicity is primarily due to the protein/lipid layer shielding the silica particle surface. These results will assist the rational design of hemocompatible silica particles for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of specific surface area and porosity on cube counting fractal dimension, lacunarity, configurational entropy, and permeability of model porous networks: Random packing simulations and NMR micro-imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bum Han; Lee, Sung Keun

    2013-07-01

    Despite the importance of understanding and quantifying the microstructure of porous networks in diverse geologic settings, the effects of the specific surface area and porosity on the key structural parameters of the networks have not been fully understood. We performed cube-counting fractal dimension (Dcc) and lacunarity analyses of 3D porous networks of model sands and configurational entropy analysis of 2D cross sections of model sands using random packing simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) micro-imaging. We established relationships among porosity, specific surface area, structural parameters (Dcc and lacunarity), and the corresponding macroscopic properties (configurational entropy and permeability). The Dcc of the 3D porous networks increases with increasing specific surface area at a constant porosity and with increasing porosity at a constant specific surface area. Predictive relationships correlating Dcc, specific surface area, and porosity were also obtained. The lacunarity at the minimum box size decreases with increasing porosity, and that at the intermediate box size (∼0.469 mm in the current model sands) was reproduced well with specific surface area. The maximum configurational entropy increases with increasing porosity, and the entropy length of the pores decreases with increasing specific surface area and was used to calculate the average connectivity among the pores. The correlation among porosity, specific surface area, and permeability is consistent with the prediction from the Kozeny-Carman equation. From the relationship between the permeability and the Dcc of pores, the permeability can be expressed as a function of the Dcc of pores and porosity. The current methods and these newly identified correlations among structural parameters and properties provide improved insights into the nature of porous media and have useful geophysical and hydrological implications for elasticity and shear viscosity of complex composites of rock

  8. Updated Draft Protocol for the Evaluation of Bactericidal Activity of Hard, Non-porous Copper Containing Surface Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the updated draft testing protocol recommended by the EPA to support the registration of copper-containing surface products (such as door knobs, or other items that are not intended for food contact) that bear sanitizer claims.

  9. Effects of pH and surface metal oxyhydroxides on deposition and transport of carboxyl-functionalized graphene in saturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work investigated the effects of solution pH and surface metal oxyhydroxides on the transport behaviors of carboxyl-functionalized graphene (GR) in saturated porous media. Column experiments were conducted to elucidate the transport behavior of functionalized GR in acid-cleaned and natural sand under different solution pH conditions (i.e., 5.6 and 8.3). The results showed that the functionalized GR was highly mobile in the acid-cleaned sand columns at both pH 5.6 and 8.3 with recovery rates close to 100 %. The deposition of the functionalized GR was higher in the natural sand columns, and the recovery rates were 88.4 and 96.5 % for pH 5.6 and 8.3, respectively. The reductions of the mobility of the functionalized GR in the natural sand columns could be caused by the interaction between carboxyl functional groups of the GR and the surface metal hydroxides on the sand grains, which is pH dependent. An advection–dispersion-reaction model was applied to the data and successfully simulated the transport of the functionalized GR through the acid-cleaned and natural sand columns

  10. Effect of Hydrological Properties on the Energy Shares of Reflected Waves at the Surface of a Partially Saturated Porous Solid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahabir Barak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the reflection of inhomogeneous waves is investigated at the stress-free plane surface based on multiphase poroelasticity theory. The porous medium is considered as dissipative due to the presence of viscosity in pores fluid. Four inhomogeneous (i.e. different direction of propagation and attenuation reflected waves (three longitudinal and one shear exists due to an incident wave. By using the appropriate boundary conditions, closed-form analytical expressions for the reflection coeffcients are derived at the stress-free surface. These reflection coeffcients are used to drive the analytical expressions for the energy shares of various reflected inhomogeneous waves. In mathematical framework, the conservation of incident energy is confirmed by considering an interaction energy between two dissimilar waves. It validates that the numerical calculations are analytically correct. Finally, a numerical example is considered to study the effects of viscous cross-coupling, porosity, saturation of gas, pore-characteristics and wave frequency on the energy shares of various reflected inhomogeneous waves and depicted graphically.

  11. Hypercrosslinked large surface area porous polymer monoliths for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography of small molecules featuring zwitterionic functionalities attached to gold nanoparticles held in layered structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yongqin; Lin, Zhixing; Svec, Frantisek

    2012-10-16

    A novel approach to porous polymer monoliths hypercrosslinked to obtain large surface areas and modified with zwitterionic functionalities through the attachment of gold nanoparticles in a layered architecture has been developed. The capillary columns were used for the separation of small molecules in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mode. First, a monolith with a very large surface area of 430 m(2)/g was prepared by hypercrosslinking from a generic poly(4-methylstyrene-co-vinylbenzyl chloride-co-divinylbenzene) monolith via a Friedel-Crafts reaction catalyzed with iron chloride. Free radical bromination then provided this hypercrosslinked monolith with 5.7 at % Br that further reacted with cystamine under microwave irradiation, resulting in a product containing 3.8 at % sulfur. Clipping the disulfide bonds with tris(2-carboxylethyl) phosphine liberated the desired thiol groups that bind the first layer of gold nanoparticles. These immobilized nanoparticles were an intermediate ligand enabling the attachment of polyethyleneimine as a spacer followed by immobilization of the second layer of gold nanoparticles which were eventually functionalized with zwitterionic cysteine. This layered architecture, prepared using 10 nm nanoparticles, contains 17.2 wt % Au, more than twice than that found in the first layer alone. Chromatographic performance of these hydrophilic monolithic columns was demonstrated with the separation of mixtures of nucleosides and peptides in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) mode. A column efficiency of 51,000 plates/m was achieved for retained analyte cytosine.

  12. Upscaling flow and transport properties in synthetic porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Lukasz; Dabrowski, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    Flow and transport through the porous media has instances in nature and industry: contaminant migration in geological formations, gas/oil extraction from proppant filled hydraulic fractures and surrounding porous matrix, underground carbon dioxide sequestration and many others. We would like to understand the behavior of propagating solute front in such medium, mainly flow preferential pathways and the solute dispersion due to the porous medium geometry. The motivation of our investigation is to find connection between the effective flow and transport properties and porous media geometry in 2D and 3D for large system sizes. The challenge is to discover a good way of upscaling flow and transport processes to obtain results comparable to these calculated on pore-scale in much faster way. We study synthetic porous media made of densely packed poly-disperse disk-or spherical-shaped grains in 2D and 3D, respectively. We use various protocols such as the random sequential addition (RSA) algorithm to generate densely packed grains. Imposed macroscopic pressure gradient invokes fluid flow through the pore space of generated porous medium samples. As the flow is considered in the low Reynolds number regime, a stationary velocity field is obtained by solving the Stokes equations by means of finite element method. Void space between the grains is accurately discretized by using body-fitting triangular or tetrahedral mesh. Finally, pure advection of a front carried by the velocity field is studied. Periodicity in all directions is applied to microstructure, flow and transport processes. Effective permeability of the media can be calculated by integrating the velocity field on cross sections, whereas effective dispersion coefficient is deduced by application of centered moment methods on the concentration field of transported solute in time. The effective parameters are investigated as a function of geometrical parameters of the media, such as porosity, specific surface area

  13. Porous substrates filled with nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Stadermann, Michael

    2014-08-19

    A composition comprising: at least one porous carbon monolith, such as a carbon aerogel, comprising internal pores, and at least one nanomaterial, such as carbon nanotubes, disposed uniformly throughout the internal pores. The nanomaterial can be disposed in the middle of the monolith. In addition, a method for making a monolithic solid with both high surface area and good bulk electrical conductivity is provided. A porous substrate having a thickness of 100 microns or more and comprising macropores throughout its thickness is prepared. At least one catalyst is deposited inside the porous substrate. Subsequently, chemical vapor deposition is used to uniformly deposit a nanomaterial in the macropores throughout the thickness of the porous substrate. Applications include electrical energy storage, such as batteries and capacitors, and hydrogen storage.

  14. Porous substrates filled with nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Stadermann, Michael

    2018-04-03

    A composition comprising: at least one porous carbon monolith, such as a carbon aerogel, comprising internal pores, and at least one nanomaterial, such as carbon nanotubes, disposed uniformly throughout the internal pores. The nanomaterial can be disposed in the middle of the monolith. In addition, a method for making a monolithic solid with both high surface area and good bulk electrical conductivity is provided. A porous substrate having a thickness of 100 microns or more and comprising macropores throughout its thickness is prepared. At least one catalyst is deposited inside the porous substrate. Subsequently, chemical vapor deposition is used to uniformly deposit a nanomaterial in the macropores throughout the thickness of the porous substrate. Applications include electrical energy storage, such as batteries and capacitors, and hydrogen storage.

  15. The effect of surface-active solutes on water flow and contaminant transport in variably saturated porous media with capillary fringe effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, E J; Smith, J E

    2002-06-01

    Organic contaminants that decrease the surface tension of water (surfactants) can have an effect on unsaturated flow through porous media due to the dependence of capillary pressure on surface tension. We used an intermediate-scale 2D flow cell (2.44 x 1.53 x 0.108 m) packed with a fine silica sand to investigate surfactant-induced flow perturbations. Surfactant solution (7% 1-butanol and dye tracer) was applied at a constant rate at a point source located on the soil surface above an unconfined synthetic aquifer with ambient groundwater flow and a capillary fringe of approximately 55 cm. A glass plate allowed for visual flow and transport observations. Thirty instrumentation stations consist of time domain reflectometry probes and tensiometers measured in-situ moisture content and pressure head, respectively. As surfactant solution was applied at the point source, a transient flow perturbation associated with the advance of the surfactant solution was observed. Above the top of the capillary fringe the advance of the surfactant solution caused a visible drainage front that radiated from the point source. Upon reaching the capillary fringe, the drainage front caused a localized depression of the capillary fringe below the point source because the air-entry pressure decreased in proportion to the decrease in surface tension caused by the surfactant. Eventually, a new capillary fringe height was established. The height of the depressed capillary fringe was proportional to height of the initial capillary fringe multiplied by the relative surface tension of the surfactant solution. The horizontal transport of surfactant in the depressed capillary fringe, driven primarily by the ambient groundwater flow, caused the propagation of a wedge-shaped drying front in the downgradient direction. Comparison of dye transport during the surfactant experiment to dye transport in an experiment without surfactant indicated that because surfactant-induced drainage decreased the

  16. Graphene Oxide Derived Carbons (GODC); High-Surface Area NanoPorous Materials for Hydrogen Storage and Carbon Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Taner

    2012-02-01

    Even though there has been extensive research on gas adsorption properties of various carbon materials based on activated carbon and nanotubes, there has been little work done on the gas adsorption properties of graphite oxide (GO). In this study [1], we show that one-and-a-half-century-old graphite oxide can be easily turned into a potentially useful gas storage material. In order to create high-surface nanoporous materials from GO, we used two different approaches. In the first approach, we have successfully synthesized graphene-oxide framework materials (GOFs) by interlinking GO layers by diboronic acids. The resulting GOF materials have well defined pore size and BET surface area up to 500 m2/g with twice larger heat of adsorption of H2 and CO2 than those found in other physisorption materials such as MOF5. In the second approach, we synthesized a range of high surface area GO derived carbons (GODC) and studied their applications toward H2, CO2 and CH4 gas storage. The GODCs, with wide range of pore structure, have been prepared by chemical activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH). We obtain largely increased surface areas up to nearly 1900 m^2/g for GODC samples from 10 m^2/g for initial GO. A detailed experimental study of high pressure excess sorption isotherms on GODCs reveal an increase in both CO2 and CH4 storage capacities compared to other high surface area activated carbons. Finally, we compared the gas sorption properties of our GO-based matarials with other systems such as MOFs, ZIFs, and COFs. [4pt] [1] See http://www.ncnr.nist.gov/staff/taner for references and more information.

  17. The Materials Chemistry of Atomic Oxygen with Applications to Anisotropic Etching of Submicron Structures in Microelectronics and the Surface Chemistry Engineering of Porous Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steve L.; Leger, Lubert J.; Wu, Corina; Cross, Jon B.; Jurgensen, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    Neutral atomic oxygen is the most abundant component of the ionospheric plasma in the low Earth orbit environment (LEO; 200 to 700 kilometers altitude) and can produce significant degradation of some spacecraft materials. In order to produce a more complete understanding of the materials chemistry of atomic oxygen, the chemistry and physics of O-atom interactions with materials were determined in three radically different environments: (1) The Space Shuttle cargo bay in low Earth orbit (the EOIM-3 space flight experiment), (2) a high-velocity neutral atom beam system (HVAB) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and (3) a microwave-plasma flowing-discharge system at JSC. The Space Shuttle and the high velocity atom beam systems produce atom-surface collision energies ranging from 0.1 to 7 eV (hyperthermal atoms) under high-vacuum conditions, while the flowing discharge system produces a 0.065 eV surface collision energy at a total pressure of 2 Torr. Data obtained in the three different O-atom environments referred to above show that the rate of O-atom reaction with polymeric materials is strongly dependent on atom kinetic energy, obeying a reactive scattering law which suggests that atom kinetic energy is directly available for overcoming activation barriers in the reaction. General relationships between polymer reactivity with O atoms and polymer composition and molecular structure have been determined. In addition, vacuum ultraviolet photochemical effects have been shown to dominate the reaction of O atoms with fluorocarbon polymers. Finally, studies of the materials chemistry of O atoms have produced results which may be of interest to technologists outside the aerospace industry. Atomic oxygen 'spin-off' or 'dual use' technologies in the areas of anisotropic etching in microelectronic materials and device processing, as well as surface chemistry engineering of porous solid materials are described.

  18. Numerical investigation on the effects of variable viscosity and radiation on the MHD flow with heat transfer over an unsteady stretching surface embedded in a porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne Susan Georgena, S.; Anjali Devi, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    Flow induced by stretching surfaces is often encountered in many industrial disciplines. The applications include extrusion process, wire and fiber coating, polymer processing, foodstuff processing, design of various heat exchangers, and chemical processing equipment, among other applications. Stretching will bring in a unidirectional orientation to the extrudate, consequently the quality of the final product considerably depends on the flow and heat transfer mechanism. The analysis of momentum and thermal transports within the fluid on a stretching surface is important for Boundary Value Problem gaining some fundamental understanding of such processes. In view of these applications, the present work deals with such kind of problem. The effect of radiation on the hydromagnetic (MHD) flow and heat transfer over an unsteady stretching surface with variable viscosity embedded in a porous medium is analyzed. Similarity transformations are used to convert the governing time dependent boundary layer equations for momentum and thermal energy into a set of ordinary differential equations containing magnetic interaction parameter M, unsteadiness parameter A, variable viscosity parameter β, permeability parameter λ, radiation parameter R and Prandtl number Pr. The resulting Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations are solved numerically by applying numerical shooting technique together with fourth order Runge-Kutta method. The influence of all the parameters involved in the problem over the velocity and temperature are analyzed and illustrated through graphs. Details the velocity and temperature fields as well as the local skin friction and the local Nusselt number for various values of the parameters of the problem are presented. The influence of the magnetic interaction parameter over the velocity and temperature distribution is more pronounced. There is a significant difference in velocity and temperature due to the increase in variable viscosity parameter and the

  19. Porous polymer monolithic col

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Terborg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new approach has been developed for the preparation of mixed-mode stationary phases to separate proteins. The pore surface of monolithic poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate capillary columns was functionalized with thiols and coated with gold nanoparticles. The final mixed mode surface chemistry was formed by attaching, in a single step, alkanethiols, mercaptoalkanoic acids, and their mixtures on the free surface of attached gold nanoparticles. Use of these mixtures allowed fine tuning of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance. The amount of attached gold nanoparticles according to thermal gravimetric analysis was 44.8 wt.%. This value together with results of frontal elution enabled calculation of surface coverage with the alkanethiol and mercaptoalkanoic acid ligands. Interestingly, alkanethiols coverage in a range of 4.46–4.51 molecules/nm2 significantly exceeded that of mercaptoalkanoic acids with 2.39–2.45 molecules/nm2. The mixed mode character of these monolithic stationary phases was for the first time demonstrated in the separations of proteins that could be achieved in the same column using gradient elution conditions typical of reverse phase (using gradient of acetonitrile in water and ion exchange chromatographic modes (applying gradient of salt in water, respectively.

  20. Metal-Free Counter Electrode for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells through High Surface Area and Large Porous Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavuluri Srinivasu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly efficient, large mesoporous carbon is fabricated as a metal-free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The mesoporous carbon shows very high energy conversion efficiency of 7.1% compared with activated carbon. The mesoporous carbon is prepared and characterized by nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The nitrogen adsorption data reveals that the material possesses BET specific surface area ca.1300 m2/g and pore diameter 4.4 nm. Hexagonal rod-like morphology and ordered pore structure of mesoporous carbon are confirmed by electron microscopy data. The better performance of this carbon material is greatly benefited from its ordered interconnected mesoporous structure and high surface area.

  1. On the design of Pt based catalysts. Combining porous architecture with surface modification by Sn for electrocatalytic activity enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez-Montaño, Jonathan; García, Gonzalo; Rodríguez, José L.; Pastor, Elena; Cappellari, Paula; Planes, Gabriel A.

    2015-05-01

    Metallic mesoporous (MP) catalysts with large surface area can be obtained in-situ, in a single step, by electrochemical reduction. In this work, the electrochemical behavior of MPPt and Sn modified mesoporous Pt (MPPt/Sn) was studied and compared with commercial carbon supported PtSn alloy (3:1). The electrochemical activity toward carbon monoxide and methanol oxidation reactions were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, whereas X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine the surface composition and oxidation state of the atoms in the top layers of the catalysts. The analysis of methanol conversion to CO2 was performed with aid of differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS). Results reveal a better performance of the MPPt/Sn, which shows higher current density and energy conversion efficiency of fuel to CO2 than conventional carbon supported PtSn alloy (3:1).

  2. Flow and Heat Transfer of Cu-Water Nanofluid between a Stretching Sheet and a Porous Surface in a Rotating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sheikholeslami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to study the flow of nanofluid and heat transfer characteristics between two horizontal plates in a rotating system. The lower plate is a stretching sheet and the upper one is a solid porous plate. Copper (Cu as nanoparticle and water as its base fluid have been considered. The governing partial differential equations with the corresponding boundary conditions are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations with the appropriate boundary conditions using similarity transformation, which is then solved analytically using the homotopy analysis method (HAM. Comparison between HAM and numerical solutions results showed an excellent agreement. The results for the flow and heat transfer characteristics are obtained for various values of the nanoparticle volume fraction, suction/injection parameter, rotation parameter, and Reynolds number. It is shown that the inclusion of a nanoparticle into the base fluid of this problem is capable of causing change in the flow pattern. It is found that for both suction and injection, the heat transfer rate at the surface increases with increasing the nanoparticle volume fraction, Reynolds number, and injection/suction parameter and it decreases with power of rotation parameter.

  3. Investigation of oxygen reduction and methanol oxidation reaction activity of PtAu nano-alloy on surface modified porous hybrid nanocarbon supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parambath Vinayan, Bhaghavathi; Nagar, Rupali; Ramaprabhu, Sundara

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the electrocatalytic activity of PtAu alloy nanoparticles supported on various chemically modified carbon morphologies towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). The surface-modification of graphene nanosheets (f-G), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWNTs) and (graphene nanosheets-carbon nanotubes) hybrid support (f-G-MWNTs) were carried out by soft functionalization method using a cationic polyelectrolyte poly-(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride). The Pt and PtAu alloy nanoparticles were dispersed over chemically modified carbon supports by sodium-borohydride assisted modified polyol reduction method. The electrochemical performance of all electrocatalysts were studied by half- and full-cell proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) measurements and PtAu/f-G-MWNTs catalyst comparatively yielded the best catalytic performance. PEMFC full cell measurements of PtAu/f-G-MWNTs cathode electrocatalyst yield a maximum power density of 319 mW cm-2 at 60 °C without any back pressure,which is 2.1 times higher than that of cathode electrocatalyst Pt on graphene support. The high ORR and MOR activity of PtAu/f-G-MWNTs electrocatalyst is due to the alloying effect and inherent beneficial properties of porous hybrid nanocarbon support.

  4. Lunar soil properties and soil mechanics. Flow in porous media under rarefied gas conditions. Research phase: Fluid conductivity of lunar surface materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbut, F. C.; Jih, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental research on fluid conductivity of lunar surface materials is summarized. Theoretical methods were developed for the analysis of transitional and free-molecular flows, and for analysis of lunar permeability probe data in general. Experimental studies of rarefied flows under conditions of a large pressure gradient show flows in the continuum regime to be responsible for the largest portion of the pressure drop between source and sink for one dimensional flow, provided the entrance Knudsen number is sufficiently small. The concept of local similarity leading to a universal nondimensional function of Knudsen number was shown to have approximate validity; flows in all regimes may be described in terms of an area fraction and a single length parameter. Synthetic porous media prepared from glass beads exhibited flow behavior similar in many regards to that of a natural sandstone; studies using artificial stones with known pore configurations may lead to new insight concerning the structure of natural materials. The experimental method involving the use of segmented specimens of large permeability is shown to be fruitful.

  5. Modeling of Impedance of Porous Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasia, Andrzej

    Porous electrodes are very important in practical applications of electrocatalysis, where an increase in the real surface area leads to an increase in catalytic activity. Porous electrodes are used in gas evolution (water electrolysis, hydrogen and oxygen evolution, chlorine evolution), electrocatalytic hydrogenation or oxidation of organic compounds, in batteries, fuel cells, etc. Good knowledge of the porous electrode theory permits for the construction of the electrodes with optimal utilization of the active electrode material. The porous electrode model was first developed by several authors for dc conditions (1-6) and later applied to the impedance studies.

  6. Influence of Stationary Crossflow Modulation on Secondary Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Paredes, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    A likely scenario for swept wing transition on subsonic aircraft with natural laminar flow involves the breakdown of stationary crossflow vortices via high frequency secondary instability. A majority of the prior research on this secondary instability has focused on crossflow vortices with a single dominant spanwise wavelength. This paper investigates the effects of the spanwise modulation of stationary crossflow vortices at a specified wavelength by a subharmonic stationary mode. Secondary instability of the modulated crossflow pattern is studied using planar, partial-differential-equation based eigenvalue analysis. Computations reveal that weak modulation by the first subharmonic of the input stationary mode leads to mode splitting that is particularly obvious for Y-type secondary modes that are driven by the wall-normal shear of the basic state. Thus, for each Y mode corresponding to the fundamental wavelength of results in unmodulated train of crossflow vortices, the modulated flow supports a pair of secondary modes with somewhat different amplification rates. The mode splitting phenomenon suggests that a more complex stationary modulation such as that induced by natural surface roughness would yield a considerably richer spectrum of secondary instability modes. Even modest levels of subharmonic modulation are shown to have a strong effect on the overall amplification of secondary disturbances, particularly the Z-modes driven by the spanwise shear of the basic state. Preliminary computations related to the nonlinear breakdown of these secondary disturbances provide interesting insights into the process of crossflow transition in the presence of the first subharmonic of the dominant stationary vortex.

  7. Understanding Regolith Physical Properties of Atmosphereless Solar System Bodies Based on Remote Sensing Photopolarimetric Observations: Evidence for Europa's Porous Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. M.; Boryta, M. D.; Hapke, B. W.; Manatt, K. S.; Shkuratov, Y.; Psarev, V.; Vandervoort, K.; Kroner, D. O.; Nebedum, A.; Vides, C.; Quinones, J.

    2017-12-01

    We studied the polarization and reflective properties of a suite of planetary regolith analogues with physical characteristics that might be expected to be found on a high albedo atmosphereless solar system body (ASSB). The angular scattering properties of thirteen well-sorted particle size fractions of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) were measured in the laboratory with a goniometric photopolarimeter (GPP) of unique design. Our results provide insight in support of efforts to understand the unusual reflectance and negative polarization behavior observed near small phase angles that has been reported over several decades on highly reflective ASSBs such as the asteroids 44 Nysa, 64 Angelina (Harris et al., 1989) and the Galilean satellites Io, Europa and Ganymede (Rosenbush et al., 1997; Mishchenko et al., 2006). Our measurements are consistent with the hypothesis that the surfaces of these ASSBs effectively scatter electromagnetic radiation as if they were extremely fine grained with void space > 95%, and grain sizes of the order effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide(Teller et al., 1997). This work partially supported by the Cassini Saturn Orbiter Progrem Harris et al., 1989 . Icarus 81, 365-374. Mishchenko et al., 2006 Applied Optics, 45, 4459-4463. Rosenbush et al, 1997, Astrophys. J. 487, 402-414. Teller et al., 1997. UCRL-JC-128715.

  8. Marine Phages As Tracers: Effects of Size, Morphology, and Physico-Chemical Surface Properties on Transport in a Porous Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Nawras; Kiesel, Bärbel; Kallies, René; Harms, Hauke; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Wick, Lukas Y

    2016-12-06

    Although several studies examined the transport of viruses in terrestrial systems only few studies exist on the use of marine phages (i.e., nonterrestrial viruses infecting marine host bacteria) as sensitively detectable microbial tracers for subsurface colloid transport and water flow. Here, we systematically quantified and compared for the first time the effects of size, morphology and physicochemical surface properties of six marine phages and two coliphages (MS2, T4) on transport in sand-filled percolated columns. Phage-sand interactions were described by colloidal filtration theory and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek approach (XDLVO), respectively. The phages belonged to different families and comprised four phages never used in transport studies (i.e., PSA-HM1, PSA-HP1, PSA-HS2, and H3/49). Phage transport was influenced by size, morphology and hydrophobicity in an approximate order of size > hydrophobicity ≥ morphology. Two phages PSA-HP1, PSA-HS2 (Podoviridae and Siphoviridae) exhibited similar mass recovery as commonly used coliphage MS2 and were 7-fold better transported than known marine phage vB_PSPS-H40/1. Differing properties of the marine phages may be used to trace transport of indigenous viruses, natural colloids or anthropogenic nanomaterials and, hence, contribute to better risk analysis. Our results underpin the potential role of marine phages as microbial tracer for transport of colloidal particles and water flow.

  9. Preparation and chromatographic evaluation of a newly designed steviol glycoside modified-silica stationary phase in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and reversed phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tu; Fu, Qing; Shen, Aijin; Wang, Hui; Jin, Yu; Xin, Huaxia; Ke, Yanxiong; Guo, Zhimou; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-04-03

    A diterpene glycoside compound, rebaudioside A (commonly abbreviated as RA), was immobilized onto porous silica surface through "thiol-ene" click chemistry strategy. The successful immobilization of the RA on the silica support was confirmed by FT-IR and elemental analysis. Chromatographic characteristics of the new stationary phase, named Click TE-RA, were evaluated by a set of diverse analytes such as carbohydrates, nucleosides, and organic acids in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode. The effects of water content, buffer pH and concentration were investigated and a typical HILIC retention feature of Click TE-RA was observed at high organic modifier content. The Click TE-RA stationary phase was further studied by a series of glycoside compounds. Tunable retention mechanisms from hydrophilic to hydrophobic interactions were observed. Separation of very polar compounds including oligosaccharides, nucleic acid bases and nucleosides using Click TE-RA in HILIC mode was successfully accomplished. In addition, separation of saponins both in HILIC and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) modes was performed, demonstrating the presence of orthogonality between two different modes on Click TE-RA column. The multiple interactions induced by polar sugar group and hydrophobic aglycone group allowed this Click TE-RA to serve as a multi-mode stationary phase in two-dimensional liquid chromatography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Porous silicon technology for integrated microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Jin Zheng

    rough surface on the porous silicon sample without introducing significant thermal stress. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  11. Carbon nanotube stationary phases for microchip electrochromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Bøggild, Peter; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    The use of nanomaterials in separation science has increased rapidly in the last decade. The reason for this is to take advantage of the unique properties of these materials, such as a very high surface-to-volume ratio and favourable sorbent behaviour. Carbon nanostructures, such as carbon...... surface can furthermore be used directly as a stationary phase in reverse-phase separations, thereby avoiding subsequent functionalization of the nanostructures. This significantly reduces the fabrication time and possibly also increases the reproducibility of the column performance. In this presentation......, microfluidic devices with microfabricated carbon nanotube columns for electrochromatographic separations will be presented. The electrically conductive carbon nanotube layer has been patterned into hexoganol micropillars in order to support electroosmotic flow without forming gas bubbles from electrolysis...

  12. Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, M. J.; Botero, B. A.; López, J.; Francés, F.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Benito, G.

    2015-06-01

    Historical records are an important source of information on extreme and rare floods and fundamental to establish a reliable flood return frequency. The use of long historical records for flood frequency analysis brings in the question of flood stationarity, since climatic and land-use conditions can affect the relevance of past flooding as a predictor of future flooding. In this paper, a detailed 400 yr flood record from the Tagus River in Aranjuez (central Spain) was analysed under stationary and non-stationary flood frequency approaches, to assess their contribution within hazard studies. Historical flood records in Aranjuez were obtained from documents (Proceedings of the City Council, diaries, chronicles, memoirs, etc.), epigraphic marks, and indirect historical sources and reports. The water levels associated with different floods (derived from descriptions or epigraphic marks) were computed into discharge values using a one-dimensional hydraulic model. Secular variations in flood magnitude and frequency, found to respond to climate and environmental drivers, showed a good correlation between high values of historical flood discharges and a negative mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Over the systematic gauge record (1913-2008), an abrupt change on flood magnitude was produced in 1957 due to constructions of three major reservoirs in the Tagus headwaters (Bolarque, Entrepeñas and Buendia) controlling 80% of the watershed surface draining to Aranjuez. Two different models were used for the flood frequency analysis: (a) a stationary model estimating statistical distributions incorporating imprecise and categorical data based on maximum likelihood estimators, and (b) a time-varying model based on "generalized additive models for location, scale and shape" (GAMLSS) modelling, which incorporates external covariates related to climate variability (NAO index) and catchment hydrology factors (in this paper a reservoir index; RI). Flood frequency

  13. Virtual Stationary Automata for Mobile Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dolev, Shlomi; Gilbert, Seth; Lahiani, Limor; Lynch, Nancy; Nolte, Tina

    2005-01-01

    We define a programming abstraction for mobile networks called the Virtual Stationary Automata programming layer, consisting of real mobile clients, virtual timed I/O automata called virtual stationary automata (VSAs...

  14. Stationary measure in the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linde, Andrei [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Vanchurin, Vitaly; Winitzki, Sergei, E-mail: alinde@stanford.edu, E-mail: vitaly@cosmos2.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: winitzki@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    We study the recently proposed ''stationary measure'' in the context of the string landscape scenario. We show that it suffers neither from the ''Boltzmann brain'' problem nor from the ''youngness'' paradox that makes some other measures predict a high CMB temperature at present. We also demonstrate a good performance of this measure in predicting the results of local experiments, such as proton decay.

  15. A stationary q-metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toktarbay, S.; Quevedo, H.

    2014-10-01

    We present a stationary generalization of the static $q-$metric, the simplest generalization of the Schwarzschild solution that contains a quadrupole parameter. It possesses three independent parameters that are related to the mass, quadrupole moment and angular momentum. We investigate the geometric and physical properties of this exact solution of Einstein's vacuum equations, and show that it can be used to describe the exterior gravitational field of rotating, axially symmetric, compact objects.

  16. A 2H nuclear magnetic resonance study of the state of water in neat silica and zwitterionic stationary phases and its influence on the chromatographic retention characteristics in hydrophilic interaction high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikberg, Erika; Sparrman, Tobias; Viklund, Camilla; Jonsson, Tobias; Irgum, Knut

    2011-09-23

    2H NMR has been used as a tool for probing the state of water in hydrophilic stationary phases for liquid chromatography at temperatures between -80 and +4 °C. The fraction of water that remained unfrozen in four different neat silicas with nominal pore sizes between 60 and 300 Å, and in silicas with polymeric sulfobetaine zwitterionic functionalities prepared in different ways, could be determined by measurements of the line widths and temperature-corrected integrals of the 2H signals. The phase transitions detected during thawing made it possible to estimate the amount of non-freezable water in each phase. A distinct difference was seen between the neat and modified silicas tested. For the neat silicas, the relationship between the freezing point depression and their pore size followed the expected Gibbs-Thomson relationship. The polymeric stationary phases were found to contain considerably higher amounts of non-freezable water compared to the neat silica, which is attributed to the structural effect that the sulfobetaine polymers have on the water layer close to the stationary phase surface. The sulfobetaine stationary phases were used alongside the 100 Å silica to separate a number of polar compounds in hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) mode, and the retention characteristics could be explained in terms of the surface water structure, as well as by the porous properties of the stationary phases. This provides solid evidence supporting a partitioning mechanism, or at least of the existence of an immobilized layer of water into which partitioning could be occurring. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-Stationary Internal Tides Observed with Satellite Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.; Zaron, E. D.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal variability of the internal tide is inferred from a 17-year combined record of Topex/Poseidon and Jason satellite altimeters. A global sampling of along-track sea-surface height wavenumber spectra finds that non-stationary variance is generally 25% or less of the average variance at wavenumbers characteristic of mode-l tidal internal waves. With some exceptions the non-stationary variance does not exceed 0.25 sq cm. The mode-2 signal, where detectable, contains a larger fraction of non-stationary variance, typically 50% or more. Temporal subsetting of the data reveals interannual variability barely significant compared with tidal estimation error from 3-year records. Comparison of summer vs. winter conditions shows only one region of noteworthy seasonal changes, the northern South China Sea. Implications for the anticipated SWOT altimeter mission are briefly discussed.

  18. A new methodology to determine the isoeluotropic conditions on ultra-performance flash purification stationary phases from analytical reversed liquid chromatography stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héron, Sylvie; Charbonneau, Didier; Albisson, Pauline; Estievenart, Guillaume; Groni, Sihem; Tchapla, Alain

    2015-06-05

    Nowadays, the determination of the experimental chromatographic conditions to be used in Reversed Phase Liquid Ultra-Performance Flash Purification is still challenging. This is due to four different items. In most cases, flash purification stationary phases are not available with geometry of column used in analytical chromatography. The flash purification columns are single-use only. From the point of view of selectivity and retention, few RPLC phases exist with properties of separation identical for analytical and flash purification supports. Characterization methods and databases used for comparing analytical RPLC columns do not include stationary phases for RP flash purification columns. The goal of this work is to develop a new method development strategy which permits the determination of the experimental chromatographic conditions on RP ultra-performance flash purification columns. It relies on the knowledge of any isocratic conditions obtained on any given initial reversed stationary phase. The final conditions to implement on the RP ultra-performance flash purification phase enable either to keep the retention range of a selected solute constant, or to set it around a previously chosen value. The rules of transfer in linear gradient mode are also described. The methodology was valid, whatever the initial RP stationary and mobile phases, for different chemical classes, whatever the bonding, particle diameter, porous or core shell particle, towards different RP alkyl and analogues stationary and mobile phases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Antibacterial Characteristics of Lotus-Type Porous Copper

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jin-Soo; Lee, Yun-Soo; Kim, Mok-Soon; Hyun, Soong-Keun; Kang, Chang-Ho; So, Jae-Seong; Yoon, Eui-Han

    2013-01-01

    Lotus-type porous copper with long cylindrical pores aligned parallel to the solidification direction was studied for use as an antibacterial material. The antibacterial performance of lotus-type porous copper samples with different specific surface areas against Escherichia coli was investigated. The results confirmed that the antibacterial effect gradually increased with specific surface area. The correlation between the pore structure of lotus-type porous metals and their antibacterial eff...

  20. Amine Functionalized Porous Network

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-05-28

    Amine groups can be introduced in porous materials by a direct (one pot) or post-synthetic modification (PSM) process on aldehyde groups, and the resulting porous materials have increased gas affinity.

  1. Wetting of porous solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patkar, Saket; Chaudhuri, Parag

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a simple, three stage method to simulate the mechanics of wetting of porous solid objects, like sponges and cloth, when they interact with a fluid. In the first stage, we model the absorption of fluid by the object when it comes in contact with the fluid. In the second stage, we model the transport of absorbed fluid inside the object, due to diffusion, as a flow in a deforming, unstructured mesh. The fluid diffuses within the object depending on saturation of its various parts and other body forces. Finally, in the third stage, oversaturated parts of the object shed extra fluid by dripping. The simulation model is motivated by the physics of imbibition of fluids into porous solids in the presence of gravity. It is phenomenologically capable of simulating wicking and imbibition, dripping, surface flows over wet media, material weakening, and volume expansion due to wetting. The model is inherently mass conserving and works for both thin 2D objects like cloth and for 3D volumetric objects like sponges. It is also designed to be computationally efficient and can be easily added to existing cloth, soft body, and fluid simulation pipelines.

  2. Porous Ceramic Spheres from Ion Exchange Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynys, Fred

    2005-01-01

    A commercial cation ion exchange resin, cross-linked polystyrene, has been successfully used as a template to fabricate 20 to 50 micron porous ceramic spheres. Ion exchange resins have dual template capabilities. Pore architecture of the ceramic spheres can be altered by changing the template pattern. Templating can be achieved by utilizing the internal porous structure or the external surface of the resin beads. Synthesis methods and chemical/physical characteristics of the ceramic spheres will be reported.

  3. The plasma device for the high-heat plasma testing of refractory metals and inventing of new highly porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaev, V. P.; Fedorovich, S. D.; Martynenko, Yu V.; Lukashevsky, M. V.; Gubkin, M. K.; Lazukin, A. V.; Karpov, A. V.; Shestakov, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    A unique plasma device has been constructed at the NRU “MPEI” for the study of plasma-surface interaction and the high-heat plasma testing of refractory metals, such as tungsten, molybdenum, steel and other plasma facing materials used in fusion reactor including the ITER. This plasma device is a multi-cusp linear stationary plasma confinement system. It has power-saving characteristics as well as compactness due to the employment of the 8-pole multicusp magnetic field configuration instead of a strong axial magnetic field. Experiments are planned to develop a novel technology for highly porous surface structure of the refractory metal with a pore size and nanofibers of 50 nanometers including tungsten “fuzz”.

  4. Porous vycor glass tube joined to borosilicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Shinichi; Kikuchi, Takemitsu; Onodera, Shinji

    1992-09-01

    Porous glass can absorb various size of molecules with large surface area even in high temperature. However, it is difficult to use porous glass tubes at high-temperature, for example as a separation membrane for hydrogen condensation, because adhesives at joining sites could be damaged. In this study, welding of a porous glass tube and a glass tube was attempted to develop a gas separation membrane used at 500 C. Since forms present in porous glass may cause crack at high temperature, it is necessary to remove such forms by heat processing. Such porous glass is called to be porous vycor glass, which contains quartz 6 percents, and can be joined with a quartz tube. As a result, a gas separator with porous glass membrane which is joined by this process could endure high temperature up to 600 C and could maintain high vacuum.

  5. Luminescence stability of porous Si terminated by hydrophilic organic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kimihisa; Kamiguchi, Masao; Kamiya, Kazuhide; Nomura, Takashi; Suzuki, Shinya

    2016-02-01

    The effects of the surface termination of a porous Si surface by propionic acid and by undecylenic acid on their hydrophilicity and luminescence stability were studied. In the measurements of the contact angle of water droplets on porous Si films, the hydrophilicity of porous Si is improved by the surface termination each types of organic molecule. The PL intensity of as-prepared porous Si decreased with increasing aging time in ambient air. As PL quenching involves PL blue shift and increasing Si-O bonds density, nonradiative recombination centers are formed in the surface oxide. After the hydrosilylation process of propionic acid and undecylenic acid, PL intensity decreased and became 30% that of as-prepared porous Si film. However, the PL intensity was stable and exceeded that of the as-prepared film after 1000 min of aging in the ambient air. The PL stabilities are contributed to the termination by organic molecules that inhibits surface oxidation.

  6. One-sided asymptotically mean stationary channels

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Francois

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an analysis of asymptotically mean stationary (AMS) communication channels. A hierarchy based on stability properties (stationarity, quasi-stationarity, recurrence and asymptotically mean stationarity) of channels is identified. Stationary channels are a subclass of quasi-stationary channels which are a subclass of recurrent AMS channels which are a subclass of AMS channels. These classes are proved to be stable under Markovian composition of channels (e.g., the cascade of...

  7. Photonic Crystal Sensors Based on Porous Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pacholski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Porous silicon has been established as an excellent sensing platform for the optical detection of hazardous chemicals and biomolecular interactions such as DNA hybridization, antigen/antibody binding, and enzymatic reactions. Its porous nature provides a high surface area within a small volume, which can be easily controlled by changing the pore sizes. As the porosity and consequently the refractive index of an etched porous silicon layer depends on the electrochemial etching conditions photonic crystals composed of multilayered porous silicon films with well-resolved and narrow optical reflectivity features can easily be obtained. The prominent optical response of the photonic crystal decreases the detection limit and therefore increases the sensitivity of porous silicon sensors in comparison to sensors utilizing Fabry-Pérot based optical transduction. Development of porous silicon photonic crystal sensors which allow for the detection of analytes by the naked eye using a simple color change or the fabrication of stacked porous silicon photonic crystals showing two distinct optical features which can be utilized for the discrimination of analytes emphasize its high application potential.

  8. Photonic Crystal Sensors Based on Porous Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacholski, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Porous silicon has been established as an excellent sensing platform for the optical detection of hazardous chemicals and biomolecular interactions such as DNA hybridization, antigen/antibody binding, and enzymatic reactions. Its porous nature provides a high surface area within a small volume, which can be easily controlled by changing the pore sizes. As the porosity and consequently the refractive index of an etched porous silicon layer depends on the electrochemial etching conditions photonic crystals composed of multilayered porous silicon films with well-resolved and narrow optical reflectivity features can easily be obtained. The prominent optical response of the photonic crystal decreases the detection limit and therefore increases the sensitivity of porous silicon sensors in comparison to sensors utilizing Fabry-Pérot based optical transduction. Development of porous silicon photonic crystal sensors which allow for the detection of analytes by the naked eye using a simple color change or the fabrication of stacked porous silicon photonic crystals showing two distinct optical features which can be utilized for the discrimination of analytes emphasize its high application potential. PMID:23571671

  9. Condensational theory of stationary tornadoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarieva, A.M.; Gorshkov, V.G.; Nefiodov, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Using the Bernoulli integral for air streamline with condensing water vapor a stationary axisymmetric tornado circulation is described. The obtained profiles of vertical, radial and tangential velocities are in agreement with observations for the Mulhall tornado, world's largest on record and longest-lived among the three tornadoes for which 3D velocity data are available. Maximum possible vortex velocities are estimated. -- Highlights: → Water vapor condensation causes a logarithmic drop of air pressure towards tornado center. → The first ever theoretical description of tornado velocities is obtained. → The maximum vortex velocity grows logarithmically with decreasing tornado eye radius. → Air motion with high velocities can only develop in sufficiently large condensation areas.

  10. From porous gold nanocups to porous nanospheres and solid particles - A new synthetic approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ihsan, Ayesha

    2015-05-01

    We report a versatile approach for the synthesis of porous gold nanocups, porous gold nanospheres and solid gold nanoparticles. Gold nanocups are formed by the slow reduction of gold salt (HAuCl4{dot operator}3H2O) using aminoantipyrene (AAP) as a reducing agent. Adding polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to the gold salt followed by reduction with AAP resulted in the formation of porous gold nanospheres. Microwave irradiation of both of these porous gold particles resulted in the formation of slightly smaller but solid gold particles. All these nanoparticles are thoroughly characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and bright-field tomography. Due to the larger size, porous nature, low density and higher surface area, these nanomaterials may have interesting applications in catalysis, drug delivery, phototherapy and sensing.

  11. Turbulence Driven by Common Non-stationary Weak Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrt, L.

    2015-12-01

    Complications with analysis of turbulence in common non-stationary weak-wind conditions are briefly surveyed. The behavior of turbulent transport in the weak-wind stably stratified boundary layer is then examined in terms of the non-stationarity of the wind field using measurements from three field programs with towers ranging from 12 to 20 m and an extensive horizontal network of sonic anemometers. The relationship of the friction velocity to the stratification and small non-stationary submeso motions are studied from several points of view and nominally quantified. The relationship of the turbulence to the stratification is less systematic than expected due to the important submeso motions. Cause and effect relationships are difficult to isolate because the non-stationary momentum flux significantly modifies the profile of the non-stationary mean flow. The link between the turbulence and accelerations at the surface is examined in terms of the changing vertical structure of the wind profile and sudden increases of downward transport of momentum. The relationship between the heat flux, wind speed and stratification is investigated. Weak wind conditions include frequent vertical convergence of the heat flux and implied temperature advection.

  12. Stationary strings near a higher-dimensional rotating black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Stevens, Kory A.

    2004-01-01

    We study stationary string configurations in a space-time of a higher-dimensional rotating black hole. We demonstrate that the Nambu-Goto equations for a stationary string in the 5D (five-dimensional) Myers-Perry metric allow a separation of variables. We present these equations in the first-order form and study their properties. We prove that the only stationary string configuration that crosses the infinite redshift surface and remains regular there is a principal Killing string. A worldsheet of such a string is generated by a principal null geodesic and a timelike at infinity Killing vector field. We obtain principal Killing string solutions in the Myers-Perry metrics with an arbitrary number of dimensions. It is shown that due to the interaction of a string with a rotating black hole, there is an angular momentum transfer from the black hole to the string. We calculate the rate of this transfer in a space-time with an arbitrary number of dimensions. This effect slows down the rotation of the black hole. We discuss possible final stationary configurations of a rotating black hole interacting with a string

  13. Convective transport of acids and bases in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, André; Bürgisser, Christa S.; Borkovec, Michal; Sticher, Hans; Meeussen, Hans; van Riemsdijk, Willem

    1994-11-01

    We present a convective description of acid-base transport in porous media which is based on classical one-component nonlinear Chromatographic theory applied to the acidity of the system. In the mobile phase the solution acidity is given by c = [H+]t - [OH-]t, where [H+]t and [OH-]t are the total solution concentrations of H+ and OH-, respectively. In the stationary phase the surface acidity corresponds to the charge density σ, which is commonly presented as a function of pH of the solution. The response of a Chromatographic column to a step pH change at column inlet results in a pH breakthrough curve which consists of a combined Chromatographic front. This combined front begins with a diffuse subfront and ends with a self-sharpening subfront. The present Chromatographic theory is used to predict experimentally observed pH breakthrough curves for columns filled with materials of known pH-dependent charging behavior. Good agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental results is observed. Essentially, the same Chromatographic theory is used to explain pH breakthrough curves when the salinity of the input solution is changed. This situation leads usually to an additional nonretarded front where a change in pH occurs.

  14. From red cells to soft porous lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qianhong; Zhu, Zenghao; Nathan, Rungun

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we report a novel experimental study to examine the lubrication theory for highly compressible porous media (Feng & Weinbaum, JFM, 422, 282, 2000), which was applied to the frictionless motion of red cells over the endothelial surface layer (ESL). The experimental setup consists of a running conveyer belt covered with a porous sheet, and an upper planar board, i.e. planing surface. The pore pressure generation was captured when the planing surface glides over the porous sheet. If the lateral leakage was eliminated, we found that the overall pore pressure's contribution to the total lift, fair 80%, and the friction coefficient η = 0.0981, when U =5 m/s, L =0.381 m, λ = h2/h0 = 1 and k =h2/h1 = 3, where U is the velocity of the conveyor belt; L is the planing surface length; h0, h1 and h2 are the undeformed, leading and trailing edge porous layer thickness, respectively. fair increases with the increase in U, λ and L, while decreases with the increase in k. η decreases with the increase in fair. If lateral pressure leakage exists, the pore pressure generation is reduced by nearly 90%. All the results agreed well with the theoretical predictions. The study here lays the foundation for applying soft porous media for new type of bearing with significantly reduced friction. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF CBET) under Award No. 1511096.

  15. Magnetoacoustic Phenomena in Saturated Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepechko, Y.

    2007-12-01

    This work deals with dynamic interaction between electromagnetic and hydrodynamic types of motions in a porous medium, saturated with electrolyte. The system of equations is a coupling of equations of the two-velocity continuous filtration theory and Maxwell equations in quasi-stationary approximation. The method of separation by the physical processes is used for numerical solution, and the hyperbolic system is approximated by the explicit expanded Godunov scheme, and the parabolic system is approximated by the inexplicit Crank-Nicolson scheme. Generation of the magnetic field was modeled in the process of 2D electrolyte filtration in a porous medium, which is considered to be conducing because of a double electric layer. An entrainment in the external magnetic field over the electrolyte flow into a porous medium is observed, and the location of magnetic field maximum relative to the inlet boundary is determined by the ratio of kinematic viscosity to magnetic viscosity. A rise of this ratio provides more intensive drag of a filtered liquid and increasing magnetic field, reached in a porous medium. Downward the flow the field decreases because of magnetic field diffusion. The problem with simultaneous excitation of acoustic and electromagnetic perturbations at the boundary of saturated porous medium was also considered, and this allows us to obtain additional knowledge about accompanying effects and phenomena, what is the main scientific and practical goal of geophysics and oil survey. This research was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant 06-05-65110, by the President's grants NSh-1573.2003.5, and by the Russian Ministry Science and Education grant RNP.2.1.1.702.

  16. Transport of radionuclides by concentrated brine in a porous medium with micropore-macropore structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanizadeh, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    This work concerns itself with the study of effects of soil aggregation and high salt concentrations on the transport of radionuclides by concentrated brine flowing through an aggregated porous medium. The medium is considered to be composed of porous rock aggregates separated by macropores through which the brine flows and transport of salt and radionuclides takes place. The aggregates contain dead-end pores, cracks, and stationary pockets collectively called micropores. The micropore space does not contribute to the flow, but it serves as a storage for salt and radionuclides. Adsorption of radionuclides takes place at internal surfaces of aggregates where they assume that a linear equilibrium isotherm describes the process. A one-dimensional numerical model is developed which is based on two sets of equations: one set for the flow and transport of salt and another set for transport of radionuclides. Results of numerical experiments clearly indicate that the existence of high salt concentrations markedly reduces the peak of nuclides concentration and slows down their movement. Also, it is found that diffusive mass exchange between macropores and aggregates results in a pronounced lowering of the radionuclides concentration peaks. 9 references, 7 figures

  17. The efficient removal of endotoxins from insulin using quaternized polyethyleneimine-coated porous zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeff, C; Zhao, Q; Almlöf, E; Flickinger, M; Carr, P W

    1999-10-15

    The synthesis and use of a zirconia-based, alkali-stable strong anion-exchange stationary phase are described for the removal of pyrogenic lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from insulin. The strong anion-exchange material is produced by deposition of polyethyleneimine (PEI) onto porous zirconia particles, followed by cross-linking with a novel reagent, 1,2-bis-(2-iodoethoxy) ethane, and quaternization with iodomethane. Physical characterization of the chromatographic support shows that it has an ion-exchange capacity of 0.6 mmol/g, and 82% of the amine sites on the surface are in quaternized form. Isocratic elution of small benzoic acid derivatives shows good column efficiency. The two primary virtues of this material are its chemical stability under alkali conditions (up to pH 13) and its lower hydrophobicity compared to previously described alkali-stable PEI-coated zirconia supports cross-linked with 1,10-diiododecane. Using this new zirconia-based phase, a purification protocol is developed for the efficient removal of Escherichia coli 0111:B4 LPS from bovine insulin samples. An endotoxin clearance rate of up to 1.3 x 10(8) was attained. Endotoxin levels were reduced to less than 5 endotoxin units/ml even at initial contamination levels as high as 5.0 x 10(6) endotoxin units/ml. Furthermore, endotoxin adsorbed to the porous zirconia column may be easily removed (depyrogenated) using alkali for repeated purification cycles. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  18. Heat and Mass Transfer of Unsteady Hydromagnetic Free Convection Flow Through Porous Medium Past a Vertical Plate with Uniform Surface Heat Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Aziz, Mohamed Abd; Yahya, Aishah S.

    2017-09-01

    Simultaneous effects of thermal and concentration diffusions in unsteady magnetohydrodynamic free convection flow past a moving plate maintained at constant heat flux and embedded in a viscous fluid saturated porous medium is presented. The transport model employed includes the effects of thermal radiation, heat sink, Soret and chemical reaction. The fluid is considered as a gray absorbing-emitting but non-scattering medium and the Rosseland approximation in the energy equations is used to describe the radiative heat flux for optically thick fluid. The dimensionless coupled linear partial differential equations are solved by using Laplace transform technique. Numerical results for the velocity, temperature, concentration as well as the skin friction coefficient and the rates of heat and mass transfer are shown graphically for different values of physical parameters involved.

  19. Characterization and antibacterial properties of porous fibers containing silver ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhaoyang; Fan, Chenxu; Tang, Xiaopeng; Zhao, Jianghui; Song, Yanhua; Shao, Zhongbiao [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Engineering, Soochow University, 199 Ren-ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Xu, Lan, E-mail: lanxu@suda.edu.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Engineering, Soochow University, 199 Ren-ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Nantong Textile Institute of Soochow University, 58 Chong-chuan Road, Nantong 226018 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Antibacterial electrospun PLA porous fibers containing silver ions were prepared. • Porous structure and porosity of PLA/Ag{sup +} porous fibers were investigated. • The antibacterial effects of PLA/Ag{sup +} porous fibers were studied. • The released mechanism of silver ions in the porous fibers was illustrated. • The porous structure could improve the antibacterial properties. - Abstract: Materials prepared on the base of bioactive silver compounds have become more and more popular. In the present work, the surface morphology, structure and properties, of electrospun Polylactide Polylactic acid (PLA) porous fibers containing various ratios of silver ions were investigated by a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), universal testing machine, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and et al. The biological activities of the proposed porous fibers were discussed in view of the released silver ions concentration. Antibacterial properties of these porous fibers were studied using two bacterial strains: Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Results of the antibacterial testing suggested that PLA porous fibers containing silver ions could be used as potent antibacterial wound dressing materials in the biomedical field.

  20. Characterization and antibacterial properties of porous fibers containing silver ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhaoyang; Fan, Chenxu; Tang, Xiaopeng; Zhao, Jianghui; Song, Yanhua; Shao, Zhongbiao; Xu, Lan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Antibacterial electrospun PLA porous fibers containing silver ions were prepared. • Porous structure and porosity of PLA/Ag + porous fibers were investigated. • The antibacterial effects of PLA/Ag + porous fibers were studied. • The released mechanism of silver ions in the porous fibers was illustrated. • The porous structure could improve the antibacterial properties. - Abstract: Materials prepared on the base of bioactive silver compounds have become more and more popular. In the present work, the surface morphology, structure and properties, of electrospun Polylactide Polylactic acid (PLA) porous fibers containing various ratios of silver ions were investigated by a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), universal testing machine, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and et al. The biological activities of the proposed porous fibers were discussed in view of the released silver ions concentration. Antibacterial properties of these porous fibers were studied using two bacterial strains: Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Results of the antibacterial testing suggested that PLA porous fibers containing silver ions could be used as potent antibacterial wound dressing materials in the biomedical field.

  1. Formation of complex anodic films on porous alumina matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kliment Ohridski blvd.,. 1756 Sofia, Bulgaria ... porous layer grows, whose pores are placed normally to the electrode surface. It is widely considered that the barrier sub-layer determines to a great extent the electric resistance of porous ...

  2. Selective emitter using porous silicon for crystalline silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Inyong; Kim, Kyunghae; Kim, Youngkuk; Han, Kyumin; Kyeong, Doheon; Kwon, Taeyoung; Vinh Ai, Dao; Lee, Jeongchul; Yi, Junsin [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Chunchun-dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon-City, Kyunggi-Do 440-746 (Korea); Thamilselvan, M. [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Chunchun-dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon-City, Kyunggi-Do 440-746 (Korea); Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu (India); Ju, Minkyu; Lee, Kyungsoo [KPE Ins. Chunchun-dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon-City, Kyunggi-Do 440-746 (Korea)

    2009-06-15

    This study is devoted to the formation of high-low-level-doped selective emitter for crystalline silicon solar cells for photovoltaic application. We report here the formation of porous silicon under chemical reaction condition. The chemical mixture containing hydrofluoric and nitric acid, with de-ionized water, was used to make porous on the half of the silicon surface of size 125 x 125 cm. Porous and non-porous areas each share half of the whole silicon surface. H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}:methanol gives the best deposited layer with acceptable adherence and uniformity on the non-porous and porous areas of the silicon surface to get high- and low-level-doped regions. The volume concentration of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} does not exceed 10% of the total volume emulsion. Phosphoric acid was used as an n-type doping source to make emitter for silicon solar cells. The measured emitter sheet resistances at the high- and low-level-doped regions were 30-35 and 97-474 {omega}/{open_square} respectively. A simple process for low- and high-level doping has been achieved by forming porous and porous-free silicon surface, in this study, which could be applied for solar cells selective emitter doping. (author)

  3. Porous silicon multitexture for photoelectric converter structures of solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Yerokhov V. Yu.; Druzinin A. O.

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of creation of porous silicon’s multitexture, as material of structure of photoelectric converter (FEC) is shown. The morphological elements of porous silicon are considered relative to different pore parameters. The integral coefficient of frontal surface reflection of FEC with using of columnar multitexture in the range from 400 nm up to 1150 nm decreased.

  4. Porous silicon multitexture for photoelectric converter structures of solar energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerokhov V. Yu.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of creation of porous silicon’s multitexture, as material of structure of photoelectric converter (FEC is shown. The morphological elements of porous silicon are considered relative to different pore parameters. The integral coefficient of frontal surface reflection of FEC with using of columnar multitexture in the range from 400 nm up to 1150 nm decreased.

  5. Hierarchical Porous Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Materials Design is often at the forefront of technological innovation. While there has always been a push to generate increasingly low density materials, such as aero or hydrogels, more recently the idea of bicontinuous structures has gone more into play. This review will cover some of the methods and applications for generating both porous, and hierarchically porous structures.

  6. Thermal-diffusion and MHD for Soret and Dufour's effects on Hiemenz flow and mass transfer of fluid flow through porous medium onto a stretching surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Rahman, Gamal M., E-mail: gamalm60@yahoo.co [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, 13518 Benha (Egypt)

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, the thermal-diffusion and magnetic field effects on a stagnation point flowing over a flat stretching surface have been obtained and studied numerically with the variation of the viscosity under the Soret and Dufour's effects. The governing continuity, momentum, energy and concentration equations are converted into a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations by means of similarity transformation. The resulting system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations is solved numerically. Numerical results were presented for velocity, temperature and concentration profiles for different parameters of the problem as radiation parameter, magnetic field parameter, porous medium parameter, endothermic chemical reaction, heat source parameter, stretching parameter, the Soret and Dufour number and other. Also the effects of the pertinent parameters on the skin friction, the rate of heat and mass transfer are obtained and discussed numerically and illustrated graphically.

  7. Additively manufactured 3D porous Ti-6Al-4V constructs mimic trabecular bone structure and regulate osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and local factor production in a porosity and surface roughness dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Alice; Boyan, Barbara D; Humayun, Aiza; Cohen, David J; Schwartz, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing by laser sintering is able to produce high resolution metal constructs for orthopedic and dental implants. In this study, we used a human trabecular bone template to design and manufacture Ti-6Al-4V constructs with varying porosity via laser sintering. Characterization of constructs revealed interconnected porosities ranging from 15–70% with compressive moduli of 2579–3693 MPa. These constructs with macro porosity were further surface-treated to create a desirable multi-scale micro-/nano-roughness, which has been shown to enhance the osseointegration process. Osteoblasts (MG63 cells) exhibited high viability when grown on the constructs. Proliferation (DNA) and alkaline phosphatase specific activity, an early differentiation marker, decreased as porosity increased, while osteocalcin, a late differentiation marker, as well as osteoprotegerin, vascular endothelial growth factor and bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4 increased with increasing porosity. Three-dimensional (3D) constructs with the highest porosity and surface modification supported the greatest osteoblast differentiation and local factor production. These results indicate that additively manufactured 3D porous constructs mimicking human trabecular bone and produced with additional surface treatment can be customized for increased osteoblast response. Increased factors for osteoblast maturation and differentiation on high porosity constructs suggest the enhanced performance of these surfaces for increasing osseointegration in vivo. (paper)

  8. Porous hydroxyapatite for artificial bone applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sopyan et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HA has been used clinically for many years. It has good biocompatibility in bone contact as its chemical composition is similar to that of bone material. Porous HA ceramics have found enormous use in biomedical applications including bone tissue regeneration, cell proliferation, and drug delivery. In bone tissue engineering it has been applied as filling material for bone defects and augmentation, artificial bone graft material, and prosthesis revision surgery. Its high surface area leads to excellent osteoconductivity and resorbability providing fast bone ingrowth. Porous HA can be produced by a number of methods including conversion of natural bones, ceramic foaming technique, polymeric sponge method, gel casting of foams, starch consolidation, microwave processing, slip casting, and electrophoretic deposition technique. Some of these methods have been combined to fabricate porous HA with improved properties. These combination methods have yielded some promising results. This paper discusses briefly fundamental aspects of porous HA for artificial bone applications as well as various techniques used to prepare porous HA. Some of our recent results on development of porous HA will be presented as well.

  9. Boiling in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This conference day of the French society of thermal engineers was devoted to the analysis of heat transfers and fluid flows during boiling phenomena in porous media. This book of proceedings comprises 8 communications entitled: 'boiling in porous medium: effect of natural convection in the liquid zone'; 'numerical modeling of boiling in porous media using a 'dual-fluid' approach: asymmetrical characteristic of the phenomenon'; 'boiling during fluid flow in an induction heated porous column'; 'cooling of corium fragment beds during a severe accident. State of the art and the SILFIDE experimental project'; 'state of knowledge about the cooling of a particulates bed during a reactor accident'; 'mass transfer analysis inside a concrete slab during fire resistance tests'; 'heat transfers and boiling in porous media. Experimental analysis and modeling'; 'concrete in accidental situation - influence of boundary conditions (thermal, hydric) - case studies'. (J.S.)

  10. Modeling and Thermal Performance Evaluation of Porous Curd Layers in Sub-Cooled Boiling Region of PWRs and Effects of Sub-Cooled Nucleate Boiling on Anomalous Porous Crud Deposition on Fuel Pin Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay Jones

    2005-01-01

    A significant number of current PWRs around the world are experiencing anomalous crud deposition in the sub-cooled region of the core, resulting in an axial power shift or Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA), a condition that continues to elude prediction of occurrence and thermal/neutronic performance. This creates an operational difficulty of not being able to accurately determine power safety margin. In some cases this condition has required power ''down rating'' by as much as thirty percent and the concomitant considerable loss of revenue for the utility. This study examines two aspects of the issue: thermal performance of crud layer and effect of sub-cooled nucleate boiling on the solute concentration and its influence on initiation of crud deposition/formation on fuel pin surface

  11. Porous Silicon for Chemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamis, C.; Nassiopoulou, A. G.

    In this work we highlight the advantages of using Porous Silicon (PS) as a material for chemical sensors. Two different applications of PS are investigated: (a) as a matrix for the inclusion of catalytic materials, such as Pd or Pt, and (b) as a material for the fabrication of suspended micro hotplates, for improved thermal isolation. For the first application, the catalytic behavior of Pd-doped PS samples is estimated and the parameters that influence the kinetics of the chemical reaction are evaluated. It is found that the catalytic activity of Pd-doped porous silicon is significantly higher than that of a planar surface covered with Pd. On the other hand, the effectiveness of PS for local thermal isolation on a silicon substrate is examined and the thermal properties of suspended porous silicon (PS) micro-hotplates are investigated. The micro-hotplates are fabricated by a novel technique, based on the isotropic etching of silicon under a PS layer, in a high density plasma reactor. Very high local temperatures on the micro-hotplates (higher than 600°C) with very low power consumption (only a few tens of mW) have been obtained, due to the very low thermal conductivity of PS, which is comparable to that of thermal oxide and it is much lower than that of silicon nitride, typically used for thermal sensor applications.

  12. Stationary infinitely divisible processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.

    Several recent strands of work has led to the consideration of various types of continuous time stationary and infinitely divisible processes. A review of these types, with some new results, is presented.......Several recent strands of work has led to the consideration of various types of continuous time stationary and infinitely divisible processes. A review of these types, with some new results, is presented....

  13. Laboratory Investigations of Stationary Methane Anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczkowski, Janusz; Krawczyk, Jerzy; Ostrogórski, Piotr

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a new stationary device that can perform simultaneous measurements of air flow velocity and methane concentration in a mine heading (stationary methane anemometer). The test station is designed to use the instrument to test the effect of various parameters on the air-methane stream. The air velocities and methane concentrations were fed to the measuring area via an injector and recorded. The results present numerical simulations of flow phenomena that occurred during measurement experiments.

  14. Dampers for Stationary Labyrinth Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Aini, Yehia; Mitchell, William; Roberts, Lawrence; Montgomery, Stuart; Davis, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Vibration dampers have been invented that are incorporated as components within the stationary labyrinth seal assembly. These dampers are intended to supplement other vibration-suppressing features of labyrinth seals in order to reduce the incidence of high-cycle-fatigue failures, which have been known to occur in the severe vibratory environments of jet engines and turbopumps in which labyrinth seals are typically used. A vibration damper of this type includes several leaf springs and/or a number of metallic particles (shot) all held in an annular seal cavity by a retaining ring. The leaf springs are made of a spring steel alloy chosen, in conjunction with design parameters, to maintain sufficient preload to ensure effectiveness of damping at desired operating temperatures. The cavity is vented via a small radial gap between the retaining ring and seal housing. The damping mechanism is complex. In the case of leaf springs, the mechanism is mainly friction in the slippage between the seal housing and individual dampers. In the case of a damper that contains shot, the damping mechanism includes contributions from friction between individual particles, friction between particles and cavity walls, and dissipation of kinetic energy of impact. The basic concept of particle/shot vibration dampers has been published previously; what is new here is the use of such dampers to suppress traveling-wave vibrations in labyrinth seals. Damping effectiveness depends on many parameters, including, but not limited to, coefficient of friction, mode shape, and frequency and amplitude of vibrational modes. In tests, preloads of the order of 6 to 15 lb (2.72 to 6.8 kilograms) per spring damper were demonstrated to provide adequate damping levels. Effectiveness of shot damping of vibrations having amplitudes from 20 to 200 times normal terrestrial gravitational acceleration (196 to 1,960 meters per square second) and frequencies up to 12 kHz was demonstrated for shot sizes from 0.032 to

  15. Time resolved analysis of water drainage in porous asphalt concrete using neutron radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulikakos, L D; Sedighi Gilani, M; Derome, D; Jerjen, I; Vontobel, P

    2013-07-01

    Porous asphalt as a road surface layer controls aquaplaning as rain water can drain through its highly porous structure. The process of water drainage through this permeable layer is studied using neutron radiography. Time-resolved water configuration and distribution within the porous structure are reported. It is shown that radiography depicts the process of liquid water transport within the complex geometry of porous asphalt, capturing water films, filled dead end pores and water islands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation of asymmetric porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Eric N [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-08-07

    A method for preparing an asymmetric porous material by depositing a porous material film on a flexible substrate, and applying an anisotropic stress to the porous media on the flexible substrate, where the anisotropic stress results from a stress such as an applied mechanical force, a thermal gradient, and an applied voltage, to form an asymmetric porous material.

  17. Conductive Polymer Porous Film with Tunable Wettability and Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqi Teng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A conductive polymer porous film with tunable wettability and adhesion was fabricated by the chloroform solution of poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyricacid-methyl-ester (PCBM via the freeze drying method. The porous film could be obtained from the solution of 0.8 wt%, whose pore diameters ranged from 50 nm to 500 nm. The hydrophobic porous surface with a water contact angle (CA of 144.7° could be transferred into a hydrophilic surface with CA of 25° by applying a voltage. The water adhesive force on the porous film increased with the increase of the external voltage. The electro-controllable wettability and adhesion of the porous film have potential application in manipulating liquid collection and transportation.

  18. Numerical/Laplace transform analysis for MHD radiating heat/mass transport in a Darcian porous regime bounded by an oscillating vertical surfac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Analytical and numerical solutions of a non-linear MHD flow with heat and mass transfer characteristics of an incompressible, viscous, electrically conducting and Boussinesq’s fluid over a vertical oscillating plate embedded in a Darcian porous medium in the presence of thermal radiation effect have been presented. The fluid considered here is gray, absorbing/emitting radiating, but non-scattering medium. At time t > 0, the plate temperature and concentration near the plate raised linearly with time t. The dimensionless governing coupled, non-linear boundary layer partial differential equations are solved by an efficient, accurate, extensively validated and unconditionally stable finite difference scheme of the Crank–Nicolson type as well as by the Laplace Transform technique. An increase in porosity parameter (K is found to depress fluid velocities and shear stress in the regime. Also it has been found that, when the conduction-radiation (R increased, the fluid velocity and the temperature profiles decreased. Applications of the study arise in materials processing and solar energy collector systems.

  19. Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Won Sik [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Grandy, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Boroski, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krajtl, Lubomir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Johnson, Terry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    For effective burning of hazardous transuranic (TRU) elements of used nuclear fuel, a transformational advanced reactor concept named SLFFR (Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor) was proposed based on stationary molten metallic fuel. The fuel enters the reactor vessel in a solid form, and then it is heated to molten temperature in a small melting heater. The fuel is contained within a closed, thick container with penetrating coolant channels, and thus it is not mixed with coolant nor flow through the primary heat transfer circuit. The makeup fuel is semi- continuously added to the system, and thus a very small excess reactivity is required. Gaseous fission products are also removed continuously, and a fraction of the fuel is periodically drawn off from the fuel container to a processing facility where non-gaseous mixed fission products and other impurities are removed and then the cleaned fuel is recycled into the fuel container. A reference core design and a preliminary plant system design of a 1000 MWt TRU- burning SLFFR concept were developed using TRU-Ce-Co fuel, Ta-10W fuel container, and sodium coolant. Conservative design approaches were adopted to stay within the current material performance database. Detailed neutronics and thermal-fluidic analyses were performed to develop a reference core design. Region-dependent 33-group cross sections were generated based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 data using the MC2-3 code. Core and fuel cycle analyses were performed in theta-r-z geometries using the DIF3D and REBUS-3 codes. Reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated using the VARI3D perturbation theory code. Thermo-fluidic analyses were performed using the ANSYS FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Figure 0.1 shows a schematic radial layout of the reference 1000 MWt SLFFR core, and Table 0.1 summarizes the main design parameters of SLFFR-1000 loop plant. The fuel container is a 2.5 cm thick cylinder with an inner radius of 87.5 cm. The fuel

  20. Effect of focusing flow on stationary spot machining properties in elastic emission machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoshinori; Mimura, Hidekazu

    2013-05-16

    Ultraprecise optical elements are applied in advanced optical apparatus. Elastic emission machining (EEM) is one of the ultraprecision machining methods used to fabricate shapes with 0.1-nm accuracy. In this study, we proposed and experimentally tested the control of the shape of a stationary spot profile by introducing a focusing-flow state between the nozzle outlet and the workpiece surface in EEM. The simulation results indicate that the focusing-flow nozzle sharpens the distribution of the velocity on the workpiece surface. The results of machining experiments verified those of the simulation. The obtained stationary spot conditions will be useful for surface processing with a high spatial resolution.

  1. Absorption of ozone by porous particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanas' ev, V.P.; Dorofeev, S.B.; Sinitsyn, V.I.; Smirnov, B.M.

    1981-11-01

    The absorption of ozone by porous zeolite, silica gel, and activated carbon particles has been studied experimentally. It was shown that in addition to absorption, dissociation of ozone on the surface plays an important and sometimes decisive role. The results obtained were used to analyze the nature of ball lightning.

  2. Extending the Lifespan of Porous Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Porous Asphalt (PA) concrete is widely used as a surfacing layer on highways in the Netherlands. The service life of PA wearing courses is limited because of the fact that it is vulnerable to raveling. The possibilities of applying preventive maintenance to PA wearing courses by means of spraying

  3. Utilization of Porous Media for Condensing Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, George C.

    2006-01-01

    The use of porous media as a mean of separating liquid condensate from the air stream in condensing heat exchangers has been explored in the past inside small plant growth chambers and in the Apollo Command Module. Both applications used a cooled porous media made of sintered stainless steel to cool and separate condensation from the air stream. However, the main issues with the utilization of porous media in the past have been the deterioration of the porous media over long duration, such as clogging and changes in surface wetting characteristics. In addition, for long duration usage, biofilm growth from microorganisms on the porous medial would also be an issue. In developing Porous Media Condensing Heat Exchangers (PMCHX) for future space applications, different porous materials and microbial growth control methods will need to be explored. This paper explores the work performed at JSC and GRC to evaluate different porous materials and microbial control methods to support the development of a Porous Media Condensing Heat Exchanger. It outlines the basic principles for designing a PMCHX and issues that were encountered and ways to resolve those issues. The PMCHX has potential of mass, volume, and power savings over current CHX and water separator technology and would be beneficial for long duration space missions.

  4. High-performance flexible supercapacitor based on porous array electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, Jen-Yu; Tsai, Sung-Ying; Li, Bo-Yan [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China); Yu, Hsin Her, E-mail: hhyu@nfu.edu.tw [Department of Biotechnology, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China)

    2017-07-01

    In this study, an array of polystyrene (PS) spheres was synthesized by a dispersion-polymerization technique as a template onto which a porous polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microarray structure was fabricated by soft lithography. A conducting layer was coated on the surface of the microarray after a suspension of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) mixed with graphene (G) had been poured into the porous array. A PDMS-based porous supercapacitor was assembled by sandwiching a separator between two porous electrodes filled with a H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel electrolyte. The specific capacitance, electrochemical properties, and cycle stability of the porous electrode supercapacitors were explored. The porous PDMS-electrode-based supercapacitor exhibited high specific capacitance and good cycle stability, indicating its enormous potential for future applications in wearable and portable electronic products. - Highlights: • Porous electrode was prepared using an array of polystyrene spheres as template. • The porous electrodes provided increased contact area with the electrolyte. • A gel electrolyte averted problems with leakage and poor interfacial contact. • A larger separator pore size effectively reduced the internal resistance, iR{sub drop}. • Porous PDMS supercapacitor showed superior flexibility and cycling stability.

  5. Installation report on porous friction course hot plant mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was initiated in the spring of 1972 to develop surface mixes with high skid resistance for use at special locations. The porous friction course will hopefully provide high skid coefficients where water drainage and hydroplaning may b...

  6. Stochastic porous media equations

    CERN Document Server

    Barbu, Viorel; Röckner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on stochastic porous media equations, this book places an emphasis on existence theorems, asymptotic behavior and ergodic properties of the associated transition semigroup. Stochastic perturbations of the porous media equation have reviously been considered by physicists, but rigorous mathematical existence results have only recently been found. The porous media equation models a number of different physical phenomena, including the flow of an ideal gas and the diffusion of a compressible fluid through porous media, and also thermal propagation in plasma and plasma radiation. Another important application is to a model of the standard self-organized criticality process, called the "sand-pile model" or the "Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model". The book will be of interest to PhD students and researchers in mathematics, physics and biology.

  7. Prediction of deformations during gas-tungsten-arc stationary welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D.B.; Giedt, W.H.

    1980-10-01

    Local temperature measurements on the heated and unheated surfaces, and strain measurements on the unheated surfaces of unrestrained circular weld specimens of annealed and cold-rolled Nitronic 40 stainless steel during stationary welding, are compared with values predicted from finite-element programs for temperature and strain variations. Experimental and predicted temperature histories agree within 10%. Predicted and measured hoop strain profiles (using a moire fringe technique), for the unheated surface are compared, showing significant deviations near the central region. Transient deflection measurements of the unheated specimen surfaces show good agreement with theory during the period the arc is operating. Close agreement in deflection behavior was observed during the cooling portion of the weld cycle for the annealed specimen, whereas substantial deviations occurred for the cold-rolled specimens

  8. Analyzing Non Stationary Processes in Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The lack of well-developed techniques for modeling changing statistical moments in our observations has stymied the application of stochastic process theory for many scientific and engineering applications. Non linear effects of the observation methodology is one of the most perplexing aspects to modeling non stationary processes. This perplexing problem was encountered when modeling the effect of non stationary receiver fluctuations on the performance of radiometer calibration architectures. Existing modeling approaches were found not applicable; particularly problematic is modeling processes across scales over which they begin to exhibit non stationary behavior within the time interval of the calibration algorithm. Alternatively, the radiometer output is modeled as samples from a sequence random variables; the random variables are treated using a conditional probability distribution function conditioned on the use of the variable in the calibration algorithm. This approach of treating a process as a sequence of random variables with non stationary stochastic moments produce sensible predictions of temporal effects of calibration algorithms. To test these model predictions, an experiment using the Millimeter wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR) was conducted. The MIR with its two black body calibration references was configured in a laboratory setting to observe a third ultra-stable reference (CryoTarget). The MIR was programmed to sequentially sample each of the three references in approximately a 1 second cycle. Data were collected over a six-hour interval. The sequence of reference measurements form an ensemble sample set comprised of a series of three reference measurements. Two references are required to estimate the receiver response. A third reference is used to estimate the uncertainty in the estimate. Typically, calibration algorithms are designed to suppress the non stationary effects of receiver fluctuations. By treating the data sequence as an ensemble

  9. Erbium doped stain etched porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, B.; Diaz-Herrera, B.; Guerrero-Lemus, R.; Mendez-Ramos, J.; Rodriguez, V.D.; Hernandez-Rodriguez, C.; Martinez-Duart, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work a simple erbium doping process applied to stain etched porous silicon layers (PSLs) is proposed. This doping process has been developed for application in porous silicon solar cells, where conventional erbium doping processes are not affordable because of the high processing cost and technical difficulties. The PSLs were formed by immersion in a HF/HNO 3 solution to properly adjust the porosity and pore thickness to an optimal doping of the porous structure. After the formation of the porous structure, the PSLs were analyzed by means of nitrogen BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) area measurements and scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, the PSLs were immersed in a saturated erbium nitrate solution in order to cover the porous surface. Then, the samples were subjected to a thermal process to activate the Er 3+ ions. Different temperatures and annealing times were used in this process. The photoluminescence of the PSLs was evaluated before and after the doping processes and the composition was analyzed by Fourier transform IR spectroscopy

  10. Controlled Morphology of Porous Polyvinyl Butyral Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lubasova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and effective method for the fabrication of porous nanofibers based on the solvent evaporation methods in one-step electrospinning process from the commercial polyvinyl butyral (PVB is presented. The obtained nanofibers are prevalently amorphous with diameters ranging from 150 to 4350 nm and specific surface area of approximately 2–20 m2/g. Pore size with irregular shape of the porous PVB fibers ranged approximately from 50 to 200 nm. The effects of polymer solution concentration, composition of the solvents mixture, and applied voltage on fiber diameter and morphology were investigated. The theoretical approach for the choice of poor and good solvents for PVB was explained by the application Hansen solubility parameter (HSP and two-dimensional graph. Three basic conditions for the production of porous PVB nanofibers were defined: (i application of good/poor solvent mixture for spinning solution, (ii differences of the evaporation rate between good/poor solvent, and (iii correct ratios of good/poor solvent (v/v. The diameter of prepared porous PVB fibers decreased as the polymer concentration was lowered and with higher applied voltage. These nanofiber sheets with porous PVB fibers could be a good candidate for high-efficiency filter materials in comparison to smooth fibers without pores.

  11. Stability and instability of stationary solutions for sublinear parabolic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikiya, Ryuji

    2018-01-01

    In the present paper, we study the initial boundary value problem of the sublinear parabolic equation. We prove the existence of solutions and investigate the stability and instability of stationary solutions. We show that a unique positive and a unique negative stationary solutions are exponentially stable and give the exact exponent. We prove that small stationary solutions are unstable. For one space dimensional autonomous equations, we elucidate the structure of stationary solutions and study the stability of all stationary solutions.

  12. Enhancement of optical nonlinearities with stationary light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iakoupov, Ivan

    Stationary light arises in atomic ensembles with certain energy level configurations, when two counter-propagating classical drives (lasers) are applied. Probe light coupled to a different energy level transition than the classical drives can be completely stopped, while still retaining its light...... character. We will be interested in the regime of stationary light, where the probe light still propagates through the atomic ensemble, but extremely slowly. In other words, probe field has a very low group velocity, which increases its interaction time with any optical nonlinearity. The enhancement...

  13. Dependence of transport phenomena on microstructural characteristics of porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabagh, M.; Jalali, P.; Sarkomaa, P. [Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2007-07-01

    Transport of momentum and heat through porous media in micro-scale have been studied extensively in recent years and a variety of models for the pore space geometry of porous media have been developed. However, simple models that can be used to calculate macroscopic physical properties have not yet been developed. On the other hand, due to the complexity of the geometry in porous media, analytical solutions are difficult to obtain except for very few problems. In the present study, the dependence of transport properties on microstructural characteristics of porous media and boundary conditions has been investigated. The model geometrically represents a rectangle subjected to symmetry boundary conditions from two opposite sides and two inlet and outlet boundaries in other sides. Elliptic and circular particles are inserted orderedly and randomly inside the domain with given boundary conditions at the surface of particles. Results reveal the shape and distribution of particles affect heat and momentum characteristics within the porous medium. (orig.)

  14. Nano-Bio Interactions of Porous and Nonporous Silica Nanoparticles of Varied Surface Chemistry: A Structural, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Study of Protein Adsorption from RPMI Culture Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Sean E; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A; Grassian, Vicki H; Larsen, Sarah C

    2016-01-26

    Understanding complex chemical changes that take place at nano-bio interfaces is of great concern for being able to sustainably implement nanomaterials in key applications such as drug delivery, imaging, and environmental remediation. Typical in vitro assays use cell viability as a proxy to understanding nanotoxicity but often neglect how the nanomaterial surface can be altered by adsorption of solution-phase components in the medium. Protein coronas form on the nanomaterial surface when incubated in proteinaceous solutions. Herein, we apply a broad array of techniques to characterize and quantify protein corona formation on silica nanoparticle surfaces. The porosity and surface chemistry of the silica nanoparticles have been systematically varied. Using spectroscopic tools such as FTIR and circular dichroism, structural changes and kinetic processes involved in protein adsorption were evaluated. Additionally, by implementing thermogravimetric analysis, quantitative protein adsorption measurements allowed for the direct comparison between samples. Taken together, these measurements enabled the extraction of useful chemical information on protein binding onto nanoparticles in solution. Overall, we demonstrate that small alkylamines can increase protein adsorption and that even large polymeric molecules such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) cannot prevent protein adsorption in these systems. The implications of these results as they relate to further understanding nano-bio interactions are discussed.

  15. Exploitation of a microporous organic polymer as a stationary phase for capillary gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Cuiming; Liu, Shuqin; Xu, Jianqiao; Ding, Yajuan; Ouyang, Gangfeng, E-mail: cesoygf@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    Microporous organic polymers (MOPs) have emerged as a new class of functional porous materials with unique characteristics and potential uses in diverse areas. However, the field of MOPs for gas chromatographic (GC) separations has not been well explored. Herein, a MOP namely KAPs-1 was dynamic coated onto a capillary column for the first time. The fabricated column exhibited a nonpolar nature and the column efficiency for n-dodecane was up to 7769 plates m{sup −1}. The KAPs-1 coated column showed high GC separation performance for a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including the challenging ethylbenzene and xylene isomers, which could not be resolved at baseline on the commercial 5% phenyl polysiloxane stationary phase. Moreover, the relative standard deviations for five replicate determinations of the studied analytes were 0.0–0.6%, 0.9–3.2%, 1.1–5.9%, 0.8–3.7% for retention time, peak area, peak height and peak width, respectively. To investigate the interaction between some analytes and the stationary phase, thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were also evaluated. The results of this study show it is very promising to utilize MOPs as stationary phases for capillary GC. - Highlights: • A microporous organic polymer was explored as a novel stationary phase for capillary GC. • The column showed high separation performance for VOCs including the challenging ethylbenzene and xylene isomers. • Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for BTEXs were determined to study the analyte-stationary phase interaction.

  16. Exploitation of a microporous organic polymer as a stationary phase for capillary gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Cuiming; Liu, Shuqin; Xu, Jianqiao; Ding, Yajuan; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Microporous organic polymers (MOPs) have emerged as a new class of functional porous materials with unique characteristics and potential uses in diverse areas. However, the field of MOPs for gas chromatographic (GC) separations has not been well explored. Herein, a MOP namely KAPs-1 was dynamic coated onto a capillary column for the first time. The fabricated column exhibited a nonpolar nature and the column efficiency for n-dodecane was up to 7769 plates m −1 . The KAPs-1 coated column showed high GC separation performance for a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including the challenging ethylbenzene and xylene isomers, which could not be resolved at baseline on the commercial 5% phenyl polysiloxane stationary phase. Moreover, the relative standard deviations for five replicate determinations of the studied analytes were 0.0–0.6%, 0.9–3.2%, 1.1–5.9%, 0.8–3.7% for retention time, peak area, peak height and peak width, respectively. To investigate the interaction between some analytes and the stationary phase, thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were also evaluated. The results of this study show it is very promising to utilize MOPs as stationary phases for capillary GC. - Highlights: • A microporous organic polymer was explored as a novel stationary phase for capillary GC. • The column showed high separation performance for VOCs including the challenging ethylbenzene and xylene isomers. • Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for BTEXs were determined to study the analyte-stationary phase interaction.

  17. Novel open tubular CEC with tentacle-type polymer stationary phase functionalized by phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Sun, Yan

    2008-02-01

    A novel stationary phase with tentacle-type polymer chains with epoxy groups was fabricated for open tubular CEC. The fabrication procedure of the stationary phase included pretreatment of capillary inner wall, silanization, and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA)-grafted polymerization. The influence of initiator concentration and polymerization time on the resulting polymer stationary phase was studied by measuring EOF mobility and hydrophobicity of the prepared capillary column. SEM showed that the capillary inner wall was evenly coated with a polymer film showing a wrinkly surface. The prepared GMA-grafted stationary phase could be easily modified with different chromatographic ligands by the ring-opening reaction of the epoxy groups. In this study, phenylalanine (Phe) was selected as the ligand. Benzene derivatives and three amino acids were then separated, respectively, using the Phe modified tentacle-type capillary column. As a control, separations were also performed on a monolayer Phe-modified capillary. The tentacle-type polymer stationary phase was found affording stronger retention and better resolution in the separation of benzene derivatives and tryptophan, tyrosine, and Phe mixtures compared with the monolayer stationary phase.

  18. The role of surface chemistry at ceramic/electrolyte intefaces in the generation of pulsed corona discharges in water using porous ceramic-coated rod electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukeš, Petr; Člupek, Martin; Babický, Václav; Šunka, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 11 (2009), s. 719-728 ISSN 1612-8850 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00430802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : non-thermal plasma * electrical discharge * water * surface chemistry Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.037, year: 2009 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/122593644/PDFSTART

  19. Surface modification of porous nanocrystalline TiO2 films for dye-sensitized solar cell application by various gas plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngsoo; Yoon, Chang-Ho; Kim, Kang-Jin; Lee, Yeonhee

    2007-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) film for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has surface defects such as oxygen vacancies created during the annealing process. The authors used a plasma treatment technique to reduce defects on TiO 2 surfaces. They investigated the influence of different gas plasma treatments of TiO 2 film on the photoelectric performance of DSSC. Short-circuit photocurrent density (J sc ), open-circuit photovoltage (V oc ), and the amount of adsorbed dye for DSSCs were measured. As a result, the solar-to-electricity conversion efficiencies of the O 2 - and N 2 -treated cells increased by 15%-20% compared to untreated cells. On the other hand, solar energy conversion efficiency of CF 4 -plasma treated cells decreased drastically. The increased amount of adsorbed dye on the TiO 2 film was measured by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. TiO 2 surfaces modified by plasma treatment were characterized using analytical instruments such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure

  20. The Compatibility of Hepatocytes with Chemically Modified Porous Silicon with Reference to In Vitro Biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Sara D.; Derfus, Austin M.; Schwartz, Michael P.; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.; Sailor, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Porous Si is a nanostructured material that is of interest for molecular and cell-based biosensing, drug delivery, and tissue engineering applications. Surface chemistry is an important factor determining the stability of porous Si in aqueous media, its affinity for various biomolecular species, and its compatibility with tissues. In this study, the attachment and viability of a primary cell type to porous Si samples containing various surface chemistries is reported, and the ability of the p...

  1. Porous Silicon Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yongquan; Zhou, Hailong; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    In this minreview, we summarize recent progress in the synthesis, properties and applications of a new type of one-dimensional nanostructures — single crystalline porous silicon nanowires. The growth of porous silicon nanowires starting from both p- and n-type Si wafers with a variety of dopant concentrations can be achieved through either one-step or two-step reactions. The mechanistic studies indicate the dopant concentration of Si wafers, oxidizer concentration, etching time and temperature can affect the morphology of the as-etched silicon nanowires. The porous silicon nanowires are both optically and electronically active and have been explored for potential applications in diverse areas including photocatalysis, lithium ion battery, gas sensor and drug delivery. PMID:21869999

  2. Foams in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsden, S.S.

    1986-07-01

    In 1978 a literature search on selective blocking of fluid flow in porous media was done by Professor S.S. Marsden and two of his graduate students, Tom Elson and Kern Huppy. This was presented as SUPRI Report No. TR-3 entitled ''Literature Preview of the Selected Blockage of Fluids in Thermal Recovery Projects.'' Since then a lot of research on foam in porous media has been done on the SUPRI project and a great deal of new information has appeared in the literature. Therefore we believed that a new, up-to-date search should be done on foam alone, one which would be helpful to our students and perhaps of interest to others. This is a chronological survey showing the development of foam flow, blockage and use in porous media, starting with laboratory studies and eventually getting into field tests and demonstrations. It is arbitrarily divided into five-year time periods. 81 refs.

  3. Polarization fluctuations in stationary light beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, A.; Setaelae, T.; Kaivola, M.; Friberg, A.T.; Royal Institute of Technology , Department of Microelectronics and Applied Physics; Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    For stationary beams the degree of polarization contains only limited information on time dependent polarization. Two approaches towards assessing a beams polarization dynamics, one based on Poincare and the other on Jones vector formalism, are described leading to the notion of polarization time. Specific examples of partially temporally coherent electromagnetic beams are discussed. (Author)

  4. New interval forecast for stationary autoregressive models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we proposed a new forecasting interval for stationary Autoregressive, AR(p) models using the Akaike information criterion (AIC) function. Ordinarily, the AIC function is used to determine the order of an AR(p) process. In this study however, AIC forecast interval compared favorably with the theoretical forecast ...

  5. Stone Stability under Stationary Nonuniform Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, Remco; Hofland, B.; Paarlberg, Andries; Smale, Alfons; Huthoff, Fredrik; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.

    2016-01-01

    A stability parameter for rock in bed protections under nonuniform stationary flow is derived. The influence of the mean flow velocity, turbulence, and mean acceleration of the flow are included explicitly in the parameter. The relatively new notion of explicitly incorporating the mean acceleration

  6. What is "stationary" deformation of pure Cu?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blum, W.; Dvořák, Jiří; Král, Petr; Eisenlohr, P.; Sklenička, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 8 (2014), s. 2987-2997 ISSN 0022-2461 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/2260 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : creep * Cu * recrystallization * stationary deformation resistances Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.371, year: 2014

  7. Stationary-State Mutagenesis in Escherichia coli

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stationary-phase mutagenesis in nondividing E. coli cells exposed to a nonlethal stress was, a few years ago, claimed to be a likely case of a Lamarckian mechanism capable of producing exclusively useful mutations in a directed manner. After a heated debate over the last decade it now appears to involve a Darwinian ...

  8. Simulation of stationary sheet metal cutting processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.H.; Huetink, Han

    1998-01-01

    In stationary sheet metal cutting processes, like guillotining and slitting, the sheet is cut progressively from one end to the other. This in contrary with transient processes (blanking) where the sheet is cut at once. Where transient shearing processes can be modelled in 2-D (plain strain or

  9. Learning Markov models for stationary system behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yingke; Mao, Hua; Jaeger, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    to a single long observation sequence, and in these situations existing automatic learning methods cannot be applied. In this paper, we adapt algorithms for learning variable order Markov chains from a single observation sequence of a target system, so that stationary system properties can be verified using...

  10. The stationary states of interacting fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frazer, W.R.; Hove, Léon van

    1958-01-01

    As an application of a time-independent perturbation formalism developed earlier for systems with many degrees of freedom, we give in terms of diagrams the general perturbation expressions for the exact stationary states of interacting fields. The physical vacuum is obtained by applying to the bare

  11. An experimental stationary quadrotor with variable DOF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unmanned air vehicles (UAV) and especially quadrotors have drawn great attention in recent years because of their maneuverability, ease of design and control. Most of the works concentrate mostly on control; yet, design and communication are also some sub-topics. In this research, a stationary, four rotor air vehicle with ...

  12. Calendar Year 2016 Stationary Source Emissions Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The City of Albuquerque (COA) Environmental Health Department Air Quality Program has issued stationary source permits and registrations the Department of Energy/Sandia Field Office for operations at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. This emission inventory report meets the annual reporting compliance requirements for calendar year (CY) 2016 as required by the COA.

  13. Stationary thermal convection in a viscoelastic ferrofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laroze, D., E-mail: david.laroze@gmail.co [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, D 55021 Mainz (Germany); Instituto de Alta Investigacion, Universidad de Tarapaca, Casilla 7D, Arica (Chile); Martinez-Mardones, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Perez, L.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. Bernardo OHiggins 3363, Santiago (Chile); Rojas, R.G. [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2010-11-15

    We report theoretical and numerical results on convection for a magnetic fluid in a viscoelastic carrier liquid. We focus in the stationary convection for idealized boundary conditions. We obtain explicit expressions of convective thresholds in terms of the control parameters of the system. Close to bifurcation, the coefficients of the corresponding amplitude equation are determined analytically. Finally, the secondary instabilities are performed.

  14. Mathematical Modeling of Partial-Porous Circular Cylinders with Water Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Su Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of water waves with partially porous-surfaced circular cylinders was investigated. A three-dimensional numerical modeling was developed based on the complete mathematical formulation of the eigenfunction expansion method in the potential flow. Darcy’s law was applied to describe the porous boundary. The partial-porous cylinder is composed of a porous-surfaced body near the free surface, and an impermeable-surfaced body with an end-capped rigid bottom below the porous region. The optimal ratio of the porous portion to the impermeable portion can be adopted to design an effective ocean structure with minimal hydrodynamic impact. To scrutinize the hydrodynamic interactions in N partial-porous circular cylinders, the computational fluid domain is divided into three regions: an exterior region, N inner porous body regions, and N regions beneath the body. Wave excitation forces and wave run-up on multibodied partial-porous cylinders are calculated and compared for various porous-portion ratios and wave conditions, all of which significantly influence the hydrodynamic property.

  15. Multiparametric Porous Silicon Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pavesi

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the possibility of using several sensing parameters from porous silicon in order to improve gas selectivity. By fabricating porous silicon optical microcavities, three independent quantities can be measured, i.e. the electrical conductance, the photoluminescence intensity, and the wavelength of the optical resonance. We monitored the change of these three parameters as a function of NO2 (0.5-5 ppm, ethanol (300-15000 ppm and relative humidity (0-100%. Preliminary results confirm that the examined species affect the parameters in a different way, both as a relative change and as dynamic.

  16. Hydrodynamic dispersion within porous biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davit, Y; Byrne, H; Osborne, J; Pitt-Francis, J; Gavaghan, D; Quintard, M

    2013-01-01

    Many microorganisms live within surface-associated consortia, termed biofilms, that can form intricate porous structures interspersed with a network of fluid channels. In such systems, transport phenomena, including flow and advection, regulate various aspects of cell behavior by controlling nutrient supply, evacuation of waste products, and permeation of antimicrobial agents. This study presents multiscale analysis of solute transport in these porous biofilms. We start our analysis with a channel-scale description of mass transport and use the method of volume averaging to derive a set of homogenized equations at the biofilm-scale in the case where the width of the channels is significantly smaller than the thickness of the biofilm. We show that solute transport may be described via two coupled partial differential equations or telegrapher's equations for the averaged concentrations. These models are particularly relevant for chemicals, such as some antimicrobial agents, that penetrate cell clusters very slowly. In most cases, especially for nutrients, solute penetration is faster, and transport can be described via an advection-dispersion equation. In this simpler case, the effective diffusion is characterized by a second-order tensor whose components depend on (1) the topology of the channels' network; (2) the solute's diffusion coefficients in the fluid and the cell clusters; (3) hydrodynamic dispersion effects; and (4) an additional dispersion term intrinsic to the two-phase configuration. Although solute transport in biofilms is commonly thought to be diffusion dominated, this analysis shows that hydrodynamic dispersion effects may significantly contribute to transport.

  17. Double diffusion in arbitrary porous cavity: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, N. Ameer; Kamangar, Sarfaraz; Salman Ahmed N., J.; Soudagar, Manzoor Elahi M.; Khan, T. M. Yunus

    2017-07-01

    Heat and mass transfer in porous medium is one of the fundamental topics of interest. The present article is dedicated to study the effect of a small block placed at center of left vertical surface of the cavity. The block is maintained at isothermal temperature That three of its edges attached with porous medium. The left surface of cavity is maintained at highest concentration and right surface at lowest concentration. The right surface of cavity is at cold isothermal temperature Tc. Governing equations are converted into matrix form of equations with the help of finite element method and solved iteratively by using a computer code generated in MATLAB.

  18. Exploitation of a microporous organic polymer as a stationary phase for capillary gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cuiming; Liu, Shuqin; Xu, Jianqiao; Ding, Yajuan; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Microporous organic polymers (MOPs) have emerged as a new class of functional porous materials with unique characteristics and potential uses in diverse areas. However, the field of MOPs for gas chromatographic (GC) separations has not been well explored. Herein, a MOP namely KAPs-1 was dynamic coated onto a capillary column for the first time. The fabricated column exhibited a nonpolar nature and the column efficiency for n-dodecane was up to 7769 plates m(-1). The KAPs-1 coated column showed high GC separation performance for a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including the challenging ethylbenzene and xylene isomers, which could not be resolved at baseline on the commercial 5% phenyl polysiloxane stationary phase. Moreover, the relative standard deviations for five replicate determinations of the studied analytes were 0.0-0.6%, 0.9-3.2%, 1.1-5.9%, 0.8-3.7% for retention time, peak area, peak height and peak width, respectively. To investigate the interaction between some analytes and the stationary phase, thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were also evaluated. The results of this study show it is very promising to utilize MOPs as stationary phases for capillary GC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrospun porous structure fibrous film with high oil adsorption capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Nü; Wang, Li; Dong, Hua; Zhao, Yong; Jiang, Lei

    2012-06-27

    A low-cost, high-oil-adsorption film consisting of polystyrene (PS) fibers is fabricated by a facile electrospinning method. Different fiber diameter and porous fiber's surface morphology play roles in oil adsorption capacity and oil/water selectivity. The results showed that oil adsorption capacity of PS oil sorbent film with small diameter and porous surface structure for diesel oil, silicon oil, peanut oil and motor oil were approximate to 7.13, 81.40, 112.30, and 131.63 g/g, respectively. It was higher than normal fibrous sorbent without any porous structure. The thinner porous PS oil sorbent also had excellent oil/water selectivity in the cleanup of oil from water.

  20. Double diffusion in arbitrary porous cavity: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, N. Ameer; Soudagar, Manzoor Elahi M.; Badruddin, Irfan Anjum

    2017-07-01

    Double diffusion refers to the heat and mass transfer that takes place simultaneously. The current work highlights the double diffusion when a solid block is placed at the bottom of a square porous cavity. The whole cavity is filed with saturated porous medium except the small block placed at the bottom left corner of the domain. The left vertical surface of porous cavity is maintained at concentration Ch and right vertical surface possesses lowest concentration Cc in the porous domain. The results are discussed in terms of isotherms, iso-concentration and streamlines inside the domain for various physical parameters. It is seen that the mass transfer is substantially different in present case as compared to the case of natural convection.

  1. Low-cost composites based on porous titania–apatite surfaces for the removal of patent blue V from water: Effect of chemical structure of dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. El Bekkali

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite/titania nanocomposites (TiHAp were synthesized from a mixture of a titanium alkoxide solution and dissolution products of a Moroccan natural phosphate. The simultaneous gelation and precipitation processes occurring at room temperature led to the formation of TiHAp nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction results indicated that hydroxyapatite and anatase (TiO2 were the major crystalline phases. The specific surface area of the nanocomposites increased with the TiO2 content. Resulting TiHAp powders were assessed for the removal of the patent blue V dye from water. Kinetic experiments suggested that a sequence of adsorption and photodegradation is responsible for discoloration of dye solutions. These results suggest that such hydroxyapatite/titania nanocomposites constitute attractive low-cost materials for the removal of dyes from industrial textile effluent.

  2. Hydrogen storage by physisorption on porous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panella, B.

    2006-09-13

    A great challenge for commercializing hydrogen powered vehicles is on-board hydrogen storage using economic and secure systems. A possible solution is hydrogen storage in light-weight solid materials. Here three principle storage mechanisms can be distinguished: i) absorption of hydrogen in metals ii) formation of compounds with ionic character, like complex hydrides and iii) physisorption (or physical adsorption) of hydrogen molecules on porous materials. Physical adsorption exhibits several advantages over chemical hydrogen storage as for example the complete reversibility and the fast kinetics. Two classes of porous materials were investigated for physical hydrogen storage, i.e. different carbon nanostructures and crystalline metal-organic frameworks possessing extremely high specific surface area. Hydrogen adsorption isotherms were measured using a Sieverts' apparatus both at room temperature and at 77 K at pressures up to the saturation regime. Additionally, the adsorption sites of hydrogen in these porous materials were identified using thermal desorption spectroscopy extended to very low temperatures (down to 20 K). Furthermore, the adsorbed hydrogen phase was studied in various materials using Raman spectroscopy at different pressures and temperatures. The results show that the maximum hydrogen storage capacity of porous materials correlates linearly with the specific surface area and is independent of structure and composition. In addition the pore structure of the adsorbent plays an important role for hydrogen storage since the adsorption sites for H2 could be assigned to pores possessing different dimensions. Accordingly it was shown that small pores are necessary to reach high storage capacities already at low pressures. This new understanding may help to tailor and optimize new porous materials for hydrogen storage. (orig.)

  3. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Tran, Tri D.; Feikert, John H.; Mayer, Steven T.

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  4. Stability of stationary and periodic solutions equations in Banach space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ya. Dorogovtsev

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear difference and differential equations with operator coefficients and random stationary (periodic input are considered. Conditions are presented for the mean stability of stationary (periodic solutions under small perturbation of the coefficients.

  5. Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This revision of the 2011 report, Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources, evaluates biogenic CO2 emissions from stationary sources, including a detailed study of the scientific and technical issues associated with assessing biogenic carbon dioxide...

  6. Moisture Sorption in Porous Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    2007-01-01

    pressure and weight data can be "translated" to pore geometry by known physical relationships. In this context, analytical descriptions are important which can relate moisture condensation in pore structures to ambient vapor pressure. Such a description, the extended BET-relation, is presented...... physical parameters, the so-called BET-parameters: The heat property factor, C, and the pore surface, SBET (derived from the so-called uni-molecular moisture content uBET). A software ‘SORP07’ has been developed to handle any calculations made in the paper. For readers who have a special interest...... in the subject considered this software is available on request to the author. Keywords: Porous materials, moisture, adsorption, desorption, BET-parameters....

  7. Colloid-templated multisectional porous polymeric fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jung Hun; Kretzschmar, Ilona

    2008-10-07

    A fabrication method for porous polymeric fibers (PPFs) is reported. We show that a multisectional colloidal crystal can be assembled within a microcapillary by alternating dipping into colloidal solutions of varying size. Subsequent infiltration with curable polymer and washing with suitable solvents results in porous fibers with a cylindrical cross section. Along the length of the fiber, alternating sections of controlled length, pore size, and pore size distribution exist. These fibers present interesting materials for neural scaffolding, catalysis, and possibly photonics if produced with a high degree of crystallinity. The surface pores and bulk porosity of the fibers are characterized by variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (vp-SEM). Careful analysis shows that the surface pores vary with the colloidal template diameter and polymer infiltration time.

  8. Stationary populations with below-replacement fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Schmertmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A population with sustained below-replacement fertility and constant immigration eventually becomes stationary. Stationary-through-immigration (SI populations have unusual age structures that depend on the distribution of immigrants' arrival ages. OBJECTIVE I summarize known formal relationships between the distribution of immigrants' entry ages and the long-run size and structure of SI populations. I clarify a previously published result about SI dependency ratios. RESULTS The long-run size and age structure of an SI population depend on the remaining life expectancies of arriving immigrants, but are also sensitive to the expected numbers of native children born after arrival. Numerical calculations with contemporary Austrian data show (1 contrary to previously published results, immigration flows need not be concentrated in early working ages in order to ensure low overall dependency, and (2 the SI dependency ratio is minimized when all immigrants are in their mid-30s.

  9. Performance characteristics of porous alumina ceramic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latella, B.A.; Liu, T.

    2000-01-01

    Porous ceramics have found a wide range of applications as filters for liquids and gases. The suitability of materials for use in these types of applications depends on the microstructure (grain size, pore size and pore volume fraction) and hence the mechanical and thermal properties. In this study alumina ceramics with different levels of porosity and controlled pore sizes were fabricated and the surface damage and fracture properties were examined. Copyright (2000) The Australian Ceramic Society

  10. Minimal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Sauvigny, Friedrich; Jakob, Ruben; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    Minimal Surfaces is the first volume of a three volume treatise on minimal surfaces (Grundlehren Nr. 339-341). Each volume can be read and studied independently of the others. The central theme is boundary value problems for minimal surfaces. The treatise is a substantially revised and extended version of the monograph Minimal Surfaces I, II (Grundlehren Nr. 295 & 296). The first volume begins with an exposition of basic ideas of the theory of surfaces in three-dimensional Euclidean space, followed by an introduction of minimal surfaces as stationary points of area, or equivalently

  11. On the Onset of Thermal Convection in a Layer of Oldroydian Visco-Elastic Fluid Saturated by Brinkman–Darcy Porous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chand Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal instability in a horizontal layer of Oldroydian visco-elastic fluid in a porous medium is investigated. For porous medium the Brinkman–Darcy model is considered. A linear stability analysis based upon perturbation method and normal mode technique is used to find solution of the fluid layer confined between two free-free boundaries. The onset criterion for stationary and oscillatory convection is derived analytically. The influence of the Brinkman–Darcy, Prandtl–Darcy number, stress relaxation parameter on the stationary and oscillatory convection is studied both analytically and graphically. The sufficient condition for the validity of PES has also been derived.

  12. Stationary Anonymous Sequential Games with Undiscounted Rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Więcek, Piotr; Altman, Eitan

    Stationary anonymous sequential games with undiscounted rewards are a special class of games that combine features from both population games (infinitely many players) with stochastic games. We extend the theory for these games to the cases of total expected reward as well as to the expected average reward. We show that in the anonymous sequential game equilibria correspond to the limits of those of related finite population games as the number of players grows to infinity. We provide examples to illustrate our results.

  13. Covariance matrix estimation for stationary time series

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Han; Wu, Wei Biao

    2011-01-01

    We obtain a sharp convergence rate for banded covariance matrix estimates of stationary processes. A precise order of magnitude is derived for spectral radius of sample covariance matrices. We also consider a thresholded covariance matrix estimator that can better characterize sparsity if the true covariance matrix is sparse. As our main tool, we implement Toeplitz [Math. Ann. 70 (1911) 351–376] idea and relate eigenvalues of covariance matrices to the spectral densities or Fourier transforms...

  14. Reduction of Stationary Clutter in Radar,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-30

    coded passive interference (which consists of indivi- dual dipole packets dropped at certain intervals [2.30] and other stationary clutter present in...1958. 2.9. Cliquot, R. The band L radars of "type Orly". L’Onde Electrique , May 1961. 2.10. Decca Air Surveillance Radar DASR-! (Company catalogue...artificial obstacles in the form of a cloud of dipoles tuned 104 to the radar wavelength. As in the previous paragraph we will limit ourselves to a brief

  15. 30 CFR 77.401 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.401 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than special bit grinders shall be equipped with...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1723 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. 75.1723 Section 75.1723 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1723 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than...

  17. 30 CFR 56.14115 - Stationary grinding machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines. 56.14115 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14115 Stationary grinding machines. Stationary grinding machines, other than special bit grinders, shall be equipped with— (a) Peripheral hoods capable of...

  18. 30 CFR 57.14115 - Stationary grinding machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines. 57.14115 Section... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14115 Stationary grinding machines. Stationary grinding machines, other than special bit grinders, shall be equipped with— (a) Peripheral hoods...

  19. Backset-stationary and during car driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Bertil; Stenlund, Hans; Björnstig, Ulf

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to measure and analyze backset, defined as the horizontal distance between the back of the occupant's head and a point located on the ventral/top aspect of the sewn rim of the head restraint, with the car stationary and during driving, in the driver's position in a modern car. A population of 65 subjects, 35 males and 30 females, was studied in a Volvo V70 car, model year 2007. The subjects were studied in the driver's position, in a self-selected posture. Stationary backset was measured with the technique described by Jonsson et al. (2007) and backset during driving with video analysis. Descriptive data were calculated, and variability and correlation analyses were performed. A t-test was used to test differences of means. Significance level was set to 0.05. In comparison to stationary backset, mean backset during driving was 43 mm greater in males and 41 mm greater in females. Driving backset was 44 mm larger in males than in females. Driving backset was moderately correlated (0.37-0.43) to stature, seated height, and seat back angle in males and moderately correlated (0.44-0.52) to hip width, waist circumference, and weight in females. The overall intraclass correlation coefficient for backset during driving was 0.81 (CI: 0.75-0.86). These results may be of use in designing future updates of test protocols/routines for geometric backset, such as RCAR and RCAR-IIWPG.

  20. Stationary stochastic processes theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lindgren, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Some Probability and Process BackgroundSample space, sample function, and observablesRandom variables and stochastic processesStationary processes and fieldsGaussian processesFour historical landmarksSample Function PropertiesQuadratic mean propertiesSample function continuityDerivatives, tangents, and other characteristicsStochastic integrationAn ergodic resultExercisesSpectral RepresentationsComplex-valued stochastic processesBochner's theorem and the spectral distributionSpectral representation of a stationary processGaussian processesStationary counting processesExercisesLinear Filters - General PropertiesLinear time invariant filtersLinear filters and differential equationsWhite noise in linear systemsLong range dependence, non-integrable spectra, and unstable systemsThe ARMA-familyLinear Filters - Special TopicsThe Hilbert transform and the envelopeThe sampling theoremKarhunen-Loève expansionClassical Ergodic Theory and MixingThe basic ergodic theorem in L2Stationarity and transformationsThe ergodic th...

  1. On Non-Stationary One-Dimensional Porous Flow in Coarse Granular Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Christensen, Claus

    Traditionally the hydrodynamic response of rubble mound structures are studied in physical models scaled according to the Froude scaling law which neglects viscous forces. This introduces scale effect because the inherent length scaling of the stone diameters creates laminar flow in the regions...... which in prototypes are dominated by turbulent flow. Numerical modelling of the flow do not have this draw back and is therefore attractive....

  2. Towards high capacity latex-coated porous polymer monoliths as ion-exchange stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Joseph P; Hilder, Emily F; Shellie, Robert A; Smith, Jason A; Haddad, Paul R

    2006-02-01

    The preparation of high capacity agglomerated monolithic ion-exchangers for capillary ion chromatography is described. Post-modification of reactive monoliths was investigated as an alternative to co-polymerisation of a suitable functional monomer with an overarching goal of increasing ion-exchange capacity. Direct sulfonation of poly styrene-co-divinyl benzene monoliths using concentrated sulfuric acid or chlorosulfonic acid was unsuccessful even for monoliths containing as low as 8% crosslinker. In contrast, chemical transformation of reactive monoliths containing glycidyl methacrylate was used to increase the ion-exchange capacity by up to more than thirty-fold with ion exchange capacities of 14-29 microequiv g(-1) achieved. Three different reactions were considered, including reaction with 4-hydroxybenenesulfonic acid under basic conditions; reaction with thiobenzoic acid followed by transformation to a reactive thiol and the subsequent oxidation to the sulfonic acid; and direct sulfonation with sodium sulfite. Of these, the reaction with sodium sulfite resulted in the most significant increase in the capacity and the best separation performance. In the isocratic mode separation efficiencies of over 13,500 plates m(-1) were observed (for iodate). The separation of seven inorganic anions was also demonstrated using a hydroxide gradient.

  3. Enhancing the Properties of Carbon and Gold Substrates by Surface Modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnisch, Jennifer Anne [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The properties of both carbon and gold substrates are easily affected by the judicious choice of a surface modification protocol. Several such processes for altering surface composition have been published in literature. The research presented in this thesis primarily focuses on the development of on-column methods to modify carbon stationary phases used in electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC). To this end, both porous graphitic carbon (PGC) and glassy carbon (GC) particles have been modified on-column by the electroreduction of arenediazonium salts and the oxidation of arylacetate anions (the Kolbe reaction). Once modified, the carbon stationary phases show enhanced chromatographic performance both in conventional liquid chromatographic columns and EMLC columns. Additionally, one may also exploit the creation of aryl films to by electroreduction of arenediazonium salts in the creation of nanostructured materials. The formation of mercaptobenzene film on the surface of a GC electrode provides a linking platform for the chemisorption of gold nanoparticles. After deposition of nanoparticles, the surface chemistry of the gold can be further altered by self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formation via the chemisorption of a second thiol species. Finally, the properties of gold films can be altered such that they display carbon-like behavior through the formation of benzenehexathiol (BHT) SAMs. BHT chemisorbs to the gold surface in a previously unprecedented planar fashion. Carbon and gold substrates can be chemically altered by several methodologies resulting in new surface properties. The development of modification protocols and their application in the analytical arena is considered herein.

  4. Porous Materials from Thermally Activated Kaolinite: Preparation, Characterization and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Jiang, Tao; Li, Guanghui; Peng, Zhiwei; Rao, Mingjun; Zhang, Yuanbo

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, porous alumina/silica materials were prepared by selective leaching of silicon/aluminum constituents from thermal-activated kaolinite in inorganic acid or alkali liquor. The correlations between the characteristics of the prepared porous materials and the dissolution properties of activated kaolinite were also investigated. The results show that the specific surface area (SSA) of porous alumina/silica increases with silica/alumina dissolution, but without marked change of the BJH pore size. Furthermore, change in pore volume is more dependent on activation temperature. The porous alumina and silica obtained from alkali leaching of kaolinite activated at 1150 °C for 15 min and acid leaching of kaolinite activated at 850 °C for 15 min are mesoporous, with SSAs, BJH pore sizes and pore volumes of 55.8 m2/g and 280.3 m2/g, 6.06 nm and 3.06 nm, 0.1455 mL/g and 0.1945 mL/g, respectively. According to the adsorption tests, porous alumina has superior adsorption capacities for Cu2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+ compared with porous silica and activated carbon. The maximum capacities of porous alumina for Cu2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+ are 134 mg/g, 183 mg/g and 195 mg/g, respectively, at 30 °C. PMID:28773002

  5. Multifunctional substrates of thin porous alumina for cell biosensors

    KAUST Repository

    Toccafondi, Chiara

    2014-02-27

    We have fabricated anodic porous alumina from thin films (100/500 nm) of aluminium deposited on technological substrates of silicon/glass, and investigated the feasibility of this material as a surface for the development of analytical biosensors aiming to assess the status of living cells. To this goal, porous alumina surfaces with fixed pitch and variable pore size were analyzed for various functionalities. Gold coated (about 25 nm) alumina revealed surface enhanced Raman scattering increasing with the decrease in wall thickness, with factor up to values of approximately 104 with respect to the flat gold surface. Bare porous alumina was employed for micro-patterning and observation via fluorescence images of dye molecules, which demonstrated the surface capability for a drug-loading device. NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells were cultured in vitro and examined after 2 days since seeding, and no significant (P > 0.05) differences in their proliferation were observed on porous and non-porous materials. The effect on cell cultures of pore size in the range of 50–130 nm—with pore pitch of about 250 nm—showed no significant differences in cell viability and similar levels in all cases as on a control substrate. Future work will address combination of all above capabilities into a single device.

  6. Homogenization and two scales convergence of some stationary and non-stationary heat transfer problems, application to gas cooled nuclear rectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibi, Z.

    2011-01-01

    We are interested in the homogenization of heat transfer in periodic porous media modelling the geometry of a gas cooled nuclear reactor. This geometry is made of a solid media perforated by several long thin parallel cylinders, the diameter of which is of the same order than the period. The heat is transported by conduction in the solid part of the domain and by conduction, convection and radiative transfer in the fluid part (the cylinders). A non-local boundary condition models the radiative heat transfer on the cylinder walls. It is a stationary analysis corresponding to a nominal performance of the reactor core, and also non-stationary corresponding to a normal shut-down of the core. To obtain the homogenized problem we first use a formal two-scale asymptotic expansion method. The mathematical justification of our results is based on the notion of two-scale convergence. One feature of this work in dimension 3 is that it combines homogenization with a 3D to 2D asymptotic analysis since the radiative transfer in the limit cell problem is purely two-dimensional. A second feature of this work is the study of this heat transfer when it contains an oscillating thermal source at the microscopic level and a thermal exchange with the perforations. In this context, our numerical analysis shows a non-negligible contribution of the second order corrector which helps us to model the gradients appearing between the source area and the perforations. (author) [fr

  7. Evaluation of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography stationary phases for analysis of opium alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Mohsen; Taheri, Mohammadreza; Farhadpour, Mohsen; Rezadoost, Hassan; Ghassempour, Alireza; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2017-08-18

    The separation of a mixture containing five major opium alkaloids, namely morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine and papaverine has been investigated in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode using five different stationary phases: bare silica, zwitterion, aminopropyl, diol and cyanopropyl. In order to propose the appropriate column for separation and purification, retention behaviors of the five natural opioids have been studied on mentioned HILIC stationary phases. The mechanism of separation in diverse HILIC media, based on the formation of water-rich layer on surface of the HILIC stationary phases and the physicochemical properties of opium alkaloids, such as pKa (acidic pK) and the octanol-water distribution coefficient (log Do/w) are discussed. Chromatographic responses including modified limit of detection LOD m , signal to noise ratio (S/N) m , and defined modified R Sm have considered for suggestion of the suitable column for quantitative/qualitative and preparative purposes. According to the obtained results, diol stationary phase is best suited for analytical chromatography, whereas bare silica and zwitterionic stationary phases are appropriate for preparative applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Convection in Porous Media

    CERN Document Server

    Nield, Donald A

    2013-01-01

    Convection in Porous Media, 4th Edition, provides a user-friendly introduction to the subject, covering a wide range of topics, such as fibrous insulation, geological strata, and catalytic reactors. The presentation is self-contained, requiring only routine mathematics and the basic elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer. The book will be of use not only to researchers and practicing engineers as a review and reference, but also to graduate students and others entering the field. The new edition features approximately 1,750 new references and covers current research in nanofluids, cellular porous materials, strong heterogeneity, pulsating flow, and more. Recognized as the standard reference in the field Includes a comprehensive, 250-page reference list Cited over 2300 times to date in its various editions Serves as an introduction for those entering the field and as a comprehensive reference for experienced researchers Features new sections on nanofluids, carbon dioxide sequestration, and applications...

  9. Ultrafine-grained porous titanium and porous titanium/magnesium composites fabricated by space holder-enabled severe plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Yuanshen, E-mail: yuanshen.qi@monash.edu [Centre for Advanced Hybrid Materials, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Contreras, Karla G. [Monash Institute of Medical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Jung, Hyun-Do [Liquid Processing & Casting Technology R& D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoun-Ee [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Gwanggyo, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Lapovok, Rimma [Centre for Advanced Hybrid Materials, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Estrin, Yuri, E-mail: yuri.estrin@monash.edu [Centre for Advanced Hybrid Materials, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Laboratory of Hybrid Nanostructured Materials, NUST MISiS, Moscow 119490 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-01

    Compaction of powders by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) using a novel space holder method was employed to fabricate metallic scaffolds with tuneable porosity. Porous Ti and Ti/Mg composites with 60% and 50% percolating porosity were fabricated using powder blends with two kinds of sacrificial space holders. The high compressive strength and good ductility of porous Ti and porous Ti/Mg obtained in this way are believed to be associated with the ultrafine grain structure of the pore walls. To understand this, a detailed electron microscopy investigation was employed to analyse the interface between Ti/Ti and Ti/Mg particles, the grain structures in Ti particles and the topography of pore surfaces. It was found that using the proposed compaction method, high quality bonding between particles was obtained. Comparing with other powder metallurgy methods to fabricate Ti with an open porous structure, where thermal energy supplied by a laser beam or high temperature sintering is essential, the ECAP process conducted at a relatively low temperature of 400 °C was shown to produce unique properties. - Highlights: • Porous Ti and porous Ti/Mg composite scaffolds were fabricated successfully. • Space holder-enabled severe plastic deformation was first used in this application. • Silicon particles as sacrificial space holders were used for the first time. • Ultrafine-grained microstructure and good bonding between particles were obtained. • Good preosteoblast cell response to as-manufactured porous Ti was achieved.

  10. Ultrafine-grained porous titanium and porous titanium/magnesium composites fabricated by space holder-enabled severe plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Yuanshen; Contreras, Karla G.; Jung, Hyun-Do; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Lapovok, Rimma; Estrin, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Compaction of powders by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) using a novel space holder method was employed to fabricate metallic scaffolds with tuneable porosity. Porous Ti and Ti/Mg composites with 60% and 50% percolating porosity were fabricated using powder blends with two kinds of sacrificial space holders. The high compressive strength and good ductility of porous Ti and porous Ti/Mg obtained in this way are believed to be associated with the ultrafine grain structure of the pore walls. To understand this, a detailed electron microscopy investigation was employed to analyse the interface between Ti/Ti and Ti/Mg particles, the grain structures in Ti particles and the topography of pore surfaces. It was found that using the proposed compaction method, high quality bonding between particles was obtained. Comparing with other powder metallurgy methods to fabricate Ti with an open porous structure, where thermal energy supplied by a laser beam or high temperature sintering is essential, the ECAP process conducted at a relatively low temperature of 400 °C was shown to produce unique properties. - Highlights: • Porous Ti and porous Ti/Mg composite scaffolds were fabricated successfully. • Space holder-enabled severe plastic deformation was first used in this application. • Silicon particles as sacrificial space holders were used for the first time. • Ultrafine-grained microstructure and good bonding between particles were obtained. • Good preosteoblast cell response to as-manufactured porous Ti was achieved.

  11. A Study Of Magnetic Fluid Based Squeeze Film Between Porous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efforts have been made to study and analyze the effect of surface roughness on the performance of magnetic fluid based squeeze film between porous elliptic plates. The transverse roughness of the bearing surface is characterized by a stochastic random variable with non-zero mean, variance and skewness.

  12. Application of porous materials for laminar flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Fairly smooth porous materials were elected for study Doweave; Fibermetal; Dynapore; and perforated titanium sheet. Factors examined include: surface smoothness; suction characteristics; porosity; surface impact resistance; and strain compatibility. A laminar flow control suction glove arrangement was identified with material combinations compatible with thermal expansion and structural strain.

  13. Porous polymer networks and ion-exchange media and metal-polymer composites made therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Katsoulidis, Alexandros

    2016-10-18

    Porous polymeric networks and composite materials comprising metal nanoparticles distributed in the polymeric networks are provided. Also provided are methods for using the polymeric networks and the composite materials in liquid- and vapor-phase waste remediation applications. The porous polymeric networks, are highly porous, three-dimensional structures characterized by high surface areas. The polymeric networks comprise polymers polymerized from aldehydes and phenolic molecules.

  14. Porous Structure Characterization in Titanium Coating for Surgical Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Oliveira

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Powder metallurgy techniques have been used to produce controlled porous structures, such as the porous coatings applied for dental and orthopedic surgical implants, which allow bony tissue ingrowth within the implant surface improving fixation. This work presents the processing and characterization of titanium porous coatings of different porosity levels, processed through powder metallurgy techniques. Pure titanium sponge powders were used for coating and Ti-6Al7Nb powder metallurgy rods were used as substrates. Characterization was made through quantitative metallographic image analysis using optical light microscope for coating porosity data and SEM analysis for evaluation of the coating/substrate interface integrity. The results allowed optimization of the processing parameters in order to obtain porous coatings that meet the requirements for use as implants.

  15. Comparison of porosity measurement techniques for porous titanium scaffolds evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.V.; Ribeiro, A.A.; Moreira, A.C.; Moraes, A.M.C.; Appoloni, C.R.; Pereira, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    Porous titanium has been used for grafts and implant coatings as it allows the mechanical interlocking of the pores and bone. Evaluation of porous scaffolds for bone regeneration is essential for their manufacture. Porosity, pore size, pore shape and pore homogeneity are parameters that influence strongly the mechanical strength and biological functionality. In this study, porous titanium samples were manufactured by powder metallurgy by using pure titanium powders mixed with a pore former. The quantification of the porosity parameters was assessed in this work by geometric method and gamma-ray transmission, the non-destructive techniques and metallographic images processing, a destructive technique. Qualitative evaluation of pore morphology and surface topography were performed by scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. The results obtained and the effectiveness of the techniques used were compared in order to select those most suitable for characterization of porous titanium scaffolds. (author)

  16. A parametric study of porous wick in heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Jin; Jun, Sang Ook; Jung, Ji Hun; Kim, Jeong Hwa; Lee, Dong Ho

    2008-01-01

    A Heat pipe which acquires a power by a capillary force has been used to mainly cool heat sources in satellites for long times. Among types of heat pipes, Loop Heat Pipe, Capillary Pumped Loop have usually used porous wicks such as sintered powder and fine wick to circulate a working fluid. These porous wicks have many design variables which affect thermal phenomena such as a capillary driven force, disjoining pressure, drying limitation, boiling limitation, etc. Additionally, Fins connecting an evaporator surface with a porous wick also after thermal characteristics of heat pipe. Especially, a vapor blanket thickness being main variables to decide a wick thickness has to do with fin sizes. Accordingly, understanding design variables' characteristics of porous wicks and fins is important to execute design optimization of heat pipe. In this paper, analytical methods and results will be discussed in terms of parametric study

  17. Hydrodynamic dispersion within porous biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Davit, Y.

    2013-01-23

    Many microorganisms live within surface-associated consortia, termed biofilms, that can form intricate porous structures interspersed with a network of fluid channels. In such systems, transport phenomena, including flow and advection, regulate various aspects of cell behavior by controlling nutrient supply, evacuation of waste products, and permeation of antimicrobial agents. This study presents multiscale analysis of solute transport in these porous biofilms. We start our analysis with a channel-scale description of mass transport and use the method of volume averaging to derive a set of homogenized equations at the biofilm-scale in the case where the width of the channels is significantly smaller than the thickness of the biofilm. We show that solute transport may be described via two coupled partial differential equations or telegrapher\\'s equations for the averaged concentrations. These models are particularly relevant for chemicals, such as some antimicrobial agents, that penetrate cell clusters very slowly. In most cases, especially for nutrients, solute penetration is faster, and transport can be described via an advection-dispersion equation. In this simpler case, the effective diffusion is characterized by a second-order tensor whose components depend on (1) the topology of the channels\\' network; (2) the solute\\'s diffusion coefficients in the fluid and the cell clusters; (3) hydrodynamic dispersion effects; and (4) an additional dispersion term intrinsic to the two-phase configuration. Although solute transport in biofilms is commonly thought to be diffusion dominated, this analysis shows that hydrodynamic dispersion effects may significantly contribute to transport. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  18. Modeling microbial processes in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ellyn M.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    The incorporation of microbial processes into reactive transport models has generally proceeded along two separate lines of investigation: (1) transport of bacteria as inert colloids in porous media, and (2) the biodegradation of dissolved contaminants by a stationary phase of bacteria. Research over the last decade has indicated that these processes are closely linked. This linkage may occur when a change in metabolic activity alters the attachment/detachment rates of bacteria to surfaces, either promoting or retarding bacterial transport in a groundwater-contaminant plume. Changes in metabolic activity, in turn, are controlled by the time of exposure of the microbes to electron acceptors/donor and other components affecting activity. Similarly, metabolic activity can affect the reversibility of attachment, depending on the residence time of active microbes. Thus, improvements in quantitative analysis of active subsurface biota necessitate direct linkages between substrate availability, metabolic activity, growth, and attachment/detachment rates. This linkage requires both a detailed understanding of the biological processes and robust quantitative representations of these processes that can be tested experimentally. This paper presents an overview of current approaches used to represent physicochemical and biological processes in porous media, along with new conceptual approaches that link metabolic activity with partitioning of the microorganism between the aqueous and solid phases. Résumé L'introduction des processus microbiologiques dans des modèles de transport réactif a généralement suivi deux voies différentes de recherches: (1) le transport de bactéries sous forme de colloïdes inertes en milieu poreux, et (2) la biodégradation de polluants dissous par une phase stationnaire de bactéries. Les recherches conduites au cours des dix dernières années indiquent que ces processus sont intimement liés. Cette liaison peut intervenir lorsqu

  19. A stationary digital breast tomosynthesis scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xin; Tucker, Andrew; Gidcumb, Emily; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Spronk, Derrek; Sprenger, Frank; Zhang, Yiheng; Kennedy, Don; Farbizio, Tom; Jing, Zhenxue

    2012-03-01

    A prototype stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (s-DBT) system has been developed by retrofitting a Hologic Selenia Dimension rotating gantry tomosynthesis scanner with a spatially distributed carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array. The goal is to improve the system spatial resolution by removing the x-ray tube motion induced focal spot blurring. The CNT x-ray source array comprises 31 individually addressable x-ray beams covering 30° angular span. Each x-ray beam has a minimum focal spot size of 0.64×0.61mm (full-width-at-half-maximum), a stationary W anode operating up to 50kVp, and 1mm thick Al filter. The flux from each beam is regulated and varied using dedicated control electronics. The maximum tube current is determined by the heat load of the stationary anode and depends on the energy, pulse width and the focal spot size used. Stable operation at 28kVp, 27mA tube current, 250msec pulse width and 38mA tube current, 183msec pulse width per exposure was achieved with extended lifetime. The standard ACR phantom was imaged and analyzed to evaluate the image quality. The actual scanning speed depends on the number of views and the readout time of the x-ray detector. With the present detector, 6 second scanning time at either 15 views or 31 views can be achieved at 100mAs total imaging dose with a detector readout time of 240msec.

  20. The effects of thermal radiation and viscous dissipation on MHD heat and mass diffusion flow past an oscillating vertical plate embedded in a porous medium with variable surface conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is undertaken to study the hydromagnetic flow of a viscous incompressible fluid past an oscillating vertical plate embedded in a porous medium with radiation, viscous dissipation and variable heat and mass diffusion. Governing equations are solved by unconditionally stable explicit finite difference method of DuFort - Frankel’s type for concentration, temperature, vertical velocity field and skin - friction and they are presented graphically for different values of physical parameters involved. It is observed that plate oscillation, variable mass diffusion, radiation, viscous dissipation and porous medium affect the flow pattern significantly.

  1. Porous ceramics out of oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakunov, V.S.; Balkevich, V.L.; Vlasov, A.S.; Guzman, I.Ya.; Lukin, E.S.; Poluboyarinov, D.N.; Poliskij, R.Ya.

    1977-01-01

    A review is made of manufacturing procedures and properties of oxide ceramics intended for high-temperature thermal insulation and thermal protection applications. Presented are structural characteristics of porous oxide refractories and their properties. Strength and thermal conductivity was shown to depend upon porosity. Described is a procedure for manufacturing porous ceramic materials from aluminium oxide, zirconium dioxide, magnesium oxide, beryllium oxide. The thermal resistance of porous ceramics from BeO is considerably greater than that of other high-refractoriness oxides. Listed are areas of application for porous materials based on oxides

  2. Heavy metal ion adsorption onto polypyrrole-impregnated porous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Moonjung; Jang, Jyongsik

    2008-09-01

    Polypyrrole-impregnated porous carbon was readily synthesized using vapor infiltration polymerization of pyrrole monomers. The results show that the functionalized polymer layer was successfully coated onto the pore surface of carbon without collapse of mesoporous structure. The modified porous carbon exhibited an improved complexation affinity for heavy metal ions such as mercury, lead, and silver ions due to the amine group of polypyrrole. The introduced polypyrrole layer could provide the surface modification to be applied for heavy metal ion adsorbents. Especially, polymer-impregnated porous carbon has an enhanced heavy metal ion uptake, which is 20 times higher than that of adsorbents with amine functional groups. Furthermore, the relationship between the coated polymer amount and surface area was also investigated in regard to adsorption capacity.

  3. Stationary stochastic processes for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Lindgren, Georg; Sandsten, Maria

    2013-01-01

    ""This book is designed for a first course in stationary stochastic processes in science and engineering and does a very good job in introducing many concepts and ideas to students in these fields. … the book has probably been tested in the classroom many times, which also manifests itself in its virtual lack of typos. … Another great feature of the book is that it contains a wealth of worked example from many different fields. These help clarify concepts and theorems and I believe students will appreciate them-I certainly did. … The book is well suited for a one-semester course as it contains

  4. Population inversion in a stationary recombining plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, M.

    1980-01-01

    Population inversion, which occurs in a recombining plasma when a stationary He plasma is brought into contact with a neutral gas, is examined. With hydrogen as a contact gas, noticeable inversion between low-lying levels of H as been found. The overpopulation density is of the order of 10 8 cm -3 , which is much higher then that (approx. =10 5 cm -3 ) obtained previously with He as a contact gas. Relations between these experimental results and the conditions for population inversion are discussed with the CR model

  5. Modelling of stationary bulk hydrogen storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venter, R.D.; Pucher, G. [Centre for Hydrogen and Electrochemical Studies (CHES), University of Toronto (Canada)

    1997-08-01

    The employment of bulk hydrogen storage systems within industry appears increasingly to be a near-term prospect given the steadily increasing levels of hydrogen production. The current study defines and outlines a cost model through which comparative and informative assessments of different stationary bulk hydrogen storage reservoir types can be made. The reservoir types investigated include: mined salt caverns, depleted natural gas reservoirs and liquid vessels. Using the model, cost of storage for these potential bulk hydrogen containment technologies is estimated and compared in qualitative terms. for similar storage applications. (Author)

  6. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heusler Markus

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has increased in an unexpected way during the last decade. In particular, it has turned out that not all black hole equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro-vacuum black hole space-times ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some of the recent developments and to discuss them in the light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  7. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr T. Chruściel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black-hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has been steadily increasing, sometimes in unexpected ways. In particular, it has turned out that not all black-hole-equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro vacuum black-hole spacetimes ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some developments in the subject and to discuss them in light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  8. SCDAP/RELAP5 Modeling of Heat Transfer and Flow Losses in Lower Head Porous Debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coryell, E.W.; Siefken, L.J.; Paik, S.

    1998-01-01

    Designs are described for implementing models for calculating the heat transfer and flow losses in porous debris in the lower head of a reactor vessel. The COUPLE model in SCDAP/RELAP5 represents both the porous and non-porous debris that results from core material slumping into the lower head. Currently, the COUPLE model has the capability to model convective and radiative heat transfer from the surfaces of non-porous debris in a detailed manner and to model only in a simplistic manner the heat transfer from porous debris. In order to advance beyond the simplistic modeling for porous debris, designs are developed for detailed calculations of heat transfer and flow losses in porous debris. Correlations are identified for convective heat transfer in porous debris for the following modes of heat transfer; (1) forced convection to liquid, (2) forced convection to gas, (3) nucleate boiling, (4) transition boiling, and (5) film boiling. Interphase heat transfer is modeled in an approximate manner. A design is also described for implementing a model of heat transfer by radiation from debris to the interstitial fluid. A design is described for implementation of models for flow losses and interphase drag in porous debris. Since the models for heat transfer and flow losses in porous debris in the lower head are designed for general application, a design is also described for implementation of these models to the analysis of porous debris in the core region. A test matrix is proposed for assessing the capability of the implemented models to calculate the heat transfer and flow losses in porous debris. The implementation of the models described in this report is expected to improve the COUPLE code calculation of the temperature distribution in porous debris and in the lower head that supports the debris. The implementation of these models is also expected to improve the calculation of the temperature and flow distribution in porous debris in the core region

  9. Barometric Pumping of a Fractured Porous Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, P. M.; Mourzenko, V.; Thovert, J. F.; Pili, E.; Guillon, S.

    2014-12-01

    Fluctuations in the ambient atmospheric pressure result in motion of air in porous fractured media. This mechanism, known as barometric pumping, efficiently transports gaseous species through the vadose zone to the atmosphere. This is of interest in fields, such as transport of trace gases from soil to atmosphere, remediation of contaminated sites, radon in buildings, leakage from carbon sequestration sites and detection of nuclear explosions. The fractures are modeled as polygonal plane surfaces with a given transmissivity embedded in a permeable matrix. The slightly compressible fluid obeys Darcy's law in these two media with exchanges between them. The solute obeys convection-diffusion equations in both media again with exchanges. The fractures and the porous medium are meshed by triangles and tetrahedra, respectively. The equations are discretized by the finite volume method. A Flux Limiting Scheme diminishes numerical dispersion ; the solute transfer between the fractures and the porous medium is precisely evaluated. The resulting equations are solved by conjugate gradient algorithms. This model is applied to the Roselend Natural Laboratory. At a 55 m depth, a sealed cavity allows for gas release experiments across fractured porous rocks in the unsaturated zone. The fractures are hexagons with a radius of 5m; their density is larger than 2.4 10-3 m-3; the aperture is about 0.5 mm. The pressure fluctuations are sinusoidal, of amplitude 0.01 bar and period 1 week. The solute concentration is equal to 1 at the bottom. Systematic results will be presented. First, the precision of the calculations is assessed. Second, the pressure and solute concentration fields are displayed and discussed. Third, the influence of the major parameters (fracture density, aperture, porosity, diffusion coefficient,…) is illustrated and discussed. These results are discussed in terms of the amplification of solute transfer to the ground surface by the pressure fluctuations.

  10. 30 CFR 77.703 - Grounding frames of stationary high-voltage equipment receiving power from ungrounded delta systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding frames of stationary high-voltage equipment receiving power from ungrounded delta systems. 77.703 Section 77.703 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY..., SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.703 Grounding frames of...

  11. Gibbsian Stationary Non-equilibrium States

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carlo, Leonardo; Gabrielli, Davide

    2017-09-01

    We study the structure of stationary non-equilibrium states for interacting particle systems from a microscopic viewpoint. In particular we discuss two different discrete geometric constructions. We apply both of them to determine non reversible transition rates corresponding to a fixed invariant measure. The first one uses the equivalence of this problem with the construction of divergence free flows on the transition graph. Since divergence free flows are characterized by cyclic decompositions we can generate families of models from elementary cycles on the configuration space. The second construction is a functional discrete Hodge decomposition for translational covariant discrete vector fields. According to this, for example, the instantaneous current of any interacting particle system on a finite torus can be canonically decomposed in a gradient part, a circulation term and an harmonic component. All the three components are associated with functions on the configuration space. This decomposition is unique and constructive. The stationary condition can be interpreted as an orthogonality condition with respect to an harmonic discrete vector field and we use this decomposition to construct models having a fixed invariant measure.

  12. Concentration and limit behaviors of stationary measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Ji, Min; Liu, Zhenxin; Yi, Yingfei

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study limit behaviors of stationary measures of the Fokker-Planck equations associated with a system of ordinary differential equations perturbed by a class of multiplicative noise including additive white noise case. As the noises are vanishing, various results on the invariance and concentration of the limit measures are obtained. In particular, we show that if the noise perturbed systems admit a uniform Lyapunov function, then the stationary measures form a relatively sequentially compact set whose weak∗-limits are invariant measures of the unperturbed system concentrated on its global attractor. In the case that the global attractor contains a strong local attractor, we further show that there exists a family of admissible multiplicative noises with respect to which all limit measures are actually concentrated on the local attractor; and on the contrary, in the presence of a strong local repeller in the global attractor, there exists a family of admissible multiplicative noises with respect to which no limit measure can be concentrated on the local repeller. Moreover, we show that if there is a strongly repelling equilibrium in the global attractor, then limit measures with respect to typical families of multiplicative noises are always concentrated away from the equilibrium. As applications of these results, an example of stochastic Hopf bifurcation and an example with non-decomposable ω-limit sets are provided. Our study is closely related to the problem of noise stability of compact invariant sets and invariant measures of the unperturbed system.

  13. Stationary two-variable gravitational vortex fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, A.

    1974-01-01

    Some properties of stationary two-variable solutions of the Einstein equations were studied on the basis of rigorous analysis of the nonrelativistic limit of the relativistic gravitation theory. For this case a particular method was developed of determining so-called vortex gravitational fields described by vortex solutions, which in the nonrelativistic limit transform from → infinity to the nonnewtonian type solutions. The main formulae for such fields are derived and a scheme for their calculation is presented. It is shown that under certain conditions the exact stationary solutions of the Papapetrou type for vacuum relativistic equations are vortical. From this fact, first, the presence of particular exact vortical solutions for the Einstein equations is proved, and secondly, a new possibility of a physical interpretation is proposed for the Papapetrou solutions. It is also shown that the nonrelativistic limit of this class of solutions strongly depends on the structure of solution parameters (under certain conditions these solutions may also have the Newtonian limit). 'Multipole' and 'one-variable' partial solutions of the Papapetrou class solution are derived as particular examples of vortical solutions. It is shown that for a specific parameter structure the known NUT solution is also vortical, since it belongs to the Papapetrou class [ru

  14. Impacts into porous asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housen, Kevin R.; Sweet, William J.; Holsapple, Keith A.

    2018-01-01

    Many small bodies in the solar system have bulk density well below the solid density of the constituent mineral grains in their meteorite counterparts. Those low-density bodies undoubtedly have significant porosity, which is a key factor that affects the formation of impact craters. This paper summarizes the results of lab experiments in which materials with porosity ranging from 43% to 96% were impacted at ∼1800 m/s. The experiments were performed on a geotechnical centrifuge, in order to reproduce the lithostatic overburden stress and ejecta ballistics that occur in large-scale cratering events on asteroids or planetary satellites. Experiments performed at various accelerations, up to 514G, simulate the outcomes of impacts at size scales up to several tens of km in diameter. Our experiments show that an impact into a highly porous cohesionless material generates a large ovoid-shaped cavity, due to crushing by the outgoing shock. The cavity opens up to form a transient crater that grows until the material flow is arrested by gravity. The cavity then collapses to form the final crater. During collapse, finely crushed material that lines the cavity wall is carried down and collected in a localized region below the final crater floor. At large simulated sizes (high accelerations), most of the crater volume is formed by compaction, because growth of the transient crater is quickly arrested. Nearly all ejected material falls back into the crater, leaving the crater without an ejecta blanket. We find that such compaction cratering and suppression of the ejecta blankets occur for large craters on porous bodies when the ratio of the lithostatic stress at one crater depth to the crush strength of the target exceeds ∼0.005. The results are used to identify small solar system bodies on which compaction cratering likely occurs. A model is developed that gives the crater size and ejecta mass that would result for a specified impact into a porous object.

  15. Bridging of Liquid Droplets into a Porous Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    When the top of a sessile droplet is brought into contact with an opposing surface, the droplet can transfer to the new surface. Previous reports have characterized the extent and speed of droplet transfer as a function of the surface and droplet properties; however, the two surfaces have always been impermeable. What if the surface receiving the liquid was porous instead? Here, we use side-view high-speed imaging to capture the transfer of liquid from a solid substrate to an opposing porous surface. Variables to consider include the wettability of the donor surface, the porosity and pore size of the receiving surface, and the droplet's volume, viscosity, and surface tension. Generally, the transfer process is split into two regimes: the wetting transition, similar to the wetting of the receiving solid surface in the solid-to-solid transfer, and the wicking transition, where the liquid is pulled into the porous surface. The wetting transition scales with the capillary-inertial velocity for low viscosity fluids and the visco-capillary velocity for viscous fluids, while the wicking transition scales with Darcy's Law. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-17-1-0162).

  16. Core-shell microspheres with porous nanostructured shells for liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Adham; Skinley, Kevin; Herodotou, Stephanie; Zhang, Haifei

    2018-01-01

    The development of new stationary phases has been the key aspect for fast and efficient high-performance liquid chromatography separation with relatively low backpressure. Core-shell particles, with a solid core and porous shell, have been extensively investigated and commercially manufactured in the last decade. The excellent performance of core-shell particles columns has been recorded for a wide range of analytes, covering small and large molecules, neutral and ionic (acidic and basic), biomolecules and metabolites. In this review, we first introduce the advance and advantages of core-shell particles (or more widely known as superficially porous particles) against non-porous particles and fully porous particles. This is followed by the detailed description of various methods used to fabricate core-shell particles. We then discuss the applications of common silica core-shell particles (mostly commercially manufactured), spheres-on-sphere particles and core-shell particles with a non-silica shell. This review concludes with a summary and perspective on the development of stationary phase materials for high-performance liquid chromatography applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Filtration in Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander

    There is a considerable and ongoing effort aimed at understanding the transport and the deposition of suspended particles in porous media, especially non-Fickian transport and non-exponential deposition of particles. In this work, the influential parameters in filtration models are studied...... to understand their effects on the non-Fickian transport and the non-exponential deposition. The filtration models are validated by the comparisons between the modelling results and the experimental data.The elliptic equation with distributed filtration coefficients may be applied to model non-Fickian transport...

  18. Adsorption of uranyl in SiO2 porous glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetto, F. E.; Prado, M. O.

    2013-01-01

    Vitreous SiO 2 porous matrices can be used in many applications involving the uptake of chemical species on its solid surface. In this work, vitreous silica sponges were prepared from a sodium borosilicate glass manufactured in our laboratory. The product obtained was then separated into phases with subsequent leaching of the soluble phase rich in B and Na. The resulting porous matrices have a specific surface of 35 m2/gr. Adsorption of uranyl ions onto the SiO 2 porous surface was studied to evaluate the use of this material as a filter for treatment of uranium containing water. The effects of contact time, adsorbent mass and equilibrium concentration of solution were studied. The porous adsorbent exhibits a pseudo-second-order kinetic behavior. The sponges with adsorbed uranium were thermally sealed as a way of U immobilization. Retention of uranium was confirmed during the matrix sealing by TGA. Uranium concentration before and after adsorption tests were made by means of ICP-OES. For uranium concentration of 800 ppm, 72 hours contact time and pH of 3.5, the amount of uranium adsorbed was 21.06 ± 0.02 mg U per gram of vitreous porous SiO 2 . (author)

  19. Metal-organic framework templated synthesis of porous inorganic materials as novel sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L.; Lin, Wenbin; Abney, Carter W.

    2017-03-21

    A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) templated process for the synthesis of highly porous inorganic sorbents for removing radionuclides, actinides, and heavy metals is disclosed. The highly porous nature of the MOFs leads to highly porous inorganic sorbents (such as oxides, phosphates, sulfides, etc) with accessible surface binding sites that are suitable for removing radionuclides from high level nuclear wastes, extracting uranium from acid mine drainage and seawater, and sequestering heavy metals from waste streams. In some cases, MOFs can be directly used for removing these metal ions as MOFs are converted to highly porous inorganic sorbents in situ.

  20. Porous-ZnO-Nanobelt Film as Recyclable Photocatalysts with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Min

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, the porous-ZnO-nanobelt film was synthesized by oxidizing the ZnSe-nanobelt film in air. The experiment results show that the porous-ZnO-nanobelt film possesses enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with the ZnO-nanobelt film, and can be used as recyclable photocatalysts. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the porous-ZnO-nanobelt film is attributed to the increased surface area. Therefore, turning the 1D-nanostructure film into porous one may be a feasible approach to meet the demand of photocatalyst application.

  1. Preparation of porous LaFeO{sub 3} microspheres and their gas-sensing property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Hongxia; Xue, Cheng; Song, Peng, E-mail: mse_songp@ujn.edu.cn; Li, Jia; Wang, Qi

    2015-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Porous LaFeO{sub 3} microspheres have been successfully synthesized by a convenient and effective hydrothermal method. • The synthesis method has the advantages of controllable fabrication, simple equipment and no additional template. • The mechanism for the formation of porous LaFeO{sub 3} microspheres has been explained in accordance with the Ostwald ripening process. • The as-prepared porous LaFeO{sub 3} microspheres exhibited potential applications in monitoring acetone gas. - Abstract: Porous micro-/nanostructures are of great interest in many current and emerging areas of technology. In this paper, porous microspheres composed of LaFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles were prepared by a convenient and effective method. The obtained microspheres have been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), which confirms the single crystalline orthorhombic structure. By using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), it can be seen that porous LaFeO{sub 3} microspheres with rough surface were assembled from a large amount of interconnected nanoparticles. And transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image has also confirmed their porous feature. A subsequent plausible formation mechanism of porous LaFeO{sub 3} microspheres has been explained in accordance with the Ostwald ripening process. Moreover, gas sensing investigation showed that the sensor based on porous LaFeO{sub 3} microspheres exhibited potential applications in monitoring acetone gas due to their unique morphology and porous structure.

  2. Semi-Analysis for the Pseudo-Colloid Migration of Multi-member Decay Chains in the Fractured Porous Medium with the Flux Boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Mi Seon; Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2010-01-01

    Far-field modeling of radionuclide transport is an important component of general safety assessment studies carried out within the framework of storage of high-level radioactive waste in underground repositories. After a canister failure, radionuclides are leached from the backfilling and penetrate the surrounding bedrock, the final barrier between pollutant and Man's environment. Migration by pure diffusion through a hard tock or clay barrier is a rather slow process. In Fractured porous media, all of the groundwater flow occur within the fractures because fractures have permeabilities of several orders of magnitude larger than those of the rock matrix, if the geological layers are fully saturated with water. So radionuclides dissolved in groundwater will be transported along a fracture with molecular diffusion from the fracture to the rock matrix. Molecular diffusion from the fractures into the porous matrix constitutes an attenuation mechanism that can be highly order to prepare for extreme cases, it is assumed that the pollutants arrive rapidly in a fractured zone where transport takes place at much higher velocities. The specific problem of radionuclide transport through a fractured medium has been tackled by many scientists.According to the electromagnetic interaction between the solute and the colloid, solutes are absorbed by the colloid, and then we are called the pseudo-colloid. The natural colloid can exist inside a fracture with a density of 105 particles per one liter of a liquid. When the radionuclide migrates through a fractured rock, solutes sorb on natural colloids as well as the stationary fracture wall solid surface. Due to natural colloids, whose particle size is larger than that of solutes, colloids can migrate faster than solutes. Therefore, these pseudo-colloids, which are the sorbed solute molecules on the natural colloids, can also migrate faster than the solute. Both the solute and the pseudocolloid are sorbed onto and desorbed from

  3. The application of unattended ground sensors to stationary targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleefe, G.E.; Peglow, S.; Hamrick, R.

    1997-01-01

    The unattended sensing of stationary (i.e. non-mobile) targets is important in applications ranging from counter-proliferation to law enforcement. With stationary targets, sources of seismic, acoustic, and electro-magnetic emissions can potentially be used to detect, identify, and locate the target. Stationary targets have considerably different sensing requirements than the traditional mobile-target unattended ground sensor applications. This paper presents the novel features and requirements of a system for sensing stationary targets. In particular, issues associated with long-listen time signal processing for signal detection, and array processing techniques for signal localization are presented. Example data and signal processing outputs from a stationary target will be used to illustrate these issues. The impact on sensor, electronic signal processing, battery subsystem, and communication requirements will also be discussed. The paper will conclude with a detailed comparison between mobile-target and stationary-target unattended ground sensor architectures

  4. Photoinitiated grafting of porous polymer monoliths and thermoplastic polymers for microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frechet, Jean M. J. [Oakland, CA; Svec, Frantisek [Alameda, CA; Rohr, Thomas [Leiden, NL

    2008-10-07

    A microfluidic device preferably made of a thermoplastic polymer that includes a channel or a multiplicity of channels whose surfaces are modified by photografting. The device further includes a porous polymer monolith prepared via UV initiated polymerization within the channel, and functionalization of the pore surface of the monolith using photografting. Processes for making such surface modifications of thermoplastic polymers and porous polymer monoliths are set forth.

  5. The Compatibility of Hepatocytes with Chemically Modified Porous Silicon with Reference to In Vitro Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Sara D.; Derfus, Austin M.; Schwartz, Michael P.; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.; Sailor, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Porous Si is a nanostructured material that is of interest for molecular and cell-based biosensing, drug delivery, and tissue engineering applications. Surface chemistry is an important factor determining the stability of porous Si in aqueous media, its affinity for various biomolecular species, and its compatibility with tissues. In this study, the attachment and viability of a primary cell type to porous Si samples containing various surface chemistries is reported, and the ability of the porous Si films to retain their optical reflectivity properties relevant to molecular biosensing is assessed. Four chemical species grafted to the porous Si surface are studied: silicon oxide (via ozone oxidation), dodecyl (via hydrosilylation with dodecene), undecanoic acid (via hydrosilylation with undecylenic acid), and oligo(ethylene) glycol (via hydrosilylation with undecylenic acid followed by an oligo(ethylene) glycol coupling reaction). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and contact angle measurements are used to characterize the surface. Adhesion and short-term viability of primary rat hepatocytes on these surfaces, with and without pre-adsorption of collagen type I, are assessed using vital dyes (calcein-AM and ethidium homodimer I). Cell viability on undecanoic acid-terminated porous Si, oxide-terminated porous Si, and oxide-terminated flat (non-porous) Si are monitored by quantification of albumin production over the course of 8 days. The stability of porous Si thin films after 8 days in cell culture is probed by measuring the optical interferometric reflectance spectra. Results show that hepatocytes adhere better to surfaces coated with collagen, and that chemical modification does not exert a deleterious effect on primary rat hepatocytes. The hydrosilylation chemistry greatly improves the stability of porous Si in contact with cultured primary cells while allowing cell coverage levels comparable to standard culture preparations on tissue culture

  6. Porous graphene materials for advanced electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sheng; Wu, Dongqing; Li, Shuang; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

    2014-02-12

    Combining the advantages from both porous materials and graphene, porous graphene materials have attracted vast interests due to their large surface areas, unique porous structures, diversified compositions and excellent electronic conductivity. These unordinary features enable porous graphene materials to serve as key components in high-performance electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells. This progress report summarizes the typical fabrication methods for porous graphene materials with micro-, meso-, and macro-porous structures. The structure-property relationships of these materials and their application in advanced electrochemical devices are also discussed. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Characterizing unsaturated diffusion in porous tuff gravel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qinhong; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Wang, Joseph, S.Y.

    2003-11-12

    Evaluation of solute diffusion in unsaturated porous gravel is very important for investigations of contaminant transport and remediation, risk assessment, and waste disposal (for example, the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada). For a porous aggregate medium such as granular tuff, the total water content is comprised of surface water and interior water. The surface water component (water film around grains and pendular water between the grain contacts) could serve as a predominant diffusion pathway. To investigate the extent to which surface water films and contact points affect solute diffusion in unsaturated gravel, we examined the configuration of water using x-ray computed tomography in partially saturated gravel, and made quantitative measurements of diffusion at multiple water contents using two different techniques. In the first, diffusion coefficients of potassium chloride in 2-4 mm granular tuff at multiple water contents were calculated from electrical conductivity measurements using the Nernst-Einstein equation. In the second, we used laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to perform micro-scale mapping, allowing the measurement of diffusion coefficients for a mixture of chemical tracers for tuff cubes and tetrahedrons having two contact geometries (cube-cube and cube-tetrahedron). The x-ray computed tomography images show limited contact between grains, and this could hinder the pathways for diffusive transport. Experimental results show the critical role of surface water in controlling transport pathways and hence the magnitude of diffusion. Even with a bulk volumetric water content of 1.5%, the measured solute diffusion coefficient is as low as 1.5 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}/s for tuff gravel. Currently used diffusion models relating diffusion coefficients to total volumetric water content inadequately describe unsaturated diffusion behavior in porous gravel at very low water contents.

  8. Hypergravity to Explore the Role of Buoyancy in Boiling in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioumbas, John S.; Krause, Jutta; Karapantsios, Thodoris D.

    2013-02-01

    Boiling in porous media is an active topic of research since it is associated with various applications, e.g. microelectronics cooling, wetted porous media as thermal barriers, food frying. Theoretical expressions customary scale boiling heat and mass transfer rates with the value of gravitational acceleration. Information obtained at low gravity conditions show a deviation from the above scaling law but refers exclusively to non-porous substrates. In addition, the role of buoyancy in boiling at varying gravitational levels (i.e. from microgravity—important to satellites and future Lunar and Martial missions, to high-g body forces—associated with fast aerial maneuvers) is still unknown since most experiments were conducted over a limited range of g-value. The present work aims at providing evidence regarding boiling in porous media over a broad range of hypergravity values. For this, a special device has been constructed for studying boiling inside porous media in the Large Diameter Centrifuge (LDC at ESA/ESTEC). LDC offers the unique opportunity to cancel the shear stresses and study only the effect of increased normal forces on boiling in porous media. The device permits measurement of the temperature field beneath the surface of the porous material and video recordings of bubble activity over the free surface of the porous material. The preliminary results presented from experiments conducted at terrestrial and hypergravity conditions, reveal for the first time the influence of increased levels of gravity on boiling in porous media.

  9. Enhancement of Hydrophilic Characteristics of Non-Wetting Porous Substrates by Kaolinite Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Lutful I.; Hasan, Mohammad M.

    2007-01-01

    The use of porous media has enormous potential for thermal management and phase separation in terrestrial, micro, Lunar and Marian gravity environments. Recently, a porous media based gravity insensitive condensing heat exchanger for humidity control has been proposed and successfully demonstrated by the authors. A strongly hydrophilic porous substrate is essential for condensing and trapping water vapor from the airstreams. However, most porous media which have good thermal characteristics are poorly wetting to water. This poses a significant obstacle in the development of the porous media based condensing heat exchanger. In response to this problem, a clay based process was developed for improving the wettability of non-wetting and partially wetting porous media. It was demonstrated that poorly wetting porous graphite as well as porous stainless steel could be converted to a completely wetting porous substrate by kaolinite treatment. The process enhances the wettability of both the surface and the interior pores. The paper presents experimental results of enhanced wettability of the treated substrate in terms of imbibition rate and capillary pressure as a function of saturation. The long term stability of the treated surface is also investigated and discussed.

  10. Preparation of biodegradable porous poly(butylene succinate microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepić Dragana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the optimal conditions for the fabrication of porous microspheres based on poly(butylene succinate, PBS. The biodegradable non-porous PBS microspheres were prepared by the oil-in-water (o/w emulsion solvent evaporation method using poly(vinyl alcohol, PVA, as the surfactant. Fabrication conditions, such as stirring rate, organic/aqueous ratio, PBS concentration and surfactant (PVA concentration, which have an important influence on both the particle size and the morphology of the microspheres, were varied. Scanning electron microscopy, SEM, observations confirmed the size, size distribution and surface morphology of the microspheres. The optimal conditions for the preparation of the non-porous microspheres were found to be: concentration the PBS solution, 10 mass%; PVA concentration, 1 mass%; the organic/ aqueous ratio CHCl3/H2O = 1/20 and stirring rate 800 rpm. Porous PBS microspheres were fabricated under the optimal conditions using various amounts of hexane and poly(ethylene oxide, PEO, as porogens. The influence of the amount of porogen on the pore size and the particle size was investigated using SEM and the apparent density. The microspheres exhibited various porosities and the pore sizes. The average particle size of the microspheres with PEO as the porogen was from 100 to 122μm and that of the microspheres with hexane as the porogen was from 87 to 97μm. The apparent density of the porous microspheres with PEO as the porogen, from 0.16 to 0.23 g/cm3, was much smaller than the non-porous microspheres, 0.40 g/cm3. In the in vitro degradation experiments, the porous microspheres were incubated in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7 at 37°C. After incubating for one month, the microspheres showed significant extent of the hydrolytic degradation of the porous PBS microspheres.

  11. Magneto Binary Nanofluid Convection in Porous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an externally impressed magnetic field on the stability of a binary nanofluid layer in porous medium is considered in this work. The conservation equations related to the system are solved using normal mode technique and Galerkin method to analyze the problem. The complex expressions are approximated to get useful results. Mode of heat transfer is stationary for top heavy distribution of nanoparticles in the fluid layer and top heavy nanofluids are very less stable than regular fluids. Oscillatory motions are possible for bottom heavy distribution of nanoparticles and they are not much influenced by properties of different nanoparticles. A comparative analysis of the instability of water based nanofluids with metallic (Cu, Ag and semiconducting (TiO2, SiO2 nanoparticles under the influence of magnetic field is examined. Semiconducting nanofluids are found to be more stable than metallic nanofluids. Porosity destabilizes the layer while solute difference (at the boundaries of the layer stabilizes it. Magnetic field stabilizes the fluid layer system significantly.

  12. Porous photonic crystal external cavity laser biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qinglan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Peh, Jessie; Hergenrother, Paul J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Cunningham, Brian T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    We report the design, fabrication, and testing of a photonic crystal (PC) biosensor structure that incorporates a porous high refractive index TiO{sub 2} dielectric film that enables immobilization of capture proteins within an enhanced surface-area volume that spatially overlaps with the regions of resonant electromagnetic fields where biomolecular binding can produce the greatest shifts in photonic crystal resonant wavelength. Despite the nanoscale porosity of the sensor structure, the PC slab exhibits narrowband and high efficiency resonant reflection, enabling the structure to serve as a wavelength-tunable element of an external cavity laser. In the context of sensing small molecule interactions with much larger immobilized proteins, we demonstrate that the porous structure provides 3.7× larger biosensor signals than an equivalent nonporous structure, while the external cavity laser (ECL) detection method provides capability for sensing picometer-scale shifts in the PC resonant wavelength caused by small molecule binding. The porous ECL achieves a record high figure of merit for label-free optical biosensors.

  13. Homochiral metal-organic framework used as a stationary phase for high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jiao; Zhang, Mei; Duan, Ai-Hong; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Yang, Rui; Yuan, Li-Ming

    2015-02-01

    Metal-organic frameworks are promising porous materials. Chiral metal-organic frameworks have attracted considerable attention in controlling enantioselectivity. In this study, a homochiral metal-organic framework [Co(2) (D-cam)(2) (TMDPy)] (D-cam = D-camphorates, TMDPy = 4,4'-trimethylenedipyridine) with a non-interpenetrating primitive cubic net has been used as a chiral stationary phase in high-performance liquid chromatography. It has allowed the successful separation of six positional isomers and six chiral compounds. The good selectivity and baseline separation, or at least 60% valley separation, confirmed its excellent molecular recognition characteristics. The relative standard deviations for the retention time of run-to-run and column-to-column were less than 1.8 and 3.1%, respectively. These results demonstrate that [Co(2) (D-cam)(2) (TMDPy)] may represent a promising chiral stationary phase for use in high-performance liquid chromatography. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Stationary phases for superheated water chromatography

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, S

    2002-01-01

    This project focused on the comparison of conventional liquid chromatography and superheated water chromatography. It examined the differences in efficiency and retention of a range of different stationary phases. Alkyl aryl ketones and eight aromatic compounds were separated on PBD-zirconia, Xterra RP 18, Luna C sub 1 sub 8 (2) and Oasis HLB columns using conventional LC and superheated water chromatography system. The retention indices were determined in the different eluents. On changing the organic component of the eluent from methanol to acetonitrile to superheated water considerable improvements were found in the peak shapes and column efficiencies on the PBD-zirconia and Oasis HLB columns. PS-DVB, PBD-zirconia and Xterra RP 18 columns have been used in efficiency studies. It was found that simply elevating the column temperature did not increase the efficiency of a separation in superheated water chromatography. The efficiency depended on flow rate, injection volume and also mobile phase preheating sys...

  15. Effective Complexity of Stationary Process Realizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arleta Szkoła

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of effective complexity of an object as the minimal description length of its regularities has been initiated by Gell-Mann and Lloyd. The regularities are modeled by means of ensembles, which is the probability distributions on finite binary strings. In our previous paper [1] we propose a definition of effective complexity in precise terms of algorithmic information theory. Here we investigate the effective complexity of binary strings generated by stationary, in general not computable, processes. We show that under not too strong conditions long typical process realizations are effectively simple. Our results become most transparent in the context of coarse effective complexity which is a modification of the original notion of effective complexity that needs less parameters in its definition. A similar modification of the related concept of sophistication has been suggested by Antunes and Fortnow.

  16. Stationary hyperboloidal slicings with evolved gauge conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohme, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Golm (Germany); Hannam, Mark; Murchadha, Niall O [Physics Department, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Husa, Sascha, E-mail: frank.ohme@aei.mpg.d [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra. Valldemossa Km. 7.5, Palma de Mallorca E-07122 (Spain)

    2009-09-07

    We analyze stationary slicings of the Schwarzschild spacetime defined by members of the Bona-Masso family of slicing conditions. Our main focus is on the influence of a non-vanishing offset to the trace of the extrinsic curvature, which forbids the existence of standard Cauchy foliations but at the same time allows gauge choices that are adapted to include null infinity (I) in the evolution. These hyperboloidal slicings are especially interesting for observing outgoing gravitational waves. We show that the standard 1+log slicing condition admits no overall regular hyperboloidal slicing, but by appropriately combining with harmonic slicing, we construct a gauge condition that leads to a strongly singularity-avoiding hyperboloidal foliation that connects the black hole to I.

  17. Liquid Crystals as Stationary Phases in Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajek, H; Witkiewicz, Z; Purchała, M; Drzewiński, W

    2016-01-01

    The most correct analysis of the compositions of diverse analytes mixtures is significant for analytical studies in different fields; however, many prevalent analytes cannot be identified employing traditional partition gas chromatographic methods. Thus, the increasing requirements on analytes of isomeric compounds and the problems encountered in their separation demand a study of more diverse analytical systems which are characterised by higher selectivity. Therefore, the selectivity and polarities of various liquid crystals (rod-like, banana-shape, biforked, oxygen, sulphur, nitrogen, and metal containing molecules, Schiff-base, and polymeric dendrimers) employed as liquid crystalline stationary phases (LCSPs) have been discussed from both points of views, namely, their analytical applications and thermodynamic characteristics of infinitely diluted probes with different acceptor-donor properties. Extreme particular effort has been paid to the different interdependencies between the bound up chemical structures of liquid crystal molecules with their different acceptor-donor properties and the connected resolution capabilities in the interpretation of the probe-LCSP systems, on the basis of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] dependencies, with regard to the LCSP compositions, which have been controlled by the counterbalancing of the enthalpy and entropy factors. The properties of binary systems composed of liquid crystalline poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers-rod-like molecules of liquid crystals and effects of the dendrimer structure, the chemical nature, and molecular size of the non-mesogens on the ability to dissolve in the liquid crystalline phases, have been interpreted. Practical applications of metallomesogenes and chiral stationary phases for analytical separation of different organic substances have also been taken into consideration.

  18. Porous Organic Polymers for CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Teng, Baiyang

    2013-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has long been regarded as the major greenhouse gas, which leads to numerous negative effects on global environment. The capture and separation of CO2 by selective adsorption using porous materials proves to be an effective way to reduce the emission of CO2 to atmosphere. Porous organic polymers (POPs) are promising candidates for this application due to their readily tunable textual properties and surface functionalities. The objective of this thesis work is to develop new POPs with high CO2 adsorption capacities and CO2/N2 selectivities for post-combustion effluent (e.g. flue gas) treatment. We will also exploit the correlation between the CO2 capture performance of POPs and their textual properties/functionalities. Chapters Two focuses on the study of a group of porous phenolic-aldehyde polymers (PPAPs) synthesized by a catalyst-free method, the CO2 capture capacities of these PPAPs exceed 2.0 mmol/g at 298 K and 1 bar, while keeping CO2/N2 selectivity of more than 30 at the same time. Chapter Three reports the gas adsorption results of different hyper-cross-linked polymers (HCPs), which indicate that heterocyclo aromatic monomers can greatly enhance polymers’ CO2/N2 selectivities, and the N-H bond is proved to the active CO2 adsorption center in the N-contained (e.g. pyrrole) HCPs, which possess the highest selectivities of more than 40 at 273 K when compared with other HCPs. Chapter Four emphasizes on the chemical modification of a new designed polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM) with high CO2/N2 selectivity (50 at 273 K), whose experimental repeatability and chemical stability prove excellent. In Chapter Five, we demonstrate an improvement of both CO2 capture capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity by doping alkali metal ions into azo-polymers, which leads a promising method to the design of new porous organic polymers.

  19. FACADE SYSTEM MADE OF POROUS MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The proposed multi-component façade system is made of porous concretes employed both as bearing structures and for heat insulation and fireproofing purposes. The authors also provide their recommendations in respect of the mounting of the proposed façade system. The façade system considered in the article is composed of wall foam concrete blocks reinforced by basalt fibers (bearing elements of the structure, cellular concrete polystyrene (thermal insulation, and porous concrete (fireproofing and thermal insulation. Retained shuttering (in the fireproofing sections represents chrysolite cement sheets attached to the structures composed of glass-fiber plastic elements. The application of insulating porous concrete as a fireproofing material is based on the principle of adjustable stress-strained states of materials in the environment of variable pressure. This technology was developed at Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, and it was initially designated for the manufacturing of tailor-made products. The above concrete is also designated for retained shuttering and modified cavity masonry walls. Porous concrete that expands inside the fireproofing cavity ensures a tight contact both with the basic material and thermal insulation plates. The use of materials of the same origin (Portland cement means the formation of strong transition zones connecting the system components in the course of its hardening and further operation. The results of the thermotechnical calculation demonstrate that the thermal resistance registered on the surface of the wall that is 3 meters high (that has a 0.4 m fireproofing cavity is equal to 3.98 sq. m. C/Wt. The value of the coefficient of thermotechnical heterogeneity (r is equal to 0.86 with account for the thickness and thermal conductivity of point and linear elements. If the thermotechnical heterogeneity is taken into consideration, the thermal resistance of the proposed wall is equal to 3.42 m2 С/Wt.

  20. Connections Between the Spring Breakup of the Southern Hemisphere Polar Vortex, Stationary Waves, and Air-sea Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Oman, Luke David; Barnes, Elizabeth A.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Hurwitz, Margaret H.; Molod, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    A robust connection between the drag on surface-layer winds and the stratospheric circulation is demonstrated in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM). Specifically, an updated parameterization of roughness at the air-sea interface, in which surface roughness is increased for moderate wind speeds (4ms to 20ms), leads to a decrease in model biases in Southern Hemispheric ozone, polar cap temperature, stationary wave heat flux, and springtime vortex breakup. A dynamical mechanism is proposed whereby increased surface roughness leads to improved stationary waves. Increased surface roughness leads to anomalous eddy momentum flux convergence primarily in the Indian Ocean sector (where eddies are strongest climatologically) in September and October. The localization of the eddy momentum flux convergence anomaly in the Indian Ocean sector leads to a zonally asymmetric reduction in zonal wind and, by geostrophy, to a wavenumber-1 stationary wave pattern. This tropospheric stationary wave pattern leads to enhanced upwards wave activity entering the stratosphere. The net effect is an improved Southern Hemisphere vortex: the vortex breaks up earlier in spring (i.e., the spring late-breakup bias is partially ameliorated) yet is no weaker in mid-winter. More than half of the stratospheric biases appear to be related to the surface wind speed biases. As many other chemistry climate models use a similar scheme for their surface layer momentum exchange and have similar biases in the stratosphere, we expect that results from GEOSCCM may be relevant for other climate models.

  1. Maintaining a stationary laser footprint during angular scan in internal-reflection experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Eduardo; Cavalcanti, Gustavo Oliveira

    2013-11-10

    In internal-reflection metrology using prisms, the prism is usually mounted on a rotation/translation stage to enable adjusting angle and location of the laser footprint on the surface. If a visual inspection method is used to find the laser footprint, the task becomes impossible if invisible radiation in the near infrared is employed. In addition, it may be desirable to perform angular scan experiments with a stationary footprint on the surface during scans, or even to automatically probe specific points on an extended prism face for predetermined incidence angles. In this paper, a formulation is developed to determine the required translation along the prism face to allow maintaining the laser footprint stationary under a given rotation. A web-based app developed under the scope of this work demonstrates the applicability of the approach for silica, BK7 and SF2 glasses, in the wavelength range from 500 to 1500 nm and for an arbitrary geometry of the glass prism.

  2. Invariant triangle-based stationary oil platform detection from multitemporal synthetic aperture radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Yang, Kang; Tong, Lihua; Liu, Yongxue; Li, Manchun

    2013-01-01

    An automatic algorithm for stationary oil platform detection from multitemporal synthetic aperture radar data is proposed. The proposed algorithm consists of the following two parts. (1) A two-parameter constant false-alarm rate (CFAR) algorithm is used to extract targets from the Environment Satellite (ENVISAT) advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR), in which the focus is to determine the appropriate parameters of CFAR, thus ensuring as few as possible false-alarm targets when sea-surface targets are effectively extracted. (2) A simple point cluster matching pattern is proposed based on an invariant triangle rule, by which targets extracted from multitemporal ENVISAT ASAR images are automatically matched for detection of stationary targets (e.g., oil platforms). This invariant triangle rule is that any three moving targets have an extremely low probability of maintaining a relative position in multitemporal images, whereas stationary targets can always maintain a fixed relative position. Even under high noise, this invariant triangle rule can be used to realize the target data matching with high robustness. The experiment shows that the false-alarm rate and the missing rate are relatively low when all the targets are detected. The proposed invariant-triangle-based point cluster matching pattern can conduct effective detection and monitoring of stationary oil platforms.

  3. Convection in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Nield, Donald A

    1992-01-01

    This book provides a user-friendly introduction to the topic of convection in porous media The authors as- sume that the reader is familiar with the basic elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer, but otherwise the book is self-contained The book will be useful both as a review (for reference) and as a tutorial work, suitable as a textbook in a graduate course or seminar The book brings into perspective the voluminous research that has been performed during the last two decades The field has recently exploded because of worldwide concern with issues such as energy self-sufficiency and pollution of the environment Areas of application include the insulation of buildings and equipment, energy storage and recovery, geothermal reservoirs, nuclear waste disposal, chemical reactor engineering, and the storage of heat-generating materials such as grain and coal Geophysical applications range from the flow of groundwater around hot intrusions to the stability of snow against avalanches

  4. Biogenic Cracks in Porous Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmerle, A.; Hartung, J.; Hallatschek, O.; Goehring, L.; Herminghaus, S.

    2014-12-01

    Microorganisms growing on and inside porous rock may fracture it by various processes. Some of the mechanisms of biofouling and bioweathering are today identified and partially understood but most emphasis is on chemical weathering, while mechanical contributions have been neglected. However, as demonstrated by the perseverance of a seed germinating and cracking up a concrete block, the turgor pressure of living organisms can be very significant. Here, we present results of a systematic study of the effects of the mechanical forces of growing microbial populations on the weathering of porous media. We designed a model porous medium made of glass beads held together by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a curable polymer. The rheological properties of the porous medium, whose shape and size are tunable, can be controlled by the ratio of crosslinker to base used in the PDMS (see Fig. 1). Glass and PDMS being inert to most chemicals, we are able to focus on the mechanical processes of biodeterioration, excluding any chemical weathering. Inspired by recent measurements of the high pressure (~0.5 Mpa) exerted by a growing population of yeasts trapped in a microfluidic device, we show that yeast cells can be cultured homogeneously within porous medium until saturation of the porous space. We investigate then the effects of such an inner pressure on the mechanical properties of the sample. Using the same model system, we study also the complex interplay between biofilms and porous media. We focus in particular on the effects of pore size on the penetration of the biofilm within the porous sample, and on the resulting deformations of the matrix, opening new perspectives into the understanding of life in complex geometry. Figure 1. Left : cell culture growing in a model porous medium. The white spheres represent the grains, bonds are displayed in grey, and microbes in green. Right: microscopy picture of glass beads linked by PDMS bridges, scale bar: 100 μm.

  5. Stirling Isotope Power Systems for Stationary and Mobile Lunar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Penswick, L. Barry; Shaltens, Richard K.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) places a significant emphasis on the development of a wide range of capabilities on the lunar surface as a stepping-stone to further space exploration. An important aspect of developing these capabilities will be the availability of reliable, efficient, and low-mass power systems to support both stationary and mobile applications. One candidate system to provide electrical power is made by coupling the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) with a high-performance Stirling convertor. In this paper we explore the practical power range of GPHS/Stirling convertor systems all with conductively coupled hot-end designs for use on the lunar surface. Design and off-design operations during the life of the convertor are studied in addition to considering these varying conditions on system. Unique issues concerning Stirling convertor configurations, integration of the GPHS with the Stirling convertor, controller operation, waste heat rejection, and thermal protection are explored. Of particular importance in the evaluation process is a thorough understanding of the interactions between the wide range of unique lunar environments and the selection of key systems operating characteristics and the power systems design. Additionally, as power levels rise the interface between the GPHS and Stirling and the Stirling and the radiator begins to dominate system mass and material selection becomes more important.

  6. Microstructures and photocatalytic properties of porous ZnO films synthesized by chemical bath deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huihu; Dong, Shijie; Chang Ying; Zhou Xiaoping; Hu Xinbin

    2012-01-01

    Different porous ZnO film structures on the surface of alumina substrates were prepared through a simple chemical bath deposition method in the methanolic zinc acetate solution. The surface morphology and phase structure of porous ZnO film were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Both initial zinc acetate concentration and sintering temperature have great impact on the final film structures. With the increase of initial zinc acetate concentration, the porous structures can be finely tuned from circular nest like assemblies composed film into successive nest like film, and finally to globular aggregates composed film. By increasing the sintering temperature, the porous structure of successive nest like film can be further controlled. Furthermore, the crystallinity of photocatalysts also can be greatly improved. The photodegradation results of Methyl Orange revealed that porous ZnO film with successive nest like structure sintered at 500 °C exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity under UV illumination.

  7. The structure of steady shock waves in porous metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnota, Christophe; Molinari, Alain; Mercier, Sébastien

    2017-10-01

    The paper aims at developing an understanding of steady shock wave propagation in a ductile metallic material containing voids. Porosity is assumed to be less than 0.3 and voids are not connected (foams are not considered). As the shock wave is traveling in the porous medium, the voids are facing a rapid collapse. During this dynamic compaction process, material particles are subjected to very high acceleration in the vicinity of voids, thus generating acceleration forces at the microscale that influence the overall response of the porous material. Analyzing how stationary shocks are influenced by these micro-inertia effects is the main goal of this work. The focus is essentially on the shock structure, ignoring oscillatory motion of pores prevailing at the tail of the shock wave. Following the constitutive framework developed by Molinari and Ravichandran (2004) for the analysis of steady shock waves in dense metals, an analytical approach of steady state propagation of plastic shocks in porous metals is proposed. The initial void size appears as a characteristic internal length that scales the overall dynamic response, thereby contributing to the structuring of the shock front. This key feature is not captured by standard damage models where the porosity stands for the single damage parameter with no contribution of the void size. The results obtained in this work provide a new insight in the fundamental understanding of shock waves in porous media. In particular, a new scaling law relating the shock width to the initial void radius is obtained when micro-inertia effects are significant.

  8. A rigid porous filter and filtration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas, Straub L.; Dennis, Richard A.

    1998-12-01

    The present invention involves a porous rigid filter comprising a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulate from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulate. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area- to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

  9. Porous-shaped silicon carbide ultraviolet photodetectors on porous silicon substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naderi, N.; Hashim, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Porous-shaped silicon carbide thin film was deposited on porous silicon substrate. ► Thermal annealing was followed to enhance the physical properties of samples. ► Metal–semiconductor-metal ultraviolet detectors were fabricated on samples. ► The effect of annealing temperature on electrical performance of devices was studied. ► The efficiency of photodetectors was enhanced by annealing at elevated temperatures. -- Abstract: A metal–semiconductor-metal (MSM) ultraviolet photodetector was fabricated based on a porous-shaped structure of silicon carbide (SiC). For increasing the surface roughness of SiC and hence enhancing the light absorption effect in fabricated devices, porous silicon (PS) was chosen as a template; SiC was deposited on PS substrates via radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Therefore, the deposited layers followed the structural pattern of PS skeleton and formed a porous-shaped SiC layer on PS substrate. The structural properties of samples showed that the as-deposited SiC was amorphous. Thus, a post-deposition annealing process with elevated temperatures was required to convert its amorphous phase to crystalline phase. The morphology of the sputtered samples was examined via scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. The grain size and roughness of the deposited layers clearly increased upon an increase in the annealing temperature. The optical properties of sputtered SiC were enhanced due to applying high temperatures. The most intense photoluminescence peak was observed for the sample with 1200 °C of annealing temperature. For the metallization of the SiC substrates to fabricate MSM photodetectors, two interdigitated Schottky contacts of Ni with four fingers for each electrode were deposited onto all the porous substrates. The optoelectronic characteristics of MSM UV photodetectors with porous-shaped SiC substrates were studied in the dark and under UV illumination. The electrical characteristics of fabricated

  10. Porous-shaped silicon carbide ultraviolet photodetectors on porous silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naderi, N., E-mail: naderi.phd@gmail.com [Nano-Optoelectronics Research Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Hashim, M.R. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2013-03-05

    Highlights: ► Porous-shaped silicon carbide thin film was deposited on porous silicon substrate. ► Thermal annealing was followed to enhance the physical properties of samples. ► Metal–semiconductor-metal ultraviolet detectors were fabricated on samples. ► The effect of annealing temperature on electrical performance of devices was studied. ► The efficiency of photodetectors was enhanced by annealing at elevated temperatures. -- Abstract: A metal–semiconductor-metal (MSM) ultraviolet photodetector was fabricated based on a porous-shaped structure of silicon carbide (SiC). For increasing the surface roughness of SiC and hence enhancing the light absorption effect in fabricated devices, porous silicon (PS) was chosen as a template; SiC was deposited on PS substrates via radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Therefore, the deposited layers followed the structural pattern of PS skeleton and formed a porous-shaped SiC layer on PS substrate. The structural properties of samples showed that the as-deposited SiC was amorphous. Thus, a post-deposition annealing process with elevated temperatures was required to convert its amorphous phase to crystalline phase. The morphology of the sputtered samples was examined via scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. The grain size and roughness of the deposited layers clearly increased upon an increase in the annealing temperature. The optical properties of sputtered SiC were enhanced due to applying high temperatures. The most intense photoluminescence peak was observed for the sample with 1200 °C of annealing temperature. For the metallization of the SiC substrates to fabricate MSM photodetectors, two interdigitated Schottky contacts of Ni with four fingers for each electrode were deposited onto all the porous substrates. The optoelectronic characteristics of MSM UV photodetectors with porous-shaped SiC substrates were studied in the dark and under UV illumination. The electrical characteristics of fabricated

  11. Porous media geometry and transports

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Pierre

    1992-01-01

    The goal of ""Porous Media: Geometry and Transports"" is to provide the basis of a rational and modern approach to porous media. This book emphasizes several geometrical structures (spatially periodic, fractal, and random to reconstructed) and the three major single-phase transports (diffusion, convection, and Taylor dispersion).""Porous Media"" serves various purposes. For students it introduces basic information on structure and transports. Engineers will find this book useful as a readily accessible assemblage of al the major experimental results pertaining to single-phase tr

  12. Regeneratively Cooled Porous Media Jacket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Greg (Inventor); Fisher, David J. (Inventor); London, Adam Pollok (Inventor); Fryer, Jack Merrill (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The fluid and heat transfer theory for regenerative cooling of a rocket combustion chamber with a porous media coolant jacket is presented. This model is used to design a regeneratively cooled rocket or other high temperature engine cooling jacket. Cooling jackets comprising impermeable inner and outer walls, and porous media channels are disclosed. Also disclosed are porous media coolant jackets with additional structures designed to transfer heat directly from the inner wall to the outer wall, and structures designed to direct movement of the coolant fluid from the inner wall to the outer wall. Methods of making such jackets are also disclosed.

  13. 7 CFR 2902.28 - Stationary equipment hydraulic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stationary equipment hydraulic fluids. 2902.28... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.28 Stationary equipment hydraulic fluids. (a) Definition. Fluids... equipment hydraulic fluids. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for drafting or...

  14. Stationary states of two-level open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardas, Bartlomiej; Puchala, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    A problem of finding stationary states of open quantum systems is addressed. We focus our attention on a generic type of open system: a qubit coupled to its environment. We apply the theory of block operator matrices and find stationary states of two-level open quantum systems under certain conditions applied on both the qubit and the surrounding.

  15. Analysis of stress and deformation in non-stationary creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feijoo, R.A.; Taroco, E.; Guerreiro, J.N.C.

    1980-12-01

    A variational method and its algorithm are presented; they permit the analysis of stress and deformation in non-stationary creep. This algorithm is applied to an infinite cylinder submitted to an internal pressure. The solution obtained is compared with the solution of non-stationary creep problems [pt

  16. Modification of fluid flow equation in saturated porous media ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental investigations have shown that variation of porosity and hydraulic gradient are responsible for the deviations from Darcy's law, which is perfectly obeyed only when the fluid flow is laminar in porous media. Previous attempts to modify this equation considered only the effects of porosity of surface-active ...

  17. XPS study of palladium sensitized nano porous silicon thin film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 33; Issue 6. XPS study of palladium sensitized nano porous silicon thin ... To stabilize the material PS surface was modified by a simple and low cost chemical method using PdCl2 solution at room temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was performed to ...

  18. Influence of porous silicon formation on the performance of multi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of formation of porous silicon on the performance of multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells is presented. Surface treatment of mc-Si solar cells was performed by electrochemical etching in HF-based solution. The effect of etching is viewed through scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs that ...

  19. Pressing process improvements for roofing tiles using porous moulds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortmans, L.J.M.G.; Bos, B.; Fischer, H.R.

    2010-01-01

    Roofing tiles are traditionally produced via pressing using plaster of Paris moulds. A replacement of such moulds by porous PMMA based moulds increases production speed and the durability of the moulds, however results in a non-acceptable surface finish due to enhanced adhesion of the clay to the

  20. Computer design of porous active materials at different dimensional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasedkin, Andrey

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents a mathematical and computer modeling of effective properties of porous piezoelectric materials of three types: with ordinary porosity, with metallized pore surfaces, and with nanoscale porosity structure. The described integrated approach includes the effective moduli method of composite mechanics, simulation of representative volumes, and finite element method.