WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface plots divided

  1. Preferential solvation: dividing surface vs excess numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Seishi; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2014-04-10

    How do osmolytes affect the conformation and configuration of supramolecular assembly, such as ion channel opening and actin polymerization? The key to the answer lies in the excess solvation numbers of water and osmolyte molecules; these numbers are determinable solely from experimental data, as guaranteed by the phase rule, as we show through the exact solution theory of Kirkwood and Buff (KB). The osmotic stress technique (OST), in contrast, purposes to yield alternative hydration numbers through the use of the dividing surface borrowed from the adsorption theory. However, we show (i) OST is equivalent, when it becomes exact, to the crowding effect in which the osmolyte exclusion dominates over hydration; (ii) crowding is not the universal driving force of the osmolyte effect (e.g., actin polymerization); (iii) the dividing surface for solvation is useful only for crowding, unlike in the adsorption theory which necessitates its use due to the phase rule. KB thus clarifies the true meaning and limitations of the older perspectives on preferential solvation (such as solvent binding models, crowding, and OST), and enables excess number determination without any further assumptions.

  2. Surface stabilization and revegetation test plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackschewsky, M.R.; Kemp, C.J.; Hayward, W.M.

    1993-09-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company Decommissioning and Decontamination Engineering Group and Environmental Technology and Assessment Groups are developing new technologies to improve revegetation techniques for interim stabilization control over underground waste sites within the Radiation Area Remedial Action Program. Successful revegetation is an integral aspect of waste isolation strategy. Unfortunately, revegetation can be very difficult to achieve on the Hanford Site due to several factors: low annual precipitation, unpredictable timing of precipitation, low fertility of available soils, and coarse physical texture of soils covering waste sites. The tests in this report were performed during fiscal years 1992 and 1993 and include the use of two soil sealants in combination with bare soil and a soil/compost mixture and a comparison of a wheatgrass mixture and a native seed mixture. Hydroprobe access ports were placed in one-half of the test plots and moisture data was collected. Soil fertility and plant community characteristics were monitored during the two years of the test. During the first year all sites with compost provided additional fertility and retained greater amounts of soil moisture than noncomposted sites. The use of Enduraseal soil fixative provided greater soil moisture than the use of Aerospray-77 soil fixative. During the second year the use of compost and soil fixative's had a lesser effect on soil moisture. During late summer periods all treatments had very similar soil moisture profiles. The use of compost greatly increased vegetative cover and soil fertility in comparison to sites that had no compost added. Testing of the seed mixtures found that Siberian wheatgrass and Sandberg's bluegrass were the most dominant of the seeded species observed. All plots exhibited a dominant plant cover of volunteer cheatgrass. Biomass production was significantly greater on plots with compost than on the noncomposted plots

  3. Loading and plotting of cortical surface representations in Nilearn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Huntenburg

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Processing neuroimaging data on the cortical surface traditionally requires dedicated heavy-weight software suites. Here, we present an initial support of cortical surfaces in Python within the neuroimaging data processing toolbox Nilearn. We provide loading and plotting functions for different surface data formats with minimal dependencies, along with examples of their application. Limitations of the current implementation and potential next steps are discussed.

  4. Microcanonical rates, gap times, and phase space dividing surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezra, Gregory S.; Waalkens, Holger; Wiggins, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The general approach to classical unimolecular reaction rates due to Thiele is revisited in light of recent advances in the phase space formulation of transition state theory for multidimensional systems. Key concepts, such as the phase space dividing surface separating reactants from products, the

  5. Carnage interrupted : an analysis of fifteen terrorist plots against public surface transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This report examines 13 terrorist plots against public surface transportation that were uncovered and foiled by authorities between 1997 and 2010 and two failed attempts to carry out attacks. Certainly, this is not the total universe of foiled or fai...

  6. Transition State Theory for solvated reactions beyond recrossing-free dividing surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Revuelta, F.; Bartsch, Thomas; Garcia-Muller, P. L.; Hernandez, Rigoberto; Benito, R. M.; Borondo, F.

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of rate constants calculated using transition state theory depends crucially on the correct identification of a recrossing--free dividing surface. We show here that it is possible to define such optimal dividing surface in systems with non--Markovian friction. However, a more direct approach to rate calculation is based on invariant manifolds and avoids the use of a dividing surface altogether, Using that method we obtain an explicit expression for the rate of crossing an anharmo...

  7. Transition state theory for solvated reactions beyond recrossing-free dividing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelta, F; Bartsch, Thomas; Garcia-Muller, P L; Hernandez, Rigoberto; Benito, R M; Borondo, F

    2016-06-01

    The accuracy of rate constants calculated using transition state theory depends crucially on the correct identification of a recrossing-free dividing surface. We show here that it is possible to define such optimal dividing surface in systems with non-Markovian friction. However, a more direct approach to rate calculation is based on invariant manifolds and avoids the use of a dividing surface altogether, Using that method we obtain an explicit expression for the rate of crossing an anharmonic potential barrier. The excellent performance of our method is illustrated with an application to a realistic model for LiNC⇌LiCN isomerization.

  8. Obtaining time-dependent multi-dimensional dividing surfaces using Lagrangian descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmaier, Matthias; Junginger, Andrej; Main, Jörg; Wunner, Günter; Hernandez, Rigoberto

    2017-11-01

    Dynamics between reactants and products are often mediated by a rate-determining barrier and an associated dividing surface leading to the transition state theory rate. This framework is challenged when the barrier is time-dependent because its motion can give rise to recrossings across the fixed dividing surface. A non-recrossing time-dependent dividing surface can nevertheless be attached to the TS trajectory resulting in recrossing-free dynamics. We extend the formalism-constructed using Lagrangian Descriptors-to systems with additional bath degrees of freedom. The propagation of reactant ensembles provides a numerical demonstration that our dividing surface is recrossing-free and leads to exact TST rates.

  9. Statistical mapping and 3-D surface plots in phytoplankton analysis of the Balkhash Lake (Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa Elena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton of the Balkhash Lake was represented by 91 species with average abundance of 1,002.4 mln. ind. m−3 and average biomass of 0.853 g m−3 in summer 2004. Maps of spatial distribution revealed that phytoplankton abundance was confined within the near-estuary sections of the rivers. Correlation analysis and 3D Surface Plots showed that the average mass of the algal cell decreased with increased phytoplankton abundance, species richness, and Shannon Bi index values. Synchronicity of the spatial dynamics of W-Clarke and Δ-Shannon values evidenced the possibility of obtaining information on the structure of communities by both calculated and graphical methods.

  10. Using UAV data for soil surface change detection at a loess field plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltner, Anette; Baumgart, Philipp

    2014-05-01

    Application of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) denotes an increasing interest in geosciences due to major developments within the last years. Today, UAV are economical, reliable and flexible in usage. They provide a non-invasive method to measure the soil surface and its changes - e.g. due to erosion - with high resolution. Advances in digital photogrammetry and computer vision allow for fast and dense digital surface reconstruction from overlapping images. The study site is located in the Saxonian loess (Germany). The area is fragile due to erodible soils and intense agricultural utilisation. Hence, detectable soil surface changes are expected. The size of the field plot is 20 x 30 meters and the period of investigation lasts from October 2012 till July 2013 at which four surveys were performed. The UAV deployed in this study is equipped with a compact camera which is attached to an active stabilising camera mount. In addition, the micro drone integrates GPS and IMU that enables autonomous surveys with programmed flight patterns. About 100 photos are needed to cover the study site at a minimal flying height of eight metres and 65%/80% image overlap. For multi-temporal comparison a stable local reference system is established. Total station control of the signalised ground control points confirms two mm accuracy for the study period. To estimate the accuracy of the digital surface models (DSM) derived from the UAV images a comparison to DSM from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is conducted. The standard deviation of differences amounts five millimetres. To analyse surface changes methods from image processing are applied to the DSM. Erosion rills could be extracted for quantitative and qualitative consideration. Furthermore, volumetric changes are measured. First results indicate levelling processes during the winter season and reveal rill and inter-rill erosion during spring and summer season.

  11. Crossing the dividing surface of transition state theory. III. Once and only once. Selecting reactive trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorquet, J. C., E-mail: jc.lorquet@ulg.ac.be [Department of Chemistry, University of Liège, Sart-Tilman (Bâtiment B6), B-4000 Liège 1 (Belgium)

    2015-09-14

    The purpose of the present work is to determine initial conditions that generate reacting, recrossing-free trajectories that cross the conventional dividing surface of transition state theory (i.e., the plane in configuration space passing through a saddle point of the potential energy surface and perpendicular to the reaction coordinate) without ever returning to it. Local analytical equations of motion valid in the neighborhood of this planar surface have been derived as an expansion in Poisson brackets. We show that the mere presence of a saddle point implies that reactivity criteria can be quite simply formulated in terms of elements of this series, irrespective of the shape of the potential energy function. Some of these elements are demonstrated to be equal to a sum of squares and thus to be necessarily positive, which has a profound impact on the dynamics. The method is then applied to a three-dimensional model describing an atom-diatom interaction. A particular relation between initial conditions is shown to generate a bundle of reactive trajectories that form reactive cylinders (or conduits) in phase space. This relation considerably reduces the phase space volume of initial conditions that generate recrossing-free trajectories. Loci in phase space of reactive initial conditions are presented. Reactivity is influenced by symmetry, as shown by a comparative study of collinear and bent transition states. Finally, it is argued that the rules that have been derived to generate reactive trajectories in classical mechanics are also useful to build up a reactive wave packet.

  12. Classes of Split-Plot Response Surface Designs for Equivalent Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Peter A.; Kowalski, Scott M.; Vining, G. Geoffrey

    2006-01-01

    When planning an experimental investigation, we are frequently faced with factors that are difficult or time consuming to manipulate, thereby making complete randomization impractical. A split-plot structure differentiates between the experimental units associated with these hard-to-change factors and others that are relatively easy-to-change and provides an efficient strategy that integrates the restrictions imposed by the experimental apparatus. Several industrial and scientific examples are presented to illustrate design considerations encountered in the restricted randomization context. In this paper, we propose classes of split-plot response designs that provide an intuitive and natural extension from the completely randomized context. For these designs, the ordinary least squares estimates of the model are equivalent to the generalized least squares estimates. This property provides best linear unbiased estimators and simplifies model estimation. The design conditions that allow for equivalent estimation are presented enabling design construction strategies to transform completely randomized Box-Behnken, equiradial, and small composite designs into a split-plot structure.

  13. Linking Land Surface Phenology and Vegetation-Plot Databases to Model Terrestrial Plant α-Diversity of the Okavango Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Revermann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In many parts of Africa, spatially-explicit information on plant α-diversity, i.e., the number of species in a given area, is missing as baseline information for spatial planning. We present an approach on how to combine vegetation-plot databases and remotely-sensed land surface phenology (LSP metrics to predict plant α-diversity on a regional scale. We gathered data on plant α-diversity, measured as species density, from 999 vegetation plots sized 20 m × 50 m covering all major vegetation units of the Okavango basin in the countries of Angola, Namibia and Botswana. As predictor variables, we used MODIS LSP metrics averaged over 12 years (250-m spatial resolution and three topographic attributes calculated from the SRTM digital elevation model. Furthermore, we tested whether additional climatic data could improve predictions. We tested three predictor subsets: (1 remote sensing variables; (2 climatic variables; and (3 all variables combined. We used two statistical modeling approaches, random forests and boosted regression trees, to predict vascular plant α-diversity. The resulting maps showed that the Miombo woodlands of the Angolan Central Plateau featured the highest diversity, and the lowest values were predicted for the thornbush savanna in the Okavango Delta area. Models built on the entire dataset exhibited the best performance followed by climate-only models and remote sensing-only models. However, models including climate data showed artifacts. In spite of lower model performance, models based only on LSP metrics produced the most realistic maps. Furthermore, they revealed local differences in plant diversity of the landscape mosaic that were blurred by homogenous belts as predicted by climate-based models. This study pinpoints the high potential of LSP metrics used in conjunction with biodiversity data derived from vegetation-plot databases to produce spatial information on a regional scale that is urgently needed for basic

  14. Plot 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Hermansen, Anne-Mette; Ferdinand, Trine

    Danskfaglig vejledning informerer om de tanker, der ligger til grund for Plot 4, og beskriver danskfaget ud fra nyere forskning inden for fagets mange delområder. Kapitelvejledning introducerer bogens tekster, forklarer hensigten med kapitlernes opgaver, giver forslag til undervisningen og brugen...

  15. Non-uniqueness of quantum transition state theory and general dividing surfaces in the path integral space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seogjoo; Voth, Gregory A

    2017-05-07

    Despite the fact that quantum mechanical principles do not allow the establishment of an exact quantum analogue of the classical transition state theory (TST), the development of a quantum TST (QTST) with a proper dynamical justification, while recovering the TST in the classical limit, has been a long standing theoretical challenge in chemical physics. One of the most recent efforts of this kind was put forth by Hele and Althorpe (HA) [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 084108 (2013)], which can be specified for any cyclically invariant dividing surface defined in the space of the imaginary time path integral. The present work revisits the issue of the non-uniqueness of QTST and provides a detailed theoretical analysis of HA-QTST for a general class of such path integral dividing surfaces. While we confirm that HA-QTST reproduces the result based on the ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) rate theory for dividing surfaces containing only a quadratic form of low frequency Fourier modes, we find that it produces different results for those containing higher frequency imaginary time paths which accommodate greater quantum fluctuations. This result confirms the assessment made in our previous work [Jang and Voth, J. Chem. Phys. 144, 084110 (2016)] that HA-QTST does not provide a derivation of RPMD-TST in general and points to a new ambiguity of HA-QTST with respect to its justification for general cyclically invariant dividing surfaces defined in the space of imaginary time path integrals. Our analysis also offers new insights into similar path integral based QTST approaches.

  16. Surface formation, preservation, and history of low-porosity crusts at the WAIS Divide site, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegyveresi, John M.; Alley, Richard B.; Muto, Atsuhiro; Orsi, Anaïs J.; Spencer, Matthew K.

    2018-01-01

    Observations at the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide site show that near-surface snow is strongly altered by weather-related processes such as strong winds and temperature fluctuations, producing features that are recognizable in the deep ice core. Prominent glazed surface crusts develop frequently at the site during summer seasons. Surface, snow pit, and ice core observations made in this study during summer field seasons from 2008-2009 to 2012-2013, supplemented by automated weather station (AWS) data with short- and longwave radiation sensors, revealed that such crusts formed during relatively low-wind, low-humidity, clear-sky periods with intense daytime sunshine. After formation, such glazed surfaces typically developed cracks in a polygonal pattern likely from thermal contraction at night. Cracking was commonest when several clear days occurred in succession and was generally followed by surface hoar growth; vapor escaping through the cracks during sunny days may have contributed to the high humidity that favored nighttime formation of surface hoar. Temperature and radiation observations show that daytime solar heating often warmed the near-surface snow above the air temperature, contributing to upward mass transfer, favoring crust formation from below, and then surface hoar formation. A simple surface energy calculation supports this observation. Subsequent examination of the WDC06A deep ice core revealed that crusts are preserved through the bubbly ice, and some occur in snow accumulated during winters, although not as commonly as in summertime deposits. Although no one has been on site to observe crust formation during winter, it may be favored by greater wintertime wind packing from stronger peak winds, high temperatures and steep temperature gradients from rapid midwinter warmings reaching as high as -15 °C, and perhaps longer intervals of surface stability. Time variations in crust occurrence in the core may provide paleoclimatic information

  17. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Downscaling near-surface soil moisture from field to plot scale: A comparative analysis under different environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasta, Paolo; Penna, Daniele; Brocca, Luca; Zuecco, Giulia; Romano, Nunzio

    2018-02-01

    Indirect measurements of field-scale (hectometer grid-size) spatial-average near-surface soil moisture are becoming increasingly available by exploiting new-generation ground-based and satellite sensors. Nonetheless, modeling applications for water resources management require knowledge of plot-scale (1-5 m grid-size) soil moisture by using measurements through spatially-distributed sensor network systems. Since efforts to fulfill such requirements are not always possible due to time and budget constraints, alternative approaches are desirable. In this study, we explore the feasibility of determining spatial-average soil moisture and soil moisture patterns given the knowledge of long-term records of climate forcing data and topographic attributes. A downscaling approach is proposed that couples two different models: the Eco-Hydrological Bucket and Equilibrium Moisture from Topography. This approach helps identify the relative importance of two compound topographic indexes in explaining the spatial variation of soil moisture patterns, indicating valley- and hillslope-dependence controlled by lateral flow and radiative processes, respectively. The integrated model also detects temporal instability if the dominant type of topographic dependence changes with spatial-average soil moisture. Model application was carried out at three sites in different parts of Italy, each characterized by different environmental conditions. Prior calibration was performed by using sparse and sporadic soil moisture values measured by portable time domain reflectometry devices. Cross-site comparisons offer different interpretations in the explained spatial variation of soil moisture patterns, with time-invariant valley-dependence (site in northern Italy) and hillslope-dependence (site in southern Italy). The sources of soil moisture spatial variation at the site in central Italy are time-variant within the year and the seasonal change of topographic dependence can be conveniently

  19. The Establishment, Plotting and Statistic– Mathematical Interpretation of the Liquidus Surface from the Phase Equilibrium Diagram of the Ternary System Al-Cu-Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina A. Cziple

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper forwards the conclusions of a survey performed on a mathematical model of the phase equilibrium from the ternary system Al-Cu-Si. The author presents the calculus of the statistic equation of the liquidus surface model from this diagram, the plotting and statistical-mathematical interpretation of the results obtained.

  20. Surface formation, preservation, and history of low-porosity crusts at the WAIS Divide site, West Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Fegyveresi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations at the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS Divide site show that near-surface snow is strongly altered by weather-related processes such as strong winds and temperature fluctuations, producing features that are recognizable in the deep ice core. Prominent glazed surface crusts develop frequently at the site during summer seasons. Surface, snow pit, and ice core observations made in this study during summer field seasons from 2008–2009 to 2012–2013, supplemented by automated weather station (AWS data with short- and longwave radiation sensors, revealed that such crusts formed during relatively low-wind, low-humidity, clear-sky periods with intense daytime sunshine. After formation, such glazed surfaces typically developed cracks in a polygonal pattern likely from thermal contraction at night. Cracking was commonest when several clear days occurred in succession and was generally followed by surface hoar growth; vapor escaping through the cracks during sunny days may have contributed to the high humidity that favored nighttime formation of surface hoar. Temperature and radiation observations show that daytime solar heating often warmed the near-surface snow above the air temperature, contributing to upward mass transfer, favoring crust formation from below, and then surface hoar formation. A simple surface energy calculation supports this observation. Subsequent examination of the WDC06A deep ice core revealed that crusts are preserved through the bubbly ice, and some occur in snow accumulated during winters, although not as commonly as in summertime deposits. Although no one has been on site to observe crust formation during winter, it may be favored by greater wintertime wind packing from stronger peak winds, high temperatures and steep temperature gradients from rapid midwinter warmings reaching as high as −15 °C, and perhaps longer intervals of surface stability. Time variations in crust occurrence in the core may provide

  1. Crossing the dividing surface of transition state theory. IV. Dynamical regularity and dimensionality reduction as key features of reactive trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorquet, J C

    2017-04-07

    The atom-diatom interaction is studied by classical mechanics using Jacobi coordinates (R, r, θ). Reactivity criteria that go beyond the simple requirement of transition state theory (i.e., P R* > 0) are derived in terms of specific initial conditions. Trajectories that exactly fulfill these conditions cross the conventional dividing surface used in transition state theory (i.e., the plane in configuration space passing through a saddle point of the potential energy surface and perpendicular to the reaction coordinate) only once. Furthermore, they are observed to be strikingly similar and to form a tightly packed bundle of perfectly collimated trajectories in the two-dimensional (R, r) configuration space, although their angular motion is highly specific for each one. Particular attention is paid to symmetrical transition states (i.e., either collinear or T-shaped with C 2v symmetry) for which decoupling between angular and radial coordinates is observed, as a result of selection rules that reduce to zero Coriolis couplings between modes that belong to different irreducible representations. Liapunov exponents are equal to zero and Hamilton's characteristic function is planar in that part of configuration space that is visited by reactive trajectories. Detailed consideration is given to the concept of average reactive trajectory, which starts right from the saddle point and which is shown to be free of curvature-induced Coriolis coupling. The reaction path Hamiltonian model, together with a symmetry-based separation of the angular degree of freedom, provides an appropriate framework that leads to the formulation of an effective two-dimensional Hamiltonian. The success of the adiabatic approximation in this model is due to the symmetry of the transition state, not to a separation of time scales. Adjacent trajectories, i.e., those that do not exactly fulfill the reactivity conditions have similar characteristics, but the quality of the approximation is lower. At

  2. Crossing the dividing surface of transition state theory. IV. Dynamical regularity and dimensionality reduction as key features of reactive trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorquet, J. C.

    2017-04-01

    The atom-diatom interaction is studied by classical mechanics using Jacobi coordinates (R, r, θ). Reactivity criteria that go beyond the simple requirement of transition state theory (i.e., PR* > 0) are derived in terms of specific initial conditions. Trajectories that exactly fulfill these conditions cross the conventional dividing surface used in transition state theory (i.e., the plane in configuration space passing through a saddle point of the potential energy surface and perpendicular to the reaction coordinate) only once. Furthermore, they are observed to be strikingly similar and to form a tightly packed bundle of perfectly collimated trajectories in the two-dimensional (R, r) configuration space, although their angular motion is highly specific for each one. Particular attention is paid to symmetrical transition states (i.e., either collinear or T-shaped with C2v symmetry) for which decoupling between angular and radial coordinates is observed, as a result of selection rules that reduce to zero Coriolis couplings between modes that belong to different irreducible representations. Liapunov exponents are equal to zero and Hamilton's characteristic function is planar in that part of configuration space that is visited by reactive trajectories. Detailed consideration is given to the concept of average reactive trajectory, which starts right from the saddle point and which is shown to be free of curvature-induced Coriolis coupling. The reaction path Hamiltonian model, together with a symmetry-based separation of the angular degree of freedom, provides an appropriate framework that leads to the formulation of an effective two-dimensional Hamiltonian. The success of the adiabatic approximation in this model is due to the symmetry of the transition state, not to a separation of time scales. Adjacent trajectories, i.e., those that do not exactly fulfill the reactivity conditions have similar characteristics, but the quality of the approximation is lower. At higher

  3. NPLOT - NASTRAN PLOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcentire, K.

    1994-01-01

    NPLOT is an interactive computer graphics program for plotting undeformed and deformed NASTRAN finite element models (FEMs). Although there are many commercial codes already available for plotting FEMs, these have limited use due to their cost, speed, and lack of features to view BAR elements. NPLOT was specifically developed to overcome these limitations. On a vector type graphics device the two best ways to show depth are by hidden line plotting or haloed line plotting. A hidden line algorithm generates views of models with all hidden lines removed, and a haloed line algorithm displays views with aft lines broken in order to show depth while keeping the entire model visible. A haloed line algorithm is especially useful for plotting models composed of many line elements and few surface elements. The most important feature of NPLOT is its ability to create both hidden line and haloed line views accurately and much more quickly than with any other existing hidden or haloed line algorithms. NPLOT is also capable of plotting a normal wire frame view to display all lines of a model. NPLOT is able to aid in viewing all elements, but it has special features not generally available for plotting BAR elements. These features include plotting of TRUE LENGTH and NORMALIZED offset vectors and orientation vectors. Standard display operations such as rotation and perspective are possible, but different view planes such as X-Y, Y-Z, and X-Z may also be selected. Another display option is the Z-axis cut which allows a portion of the fore part of the model to be cut away to reveal details of the inside of the model. A zoom function is available to terminals with a locator (graphics cursor, joystick, etc.). The user interface of NPLOT is designed to make the program quick and easy to use. A combination of menus and commands with help menus for detailed information about each command allows experienced users greater speed and efficiency. Once a plot is on the screen the interface

  4. Phase space barriers and dividing surfaces in the absence of critical points of the potential energy: Application to roaming in ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauguière, Frédéric A. L., E-mail: frederic.mauguiere@bristol.ac.uk; Collins, Peter, E-mail: peter.collins@bristol.ac.uk; Wiggins, Stephen, E-mail: stephen.wiggins@mac.com [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom); Kramer, Zeb C., E-mail: zebcolterkramer@gmail.com; Ezra, Gregory S., E-mail: gse1@cornell.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Baker Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Carpenter, Barry K., E-mail: carpenterb1@cardiff.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Farantos, Stavros C., E-mail: farantos@iesl.forth.gr [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas, and Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Iraklion 711 10, Crete (Greece)

    2016-02-07

    We examine the phase space structures that govern reaction dynamics in the absence of critical points on the potential energy surface. We show that in the vicinity of hyperbolic invariant tori, it is possible to define phase space dividing surfaces that are analogous to the dividing surfaces governing transition from reactants to products near a critical point of the potential energy surface. We investigate the problem of capture of an atom by a diatomic molecule and show that a normally hyperbolic invariant manifold exists at large atom-diatom distances, away from any critical points on the potential. This normally hyperbolic invariant manifold is the anchor for the construction of a dividing surface in phase space, which defines the outer or loose transition state governing capture dynamics. We present an algorithm for sampling an approximate capture dividing surface, and apply our methods to the recombination of the ozone molecule. We treat both 2 and 3 degrees of freedom models with zero total angular momentum. We have located the normally hyperbolic invariant manifold from which the orbiting (outer) transition state is constructed. This forms the basis for our analysis of trajectories for ozone in general, but with particular emphasis on the roaming trajectories.

  5. A plot tree structure to represent surface flow connectivity in rural catchments: definition and application for mining critical source areas and temporal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Cordier, Marie-Odile; Grimaldi, Catherine; Salmon-Monviola, Jordy; Masson, Veronique; Squividant, Herve; Trepos, Ronan

    2013-04-01

    Agricultural landscapes are structured by a mosaic of farmers'fields whose boundaries and land use change over time, and by linear elements such as hedgerows, ditches and roads, which are more or less connected to each other. Such man-made features are now well known to have an effect on catchment hydrology, erosion and water quality. In such agricultural landscapes, it is crucial to have an adequate functional representation of the flow pathways and define relevant indicators of surface flow connectivity over the catchment towards the stream, as a necessary step for improving landscape design and water protection. A new conceptual object oriented approach has been proposed by building the drainage network on the identification of the inlets and outlets for surface water flow on each farmers' field and surrounding landscape elements (Aurousseau et al., 2009 ; Gascuel-Odoux et al., 2011), then on delineating a set of elementary plot outlet trees labelled by attributes which feed the stream. This drainage network is therefore represented as a global plot outlet tree which conceptualizes the connectivity of the surface flow patterns over the catchment. This approach has been applied to different catchment areas, integrated in modelling (Gascuel-Odoux et al., 2009) and decision support tools. It provides a functional display of data for decision support which can highlight the plots of potential risk regarding the surface runoff, areas which are often shortly extended over catchments (suspended sediment application). Integrated in modelling and mining tools, it allows to catch typologies of the most spatial pattern involved in water quality degradation (herbicides transport model) (Trepos et al., 2012) and test their permanency in time regarding the variations of climate conditions and agricultural practices (Salmon-Monviola et al., 2011). This set of works joins skills in hydrology, agronomy and computer sciences. Aurousseau P., Gascuel-Odoux C., Squividant H

  6. Soil hydraulic parameters and surface soil moisture of a tilled bare soil plot inversely derived from l-band brightness temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Dimitrov, Marin

    2014-01-01

    We coupled a radiative transfer model and a soil hydrologic model (HYDRUS 1D) with an optimization routine to derive soil hydraulic parameters, surface roughness, and soil moisture of a tilled bare soil plot using measured brightness temperatures at 1.4 GHz (L-band), rainfall, and potential soil evaporation. The robustness of the approach was evaluated using five 28-d data sets representing different meteorological conditions. We considered two soil hydraulic property models: the unimodal Mualem-van Genuchten and the bimodal model of Durner. Microwave radiative transfer was modeled by three different approaches: the Fresnel equation with depth-averaged dielectric permittivity of either 2-or 5-cm-thick surface layers and a coherent radiative transfer model (CRTM) that accounts for vertical gradients in dielectric permittivity. Brightness temperatures simulated by the CRTM and the 2-cm-layer Fresnel model fitted well to the measured ones. L-band brightness temperatures are therefore related to the dielectric permittivity and soil moisture in a 2-cm-thick surface layer. The surface roughness parameter that was derived from brightness temperatures using inverse modeling was similar to direct estimates from laser profiler measurements. The laboratory-derived water retention curve was bimodal and could be retrieved consistently for the different periods from brightness temperatures using inverse modeling. A unimodal soil hydraulic property function underestimated the hydraulic conductivity near saturation. Surface soil moisture contents simulated using retrieved soil hydraulic parameters were compared with in situ measurements. Depth-specific calibration relations were essential to derive soil moisture from near-surface installed sensors. © Soil Science Society of America 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA.

  7. Crossing the divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence Rose Shepard

    2007-01-01

    “This is a divide.” Dad delivered this proclamation with the verve of a discoverer. This memory from childhood frequently surfaces as I struggle to interpret the topology, the complicated relationship between the topography and cultural history of my home, the Green River Basin, that great expanse of sagebrush/ bunchgrass steppe crowned with wilderness.

  8. Generalized plotting facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burris, R.D.; Gray, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    A command which causes the translation of any supported graphics file format to a format acceptable to any supported device was implemented on two linked DECsystem-10s. The processing of the command is divided into parsing and translating phases. In the parsing phase, information is extracted from the command and augmented by default data. The results of this phase are saved on disk, and the appropriate translating routine is invoked. Twenty-eight translating programs were implemented in this system. They support four different graphics file formats, including the DISSPLA and Calcomp formats, and seven different types of plotters, including Tektronix, Calcomp, and Versatec devices. Some of the plotters are devices linked to the DECsystem-10s, and some are driven by IBM System/360 computers linked via a communications network to the DECsystem-10s. The user of this facility can use any of the supported packages to create a file of graphics data, preview the file on an on-line scope, and, when satisfied, cause the same data to be plotted on a hard-copy device. All of the actions utilize a single simple command format. 2 figures.

  9. Improved NASTRAN plotting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Gordon C.

    1991-01-01

    The new 1991 COSMIC/NASTRAN version, compatible with the older versions, tries to remove some old constraints and make it easier to extract information from the plot file. It also includes some useful improvements and new enhancements. New features available in the 1991 version are described. They include a new PLT1 tape with simplified ASCII plot commands and short records, combined hidden and shrunk plot, an x-y-z coordinate system on all structural plots, element offset plot, improved character size control, improved FIND and NOFIND logic, a new NASPLOT post-prosessor to perform screen plotting or generate PostScript files, and a BASIC/NASTPLOT program for PC.

  10. A study on the impact of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose on the viscosity of PEG melt suspensions using surface plots and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ching Mien; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Chan, Lai Wah

    2015-04-01

    An understanding of the rheological behaviour of polymer melt suspensions is crucial in pharmaceutical manufacturing, especially when processed by spray congealing or melt extruding. However, a detailed comparison of the viscosities at each and every temperature and concentration between the various grades of adjuvants in the formulation will be tedious and time-consuming. Therefore, the statistical method, principal component analysis (PCA), was explored in this study. The composite formulations comprising polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) of ten different grades (K100 LV, K4M, K15M, K100M, E15 LV, E50 LV, E4M, F50 LV, F4M and Methocel VLV) at various concentrations were prepared and their viscosities at different temperatures determined. Surface plots showed that concentration of HPMC had a greater effect on the viscosity compared to temperature. Particle size and size distribution of HPMC played an important role in the viscosity of melt suspensions. Smaller particles led to a greater viscosity than larger particles. PCA was used to evaluate formulations of different viscosities. The complex viscosity profiles of the various formulations containing HPMC were successfully classified into three clusters of low, moderate and high viscosity. Formulations within each group showed similar viscosities despite differences in grade or concentration of HPMC. Formulations in the low viscosity cluster were found to be sprayable. PCA was able to differentiate the complex viscosity profiles of different formulations containing HPMC in an efficient and time-saving manner and provided an excellent visualisation of the data.

  11. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...... and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....

  12. Plasma physics plotting package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, D.H.

    1981-02-01

    We describe a package of plotting routines that do up to six two- or three-dimensional plots on a frame with minimal loss of resolution. The package now runs on a PDP-10 with PLOT-10 TCS primitives and on a Control Data Corporation-7600 and a Cray-1 with TV80LIB primitives on the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center network. The package is portable to other graphics systems because only the primitive plot calls are used from the underlying system's graphics package

  13. STILTS Plotting Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. B.

    2009-09-01

    The new plotting functionality in version 2.0 of STILTS is described. STILTS is a mature and powerful package for all kinds of table manipulation, and this version adds facilities for generating plots from one or more tables to its existing wide range of non-graphical capabilities. 2- and 3-dimensional scatter plots and 1-dimensional histograms may be generated using highly configurable style parameters. Features include multiple dataset overplotting, variable transparency, 1-, 2- or 3-dimensional symmetric or asymmetric error bars, higher-dimensional visualization using color, and textual point labeling. Vector and bitmapped output formats are supported. The plotting options provide enough flexibility to perform meaningful visualization on datasets from a few points up to tens of millions. Arbitrarily large datasets can be plotted without heavy memory usage.

  14. Distributed plot-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Groth; Bossen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    different socio-technical systems (paper-based and electronic patient records). Drawing on the theory of distributed cognition and narrative theory, primarily inspired by the work done within health care by Cheryl Mattingly, we propose that the creation of overview may be conceptualised as ‘distributed plot......-making’. Distributed cognition focuses on the role of artefacts, humans and their interaction in information processing, while narrative theory focuses on how humans create narratives through the plot construction. Hence, the concept of distributed plot-making highlights the distribution of information processing...

  15. PLOT-3D/BARC, Interactive 3-D Colour Plotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balhans Jayaswal

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: PLOT3D is a general purpose, interactive program, designed to draw three dimensional graphs, histograms, maps and stereo 3D plots, in single or multicolour, from arrays of points (x,y,z) under various options such as clipping, smoothening, shading, etc. using a built-in 3D interpolation function, and after arbitrary rotations about the three coordinate axes. 2 - Method of solution: For plotting a two variables dependent function, z(x,y) the program reads its z values in form of a matrix, z(i,j), in which the indices i and j specify the values of x and y, respectively, either by direct proportionality or through array variables, X(i) and Y(j). Thereafter, the program normalizes the data coordinates, transforms them to effect the orientation of the figure, and then draws axonometric projection using single floating horizon method for hidden lines elimination. In addition, a built-in 3D interpolation function allows numerous intermediate points to be generated and immediately plotted and thus helps in drawing 3D histograms or smoothening the plotted surface, and in shading. The program has two modes of hidden lines removal, both based on single floating horizon method. There exist five versions of this program as listed in item 7. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The size of z data matrix cannot exceed 115 x 115. The number of interpolations cannot exceed 1001 x 1001. In versions 4 and 5, the number of colours cannot exceed 16. In layout diagrams, the items cannot be anything but orthorhombic in shape

  16. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Dupont

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s430201.html . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at http://www.jstatsoft.org/index.php?vol=8 .

  17. Thickening the Plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Brian

    1979-01-01

    Examines the content of daytime serial dramas to determine how the narrative structure promotes a sense of involvement in viewers. Competing plot lines, the lack of a concrete sense of resolution, the pattern of episodes, and the audience's awareness of information kept secret from characters all contribute to audience involvement. (JMF)

  18. Air Data - Tile Plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    This tool plots daily AQI values for a specific location and time period. Each square or “tile” represents one day of the year and is color-coded based on the AQI level for that day. The legend tallies the number of days in each AQI category.

  19. Multiple plots in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Stefan McKinnon

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter I will investigate how to combine multiple plots into a single. The scenario is a dataset of a series of measurements, on three samples in three situations. There are many ways we can display this, e.g. 3d graphs or faceting. 3d graphs are not good for displaying static data so we...

  20. Continental Divide Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was created to show the proximity of the Continental Divide to the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in New Mexico. This work was done as part...

  1. Split-Plot Designs with Mirror Image Pairs as Subplots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyssedal, John; Kulahci, Murat; Bisgaard, Soren

    2011-01-01

    In this article we investigate two-level split-plot designs where the sub-plots consist of only two mirror image trials. Assuming third and higher order interactions negligible, we show that these designs divide the estimated effects into two orthogonal sub-spaces, separating sub-plot main effects...... appealing with effects of major interest free from full aliasing assuming that 3rd and higher order interactions are negligible....

  2. matplotlib plotting cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Devert, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    This book follows a cookbook style approach that puts orthogonal and non-redundant recipes in your hands. Rather than rehashing the user manual, the explanations expose the underlying logic behind Matplotlib. If you are an engineer or scientist who wants to create great visualizations with Python, rather than yet another specialized language, this is the book for you. While there are several very competent plotting packages, Matplotlib is ""just"" a Python module. Thus, if you know some Python already, you will feel at home from the first steps on. In case you are an application writer, you wo

  3. Contour plotting programs for printer and Calcomp plotter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moller, P.

    1980-07-01

    Contour plotting programs for plotting contour diagrams on printers or Calcomp plotters are described. The subroutines also exist in versions that are useful for the special application of finding minima and saddlepoints of nuclear potential energy surfaces generated by the subroutine PETR3 of another program package. For the general user, however, the most interesting aspect of the plotting package is probably the possibility of generating printer contour plots. The plotting of printer contour plots is a very fast and convenient way of displaying two-dimensional functions. 3 figures

  4. Assessing the performance of structure-from-motion photogrammetry and terrestrial lidar 1 at reconstructing soil surface microtopography of naturally vegetated plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil microtopography or soil roughness is a property of critical importance in many earth surface processes but is often difficult to measure. Advances in computer vision technologies have made image-based 3D depiction of the soil surface or Structure-from-Motion (SfM) available to many scientists ...

  5. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, Lineke

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  6. Plotting Gothic: A Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Murray

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paradox of the title is that while most historians of medieval architecture agree that a combination of geometric and arithmetic methods was generally used to lay out a medieval church, there has been little consensus on the specifics of the process in relation to the design of any particular edifice. I begin by identifying four premises which underlie the debate. I then ask whether the new technologies — laser scanning and computer assisted design/drafting applications — can help. A case study uses newly generated point cloud data from a laser scan of the choir of Beauvais Cathedral. Finally, the notion of ‘plotting’ introduces essential sociological, anthropological and rhetorical dimensions. In the spirit of Roland Barthes ('Le plaisir du texte' and Peter Brooks ('Reading for the Plot', we can understand the urgency with which the architectural historian may seek to unscramble the hidden codes of the building as compulsive ‘reading for the plot’.

  7. FLOWPLOT2, 2-D, 3-D Fluid Dynamic Plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, C.K.; Tunstall, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FLOWPLOT2 is a plotting program used with numerical or analytical fluid dynamics codes to create velocity vector plots, contour plots of up to three fluid parameters (e.g. pressure, density, and temperature), two-dimensional profile plots, three-dimensional curve plots, and/or three-dimensional surface plots for either the u or v velocity components. If the fluid dynamics code computes a transient or simulated time related solution, FLOWPLOT2 can also be used to generate these plots for any specified time interval. Multiple cases generating different plots for different time intervals may be run in one execution of the program. In addition, plots can be created for selected two- dimensional planes of three-dimensional steady-state problems. The user has the option of producing plots on CalComp or Versatec plotters or microfiche and of creating a compressed dataset before plotting. 2 - Method of solution: FLOWPLOT2 reads a dataset written by the fluid dynamics code. This dataset must be written in a specified format and must contain parametric data at the nodal points of a uniform or non-uniform rectangular grid formed by the intersection of the grid lines of the model. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 2500 nodes, 40 y-values for 2-D profile plots and 3-D curve plots, 20 contour values, 3 fluid parameters

  8. The Open Access Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfeng Xia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to review various aspects of the open access divide regarding the difference between those academics who support free sharing of data and scholarly output and those academics who do not. It provides a structured description by adopting the Ws doctrines emphasizing such questions as who, what, when, where and why for information-gathering. Using measurable variables to define a common expression of the open access divide, this study collects aggregated data from existing open access as well as non-open access publications including journal articles and extensive reports. The definition of the open access divide is integrated into the discussion of scholarship on a larger scale.

  9. Digital Leadership Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consortium for School Networking (NJ1), 2004

    2004-01-01

    This 2004 survey from the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) and Grunwald Associates includes data from 455 school district decision-makers for technology. The report points to large and growing disparities in funding for school technology and questions if these differences signal a growing digital divide. The survey reveals, schools are…

  10. A Town Divided

    OpenAIRE

    Waldron, Lucas H

    2018-01-01

    Residents of rural Patagonia, AZ are bitterly divided over mining. Half of the town supports Arizona Mining Inc., a Canadian mining company that bought up land near town for vast exploratory drilling. The other half of the town is fighting the mining company at every turn, seeking to preserve the region's unique wildlife and steer the economy toward environmental restoration.

  11. Line structures in recurrence plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Juergen

    2005-01-01

    Recurrence plots exhibit line structures which represent typical behaviour of the investigated system. The local slope of these line structures is connected with a specific transformation of the time scales of different segments of the phase-space trajectory. This provides us a better understanding of the structures occurring in recurrence plots. The relationship between the time-scales and line structures are of practical importance in cross recurrence plots. Using this relationship within cross recurrence plots, the time-scales of differently sampled or time-transformed measurements can be adjusted. An application to geophysical measurements illustrates the capability of this method for the adjustment of time-scales in different measurements

  12. General purpose film plotting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcquillan, C.

    1977-01-01

    The general purpose film plotting system which is a plot program design to handle a majority of the data tape formats presently available under OS/360 was discussed. The convenience of this program is due to the fact that the user merely describes the format of his data set and the type of data plots he desires. It processes the input data according to the given specifications. The output is generated on a tape which yields data plots when processed by the selected plotter. A summary of each job is produced on the printer.

  13. Variability of Measured Runoff and Soil Loss from Field Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Asadzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Field plots are widely used in studies related to the measurements of soil loss and modeling of erosion processes. Research efforts are needed to investigate factors affecting the data quality of plots. Spatial scale or size of plots is one of these factors which directly affects measuring runoff and soil loss by means of field plots. The effect of plot size on measured runoff or soil loss from natural plots is known as plot scale effect. On the other hand, variability of runoff and sediment yield from replicated filed plots is a main source of uncertainty in measurement of erosion from plots which should be considered in plot data interpretation processes. Therefore, there is a demand for knowledge of soil erosion processes occurring in plots of different sizes and of factors that determine natural variability, as a basis for obtaining soil loss data of good quality. This study was carried out to investigate the combined effects of these two factors by measurement of runoff and soil loss from replicated plots with different sizes. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the variability of runoff and soil loss data seven plots, differing in width and length, were constructed in a uniform slope of 9% at three replicates at Koohin Research Station in Qazvin province. The plots were ploughed up to down slope in September 2011. Each plot was isolated using soil beds with a height of 30 cm, to direct generated surface runoff to the lower part of the plots. Runoff collecting systems composed of gutters, pipes and tankswere installed at the end of each plot. During the two-year study period of 2011-2012, plots were maintained in bare conditions and runoff and soil loss were measured for each single event. Precipitation amounts and characteristics were directly measured by an automatic recording tipping-bucket rain gauge located about 200 m from the experimental plots. The entire runoff volume including eroded sediment was measured on

  14. Divide and Pacify

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    . …Divide and Pacify…suggests that extensive social policies can be politically efficacious strategies, while never forgetting that such measures are needed to alleviate people’s suffering in the midst of traumatic social changes. …the core message of this book is important, and it has a larger relevance...... across many settings in which democratic governments face the task of implementing costly reforms in complex and uncertain policy environments." –János Kornai, Harvard University "Divide and Pacify contains a provocative thesis about the manner in which political strategy was used to consolidate......, this well-written book is one straight line of thought, which makes it a pleasure to read and easy to capture and remember (and summarise). … drawing mainly on political science, sociology and psychology, Vanhuysse constructs an innovative explanatory framework in which the strategic use of social policy...

  15. Generalized Probability-Probability Plots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mushkudiani, N.A.; Einmahl, J.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    We introduce generalized Probability-Probability (P-P) plots in order to study the one-sample goodness-of-fit problem and the two-sample problem, for real valued data.These plots, that are constructed by indexing with the class of closed intervals, globally preserve the properties of classical P-P

  16. Mapped Plot Patch Size Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen

    2005-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that the mapped plot design is relatively easy to analyze and describes existing formulas for mean and variance estimators. New methods are developed for using mapped plots to estimate average patch size of condition classes. The patch size estimators require assumptions about the shape of the condition class, limiting their utility. They may...

  17. Monitoring the digital divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canessa, E.; Cerdeira, H.A.; Matthews, W.; Cottrell, R.L.

    2003-05-01

    It is increasingly important to support the large numbers of scientists working in remote areas and having low-bandwidth access to the Internet. This will continue to be the case for years to come since there is evidence from PingER performance measurements that the, so-called, digital divide is not decreasing. In this work, we review the collaborative work of The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste - a leading organization promoting science dissemination in the developing world- and SLAC in Stanford, to monitor by PingER, Universities and Research Institutions all over the developing world following the recent 'Recommendations of Trieste' to help bridge the digital divide. As a result, PingER's deployment now covers the real-time monitoring of worldwide Internet performance and, in particular, West and Central Africa for the first time. We report on the results from the ICTP sites and quantitatively identify regions with poor performance, identify trends, discuss experiences and future work. (author)

  18. Monitoring the Digital Divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, Les

    2003-01-01

    It is increasingly important to support the large numbers of scientists working in remote areas and having low bandwidth access to the Internet. This will continue to be the case for years to come since there is evidence from PingER performance measurements that the, so-called, digital divide is not decreasing. In this work, we review the collaborative work of The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste, a leading organization promoting science dissemination in the developing world- and SLAC in Stanford, to monitor by PingER, Universities and Research Institutions all over the developing world following the recent ''Recommendations of Trieste'' to help bridge the digital divide. As a result, PingER's deployment now covers the real-time monitoring of worldwide Internet performance and, in particular, West and Central Africa for the first time. We report on the results from the ICTP sites and quantitatively identify regions with poor performance, identify trends, discuss experiences and future work

  19. Plotting Orbital Trajectories For Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Adam R.

    1991-01-01

    Interactive Orbital Trajectory Planning Tool (EIVAN) computer program is forward-looking interactive orbit-trajectory-plotting software tool for use with proximity operations (operations occurring within 1-km sphere of space station) and other maneuvers. Developed to plot resulting trajectories, to provide better comprehension of effects of orbital mechanics, and to help user develop heuristics for planning missions on orbit. Program runs with Microsoft's Excel for execution on MacIntosh computer running MacIntosh OS.

  20. Normal probability plots with confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarangsi, Wanpen; Liu, Wei; Bretz, Frank; Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J; Wan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Normal probability plots are widely used as a statistical tool for assessing whether an observed simple random sample is drawn from a normally distributed population. The users, however, have to judge subjectively, if no objective rule is provided, whether the plotted points fall close to a straight line. In this paper, we focus on how a normal probability plot can be augmented by intervals for all the points so that, if the population distribution is normal, then all the points should fall into the corresponding intervals simultaneously with probability 1-α. These simultaneous 1-α probability intervals provide therefore an objective mean to judge whether the plotted points fall close to the straight line: the plotted points fall close to the straight line if and only if all the points fall into the corresponding intervals. The powers of several normal probability plot based (graphical) tests and the most popular nongraphical Anderson-Darling and Shapiro-Wilk tests are compared by simulation. Based on this comparison, recommendations are given in Section 3 on which graphical tests should be used in what circumstances. An example is provided to illustrate the methods. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Why do bacteria divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Vic

    2015-01-01

    The problem of not only how but also why cells divide can be tackled using recent ideas. One idea from the origins of life – Life as independent of its constituents – is that a living entity like a cell is a particular pattern of connectivity between its constituents. This means that if the growing cell were just to get bigger the average connectivity between its constituents per unit mass – its cellular connectivity – would decrease and the cell would lose its identity. The solution is division which restores connectivity. The corollary is that the cell senses decreasing cellular connectivity and uses this information to trigger division. A second idea from phenotypic diversity – Life on the Scales of Equilibria – is that a bacterium must find strategies that allow it to both survive and grow. This means that it has learnt to reconcile the opposing constraints that these strategies impose. The solution is that the cell cycle generates daughter cells with different phenotypes based on sufficiently complex equilibrium (E) and non-equilibrium (NE) cellular compounds and structures appropriate for survival and growth, respectively, alias ‘hyperstructures.’ The corollary is that the cell senses both the quantity of E material and the intensity of use of NE material and then uses this information to trigger the cell cycle. A third idea from artificial intelligence – Competitive Coherence – is that a cell selects the active subset of elements that actively determine its phenotype from a much larger set of available elements. This means that the selection of an active subset of a specific size and composition must be done so as to generate both a coherent cell state, in which the cell’s contents work together harmoniously, and a coherent sequence of cell states, each coherent with respect to itself and to an unpredictable environment. The solution is the use of a range of mechanisms ranging from hyperstructure dynamics to the cell cycle itself. PMID

  2. Efficiency of inventory plot patterns in quantitative analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each 1 ha plot was divided into 100 quadrats of 100 m2 each and diameter at breast height (dbh) of trees was recorded in each quadrat. The required time to ... It is concluded that use of standard sample sizes will help to harmonise a forestry database and to carry out comparisons at regional level. Keywords: efficiency ...

  3. Trellis plots as visual aids for analyzing split plot experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Menon, Anil

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of split plot experiments can be challenging due to a complicated error structure resulting from restrictions on complete randomization. Similarly, standard visualization methods do not provide the insight practitioners desire to understand the data, think of explanations, generate h...

  4. SUPERIMPOSED MESH PLOTTING IN MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. HENDRICKS

    2001-02-01

    The capability to plot superimposed meshes has been added to MCNP{trademark}. MCNP4C featured a superimposed mesh weight window generator which enabled users to set up geometries without having to subdivide geometric cells for variance reduction. The variance reduction was performed with weight windows on a rectangular or cylindrical mesh superimposed over the physical geometry. Experience with the new capability was favorable but also indicated that a number of enhancements would be very beneficial, particularly a means of visualizing the mesh and its values. The mathematics for plotting the mesh and its values is described here along with a description of other upgrades.

  5. An Unusual Application of NASTRAN Contour Plotting Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, S.; Gallo, M.; Wang, T.

    1985-01-01

    A procedure is presented for obtaining contour plots of any physical quantity defined on a number of points of the surface of a structure. Rigid Format 1 of HEAT approach in Cosmic NASTRAN is ALTERED to enable use of contour plotting capability for scalar quantities. The ALTERED DMAP sequence is given. Examples include temperature distribution on the face of a cooled laser mirror and the angle of incidence or a radome surface.

  6. A K-sample Homogeneity Test based on the Quantification of the p-p Plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, Jeroen; Wagenvoort, Rien; Marrewijk, van Charles

    2008-01-01

    We propose a quantification of the p-p plot that assigns equal weight to all distances between the respective distributions: the surface between the p-p plot and the diagonal. This surface is labelled the Harmonic Weighted Mass (HWM) index. We introduce the diagonal-deviation (d-d) plot that allows

  7. A K-sample Homogeneity Test based on the Quantification of the p-p Plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen (Jeroen); R. Wagenvoort (Rien); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a quantification of the p-p plot that assigns equal weight to all distances between the respective distributions: the surface between the p-p plot and the diagonal. This surface is labelled the Harmonic Weighted Mass (HWM) index. We introduce the diagonal-deviation (d-d) plot

  8. Heterogeneous Molecular Catalysis of Electrochemical Reactions: Volcano Plots and Catalytic Tafel Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costentin, Cyrille; Savéant, Jean-Michel

    2017-06-14

    We analyze here, in the framework of heterogeneous molecular catalysis, the reasons for the occurrence or nonoccurrence of volcanoes upon plotting the kinetics of the catalytic reaction versus the stabilization free energy of the primary intermediate of the catalytic process. As in the case of homogeneous molecular catalysis or catalysis by surface-active metallic sites, a strong motivation of such studies relates to modern energy challenges, particularly those involving small molecules, such as water, hydrogen, oxygen, proton, and carbon dioxide. This motivation is particularly pertinent for what concerns heterogeneous molecular catalysis, since it is commonly preferred to homogeneous molecular catalysis by the same molecules if only for chemical separation purposes and electrolytic cell architecture. As with the two other catalysis modes, the main drawback of the volcano plot approach is the basic assumption that the kinetic responses depend on a single descriptor, viz., the stabilization free energy of the primary intermediate. More comprehensive approaches, investigating the responses to the maximal number of experimental factors, and conveniently expressed as catalytic Tafel plots, should clearly be preferred. This is more so in the case of heterogeneous molecular catalysis in that additional transport factors in the supporting film may additionally affect the current-potential responses. This is attested by the noteworthy presence of maxima in catalytic Tafel plots as well as their dependence upon the cyclic voltammetric scan rate.

  9. Nuclear Zpif-type plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yugang

    2000-01-01

    Isospin dependent classical molecular dynamics model is used to investigate the nuclear disassembly of 129 Xe. Zpif-type plot in the field of linguistics is tested for the rank-classified cluster arrangement from this nuclear disassembly. It is found that the average cluster charge (or mass) of rank n in the charge (or mass) list is exactly inverse to its rank, i.e. there exists Zpif's law at the point of the liquid gas phase transition. This novel criterion can be used to diagnose the nuclear liquid gas phase transition experimentally and theoretically

  10. ABCASH plotting program users guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyer, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Automated Bar Coding of Air Samples at Hanford (ABCASH) system provides an integrated data collection, sample tracking, and data reporting system for radioactive particulate air filter samples. The ABCASH plotting program provides a graphical trend report for ABCASH of the performance of air sample results. This document provides an operational guide for using the program. Based on sample location identifier and date range, a trend chart of the available data is generated. The trend chart shows radiological activity versus time. General indications of directional trend of the concentrations in air over time may be discerned. Comparison limit set point values are also shown as derived from the ABCASH data base

  11. The digital divide: philosophical reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedyulina Marina Anatolevna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of digital divide itself is interesting for philosophical reflection as it lies at the crossroads of interests of social and political philosophy, philosophy of technology and epistemology, and these are just some of them. Due to the constant development of information technologies and the introduction of new technologies the digital divide is a dynamic problem. The main aim of this work is to analyse the conceptual and descriptive aspects of the problem of the digital divide, to get a more complete picture of the phenomenon. The digital divide is a complex problem that has social, political, cultural and ethical aspects.

  12. Sacrifice as a plot device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashikhmanova Natalya Alexandrovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is considered the plot device “sacrifice” as a meaningful component of the narrative. It sets a minimum of substantive meaning of this formation (the idea of getting something over the loss of something. The main types of sacrifice: sacrifice and self-sacrifice. Sacrifice means bringing something to sacrifice for the sake of an idea or someone else and implies a greater degree of external attributes. Self-sacrifice brings a loss of the intrinsic value of the character. Sacrifice as the action takes place consciously and, as a rule, does not require compensation in return. Victims sacrifice not only material things but spiritual as well. Their actions are certainly driven by the idea, which is of value. In the case of self-sacrifice victim is itself a victim. Present for sacrifice plays a certain role in the development of some of the stories of fabulous narratives. Search of the present can be a starting point in the development of fantastic narrative plot. As a sacrifice the present can be considered in three forms: in the form of material expression, in the form of immaterial substance, as well as a way to transfer the character into magical power through knowledge empowerment of its formulaic spells.

  13. AUTOMATED TECHNIQUE FOR CREATING LITHOLOGIC LOG PLOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Posavec

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents automated technique for creating lithologic log plots. Technique is based on three computer tools: Microsoft (MS Access program, LogPlot program, and Visual Basic (VB macros for MS Excel. MS Access ensures professional storage of lithologic data which can be in that way easier and faster entered, searched, updated, and also used for different purposes, while LogPlot provides tools for creating lithologic log plots. VB macros enable transfer of lithologic data from MS Access to LogPlot. Data stored in MS Access are exported in ASCII files which are later used by LogPlot for creation of lithologic log plots. Presented concept facilitates creation of lithologic log plots, and automated technique enables processing of a large number of data i.e. creation of lareg number lithologic log plots in a short period of time (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. Essays on the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Belal M. T.

    2013-01-01

    The digital divide is a phenomenon that is globally persistent, despite rapidly decreasing costs in technology. While much of the variance in the adoption and use of information communication technology (ICT) that defines the digital divide can be explained by socioeconomic and demographic variables, there is still significant unaccounted variance…

  15. Holey buckets! Monitoring plot-scale runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, D. E.; Stewart, R. D.; Abou Najm, M. R.; Selker, J. S.; Selker, F.; Van De Giesen, N.

    2011-12-01

    Measurement of plot-scale surface runoff is commonly achieved by diverting flow through a flume or tipping bucket system, or into a storage tank, such as bucket. The principle advantages of the "bucket method" are relative simplicity and low cost. The principle drawback is that the bucket requires frequent emptying during heavy runoff, unless the bucket volume is very large. As a solution to the problem of emptying the bucket while still retaining the properties of simplicity and economy, we used a holey bucket. Our "bucket" is vertical 4"-diameter ABS pipe, sealed at the bottom, and with holes along the side of the pipe. A screen in the pipe catches debris that could block the holes. The holes' diameters and locations were chosen to capture both low (100 L min-1) flows. Runoff is diverted into the top of the pipe. The runoff rate is determined from the water level and the rate of change in water level: the water level gives the flow rate out of the submerged holes (using Torricelli's Law) and the change in water level gives the rate of change in storage in the pipe. The runoff is calculated as the sum of the hole discharge and the rate of change in storage. A calibration parameter is applied to account for departures from assumptions of the theory. The design is currently being utilized to monitor runoff from experimental plots on a rural hillslope in Chile.

  16. Multiple hypothesis clustering in radar plot extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, A.G.; Theil, A.; Dorp, Ph. van; Ligthart, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    False plots and plots with inaccurate range and Doppler estimates may severely degrade the performance of tracking algorithms in radar systems. This paper describes how a multiple hypothesis clustering technique can be applied to mitigate the problems involved in plot extraction. The measures of

  17. New systems for photogrametric plotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Munoz, J.J.; Sarti Balsalobre, F.

    1995-01-01

    Ground photogrammetry is a highly useful technique for up-dating as-built documentation of nuclear power plants as it has the following advantages: - It reduces radiation exposure - It provides information concerning all the structures, equipment, components, pipe lines, etc, in the zone - it avoids errors made in the interpretation of drawings In the past, the application of non-topographic photogrammetry was limited by the need to use costly restitution equipment, until computer technology made it possible to operate complete photogrametric systems using a PC, digitizer, the appropriate software and a simple 35 mm camera. It is not necessary to use a tripod, or known the location of the camera or that the photographs are stereoscopic pairs. The plotting process is basically reduced to placing the photographs on the digitizing board, making the necessary adjustments and obtaining the coordinates of each point indicated. This paper explains the new photogrametric tools currently on the market, the theory behind them, and their advantages and disadvantages. It also describes some of the applications of advanced photogrammetry applied to design modifications in the nuclear sector, performed using the Empresarios Agrupados Metadat System. (Author)

  18. A Conductive Gel for the Plotting of Equipotential Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde-Torres, J.; González-Cardel, M.; Vega-Murguía, E. J.; Castillo-González, I.; Rodríguez-Nava, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a conductive gel that can be used to measure the electrical potential differences on its surface, and has enough consistency to plot equipotential lines. It has a gelation time of less than 10 min, and is suitable for implementing learning experiences in a physics teaching laboratory in a 90 min session. To…

  19. Getting Past the "Digital Divide"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Sean

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, "digital divide" has become a catchphrase for the stubborn disparity in IT resources between communities, especially in regard to education. Low-income, rural and minority populations have received special scrutiny as the technological "have-nots." This article presents success stories of educators who can work around obstacles…

  20. Dividing Attention Increases Operational Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleen McCrink

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When adding or subtracting two quantities, adults often compute an estimated outcome that is larger or smaller, respectively, than the actual outcome, a bias referred to as “operational momentum”. The effects of attention on operational momentum were investigated. Participants viewed a display in which two arrays of objects were added, or one array was subtracted from another array, and judged whether a subsequent outcome (probe array contained the correct or incorrect number of objects. In a baseline condition, only the arrays to be added or subtracted were viewed. In divided attention conditions, participants simultaneously viewed a sequence of colors or shapes, and judged which color (a non-spatial judgment or shape (a spatial judgment was repeated. Operational momentum occurred in all conditions, but was higher in divided attention conditions than in the baseline condition, primarily for addition problems. This pattern suggests that dividing attention, rather than decreasing operational momentum by decreasing attentional shifts, actually increased operational momentum. These results are consistent with a heightened use of arithmetic heuristics under conditions of divided attention.

  1. Fifth International Symposium on Recurrence Plot

    CERN Document Server

    Riley, Michael; Giuliani, Alessandro; Webber, Charles; Jr, Jr; Translational Recurrences : From Mathematical Theory to Real-World Applications

    2014-01-01

    This book features 13 papers presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Recurrence Plots, held August 2013 in Chicago, IL. It examines recent applications and developments in recurrence plots and recurrence quantifi cation analysis (RQA) with special emphasis on biological and cognitive systems and the analysis of coupled systems using cross-recurrence methods. Readers will discover new applications and insights into a range of systems provided by recurrence plot analysis and new theoretical and mathematical developments in recurrence plots. Recurrence plot based analysis is a powerful tool that operates on real-world complex systems that are nonlinear, non-stationary, noisy, of any statistical distribution, free of any particular model type, and not particularly long. Quantitative analyses promote the detection of system state changes, synchronized dynamical regimes, or classifi cation of system states. Th e book will be of interest to an interdisciplinary audience of recurrence plot users and researc...

  2. System for histogram entry, retrieval, and plotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, M.; Gallup, J.M.; Shlaer, S.; Spencer, N.

    1977-10-01

    This manual describes the systems for producing histograms and dot plots that were designed for use in connection with the Q general-purpose data-acquisition system. These systems allow for the creation of histograms; the entry, retrieval, and plotting of data in the form of histograms; and the dynamic display of scatter plots as data are acquired. Although the systems are designed for use with Q, they can also be used as a part of other applications. 3 figures

  3. Representing uncertainty on model analysis plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor I. Smith

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Model analysis provides a mechanism for representing student learning as measured by standard multiple-choice surveys. The model plot contains information regarding both how likely students in a particular class are to choose the correct answer and how likely they are to choose an answer consistent with a well-documented conceptual model. Unfortunately, Bao’s original presentation of the model plot did not include a way to represent uncertainty in these measurements. I present details of a method to add error bars to model plots by expanding the work of Sommer and Lindell. I also provide a template for generating model plots with error bars.

  4. An Excel macro for generating trilinear plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikaze, Steven G; Crowe, Allan S

    2007-01-01

    This computer note describes a method for creating trilinear plots in Microsoft Excel. Macros have been created in MS Excel's internal language: Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). A simple form has been set up to allow the user to input data from an Excel worksheet. The VBA macro is used to convert the triangular data (which consist of three columns of percentage data) into X-Y data. The macro then generates the axes, labels, and grid for the trilinear plot. The X-Y data are plotted as scatter data in Excel. By providing this macro in Excel, users can create trilinear plots in a quick, inexpensive manner.

  5. Plotting system for the MINCS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tadashi

    1990-08-01

    The plotting system for the MINCS code is described. The transient two-phase flow analysis code MINCS has been developed to provide a computational tool for analysing various two-phase flow phenomena in one-dimensional ducts. Two plotting systems, namely the SPLPLOT system and the SDPLOT system, can be used as the plotting functions. The SPLPLOT system is used for plotting time transients of variables, while the SDPLOT system is for spatial distributions. The SPLPLOT system is based on the SPLPACK system, which is used as a general tool for plotting results of transient analysis codes or experiments. The SDPLOT is based on the GPLP program, which is also regarded as one of the general plotting programs. In the SPLPLOT and the SDPLOT systems, the standardized data format called the SPL format is used in reading data to be plotted. The output data format of MINCS is translated into the SPL format by using the conversion system called the MINTOSPL system. In this report, how to use the plotting functions is described. (author)

  6. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  7. Reaction Order Ambiguity in Integrated Rate Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Integrated rate plots are frequently used in reaction kinetics to determine orders of reactions. It is often emphasised, when using this methodology in practice, that it is necessary to monitor the reaction to a substantial fraction of completion for these plots to yield unambiguous orders. The present article gives a theoretical and statistical…

  8. Digital data collection in forest dynamics plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Inman-Narahari; Christian Giardina; Rebecca Ostertag; Susan Cordell; Lawren Sack

    2010-01-01

    Summary 1. Computers are widely used in all aspects of research but their application to in-field data collection for forest plots has rarely been evaluated. 2. We developed digital data collection methods using ESRI mapping software and ruggedized field computers to map and measure ~30 000 trees in two 4-ha forest dynamics plots in wet and dry...

  9. Corrections for Cluster-Plot Slop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry T. Valentine; Mark J. Ducey; Jeffery H. Gove; Adrian Lanz; David L.R. Affleck

    2006-01-01

    Cluster-plot designs, including the design used by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the USDA Forest Service (FIA), are attended by a complicated boundary slopover problem. Slopover occurs where inclusion zones of objects of interest cross the boundary of the area of interest. The dispersed nature of inclusion zones that arise from the use of cluster plots...

  10. Divided by the Market, Divided by the State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Starke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the impact of income inequality and welfare state context on the extent to which the rich and poor share similar attitudes towards redistribution. It asks whether and how differences in attitudes, particularly those between income groups, are shaped by inequality...... and redistributive efforts. Based on a multi-level analysis of individual survey data across 47 countries at three points in time, the article shows that such an interaction of individual characteristics and the macro-context indeed matters considerably. While material self-interest, unsurprisingly, explains part...... of the individual differences, the analysis also shows, for the first time, that both high inequality and strongly redistributive policies divide public opinion along the lines of socioeconomic position. Put differently, while market inequality may be associated with less cohesive attitudes, a highly redistributive...

  11. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M report for 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W. (ESQ)

    2011-05-31

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2010 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to monitor the migration pathway of hydrogen-3 contaminated water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells and monitor for the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  12. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M, Report for 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.

    2010-04-21

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2009 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to monitor the migration pathway of hydrogen-3 contaminated water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells and monitor for the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  13. A first look at measurement error on FIA plots using blind plots in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanna Melson; David Azuma; Jeremy S. Fried

    2002-01-01

    Measurement error in the Forest Inventory and Analysis work of the Pacific Northwest Station was estimated with a recently implemented blind plot measurement protocol. A small subset of plots was revisited by a crew having limited knowledge of the first crew's measurements. This preliminary analysis of the first 18 months' blind plot data indicates that...

  14. Environment, information divide and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    Design of human environment is to be made with understanding human-human and human-environment relations and environmental behaviors of human beings, artifacts and natural things and overcoming their differences and contradictions. Information divide exists naturally due to various differences of human beings. Many problems in the area of nuclear energy seem to be derived from various differences and contradictions in central-local interests, between the particles concerned and unconcerned and also in human being-artifacts relations. In order to harmonize nuclear energy with the society, it is necessary to vanish differences and solve contradictions with redesigning environments of those problems in their context. Case studies are highly recommended with continuous efforts to develop more universal design methodology. Open access to information and data in science and technology is encouraged in the area of nuclear energy. (T. Tanaka)

  15. Market principles toward the land plots assessment

    OpenAIRE

    A. Koshel

    2015-01-01

    Market principles toward the agricultural land plots assessment and the features are analyzed. The detailed study of economic valuation principles of agricultural land is conducted. Application of the principles of such evaluation in the process of mass valuation is suggested

  16. Experimental Garden Plots for Botany Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodnicheva, V. V.; Vasil'eva, E. I.

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of the botany lessons used at two schools points out the need for fifth and sixth grade students to be taught the principles of plant life through observations made at an experimental garden plot at the school. (ND)

  17. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M report for 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N.W.

    1992-05-01

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for CY 1991 are presented. The surveillance program is the ongoing remedial action that resulted from the 1976--1978 radiological characterization of the site. That study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current program consists of sample collection and analysis of air, surface and subsurface water, and bottom sediment. The results of the analyses are used to (1) determine the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if buried radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and (3) generally characterize the radiological environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Tritiated water continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and surface stream. For many years it was the only radionclide found to have migrated in measurable quantities. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of borehole next to Plot M. The available data does not allow a firm conclusion as to whether the presence of this nuclide represents recent migration or movement that may have occurred before Plot M was capped. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site or those living in the vicinity.

  18. Simulation Branch Plotting and Utility Routines 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    rights or permission to manufacture , use, or sell any patented invention that may in any way be related thereto. IS This technical report has been...NOTES ■ „ FTN (Fortran IV Extended) Plotting package 2-D magnetohydrodynamics Microfilm BRAHMA SCOPE 3.2 -rr ,, net.0,sarv and identity by...maqnetohydrodynamics code BRAHMA . Section I is concerned with microfilm plotting routines. Section II is primarily concerned with utility routines

  19. Development of TRatioPlot in ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Gessinger-Befurt, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The ROOT data analysis and visualization framework is a software package which is widely used in physics, especially in high energy physics. A common visualization which has so far been lacking a direct implementation is the ratio plot, as well as a few similar types of plots. The scope and goal of the summer student project at CERN was to implement a class in ROOT itself, that can take care of the most common types of calculations, and produces high quality visuals.

  20. Using funnel plots in public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dover Douglas C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health surveillance is often concerned with the analysis of health outcomes over small areas. Funnel plots have been proposed as a useful tool for assessing and visualizing surveillance data, but their full utility has not been appreciated (for example, in the incorporation and interpretation of risk factors. Methods We investigate a way to simultaneously focus funnel plot analyses on direct policy implications while visually incorporating model fit and the effects of risk factors. Health survey data representing modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors are used in an analysis of 2007 small area motor vehicle mortality rates in Alberta, Canada. Results Small area variations in motor vehicle mortality in Alberta were well explained by the suite of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors. Funnel plots of raw rates and of risk adjusted rates lead to different conclusions; the analysis process highlights opportunities for intervention as risk factors are incorporated into the model. Maps based on funnel plot methods identify areas worthy of further investigation. Conclusions Funnel plots provide a useful tool to explore small area data and to routinely incorporate covariate relationships in surveillance analyses. The exploratory process has at each step a direct and useful policy-related result. Dealing thoughtfully with statistical overdispersion is a cornerstone to fully understanding funnel plots.

  1. Using funnel plots in public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dover, Douglas C; Schopflocher, Donald P

    2011-11-10

    Public health surveillance is often concerned with the analysis of health outcomes over small areas. Funnel plots have been proposed as a useful tool for assessing and visualizing surveillance data, but their full utility has not been appreciated (for example, in the incorporation and interpretation of risk factors). We investigate a way to simultaneously focus funnel plot analyses on direct policy implications while visually incorporating model fit and the effects of risk factors. Health survey data representing modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors are used in an analysis of 2007 small area motor vehicle mortality rates in Alberta, Canada. Small area variations in motor vehicle mortality in Alberta were well explained by the suite of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors. Funnel plots of raw rates and of risk adjusted rates lead to different conclusions; the analysis process highlights opportunities for intervention as risk factors are incorporated into the model. Maps based on funnel plot methods identify areas worthy of further investigation. Funnel plots provide a useful tool to explore small area data and to routinely incorporate covariate relationships in surveillance analyses. The exploratory process has at each step a direct and useful policy-related result. Dealing thoughtfully with statistical overdispersion is a cornerstone to fully understanding funnel plots.

  2. Dependency plots suggest the kinetic structure of ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magleby, K L; Song, L

    1992-08-22

    Ion channels are integral membrane proteins that regulate ionic flux through cell membranes by opening and closing (gating) their pores. The gating can be monitored by observing step changes in the current flowing through single channels, and analysis of the observed open and closed interval durations has provided a window to develop kinetic models for the gating process. One difficulty in developing such models has been to determine the connections (transition pathways) among the various kinetic states involved in the gating. To help overcome this difficulty we present a transform (dependency plot) of the single-channel data that can give immediate insight into the connections. A dependency plot is derived by calculating a contingency table from a two-dimensional (joint density) dwell-time distribution of adjacent open and closed intervals by assuming that the two classified criteria are the open and closed durations of each pair of adjacent intervals. A three-dimensional surface plot of the fractional difference between the numbers of observed interval pairs and the numbers expected if the durations of adjacent intervals are independent then gives the dependency plot. An excess of interval pairs in the dependency plot suggests that the open and closed states (or compound states) that give rise to the interval pairs in excess are directly connected. A deficit of interval pairs suggests that the open and closed states (or compound states) that give rise to the interval pairs in deficit are either not directly connected or that there are additional open-closed transition pathways arising from the directly connected states.

  3. [Comparative quality measurements part 3: funnel plots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, Jan; Lahmann, Nils

    2014-02-01

    Comparative quality measurements between organisations or institutions are common. Quality measures need to be standardised and risk adjusted. Random error must also be taken adequately into account. Rankings without consideration of the precision lead to flawed interpretations and enhances "gaming". Application of confidence intervals is one possibility to take chance variation into account. Funnel plots are modified control charts based on Statistical Process Control (SPC) theory. The quality measures are plotted against their sample size. Warning and control limits that are 2 or 3 standard deviations from the center line are added. With increasing group size the precision increases and so the control limits are forming a funnel. Data points within the control limits are considered to show common cause variation; data points outside special cause variation without the focus of spurious rankings. Funnel plots offer data based information about how to evaluate institutional performance within quality management contexts.

  4. 6th International Symposium on Recurrence Plots

    CERN Document Server

    Jr, Jr; Ioana, Cornel; Marwan, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The chapters in this book originate from the research work and contributions presented at the Sixth International Symposium on Recurrence Plots held in Grenoble, France in June 2015. Scientists from numerous disciplines gathered to exchange knowledge on recent applications and developments in recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis. This meeting was remarkable because of the obvious expansion of recurrence strategies (theory) and applications (practice) into ever-broadening fields of science. It discusses real-world systems from various fields, including mathematics, strange attractors, applied physics, physiology, medicine, environmental and earth sciences, as well as psychology and linguistics. Even readers not actively researching any of these particular systems will benefit from discovering how other scientists are finding practical non-linear solutions to specific problems. The book is of interest to an interdisciplinary audience of recurrence plot users and researchers interested in time...

  5. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  6. Application of mapped plots for single-owner forest surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen; Francis Roesch

    2009-01-01

    Mapped plots are used for the nation forest inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service. Mapped plots are also useful foro single ownership inventoires. Mapped plots can handle boundary overlap and can aprovide less variable estimates for specified forest conditions. Mapping is a good fit for fixed plot inventories where the fixed area plot is used for both mapping...

  7. Layer dividing and zone dividing of physical property of crust and deep structure in Jiangxi province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunhua; Yang Yaxin; Gong Yuling; Huang Linping

    2001-01-01

    On the base of summing experiences both at home and abroad, the Bugar gravitative anomalies are studied by major means of data processing. According to the anomalous character, three layer crust models (surface layer, middle layer in region and material layer under crust) are built up, depth of upper and bottom surfaces for every layer is calculated quantitatively, their varied characters of depth are studied and deep geological tectonics are outlined. The 'density' and 'mass' of every layer are calculated, and according to these two parameters, the shallow geological tectonics are researched. The relation-factor R between the surface altitude and Bugar gravitative anomalies are calculated and the stable or unstable crust zones are divided. The favorable mine zones for uranium deposit in Jiangxi Province are outlined

  8. Surveillance of site A and plot M, report for 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.; ESH/QA Oversight

    2008-03-25

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2007 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to: (1) monitor the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if other buried radionuclides have migrated, and (3) monitor the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  9. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M, Report for 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.

    2009-05-07

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2008 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to (1) monitor the migration pathway of hydrogen-3 contaminated water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if other buried radionuclides have migrated, and (3) monitor for the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  10. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M - Report for 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.; ESH/QA Oversight

    2007-05-07

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2006 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to (1) monitor the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (PlotM) to the hand pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if buried radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and (3) monitor the presence of radioactive and chemically hazardous materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red GateWoods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  11. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M - Report for 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.; ESH/QA Oversight

    2006-04-10

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2005 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby handpumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to (1) monitor the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the handpumped picnic wells, (2) establish if buried radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and (3) monitor the presence of radioactive and chemically hazardous materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  12. Representing Uncertainty on Model Analysis Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    2016-01-01

    Model analysis provides a mechanism for representing student learning as measured by standard multiple-choice surveys. The model plot contains information regarding both how likely students in a particular class are to choose the correct answer and how likely they are to choose an answer consistent with a well-documented conceptual model.…

  13. A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot has been constructed for simple fluids which is suitable for engineering computations in heat transfer. Volumetric expansion factors have been found useful in correlating heat transfer data over a wide range of operating conditions including liquids, gases and the near critical region.

  14. A K-sample homogeneity test based on the quantification of the p-p plot: The Harmonic Weighted Mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.; Wagenvoort, R.; van Marrewijk, C.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a quantification of the p-p plot that assigns equal weight to all distances between the respective distributions: the surface between the p-p plot and the diagonal. This surface is labelled the Harmonic Weighted Mass (HWM) index. We introduce the diagonal-deviation (d-d) plot that allows

  15. Power Divider for Waveforms Rich in Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, William Herbert, III

    2005-01-01

    A method for dividing the power of an electronic signal rich in harmonics involves the use of an improved divider topology. A divider designed with this topology could be used, for example, to propagate a square-wave signal in an amplifier designed with a push-pull configuration to enable the generation of more power than could be generated in another configuration.

  16. Tech, Teachers & Teens: Bridging the Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuht, Amy Colcord; Colcord, Cean

    2011-01-01

    In past decades, the "digital divide" referred to the gap between those who could afford access to technology and those who could not. The divide has shifted in recent years to reflect the growing technological chasm between teachers and their students: today's schools and teenagers' worlds. The digital divide is widening and deepening…

  17. The First and Second Digital Divides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attewell, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Describes the digital divide, the technology gap between the people who have technology (information haves) and those without technology (information have-nots). Discusses that the first digital divide is access to technology; and addresses the second digital divide, computer use, focusing on computers at school and at home. (CMK)

  18. Validity of the t-plot method to assess microporosity in hierarchical micro/mesoporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarneau, Anne; Villemot, François; Rodriguez, Jeremy; Fajula, François; Coasne, Benoit

    2014-11-11

    The t-plot method is a well-known technique which allows determining the micro- and/or mesoporous volumes and the specific surface area of a sample by comparison with a reference adsorption isotherm of a nonporous material having the same surface chemistry. In this paper, the validity of the t-plot method is discussed in the case of hierarchical porous materials exhibiting both micro- and mesoporosities. Different hierarchical zeolites with MCM-41 type ordered mesoporosity are prepared using pseudomorphic transformation. For comparison, we also consider simple mechanical mixtures of microporous and mesoporous materials. We first show an intrinsic failure of the t-plot method; this method does not describe the fact that, for a given surface chemistry and pressure, the thickness of the film adsorbed in micropores or small mesopores (abacus is given to correct the underestimated microporous volume by the t-plot method.

  19. FLOWCHART; a computer program for plotting flowcharts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Bernice

    1982-01-01

    The computer program FLOWCHART can be used to very quickly and easily produce flowcharts of high quality for publication. FLOWCHART centers each element or block of text that it processes on one of a set of (imaginary) vertical lines. It can enclose a text block in a rectangle, circle or other selected figure. It can draw a 'line connecting the midpoint of any side of any figure with the midpoint of any side of any other figure and insert an arrow pointing in the direction of flow. It can write 'yes' or 'no' next to the line joining two figures. FLOWCHART creates flowcharts using some basic plotting subroutine* which permit plots to be generated interactively and inspected on a Tektronix compatible graphics screen or plotted in a deferred mode on a Houston Instruments 42' pen plotter. The size of the plot, character set and character height in inches are inputs to the program. Plots generated using the pen plotter can be up to 42' high--the larger size plots being directly usable as visual aids in a talk. FLOWCHART centers each block of text on an imaginary column line. (The number of columns and column width are specified as input.) The midpoint of the longest line of text within the block is defined to be the center of the block and is placed on the column line. The spacing of individual words within the block is not altered when the block is positioned. The program writes the first block of text in a designated column and continues placing each subsequent block below the previous block in the same column. A block of text may be placed in a different column by specifying the number of the column and an earlier block of text with which the new block is to be aligned. If block zero is given as the earlier block, the new text is placed in the new column continuing down the page below the previous block. Optionally a column and number of inches from the top of the page may be given for positioning the next block of text. The program will normally draw one of five

  20. A comparison of trenched plot techniques for partitioning soil respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Bronson, Dustin; Bladyka, Emma; Gower, Stith T.

    2011-07-16

    Partitioning the soil surface CO{sub 2} flux (R{sub S}) flux is an important step in understanding ecosystem-level carbon cycling, given that R{sub S} is poorly constrained and its source components may have different responses to climate change. Trenched plots are a classic method of separating the R{sub S} source fluxes, but labor-intensive and may cause considerable disturbance to the soil environment. This study tested if various methods of plant suppression in trenched plots affected R{sub S} fluxes, quantified the R{sub S} response to soil temperature and moisture changes, and estimated the heterotrophic contribution to R{sub S}. It was performed in a boreal black spruce (Picea mariana) plantation, using a complete randomized design, during the 2007 growing season (May-November). Trenched plots had significantly lower R{sub S} than control plots, with differences appearing {approx}100 days after trenching; spatial variability doubled after trenching but then declined throughout the experiment. Most trenching treatments had significantly lower (by {approx}0.5 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) R{sub S} than the controls, and there was no significant difference in R{sub S} among the various trenching treatments. Soil temperature at 2 cm explained more R{sub S} variability than did 10-cm temperature or soil moisture. Temperature sensitivity (Q10) declined in the control plots from {approx}2.6 (at 5 C) to {approx}1.6 (at 15 C); trenched plots values were higher, from 3.1 at 5 C to 1.9 at 15 C. We estimated R{sub S} for the study period to be 241 {+-} 40 g C m{sup -2}, with roots contributing 64% of R{sub S} after accounting for fine root decay, and 293 g C m{sup -2} for the entire year. These findings suggest that laborious hand weeding of vegetation may be usefully replaced by other methods, easing future studies of this large and poorly-understood carbon flux.

  1. Master plot analysis of microcracking in graphite/epoxy and graphite/PEEK laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, John A.; Hu, Shoufeng; Bark, Jong Song

    1993-01-01

    We used a variational stress analysis and an energy release rate failure criterion to construct a master plot analysis of matrix microcracking. In the master plot, the results for all laminates of a single material are predicted to fall on a single line whose slope gives the microcracking toughness of the material. Experimental results from 18 different layups of AS4/3501-6 laminates show that the master plot analysis can explain all observations. In particular, it can explain the differences between microcracking of central 90 deg plies and of free-surface 90 deg plies. Experimental results from two different AS4/PEEK laminates tested at different temperatures can be explained by a modified master plot that accounts for changes in the residual thermal stresses. Finally, we constructed similar master plot analyses for previous literature microcracking models. All microcracking theories that ignore the thickness dependence of the stresses gave poor results.

  2. Producing 3D Plots in MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    sim tut Simulation Tutorial Interactive Media Element This interactive tutorial reviews using MATLAB to create 3-D plots of the function Z(X,Y). The MATLAB functions covered in this tutorial are: meshgrid, mesh, grid, view, xlabel, ylabel, zlabel, clabel, contour, titleThe interactions involve entering MATLAB instructions and observing the outcomes. Self-check questions are provided to help learners determine their level of understanding of the content presented. EC1010 I...

  3. Analog and digital dividers for mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipov, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    Errors of four different types of stress dividers used in statical mass-spectrometers for determination of mass number by accelerating stress are analyzed. The simplest flowsheet of the analog divider comprises operation amplifier, in the chain of the negative feedback of which a multiplication device on differential cascade is switched- in. This analog divider has high sensitivity to temperature and high error approximately 5%. Application of the multiplier on differential cascade with normalization permits to increase temperature stability and decrease the error up to 1%. Another type of the analog divider is a logarithmic divider the error of which is constant within the whole operation range and it constitutes 1-5%. The digital divider with a digital-analog transformer (DAT) has the error of +-0.015% which is determined by the error of detectors and resistance of keys in the locked state. Considered is the design of a divider based on transformation of the inlet stress into the time period. The error of the divider is determined in this case mainly by stress of the zero shift of the operation amplifier (it should be compensated) and relative threshold stability of the comparator triggering which equals (2-3)x10 -4 . It is noted that the divider with DAT application and the divider with the use of stress transformation within the time period are most perspective ones for statical mass-spectrometers [ru

  4. AvoPlot: An extensible scientific plotting tool based on matplotlib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nial Peters

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AvoPlot is a simple-to-use graphical plotting program written in Python and making extensive use of the matplotlib plotting library. It can be found at http://code.google.com/p/avoplot/. In addition to providing a user-friendly interface to the powerful capabilities of the matplotlib library, it also offers users the possibility of extending its functionality by creating plug-ins. These can import specific types of data into the interface and also provide new tools for manipulating them. In this respect, AvoPlot is a convenient platform for researchers to build their own data analysis tools on top of, as well as being a useful standalone program.

  5. Compact Unequal Power Divider with Filtering Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Qiang Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel unequal power divider with bandpass responses. The proposed power divider consists of five resonators and a resistor. The power division ratio is controlled by altering the coupling strength among the resonators. The output ports have the characteristic impedance of 50 Ω and impedance transformers in classical Wilkinson power dividers are not required in this design. Use of resonators enables the filtering function of the power divider. Two transmission zeros are generated near the passband edges, resulting in quasielliptic bandpass responses. For validation, a 2 : 1 filtering power divider is implemented. The fabricated circuit size is 0.22 λg × 0.08 λg, featuring compact size for unequal filtering power dividers, which is suitable for the feeding networks of antenna arrays.

  6. Fast frequency divider circuit using combinational logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helinski, Ryan

    2017-05-30

    The various technologies presented herein relate to performing on-chip frequency division of an operating frequency of a ring oscillator (RO). Per the various embodiments herein, a conflict between RO size versus operational frequency can be addressed by dividing the output frequency of the RO to a frequency that can be measured on-chip. A frequency divider circuit (comprising NOR gates and latches, for example) can be utilized in conjunction with the RO on the chip. In an embodiment, the frequency divider circuit can include a pair of latches coupled to the RO to facilitate dividing the oscillating frequency of the RO by 2. In another embodiment, the frequency divider circuit can include four latches (operating in pairs) coupled to the RO to facilitate dividing the oscillating frequency of the RO by 4. A plurality of ROs can be MUXed to the plurality of ROs by a single oscillation-counting circuit.

  7. Evaluation of a simple, small-plot meteorological technique for measurement of ammonia emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilms Pedersen, Simon; Scotto di Perta, Ester; Hafner, Sasha

    2018-01-01

    LS method provided valid results when reducing the plot radius from the standard 20 m to 10 m, or even 5 m, provided that the ALPHA samplers were exposed for at least 5 or 6 h. Emission from 200 kg urea-N ha-1 was between 20 and 30 kg N ha-1 in the two trials. The cost for one study running for one week...... are regularly developed, and their efficacy needs to be tested using accurate methods. To date, a major obstacle to many available emission measurement techniques is the requirement of large plot sizes of homogeneous surface characteristics, which particularly is a challenge to the number of plot......-level replicates that can be carried out on a field providing uniform surface characteristics throughout. The objectives of this research were to test three different methods for measuring NH3 flux when applied to small plots (methods and to determine...

  8. Using 7Be to document soil erosion on the weed plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bo; Zhang Fengbao; Yang Mingyi

    2013-01-01

    Be tracing technology was applied to document soil erosion on the bare plot and weed plot, and compae soil erosion rate with the calculated rate. Results indicated that vegetation cover had obvious effect on the estimate of soil erosion rate on the weed plot using 7 Be measurement. Therefore, a factor of vegetation had been introduced into the Walling's model of converting 7 Be activity to soil erosion rate for estimating soil erosion rate on the weed slope surface. It was found that the soil erosion rates calculated by modified model were well close to the measured values on the weed plot, which illustrated that the modified model could be well used to estimate the rates of soil loss on the weed slope surface. These findings provide effective means for further study on the relationship between vegetation cover and soil erosion. (authors)

  9. From research plots to prototype biomass plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, W.A.; Vanstone, B.J.; Gambles, R.L.; Zsuffa, L. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    The development of biomass energy plantations is now expanding from the research plot phase into the next level of development at larger scale plantings. This is necessary to provide: more accurate information on biomass yields, realistic production cost figures, venues to test harvesting equipment, demonstration sites for potential producers, and a supply of feedstock for prototype conversion facilities. The paper will discuss some of these objectives and some of the challenges encountered in the scale-up process associated with a willow prototype plantation project currently under development in Eastern Canada.

  10. Social Welfare Implications of the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjin; Lee, Byungtae; Menon, Nirup M.

    2009-01-01

    The Internet plays a critical role in informing individuals about society, politics, business, and the environment. So much so that it has been said that the digital divide makes the segment of society on the ''right side'' of the divide (the digitally endowed group) better off and that on the ''wrong side'' (the digitally challenged group) worse…

  11. New Media and the Digital Divide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Wright, James D.

    2015-01-01

    During the 1990s, researchers and policy makers began discussing the presence of a so-called ‘digital divide,’ a distinction of people who do and do not have access to information and communication technologies. The concept of the digital divide stems from a comparative perspective of social and

  12. The Digital Divide Revisited: What Is Next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    As soon as the Internet came into existence and the World Wide Web was introduced to make Internet utilization much easier, leaders have been worried about the "digital divide." The digital divide refers to the inequality of access to information services. There has been marked improvements over the last 20 years, however the poorest…

  13. Hypothetical Outcome Plots Outperform Error Bars and Violin Plots for Inferences about Reliability of Variable Ordering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullman, Jessica; Resnick, Paul; Adar, Eytan

    2015-01-01

    Many visual depictions of probability distributions, such as error bars, are difficult for users to accurately interpret. We present and study an alternative representation, Hypothetical Outcome Plots (HOPs), that animates a finite set of individual draws. In contrast to the statistical background required to interpret many static representations of distributions, HOPs require relatively little background knowledge to interpret. Instead, HOPs enables viewers to infer properties of the distribution using mental processes like counting and integration. We conducted an experiment comparing HOPs to error bars and violin plots. With HOPs, people made much more accurate judgments about plots of two and three quantities. Accuracy was similar with all three representations for most questions about distributions of a single quantity.

  14. Hypothetical Outcome Plots Outperform Error Bars and Violin Plots for Inferences about Reliability of Variable Ordering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hullman

    Full Text Available Many visual depictions of probability distributions, such as error bars, are difficult for users to accurately interpret. We present and study an alternative representation, Hypothetical Outcome Plots (HOPs, that animates a finite set of individual draws. In contrast to the statistical background required to interpret many static representations of distributions, HOPs require relatively little background knowledge to interpret. Instead, HOPs enables viewers to infer properties of the distribution using mental processes like counting and integration. We conducted an experiment comparing HOPs to error bars and violin plots. With HOPs, people made much more accurate judgments about plots of two and three quantities. Accuracy was similar with all three representations for most questions about distributions of a single quantity.

  15. Split-plot designs for multistage experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Tyssedal, John

    2016-01-01

    Most of today’s complex systems and processes involve several stages through which input or the raw material has to go before the final product is obtained. Also in many cases factors at different stages interact. Therefore, a holistic approach for experimentation that considers all stages...... on the Kronecker product representation of orthogonal designs and can be used for any number of stages, for various numbers of subplots and for different number of subplots for each stage. The procedure is demonstrated on both regular and nonregular designs and provides the maximum number of factors that can...... be accommodated in each stage. Furthermore, split-plot designs for multistage experiments with good projective properties are also provided....

  16. Tracker Alignment Performance Plots after Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    During the LHC shutdown in Winter 2016/17, the CMS pixel detector, the inner component of the CMS Tracker, was replaced by the Phase-1 upgrade detector. Among others improvements, the new pixel detector consists of four instead of three layers in the central barrel region (BPIX) and three instead of two disks in the endcap regions (FPIX). In this report, performance plots of pixel detector alignment results are presented, which were obtained with both cosmic-ray and pp collision data acquired at the beginning of the 2017 LHC operation. Alignment constants have been derived for each data-taking period to the level of single module positions in both the pixel and the strip detectors. The complete understanding of the alignment and biases was derived by using two algorithms, Millepede-II and HipPy. The results confirm each other.

  17. Practical Parallel Divide-and-Conquer Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hardwick, Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis shows that by restricting the problem set to that of data-parallel divide and conquer algorithms I can maintain the expressibility of full nested data-parallel languages while achieving...

  18. Divide and Recombine for Large Complex Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Much more common in practice is a division based on the subject matter. The data are divided by conditioning on variables important to the ...divided by conditioning on variables important to the analysis. For example, in a collaboration between faculty and students in Purdue’s Statistics...XDATA program. But many others were those analyzed by members of the team who were matter experts in certain subject matter areas. These were live

  19. 33 CFR 164.38 - Automatic radar plotting aids (ARPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic radar plotting aids... plotting aids (ARPA). (a) The following definitions are used in this section— Bulk means material in any... Radar Plotting Aids” (Appendix A), and that has both audible and visual alarms, must be installed as...

  20. "Enlivening and - Dividing": An Aporia of Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Christian Hönes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Verdana;} In 1798, Karl August Böttiger paid a nocturnal visit to the Gallery of Antiques in Dresden, illuminating the statues with a torch. At first glance, this seems to be yet another example of a popular practice for visiting galleries c.1800. Illuminating the sculptures by torchlight was a popular means of enlivening the objects, set in motion by the light flickering on their surfaces. The collections were thus meant to become a place where cold, white stone comes to life, and where the beholder becomes part of a revived antiquity.This was precisely what Böttiger intended, too. But to him, the effect of the torchlight appeared to be, as he wrote, “enlivening and – dividing!” The torchlight highlighted not only the beauty of the sculptures but also their modern restorations. Böttiger apparently failed to experience the living presence of the antique celebrated by many of his contemporaries (e.g. Goethe, Moritz.This essay focuses on the consequence of such a perception of sculptures as historically multi-layered objects. Böttiger’s experience resulted in a problematic situation. In trying to view the sculptures as contemporaries, he hoped to become ancient himself. But this operation failed in the moment when the sculptures themselves appeared to be anachronistic, impure palimpsests. In consequence, galleries may not only be the place were art history as chronological Stilgeschichte was born. They may also be the site where this perception changed into the experience of a more chaotic shape of time.

  1. Divided Differences of Multivariate Implicit Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Muntingh, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Under general conditions, the equation $g(x^1, ..., x^q, y) = 0$ implicitly defines $y$ locally as a function of $x^1, ..., x^q$. In this article, we express divided differences of $y$ in terms of divided differences of $g$, generalizing a recent formula for the case where $y$ is univariate. The formula involves a sum over a combinatorial structure whose elements can be viewed either as polygonal partitions or as plane trees. Through this connection we prove as a corollary a formula for deriv...

  2. iCanPlot: visual exploration of high-throughput omics data using interactive Canvas plotting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit U Sinha

    Full Text Available Increasing use of high throughput genomic scale assays requires effective visualization and analysis techniques to facilitate data interpretation. Moreover, existing tools often require programming skills, which discourages bench scientists from examining their own data. We have created iCanPlot, a compelling platform for visual data exploration based on the latest technologies. Using the recently adopted HTML5 Canvas element, we have developed a highly interactive tool to visualize tabular data and identify interesting patterns in an intuitive fashion without the need of any specialized computing skills. A module for geneset overlap analysis has been implemented on the Google App Engine platform: when the user selects a region of interest in the plot, the genes in the region are analyzed on the fly. The visualization and analysis are amalgamated for a seamless experience. Further, users can easily upload their data for analysis--which also makes it simple to share the analysis with collaborators. We illustrate the power of iCanPlot by showing an example of how it can be used to interpret histone modifications in the context of gene expression.

  3. iCanPlot: visual exploration of high-throughput omics data using interactive Canvas plotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Amit U; Armstrong, Scott A

    2012-01-01

    Increasing use of high throughput genomic scale assays requires effective visualization and analysis techniques to facilitate data interpretation. Moreover, existing tools often require programming skills, which discourages bench scientists from examining their own data. We have created iCanPlot, a compelling platform for visual data exploration based on the latest technologies. Using the recently adopted HTML5 Canvas element, we have developed a highly interactive tool to visualize tabular data and identify interesting patterns in an intuitive fashion without the need of any specialized computing skills. A module for geneset overlap analysis has been implemented on the Google App Engine platform: when the user selects a region of interest in the plot, the genes in the region are analyzed on the fly. The visualization and analysis are amalgamated for a seamless experience. Further, users can easily upload their data for analysis--which also makes it simple to share the analysis with collaborators. We illustrate the power of iCanPlot by showing an example of how it can be used to interpret histone modifications in the context of gene expression.

  4. Automatic Classification of Station Quality by Image Based Pattern Recognition of Ppsd Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, B.; Herrnkind, S.

    2017-12-01

    The number of seismic stations is growing and it became common practice to share station waveform data in real-time with the main data centers as IRIS, GEOFON, ORFEUS and RESIF. This made analyzing station performance of increasing importance for automatic real-time processing and station selection. The value of a station depends on different factors as quality and quantity of the data, location of the site and general station density in the surrounding area and finally the type of application it can be used for. The approach described by McNamara and Boaz (2006) became standard in the last decade. It incorporates a probability density function (PDF) to display the distribution of seismic power spectral density (PSD). The low noise model (LNM) and high noise model (HNM) introduced by Peterson (1993) are also displayed in the PPSD plots introduced by McNamara and Boaz allowing an estimation of the station quality. Here we describe how we established an automatic station quality classification module using image based pattern recognition on PPSD plots. The plots were split into 4 bands: short-period characteristics (0.1-0.8 s), body wave characteristics (0.8-5 s), microseismic characteristics (5-12 s) and long-period characteristics (12-100 s). The module sqeval connects to a SeedLink server, checks available stations, requests PPSD plots through the Mustang service from IRIS or PQLX/SQLX or from GIS (gempa Image Server), a module to generate different kind of images as trace plots, map plots, helicorder plots or PPSD plots. It compares the image based quality patterns for the different period bands with the retrieved PPSD plot. The quality of a station is divided into 5 classes for each of the 4 bands. Classes A, B, C, D define regular quality between LNM and HNM while the fifth class represents out of order stations with gain problems, missing data etc. Over all period bands about 100 different patterns are required to classify most of the stations available on the

  5. Young People's Internet Use: Divided or Diversified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonaert, Tom; Vettenburg, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    This article critically analyses research on young people's internet use. Based on a literature analysis, it examines which young people do what on the internet. These results invite a reflection on the dominant discourse on the digital divide. Within this discourse, there is a strong focus on the use of the internet for information purposes only,…

  6. Digital divide research, achievements and shortcomings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    From the end of the 1990s onwards the digital divide, commonly defined as the gap between those who have and do not have access to computers and the Internet, has been a central issue on the scholarly and political agenda of new media development. This article makes an inventory of 5 years of

  7. The electronic health record: a digital divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, John

    2007-10-01

    The gap between EHR adoption among larger providers versus adoption by smaller or rural providers has caused a "digital divide" that could threaten smaller providers' survival in the years ahead. Closing this gap will require the collective action of providers, payers, and government.

  8. Analyzing Broadband Divide in the Farming Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2013-01-01

    , upstream and downstream connection. The main constraint is that farms are naturally located in rural areas where the required access broadband data rates are not available. This paper studies the broadband divide in relation to the Danish agricultural sector. Results show how there is an important...

  9. Democratisation and Conflict in Ethnically Divided Societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorrath, Judith; Krebs, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews three important factors in the academic debate on ethnic civil wars: the role of ethnicity in causing and structuring violence, the spread of ethnic civil wars once they have started, and the influence of democratic transitions in divided societies. The review displays the range

  10. Bridging the digital divide with mobile services

    CERN Document Server

    Yelton, Andromeda

    2013-01-01

    In this issue of Library Technology Reports, Andromeda Yelton shows how libraries can build on the breadth of this population to help bridge the digital divide and provide even greater access to information. Yelton breaks down the demographics of mobile internet users, provides examples of how different libraries are reaching out to these populations, and suggests what the future may hold for this trend.

  11. Divide and Multiply: Baptist Diversity in Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgan, Howard

    1996-01-01

    Baptists' propensity for splitting apart arises from the faith's avowed love of theological argument. Gives an overview of Baptist denominations, and identifies the main issues that divide them: atonement, predestination, the nature and origins of good and evil, worship practices, church governance, gender issues, and other social and cultural…

  12. From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de los Santos, Gerardo E., Ed.; de los Santos, Alfredo G., Jr., Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

    This publication is one of many efforts of the League for Innovation in the Community College to address the issue of societal technology access and learning needs. This work addresses the issue of the digital divide, which includes the often conflicting perspectives of information technology (IT) access and literacy needs held by government…

  13. Conquering the digital divide: Botswana and South Korea digital divide status and interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonofo C. Sedimo

    2011-11-01

    Objectives: Bridging the digital divide and narrowing the intra-national divide brings about global information and communication technology (ICT usage that translates into changing work patterns and eventually transformed economies. This article outlines the different interventions implemented in Botswana to bridge the divide. The South Korean experience in bridging the divide is discussed so as to serve as lessons on how to effectively bridge the divide to Botswana’s initiatives. Method: Using a mix of exploratory and empirical study, this article presents the findings on the status of ICT uptake in Botswana and investigates the level of the digital divide in the country. Results: The results of the study show that the digital divide is much more evident in Botswana than in South Korea. South Korea has put in place robust strategic initiatives towards reducing the digital divide and this has largely transcended into its transformation into a full-fledged knowledge society. Conclusion: This article is timely as it unearths the different pointers that may be utilised in policy formation and what interventions need to be taken at both the individual and national level to bridge the digital divide.

  14. The rainfall plot: its motivation, characteristics and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanska, Diana; Vodák, Daniel; Lund-Andersen, Christin; Salvatore, Stefania; Hovig, Eivind; Sandve, Geir Kjetil

    2017-05-18

    A visualization referred to as rainfall plot has recently gained popularity in genome data analysis. The plot is mostly used for illustrating the distribution of somatic cancer mutations along a reference genome, typically aiming to identify mutation hotspots. In general terms, the rainfall plot can be seen as a scatter plot showing the location of events on the x-axis versus the distance between consecutive events on the y-axis. Despite its frequent use, the motivation for applying this particular visualization and the appropriateness of its usage have never been critically addressed in detail. We show that the rainfall plot allows visual detection even for events occurring at high frequency over very short distances. In addition, event clustering at multiple scales may be detected as distinct horizontal bands in rainfall plots. At the same time, due to the limited size of standard figures, rainfall plots might suffer from inability to distinguish overlapping events, especially when multiple datasets are plotted in the same figure. We demonstrate the consequences of plot congestion, which results in obscured visual data interpretations. This work provides the first comprehensive survey of the characteristics and proper usage of rainfall plots. We find that the rainfall plot is able to convey a large amount of information without any need for parameterization or tuning. However, we also demonstrate how plot congestion and the use of a logarithmic y-axis may result in obscured visual data interpretations. To aid the productive utilization of rainfall plots, we demonstrate their characteristics and potential pitfalls using both simulated and real data, and provide a set of practical guidelines for their proper interpretation and usage.

  15. Measuring water and sediment discharge from a road plot with a settling basin and tipping bucket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Black; Charles H. Luce

    2013-01-01

    A simple empirical method quantifies water and sediment production from a forest road surface, and is well suited for calibration and validation of road sediment models. To apply this quantitative method, the hydrologic technician installs bordered plots on existing typical road segments and measures coarse sediment production in a settling tank. When a tipping bucket...

  16. Quantifying the risk of error when interpreting funnel plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Mark

    2015-03-11

    Funnel plots are widely used to investigate possible publication bias in meta-analyses. There has, however, been little formal assessment of whether a visual inspection of a funnel plot is sufficient to identify publication bias. Visual assessment of bias in a funnel plot is quantified using two new statistics: the Imbalance and the Asymmetry Distance, both intended to replicate how a funnel plot is typically assessed. A simulation study was performed to assess the performance of these two statistics for identifying publication bias. The two statistics both have high type I error and low statistical power, unless the number of studies in the meta-analysis is very large. These results suggest that visual inspection of a funnel plot is unlikely to lead to a valid assessment of publication bias. In most systematic reviews, visual inspection of a funnel plot may give a misleading impression of the presence or absence of publication bias. Formal statistical tests for bias should generally be preferred.

  17. FLOWPLOT: a fluid dynamics and heat transfer plotting package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elrod, D.C.; Tunstall, J.N.

    1978-03-01

    The FLOWPLOT plotting program may be used with numerical fluid dynamics (or heat transfer with convection) codes to create velocity vector plots and/or contour plots of up to three fluid parameters (e.g. pressure, density, and temperature). FLOWPLOT reads a data set created by the user's fluid dynamics code. This data set must contain parametric data at every nodal point of a rectangular grid. FLOWPLOT uses the Display Integrated Software System and Plotting Language (DISSPLA). Therefore, the user has the option of creating the plot data set on CALCOMP tape or creating a compressed plot data set that may be input to the DISSPLA postprocessor. This program has been stored on disk at ORGDP on the IBM 360/370 computing system

  18. Coarse-graining time series data: Recurrence plot of recurrence plots and its application for music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukino, Miwa; Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2016-02-01

    We propose a nonlinear time series method for characterizing two layers of regularity simultaneously. The key of the method is using the recurrence plots hierarchically, which allows us to preserve the underlying regularities behind the original time series. We demonstrate the proposed method with musical data. The proposed method enables us to visualize both the local and the global musical regularities or two different features at the same time. Furthermore, the determinism scores imply that the proposed method may be useful for analyzing emotional response to the music.

  19. The Digital Divide: A Global View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoko, Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Huge progress was made in bridging the digital divide in first decade of 21^st century. This was largely due to the explosive growth of mobile, which saw numbers rise from under 500 million to over five billion mobile cellular subscriptions in just ten years. With household mobile penetration rates of over 50% even in rural areas of developing countries, we have achieved the dream of bringing all the world's people within reach of communications technology. We must now, however, replicate the mobile miracle for the Internet, and especially broadband, if we are to avoid creating a new broadband breach to replace the digital divide. Three things need to happen for this to be achieved: firstly, broadband needs to be brought to the top of the development agenda; secondly, broadband needs to become much more affordable and thirdly, security needs to be part of the strategy.

  20. Splicing the Divide: A Review of Research on the Evolving Digital Divide among K-12 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    The digital divide has narrowed with regard to one definition of access to technology--the binary view of the "haves" and "have-nots." However, use of technology at home and in school is not equitable for all students. According to recent literature, a broader and more nuanced definition of the technological divide is necessary…

  1. Power divider of the MP 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osswald, F.

    1989-07-01

    The operation of the MP 10 power divider and resistances (600 megaohms, metal oxide resistances, in the column and in the tube of the MP 10), are investigated. The whole system is used in Vivitron accelerator (Strasbourg, France). The aim of the study is a better understanding of the machine's electrical operation. The resistances are tested under sulphur hexafluoride pressure and under high voltage. The results allowed the characterization of those resistances for use under operating conditions [fr

  2. Privatization of Land Plot Under Integral Real Estate Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruchek A. A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the questions concerning the privatization of a land plot under integral real estate complex. The authors come to conclusion that a number of legislation norms relating to privatization of a land plot do not take into account the construction of an integral real estate complex that could cause some problems in the realization of the right to privatization of the land plot

  3. On the generating function of Poincare plots defining one dimensional perturbed Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montvai, A.

    1989-01-01

    A simple numerical method has been devised, for deriving the generating function of an arbitrary, one dimensional Hamiltonian system represented by its Poincare plot. In this case, the plot to be numerically processed is an area preserving transformation of a two-dimensional surface onto itself. Although the method in its present form is capable of treating only this case, there are no principal restrictions excluding the analysis of systems with higher dimensionality as well. As an example, the generating function of the motion of alpha particles in a nonsymmetric, toroidal magnetic field is derived and studied numerically. (orig.)

  4. SABRINA, Geometry Plot Program for MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEIDL, Marcus

    2003-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: SABRINA is an interactive, three-dimensional, geometry-modeling code system, primarily for use with CCC-200/MCNP. SABRINA's capabilities include creation, visualization, and verification of three-dimensional geometries specified by either surface- or body-base combinatorial geometry; display of particle tracks are calculated by MCNP; and volume fraction generation. 2 - Method of solution: Rendering is performed by ray tracing or an edge and intersection algorithm. Volume fraction calculations are made by ray tracing. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: A graphics display with X Window capability is required

  5. The disappearing human–machine divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Warwick

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article a look is taken at some of the different ways in which the human–machine divide is rapidly disappearing. In each case the technical basis is described and then some of the implications are also considered. In particular results from experiments are discussed in terms of their meaning and application possibilities. The article is written from the perspective of scientific experimentation opening up realistic possibilities to be faced in the future, rather than giving conclusive comments. In each case consideration is also given to some of the philosophical questions that arise.

  6. Microwave power divider with arbitrary distribution ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Pengda; Geng Zheqiao; Cui Yanyan; Syratchev, I.

    2004-01-01

    As is well known, the EM field of TE11 mode at the wall of the circular waveguide changes as sine (or cosine) function azimuthally. So when we attach two perpendicular waveguides to the wall of the circular waveguide and rotate them around the axis of the waveguide, authors can distribute the input power between the two waveguides with arbitrary distribution proportion. The authors have designed a new power divider following this idea. The 3D electromagnetic simulation software HFSS is used in the design. And a new type circular TE11 mode launcher is developed. (author)

  7. Funnel plots and their emerging application in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Erik K; Bottle, Alex; Rao, Christopher; Darzi, Ara W; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2009-03-01

    To familiarize surgeons with the use of funnel plots as a control tool to assess quality in surgery. Surgical outcomes are an important component of quality in healthcare delivery. Several control tools have been introduced and tested including the use of graphical tools such as funnel plots. More recently, their application in healthcare to assess quality has become more evident. Ranking in surgical performance has significant limitations, risks, and implications which can be addressed by the use of funnel plots. This methodological review explores the principles and existing application of funnel plots within surgery and emphasizes their advantages, limitations, public health implications, and their use to assess the evidence in the literature and potential future applications. Funnel plots are practical tools, easy to use, and offer the opportunity to statistically define control limits around measurable outcomes, allowing for adjustment of unmeasured factors. This makes them extremely useful for the monitoring of performance in surgery either at a surgeon, institutional, regional, or national level, by means of qualifying aggregated data in reported literature (meta-analysis). Increasing transparency is required in healthcare outcomes and performance, which means that funnel plots will most likely play an increasingly important role as a quality control tool. More widespread application of funnel plots in surgery will help to overcome some of the existing difficulties in assessing and reporting performance and identifying evidence-based information. The assessment and changes in future healthcare delivery could be partly influenced by further development of funnel plot methodology.

  8. Compensating for missing plot observations inforest inventory estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts

    2003-01-01

    The Enhanced Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service has established a nationwide array of permanent field plots, each representing approximately 2400 ha. Each plot has been assigned to one of five interpenetrating, nonoverlapping panels, with one panel selected for measurement on a rotating basis each year. As with most large surveys,...

  9. Estimating mapped-plot forest attributes with ratios of means

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.J. Zarnoch; W.A. Bechtold

    2000-01-01

    The mapped-plot design utilized by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Inventory and Analysis and the National Forest Health Monitoring Programs is described. Data from 2458 forested mapped plots systematically spread across 25 States reveal that 35 percent straddle multiple conditions. The ratio-of-means estimator is developed as a method to obtain...

  10. Plots of the experimental and evaluated photoneutron cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, A.I.; Nasyrova, S.M.

    1991-08-01

    Graphical plots of experimental data of photon induced nuclear reaction cross-sections are given for many elements and isotopes. The numerical data were taken from the international EXFOR data library which is available from the nuclear data centers. For selected nuclides evaluated data have been included in the plots. (author). Refs, 3 tabs

  11. Refining FIA plot locations using LiDAR point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlie Schrader-Patton; Greg C. Liknes; Demetrios Gatziolis; Brian M. Wing; Mark D. Nelson; Patrick D. Miles; Josh Bixby; Daniel G. Wendt; Dennis Kepler; Abbey. Schaaf

    2015-01-01

    Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot location coordinate precision is often insufficient for use with high resolution remotely sensed data, thereby limiting the use of these plots for geospatial applications and reducing the validity of models that assume the locations are precise. A practical and efficient method is needed to improve coordinate precision. To...

  12. Precise FIA plot registration using field and dense LIDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrios Gatziolis

    2009-01-01

    Precise registration of forest inventory and analysis (FIA) plots is a prerequisite for an effective fusion of field data with ancillary spatial information, which is an approach commonly employed in the mapping of various forest parameters. Although the adoption of Global Positioning System technology has improved the precision of plot coordinates obtained during...

  13. A Guided Inquiry on Hubble Plots and the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forringer, Ted

    2014-01-01

    In our science for non-science majors course "21st Century Physics," we investigate modern "Hubble plots" (plots of velocity versus distance for deep space objects) in order to discuss the Big Bang, dark matter, and dark energy. There are two potential challenges that our students face when encountering these topics for the…

  14. Selection of Plot Remeasurement in an Annual Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark H. Hansen; Hans T. Schreuder; Dave Heinzen

    2000-01-01

    A plot selection approach is proposed based on experience from the Annual Forest Inventory System (AFIS) in the Aspen-Birch Unit of northestern Minnesota. The emphasisis on a mixture of strategies. Although the Agricultural Act of 1998 requires that a fixed 20 percent of plots be measured each year in each state, sooner or later we will need to vary the scheme to...

  15. Transition duct with divided upstream and downstream portions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Maldonado, Jaime Javier; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Flanagan, James Scott

    2015-07-14

    Turbine systems are provided. In one embodiment, a turbine system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a duct passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The duct passage includes an upstream portion extending from the inlet and a downstream portion extending from the outlet. The turbine system further includes a rib extending from an outer surface of the duct passage, the rib dividing the upstream portion and the downstream portion.

  16. Exergy loss analysis of heat transfer across the wall of the dividing-wall distillation column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suphanit, B.; Bischert, A.; Narataruksa, P.

    2007-01-01

    The dividing-wall distillation column is thermodynamically equivalent to the Petlyuk column on the condition that no heat transfer is allowed across the dividing wall. However, better energy efficiency of the column may be obtained if heat transfer occurs within a certain part of the wall. The effects of heat transfer across the dividing wall can be analyzed by using the column grand composite curve (CGCC). The heat transfer potential across the wall can be observed by looking at the CGCC of both column sections alongside the dividing wall. However, the possibility of whether heat should be added or rejected at any stage is not clearly known ahead of the CGCC. Consequently, in this work, the exergy analysis is applied to the dividing-wall column in order to determine whether heat should be added or rejected at any particular stage. Also, the minimum exergy loss value in the column is set as the criterion for determining the heat load targets at any stage. These load targets can then be plotted as a T-H profile similar to the CGCC. This methodology was reported to successfully apply to the column with multiple feeds and products. After having identified the locations and quantities of the feasible heat transfer across the dividing wall, the benefits are discussed via three case studies

  17. Media Literacy in Times of Media Divides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Žuran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We live in a post-modern society, an information society, a society based around knowledge and participation, and above all in a media society. In a media culture where media holds a dominant position, we cannot overlook the emerging idea of a ‘media divide’ within the frame of media education, media literate individuals and the expansion of the traditional concept of media literacy. Firstly, we are in an era of technological revolution, and it is time to consider the meaning and function of media and how we experience it in our everyday life. Secondly, as a society we are subject to intense media invasion and we all need to learn how to use it to our benefit and apply a critical and autonomous perspective towards selecting media content. Otherwise the media divide between the media literate and illiterate will widen; but is there even a chance to overcome the supposed divide between those who are formally media educated and those who are not?

  18. WAIS Divide Microparticle Concentration and Size Distribution, 0-2400 ka, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes raw dust microparticle data for the WAIS Divide deep core, WDC06A, from the surface to 577 m. Data were collected in 2010 using a Klotz Abakus...

  19. ChIPS - Chandra's Interactive, Publication-Ready Plotting Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph; Burke, D.; Evans, I.; Evans, J.; Fruscione, A.; Germain, G.; McDowell, J.; McLaughlin, W.; Milaszewski, R.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Interactive Plotting System, ChIPS, is a powerful component of the CIAO data analysis system that enables users to visualize their data and construct high-quality, publication-ready plots interactively. The user can control almost every aspect of the plot layout and the properties of individual plot components such as tick positions or symbol styles. ChIPS offers a rich interactive environment to help users design and fine tune their plots. Key features of ChIPS include the ability to explore alternative presentations of their data by interactively adjusting plot parameters or plot component properties, or correct mistakes via the included undo/redo functionality, without having to redo the visualizations from the beginning. Through a Python or S-Lang interface, ChIPS provides a set of high-level user routines which hides the details of the underlying environment from the new user. At the same time, the scripting environment affords experienced users the ability to manipulate data or extend existing functionality. New to CIAO 4.2, all users will benefit from being able to interactively develop plots and then save the steps to create the final product as a script. This can then be used to recreate the visualization with additional data sets. Also new in CIAO 4.2 is the ability to integrate plot data with basic imaging. Users can combine their images (in world coordinates) with plot elements such as overlay contours, grids, or annotations to produce high-quality publication-ready output in the formats expected by the major journals.

  20. Meteorite divide points to solar system chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voosen, Paul

    2018-03-01

    The solar system of today was in turmoil in its first several million years, theorists believe, with giant planets sowing chaos as they strayed far from their current orbits. But corroborating evidence has been thin—until now. Scientists have found a new window into the early dynamics: a curious chemical divide in the dozens of species of meteorites. The picture has emerged over several years, but in work presented last week at the 2018 Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in The Woodlands, Texas, a group of German geochemists reported clinching evidence. Those distinct chemistries imply distinct origin stories for asteroids: One group formed from grist that began near the current location of the asteroid belt. The others coalesced beyond a proto-Jupiter, near where Saturn orbits today. The discovery opens the way to investigations of the solar system's earliest days, and could even set back the clock on the system's age.

  1. Using Zoom Technologies to Display HEP Plots and Talks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, G.

    2012-12-01

    Particle physics conferences and experiments generate a huge number of plots and presentations. It is impossible to keep up. A typical conference (like CHEP) will have 100's of plots. A single analysis result from a major experiment will have almost 50 plots. Scanning a conference or sorting out what plots are new is almost a full time job. The advent of multi-core computing and advanced video cards means that we have more processor power available for visualization than any time in the past. This poster describes two related projects that take advantage of this to solve the viewing problem. The first, Collider Plots, has a backend that looks for new plots released by ATLAS, CMS, CDF, and DZERO and organizes them by date, by experiment, and by subgroup for easy viewing and sorting. It maintains links back to associated conference notes and web pages with full result information. The second project, Deep Conference, renders all the slides as a single large zoomable picture. In both cases, much like a web mapping program, details are revealed as you zoom in. In the case of Collider Plots the plots are stacked as histograms to give visual clues for the most recent updates and activity have occurred. Standard plug-in software for a browser allows a user to zoom in on a portion of the conference that looks interesting. As the user zooms further more and more details become visible, allowing the user to make a quick and cheap decision on whether to spend more time on a particular talk or series of plots. Both projects are available at http://deeptalk.phys.washington.edu. The poster discusses the implementation and use as well as cross platform performance and possible future directions.

  2. PLOTTAB, Curve and Point Plotting with Error Bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: PLOTTAB is designed to plot any combination of continuous curves and/or discrete points (with associated error bars) using user supplied titles and X and Y axis labels and units. If curves are plotted, the first curve may be used as a standard; the data and the ratio of the data to the standard will be plotted. 2 - Method of solution: PLOTTAB: The program has no idea of what data is being plotted and yet by supplying titles, X and Y axis labels and units the user can produce any number of plots with each plot containing almost any combination of curves and points with each plot properly identified. In order to define a continuous curve between tabulated points, this program must know how to interpolate between points. By input the user may specify either the default option of linear x versus linear y interpolation or alternatively log x and/or log Y interpolation. In all cases, regardless of the interpolation specified, the program will always interpolate the data to the plane of the plot (linear or log x and y plane) in order to present the true variation of the data between tabulated points, based on the user specified interpolation law. Tabulated points should be tabulated at a sufficient number of x values to insure that the difference between the specified interpolation and the 'true' variation of a curve between tabulated values is relatively small. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: A combination of up to 30 curves and sets of discrete points may appear on each plot. If the user wishes to use this program to compare different sets of data, all of the data must be in the same units

  3. TAURUS, Post-processor of 3-D Finite Elements Plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.E.; Hallquist, J.O.; Kennedy, T.

    2002-01-01

    Description of program or function: TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (NESC 9725), DYNA3D (NESC 9909), TACO3D (NESC 9838), TOPAZ3D (NESC9599) and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories, and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing

  4. True versus perturbed forest inventory plot locations for modeling: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Kurt H. Riitters; Ronald E. McRoberts; William D. Smith

    2006-01-01

    USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plot information is widely used for timber inventories, forest health assessments, and environmental risk analyses. With few exceptions, true plot locations are not revealed; the plot coordinates are manipulated to obscure the location of field plots and thereby preserve plot integrity. The influence of perturbed plot...

  5. Implementation of plot options for the NJOY module DTFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldeira, A.D.; Ono, S.

    1989-02-01

    The modifications performed in the DTFR module of NJOY to plot multigroup and pointwise nuclear data and transfer matrices, utilizing the sofware package UNIPLOT in the CDC CYBER 170/750 system, are presented. (author) [pt

  6. The master plot in the audiovisual narrative. The western case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Félix GONZÁLEZ SÁNCHEZ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A plot provides us the story that it offers a hyphen and later a film. Plots are limited, however possibilities, argument them that these offer music infinite. At the same time, we can say that all cultures avail themselves of some plots and similar arguments to structure their mythical stories. In addition, United States is the modern nation where better a dialectic relation between the myth and story keeps. At this nation, the significance of the event has been shown and you have gotten free through the myth. We will see through this article how the western is the kind of American cinema what else and better answer for the folkloric traditional story to the cánones, because your plots have been taken directly of the classical legends.

  7. SCALPLO, Plotting of Flux Output from SCALE Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersman, A.; De Leege, P.F.A.; Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: SCALPLO is a plot program, designed to plot flux, power and spectrum information. Data exchange between SCALE modules and SCALPLO is via CCCC-interface files. As not all modules can produce these files, there are special routines supplied with SCALPLO that can produce CCCC-like files. These routines can be included in the code and for XSDRPM, CITATION, ANISN and DOT, the place to include these routines is supplied. 2 - Method of solution: SCALPLO consists of two sections. Firstly the pre-processor, which selects and reads the required data. Secondly the plot section which produces the plot on the selected output device. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: SCALPLO requires DISSPLA version 11.0 or higher. The choice of output device depends on the devices installed

  8. The Digital Divide and urban older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N; Morrell, Roger W

    2010-01-01

    Computers and the Internet offer older adults opportunities and resources for independent living. However, many urban older adults do not use computers. This study examined the demographic, health, and social activities of urban older adults to determine variables that might predict the use and nonuse of computers in this population. A secondary data analysis was performed using the 2001 Detroit City-Wide Needs Assessment of Older Adults (n = 1410) data set. Logistic regression was used to explore potential differences in predictor variables between computer users and nonusers. Overall, computer users were younger (27%), had a higher level of education, were more likely to be employed, had an annual income greater than $20,000, and were healthier and more active than nonusers. They also were more likely to have memberships in community organizations and do volunteer work. Preferred computer activities included conducting Internet searches, playing games, writing, and communicating with family members and friends. The results suggest significant differences in demographic and health-related characteristics between computer users and nonusers among urban older adults. Although about a quarter of participants in this study used computers, the Digital Divide continues to exist in urban settings for scores of others.

  9. Bridging the divide between science and journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eperen, Laura; Marincola, Francesco M; Strohm, Jennifer

    2010-03-10

    There are countless reasons nearly every scientist should learn how to communicate effectively with the media, including increased understanding of critical research findings to attract or sustain funding and build new professional partnerships that will further propel forward research. But where do scientists begin? Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism offers practical tips for any scientist looking to work with the media.Given the traditional and internet-based sources for medical research and healthcare-related news now available, it is imperative that scientists know how to communicate their latest findings through the appropriate channels. The credible media channels are managed by working journalists, so learning how to package vast, technical research in a form that is appetizing and "bite-sized" in order to get their attention, is an art. Reducing years of research into a headline can be extremely difficult and certainly doesn't come naturally to every scientist, so this article provides suggestions on how to work with the media to communicate your findings.

  10. Vegetation baseline report : Connacher great divide project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    This baseline report supported an application by Connacher Oil and Gas Ltd. to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environment (AENV) for the Great Divide Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Project. The goal of the report was to document the distribution and occurrence of ecosite phases and wetland classes in the project footprint as well as to document the distribution of rare plants; rare plant communities: and intrusive species and old growth communities, including species of management concern. A methodology of the baseline report was presented, including details of mapping and field surveys. Six vegetation types in addition to the disturbed land unit were identified in the project footprint and associated buffer. It was noted that all vegetation types are common for the boreal forest natural regions. Several species of management concern were identified during the spring rare plant survey, including rare bryophytes and non-native or invasive species. Mitigation was identified through a slight shift of the footprint, transplant of appropriate bryophyte species and implementation of a weed management plan. It was noted that results of future surveys for rare plants will be submitted upon completion. It was concluded that the effects of the project on existing vegetation is expected to be low because of the small footprint, prior disturbance history, available mitigation measures and conservation and reclamation planning. 27 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. The Effect of Plot Size on Some Pratylenchus Penetrans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pratylenchus penetrans counts obtained from a rose field, sampled sequentially by decreasing the plot sizes were computed to obtain the respective sample means, variance and k-value of the negative binomial distribution. Plots 21 m x 80 m, 3.6 m x 3.6 m and 0.6 m x 0.6 m were sampled for the nematode. It is reported ...

  12. Reviewing ChIPS, The Chandra Imaging and Plotting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Burke, D. J.; Evans, I. N.; Evans, J. D.; McLaughlin, W.

    2015-09-01

    The Chandra Imaging and Plotting System (ChIPS) is a 2D plotting system designed to allow users to easily create, manipulate, and produce publication quality visualizations. ChIPS has a simple but very powerful interactive interface that allows users to dynamically modify the contents and layout of their plots quickly and efficiently, with the results of any changes being immediately visible. ChIPS allows users to construct their plots fully interactively, and then save the final plot commands as a Python script. This bypasses the need to iteratively edit and rerun the script when developing the plot. Features such as undo and redo commands allow users to easily step backwards and forwards through previous commands, while the ability so save ChIPS sessions in a platform-independent state file allows the session to be restored at any time, even on another machine. Because ChIPS offers a Python interface, users can analyze their data using the broad array of modules offered in Python, and visualize the information in ChIPS at the same time. In this paper we explore the design decisions behind the development of ChIPS and some of the lessons learned along the way.

  13. Trisomy 7 and trisomy 8 in dividing and non-dividing tumor cells in Dupuytren's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Cin, P; De Smet, L; Sciot, R; Van Damme, B; Van den Berghe, H

    1999-01-15

    Cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analysis is reported in a series of 40 tissue samples from 36 patients with Dupuytren's disease, presenting as palmar and/or finger nodules. No consistent structural chromosome changes could be found. Instead, recurrent clonal numerical abnormalities were demonstrated in 22 of 40 tissue nodules, involving trisomies of chromosome 7 or 8 and loss of the Y chromosome. In addition, we showed that trisomy 7 and trisomy 8 were also present in non-dividing cells.

  14. Online plot services for paleomagnetism and rock magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, T.

    2017-12-01

    In paleomagnetism and rock magnetism, a lot of types of original plots are used for obtained data from measurements. Many researchers in paleomagnetism often use not only general-purpose plotting programs such as Microsoft Excel but also single-purpose tools. A large benefit of using the latter tools is that we can make a beautiful figure for our own data. However, those programs require specific environment for their operation such as type of hardware and platform, type of operation system and its version, libraries for execution and so on. Therefore, it is difficult to share the result and graphics among the collaborators who use different environments on their PCs. Thus, one of the best solution is likely a program operated on popular environment. The most popular is web environment as we all know. Almost all current operating systems have web browsers as standard and all people use them regularly. Now we provide a web-based service plotting paleomagnetic results easily.We develop original programs with a command-line user interface (non-GUI), and we prepared web pages for input of the simple measured data and options and a wrapper script which transfers the entered values to the program. The results, analyzed values and plotted graphs from the program are shown in the HTML page and downloadable. Our plot services are provided in http://mage-p.org/mageplot/. In this talk, we introduce our program and service and discuss the philosophy and efficiency of these services.

  15. Changeability of soil erosion variables in small field plots from different rainfall durations with constant intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katebikord, Azadeh; Khaledi Darvishan, Abdulvahed; Alavi, Seyed Jalil

    2017-05-01

    Rainfall duration is among the most effective characteristics of erosivity factor on runoff, splash and soil loss, especially when a rainfall duration is selected for laboratory or field plot studies. Selecting the appropriate rainfall duration particularly in laboratory studies (because of higher relative changes in lower durations), may lead to decrease the errors in the studied treatments. The rainfall duration must be well considered before any experiments exploring the effect of rainfall as one of the main factors. Therefore, the present study was conducted in field plots with area of 1 m2 located in an 18% slope, loamy-clay, under rainfall simulation with the intensity of 40 mm h-1. Total and net splashes, sediment concentration, soil loss, sheet erosion and sediment delivery ratio were measured and evaluated in 6 levels of rainfall duration (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min), with 3 replications. The results showed that, although the runoff volume increased with increasing rainfall duration generally, there was insufficient capacity for runoff to transport the considerable amounts of the splashed and eroded soil to the plot outlet. The translocation of soil surface particles and sheet erosion were therefore increased due to more duration of rainfall and runoff, while a significant portion of the eroded soil, even after 30 min rainfall duration was not transported to the plot outlet. Based on the results, the sensitivity and efficiency of Generalized Linear Model (GLM) and Generalized Additive Model (GAM) in the evaluation of the differences between hydrological responses in various rainfall durations were different. According to the results, there was a change in the average ratio of sediment delivery in studied treatments from 0.41 to 13.03% for 5 and 30 min respectively. The results clearly showed that the duration corresponding to the intensity is the best choice to adopt soil erosion studies at plot and experimental conditions.

  16. Experts’ Misinterpretation of Box Plots – a Dual Processing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Lem

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that students often misinterpret the area of the box in box plots as representing the frequency or proportion of observations in that interval, while it actually represents density. This misinterpretation has been shown to be based on the saliency of this area and can be explained by heuristic reasoning as defined by dual process theories. In this study we tested whether expert users of box plots also display this misinterpretation and show signs of the same heuristic reasoning as found in students. Using a reaction time test, we found signs of heuristic reasoning in experts, both with respect to accuracy and reaction times. If even experts have difficulty interpreting box plots, one can question whether these are an appropriate form of representation to use when reporting data and deserve the prominent place they currently have in the statistics curriculum.

  17. Graphical interpretation of confidence curves in rankit plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Blaabjerg, Ole; Andersen, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    distribution and the percentage of cumulative points exceeding these limits. The process is to rank the reference values and plot the cumulative frequency points in a rankit plot with a logarithmic (In=log(e)) transformed abscissa. If the distribution is close to In-Gaussian the cumulative frequency points......-Gaussian distributions of subgroups of reference values from healthy individuals is presented. In addition, distributions of values from well-defined diseased individuals may show up as In-Gaussian. It is evident from the examples that the rankit transformation and simple graphical evaluation for non......A well-known transformation from the bell-shaped Gaussian (normal) curve to a straight line in the rankit plot is investigated, and a tool for evaluation of the distribution of reference groups is presented. It is based on the confidence intervals for percentiles of the calculated Gaussian...

  18. On the Nature of Earth-Mars Porkchop Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Ryan C.; Whetsel, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Porkchop plots are a quick and convenient tool to help mission designers plan ballistic trajectories between two bodies. Parameter contours give rise to the familiar 'porkchop' shape. Each synodic period the pattern repeats, but not exactly, primarily due to differences in inclination and non-zero eccentricity. In this paper we examine the morphological features of Earth-to-Mars porkchop plots and the orbital characteristics that create them. These results are compared to idealistic and optimized transfers. Conclusions are drawn about 'good' opportunities versus 'bad' opportunities for different mission applications.

  19. Split-plot Experiments with Unusual Numbers of Subplot Runs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat

    2007-01-01

    In many experimental situations, it may not be feasible or even possible to run experiments in a completely randomized fashion as usually recommended. Under these circumstances, split-plot experiments in which certain factors are changed less frequently than the others are often used. Most...... of the literature on split-plot designs is based on 2-level factorials. For those designs, the number of subplots is a power of 2. There may however be some situations where for cost purposes or physical constraints, we may need to have unusual number of subplots such as 3, 5, 6, etc. In this article, we explore...

  20. Program PLOTTAB. (Version 87-2). General plotting program to plot any combination of continuous curves and/or discrete points (with associated error bars)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.

    1987-06-01

    This program is designed to be a general application independent plotting program to plot any combination of continuous curves and/or discrete points (with associated error bars) using user supplied titles and x and y axis labels and units. Using this method the program has no idea what data is being plotted and yet the user can produce any number of plots with each plot properly identified. This program is available upon request costfree from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  1. PlotXY: A High Quality Plotting System for the Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE) and the Astronomical Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuzzo, P.; Li, J.; Caux, E.

    2012-09-01

    The Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE) was developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) in collaboration with NASA and the Herschel Instrument Control Centres, to provide the astronomical community a complete environment to process and analyze the data gathered by the Herschel Space Observatory. One of the most important components of HIPE is the plotting system (named PlotXY) that we present here. With PlotXY it is possible to produce easily high quality publication-ready 2D plots. It provides a long list of features, with fully configurable components, and interactive zooming. The entire code of HIPE is written in Java and is open source released under the GNU Lesser General Public License version 3. A new version of PlotXY is being developed to be independent from the HIPE code base; it is available to the software development community for the inclusion in other projects at the URL google.com/p/jplot2d/'>http://code.google.com/p/jplot2d/.

  2. Application of SWAT99.2 to sensitivity analysis of water balance components in unique plots in a hilly region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-feng Dai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although many sensitivity analyses using the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT in a complex watershed have been conducted, little attention has been paid to the application potential of the model in unique plots. In addition, sensitivity analysis of percolation and evapotranspiration with SWAT has seldom been undertaken. In this study, SWAT99.2 was calibrated to simulate water balance components for unique plots in Southern China from 2000 to 2001, which included surface runoff, percolation, and evapotranspiration. Twenty-one parameters classified into four categories, including meteorological conditions, topographical characteristics, soil properties, and vegetation attributes, were used for sensitivity analysis through one-at-a-time (OAT sampling to identify the factor that contributed most to the variance in water balance components. The results were shown to be different for different plots, with parameter sensitivity indices and ranks varying for different water balance components. Water balance components in the broad-leaved forest and natural grass plots were most sensitive to meteorological conditions, less sensitive to vegetation attributes and soil properties, and least sensitive to topographical characteristics. Compared to those in the natural grass plot, water balance components in the broad-leaved forest plot demonstrated higher sensitivity to the maximum stomatal conductance (GSI and maximum leaf area index (BLAI.

  3. Uneven Distribution of Microgranules in Divided Lansoprazole Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Gillian A; Teitelbaum, Jonathan E

    2015-10-01

    Lansoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor commonly used in children lansoprazole-containing microgranules within each half of a divided tablet. Clinicians must determine whether this difference is clinically relevant when prescribing "divided" medication to children.

  4. Bridging the digital divide: with special reference to Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the digital divide in Africa with special reference to Nigeria. It presents the causes of digital divided such as; the general poor economic conditions in Africa; local content; telecommunications constraints; lack of investment in ICT infrastructure, etc. Benefits derivable from bridging the digital divide such ...

  5. What is the role of risk-adjusted funnel plots in the analysis of radical cystectomy volume-outcome relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Erik K; Bottle, Alex; Aylin, Paul; Darzi, Ara W; Vale, Justin A; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2011-09-01

    • To explore whether risk-adjusted funnel plots are a useful adjunct to analyse volume-outcome data and to further facilitate our understanding of institutional performance data by combining funnel-plot methodology with an incremental statistical modelling approach. • Risk-adjusted funnel plots were generated for mortality and re-intervention rates after elective radical cystectomy using administrative data from NHS Hospital Trusts between 2000/01 and 2006/07. Trusts were divided into volume tertiles based on their average annual cystectomy rate. • A funnel plot was produced for each of the following four incremental statistical models: model one (no adjustment), model two (adjusted for patient case mix variables), model three (case mix and 'clustering' of patients) and model four (additional adjustment for institutional structural and process-of-care variables). • In the final complex model (model four), no Trusts had abnormally high mortality or re-intervention rates. • Comparison of the funnel plots showed the importance of adjusting for certain confounding factors, such as the surgeon, at the institutional level, before they could be labelled as having truly outlying performance. • Risk-adjusted funnel plots have a useful role to play as a component of a methodological framework for investigating the volume-outcome relationship at the institutional level. They can act as a complementary method of validating data by displaying disaggregated outcomes at provider level and account for unmeasured confounders, so reducing the opportunity for spurious labelling of outliers. © 2010 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2010 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  6. Analysis of Truck Downtimes Using Log Dispersion Plot | Temeng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper uses log dispersion plot to analyse downtimes of a fleet of 22 dump trucks from the. Nchanga Open Pit, Zambia over a period of two months. Downtimes were categorised into breakdown codes to determine which ones were acute, chronic or a combination of both. The breakdown codes which were critical to the ...

  7. Box-and-Whisker Plots Applied to Food Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joao E. V.; Miranda, Ricardo M.; Figueiredo, Antonio F.; Barbosa, Jardel P.; Brasil, Edykarlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Box-and-whisker plots or simply boxplots are powerful graphical representations that give an overview of a data set. In this work five different examples illustrate the applications of boxplots in food chemistry. The examples involve relative sweetness of sugars and sugar alcohols with respect to sucrose, the potassium content of fruits and…

  8. Estimation of Optimal Size of Plots for Experiments with Radiometer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to estimate the optimal size of plots for reflectance measurements in beans by the modified maximum curvature method and the maximum distance method. Reflectance readings were made on bean plants with the aid of the GreenSeeker® equipment, obtaining basic units of 0.45 m² in an ...

  9. Tracking forest resource condition through Permanent sample plots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After decades of decentralized forest management in Tanzania, few scientific studies exist that provide baseline information on forest resources condition and eventual impact of decentralization policy. This paper presents efforts by Tanzania Forestry Research Institute (TAFORI) to establish Permanent Sample Plots (PSPs) ...

  10. Constructing General Orthogonal Fractional Factorial Split-Plot Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartono, B.; Goos, P.; Schoen, E.

    2015-01-01

    While the orthogonal design of split-plot fractional factorial experiments has received much attention already, there are still major voids in the literature. First, designs with one or more factors acting at more than two levels have not yet been considered. Second, published work on nonregular

  11. A translog stochastic frontier analysis of plot size and cost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is need for policies aimed at encouraging the youths who are agile and stronger as well as the experienced to increase production. Land re-distribution policies are advocated to make lands available to the small-holder farmers who form the bulk of the farming population. Keywords: Translog stochastic frontier, plot ...

  12. Omitted Variable Sensitivity Analysis with the Annotated Love Plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ben B.; Fredrickson, Mark M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research is to make sensitivity analysis accessible not only to empirical researchers but also to the various stakeholders for whom educational evaluations are conducted. To do this it derives anchors for the omitted variable (OV)-program participation association intrinsically, using the Love plot to present a wide range of…

  13. Non-parametric and least squares Langley plot methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiedron, P. W.; Michalsky, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Langley plots are used to calibrate sun radiometers primarily for the measurement of the aerosol component of the atmosphere that attenuates (scatters and absorbs) incoming direct solar radiation. In principle, the calibration of a sun radiometer is a straightforward application of the Bouguer-Lambert-Beer law V = V0e-τ ṡ m, where a plot of ln(V) voltage vs. m air mass yields a straight line with intercept ln(V0). This ln(V0) subsequently can be used to solve for τ for any measurement of V and calculation of m. This calibration works well on some high mountain sites, but the application of the Langley plot calibration technique is more complicated at other, more interesting, locales. This paper is concerned with ferreting out calibrations at difficult sites and examining and comparing a number of conventional and non-conventional methods for obtaining successful Langley plots. The 11 techniques discussed indicate that both least squares and various non-parametric techniques produce satisfactory calibrations with no significant differences among them when the time series of ln(V0)'s are smoothed and interpolated with median and mean moving window filters.

  14. Infrared heater arrays for warming grazingland field plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to study the likely effects of global warming on rangeland and other ecosystems in the future, we developed arrays of infrared heaters that can produce uniform warming across 3-m-diameter field plots. The efficiency of the heaters was higher than that of the heaters used in most previous in...

  15. A precision nutrient variability study of an experimental plot in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatial soil fertility status of a 2.5 ha experimental plot was generated by mapping the soil nutrient concentration and fertility status using GIS kriging technique. The research was conducted in Mukono Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Mukono, Uganda in October 2013. Soil samples across the ...

  16. Designing fractional factorial split-plot experiments using integer programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capehart, Shay R.; Keha, Ahmet; Kulahci, Murat

    2011-01-01

    factorial (FF) design, with the restricted randomisation structure to account for the whole plots and subplots. We discuss the formulation of FFSP designs using integer programming (IP) to achieve various design criteria. We specifically look at the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions...

  17. RCircos: an R package for Circos 2D track plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongen; Meltzer, Paul; Davis, Sean

    2013-08-10

    Circos is a Perl language based software package for visualizing similarities and differences of genome structure and positional relationships between genomic intervals. Running Circos requires extra data processing procedures to prepare plot data files and configure files from datasets, which limits its capability of integrating directly with other software tools such as R. Recently published R Bioconductor package ggbio provides a function to display genomic data in circular layout based on multiple other packages, which increases its complexity of usage and decreased the flexibility in integrating with other R pipelines. We implemented an R package, RCircos, using only R packages that come with R base installation. The package supports Circos 2D data track plots such as scatter, line, histogram, heatmap, tile, connectors, links, and text labels. Each plot is implemented with a specific function and input data for all functions are data frames which can be objects read from text files or generated with other R pipelines. RCircos package provides a simple and flexible way to make Circos 2D track plots with R and could be easily integrated into other R data processing and graphic manipulation pipelines for presenting large-scale multi-sample genomic research data. It can also serve as a base tool to generate complex Circos images.

  18. The Brazilian national system of forest permanent plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeda Maria Malheiros de Oliveira; Maria Augusta Doetzer Rosot; Patricia Povoa de Mottos; Joberto Veloso de Freitas; Guilherme Luis Augusto Gomide; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian National System of Forest Permanent Plots (SisPP) is a governmental initiative designed and being implemented in partnership by the Ministry of Environment (MMA), represented by the National Forest Programme (PNF) and the Brazilian Forest Service (SFB) and the Embrapa Forestry (a research center of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - Embrapa...

  19. Effects of Different Application Methods of Methane Fermentation Digested Liquid into the Paddy Plot on Soil Nitrogen Behavior and Rice Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoko; Nakamura, Kimihito; Seok Ryu, Chan; Iida, Michihisa; Kawashima, Shigeto

    Methane fermentation technique with the treatment of animal waste and food waste is drawing public attention as a good option for the utilization of biomass resources and it is investigated how to apply the by-product of fermentation (methane fermentation digested liquid) to agricultural fields as a fertilizer. It is important to determine an adequate method of applying digested liquid to a paddy plot as fertilizer taking into account the concentrations of soil nitrogen components and rice yield. The objective of this study is to compare the performances of three methods of applying digested liquid to paddy plots in terms of the nitrogen transformation in soil, rice yield, and nitrogen load in effluent. The three methods were pouring (with irrigation water), spreading onto the surface of a plot, and injection into paddy soil. It was found that the ammonium nitrogen concentration and the dissolved organic nitrogen concentration in soil of the spreading plot were higher than that for the pouring plot and that for the injecting plot. The rice yield was higher in the spreading plot than in the injecting and pouring plots. And, there was a significant correlation between the rice yield and the dissolved organic nitrogen just before and after the panicle initiation stage. There were no differences in the nitrogen effluent loads with surface drainage.

  20. Wash-off of Sr-90 and Cs-137 from two experimental plots. Model testing using Chernobyl data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplev, A.; Bulgakov, A.; Hoffman, O.; Thiessen, K.

    1996-09-01

    Surface water runoff from contaminated land is one of the major processes responsible for the contamination of water bodies. For example, the large area of land contaminated after the Chernobyl accident has become a continuing source of radionuclide contamination for natural waters and the aquatic ecosystem. Based on data from the Chernobyl accident, the 'Wash-off' scenario was developed to provide an opportunity to test models concerned with the movement of trace contaminants from terrestrial sources to water bodies. In particular, this scenario provides an opportunity for (1) evaluation of the movement of contaminants from soil to water, (2) calculation of the alteration and migration of contaminants in soil over different time scales, (3) increased understanding of contaminant transport at the process level, and (4) development and use of methods for estimation of key parameters. Modelers were provided with descriptions of two experimental plots near the Chernobyl NPP, one using simulated heavy rain (plot HR) and one using snow melt (plot SM). Initial information for plot HR included soil properties; hydrographs of rainfall and runoff dynamics; the time of application of rainfall; rainfall amounts, duration, and intensities; soil moisture content before the application of rainfall; regional data on average monthly precipitation and temperature; recorded information on naturally occurring precipitation between May and October 1986; and chemical forms of radionuclides in the soil of the plots prior to the experiments. Information for plot SM included the soil description and properties, snow storage in the snow melt period of 1988, chemical composition of the snow water, a hydrograph of the runoff dynamics, chemical radionuclide forms in the soil at the end of the experiment, and air and soil temperatures for the plot during the snow melt period. For each experimental plot, modelers were requested to estimate the vertical distribution of radionuclides (137 Cs and

  1. Close range photogrammetry in soil erosion monitoring: Mass loss comparison between runoff plots and high resolution DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahner, Mario; Seitz, Steffen; Scholten, Thomas; Song, Zhengshan; Schmidt, Karsten

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion is a major environmental problem and can lead to severe negative impacts on terrestrial ecosystems. When raindrops hit a bare soil surface, the applied kinetic energy successively detaches soil particles. This rainsplash effect marks the initial stage of soil erosion, which can result in serious sediment losses with beginning surface runoff. Mini-runoff plots are often used to monitor soil erosion rates in comparative field experiments. However, this method is time-consuming, the sampling of detached soil is difficult and the accuracy heavily depends on thorough maintenance and control of the measurement setup. To optimize the acquisition of soil erosion data from splash and interrill processes, a digital method using close range photogrammetry was tested in 2015. Therefore, a photogrammetric workflow was applied to process high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) from overlapping stereo-images. By calculating the differences between multi-temporal DEMs with a sub-millimetre resolution, the volume of detached sediment was assessed. We performed rainfall simulations with a single nozzle rainfall simulator and a light weight tent. Micro-scale runoff plots (ROPs, 0.4 m x 0.4 m) were used with two different treatments, namely a Hortic Anthrosol and sand (grain size 0.10-0.45 mm). Five repetitions of rainfall-exposure with an intensity of 60 mm h-1 were performed and each repetition divided into three intervals (0-15 min, 15-30 min and 30-60 min). Before the first and every following interval, a block of 25 stereo-images was acquired with a single lens reflex camera system and processed in Agisoft PhotoScan for DEM-generation. After every interval, the discharged sediment was dried and weighed in order to derive the ground-truth validation data for comparison. Results show that ROPs with the sand treatment generally showed a larger volume of detached sediment than the garden soil treatment. As sediment discharge increased, the modelled and measured

  2. Gentilly-2 and Point Lepreau divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.; McClellan, G.; Weston, S.

    1996-01-01

    The steam generators at Hydro Quebec's Gentilly-2 and New Brunswick Power's Point Lepreau Nuclear Plants have been in operation since 1983, and were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection at Gentilly-2, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider plate and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. Upon evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type divider plates would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider plate itself was to be of one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat was was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider plate is fitted with erosion resistant inserts of weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider plate strength during loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider plate to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. Subsequently, Point Lepreau decided to replace their divider plates to address LOCA concerns. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design. manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  3. CADASTRAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE LAND PLOTS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIRICHEK Yu. O.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Work concerns development of national system of classification of the land plots. The developed classification will allow to solve correctly a number of the corresponding cadastral, land management, estimated and other tasks. The analysis of classifications of lands, improvements and real estate in general is made. The created offers concerning creation of a new classification of the land plots in Ukraine. Today the Ukrainian real estate market has no single system that separates the system property groups, classes and types. This significantly complicates the work and can not fully be aware of the specific situation of real estate market. This task is designed to solve classification properties, it is used to transition from a diversity of individual properties to a limited number of classes of evaluation objects. The classification is different functional purpose (use facilities assessment, which determines the difference in value.

  4. On a CP anisotropy measurement in the Dalitz plot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bediaga, I.; Gomes, A.; Guerrer, G.; Miranda, J.; Reis, A. C. dos; Bigi, I. I.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel use of the Dalitz plot to probe CP symmetry in three-body modes of B and D mesons. It is based on an observable inspired by astronomers' practice, namely the significance in the difference between corresponding Dalitz plot bins. It provides a model-independent mapping of local CP asymmetries. We illustrate the method for probing CP symmetry in the two complementary cases of B and D decays: in the former sizable or even large effects can be expected, yet have to be differentiated against leading standard model contributions, while in the latter one cannot count on sizable effects, yet has to deal with much less standard model background.

  5. Volcano plots in hydrogen electrocatalysis - uses and abuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaino, Paola; Juarez, Fernanda; Santos, Elizabeth; Schmickler, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Sabatier's principle suggests, that for hydrogen evolution a plot of the rate constant versus the hydrogen adsorption energy should result in a volcano, and several such plots have been presented in the literature. A thorough examination of the data shows, that there is no volcano once the oxide-covered metals are left out. We examine the factors that govern the reaction rate in the light of our own theory and conclude, that Sabatier's principle is only one of several factors that determine the rate. With the exception of nickel and cobalt, the reaction rate does not decrease for highly exothermic hydrogen adsorption as predicted, because the reaction passes through more suitable intermediate states. The case of nickel is given special attention; since it is a 3d metal, its orbitals are compact and the overlap with hydrogen is too low to make it a good catalyst.

  6. Volcano plots in hydrogen electrocatalysis – uses and abuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaino, Paola; Juarez, Fernanda; Santos, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Summary Sabatier’s principle suggests, that for hydrogen evolution a plot of the rate constant versus the hydrogen adsorption energy should result in a volcano, and several such plots have been presented in the literature. A thorough examination of the data shows, that there is no volcano once the oxide-covered metals are left out. We examine the factors that govern the reaction rate in the light of our own theory and conclude, that Sabatier’s principle is only one of several factors that determine the rate. With the exception of nickel and cobalt, the reaction rate does not decrease for highly exothermic hydrogen adsorption as predicted, because the reaction passes through more suitable intermediate states. The case of nickel is given special attention; since it is a 3d metal, its orbitals are compact and the overlap with hydrogen is too low to make it a good catalyst. PMID:24991521

  7. A user's guide of a plotting program PLTJOINT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Makoto; Sato, Wakaei; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Mori, Takamasa

    1988-02-01

    A plotting program PLTJOINT is able to plot various types of input and output data from neutronics calculations with two dimensional coordinates. These data include cross sections, neutron flux or spectrum, reaction rate distribution and auxiliary data. These are read from the input and output files of the JOINT system and the transport code system using double differential form cross section, and from arbitrary BCD input file. General purpose option is also available. Much care is taken in lettering such as types of characters (italic, Greek letters and characters), super and subscript of alphabet and numeral. Users can design their own characters by using a program IGDRASIL. Most of input data can be read in free format. The code has been programed so flexibly that new functions can be easily added to. (author)

  8. [Murderers in white coats--the physicians' plot against Stalin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, B

    1997-12-10

    During the Moscow trials in 1936-38 several doctors were sentenced for participating in the murders of party leaders. As others who were accused, the doctors willingly confessed to crimes they could not possibly have committed. A second doctors' plot took place in the autumn of 1952. This time nine doctors, six of them Jews, were arrested for the attempted murder of political leaders. Only the unexpected death of Josef Stalin prevented a new wave of terror. With the single exception of Genrikh Grigorjevitsj Jagoda (1891-1938), head of the NKVD (KGB's predecessor), all those sentenced under the Moscow process are now rehabilitated. The participants of the second doctors' plot were rehabilitated immediately after Stalin's death.

  9. Review article: The mountain motif in the plot of Matthew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Volschenk

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviewed T.L. Donaldson’s book, Jesus on the mountain: A study in Matthean theology, published in 1985 by JSOT Press, Sheffield, and focused on the mountain motif in the structure and plot of the Gospel of Matthew, in addition to the work of Donaldson on the mountain motif as a literary motif and as theological symbol. The mountain is a primary theological setting for Jesus’ ministry and thus is an important setting, serving as one of the literary devices by which Matthew structured and progressed his narrative. The Zion theological and eschatological significance and Second Temple Judaism serve as the historical and theological background for the mountain motif. The last mountain setting (Mt 28:16–20 is the culmination of the three theological themes in the plot of Matthew, namely Christology, ecclesiology and salvation history.

  10. [Eugenics, an element of the literary plots of dystopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Ewa; Musielak, Michał

    2007-01-01

    The work presents the ideas and assumptions of eugenics, a social philosophy established in 1883 by Francis Galton, which affected the social policies of numerous European countries in the first half of the 20th century. The work shows the effect of eugenics on the literary standards of European prose in the previous century. Two outstanding dystopian novels of the 20th century, The Brave New World by Aldous Huxley and 1984 by George Orwell, situate eugenics as a permanent element of the literary plot of dystopia. Apart from the typical features of this type of novel, for example: personal narration with a trace of irony, a totalitarian state and Newspeak, eugenics is an important element of the literary plot with is aim to exclude and marginalise certain social groups. Eugenics is also one of the main social ideas criticised by both the writers.

  11. Sink plot for runoff measurements on semi-flat terrains: preliminary data and their potential hydrological and ecological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidron Giora J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semiarid regions where water is the main limiting factor, water redistribution is regarded as an important hydrological process of great ecological value. By providing additional water to certain loci, moist pockets of great productivity are formed, characterized by high plant biomass and biological activity. These moist pockets are often a result of runon. Yet, although runoff may take place on semi-flat undulating surfaces, runoff measurements are thus far confined to slopes, where a sufficient gradient facilitates downslope water harvesting. On undulating surfaces of mounds and depressions, such as in interdunes, no quantification of the amount of water reaching depressions is feasible due to the fact that no reliable method for measuring the runoff amounts in semi-flat terrains is available. The current paper describes specific runoff plots, designed to measure runoff in depressions (sinks. These plots, termed sink plots (SPs, were operative in the Hallamish dunefield (Negev Desert, Israel. The paper presents measurements of runoff yield that were carried out between January 2013 and January 2014 on SPs and compared them to runoff obtained from crusted slope plots and fine-grained (playa surfaces. The potential hydrological and ecological implications of water redistribution within semi-flat terrains for this and other arid ecosystems are discussed.

  12. Fisher.py: Fisher Matrix Manipulation and Confidence Contour Plotting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Dan

    2010-10-01

    Fisher.py allows you to combine constraints from multiple experiments (e.g., weak lensing + supernovae) and add priors (e.g., a flat universe) simply and easily. Calculate parameter uncertainties and plot confidence ellipses. Fisher matrix expectations for several experiments are included as calculated by myself (time delays) and the Dark Energy Task Force (WL/SN/BAO/CL/CMB), or provide your own.

  13. The PLOT (Paleolimnological Transect) Project in the Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromig, R.; Andreev, A.; Baumer, M.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Fedorov, G.; Frolova, L.; Krastel, S.; Lebas, E.; Ludikova, A.; Melles, M.; Meyer, H.; Nazarova, L.; Pestryakova, L.; Savelieva, L.; Shumilovskikh, L.; Subetto, D.; Wagner, B.; Wennrich, V.

    2017-12-01

    The joint Russian- German project 'PLOT - Paleolimnological Transec' aims to recover lake sediment sequences along a >6000 km long longitudinal transect across the Eurasian Arctic in order to investigate the Late Quaternary climatic and environmental history. The climate history of the Arctic is of particular interest since it is the region, which is experiencing major impact of the current climate change. The project is funded for three years (2015-2018) by the Russian and German Ministries of Research. Since 2013 extensive fieldwork, including seismic surveys, coring, and hydrological investigations, was carried out at lakes Ladoga (NW Russia, pilot study), Bolshoye Shuchye (Polar Urals), Emanda (Verkhoyansk Range, field campaign planned for August 2017), Levinson-Lessing and Taymyr (Taymyr Peninsula). Fieldwork at lakes Bolshoye Shuchye, Levinson-Lessing and Taymyr was conducted in collaboration with the Russian-Norwegian CHASE (Climate History along the Arctic Seaboard of Eurasia) project. A major objective of the PLOT project was to recover preglacial sediments. A multiproxy approach was applied to the analytical work of all cores, including (bio-)geochemical, sedimentological, geophysical, and biological analyses. First data implies the presence of preglacial sediments in the cores from all lakes so far visited. Age-depth models, based on radiocarbon dating, OSL dating, paleomagnetic measurements, identification of cryptotephra, and varve counting (where applicable), are in progress. Climate variability in the records shall be compared to that recorded at Lake Eĺgygytgyn (NE Russia), which represents the master record for the Siberian Arctic. The outcome of the PLOT project will be a better understanding of the temporal and spatial variability and development of the Arctic climate. Here, we present the major results and first key interpretations of the PLOT project, along with an outlook on the future strategy and foci. First results from lakes Ladoga

  14. Looking at large data sets using binned data plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, D.B.

    1990-04-01

    This report addresses the monumental challenge of developing exploratory analysis methods for large data sets. The goals of the report are to increase awareness of large data sets problems and to contribute simple graphical methods that address some of the problems. The graphical methods focus on two- and three-dimensional data and common task such as finding outliers and tail structure, assessing central structure and comparing central structures. The methods handle large sample size problems through binning, incorporate information from statistical models and adapt image processing algorithms. Examples demonstrate the application of methods to a variety of publicly available large data sets. The most novel application addresses the too many plots to examine'' problem by using cognostics, computer guiding diagnostics, to prioritize plots. The particular application prioritizes views of computational fluid dynamics solution sets on the fly. That is, as each time step of a solution set is generated on a parallel processor the cognostics algorithms assess virtual plots based on the previous time step. Work in such areas is in its infancy and the examples suggest numerous challenges that remain. 35 refs., 15 figs.

  15. The value of building plots in Italy - pdf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Rosato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests some analysis on dynamics of building plots value in Italy. This is an important subject, since the study of changes in plots value in space and time enables the evaluation of urban rent, which is essential for a fair and effective planning. The analysis confirm past hypothesis which are well known to real estate market operators. The first resulting fact is that the changes in building plots value are concurrent to those in real estate value and the increase occurring in the last years is in relative terms higher than the past one. This seems to confirm that, during real estate market expansion, most of the increase of buildings’ value is attributable to the land rent. The second observation is about value dynamics over time: it has been observed that, during an expansion in demand, the value significantly increases in central areas, much more than in peripheral ones; this means that absolute rent arising from shortage in urban areas is higher than the differential rent created through urban expansion in peripheral areas. Finally, it was highlighted that the factors affecting the value in building areas play different roles, depending on their location relative to the urban centre, identifying differently structured market segments.

  16. The Apply of Frequency Divider Circuit in Nuclear Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LIU Hefan; Zeng Bing; Zhang Ziliang; Ge Liangquan

    2009-01-01

    Different components in a digital system often need different working frequencies, the way we often used is clock division from the system clock. Through the analysis of frequency divider principle, a applied integer frequency dividing circuit with SE120A is proposed. It can divide the frequency multiple from 2 to 64. It's usually used in nuclear electronics. It's testing and analysis is displayed that it has no noise, good frequency division effect and stability. (authors)

  17. Semiconductor-driven ?turn-off? surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy: application in selective determination of chromium(vi) in water? ?Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed Benesi?Hildebrand plot, IR spectra, Raman assignments, and experiment optimization. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc02618g Click here for additional data file.

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Wei; Wang, Yue; Tanabe, Ichiro; Han, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Bing; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor materials have been successfully used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrates, providing SERS technology with a high flexibility for application in a diverse range of fields. Here, we employ a dye-sensitized semiconductor system combined with semiconductor-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to detect metal ions, using an approach based on the ?turn-off? SERS strategy that takes advantage of the intrinsic capacity of the semiconductor to catalyze the degradation of...

  18. Plot and Personification in “Tehran-e- Makhuf“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pashaei

    Full Text Available Story is one of the important and influential literary genres that deserves to research on its structure and content .By study and analysis of a story, the reader could comprehend the textual messages and change his attitude toward life and different issues .After defining of the social novel, the author tries to analyze plot and personification in novel of “Tehran-e- Makhuf” and respond to the questions on the method employed for plot and personification and analyze it from plot and its components such as conflict, suspension and resolution and compare the differences and similarities between old tales and modern novels.The plot of “Tehran-e- Makhuf” is not so complex due to its subject and content and natural order of events dominates on artificial discipline and it lacks open plot. Of main elements of plot, conflict is more outstanding here. This novel is full of emotional and moral conflicts and there is no similarity with historical novels that describe good and bad conflicts. Cause and effect relationship is main element of plot that shadows on the story events .In “Tehrna-e- Makhuf”, the author tries to violate the principles and cause to imbalance in natural events sequences with discomposing rational and experiential relationship and take action toward artificiality and unnatural suspension. In creating suspension by emphasis on incidences in some extremist cases, Kazemi tries to found the story based on the considerable sequence of events and this conduct reduces quality of the story significantly and leads to imbalance in rational and acceptable discipline.Kazemi employs direct or reporting personification mostly. This novel lacks diversity in personage considerably .All characters speak in similar style and there is no particular speech style. The personification of Kazemi in “Tehran-e-Makhuf” is continuous and interdependent in style of old tales and novel in European account. In some cases, he approaches to story

  19. A narratological analysis of Mark 12:1-12: The plot of the Gospel of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is an attempt to read Mark 12: 1-12 in terms of the plot of the Gospel. Firstly a brief survey is given of the development of the term plot from Aristotle to the present, thereafter an own methodological point of departure concerning plot is formulated in order to study the plot of Mark. The conclusions ...

  20. Hydrological Modelling Using a Rainfall Simulator over an Experimental Hillslope Plot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpit Chouksey

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological processes are complex to compute in hilly areas when compared to plain areas. The governing processes behind runoff generation on hillslopes are subsurface storm flow, saturation excess flow, overland flow, return flow and pipe storage. The simulations of the above processes in the soil matrix require detailed hillslope hydrological modelling. In the present study, a hillslope experimental plot has been designed to study the runoff generation processes on the plot scale. The setup is designed keeping in view the natural hillslope conditions prevailing in the Northwestern Himalayas, India where high intensity rainfall events occur frequently. A rainfall simulator was installed over the experimental hillslope plot to generate rainfall with an intensity of 100 mm/h, which represents the dominating rainfall intensity range in the region. Soil moisture sensors were also installed at variable depths from 100 to 1000 mm at different locations of the plot to observe the soil moisture regime. From the experimental observations it was found that once the soil is saturated, it remains at field capacity for the next 24–36 h. Such antecedent moisture conditions are most favorable for the generation of rapid stormflow from hillslopes. A dye infiltration test was performed on the undisturbed soil column to observe the macropore fraction variability over the vegetated hillslopes. The estimated macropore fractions are used as essential input for the hillslope hydrological model. The main objective of the present study was to develop and test a method for estimating runoff responses from natural rainfall over hillslopes of the Northwestern Himalayas using a portable rainfall simulator. Using the experimental data and the developed conceptual model, the overland flow and the subsurface flow through a macropore-dominated area have been estimated/analyzed. The surface and subsurface runoff estimated using the developed hillslope hydrological model

  1. 7 CFR 868.74 - Divided-lot certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Divided-lot certificates. 868.74 Section 868.74... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Regulations Official Certificates § 868.74 Divided-lot certificates. (a) General. When commodities are offered for inspection and are certificated as a single lot...

  2. 7 CFR 800.163 - Divided-lot certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Divided-lot certificates. 800.163 Section 800.163... Certificates § 800.163 Divided-lot certificates. (a) General. When shiplot grain is offered for inspection or Class X weighing as a single lot and is certificated as a single lot, the applicant may exchange the...

  3. The Digital Divide and Health Outcomes: A Teleretinal Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Kathleen Kihmm

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to understand, explore and describe the digital divide and the relationship between technology utilization and health outcomes. Diabetes and diabetic eye disease was used as the real-life context for understanding change and exploring the digital divide. As an investigational framework, a telemedicine…

  4. The Digital Divide in Health Education: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellefson, Michael; Chaney, Beth; Chaney, Don

    2008-01-01

    Although e-health interventions provide new opportunities for health education, there has been cause for concern regarding the purported information technology gap between those who have access to digital applications and those who do not--termed the "digital divide." The literature suggests, however, that this divide may now be illusory, driven…

  5. A pulse amplitude dividing circuit for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ediss, C.; McQuarrie, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    A pulse dividing circuit has been developed to provide analogue and digital outputs proportional to the ratio of the amplitudes of two nuclear pulses. Input pulses ranging from 200 mV to 10 V may be processed by the device. The pulse dividing circuit has been successfully incorporated as part of a small gamma camera. (orig.)

  6. Digital Natives and Digital Divide: Analysing Perspective for Emerging Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onye, Uriel U.; Du, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the concepts of digital natives and digital divide from the perspective of the digital outsiders (part of digital natives). It takes a critical look at the implications of available ICT in both developed and underdeveloped countries in the fight against digital divide. The major contribution to literature is by drawing…

  7. Bridging the Digital Divide--An Australian Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Robyn; Papadopoulos, Theo

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the lack of access to information and communication technology (ICT) or the "digital divide" severely limits education, employment and economic prospects. This paper reports on the evaluation of a project that aims to bridge the digital divide. In particular, the case study data has been used to bring to…

  8. Evaluation of Fatih Project in the Frame of Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Kerim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research realized at the general survey model is to evaluate "FATIH Project" in the frame of digital divide by determining the effects of the distributed tablets to the students being educated at K-12 schools on digital divide. Sample is taking from the 9th grade students in Sakarya city in the 2013-2014 academic session.…

  9. Negotiating Digital Divides: Perspectives from the New Zealand Schooling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Louise; Sylvester, Allan; Johnstone, David

    2017-01-01

    This article explores digital divides identified in research literature and considers educational policy directions that may mitigate or enhance future inequities. A review of literature identified three categories of digital divides in society; access, capability, and participation. To explore the strategic focus in schooling, data were gathered…

  10. Confronting the Digital Divide: Debunking Brave New World Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowsell, Jennifer; Morrell, Ernest; Alvermann, Donna E.

    2017-01-01

    There is far more to the digital divide than meets the eye. In this article, the authors consolidate existing research on the digital divide to offer some tangible ways for educators to bridge the gap between the haves and have-nots, or the cans and cannots. Drawing on Aldous Huxley's notion of a "brave new world," some digital divide…

  11. The Digital Divide and University Education Systems in Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the concept of the digital divide, how the divide can relegate Africa to the background and how a transformed tertiary educational system can help to minimise the bridge between the information-rich countries of the North and the information-poor African countries. It is argued that if the barriers to ...

  12. Communication Satellite: Nigeria's Efforts at Bridging Digital Divide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines Nigeria's technological efforts so far at bridging the Digital Divide through communication Satellite. This discourse focuses on the uses and challenges of Satellite communication in Nigeria. The paper relies on secondary data to explore the fate of Nigeria nation in the era of digital divide and ...

  13. BRIDGING THE DIGITAL DIVIDE: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It presents the causes of digital divided such as; the general poor economic conditions in Africa; local content; ... from bridging the digital divide such as making large regional, national and even global markets accessible to ..... towards attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), transformation agenda as well ...

  14. The New Frontier of Digital Inequality. The Participatory Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Robles Morales

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the relationship between digital participation and the digital participation divide. The first concept refers to the use of the Internet to produce cultural goods that are subsequently shared on a global scale; the latter, refers to the inequalities generated by the uneven distribution of these creative uses of the Internet in a given population. Empirically, our work focuses on the role of digital skills and sociopolitical attitudes toward the Internet in explaining the digital participation divide, as they are considered precursors of digital participation. Results suggest that the same mechanisms that previously sustained digital divide are now fostering digital participation divide; however, we argue that the negative social consequences of this divide exceed those of its predecessor.

  15. [Design of broadband power divider in microwave hyperthermia system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bing; Jiang, Guotai; Lu, Xiaofeng; Cao, Yi

    2010-10-01

    In clinical application of microwave hyperthermia, multi-applicators are often simultaneously required to irradiate the tumor because of its large volume or its deep location. Power divider separates the input microwave energy into equal, or unequal, energy to each applicator. In this paper, the design procedure for the three-section transmission-line transformer based one-to-two equal-split Wilkinson power divider is introduced. By impedance analysis on equivalent scheme, the design parameter of power divider is provided, and by simulation and optimization on Ansoft HFSS, a microstrip structure Wilkinson power divider operating frequency 2. 45 GHz is given. Measurement test results from network analyzer show that it has 25% bandwidth and good isolation in output with this structure. Besides, it is characterized by small size and easy processing. This power divider suits microwave hyperthermia.

  16. Soil Carbon Accumulation and CO2 Flux in Experimental Restoration Plots, Southern Iceland: Comparing Soil Treatment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence H. Tanner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental plots were established on severely eroded land surfaces in Iceland in 1999 to study the rates and limits of soil carbon sequestration during restoration and succession. The carbon content in the upper 10 cm of soils increased substantially during the initial eight years in all plots for which the treatments included both fertilizer and seeding with grasses, concomitant with the increase in vegetative cover. In the following five years, however, the soil carbon accumulation rates declined to negligible for most treatments and the carbon content in soils mainly remained relatively constant. We suggest that burial of vegetated surfaces by aeolian drift and nutrient limitation inhibited productivity and carbon sequestration in most plots. Only plots seeded with lupine demonstrated continued long-term soil carbon accumulation and soil CO2 flux rates significantly higher than background levels. This demonstrates that lupine was the sole treatment that resulted in vegetation capable of sustained growth independent of nutrient availability and resistant to disruption by aeolian processes.

  17. Correlation analysis of respiratory signals by using parallel coordinate plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatci, Esra

    2018-01-01

    The understanding of the bonds and the relationships between the respiratory signals, i.e. the airflow, the mouth pressure, the relative temperature and the relative humidity during breathing may provide the improvement on the measurement methods of respiratory mechanics and sensor designs or the exploration of the several possible applications in the analysis of respiratory disorders. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to propose a new combination of methods in order to determine the relationship between respiratory signals as a multidimensional data. In order to reveal the coupling between the processes two very different methods were used: the well-known statistical correlation analysis (i.e. Pearson's correlation and cross-correlation coefficient) and parallel coordinate plots (PCPs). Curve bundling with the number intersections for the correlation analysis, Least Mean Square Time Delay Estimator (LMS-TDE) for the point delay detection and visual metrics for the recognition of the visual structures were proposed and utilized in PCP. The number of intersections was increased when the correlation coefficient changed from high positive to high negative correlation between the respiratory signals, especially if whole breath was processed. LMS-TDE coefficients plotted in PCP indicated well-matched point delay results to the findings in the correlation analysis. Visual inspection of PCB by visual metrics showed range, dispersions, entropy comparisons and linear and sinusoidal-like relationships between the respiratory signals. It is demonstrated that the basic correlation analysis together with the parallel coordinate plots perceptually motivates the visual metrics in the display and thus can be considered as an aid to the user analysis by providing meaningful views of the data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Plant species richness enhances nitrogen retention in green roof plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine; Schweinhart, Shelbye; Buffam, Ishi

    2016-10-01

    Vegetated (green) roofs have become common in many cities and are projected to continue to increase in coverage, but little is known about the ecological properties of these engineered ecosystems. In this study, we tested the biodiversity-ecosystem function hypothesis using commercially available green roof trays as replicated plots with varying levels of plant species richness (0, 1, 3, or 6 common green roof species per plot, using plants with different functional characteristics). We estimated accumulated plant biomass near the peak of the first full growing season (July 2013) and measured runoff volume after nearly every rain event from September 2012 to September 2013 (33 events) and runoff fluxes of inorganic nutrients ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate from a subset of 10 events. We found that (1) total plant biomass increased with increasing species richness, (2) green roof plots were effective at reducing storm runoff, with vegetation increasing water retention more than soil-like substrate alone, but there was no significant effect of plant species identity or richness on runoff volume, (3) green roof substrate was a significant source of phosphate, regardless of presence/absence of plants, and (4) dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN = nitrate + ammonium) runoff fluxes were different among plant species and decreased significantly with increasing plant species richness. The variation in N retention was positively related to variation in plant biomass. Notably, the increased biomass and N retention with species richness in this engineered ecosystem are similar to patterns observed in published studies from grasslands and other well-studied ecosystems. We suggest that more diverse plantings on vegetated roofs may enhance the retention capacity for reactive nitrogen. This is of importance for the sustained health of vegetated roof ecosystems, which over time often experience nitrogen limitation, and is also relevant for water quality in receiving waters

  19. Development of SVAT model for computing water and energy balance of the forest intensive monitoring plots on Olkiluoto island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, T.

    2009-06-01

    This Working Report presents the main results of SVAT (Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere- Transfer) model that was developed to analyze the different water and energy balance components of the Forest Intensive monitoring plots (FIP) on Olkiluoto Island. The Olkiluoto SVAT model divides above ground vegetation in two layers: overstorey (trees) and understorey. Hydrological processes that are quantified in the SVAT model of forest stands include precipitation, interception, evaporation, transpiration, snow accumulation and melt, soil and ground water movement, overland flow, horizontal subsurface flow and flow to forest ditches. In this report outlines for simplifying the existing SVAT model to a computational tool that can be used in biosphere modeling for long-term safety purposes are also given. The functioning of forest ecosystems on Olkiluoto Island is studied in Forest Intensive monitoring Plots (FIP): FIP4 (Scots pine forest), FIP10 (Norway spruce forest) and FIP11 (young Norway spruce/birch forest). Within the forest intensive monitoring plots (FIP4, 10 and 11) stand meteorological measurements are recorded once an hour. The parameters are air temperature, minimum and maximum temperature inside the crown layer and above the canopy, radiation, relative humidity, precipitation, soil moisture content, soil temperature and sap flow measurements (May 2007- June 2008). Measured versus computed cumulative stand throughfall were in good agreement with each other indicating that the SVAT model can be calibrated to reproduce very well the measured throughfall rates. Estimated stem flow was around 10% of precipitation for the Scots pine forest (FIP4), around 4 % for Norway spruce forest (FIP10) and about 3 % for young Norway spruce/birch forest (FIP11). For FIP4 the computed interception values were approximately 3-4 % bigger than the measured values but SVAT model predicted the yearly variation very well. For FIP10 average computed value was around 1 % smaller than the

  20. WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) using Excel - 3: Plotting data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2018-02-13

    The plotting of data into graphs should be a mandatory step in all data analysis as part of a descriptive statistics exercise, since it gives the researcher an overview of the shape and nature of the data. Moreover, outlier values may be identified, which may be incorrect data, or true outliers, from which important findings (and publications) may arise. This exercise should always precede inferential statistics, when possible, and this paper in the Early Human Development WASP series provides some pointers for doing so in Microsoft Excel™. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Graphical interpretation of confidence curves in rankit plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Blaabjerg, Ole; Andersen, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    A well-known transformation from the bell-shaped Gaussian (normal) curve to a straight line in the rankit plot is investigated, and a tool for evaluation of the distribution of reference groups is presented. It is based on the confidence intervals for percentiles of the calculated Gaussian...... will fit to the straight line describing the calculated In-Gaussian distribution. The quality of the fit is evaluated by adding confidence intervals (CI) to each point on the line and calculating the percentage of points outside the hyperbola-like CI-curves. The assumption was that the 95% confidence...

  2. TORCAPP: time-dependent cyclotron orbit calculation and plotting package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, L.B.; McNeilly, G.S.

    1979-11-01

    TORCAPP calculates the motion of charged particles in electromagnetic fields with time as the independent variable, and produces a variety of printed and plotted output of results. Finite-size beam behavior is studied conveniently by following groups of particles which define an appropriate phase space area. Since time is the independent variable, general motion in the near-median-plane region may be followed. This includes, for example, loops not enclosing the origin and strongly radial motions. Thus, TORCAPP is particularly useful for injection studies for isochronous cyclotrons, or other devices with near-median-plane charged particle motion

  3. Estimation of optimum plot dimensions and replication number for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bread wheat was row and broadcast sown using uniform crop management practices on a research station soil classified as a haplic Nitisol, situated in a major wheat producing region of Ethiopia, during the 1996 and 1997 crop seasons. The harvested area was divided into basic units measuring 1 m by 1 m. Resultant ...

  4. Semiconductor-driven “turn-off” surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy: application in selective determination of chromium(vi) in water† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed Benesi–Hildebrand plot, IR spectra, Raman assignments, and experiment optimization. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc02618g Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Wang, Yue; Tanabe, Ichiro; Han, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    Semiconductor materials have been successfully used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrates, providing SERS technology with a high flexibility for application in a diverse range of fields. Here, we employ a dye-sensitized semiconductor system combined with semiconductor-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to detect metal ions, using an approach based on the “turn-off” SERS strategy that takes advantage of the intrinsic capacity of the semiconductor to catalyze the degradation of a Raman probe. Alizarin red S (ARS)-sensitized colloidal TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were selected as an example to show how semiconductor-enhanced Raman spectroscopy enables the determination of Cr(vi) in water. Firstly, we explored the SERS mechanism of ARS–TiO2 complexes and found that the strong electronic coupling between ARS and colloidal TiO2 NPs gives rise to the formation of a ligand-to-metal charge-transfer (LMCT) transition, providing a new electronic transition pathway for the Raman process. Secondly, colloidal TiO2 nanoparticles were used as active sites to induce the self-degradation of the Raman probe adsorbed on their surfaces in the presence of Cr(vi). Our data demonstrate the potential of ARS–TiO2 complexes as a SERS-active sensing platform for Cr(vi) in an aqueous solution. Remarkably, the method proposed in this contribution is relatively simple, without requiring complex pretreatment and complicated instruments, but provides high sensitivity and excellent selectivity in a high-throughput fashion. Finally, the ARS–TiO2 complexes are successfully applied to the detection of Cr(vi) in environmental samples. Thus, the present work provides a facile method for the detection of Cr(vi) in aqueous solutions and a viable application for semiconductor-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based on the chemical enhancement they contribute. PMID:28694937

  5. PLOTNFIT.4TH, Data Plotting and Curve Fitting by Polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffgens, J.O.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: PLOTnFIT is used for plotting and analyzing data by fitting nth degree polynomials of basis functions to the data interactively and printing graphs of the data and the polynomial functions. It can be used to generate linear, semi-log, and log-log graphs and can automatically scale the coordinate axes to suit the data. Multiple data sets may be plotted on a single graph. An auxiliary program, READ1ST, is included which produces an on-line summary of the information contained in the PLOTnFIT reference report. 2 - Method of solution: PLOTnFIT uses the least squares method to calculate the coefficients of nth-degree (up to 10. degree) polynomials of 11 selected basis functions such that each polynomial fits the data in a least squares sense. The procedure incorporated in the code uses a linear combination of orthogonal polynomials to avoid 'i11-conditioning' and to perform the curve fitting task with single-precision arithmetic. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 225 data points per job (or graph) including all data sets 8 data sets (or tasks) per job (or graph)

  6. TREDRA, Minimal Cut Sets Fault Tree Plot Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fussell, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: TREDRA is a computer program for drafting report-quality fault trees. The input to TREDRA is similar to input for standard computer programs that find minimal cut sets from fault trees. Output includes fault tree plots containing all standard fault tree logic and event symbols, gate and event labels, and an output description for each event in the fault tree. TREDRA contains the following features: a variety of program options that allow flexibility in the program output; capability for automatic pagination of the output fault tree, when necessary; input groups which allow labeling of gates, events, and their output descriptions; a symbol library which includes standard fault tree symbols plus several less frequently used symbols; user control of character size and overall plot size; and extensive input error checking and diagnostic oriented output. 2 - Method of solution: Fault trees are generated by user-supplied control parameters and a coded description of the fault tree structure consisting of the name of each gate, the gate type, the number of inputs to the gate, and the names of these inputs. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: TREDRA can produce fault trees with a minimum of 3 and a maximum of 56 levels. The width of each level may range from 3 to 37. A total of 50 transfers is allowed during pagination

  7. Digital Divide between Teachers and Students in Urban Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2011-01-01

    Telecom boom since 2000 and ‘Digital Bangladesh’ campaign since late 2008 created significant nationwide hype, resulting rapid increase in the use of digital devices. While studies are being conducted to use the ability of “power users of technology” for reducing digital divide, there is hardly any...... data available on them in Bangladesh context. A study was conducted to study the digital divide and ICT usage pattern among the urban students and teachers of schools and colleges in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. About 75 students enrolled in probability and statistics course of Independent...... into digital divide and associated reasons in four different educations systems in Bangladesh....

  8. An automated graphics tool for comparative genomics: the Coulson plot generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Helen I; Coulson, Richard M R; Field, Mark C

    2013-04-27

    Comparative analysis is an essential component to biology. When applied to genomics for example, analysis may require comparisons between the predicted presence and absence of genes in a group of genomes under consideration. Frequently, genes can be grouped into small categories based on functional criteria, for example membership of a multimeric complex, participation in a metabolic or signaling pathway or shared sequence features and/or paralogy. These patterns of retention and loss are highly informative for the prediction of function, and hence possible biological context, and can provide great insights into the evolutionary history of cellular functions. However, representation of such information in a standard spreadsheet is a poor visual means from which to extract patterns within a dataset. We devised the Coulson Plot, a new graphical representation that exploits a matrix of pie charts to display comparative genomics data. Each pie is used to describe a complex or process from a separate taxon, and is divided into sectors corresponding to the number of proteins (subunits) in a complex/process. The predicted presence or absence of proteins in each complex are delineated by occupancy of a given sector; this format is visually highly accessible and makes pattern recognition rapid and reliable. A key to the identity of each subunit, plus hierarchical naming of taxa and coloring are included. A java-based application, the Coulson plot generator (CPG) automates graphic production, with a tab or comma-delineated text file as input and generating an editable portable document format or svg file. CPG software may be used to rapidly convert spreadsheet data to a graphical matrix pie chart format. The representation essentially retains all of the information from the spreadsheet but presents a graphically rich format making comparisons and identification of patterns significantly clearer. While the Coulson plot format is highly useful in comparative genomics, its

  9. Annan warns of 'content divide' between rich and poor

    CERN Multimedia

    Dickson, D

    2003-01-01

    "The Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, warned today (10 December) that a "content divide" is threatening to deprive developing countries of the full benefits offered by information and communications technologies (ICTs)" (1 page)

  10. Hyperglycemia diverts dividing stem cells to pathological adipogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hascall, Vincent; Wang, Aimin

    2014-01-01

    This commentary proposes a mechanism for why murine diabetic adipose tissue contains very few remaining stem cells compared with normal adipose tissue. The mechanism involves the diversion of stem cells to pathological adipocytes when they divide in hyperglycemia.

  11. Methane Isotopes from the WAIS Divide Ice Core, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes methane (CH4) isotope data from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide ice core, WDC05A, in Antarctica. The data include depth, gas age,...

  12. Narrowing the Digital Divide in Low-Income, Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Daniel T.; Conceicao, Simone

    2004-01-01

    The digital divide is leaving millions disenfranchised from the opportunity to use technology to change their lives and to participate fully in democracy, in their own communities, and in today's job market.

  13. Justifying the Classical-Quantum Divide of the Copenhagen Interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotin, Arkady

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most significant drawback, which the Copenhagen interpretation (still the most popular interpretation of quantum theory) suffers from, is the classical-quantum divide between the large classical systems that carry out measurements and the small quantum systems that they measure. So, an "ideal" alternative interpretation of quantum theory would either eliminate this divide or justify it in some reasonable way. The present paper demonstrates that it is possible to justify the classi...

  14. Potato production on private plots contaminated by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdevitch, I.; Tarasiuk, S.

    2004-01-01

    Potatoes is one of the basis food products of man diet, especially in country area. Recent research has shown that 137 Cs content in potato tubers does not exceed the permissible level at the potato growing on radioactive contaminated land in Belarus. However up to 240-300 kg of potatoes is consumed per man during year and potato yield determines significant share of the internal dose of radiation. Moreover, extra potato yield sold on market is forming the essential part of the rural family budget. Therefore the reducing of 137 Cs content in potatoes and increasing of potato yield could be allowed to improve of quality life of rural inhabitants on contaminated areas. The application of protection measures on private plots are restricted by lack of the knowledge and financial deficit. The involvement of rural inhabitants in processes of self-rehabilitation and self-development could be a way to improve the quality life on radioactive contaminated territory There is strong motivation for inhabitants to increase the yield and to reduce the radionuclide concentration in potatoes. How to develop the conditions for the sustainable potato production by private producers on affected land? There are several factors to consider. Firstly, the rural inhabitants should be actively involved as initiators to improve their quality life. Secondly, the potato technology should be adopted to the local territory and tested by producers on radiological and economic efficiency. Thirdly, the common village initiatives should be developed for supplying by new varieties of seeds and fertilizers, selling of yield, consulting, crediting etc. The step-by-step solution of described strategy could allow improving and stabilizing the potato production by rural community. The training of rural people as an initial step was realized to transfer to the inhabitants the practical skills that can be used in their day-to-day life within framework of 'ETHOS-II' project. The experimental potato

  15. Correlation plot facility in the SLC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, L.; Phinney, N.; Sanchez-Chopitea, L.

    1991-05-01

    The Correlation Plot facility is a powerful interactive tool for data acquisition and analysis throughout the SLC. A generalized interface allows the user to perform a wide variety of machine physics experiments without the need for specialized software. It has been used extensively during SLC commissioning and operation. The user may step one or two independent parameters such as magnet or feedback setpoints while measuring or calculating up to 160 others. Measured variables include all analog signals available to the control system as well as a variety of derived parameters such as beam size or emittance. Various fitting algorithms and display options are provided for data analysis. A software-callable interface is also provided. Applications based on this facility are used to phase klystrons, measure emittance and dispersion, minimize beam size at the interaction point and maintain beam collisions. 4 refs., 3 figs

  16. Finding the plot in South African reading education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rule

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that we have lost the plot in South African reading education. To find it, we need to move beyond the predominant mode of reading as oral performance, where the emphasis is on accuracy and pronunciation, to reading as comprehension of meaning in text. While reading research in South Africa has been conducted mainly in school contexts, this case study is of a school and Adult Basic Education and Training Centre in a rural KwaZulu-Natal community near Pietermaritzburg. It found that an oratorical approach to reading dominated in both settings. It suggests that developing the way in which teachers understand the teaching of reading and transforming the teaching practices of those who teach as they were taught in the education system of the apartheid era are key to improving the teaching of reading.

  17. D.3.2 PLOT Persuasive Learning Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hansen, Sandra Burri; Schärfe, Henrik; Winther-Nielsen, Nicolai

    2011-01-01

    This deliverable is the second of three deliverables in WP3: Persuasive Learning Design Framework, and draws upon the theoretical foundation presented in the first deliverable D.3.1, as the persuasive potential of existing systems are explored, analysed and discussed. D.3.2. is formally described...... as an: ‚Internal report for project use containing an empirically-based assessment of existing systems and their potential in terms of learning and persuasion. This will be used as a discussion document by the consortium.‛ To meet the requirements of this deliverable, this documents presents analysis...... of the technological learning tools and products which are currently related to the PLOT project, namely the GLOMaker and the 3ET tool, and a selection of GLOs and learning exercises. The primary focus of the analysis is to explore how the theoretical perspectives presented in D.3.1 are represented in these tools...

  18. Histogram plots and cutoff energies for nuclear discrete levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belgya, T.; Molnar, G.; Fazekas, B.; Oestoer, J.

    1997-05-01

    Discrete level schemes for 1277 nuclei, from 6 Li through 251 Es, extracted from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File were analyzed. Cutoff energies (U max ), indicating the upper limit of level scheme completeness, were deduced from the inspection of histograms of the cumulative number of levels. Parameters of the constant-temperature level density formula (nuclear temperature T and energy shift U 0 ) were obtained by means of the least square fit of the formula to the known levels below cutoff energy. The results are tabulated for all 1277 nuclei allowing for an easy and reliable application of the constant-temperature level density approach. A complete set of cumulative plots of discrete levels is also provided. (author). 5 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Steroid hormone runoff from agricultural test plots applied with municipal biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Ya; Gray, James L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Davis, Jessica G.; ReVollo, Rhiannon C.; Borch, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The potential presence of steroid hormones in runoff from sites where biosolids have been used as agricultural fertilizers is an environmental concern. A study was conducted to assess the potential for runoff of seventeen different hormones and two sterols, including androgens, estrogens, and progestogens from agricultural test plots. The field containing the test plots had been applied with biosolids for the first time immediately prior to this study. Target compounds were isolated by solid-phase extraction (water samples) and pressurized solvent extraction (solid samples), derivatized, and analyzed by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Runoff samples collected prior to biosolids application had low concentrations of two hormones (estrone -1 and androstenedione -1) and cholesterol (22.5 ± 3.8 μg L-1). In contrast, significantly higher concentrations of multiple estrogens (-1), androgens (-1), and progesterone (-1) were observed in runoff samples taken 1, 8, and 35 days after biosolids application. A significant positive correlation was observed between antecedent rainfall amount and hormone mass loads (runoff). Hormones in runoff were primarily present in the dissolved phase (hormones from biosolids-amended agricultural fields, directly to surface waters or redistributed to terrestrial sites away from the point of application via runoff. Although concentrations decrease over time, 35 days is insufficient for complete degradation of hormones in soil at this site.

  20. Pre-ABoVE: Arctic Vegetation Plots, Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides environmental, soil, and vegetation data collected during August 2007 from 69 study plots at the Unalaska Island research site, and one plot...

  1. Improved estimates of per-plot basal area from angle count inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Eastaugh CS; Hasenauer H

    2014-01-01

    Forest inventories were originally designed for the assessment of timber stocks over large areas. The large datasets gathered by these programs are becoming of increasing interest in other applications, particularly in ecosystem modeling. With inventory designs based on sampling proportional to size (angle-count plots) users should be cautious of using data pertaining to individual plots, as the plot-wise data is a statistical estimate rather than a true measurement. Estimates of per-plot bas...

  2. Romania's Digital Divide and the Failures of E-Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dan ŞANDOR

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to measure the level of the digital divide existing in Romania and also to verify its relationship with e-government. At the country level, Romania is one of the least digitally developed countries in Europe, but it has shown a sharp increase in recent years. At the social level, based on data from public opinion surveys, digital divide is analyzed at two levels: lack of access and lack of knowledge. The results are similar to those in other countries: digital divide appears along the same dimensions: rural/urban, age, education, wealth and, to a lesser extent, gender. E-government services, while presumed to be at an adequate level, are used only by a very small number of citizens, thus having no impact upon the digital divide. Confronted with a serious divide, and with great possibility of its increasing, Romania needs to promote policies designed to increase access and knowledge. Also, e-government is not possible, unless administrative culture and procedures change.

  3. [Promoting nursing competitiveness: introduction to the digital divide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Hsu; Lee, Ting-Ting

    2010-02-01

    Increasingly sophisticated information technology (IT) has widened the gap (the so-called "digital divide") between those with effective access to IT resources and those without. Problems related to the digital divide exist in every country. In addition to level of familiarity with technology, the divide can also be influenced by factors of race, gender, age, education, economic status and area of residence. The digital divide may be ameliorated through technology innovations in terms of access to information, information application and information literacy. As IT is an increasingly significant component of modern healthcare, it may be expected that the "width" of the potential gap widens as IT applications increase in sophistication. Nursing professionals must keep abreast of advancing technologies in order to narrow the digital divide. To cope with this challenge, nursing professionals should enhance their understanding of new technologies beyond what is taught in formal education curricula. This knowledge enhancement may be attained through self learning or on-the-job training in nursing informatics. Content could cover hospital information system (IS) usage, security, applications and web access. This will improve the ability of nursing staff to face the current IT challenge.

  4. Digital Divide Measurement in Lembata Regency Using SIBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Cecilia Dai Payon Binti; Setyohadi, Djoko Budiyanto; Suyoto

    2018-02-01

    Along with technological development in Indonesia, digital divide occurs in various regions, which were behind in terms of information on how to use, access and utilize ICT in collecting information from internet. One of the regions is Lembata Regency in East Nusa Tenggara, where digital divide among the people should be measured. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of digital divide among the people of Lembata Regency. To determine the level of digital divide, we used SIBIS GPS (General Population Survey) method, which consisted of several indicators or aspect, i.e. internet usage behavior, internet utilization, and e-government. We also performed two tests, i.e. validity test and reliability test to obtain value of index of digital divide measurement among the people of Lembata Regency. The results of validity test which is processed using SPSS program are categorized valid for each variable indicator and the reliability test results show reliable status. According to the test results on digital discrepancy in Lembata people, the internet usage attitude indicator is categorized low which is 63.1%, the internet usage function indicator is categorized low which is 64%, and the digital discrepancy of e-government indicator is categorized medium which is 40.4%. Therefore, the result of this study because consideration for the government of Lembata Regency in improving ICT services in e-government and in distributing ICT access and ability equally to the people.

  5. Is there a second level divide in students Internet skills?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Purushothaman, Aparna

    2015-01-01

    The concept of digital divide have moved beyond physical disparities in usage and also encompasses issues impending access like human (skills) social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies apart from ownership. This paper focuses on the insu......The concept of digital divide have moved beyond physical disparities in usage and also encompasses issues impending access like human (skills) social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies apart from ownership. This paper focuses...... on the insufficient level of skills which students have in making the best use of available Internet technology. Varying online skills of the students in higher education from two countrywide scenarios - Denmark and India are discussed. The paper emphasizes on the reflective and conceptual issues which the students...... face to take information from the Internet that brings a second level of divide. Through a cross-national comparison the paper hopes to contribute to the literature to learn from each other´s experiences and giving insights to researchers on digital divide. The digital divide in Internet skills...

  6. High Power Combiner/Divider with Coupled Lines for Broadband Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-20

    especially, for discrete resistors (such as surface mount resistors). Reducing the resistor’s physical dimension reduces its power handling capability...right of A1 and A2. This is achieved, in the Gysel divider, through the virtual opens/shorts and the associated /4 transformations. Clearly, the...Darwish1, Kenneth McKnight1, Mona Zaghloul2, Edward Viveiros1, and H. Alfred Hung1 1Army Research Laboratory , Adelphi, MD 2George Washington

  7. Classification of calorimetric titration plots for alkyltrimethylammonium and alkylpyridinium cationic surfactants in aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijma, K; Engberts, J.B.F.N.; Blandamer, M.J; Cullis, P.M.; Last, P.M.; Irlam, K.D.; Soldi, L.G.

    1997-01-01

    Calorimetric titration plots for deaggregation of micelles formed by alkylpyridinium and alkyltrimethylammonium surfactants are classified into three types, A, B and C, depending on the shape of the plot of the enthalpy of dilution as a function of surfactant concentration. For Type A plots the

  8. An ecoinformatics application for forest dynamics plot data management and sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau-Chin Lin; Abd Rahman Kassim; Kristin Vanderbilt; Donald Henshaw; Eda C. Melendez-Colom; John H. Porter; Kaoru Niiyama; Tsutomu Yagihashi; Sek Aun Tan; Sheng-Shan Lu; Chi-Wen Hsiao; Li-Wan Chang; Meei-Ru. Jeng

    2011-01-01

    Several forest dynamics plot research projects in the East-Asia Pacific region of the International Long-Term Ecological Research network actively collect long-term data, and some of these large plots are members of the Center for Tropical Forest Science network. The wealth of forest plot data presents challenges in information management to researchers. In order to...

  9. The Use of Plackett-Burman Designs to Construct Split Plot Designs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulahci, M.; Bisgaard, S.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract When some factors are hard to change and others are relatively easier, split-plot experiments are often an economic alternative to fully randomized designs. Split-plot experiments, with their structure of subplot arrays imbedded within whole-plot arrays, have a tendency to become large,

  10. Maintaining a permanent plot data base for growth and yield research: Solutions to some recurring problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Byrne

    1993-01-01

    Methods for solving some recurring problems of maintaining a permanent plot data base for growth and yield reseuch are described. These methods include documenting data from diverse sampling designs, changing sampling designs, changing field procedures, and coordinating activities in the plots with the land management agency. Managing a permanent plot data base (...

  11. The influence of fipronil on Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) feeding beyond treated plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Shelton

    2013-01-01

    A small-plot field trial was conducted to examine the area of influence of fipronil at incremental distances away from treated plots on the Harrison Experimental Forest near Saucier, MS. Small treated (water and fipronil) plots were surrounded by untreated wooden boards in an eight-point radial pattern, and examined for evidence of termite feeding every 60 d for 1 yr...

  12. Using canopy resistance for infrared heater control when warming open-field plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several research groups are using or planning to use arrays of infrared heaters to simulate global warming in open-field plots with a control strategy that involves maintaining a constant rise in canopy temperatures of the heated plots above those of un-heated Reference plots. . However, if the warm...

  13. Variable Selection Strategies for Small-area Estimation Using FIA Plots and Remotely Sensed Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Lister; Rachel Riemann; James Westfall; Mike Hoppus

    2005-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) unit maintains a network of tens of thousands of georeferenced forest inventory plots distributed across the United States. Data collected on these plots include direct measurements of tree diameter and height and other variables. We present a technique by which FIA plot data and coregistered...

  14. Multilocational evaluation of white yam genotypes using GGE bi-plot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five new white yam genotypes were evaluated in different locations of major yam producing areas; Umudike, Nsukka, Ubiaja, Abuja and Katsina-Ala, to test the performance and stability of these genotypes across the environments using GGE bi-plot software. The GGE bi-plot generated several graphic bi-plots which ...

  15. Practical Considerations When Using Perturbed Forest Inventory Plot Locations To Develop Spatial Models: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Gregory A. Reams; Ronald E. McRoberts; William D. Smith

    2006-01-01

    U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plot information is used in many capacities including timber inventories, forest health assessments, and environmental risk analyses. With few exceptions, actual plot locations cannot be revealed to the general public. The public does, however, have access to perturbed plot coordinates. The...

  16. Modeling post-fire woody carbon dynamics with data from remeasured inventory plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianca N.I. Eskelson; Jeremy Fried; Vicente Monleon

    2015-01-01

    In California, the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots within large fires were visited one year after the fire occurred resulting in a time series of measurements before and after fire. During this additional plot visit, the standard inventory measurements were augmented for these burned plots to assess fire effects. One example of the additional measurements is...

  17. Crossing the phantom divide: Dark energy internal degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    Dark energy constraints have forced viable alternatives that differ substantially from a cosmological constant Λ to have an equation of state w that evolves across the phantom divide set by Λ. Naively, crossing this divide makes the dark energy gravitationally unstable, a problem that is typically finessed by unphysically ignoring the perturbations. While this procedure does not affect constraints near the favored cosmological constant model it can artificially enhance the confidence with which alternative models are rejected. Similar to the general problem of stability for w<0, the solution lies in the internal degrees of freedom in the dark energy sector. We explicitly show how to construct a two scalar field model that crosses the phantom divide and mimics the single field behavior on either side to substantially better than 1% in all observables. It is representative of models where the internal degrees of freedom keep the dark energy smooth out to the horizon scale independently of the equation of state

  18. Dividing Cells Regulate Their Lipid Composition and Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilla-Gokcumen, G. Ekin; Muro, Eleonora; Relat-Goberna, Josep; Sasse, Sofia; Bedigian, Anne; Coughlin, Margaret L.; Garcia-Manyes, Sergi; Eggert, Ulrike S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Although massive membrane rearrangements occur during cell division, little is known about specific roles that lipids might play in this process. We report that the lipidome changes with the cell cycle. LC-MS-based lipid profiling shows that 11 lipids with specific chemical structures accumulate in dividing cells. Using AFM, we demonstrate differences in the mechanical properties of live dividing cells and their isolated lipids relative to nondividing cells. In parallel, systematic RNAi knockdown of lipid biosynthetic enzymes identified enzymes required for division, which highly correlated with lipids accumulated in dividing cells. We show that cells specifically regulate the localization of lipids to midbodies, membrane-based structures where cleavage occurs. We conclude that cells actively regulate and modulate their lipid composition and localization during division, with both signaling and structural roles likely. This work has broader implications for the active and sustained participation of lipids in basic biology. PMID:24462247

  19. Bridging the Digital Divide for urban seniors: community partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M Kay; Jarosz, Patricia A

    2010-01-01

    Computers and the Internet offer older adults resources for improving health. For many older adults, the "Digital Divide" (the social, economic, and demographic factors that exist between individuals who use computers and those who do not) is a barrier to taking advantage of these resources. Bridging the Digital Divide by making computers and the Internet more accessible and making online health information more usable for older adults has the potential to improve health of older adults. This article describes a strategy for closing the Digital Divide for urban seniors through the formation of a community- university partnership with the goal of improving health and well-being through the use of online health information. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acoustic tool for leak inspections in steam generator divider plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewski, J.; Maak, P.; Colbert, M.

    1997-01-01

    Cross flow leakage through divider plates in the primary head of steam generators, may be a contributor to RIHT rise which can have a negative effect on the operation of a plant. A method to provide quick and reliable inspection of divider plate leakage can be very useful in helping make timely and effective maintenance decisions. A novel acoustic tool for performing inspections in drained steam generators during shutdowns has been developed by OH Technologies and successfully demonstrated in a field application. The technique, referred as ALIS (acoustic leak inspection system), performs a scan of the divider plate face and presents a graphic image of the leakage paths and an estimate of the total leakage area. (author)

  1. Dividing traffic cluster into parts by signal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    When a cluster of vehicles with various speeds moves through the series of signals, the cluster breaks down by stopping at signals and results in smaller groups of vehicles. We present the nonlinear-map model of the motion of vehicles controlled by the signals. We study the breakup of a cluster of vehicles through the series of signals. The cluster of vehicles is divided into various groups by controlling the cycle time of signals. The vehicles within each group move with the same mean velocity. The breakup of the traffic cluster depends highly on the signal control. The dependence of dividing on both cycle time and vehicular speed is clarified. Also, we investigate the effect of the irregular interval between signals on dividing.

  2. Bruce NGS A Unit 4 preheater divider plate failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landridge, M.; McInnes, D.

    1995-01-01

    On May 19, 1995, without any prior operational indications, Bruce A discovered preheater divider plate damage in Unit 4 that had the potential to have a major impact on the continued safe operation of the station. Further investigations indicated that Unit 4 may have been operating with this damage for as long as ten years. In the two months following the discovery, Bruce A has procured and replaced the 4 divider plates, located most of the missing pieces, retrieved pieces from the PHT system, investigated historical operational information, performed detailed analytical investigations, investigated root cause, performed in-situ and mock-up testing, updated operational procedures and installed DP monitoring equipment

  3. Google and the digital divide the bias of online knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Segev, Elad

    2010-01-01

    Beneficial to scholars and students in the fields of media and communication, politics and technology, this book outlines the significant role of search engines in general and Google in particular in widening the digital divide between individuals, organisations and states. It uses innovative methods and research approaches to assess and illustrate the digital divide by comparing the popular search queries in Google and Yahoo in different countries as well as analysing the various biases in Google News and Google Earth. The different studies developed and presented in this book provide various

  4. Influence of lidar, Landsat imagery, disturbance history, plot location accuracy, and plot size on accuracy of imputation maps of forest composition and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold S.J. Zald; Janet L. Ohmann; Heather M. Roberts; Matthew J. Gregory; Emilie B. Henderson; Robert J. McGaughey; Justin. Braaten

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how lidar-derived vegetation indices, disturbance history from Landsat time series (LTS) imagery, plot location accuracy, and plot size influenced accuracy of statistical spatial models (nearest-neighbor imputation maps) of forest vegetation composition and structure. Nearest-neighbor (NN) imputation maps were developed for 539,000 ha in the...

  5. Long-term tree inventory data from mountain forest plots in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhr, Marc; Cordonnier, Thomas; Courbaud, Benoît; Kunstler, Georges; Mermin, Eric; Riond, Catherine; Tardif, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    We present repeated tree measurement data from 63 permanent plots in mountain forests in France. Plot elevations range from 800 (lower limit of the montane belt) to 1942 m above sea level (subalpine belt). Forests mainly consist of pure or mixed stands dominated by European beech (Fagus sylvatica), Silver fir (Abies alba), and Norway spruce (Picea abies), in association with various broadleaved species at low elevation and with Arolla pine (Pinus cembra) at high elevation. The plot network includes 23 plots in stands that have not been managed for the last 40 years (at least) and 40 plots in plots managed according to an uneven-aged system with single-tree or small-group selection cutting. Plot sizes range from 0.2 to 1.9 ha. Plots were installed from 1994 to 2004 and remeasured two to five times during the 1994-2015 period. During the first census (installation), living trees more than 7.5 cm in dbh were identified, their diameter at breast height (dbh) was measured and their social status (strata) noted. Trees were spatially located, either with x, y, and z coordinates (40 plots) or within 0.25-ha square subplots (23 plots). In addition, in a subset of plots (58 plots), tree heights and tree crown dimensions were measured on a subset of trees and dead standing trees and stumps were included in the census. Remeasurements after installation include live tree diameters (including recruited trees), tree status (living, damaged, dead, stump), and for a subset of trees, height. At the time of establishment of the plots, plot densities range from 181 to 1328 stems/ha and plot basal areas range from 13.6 to 81.3 m 2 /ha. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. REDUCTION OF EVANGELICAL "PLOTS" IN MODERN ORTHODOX FICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sergeevna Krаsnyakova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the works of contemporary authors, representing a particular artistic direction — Orthodox fi ction developed in the Russian literature for the last decades, the interpretation of biblical motifs in a literary text. Evangelical plots and motifs are demanded in modern fi ction, they determine a special structure of narration. The storyline built on the basis of autobiographical material in works of authors-priests mainly keeps the initial parabolic structure most closely resembling the primary source. Devine Providence is comprehended as execution of a request and a prayer of the person who is initially trust the Meanings contained in Gospel. In the works of secular authors the situation of illusion, showing the state of soulless modern society become emblematic. A parabolic story still requires the author's interpretation, based on the desire of a modern writer to expose moral pathos of the work. There appears a keynote of a miraculous effect of Devine Providence on human destiny. Analytical materials for the article were A. Vladimirov`s book From height of bird's fl ight, stories Feast by M. Yakovlev and Fishers of men by V. Krupin.

  7. B0 --> K+ pi- pi0 Dalitz Plot Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Z

    2004-08-16

    The authors present preliminary results on the Dalitz plot analysis of B{sup 0} --> K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} decays. The data sample comprises 213 million {Upsilon}(4S) --> B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. They report measurements of the inclusive branching fraction, quasi-two-body fractions and CP-violating charge asymmetries for intermediate states including K*(892){sup +}{pi}{sup -} and {rho}(770){sup -}K{sup +}. Observations of B{sup 0} decays to the K{pi}S-wave intermediate states, K{sub 0}*(1430){sup +}{pi}{sup -} and K{sub 0}*(1430){sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, are reported. Evidence of the decay B{sup 0} --> K*(892){sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} is seen. They set upper limits at 90% confidence level on branching fractions of the nonresonant and other less significant intermediate states.

  8. The imprint of exile through the plot of the narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Dutrénit Bielous

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Exile is a circumstance different from other migrations, although it resembles them in the possible insertion or alienation from the receiving society. It is with no a doubt a forced migration process which is always accompanied by an idea and an imaginary: the disappearrance of the conditions that forced to exile and thus, the return.Although it is not possible to generalize, because there is no one single experience of exile and the subjectivities that compose it are diverse, it undoubtedly produces a sensation of alienation, which can lead to the rejection of the cultural norms of society; it is part of a process of “being in one place, but thinking about another.” However, as exile is prolonged, the experience of adaptation for the different generations involved becomes diversified, communication vessels develop, feelings of inclusion, of adaptation, of attachment with the social and cultural environment that the place of refuge offered.The present text builds on testimonies of Uruguayans exiled in Mexico who have returned to their country. In their narrative, the meanings that relate to the subjective perspective that provoked the “return” to their country of origin as being viable and a palpable event are perceived. In summary, an incursion through the testimonial plot explains to what extent the return is a recovery of the space of identity longed for and the subsequent abandonment of the foreign space, in other words, it adds to the perspective of identity as a dynamic and relational construction.

  9. Application of GPS and Near-Surface Geophysical Methods to Evaluate Agricultural Test Plot Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS, ground penetrating radar, resistivity surveying, cone penetrometer probing, and soil sampling were used to measure soil properties that may influence future soil and water management research inherent to a selected set of research fields. A topographic map generated fr...

  10. Leadership Analysis in K-12 Case Study: "Divided Loyalties"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, Merfat Ayesh

    2016-01-01

    This report mainly aims to provide a critical and in-depth analysis of the K-12 Case, "Divided Loyalty" by Holy and Tartar (2004). The case recounts how the manifestation of inadequate leadership skills in a school setting could affect negatively the performance of students.

  11. The information divide: publishing and access issues | Baker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and digital divide are identified. However, it becomes evident that unless librarians, information consumers, publishers, governments and all participants in the access process address the \\"information as commodity\\" paradigm, the information gap will not be closed in the foreseeable future. Innovation No.29 2004: 24-31 ...

  12. Measuring and Bridging the Gender Digital Divide in Rural Pakistan ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Measuring and Bridging the Gender Digital Divide in Rural Pakistan. Despite that approximately 70% of Pakistan's 160 million inhabitants living in rural villages, nearly 90% of the ICT-related infrastructure is installed in urban areas. This leaves a large portion of the country's populace without access to ICTs potential to ...

  13. From Fundamentalists to Structuralists: Bridging the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Ayse

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to provide information about several ICT initiatives undertaken in education on a global basis in order to overcome the digital divide and summarise the findings of these initiatives. Due to the limited scope of the study, the bulk of the review mainly concerns initiatives undertaken in secondary schools,…

  14. Digital Divide among Youth: Socio-Cultural Factors and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parycek, Peter; Sachs, Michael; Schossbock, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine socio-cultural differences in internet use (Digital Divide) among 14-year-old Austrian pupils, in particular usage scenarios and research competences. It is based on a paper presented at the International Association for the Development of the Information Society e-Society conference, 10-13 March 2011, Spain…

  15. The Digital Divide: The Special Case of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the evidence for the digital divide based on gender. An overview of research published in the last 20 years draws to the conclusion that females are at a disadvantage relative to men when learning about computers or learning other material with the aid of computer-assisted software. The evidence shows that the digital divide…

  16. The information divide: publishing and access issues | Baker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some global and local developments in information access and the Open Access movement are highlighted, and the National Library of South Africa\\'s interim strategies to bridge the information and digital divide are identified. However, it becomes evident that unless librarians, information consumers, publishers, ...

  17. BRIDGING THE DIGITAL DIVIDE Information is key to success in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-25

    BRIDGING THE DIGITAL DIVIDE Information is key to success in development efforts. October 25, 2010. IDRC Communications. LASTING IMPACTS. Information and communication technologies can increase productivity, build relationships, reduce poverty, and even help save lives. IDRC was one of the first development ...

  18. Peculiarities of the Digital Divide in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutula, Stephen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Seeks to argue that the peculiarities of sub-Saharan Africa, in terms of its socio-cultural diversity, low economic development, linguistic factors, HIV/AIDS pandemic, gender discrimination, low ICT awareness and so on, demand a new model of addressing the digital divide. Design/methodology/approach: Paper largely based on literature…

  19. Monitoring Progress Toward the Information Society : Digital Divide ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Orbicom's Digital Divide Index is a rigorous statistical tool for benchmarking access to and use of information and communication technologies (ICT), and ... Dans les pays en développement, les femmes se heurtent encore à des obstacles qui limitent leur capacité à faire une carrière et à devenir des chefs de file dans le ...

  20. A House Divided? The Psychology of Red and Blue America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyle, D. Conor; Newman, Matthew L.

    2006-01-01

    Recently it has become commonplace in America for commentators and the public to use the terms "red" and "blue" to refer to perceived cultural differences in America and American politics. Although a political divide may exist in America today, these particular terms are inaccurate and reductive. This article presents research from social…

  1. A digital divide: Kiswahili holds the key | Kamau | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... regions in the world are included in the 'global village'. Most developing countries especially in Africa are yet to make a mark in the ICT domain. Due to this fact there exists a digital divide between the developed and the developing nations of the world. Journal of Language, Technology and Entrepreneurship in Africa Vol.

  2. WAIS Divide WDC06A Oxygen Isotope Record, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains complete low resolution (0.25 to 100 cm) oxygen isotope data from the WAIS Divide Ice Core WDC06A, 0 to 3404.7 m depth. Also included is the...

  3. Divide and (epigenetic) rule: Chromatin domains as functional and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is put on the regulatory elements such as boundary elements, that mark the limits of chromatin domains and divide the genome into ... Firstly the composition of eukaryotic genome would suggest that excess of DNA is often, not .... ated MARs and their dynamic reorganization has recently shown to be important for gene ...

  4. Dividing Attention Lowers Children's but Increases Adults' False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Peters, Maarten; Howe, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of divided attention on children's and adults' neutral and negative true and false memories in a standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Children (7- and 11-year-olds; n = 126) and adults (n = 52) received 5 neutral and 5 negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott word lists; half of each group also received a…

  5. Theories of Learning in Educational Development: Relocating the Paradigmatic Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Alistair

    1996-01-01

    Offers a critique of a previous discussion on instructional industrialism in distance education based on instructional design. Topics include the psychological foundations of instructional design, competing paradigms in educational development, behaviorism and cognitivism, theories of learning and the paradigmatic divide, and implications for…

  6. Journalism Students, Web 2.0 and the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Mary Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if students were utilizing Web 2.0 applications. Since the applications in question are often employed by the media industry, the study aspired to find out if students majoring in mass communication and journalism utilized the applications more often than other students. The "digital divide" is a term used…

  7. The new technology of dividing wall in stope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhiguo

    1999-01-01

    The author analyzes advantages and disadvantages of the ordinary separating methods between stopes at deep mine, points out the main problems of the original projects constructing dividing wall, presents an idea of new technology which can overcome the main problems, predicts effect adopting the new technology, and analyzes that feasibility applying the new technology to construct mortar pad in stope and dyke-dam

  8. Dividing a Cake by Majority: The Simplest Equilibria

    OpenAIRE

    David Baron; Ehud Kalai

    1990-01-01

    In a stochastic game of dividing a cake by majority, the simplest equilibria are the Baron-Ferejohn (1989) ones. The formal definition of simplicity and the computational methods of the equilibria make use of an automaton measure of complexity adopted for stochastic games.

  9. Bridging South Africa's economic divide | Lipton | New Agenda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bridging South Africa's economic divide. ... New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy ... Abstract. Following the release of the IMF's latest World Economic Outlook, Wits Business School and the National Treasury invited Lipton to present this public lecture at the University of the Witwatersrand in ...

  10. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John A; Leclerc, Christina M; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of valence or attention. However, when participants engaged in reappraisal, there was a robust effect of valence, with the reappraisal of negative relative to positive images associated with more widespread activation, including within regions of medial and lateral PFC. There also was an effect of attention, with more lateral PFC recruitment when regulating with full attention and more medial PFC recruitment when regulating with divided attention. Within two regions of medial PFC and one region of ventrolateral PFC, there was an interaction between valence and attention: in these regions, divided attention reduced activity during reappraisal of positive but not negative images. Critically, participants continued to report reappraisal success even during the Divided Attention condition. These results suggest multiple routes to successful cognitive reappraisal, depending upon image valence and the availability of attentional resources. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Divide and conquer? Size adjustment with allometry and intermediate outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Shinichi; Kar, Fonti; O'Dea, Rose E; Pick, Joel L; Lagisz, Malgorzata

    2017-11-09

    Many trait measurements are size-dependent, and while we often divide these traits by size before fitting statistical models to control for the effect of size, this approach does not account for allometry and the intermediate outcome problem. We describe these problems and outline potential solutions.

  12. Agile Development & Software Architecture - Crossing the Great Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    University What is Architecture? Structure A Thematic Analysis System Qualities Decisions / Governance Multi-Dimensional SEI IEEE TOGAF Rozanski & Woods 12...TWITTER Hashtag #seiwebinar Crossing the Great Divide Brown , 4/22/2010 © 2010 Carnegie Mellon University Architectural Themes SEI IEEE TOGAF Rozanski...2010 © 2010 Carnegie Mellon University Structure System Qualities Decisions / Governance Multi-Dimensional Architectural Themes SEI IEEE TOGAF Rozanski

  13. Digital Democracy in Higher Education: Bridging the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniu, Susana

    2005-01-01

    Susana Juniu's thought-provoking essay defines the new digital divide in higher education--a division of knowledge, experience, and needs that influence the integration of technology into the classroom. She acknowledges educators' frequently conflicting feelings about technology as well as the lack of communication between IT departments and…

  14. Meltater Flow Through Snow from Plot to Baisn Scale

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Mark

    2000-01-01

    ... research instrumentation award. Near-infrared photographs of melting snow were analyzed using a moving windows procedure that can be used to define the correlation lengths in the snow reflectance surface...

  15. Comparison of Three Plot Selection Methods for Estimating Change in Temporally Variable, Spatially Clustered Populations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, William L. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (US). Environment, Fish and Wildlife

    2001-07-01

    Monitoring population numbers is important for assessing trends and meeting various legislative mandates. However, sampling across time introduces a temporal aspect to survey design in addition to the spatial one. For instance, a sample that is initially representative may lose this attribute if there is a shift in numbers and/or spatial distribution in the underlying population that is not reflected in later sampled plots. Plot selection methods that account for this temporal variability will produce the best trend estimates. Consequently, I used simulation to compare bias and relative precision of estimates of population change among stratified and unstratified sampling designs based on permanent, temporary, and partial replacement plots under varying levels of spatial clustering, density, and temporal shifting of populations. Permanent plots produced more precise estimates of change than temporary plots across all factors. Further, permanent plots performed better than partial replacement plots except for high density (5 and 10 individuals per plot) and 25% - 50% shifts in the population. Stratified designs always produced less precise estimates of population change for all three plot selection methods, and often produced biased change estimates and greatly inflated variance estimates under sampling with partial replacement. Hence, stratification that remains fixed across time should be avoided when monitoring populations that are likely to exhibit large changes in numbers and/or spatial distribution during the study period. Key words: bias; change estimation; monitoring; permanent plots; relative precision; sampling with partial replacement; temporary plots.

  16. Generation of five phase-locked harmonics by implementing a divide-by-three optical frequency divider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaimi, Nurul Sheeda; Ohae, Chiaki; Gavara, Trivikramarao; Nakagawa, Ken'ichi; Hong, Feng-Lei; Katsuragawa, Masayuki

    2015-12-15

    We report the generation of five phase-locked harmonics, f₁:2403  nm, f₂:1201  nm, f₃:801  nm, f₄:600  nm, and f₅:480  nm with an exact frequency ratio of 1:2:3:4:5 by implementing a divide-by-three optical frequency divider in the high harmonic generation process. All five harmonics are generated coaxially with high phase coherence in time and space, which are applicable for various practical uses.

  17. Catalase Is Differentially Expressed in Dividing and Nondividing Protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminis, C. I.; Kanellis, A. K.; Roubelakis-Angelakis, K. A.

    1994-08-01

    Based on our previous results that peroxidase is induced in dividing tobacco protoplasts but it is not expressed in the nondividing grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) protoplasts during culture (C.I. Siminis, A.K. Kanellis, K.A. Roubelakis-Angelakis [1993] Physiol Plant 87: 263-270), we further tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress may be implicated in the recalcitrance of plant protoplasts. The expression of catalase, a major defense enzyme against cell oxidation, was studied during isolation and culture of mesophyll protoplasts from the recalcitrant grapevine and regenerating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Incubation of tobacco leaf strips with cell wall-degrading enzymes resulted in a burst of catalase activity and an increase in its immunoreactive protein; in contrast, no such increases were found in grapevine. The cathodic and anodic catalase isoforms consisted exclusively of subunits [alpha] and [beta], respectively, in tobacco, and of subunits [beta] and [alpha], respectively, in grapevine. The catalase specific activity increased only in grapevine protoplasts during culture. The ratio of the enzymatic activities to the catalase immunoreactive protein declined in dividing tobacco protoplasts and remained fairly constant in nondividing tobacco and grapevine protoplasts during culture. Also, in dividing tobacco protoplasts the de novo accumulation of the catalase [beta] subunit gave rise to the acidic isoenzymes, whereas in nondividing tobacco and grapevine protoplasts, after 8 d in culture, only the basic isoenzymes remained due to de novo accumulation of the [alpha] subunit. The pattern of catalase expression in proliferating tobacco leaf cells during callogenesis was similar to that in dividing protoplasts. The different responses of catalase expression in dividing and nondividing tobacco and grapevine mesophyll protoplasts may indicate a specificity of catalase related to induction of totipotency.

  18. Divider plate leak inspections using an acoustic tool 'ALIS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewski, J.; Colbert, M.

    1998-01-01

    Divider plate leakage in the primary head of steam generators may be a contributor to high Reactor Inlet Header Temperature (RIHT) which can have a negative effect on the operation of a plant. A method to provide quick information of divider plate leakage can be very useful in helping operators to make timely and cost effective repair and maintenance decisions. As part of a CANDU Owners Group (COG) funded program, a novel acoustic tool for performing inspections in empty steam generators during a shutdown has been developed and successfully demonstrated by Ontario Hydro Technologies (OHT). The basic principle of this technique utilizes sound transmission through the leakage paths of a divider plate assembly for creating a graphic image which reveals the locations and relative sizes of leaks. This is accomplished by injecting one side of the primary head with a series of airborne, ultrasonic sound bursts while scanning the divider plates from the opposite side and collecting transmitted sound pressure levels. Once a scan is completed the results are processed and displayed graphically as a color mapping of the entire divider plate assembly showing an image of the leakage locations and relative severity. The special transducers of the acoustic leak inspection system (ALIS) are installed through the manways of the steam generator at both sides of the primary head. These are clamped to the tube sheet and operated from a convenient remote location within the containment building. This process minimizes radiation exposure of the workers, as well, it reduces risk of contamination of the ALIS equipment. The current version of this tool performs the scans by remote manual control. (author)

  19. Problems Related to the Abolition of Divided Real Estate Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinsberga Jolanta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal relationship between apartment owners in residential buildings and the land owners, that is, divided real estate ownership, was created in the Republic of Latvia in 1990, within the framework of the Land Reform, restoring property rights of the former owners or their heirs or privatising apartments in multi-apartment residential buildings. The existence of such legal relationship created different lease problems and restrictions on the property rights to the owners of both the building and the land. To abolish the legal relationship related to divided real estate ownership, the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Latvia has developed a draft law Regarding the Abolition of Mandatory Divided Real Estate Ownership in Multi-Apartment Buildings (hereinafter referred to as Draft Law. Unfortunately, in the opinion of authors of this article, there are serious shortcomings to the Draft Law which must be corrected. The aim of the research is to identify the problematic issues by selecting and analysing the legislation on the abolition of the divided real estate ownership, which is related to the calculation of redemption price, payment method and consequences of non-payment, which are not regulated by the new Draft Law. The article reflects research on the determination and calculation of redemption price reglamented by the Draft Law and also analyses the Law of December 8, 1938, On the Abolition of Divided Real Estate Ownership and its practical implementation, which may significantly influence the redemption price and the method of its calculation; however, the mentioned law has been disregarded in developing the Draft Law. Thus the research has both theoretical and practical significance. For the research purposes general research methods, such as historical, analytical, inductive, deductive, logical-constructive and descriptive methods, are used. For the interpretation of legislation norms, grammatical, systemic, teleological and historical

  20. Incomplete split-plot designs based on alpha-designs: a compromise between traditional split-plot designs and randomised complete block design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The paper shows how the α-design (also known as generalised lattice) may be used for constructing incomplete split-plot designs and describes four different methods (A, B, C and D) of construction. Intra-block efficiency factors and theoretical considerations are used to compare the methods. Based...... of data. The three types were simulated data with known covariance structure, data from uniformity trials and data from actual trials using incomplete split-plot designs for comparing cereal varieties under different growing conditions. It is concluded that the incomplete split-plot designs may be a good...

  1. THERAPIE - THErmix-RAps-Plot-InterfacE. A graphic software for representation of THERMIX-2D results with the interactive plot program RAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duensing, P.; Jahn, W.; Rehm, W.

    1986-09-01

    The performance of safety analyses for gas-cooled high temperature reactor power plants requires efficient plot codes for the evaluation and representation of computer results. The report describes the coupling between the thermodynamic simulation code THERMIX and the graphic plot code RAPS via the interface program THERAPIE. Especially the structure and the handling of the interface program are explained as well as the dialogue with the plot code. Further options of the colour graphic system are demonstrated for the representation of temperature distributions in components of HTR concepts (HTR-500). (orig.) [de

  2. Use of experimental plots for assessing Chernobyl-derived fallout of 137CS in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonte, Ph.; Sogon, S.; Bourgeois, S.; Terce, M.; Morel, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    Caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) is widely used for the determination of soil erosion and sedimentation rates. However, in Europe, if the additional inputs of 137 Cs fallout associated with the Chernobyl accident have given a supplementary mark to know the chronological history of buried sediments in rivers or wetlands, they have considerably complicated the interpretation of 137 Cs inventories used for estimating soil redistribution on slopes. In fact, determination of Chernobyl-derived fallout 137 Cs is problematic because very few sites have been correctly sampled at the moment of the accident. During the ten years after, it was possible to estimate the fallout measuring the 134 Cs activity for estimating 137 Cs ( 137 Cs / 134 Cs 2.0 at the time of the accident). But these measurements are extremely rare, whereas it should be the more accurate method to resolve this question. The more used solution is to use model based on atmospheric circulation and rain precipitation, the main part of fallout been due to atmospheric washing by the rain. Other solution is to compare 137 Cs specific activity of soil samples collected after the accident and older samples. Then, we choose a set of soil samples collected on several experimental plots at different places in France, and sampled before and after the Chernobyl accident, to determine the part of contamination linked to this 137 Cs fallout event with a simple comparison of their 137 Cs specific activity. In fact, national French institutes working on agronomy maintain experimental plots, with varied surface area (1 m 2 10 m 2 or larger), for monitoring of soil physics and chemistry evolution. Nine sites were studied: two of them close to Paris, one 100 km east of Paris, 3 in Loire basin and 3 in south west, in the Pyrenees Atlantic. These measurements confirm the influence of the Chernobyl radioactive plume over the Paris Basin concerning the 137 Cs fallout. The 137 Cs specific activity is, on average, 25% (from 18 to 35% at

  3. The New Digital Divide For Digital BioMarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torous, John; Rodriguez, Jorge; Powell, Adam

    2017-09-01

    As smartphone and sensors continue to become more ubiquitous across the world, digital biomarkers have emerged as a scalable and practical tool to explore disease states and advance health. But as the digital divide of access and ownership begins to fade, a new digital divide is emerging. Who are the types of people that own smartphones or smart watches, who are the types of people that download health apps or partake in digital biomarker studies, and who are the types of people that are actually active with digital biomarkers apps and sensors - the people providing the high quality and longitudinal data that this field is being founded upon? Understanding the people behind digital biomarkers, the very people this emerging field aims to help, may actually be the real challenge as well as opportunity for digital biomarkers.

  4. SIW based multilayer transition and power divider in LTCC technology

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Hattan

    2013-06-01

    A multilayer transition and balanced power divider are presented for millimeter-wave system-on-package (SoP). These two components operate at Ka-band and exploit the substrate integrate waveguide (SIW) technology with its shielding characteristics and the Low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology for its high density integration. A coupling slot has been used to perform vertical integration, which can be easily optimized through its length. The measured input return loss within the bandwidth of interest (32 GHz-38 GHz) is less than -15 dB and -18 dB for the multilayer transition and the power divider, respectively. The lateral dimensions of a multilayer system, such as a feed network of an array, can be greatly reduced by employing these 3D slot-coupled components. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. The cultural divide: exploring communication barriers between scientists and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restifo, Linda L; Phelan, Gerald R

    2011-07-01

    Despite remarkable advances in basic biomedical science that have led to improved patient care, there is a wide and persistent gap in the abilities of researchers and clinicians to understand and appreciate each other. In this Editorial, the authors, a scientist and a clinician, discuss the rift between practitioners of laboratory research and clinical medicine. Using their first-hand experience and numerous interviews throughout the United States, they explore the causes of this 'cultural divide'. Members of both professions use advanced problem-solving skills and typically embark on their career paths with a deeply felt sense of purpose. Nonetheless, differences in classroom education, professional training environments, reward mechanisms and sources of drive contribute to obstacles that inhibit communication, mutual respect and productive collaboration. More than a sociological curiosity, the cultural divide is a significant barrier to the bench-to-bedside goals of translational medicine. Understanding its roots is the first step towards bridging the gap.

  6. Climate Change and North-South Divide. Between and Within

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The traditional North-South divide has persisted through out the negotiations on climate change. Divergent state interests made striking a right balance between development and environmental protection an elusive endeavor as negotiators were striving to adopt a global climate regime. Four principles of international environmental law are of particular concern: the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, the principle of equity, the precautionary principle, and the principle of sustainable development. With economic development being the overriding priority in developing countries, the negotiations leading to the Kyoto Protocol tend to prove that principles could be interpreted in different ways to fit particular interests. This study explains the confrontations between the North and the South and argues that climate change has by far strengthened the North-South divide both between and within. Accordingly, it concludes that there is a need to devise new principles

  7. Abelianization of the F-divided fundamental group scheme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INDRANIL BISWAS

    Abelianization of the F-divided fundamental group scheme. 283. Restrict the Poincaré bundle to X × Pic0 red(X). Viewing this restriction as a line bundle on Pic0 red(X) parametrized by X, we ... which gives rise to an exact sequence of the projective systems considered in Definition. 2.3. Applying the projective limit functor ...

  8. Is the digital divide between young and elderly people increasing?

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Gerd; Stegbauer, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Elderly people still play a minor role in research on information needs and usage patterns of Internet users. Online research and advocacy groups look optimistically at the (economic and social) potential of the active and technology–skilled elderly; other approaches dealing with the social appropriation of technology see obstacles and stress the dangers of an increasing digital divide between generations. Our objective is to refer to taken for granted normative assumptions of the digital div...

  9. Ecuador, the Digital Divide and Small Tourism Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Stan Karanasios

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the digital divide from the perspective of Ecuadorian small tourism enterprises. Ecuador’s ICT environment has been described as underdeveloped, obsolete, and expensive to use. There is also a serious shortage of ICT related human capital. Given these stumbling blocks, this article seeks to identify how small tourism operators have managed to adopt the Internet. Adopting a qualitative approach, field interviews were conducted with tourism enterprises across rural, semi-r...

  10. Photoreactivation of ultraviolet irradiated non-dividing populations of ICR 2A frog cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstein, B.S.; Kantor, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of non-dividing populations of ICR 2A frog cells led to their detachment from the surface of the culture dish and eventual lysis. Exposure of the cells to photoreactivating light after UV irradiation prevented cell killing and was accompanied by a loss of endonuclease sensitive sites from DNA. This photoreversal did not take place when the cells were exposed at 4 0 C to photoreactivating light indicating that the reversal was the result of photoenzymatic repair. As the action of photoreactivating enzyme is specific for the repair of pyrimidine dimers in DNA, the results suggest that pyrimidine dimers in DNA are the critical lesions leading to the death of non-dividing populations of UV irradiated cells. (author)

  11. Dividing Streamline Formation Channel Confluences by Physical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarni Nur Trilita

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Confluence channels are often found in open channel network system and is the most important element. The incoming flow from the branch channel to the main cause various forms and cause vortex flow. Phenomenon can cause erosion of the side wall of the channel, the bed channel scour and sedimentation in the downstream confluence channel. To control these problems needed research into the current width of the branch channel. The incoming flow from the branch channel to the main channel flow bounded by a line distributors (dividing streamline. In this paper, the wide dividing streamline observed in the laboratory using a physical model of two open channels, a square that formed an angle of 30º. Observations were made with a variety of flow coming from each channel. The results obtained in the laboratory observation that the width of dividing streamline flow is influenced by the discharge ratio between the channel branch with the main channel. While the results of a comparison with previous studies showing that the observation in the laboratory is smaller than the results of previous research.

  12. Divide-and-conquer Tournament on Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yichao; Guan, Jihong; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2017-11-14

    In social gaming networks, previous studies extensively investigated the influence of a variety of strategies on reciprocal behaviors in the prisoner's dilemma game. The studied frameworks range from the case that an individual uniformly cooperates or defects with all social contacts, to the recently reported divide-and-conquer games, where an individual can choose a particular move to play with each neighbor. In this paper, we investigate a divide-and-conquer tournament among 14 well-known strategies on social gaming networks. In the tournament, an individual's fitness is measured by accumulated and average payoff aggregated for a certain number of rounds. On the base of their fitness, the evolution of the population follows a local learning mechanism. Our observation indicates that the distribution of individuals adopting a strategy in degree ranking fundamentally changes the frequency of the strategy. In the divide-and-conquer gaming networks, our result suggests that the connectivity in social networks and strategy are two key factors that govern the evolution of the population.

  13. Water content estimated from point scale to plot scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurek, Z.; Binley, A. M.; Demir, G.; Abgarmi, B.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture controls the portioning of rainfall into infiltration and runoff. Here we investigate measurements of soil moisture using a range of techniques spanning different spatial scales. In order to understand soil water content in a test basin, 512 km2 in area, in the south of Turkey, a Cosmic Ray CRS200B soil moisture probe was installed at elevation of 1459 m and an ML3 ThetaProbe (CS 616) soil moisture sensor was established at 5cm depth used to get continuous soil moisture. Neutron count measurements were corrected for the changes in atmospheric pressure, atmospheric water vapour and intensity of incoming neutron flux. The calibration of the volumetric soil moisture was performed, from the laboratory analysis, the bulk density varies between 1.719 (g/cm3) -1.390 (g/cm3), and the dominant soil texture is silty clay loam and silt loamThe water content reflectometer was calibrated for soil-specific conditions and soil moisture estimates were also corrected with respect to soil temperature. In order to characterize the subsurface, soil electrical resistivity tomography was used. Wenner and Schlumberger array geometries were used with electrode spacing varied from 1m- 5 m along 40 m and 200 m profiles. From the inversions of ERT data it is apparent that within 50 m distance from the CRS200B, the soil is moderately resistive to a depth of 2m and more conductive at greater depths. At greater distances from the CRS200B, the ERT results indicate more resistive soils. In addition to the ERT surveys, ground penetrating radar surveys using a common mid-point configuration was used with 200MHz antennas. The volumetric soil moisture obtained from GPR appears to overestimate those based on TDR observations. The values obtained from CS616 (at a point scale) and CRS200B (at a mesoscale) are compared with the values obtained at a plot scale. For the field study dates (20-22.06.2017) the volumetric moisture content obtained from CS616 were 25.14%, 25.22% and 25

  14. Water balance of rice plots under three different water treatments: monitoring activity and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Romani, Marco; Facchi, Arianna; Gharsallah, Olfa; Cesari de Maria, Sandra; Ferrari, Daniele; Masseroni, Daniele; Rienzner, Michele; Battista Bischetti, Gian; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    In the agricultural seasons 2012 and 2013, a broad monitoring activity was carried out at the Rice Research Centre of Ente Nazionale Risi (CRR-ENR) located in Castello d'Agogna (PV, Italy) with the purpose of comparing the water balance components of paddy rice (Gladio cv.) under different water regimes and assessing the possibility of reducing the high water inputs related to the conventional practice of continuous submergence. The experiments were laid out in six plots of about 20 m x 80 m each, with two replicates for each of the following water regimes: i) continuous flooding with wet-seeded rice (FLD), ii) continuous flooding from around the 3-leaf stage with dry-seeded rice (3L-FLD), and iii) surface irrigation every 7-10 days with dry-seeded rice (IRR). One out of the two replicates of each treatment was instrumented with: water inflow and outflow meters, set of piezometers, set of tensiometers and multi-sensor moisture probes. Moreover, an eddy covariance station was installed on the bund between the treatments FLD and IRR. Data were automatically recorded and sent by a wireless connection to a PC, so as to be remotely controlled thanks to the development of a Java interface. Furthermore, periodic measurements of crop biometric parameters (LAI, crop height and rooting depth) were performed in both 2012 and 2013 (11 and 14 campaigns respectively). Cumulative water balance components from dry-seeding (3L-FLD and IRR), or flooding (FLD), to harvest were calculated for each plot by either measurements (i.e. rainfall, irrigation and surface drainage) or estimations (i.e. difference in the field water storage, evaporation from both the soil and the water surface and transpiration), whereas the sum of percolation and capillary rise (i.e. the 'net percolation') was obtained as the residual term of the water balance. Incidentally, indices of water application efficiency (evapotranspiration over net water input) and water productivity (grain production over net water

  15. User Guide for the Plotting Software for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Weapons Analysis Tools Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, Timothy James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-02

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Plotting Software for the Nuclear Weapons Analysis Tools is a Java™ application based upon the open source library JFreeChart. The software provides a capability for plotting data on graphs with a rich variety of display options while allowing the viewer interaction via graph manipulation and scaling to best view the data. The graph types include XY plots, Date XY plots, Bar plots and Histogram plots.

  16. Effects of nonlinear rheology, temperature and anisotropy on the relationship between age and depth at ice divides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Martín

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ice flow in divide areas is strongly anisotropic. The evolution of ice fabric, from the onset of divide flow towards steady state with a fully developed fabric, has been shown to profoundly affect both the stratigraphy and surface topography of ice divides. Here, we investigate the effects of ice flow on the age-versus-depth relationship at ice divides by using a full Stokes thermomechanical model with a non-linear anisotropic constitutive relation between stress and strain rates. We compare our results with analytical approximations commonly employed in age–depth predictions, such as the Dansgaard and Lliboutry approximations. We show that these approximations systematically underestimate the age of ice at fully developed divides by as much as one order of magnitude. We also show that divides with fully developed fabric are ideal locations for ice-core extraction because ice under them can be up to one order of magnitude older than ice at the same depth at the flanks. In addition, these divides have a distinctive morphological structure that allows them to be clearly identified from satellite imagery or ground-penetrating radar data.

  17. snp.plotter: an R-based SNP/haplotype association and linkage disequilibrium plotting package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Augustin; Nicodemus, Kristin K

    2007-03-15

    snp.plotter is a newly developed R package which produces high-quality plots of results from genetic association studies. The main features of the package include options to display a linkage disequilibrium (LD) plot below the P-value plot using either the r2 or D' LD metric, to set the X-axis to equal spacing or to use the physical map of markers, and to specify plot labels, colors, symbols and LD heatmap color scheme. snp.plotter can plot single SNP and/or haplotype data and simultaneously plot multiple sets of results. R is a free software environment for statistical computing and graphics available for most platforms. The proposed package provides a simple way to convey both association and LD information in a single appealing graphic for genetic association studies. Downloadable R package and example datasets are available at http://cbdb.nimh.nih.gov/~kristin/snp.plotter.html and http://www.r-project.org.

  18. Near-Earth Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at CS3-Palmer Divide Station: 2017 July Through October

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Brian D.

    2018-01-01

    Lightcurves for 37 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) obtained at the Center for Solar System Studies-Palmer Divide Station (CS3-PDS) from 2017 July through October were analyzed for rotation period and signs of satellites or tumbling. (6053) 1993 BW3 was found to have an ambiguous solution that was resolved to 2.5737 h by using split-halves plots (see Harris et al., 2014). Data from 2016 for (141354) 2002 AJ29 were re-examined in light of new, independent results (Vaduvescu et al., 2017; 10.754 h). The 2016 data now lead to a revised period of 10.801 h. Recent results for (12538) 1998 OH by Vaduvescu et al. (2017, 2.58 h) prompted a reexamination of CS3 data from 2014 and 2016 with the result that the more recent period of 5.151 h (Warner, 2017a) is still more likely correct. Analysis of (66146) 1998 TU3 indicates it is a possible binary asteroid with P1 = 2.37760 h and PORB = 13.58 h. 2012 TC4 and 2017 NH were both found to be tumbling asteroids with short periods and large amplitudes.

  19. Documentation of a multiple-technique computer program for plotting major-ion composition of natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briel, L.I.

    1993-01-01

    A computer program was written to produce 6 different types of water-quality diagrams--Piper, Stiff, pie, X-Y, boxplot, and Piper 3-D--from the same file of input data. The Piper 3-D diagram is a new method that projects values from the surface of a Piper plot into a triangular prism to show how variations in chemical composition can be related to variations in other water-quality variables. This program is an analytical tool to aid in the interpretation of data. This program is interactive, and the user can select from a menu the type of diagram to be produced and a large number of individual features. Alternatively, these choices can be specified in the data file, which provides a batch mode for running the program. The program does not display water-quality diagrams directly; plots are written to a file. Four different plot- file formats are available: device-independent metafiles, Adobe PostScript graphics files, and two Hewlett-Packard graphics language formats (7475 and 7586). An ASCII data-table file is also produced to document the computed values. This program is written in Fortran '77 and uses graphics subroutines from either the PRIOR AGTK or the DISSPLA graphics library. The program has been implemented on Prime series 50 and Data General Aviion computers within the USGS; portability to other computing systems depends on the availability of the graphics library.

  20. Follow-up Designs to Resolve Confounding in Split-Plot Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almimi, Ashraf A.; Kulahci, Murat; Montgomery, Douglas C.

    2008-01-01

    Split-plot designs are effective in industry due to time and/or cost constraints, restriction on randomization of the treatment combinations of the hard-to-change factors, and different sizes of experimental units. Some of the results of fractional factorial split-plot experiments can be ambiguous......-alias certain effects. Six rules are provided to develop foldovers for minimum aberration resolution III and resolution IV fractional factorial split-plot designs....

  1. Automatic Extraction of Small Spatial Plots from Geo-Registered UAS Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkauer, Keith; Hearst, Anthony

    2015-04-01

    Accurate extraction of spatial plots from high-resolution imagery acquired by Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), is a prerequisite for accurate assessment of experimental plots in many geoscience fields. If the imagery is correctly geo-registered, then it may be possible to accurately extract plots from the imagery based on their map coordinates. To test this approach, a UAS was used to acquire visual imagery of 5 ha of soybean fields containing 6.0 m2 plots in a complex planting scheme. Sixteen artificial targets were setup in the fields before flights and different spatial configurations of 0 to 6 targets were used as Ground Control Points (GCPs) for geo-registration, resulting in a total of 175 geo-registered image mosaics with a broad range of geo-registration accuracies. Geo-registration accuracy was quantified based on the horizontal Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) of targets used as checkpoints. Twenty test plots were extracted from the geo-registered imagery. Plot extraction accuracy was quantified based on the percentage of the desired plot area that was extracted. It was found that using 4 GCPs along the perimeter of the field minimized the horizontal RMSE and enabled a plot extraction accuracy of at least 70%, with a mean plot extraction accuracy of 92%. The methods developed are suitable for work in many fields where replicates across time and space are necessary to quantify variability.

  2. Immigration of the barley mildew pathogen into field plots of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Brown, J.K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Immigration of the barley powdery mildew pathogen (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) into field plots of the spring barley variety Tyra (carrying the resistance allele Mla1) was investigated. Spores were trapped from the top of the plot canopies, as well as from control plots of wheat with no barley...... nearby. Comparison of the frequencies of virulent and avirulent single-colony isolates showed that the amount of immigration, relative to the amount of inoculum being produced within the plot, reduced very rapidly, until it could not be detected in the middle of the growing season (mid-June)....

  3. Estimation of Missing Observations in Two-Level Split-Plot Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almimi, Ashraf A.; Kulahci, Murat; Montgomery, Douglas C.

    2008-01-01

    Inserting estimates for the missing observations from split-plot designs restores their balanced or orthogonal structure and alleviates the difficulties in the statistical analysis. In this article, we extend a method due to Draper and Stoneman to estimate the missing observations from unreplicated...... to the number of the missing observations. These estimates are inserted into the design table and the estimates for the remaining effects (or alias chains of effects as the case with FFSP designs) are plotted on two half-normal plots: one for the whole-plot effects and the other for the subplot effects...

  4. Description of plotting program for measurements of helium flow from metal tritides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavis, L.C.

    1978-09-01

    The computer program used to reduce and plot data taken from measurements of the 3 He flow from various tritides is described. The data required are taken from the appropriate files, reduced if required, and stored in two temporary arrays. Data may be edited, if desired, to remove spurious values. The temporary arrays are used in the plot subroutine as X, Y pairs. Either can be independently plotted linearly, logarithmically, or hyperbolically. Scale factors are either determined from the range of data to be plotted or by the user of the program

  5. Investigation of Rainfall-Runoff Processes and Soil Moisture Dynamics in Grassland Plots under Simulated Rainfall Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of rainfall-runoff are important aspects of hydrological processes. In this study, rainfall-runoff processes and soil moisture dynamics at different soil depths and slope positions of grassland with two different row spacings (5 cm and 10 cm, respectively, referred to as R5 and R10 were analyzed, by means of a solution of rainfall simulation experiments. Bare land was also considered as a comparison. The results showed that the mechanism of runoff generation was mainly excess infiltration overland flow. The surface runoff amount of R5 plot was greater than that of R10, while the interflow amount of R10 was larger than that of R5 plot, although the differences of the subsurface runoff processes between plots R5 and R10 were little. The effects of rainfall intensity on the surface runoff were significant, but not obvious on the interflow and recession curve, which can be described as a simple exponential equation, with a fitting degree of up to 0.854–0.996. The response of soil moisture to rainfall and evapotranspiration was mainly in the 0–20 cm layer, and the response at the 40 cm layer to rainfall was slower and generally occurred after the rainfall stopped. The upper slope generally responded fastest to rainfall, and the foot of the slope was the slowest. The results presented here could provide insights into understanding the surface and subsurface runoff processes and soil moisture dynamics for grasslands in semi-arid regions.

  6. Wireless Technologies Bridging the Digital Divide in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Smyth

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to demonstrate how the latest wireless standards and technologies may overcome the digital divide in education in the developed and developing worlds. The concept of the digital divide is discussed in the traditional socio-economic sense and expanded in terms of the learner's location, age, culture and background. It is important that we understand the full extent and complexities of this division if we are to effectively bridge it. Why and how the digital divide may be bridged is examined. Apart from the inherent inequalities that need to be addressed from an ethical perspective, it is very much in the interests of governments and citizens globally that Information and Communications Technology (ICT is made available to all as quickly and cost-effectively as possible. New forms of wireless protocols are overcoming challenges of terrain, infrastructure and finance. It is proposed that, by leveraging open broadband wireless standards, like Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi* and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX*, and implementing Mobile Computing architecture, it is now possible to make dramatic strides in this direction. The paper continues with a general overview of these wireless standards and technologies followed by an in-depth look at Wi-Fi and WiMAX. The paper goes on to give examples of the Innovation Centre's involvement in delivering solutions and new usage models for eLearning that utilize the latest wireless standards and technologies. The challenges and successes of these projects are outlined and metrics are presented where available.

  7. Study of calcium phosphate (DCPD electrodeposition process on a Mg-3Al-1Zn magnesium alloy surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Pastorek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of calcium phosphating process realized on Mg-3Al-1Zn alloy surface after grinding was investigated by electrochemical tests supported by photodocumentation. The electrodeposition treatment was performed by electrochemical method in water solution of Ca(NO32.4H2O, (NH42HPO4 and H2O2. The formation of calcium phosphate was divided into several stages and described using light microscopy. The progress in corrosion protection of created calcium phosphate layer in 0.9% NaCl after particular electrodeposition steps was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results in the form of Nyquist plots were analyzed using equivalent circuits.

  8. STUDY OF CALCIUM PHOSPHATE (DCPD ELECTRODEPOSITION PROCESS ON THE Mg-3Al-1Zn MAGNESIUM ALLOY SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Pastorek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of calcium phosphating process realized on the Mg-3Al-1Zn alloy surface after grinding was investigated by electrochemical tests supported by photodocumentation. The electrodeposition treatment was performed by electrochemical method in water solution of Ca(NO32.4H2O, (NH42HPO4 and H2O2. The formation of calcium phosphate was divided into several stages and described using light microscopy. The progress in corrosion protection of created calcium phosphate layer in 0.9% NaCl after particular electrodeposition steps was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results in the form of Nyquist plots were analyzed using equivalent circuits.

  9. Charge dividing mechanism in position-sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; Rehak, P.

    1978-01-01

    A complete charge-division mechanism, including both the diffusion and the electromagnetic wave propagation on resistive electrodes, is presented. The charge injected into such a transmission line divides between the two ends according to the ratio of resistances and independently of the value of the line resistance, of the propagation mechanism and of the distribution of inductance and capacitance along the line. The shortest charge division time is achieved for Rl = 2π (L/C)/sup 1/2), where R, L, C are resistance, inductance and capacitance per unit length and l is the length of the line

  10. Green and sustainable median on a divided multilane highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambak, K.; Bajuri, F. A. A.; Yusoff, N. A.; Madun, A.; Prasetijo, J.

    2017-11-01

    The road system in Malaysia showed good growth with increasing number of vehicles on the road. However, statistic of road accident is still at an alarming rate. There are many factor can contribute to the occurrence of an accident. If the accident was caused by road facilities such as street furniture, it is shown that the street furniture was failed to improve the safety of the road users. In this study, a new concept of materials for the construction of road dividers was purpose. The sustainable materials such as laterite soil, Cow Grass, tires and PVC pipes was used to replace the cement and iron guardrails in road divider construction. The main objectives of this study is to design characteristics of a road divider using natural material such as laterite soil, sand, grass and recycle material like used a tyre. A series of experiments such as test liquid limit, plastic limit test, standard proctor test and observations of root growth in 30 days were conducted. The result shows that the plastic index value of 35% was obtained. From the proctor compaction test, the optimum water content was 23% and maximum dry density at 15.3 kN/m3. This value was used to build a prototype of green and sustainable raised road median. The suitability of sand used as the medium in irrigation system was approved. Permeability of sand is 10-2 mm/s to 10 mm/s which is having a high rate of flow. The growth of Cow Grass roots was increased by 4.9 cm in 30 days. This shows that, the grass is suitable to grow in laterite soil and can be used as vegetation material. Through the impact test conducted on a model with a scale of 1:7.5, indicate the initial damage occurred when a force reaches 10N. However, the condition of the model is still stable. From the impact test conducted, the prototype of green and sustainable raised road median has a good potential to be used as existing road divider as it can absorb the impact of an accident.

  11. Crossing the phantom divide in an interacting generalized Chaplygin gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Compean, H [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Monterrey, Autopista al Aeropuerto km 9.5, CP 66600, Apodaca, NL (Mexico); Garcia-Jimenez, G; Ramirez, C [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Obregon, O, E-mail: compean@fis.cinvestav.mx, E-mail: ggarcia@fcfm.buap.mx, E-mail: ggarcia@fisica.ugto.mx, E-mail: octavio@fisica.ugto.mx, E-mail: cramirez@fcfm.buap.mx [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato, PO Box E-143, 37150 Leon Gto. (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    Unified generalized Chaplygin gas models assuming an interaction between dark energy and dark matter fluids have been previously proposed. Following these ideas, we consider a particular relation between dark densities, which allows the possibility of a time varying equation of state for dark energy that crosses the phantom divide at a recent epoch. Moreover, these densities decay throughout the evolution of the Universe, avoiding a big rip. We find also a scaling solution, i.e. these densities are asymptotically proportional in the future, which contributes to the solution of the coincidence problem.

  12. The NCI Digital Divide Pilot Projects: implications for cancer education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L; Gustafson, David; Salovey, Peter; Perocchia, Rosemarie Slevin; Wilbright, Wayne; Bright, Mary Anne; Muha, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) supported four innovative demonstration research projects, "The Digital Divide Pilot Projects," to test new strategies for disseminating health information via computer to vulnerable consumers. These projects involved active research collaborations between the NCI's Cancer Information Service (CIS) and regional cancer control researchers to field test new approaches for enhancing cancer communication in vulnerable communities. The projects were able to use computers to successfully disseminate relevant cancer information to vulnerable populations. These demonstration research projects suggested effective new strategies for using communication technologies to educate underserved populations about cancer prevention, control, and care.

  13. Digital Television, Convergence, and the Public: Another Digital Divide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Smith

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available While 85 percent of Americans pay to receive television signals through satellite or cable companies, 15 percent still receive their television using over-the-air signals. With the elminination of analog television signals, the 15 percent of households have had to make significant changes in their viewing technology. These households tend to be elderly, poor, minority and rural. Signal coverage areas will be cut back, since government assumed a viewer would have an antenna on a 30 foot pole. Few do, and governmental programs delibertely hid this engineering fact. It is argued that digitalism has neglected the public use of the airways and created yet one more digital divide.

  14. A NEW DIVIDE: A ROMANTIC VERSUS A CLASSICAL ORTHODOXY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. MILBANK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In his contribution, the author wishes to trace a few of the contemporary trends of western European theology. He notes that alongside the growing infl uence of Roman Catholic theological thought in the West, there also arose a new theological divide between, what he terms, the romantic and the classical modes of theological orthodoxy. Both positions use diff erent methodological approaches in their common attempt at off ering resistance to secular modernity: the former appealing to the senses, the imagination and the fantasy, and the latter to unadulterated human reason.

  15. Divide by 4 the emissions: the Negatep scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.; Bacher, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Negatep scenario is proposed in the framework of the french energy policy, aiming to divide by 4 the CO 2 emissions for 2050. After an evaluation of the today situation concerning the energy consumption and needs, the scenario proposes some ways of energy conservation in different sectors, other energy sources in place of the fossil fuels, the energy needs by sectors. The last part of the document provides the main consumption posts, the CO 2 releases and the approach. (A.L.B.)

  16. Spatial and temporal variability of snow accumulation rate on the East Antarctic ice divide between Dome Fuji and EPICA DML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fujita

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the spatio-temporal variability of the glaciological environment in Dronning Maud Land (DML, East Antarctica, a 2800-km-long Japanese-Swedish traverse was carried out. The route includes ice divides between two ice-coring sites at Dome Fuji and EPICA DML. We determined the surface mass balance (SMB averaged over various time scales in the late Holocene based on studies of snow pits and firn cores, in addition to radar data. We find that the large-scale distribution of the SMB depends on the surface elevation and continentality, and that the SMB differs between the windward and leeward sides of ice divides for strong-wind events. We suggest that the SMB is highly influenced by interactions between the large-scale surface topography of ice divides and the wind field of strong-wind events that are often associated with high-precipitation events. Local variations in the SMB are governed by the local surface topography, which is influenced by the bedrock topography. In the eastern part of DML, the accumulation rate in the second half of the 20th century is found to be higher by ~15 % than averages over longer periods of 722 a or 7.9 ka before AD 2008. A similar increasing trend has been reported for many inland plateau sites in Antarctica with the exception of several sites on the leeward side of the ice divides.

  17. SeqPlots - Interactive software for exploratory data analyses, pattern discovery and visualization in genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempor, Przemyslaw; Ahringer, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Experiments involving high-throughput sequencing are widely used for analyses of chromatin function and gene expression. Common examples are the use of chromatin immunoprecipitation for the analysis of chromatin modifications or factor binding, enzymatic digestions for chromatin structure assays, and RNA sequencing to assess gene expression changes after biological perturbations. To investigate the pattern and abundance of coverage signals across regions of interest, data are often visualized as profile plots of average signal or stacked rows of signal in the form of heatmaps. We found that available plotting software was either slow and laborious or difficult to use by investigators with little computational training, which inhibited wide data exploration. To address this need, we developed SeqPlots, a user-friendly exploratory data analysis (EDA) and visualization software for genomics. After choosing groups of signal and feature files and defining plotting parameters, users can generate profile plots of average signal or heatmaps clustered using different algorithms in a matter of seconds through the graphical user interface (GUI) controls. SeqPlots accepts all major genomic file formats as input and can also generate and plot user defined motif densities. Profile plots and heatmaps are highly configurable and batch operations can be used to generate a large number of plots at once. SeqPlots is available as a GUI application for Mac or Windows and Linux, or as an R/Bioconductor package. It can also be deployed on a server for remote and collaborative usage. The analysis features and ease of use of SeqPlots encourages wide data exploration, which should aid the discovery of novel genomic associations.

  18. Fitting diameter distribution models to data from forest inventories with concentric plot design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanos, N.; Sjöstedt de Luna, S.

    2017-11-01

    Aim: Several national forest inventories use a complex plot design based on multiple concentric subplots where smaller diameter trees are inventoried when lying in the smaller-radius subplots and ignored otherwise. Data from these plots are truncated with threshold (truncation) diameters varying according to the distance from the plot centre. In this paper we designed a maximum likelihood method to fit the Weibull diameter distribution to data from concentric plots. Material and methods: Our method (M1) was based on multiple truncated probability density functions to build the likelihood. In addition, we used an alternative method (M2) presented recently. We used methods M1 and M2 as well as two other reference methods to estimate the Weibull parameters in 40000 simulated plots. The spatial tree pattern of the simulated plots was generated using four models of spatial point patterns. Two error indices were used to assess the relative performance of M1 and M2 in estimating relevant stand-level variables. In addition, we estimated the Quadratic Mean plot Diameter (QMD) using Expansion Factors (EFs). Main results: Methods M1 and M2 produced comparable estimation errors in random and cluster tree spatial patterns. Method M2 produced biased parameter estimates in plots with inhomogeneous Poisson patterns. Estimation of QMD using EFs produced biased results in plots within inhomogeneous intensity Poisson patterns. Research highlights:We designed a new method to fit the Weibull distribution to forest inventory data from concentric plots that achieves high accuracy and precision in parameter estimates regardless of the within-plot spatial tree pattern.

  19. Evaluation of Soft Tissue Landmark Reliability between Manual and Computerized Plotting Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinathan, Geetha; Kommi, Pradeep B; Kumar, Senthil M; Yashwant, Aniruddh; Arani, Nandakumar; Sabapathy, Senkutvan

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the reliability of soft tissue landmark identification between manual and digital plot-tings in both X and Y axes. A total of 50 pretreatment lateral cephalograms were selected from patients who reported for orthodontic treatment. The digital images of each cephalogram were imported directly into Dolphin software for onscreen digi-talization, while for manual tracing, images were printed using a compatible X-ray printer. After the images were standardized, and 10 commonly used soft tissue landmarks were plotted on each cephalogram by six different professional observers, the values obtained were plotted in X and Y axes. Intraclass correlation coefficient was used to determine the intrarater reliability for repeated landmark plotting obtained by both the methods. The evaluation for reliability of soft tissue landmark plottings in both manual and digital methods after subjecting it to interclass correlation showed a good reliability, which was nearing complete homogeneity in both X and Y axes, except for Y axis of throat point in manual plotting, which showed moderate reliability as a cephalometric variable. Intraclass correlation of soft tissue nasion had a moderate reliability along X axis. Soft tissue pogonion shows moderate reliability in Y axis. Throat point exhibited moderate reliability in X axis. The interclass correlation in X and Y axes shows high reliability in both hard tissue and soft tissue except for throat point in Y axis, when plotted manually. The intraclass correlation is more consistent and highly reliable for soft tissue landmarks and the hard tissue landmark identification is also consistent. The results obtained for manual and digital methods were almost similar, but the digital landmark plotting has an added advantage in archiving, retrieval, transmission, and can be enhanced during plotting of lateral cephalograms. Hence, the digital method of landmark plotting could be preferred for both daily use and

  20. Strategic predictors of performance in a divided attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rill, Róbert Adrian; Faragó, Kinga Bettina; Lőrincz, András

    2018-01-01

    In this study we investigate the strategies of subjects in a complex divided attention task. We conducted a series of experiments with ten participants and evaluated their performance. After an extensive analysis, we identified four strategic measures that justify the achievement of the participants, by highlighting the individual differences and predicting performance in a regression analysis using generalized estimating equations. Selecting the more urgent task and user action between multiple simultaneous possibilities form two of the strategic decisions, respectively. The third one refers to choosing a response within the same task when the opportunity is present. The fourth and most important measure of strategy involves thinking ahead and executing an action before a situation would become critical. This latter one has the effect of reducing later cognitive load or timing constraints and it is shown to explain almost as much variance in performance as the other three, more straightforward predictors together. In addition to determining these strategic predictors, we also show how manipulating task difficulty induces a shift in strategy, thus impairing human performance in the rehearsed task. The results of this study indicate that considerable differences in the divided attention ability of normal subjects can be identified early and with simple measurements. The importance of describing and analyzing strategies is also emphasized, which can substantially influence performance in complex tasks and may serve training needs.

  1. Crossing the Sacred/Secular Divide; Unraveling Turkish Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrow Lisa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper unpacks the ideas in the poem “Pull Down My Statues” by Süleyman Apaydın, to examine some common descriptors in use about modern Turkey. Taking his inspiration from Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the modern Turkish republic, Apaydın ponders the success of Atatürk’s vision, based on the idea of a secular/sacred divide. Combining this with the way travel in Turkey is heavily promoted using the same themes, I explore how this divide, with its underlying connotations of West versus East and modernity versus tradition (as found in Turkey’s Ottoman past, is applied to Turkish identity. Turks are commonly portrayed as a homogenous people only differentiated by their degree of religiosity, but I argue that this analysis is too simplistic. Turkish identity has never been based on a single clear cut model, and this is becoming obvious as more traditional Islamic ways of life are being reworked by new forms of Islam based on capitalism. Consequently, although it is important to acknowledge Turkey’s past, looking to history for a way to steer through the complexities of the present is no longer useful or even relevant.

  2. On a nonlinear Kalman filter with simplified divided difference approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong

    2012-03-01

    We present a new ensemble-based approach that handles nonlinearity based on a simplified divided difference approximation through Stirling\\'s interpolation formula, which is hence called the simplified divided difference filter (sDDF). The sDDF uses Stirling\\'s interpolation formula to evaluate the statistics of the background ensemble during the prediction step, while at the filtering step the sDDF employs the formulae in an ensemble square root filter (EnSRF) to update the background to the analysis. In this sense, the sDDF is a hybrid of Stirling\\'s interpolation formula and the EnSRF method, while the computational cost of the sDDF is less than that of the EnSRF. Numerical comparison between the sDDF and the EnSRF, with the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) as the representative, is conducted. The experiment results suggest that the sDDF outperforms the ETKF with a relatively large ensemble size, and thus is a good candidate for data assimilation in systems with moderate dimensions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Embodied ideas and divided selves: revisiting Laing via Bakhtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Ian; Sullivan, Paul

    2009-09-01

    In this article, we apply Mikhail Bakhtin's model of a 'divided self' to R.D. Laing's eponymous work on the lived experience of divided selves in 'psychosis'. Both of these authors offer intriguing insights into the fracturing of self through its social relationships (including the 'micro-dialogues' staged for oneself) but from uniquely different perspectives. Bakhtin (1984) uses Dostoevsky's novels as his material for a theory of self, centrally concerned with moments of split identity, crisis, and personal transformation, while Laing relies on his patient's accounts of 'psychosis'. We will outline how two key Bakhtinian divisions of the self (spirit/soul and authoritative/internally persuasive discourse) help to make sense of Laing's descriptions of his patient's experiences and micro-dialogues. Conversely, when refracted through Laing's phenomenology Bakhtin's account of the self becomes richer and somewhat darkened in terms of a double-edged ontology, which describes a maximally open self but one that is consumed by ideas, unable to manage their contradictions. The implications of this for managing the dilemmas of self-identity will be drawn out.

  4. Maximum Likelihood-Based Iterated Divided Difference Filter for Nonlinear Systems from Discrete Noisy Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changyuan; Zhang, Jing; Mu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    A new filter named the maximum likelihood-based iterated divided difference filter (MLIDDF) is developed to improve the low state estimation accuracy of nonlinear state estimation due to large initial estimation errors and nonlinearity of measurement equations. The MLIDDF algorithm is derivative-free and implemented only by calculating the functional evaluations. The MLIDDF algorithm involves the use of the iteration measurement update and the current measurement, and the iteration termination criterion based on maximum likelihood is introduced in the measurement update step, so the MLIDDF is guaranteed to produce a sequence estimate that moves up the maximum likelihood surface. In a simulation, its performance is compared against that of the unscented Kalman filter (UKF), divided difference filter (DDF), iterated unscented Kalman filter (IUKF) and iterated divided difference filter (IDDF) both using a traditional iteration strategy. Simulation results demonstrate that the accumulated mean-square root error for the MLIDDF algorithm in position is reduced by 63% compared to that of UKF and DDF algorithms, and by 7% compared to that of IUKF and IDDF algorithms. The new algorithm thus has better state estimation accuracy and a fast convergence rate. PMID:23012525

  5. Using contour plots in elecgroproduction to examine regions in {epsilon}, Q{sup 2}, W space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funsten, H. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    In determining incident CEBAF beam energies for CLAS electroproduction experiments that separate the longitudinal and transverse cross section components, contour plots of {epsilon} defined over a 2 dimensional Q{sup 2}, W space can be useful. This note describes an approximate method of constructing such plots.

  6. Cross-plotting of rock properties for fluid discrimination using well ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    properties and their attributes (combination of rock properties) cross-plots have been attempted using well data from an offshore field of the Niger Delta as a case study. Numerous cross-plotting techniques of rock- properties/attributes derived from ...

  7. Plots, pixels, and partnerships: prospects for mapping, monitoring and modeling biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Gyde Lund; Victor A. Rudis; Kenneth W. Stolte

    1998-01-01

    Many biodiversity inventories are conducted in relatively small areas, yet information is needed at the national, regional, and global levels.Most nations have forest inventory plot networks.While forest inventories may not contain the detailed species information that biodiversity inventories do, the forest inventory plot networks do represent large areas.Linkages...

  8. Forest Plots in Excel: Moving beyond a Clump of Trees to a Forest of Visual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derzon, James H.; Alford, Aaron A.

    2013-01-01

    Forest plots provide an effective means of presenting a wealth of information in a single graphic. Whether used to illustrate multiple results in a single study or the cumulative knowledge of an entire field, forest plots have become an accepted and generally understood way of presenting many estimates simultaneously. This article explores…

  9. Combining FIA plot data with topographic variables: Are precise locations needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen P. Prisley; Huei-Jin Wang; Philip J Radtke; John Coulston

    2009-01-01

    Plot data from the USFS FIA program could be combined with terrain variables to attempt to explain how terrain characteristics influence forest growth, species composition, productivity, fire behavior, wildlife habitat, and other phenomena. While some types of analyses using FIA data have been shown to be insensitive to precision of plot locations, it has been...

  10. Adding uncertainty to forest inventory plot locations: effects on analyses using geospatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexia A. Sabor; Volker C. Radeloff; Ronald E. McRoberts; Murray Clayton; Susan I. Stewart

    2007-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service alters plot locations before releasing data to the public to ensure landowner confidentiality and sample integrity, but using data with altered plot locations in conjunction with other spatially explicit data layers produces analytical results with unknown amounts of error. We calculated the...

  11. The hexagon/panel system for selecting FIA plots under an annual inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary J. Brand; Mark D. Nelson; Daniel G. Wendt; Kevin K. Nimerfro

    2000-01-01

    Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) is changing to an annual nationwide forest inventory. This paper describes the sampling grid used to distribute FIA plots across the landscape and to allocate them to a particular measurement year. We also describe the integration of the F1A and Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) plot networks.

  12. multilocational evaluation of white yam genotypes using gge bi-plot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    The GGE bi-plot methodology: genotype main effect (G), plus genotype by environment interaction. (GE) of yam (2001), is a very powerful tool for such environmental analysis. This paper therefore describes the use of GGE bi-plot methodology in the evaluation of test environments in a multi-environment trial of six white yam ...

  13. A standardized data structure for describing and exchanging data from remeasured growth and yield plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Sweet; John C. Byrne

    1990-01-01

    Proposes standard data definitions and format to facilitate the sharing of growth and yield permanent plot data for the development, testing, and improvement of tree or stand growth models. The data structure presented provides standards for documenting sampling design, plot location and summary descriptors, measurement dates, treatments, site attributes, and...

  14. Governing in the space of the "Seam" : Airport security after the liquid bomb plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoijtink, M.

    This paper provides a detailed study of the liquid bomb plot from 2006, focusing on the ways in which the plot was constituted as “an event unlike others” (Adey, Anderson, and Lobo Guerrero 2011, 340). Engaging with a critical body of scholarship that examines how events are assembled and governed

  15. Estimating number and size of forest patches from FIA plot data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Andrew J. Lister; Mark H. Hansen

    2009-01-01

    Forest inventory and analysis (FIA) annual plot data provide for estimates of forest area, type, volume, growth, and other attributes. Estimates of forest landscape metrics, such as those describing abundance, size, and shape of forest patches, however, typically are not derived from FIA plot data but from satellite image-based land cover maps. Associating image-based...

  16. Revolutions in Global Networking and Collaborations, and the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Harvey

    2007-04-01

    The major physics experiments of the next twenty five years, such as those at the Large Hadron Collider and the International Linear Collider, will break new ground in our understanding of the fundamental interactions, structures and symmetries that govern the nature of matter and spacetime. In order to realize the scientific wealth of these experimental programs, physicists have formed global-scale collaborations and built grid systems where the data is processed, distributed and collaboratively analyzed using networked computing facilities at more than 100 sites around the world. Effective use of these emerging ensembles of facilities and networks presents new challenges in Petabyte-scale data access, processing and distribution, and collaboration across national and international networks on a scale unprecedented in the history of science. The key to meeting these challenges is the effective use of data networks. The bandwidth use by high energy physicists, paralleled by scientists in other fields of data intensive science, continues to grow at several hundred times per decade, and there are indications that this growth is accelerating. This is helping to drive the growth of the major networks serving research and education, as well as mission-oriented networks in the US, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America and across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Physicists and computer scientists have together made striking technological advances in recent years, and have developed tools that allow full use of long range 10 gigabit/sec links on a routine basis for the first time. As the science community continues to advance in its development of networks and grid systems, a key concern is the rising Digital Divide between the favored and less-favored regions of the world. Closing the Divide is vital for the health of our global collaborations and our field. In this talk I will review these trends, and focus on the means to reduce the Digital Divide, from the perspective of

  17. MMS control system analysis using automated root-locus plot generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefler, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Use of the Modular Modeling System (MMS) for control systems improvement has been impeded by the need to plot eigenvalues manually. This problem has been solved by an automatic eigenvalue plotting routine. A practical procedure for control systems analysis based upon automatically generated root-locus plots has been developed using the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL)-based version of the Modular Modeling System. Examples are given of typical ACSL run-time statements. Actual root-locus and time history plots are shown for simple models (4 state variables). More complex models are discussed. The plots show the control systems response before and after the determination of tuning parameters using the methods described

  18. Linear scaling relationships and volcano plots in homogeneous catalysis - revisiting the Suzuki reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Michael; Wodrich, Matthew D; Corminboeuf, Clémence

    2015-12-01

    Linear free energy scaling relationships and volcano plots are common tools used to identify potential heterogeneous catalysts for myriad applications. Despite the striking simplicity and predictive power of volcano plots, they remain unknown in homogeneous catalysis. Here, we construct volcano plots to analyze a prototypical reaction from homogeneous catalysis, the Suzuki cross-coupling of olefins. Volcano plots succeed both in discriminating amongst different catalysts and reproducing experimentally known trends, which serves as validation of the model for this proof-of-principle example. These findings indicate that the combination of linear scaling relationships and volcano plots could serve as a valuable methodology for identifying homogeneous catalysts possessing a desired activity through a priori computational screening.

  19. PETRO.CALC.PLOT, Microsoft Excel macros to aid petrologic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidder, Gary B.

    1994-07-01

    PETRO.CALC.PLOT is a package of macros which normalizes whole-rock oxide data to 100%, calculates the cation percentages and molecular proportions used for normative mineral calculations, computes the apices for ternary diagrams, determines sums and ratios of specific elements of petrologic interest, and plots 33 X-Y graphs and five ternary diagrams. PETRO.CALC.PLOT also may be used to create other diagrams as desired by the user. The macros run in Microsoft Excel 3.0 and 4.0 for Macintosh computers and in Microsoft Excel 3.0 and 4.0 for Windows. Macros provided in PETRO.CALC.PLOT minimize repetition and time required to recalculate and plot whole-rock oxide data for petrologic analysis.

  20. Flagellation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in newly divided cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Lee, Calvin; Anda, Jaime; Wong, Gerard

    2015-03-01

    For monotrichous bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, after cell division, one daughter cell inherits the old flagellum from its mother cell, and the other grows a new flagellum during or after cell division. It had been shown that the new flagellum grows at the distal pole of the dividing cell when the two daughter cells haven't completely separated. However, for those daughter cells who grow new flagella after division, it still remains unknown at which pole the new flagellum will grow. Here, by combining our newly developed bacteria family tree tracking techniques with genetic manipulation method, we showed that for the daughter cell who did not inherit the old flagellum, a new flagellum has about 90% chances to grow at the newly formed pole. We proposed a model for flagellation of P. aeruginosa.

  1. Universal Service in a Broader Perspective: The European Digital Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Concepcion GARCIA-JIMENEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring universal service is a top objective in many countries in order that all the citizens can have access basic communications services. Although the ICT equipment in households and its usage by individuals are essential prerequisites for benefiting from ICTs, the situation in the European Union is far from uniform. This article provides a description of the European information society development scenario using the values reached by the member states in a set of indicators selected for measuring said progress in households. Two tools are used for providing a broader perspective of the digital divide: a composite index and the cluster analysis. Below, a study is provided on what variables are relevant for interpreting the situation that is presented.

  2. Nationality Divides and Shared Leadership in Multinational Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paunova, Minna

    2015-01-01

    How shared leadership is enacted in teams that are nationally diverse is currently under- researched, despite the increasing presence of multinational teams in the workplace. To better understand the phenomenon of shared leadership in multinational team contexts, we propose two ways in which...... nationality-based characteristics of members may divide teams and affect leadership. We argue that the national belonging of members may result in both identity subgroups and status ranks. However, the configurational properties of identity subgroups and status ranks will have distinct effects on team...... dynamics, shared leadership within the team, and team performance. We conduct two empirical studies, and find that the number and balance of identity subgroups have important implications for multinational team functioning, in line with social identity approaches. Interestingly, the number and balance...

  3. The effects of age and divided attention on spontaneous recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin A; Jacoby, Larry L; Thomas, Ruthann C; Balota, David A

    2011-05-01

    Studies of recognition typically involve tests in which the participant's memory for a stimulus is directly questioned. There are occasions however, in which memory occurs more spontaneously (e.g., an acquaintance seeming familiar out of context). Spontaneous recognition was investigated in a novel paradigm involving study of pictures and words followed by recognition judgments on stimuli with an old or new word superimposed over an old or new picture. Participants were instructed to make their recognition decision on either the picture or word and to ignore the distracting stimulus. Spontaneous recognition was measured as the influence of old vs. new distracters on target recognition. Across two experiments, older adults and younger adults placed under divided-attention showed a greater tendency to spontaneously recognize old distracters as compared to full-attention younger adults. The occurrence of spontaneous recognition is discussed in relation to ability to constrain retrieval to goal-relevant information.

  4. The cultural divide: exploring communication barriers between scientists and clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L. Restifo

    2011-07-01

    Despite remarkable advances in basic biomedical science that have led to improved patient care, there is a wide and persistent gap in the abilities of researchers and clinicians to understand and appreciate each other. In this Editorial, the authors, a scientist and a clinician, discuss the rift between practitioners of laboratory research and clinical medicine. Using their first-hand experience and numerous interviews throughout the United States, they explore the causes of this ‘cultural divide’. Members of both professions use advanced problem-solving skills and typically embark on their career paths with a deeply felt sense of purpose. Nonetheless, differences in classroom education, professional training environments, reward mechanisms and sources of drive contribute to obstacles that inhibit communication, mutual respect and productive collaboration. More than a sociological curiosity, the cultural divide is a significant barrier to the bench-to-bedside goals of translational medicine. Understanding its roots is the first step towards bridging the gap.

  5. Towards economic geographies beyond the Nature-Society divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Luke

    2017-10-01

    This article suggests an approach to economic-geographic quantification that is relevant to engaging the socionatural blurring of an Anthropocene. It develops representations of commodities and of economies that draw upon concepts of absolute, relative, and relational space to help move beyond legacies of the Nature-Society divide in economic-geographic thought. To supplement familiar ways of knowing commodities as bounded objects with associated single values (prices), the piece rereads input-output approaches, providing accounts of how commodities enfold relations among socionatural phenomena. It quantifies and maps the activities and flows of the global economy in 2007 in terms of their embodied carbon emissions, labor times, and harvested land areas alongside their monetary values. Comparing the perspectives that result, it identifies empirical and theoretical challenges that a political-industrial ecology could help address.

  6. Bifurcation in asymmetric plasma divided by a magnetic filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohi, K.; Naitou, H.; Tauchi, Y.; Fukumasa, O.

    2001-05-01

    A magnetic filter (MF) reflecting electrons from both sides can separate a low-temperature and low-density subplasma from a high-temperature and high-density main plasma. The one-dimensional numerical simulation by the particle-in-cell code revealed that, depending on the asymmetry, the plasma divided by the MF behaves dynamically or statically [K. Ohi et al., Physics of Plasmas 8, 23 (2001)]. The transition between the two bifurcated states is discontinuous. In the dynamic state, the autonomous potential oscillation in the subplasma is synchronized with the passage of the shock wave structure generated by the modulated ion beam from the main plasma. The stationary phase of the dynamic state appears after the amplitude of the potential oscillation in the subplasma grows exponentially from the thermal noise. In the static state, the system is stable to the growth of the potential oscillation in the subplasma. (author)

  7. Bridging the Digital Divide through Educational Initiatives: Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Butler

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Being on the wrong side of the digital divide limits the life chances of the socially excluded, who have had neither the wherewithal nor the opportunity to obtain highly paid, skilled positions in IT. Irish policy makers see education as the solution to this problem. However, provid-ing institutional support for the socially disadvantaged who wish to avail of third level education in IT poses significant challenges. This paper describes these problems and explains how they were overcome in implementing an undergraduate university programme called the Diploma in Applied Business Computing. This targeted initiative was an unqualified success in that it achieved its primary objectives--academic and social. However, what made it so was the commitment of concerned stakeholders, from members of the executive steering committee who developed and implemented the course, to the lecturers who delivered it, the companies who supported it, and the students who participated in it.

  8. Plot - level stem volume estimation and tree species discrimination with CASI remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Johan; Wallerman, J.; Olsson, Haakan

    1999-10-01

    Spectral data from the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI), with four bands (460-495 nm, 550-580 nm, 660-682 nm, 740-762 nm) acquired from a forest test area (Lat. 60 deg 00` N, Long. 17 deg 18` E), the Kaettboele estate near Uppsala, was analysed together with forest data from a number of field plots. Data from two flight lines, one towards and the other perpendicular to the sun was used. Information about stem volume and species composition from plots with 10-m radius, 138 in the first and 120 in the second flight line, was available. There was a positive correlation (R{sup 2} 0.51-0.53) between stem volume and the inverted radiance for all four bands on plot level. The strong correlation between stem volume and a shadow density measure indicates that shadows explain much of the correlation. For the flight line perpendicular to the sun, the correlation was stronger for the side towards the sun compared to the side away from the sun. In the first flight line, plots with a stem volume > 120 m{sup 3}ha{sup -1} were classified according to the tree species composition (pine, spruce, deciduous trees). Groups were formed based on the classification, and the hypothesis that there was no difference in spectral radiance between these groups was tested. It was possible to separate pine dominated plots from spruce dominated plots. It was also possible to separate spruce dominated plots from spruce dominated plots with a minor portion of pine, but not pine dominated plots from pine dominated plots with a minor portion of spruce. The near-infrared band was the best band for discrimination of tree species 16 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  9. Further reflections on the humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Alan S

    2014-01-01

    Replies to comments by Morley (see record 2014-01475-010), Serlin (see record 2014-01475-011), Friedman (see record 2014-01475-012), Churchill and Mruk (see record 2014-01475-013), and Schneider (see record 2014-01475-014) on the current author's original article "The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: Contrasts in philosophical foundations" (see record 2013-12501-001). The article contrasting humanistic psychology and positive psychology with respect to their ontological, epistemological, and practical philosophical foundations has generated commentaries from leading proponents of varying perspectives within humanistic psychology. There is a great deal of material within those commentaries with which the current author is in full accord. It is worth noting at the outset that no one appears to be challenging the observations (a) that published exchanges between proponents of humanistic and positive psychology have been marked by tension and ambivalence, albeit with occasional efforts at reconciliation and rapprochement; (b) that proponents of the two perspectives differ with respect to the philosophers they most frequently cite in their writings; or (c) that such citations reflect the philosophical assumptions serving as foundations for the theoretical, research, and counseling/therapeutic endeavors of psychologists in both groups. The principal points of concurrence in the critiques published here are that the current underestimates the extent to which mutually supportive, collaborative work can be accomplished across the philosophical divide and that the recommendations the current author has made has advanced serious potential negative consequences for the field. The current author will address these points here in the reply, although space does not permit him to address other substantive points raised by individual commentators. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Closing the divide: Can the IAEA make a difference?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, W.

    2003-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the world has seen many fundamental changes in the way countries interact. It is seen today in how business is conducted, how fast travel and super-fast communications have opened up the world into almost one huge market and how news of break-through technological innovations appear almost weekly in the media. Yet the world still lives with a vast divide between rich and poor and, from many perspectives, this divide appears to be increasing. The world's development programmes have thus been increasingly scrutinized for their effectiveness and efficiency. The aim is to ensure that the planned benefits reach the end-beneficiaries in a manner that adequately addresses the socio-economic needs of the recipient society. Against this background, the IAEA's relatively small but nevertheless significant programme of technical cooperation has had to reform itself. It has gone from a largely 'technology push' focus to adopting a new 'needs driven' strategy. As the world marks 50 years of the 'Atoms for Peace' initiative, the questions must be asked whether the IAEA's Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP) really can make a difference? Is this programme correctly positioned to be able to meet these very large global challenges? Must it reform itself further to remain meaningful and relevant? What are the determinants for its success within a highly demanding environment? These are the typical questions that have largely shaped the deliberations between the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department and its Standing Advisory Group, called SAGTAC, since the group of representatives from Member States was formed in the mid- 1990s

  11. Older people and digital disengagement: a fourth digital divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olphert, Wendy; Damodaran, Leela

    2013-01-01

    Digital technologies are becoming more pervasive in all areas of society. Enabling everyone to have access and capability to use the Internet and associated digital technologies, summed up in the term 'digital inclusion', is seen to have wide-ranging benefits to the individual, to the economy and to society. For older people, being digitally included can help them to maintain their independence, social connectedness and sense of worth in the face of declining health or limited capabilities, as well as also offering new opportunities to improve their quality of life. At present however, access to the technology and to the benefits is not equally distributed either between or within nations, and older people tend to be on the 'wrong' side of what is termed the 'digital divide'. Governments globally are developing strategies to promote digital inclusion and indeed Internet uptake is increasing steadily, including amongst older people. However, such strategies have focussed on getting people online, and there appears to be an assumption that once someone is online they will remain 'digitally engaged'. In fact statistics show that some users give up using the Internet, and there is emerging evidence that older people are more vulnerable to the factors which can lead to this outcome. The authors see this phenomenon as a potential but largely unrecognised 'fourth digital divide' which has serious implications for social inclusion. The objectives of this article are (a) to raise awareness of the phenomenon of digital disengagement by considering some of the emerging evidence, (b) to explore some of the potential implications of not recognising and therefore not addressing the needs of the digitally disengaged older population, and (c) to reveal the prevailing gap in knowledge which future research should address. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Enhanced production of polyhydroxybutyrate by multiple dividing E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong; Fan, Zhongyun; Jiang, Xiaoran; Chen, Jinchun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2016-07-27

    Most bacteria are grown in a binary fission way meaning a bacterial cell is equally divided into two. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) can be accumulated as inclusion bodies by bacteria. The cell division way and morphology have been shown to play an important role in regulating the bacterial growth and PHA storages. The common growth pattern of Escherichia coli was changed to multiple fission patterns by deleting fission related genes minC and minD together, allowing the formation of multiple fission rings (Z-rings) in several positions of an elongated cell, thus a bacterial cell was observed to be divided into more than two daughter cells at same time. To further improve cell growth and PHA production, some genes related with division process including ftsQ, ftsL, ftsW, ftsN and ftsZ, together with the cell shape control gene mreB, were all overexpressed in E. coli JM109 ∆minCD. The changing pattern of E. coli cell growth and morphology resulted in more cell dry weights (CDW) and more than 80 % polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulation increases compared to its binary fission control grown under the same conditions. This study clearly demonstrated that combined over-expression genes ftsQ, ftsW, ftsN, ftsL and ftsZ together with shape control gene mreB in multiple division bacterial E. coli JM109 ∆minCD benefited PHA accumulation. Our study provides useful information on increasing the yield of PHA by changing the cell division pattern and cell morphology of E. coli.

  13. Spike sorting for polytrodes: a divide and conquer approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas V. Swindale

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine patterns of neural activity, spike signals recorded by extracellular electrodes have to be clustered (sorted with the aim of ensuring that each cluster represents all the spikes generated by an individual neuron. Many methods for spike sorting have been proposed but few are easily applicable to recordings from polytrodes which may have 16 or more recording sites. As with tetrodes, these are spaced sufficiently closely that signals from single neurons will usually be recorded on several adjacent sites. Although this offers a better chance of distinguishing neurons with similarly shaped spikes, sorting is difficult in such cases because of the high dimensionality of the space in which the signals must be classified. This report details a method for spike sorting based on a divide and conquer approach. Clusters are initially formed by assigning each event to the channel on which it is largest. Each channel-based cluster is then sub-divided into as many distinct clusters as possible. These are then recombined on the basis of pairwise tests into a final set of clusters. Pairwise tests are also performed to establish how distinct each cluster is from the others. A modified gradient ascent clustering (GAC algorithm is used to do the clustering. The method can sort spikes with minimal user input in times comparable to real time for recordings lasting up to 45 minutes. Our results illustrate some of the difficulties inherent in spike sorting, including changes in spike shape over time. We show that some physiologically distinct units may have very similar spike shapes. We show that RMS measures of spike shape similarity are not sensitive enough to discriminate clusters that can otherwise be separated by principal components analysis. Hence spike sorting based on least-squares matching to templates may be unreliable. Our methods should be applicable to tetrodes and scaleable to larger multi-electrode arrays (MEAs.

  14. Spike sorting for polytrodes: a divide and conquer approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindale, Nicholas V; Spacek, Martin A

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine patterns of neural activity, spike signals recorded by extracellular electrodes have to be clustered (sorted) with the aim of ensuring that each cluster represents all the spikes generated by an individual neuron. Many methods for spike sorting have been proposed but few are easily applicable to recordings from polytrodes which may have 16 or more recording sites. As with tetrodes, these are spaced sufficiently closely that signals from single neurons will usually be recorded on several adjacent sites. Although this offers a better chance of distinguishing neurons with similarly shaped spikes, sorting is difficult in such cases because of the high dimensionality of the space in which the signals must be classified. This report details a method for spike sorting based on a divide and conquer approach. Clusters are initially formed by assigning each event to the channel on which it is largest. Each channel-based cluster is then sub-divided into as many distinct clusters as possible. These are then recombined on the basis of pairwise tests into a final set of clusters. Pairwise tests are also performed to establish how distinct each cluster is from the others. A modified gradient ascent clustering (GAC) algorithm is used to do the clustering. The method can sort spikes with minimal user input in times comparable to real time for recordings lasting up to 45 min. Our results illustrate some of the difficulties inherent in spike sorting, including changes in spike shape over time. We show that some physiologically distinct units may have very similar spike shapes. We show that RMS measures of spike shape similarity are not sensitive enough to discriminate clusters that can otherwise be separated by principal components analysis (PCA). Hence spike sorting based on least-squares matching to templates may be unreliable. Our methods should be applicable to tetrodes and scalable to larger multi-electrode arrays (MEAs).

  15. Brain activity associated with selective attention, divided attention and distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Emma; Salmela, Viljami; Salmi, Juha; Numminen, Jussi; Alho, Kimmo

    2017-06-01

    Top-down controlled selective or divided attention to sounds and visual objects, as well as bottom-up triggered attention to auditory and visual distractors, has been widely investigated. However, no study has systematically compared brain activations related to all these types of attention. To this end, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity in participants performing a tone pitch or a foveal grating orientation discrimination task, or both, distracted by novel sounds not sharing frequencies with the tones or by extrafoveal visual textures. To force focusing of attention to tones or gratings, or both, task difficulty was kept constantly high with an adaptive staircase method. A whole brain analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed fronto-parietal attention networks for both selective auditory and visual attention. A subsequent conjunction analysis indicated partial overlaps of these networks. However, like some previous studies, the present results also suggest segregation of prefrontal areas involved in the control of auditory and visual attention. The ANOVA also suggested, and another conjunction analysis confirmed, an additional activity enhancement in the left middle frontal gyrus related to divided attention supporting the role of this area in top-down integration of dual task performance. Distractors expectedly disrupted task performance. However, contrary to our expectations, activations specifically related to the distractors were found only in the auditory and visual cortices. This suggests gating of the distractors from further processing perhaps due to strictly focused attention in the current demanding discrimination tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Insect communities on experimental mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) plots along an urban gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, C; Schmidt, Holger

    1998-01-01

    We studied the ability of insect herbivores and their natural enemies to colonize exposed, potted mugwort plants (Artemisia vulgaris L.) along a rural-urban gradient in 1994 in Hamburg (northern Germany). Ectophagous insects, leafmines and galls were monitored weekly from mid-May to mid-September. Endophagous insects were counted by harvesting and dissecting the stems at the end of the growing season. The rural-urban gradient was characterized by a gradient of vegetation-free areas and increasing proportion of ground covered in concrete, tarmac, paving and other impermeable surfaces surrounding the Artemisia plots, i.e. six different zones of increasing isolation. Numbers of insect species (herbivores, parasitoids and predators) decreased along the gradient from 43 to 12. Monophagous herbivores were not more affected than polyphagous herbivores, but parasitoids, especially rare species, were more strongly affected by isolation than predators. Some dominant herbivorous species were very successful colonizers and occurred in inner city sites devoid of all natural vegetation. Sometimes their abundance increased in the inner city to significantly higher densities than in the urban fringe. Isolation appeared to be the main reason for the observed patterns, since area and soil conditions were held constant in the experiment. Microclimate and pollution were considered to play a minor role.

  17. Construction of an experimental plot seeder of wheat planting and compare it by imported one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Eskandari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Researchers frequently include multiple cultivars and fertility levels in field experiments. Therefore, the experiments sowing operation must represent a considerable saving in time and labor, compared to hand sowing. Greater flexibility in experimental design and setup could be achieved by equipment that enables quick changes in the cultivar and fertilizer rates from one plot to the next. A satisfactory seed drill must distribute a given quantity of seed evenly over a predetermined length of coulter row, the coulters must be spaced at exact intervals and depth of sowing must be uniform. In a self-propelled type of plot seeder, no coulter should run in a wheel track as the compaction of the soil can cause observable differences in vigor between plants in such a row and those in un-compacted rows. The machine should sow in succession from a try in which a series of seed pocket separated clearly and must be put into distributer funnel by an assistant operator. The length of gap being varied according to the nature and purpose of the plot. The objectives of this experiment were 1- to design and construct a local self-propelled plot seeder and 2- To compare it with the imported (Wintersteiger plot seeder in cereal breeding programs. Materials and Methods A small-plot seeder was designed and constructed to meet this objective. The unit consists of the following basic components: a toolbar for pulling a set of six blade coulter, an air compressor for lifting and putting down the openers and metering transmission drive wheel, an operators chair and work rack, one belt seed distribution. A cone-celled and rotor seed distributor is used for seed distribution to the openers. The cone system is connected to the gearbox and allows for great flexibility in changing cultivars, crop species, and plot length. This is driven by the separate drive wheel. The cone-celled distributor sows all the seed of the sample in making one complete turn. The

  18. Ground ice and hydrothermal ground motions on aufeis plots of river valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Alekseev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Localized groundwater outflow and layered freezing of them in forms of large ice clusters on the surface creates specific conditions for energy and mass exchange in the «atmosphere–soil–lithosphere» system. In winter, the soil temperature profile is essentially deformed due to heat emission by the aufeis layer of water at its freezing that forms a specific thermocline layer. Deformation of the temperature profile, gradually decreasing, moves down the cross-section and disappearing at the interface between frozen and thawed rocks. Magnitude and number of the temperature deviations from a «normal» state depends on the heat storage of the aufeis-forming waters and on the number of outflows at a given point. The thermocline formation changes conditions of freezing for underlying ground layers together with mechanism of ice saturation of them, and that results in formation of two-layer ice-ground complexes (IGC which differ drastically from cryogenic features in adjacent parts of the valley. Analysis of genetic characteristics and relation of components of the surface and subsurface layers allowed identification of seven types of the aufeis IGC: massive-segregation, cement-basal, layered-segregation, basal-segregation, vacuum-filtration, pressureinjection, and fissure-vein. Yearly formation and destruction of aufeises and subsurface ices is accompanied by a sequence of particularly hazardous geodynamical phenomena, among which the most important are winter flooding of territories, layered freezing of water, ground heaving, thermokarst, and thermoerosion. Combination of these processes may cause a rapid (often unexpected reconfiguration of channels of both surface and subsurface runoff, abrupt uplifts and subsidences of the surface, and decompaction and «shaking-up» of seasonally thawing and seasonally freezing rocks, which may create exceptionally unfavorable conditions for construction and operation of engineering structures. Aufeis plots

  19. Variability of snow depth at the plot scale: implications for mean depth estimation and sampling strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. López-Moreno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Snow depth variability over small distances can affect the representativeness of depth samples taken at the local scale, which are often used to assess the spatial distribution of snow at regional and basin scales. To assess spatial variability at the plot scale, intensive snow depth sampling was conducted during January and April 2009 in 15 plots in the Rio Ésera Valley, central Spanish Pyrenees Mountains. Each plot (10 × 10 m; 100 m2 was subdivided into a grid of 1 m2 squares; sampling at the corners of each square yielded a set of 121 data points that provided an accurate measure of snow depth in the plot (considered as ground truth. The spatial variability of snow depth was then assessed using sampling locations randomly selected within each plot. The plots were highly variable, with coefficients of variation up to 0.25. This indicates that to improve the representativeness of snow depth sampling in a given plot the snow depth measurements should be increased in number and averaged when spatial heterogeneity is substantial.

    Snow depth distributions were simulated at the same plot scale under varying levels of standard deviation and spatial autocorrelation, to enable the effect of each factor on snowpack representativeness to be established. The results showed that the snow depth estimation error increased markedly as the standard deviation increased. The results indicated that in general at least five snow depth measurements should be taken in each plot to ensure that the estimation error is <10 %; this applied even under highly heterogeneous conditions. In terms of the spatial configuration of the measurements, the sampling strategy did not impact on the snow depth estimate under lack of spatial autocorrelation. However, with a high spatial autocorrelation a smaller error was obtained when the distance between measurements was greater.

  20. FERMI/GLAST Integrated Trending and Plotting System Release 5.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sheila; Brumer, Haim; Reitan, Denise

    2012-01-01

    An Integrated Trending and Plotting System (ITPS) is a trending, analysis, and plotting system used by space missions to determine performance and status of spacecraft and its instruments. ITPS supports several NASA mission operational control centers providing engineers, ground controllers, and scientists with access to the entire spacecraft telemetry data archive for the life of the mission, and includes a secure Web component for remote access. FERMI/GLAST ITPS Release 5.0 features include the option to display dates (yyyy/ddd) instead of orbit numbers along orbital Long-Term Trend (LTT) plot axis, the ability to save statistics from daily production plots as image files, and removal of redundant edit/create Input Definition File (IDF) screens. Other features are a fix to address invalid packet lengths, a change in naming convention of image files in order to use in script, the ability to save all ITPS plot images (from Windows or the Web) as GIF or PNG format, the ability to specify ymin and ymax on plots where previously only the desired range could be specified, Web interface capability to plot IDFs that contain out-oforder page and plot numbers, and a fix to change all default file names to show yyyydddhhmmss time stamps instead of hhmmssdddyyyy. A Web interface capability sorts files based on modification date (with newest one at top), and the statistics block can be displayed via a Web interface. Via the Web, users can graphically view the volume of telemetry data from each day contained in the ITPS archive in the Web digest. The ITPS could be also used in nonspace fields that need to plot data or trend data, including financial and banking systems, aviation and transportation systems, healthcare and educational systems, sales and marketing, and housing and construction.

  1. Plot-, farm-, and watershed-scale effects of coffee cultivation in runoff and sediment production in western Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Scharrón, Carlos E; Figueroa-Sánchez, Yasiel

    2017-11-01

    The combination of a topographically abrupt wet-tropical setting with the high level of soil exposure that typifies many sun-grown coffee farms represents optimal conditions for high erosion rates. Although traditionally considered as a main cause for water resource degradation, limited empirical evidence has existed to document its true contribution. This study relies on plot-scale experimental results conducted in western Puerto Rico to assess the impact of cultivated surfaces and farm access roads on runoff and sediment production from the plot to the farm and watershed scales. Results show that unsurfaced and graveled road surfaces produce one- to two-orders of magnitude more per unit area runoff than cultivated lands. Similarly, erosion rates from unsurfaced roads are about 102 g m -2 per cm of rainfall and these are two-orders of magnitude greater than from actively cultivated surfaces. Mitigation practices such as uncompacting road surfaces by ripping and gravel application reduce onsite erosion rates to 0.6% and 8% of unsurfaced conditions, respectively. At the farm scale, coffee farms are estimated to produce sediment at a rate of 12-18 Mg ha -1 yr -1 , and roads are undoubtedly the dominant sediment source responsible for 59-95% of the total sediment produced. The costs associated to ameliorating erosion problems through road graveling are high. Therefore, a combined approach that treats road erosion onsite with one that traps sediment before it reaches river networks is the viable solution to this problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Visualization Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) Plot Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Julia A.

    1995-01-01

    The first Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument will be launched in 1997 to collect data on the Earth's radiation budget. The data retrieved from the satellite will be processed through twelve subsystems. The Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) plot generator software was written to assist scientists in the early stages of CERES data analysis, producing two-dimensional plots of the footprint radiation and cloud data generated by one of the subsystems. Until the satellite is launched, however, software developers need verification tools to check their code. This plot generator will aid programmers by geolocating algorithm result on a global map.

  3. Combas & Co. or the Figure and the Great Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Yaari

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The young painter, Robert Combas, leader of the 1980s "figuration libre" 'free figuration' movement, is seen here both as representative of stylistic and thematic trends in contemporary French art, and as illustrative, through the unfolding of his career, of the object "painting" and its sociology in contemporary France. Examined are: first, the "Postmodern convergence" of figurative, indeed narrative art, with the collapse of the "great divide" between elite and popular art forms; and second, traits such as hypertrophic verbal paratext, high erotic content, and political stand. Similar threads are followed in the work of a number of other artists, old and young, established or not, female and male—hence the "& Co." of the title. The essay raises, without claiming to solve, a set of sociologically and politically informed questions: What forces have shaped Combas' sensibility and style? What forces have made him a minor celebrity domestically, one that France's awesome cultural apparatus considers worthy of export? What, in the formation of contemporary mentalities and tastes, may account for the parallels found among artists as diverse as Combas, Quardon, Pierre and Gilles, Ben, and Klossowski?

  4. Responsible, Inclusive Innovation and the Nano-Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Doris; Dalton-Brown, Sally; Schrempf, Benjamin; Kaplan, David

    Policy makers from around the world are trying to emulate successful innovation systems in order to support economic growth. At the same time, innovation governance systems are being put in place to ensure a better integration of stakeholder views into the research and development process. In Europe, one of the most prominent and newly emerging governance frameworks is called Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI). This article aims to substantiate the following points: (1) The concept of RRI and the concept of justice can be used to derive similar ethical positions on the nano-divide. (2) Given the ambitious policy aims of RRI (e.g. economic competitiveness enhancer), the concept may be better suited to push for ethical outcomes on access to nanotechnology and its products rather than debates based on justice issues alone. It may thus serve as a mediator concept between those who push solely for competitiveness considerations and those who push solely for justice considerations in nano-technology debates. (3) The descriptive, non-normative Systems of Innovation approaches (see below) should be linked into RRI debates to provide more evidence on whether the approach advocated to achieve responsible and ethical governance of research and innovation (R&I) can indeed deliver on competitiveness (in nano-technology and other fields).

  5. Two-Volt Josephson Arbitrary Waveform Synthesizer Using Wilkinson Dividers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers-Jacobs, Nathan E.; Fox, Anna E.; Dresselhaus, Paul D.; Schwall, Robert E.; Benz, Samuel P.

    2016-01-01

    The root-mean-square (rms) output voltage of the NIST Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer (JAWS) has been doubled from 1 V to a record 2 V by combining two new 1 V chips on a cryocooler. This higher voltage will improve calibrations of ac thermal voltage converters and precision voltage measurements that require state-of-the-art quantum accuracy, stability, and signal-to-noise ratio. We achieved this increase in output voltage by using four on-chip Wilkinson dividers and eight inner-outer dc blocks, which enable biasing of eight Josephson junction (JJ) arrays with high-speed inputs from only four high-speed pulse generator channels. This approach halves the number of pulse generator channels required in future JAWS systems. We also implemented on-chip superconducting interconnects between JJ arrays, which reduces systematic errors and enables a new modular chip package. Finally, we demonstrate a new technique for measuring and visualizing the operating current range that reduces the measurement time by almost two orders of magnitude and reveals the relationship between distortion in the output spectrum and output pulse sequence errors. PMID:27453676

  6. Universal logic gates via liquid-electronic hybrid divider

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrated two-input microdroplet-based universal logic gates using a liquid-electronic hybrid divider. All 16 Boolean logic functions have been realized by manipulating the applied voltages. The novel platform consists of a microfluidic chip with integrated microdroplet detectors and external electronic components. The microdroplet detectors act as the communication media for fluidic and electronic information exchange. The presence or absence of microdroplets at the detector translates into the binary signal 1 or 0. The embedded micro-mechanical pneumatically actuated valve (PAV), fabricated using the well-developed multilayer soft lithography technique, offers biocompatibility, flexibility and accuracy for the on-chip realization of different logic functions. The microfluidic chip can be scaled up to construct large-scale microfluidic logic computation. On the other hand, the microfluidic chip with a specific logic function can be applied to droplet-based chemical reactions for on-demand bio or chemical analysis. Our experimental results have presented an autonomously driven, precision-controlled microfluidic chip for chemical reactions based on the IF logic function. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Divide-and-Conquer Hartree-Fock Calculations on Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to perform ab initio electronic structure calculations that scales linearly with the system size is one of the central aims in theoretical chemistry. In this study, the implementation of the divide-and-conquer (DC) algorithm, an algorithm with the potential to aid the achievement of true linear scaling within Hartree-Fock (HF) theory is revisited. Standard HF calculations solve the Roothaan-Hall equations for the whole system; in the DC-HF approach, the diagonalization of the Fock matrix is carried out on smaller subsystems. The DC algorithm for HF calculations was validated on polyglycines, polyalanines and eleven real three-dimensional proteins of up to 608 atoms in this work. We also found that a fragment-based initial guess using molecular fractionation with conjugated caps (MFCC) method significantly reduces the number of SCF cycles and even is capable of achieving convergence for some globular proteins where the simple superposition of atomic densities (SAD) initial guess fails. PMID:20401160

  8. Digital divide, biometeorological data infrastructures and human vulnerability definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdez-Arroyabe, Pablo; Lecha Estela, Luis; Schimt, Falko

    2017-06-01

    The design and implementation of any climate-related health service, nowadays, imply avoiding the digital divide as it means having access and being able to use complex technological devices, massive meteorological data, user's geographic location and biophysical information. This article presents the co-creation, in detail, of a biometeorological data infrastructure, which is a complex platform formed by multiple components: a mainframe, a biometeorological model called Pronbiomet, a relational database management system, data procedures, communication protocols, different software packages, users, datasets and a mobile application. The system produces four daily world maps of the partial density of the atmospheric oxygen and collects user feedback on their health condition. The infrastructure is shown to be a useful tool to delineate individual vulnerability to meteorological changes as one key factor in the definition of any biometeorological risk. This technological approach to study weather-related health impacts is the initial seed for the definition of biometeorological profiles of persons, and for the future development of customized climate services for users in the near future.

  9. Informaticiens Sans Frontieres: Helping to bridge the Digital Divide

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    ISF was formed as a CERN club during the World Summit for the Information Society, in Geneva, in 2003. Today we are involved in a number of international projects aimed to helping Africa bridge the Digital Divide, as well as using computing power (BOINCs) in the research against Malaria, or creating GRIDs that could allow African universities to join us in scientific research projects such as the LHC. Our latest project, named MANGO Net, is aimed at capacity building, by creating a network of computer assembly schools across the continent, which would form hardware and software technicians, create assembly centres, and lay the foundation for a future IT industry. ISF est né comme un club du CERN, en 2003, pendant le Sommet Mondiale de la Société de l'information à Genève. Aujourd'hui nous participons à plusieurs projets avec le but d'aider l'Afrique à reduire la Fracture Numérique, ou de fournir de la puissance de calcul (BOINC) à la recherche contre le Paludisme, ou en créant des GRIDs qui pourra...

  10. Digital divide, biometeorological data infrastructures and human vulnerability definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdez-Arroyabe, Pablo; Lecha Estela, Luis; Schimt, Falko

    2017-06-28

    The design and implementation of any climate-related health service, nowadays, imply avoiding the digital divide as it means having access and being able to use complex technological devices, massive meteorological data, user's geographic location and biophysical information. This article presents the co-creation, in detail, of a biometeorological data infrastructure, which is a complex platform formed by multiple components: a mainframe, a biometeorological model called Pronbiomet, a relational database management system, data procedures, communication protocols, different software packages, users, datasets and a mobile application. The system produces four daily world maps of the partial density of the atmospheric oxygen and collects user feedback on their health condition. The infrastructure is shown to be a useful tool to delineate individual vulnerability to meteorological changes as one key factor in the definition of any biometeorological risk. This technological approach to study weather-related health impacts is the initial seed for the definition of biometeorological profiles of persons, and for the future development of customized climate services for users in the near future.

  11. Movement Synchrony Forges Social Bonds Across Group Divides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar eTuncgenc

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Group dynamics play an important role in the social interactions of both children and adults. A large amount of research has shown that merely being allocated to arbitrarily defined groups can evoke disproportionately positive attitudes toward one’s in-group and negative attitudes toward out-groups, and that these biases emerge in early childhood. This prompts important empirical questions with far-reaching theoretical and applied significance. How robust are these inter-group biases? Can biases be mitigated by behaviors known to bond individuals and groups together? How can bonds be forged across existing group divides? To explore these questions, we examined the bonding effects of interpersonal synchrony on minimally constructed groups in a controlled experiment. In-group and out-group bonding were assessed using questionnaires administered before and after a task in which groups performed movements either synchronously or non-synchronously in a between-participants design. We also developed an implicit behavioral measure, the Island Game, in which physical proximity was used as an indirect measure of interpersonal closeness. Self-report and behavioral measures showed increased bonding between groups after synchronous movement. Bonding with the out-group was significantly higher in the condition in which movements were performed synchronously than when movements were performed non-synchronously between groups. The findings are discussed in terms of their importance for the developmental social psychology of group dynamics as well as their implications for applied intervention programs.

  12. Actin in dividing cells: contractile ring filaments bind heavy meromyosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, T E

    1973-06-01

    Many microfilaments and microtubules are well preserved after glycerol-extraction of HeLa cells at room temperature (22 degrees ). Incubation in heavy meromyosin from rabbit skeletal muscle results in conspicuous and characteristic "decoration" of microfilaments of the contractile ring. Decoration is completely prevented by 10 mM ATP or 2 mM pyrophosphate, and fails to occur if heavy meromyosin is either omitted or replaced by egg albumin, a nonspecific protein. Decorated microfilaments have a substructure consisting of polarized, repeating arrowheads 27-35 nm apart. The specificity of these results strongly suggests that microfilaments of the contractile ring in HeLa cells are closely related to muscle actin. Very thin undecorated strands among the microfilaments of the contractile ring possibly represent a myosin component. These findings are discussed in terms of: the actomyosin-like properties of the contractile ring as a mechanochemical organelle that causes cell cleavage; the probable universal occurrence of actin-like protein in all dividing animal cells; and the contractile ring's combined sensitivity to cytochalasin B and its affinity for heavy meromyosin, a combination unique among microfilamentous organelles.

  13. Does fish ecology predict dispersal across a river drainage divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Christopher P; Craw, Dave; Jack, Daniel C; King, Tania M; Waters, Jonathan M

    2008-06-01

    Obligate freshwater taxa are frequently distributed among catchments isolated by marine and terrestrial barriers. Such distributions can arise through vicariant changes in drainage geometry, or dispersal via intermittent freshwater connections. We employed two adjacent rivers in southern New Zealand to test for interdrainage dispersal while controlling for historical drainage geometry, and analyzed four ecologically distinct freshwater-limited fish taxa to assess any relationship with habitat preference. Individuals from the Mararoa and Oreti catchments (n >100 per species) were sequenced for a minimum of 1297 bp of mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b and control region). Phylogeographic relationships were consistent with ecological expectations of interdrainage dispersal capability, with the two obligate riverine taxa each exhibiting reciprocal monophyly between catchments, whereas the two facultative swamp dwellers revealed paraphyletic relationships, one of which shared a haplotype between catchments. Statistical phylogeography, accommodating taxon-specific mutation rates and the known age of the last major riverine connection between these catchments, rejected complete isolation of populations for one of the swamp dwellers. Therefore, dispersal across a young (145-240 kyr) drainage divide is inferred for one species, and can be predicted to some extent by species ecology. Moreover, our study highlights the importance of historical drainage geometry when assessing the causes of contemporary genetic structuring in freshwater taxa.

  14. The Digital Divide in Romania – A Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela BORISOV

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The digital divide is a subject of major importance in the current economic circumstances in which Information and Communication Technologies (ICT are seen as a significant determinant of increasing the domestic competitiveness and contribute to better life quality. Latest international reports regarding various aspects of ICT usage in modern society reveal a decrease of overall digital disparity towards the average trends of the worldwide ITC’s sector – this relates to latest advances of mobile and computer penetration rates, both for personal use and for households/ business. In Romania, the low starting point in the development of economy and society in the ICT direction was, in some extent, compensated by the rapid annual growth of the last decade. Even with these dynamic developments, the statistical data still indicate poor positions in European Union hierarchy; in this respect, the prospects of a rapid recovery of the low performance of the Romanian ICT endowment and usage and the issue continue to be regarded as a challenge for progress in economic and societal terms. The paper presents several methods for assessing the current state of ICT related aspects in terms of Internet usage based on the latest data provided by international databases. The current position of Romanian economy is judged according to several economy using statistical methods based on variability measurements: the descriptive statistics indicators, static measures of disparities and distance metrics.

  15. Physical properties of the WAIS Divide ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Joan J.; Voigt, Donald E.; Fegyveresi, John M.; Stevens, Nathan T.; Spencer, Matthew K.; Cole-Dai, Jihong; Alley, Richard B.; Jardine, Gabriella E.; Cravens, Eric; Wilen, Lawrence A.; Fudge, T. J.; McConnell, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    The WAIS (West Antarctic Ice Sheet) Divide deep ice core was recently completed to a total depth of 3405 m, ending ∼50 m above the bed. Investigation of the visual stratigraphy and grain characteristics indicates that the ice column at the drilling location is undisturbed by any large-scale overturning or discontinuity. The climate record developed from this core is therefore likely to be continuous and robust. Measured grain-growth rates, recrystallization characteristics, and grain-size response at climate transitions fit within current understanding. Significant impurity control on grain size is indicated from correlation analysis between impurity loading and grain size. Bubble-number densities and bubble sizes and shapes are presented through the full extent of the bubbly ice. Where bubble elongation is observed, the direction of elongation is preferentially parallel to the trace of the basal (0001) plane. Preferred crystallographic orientation of grains is present in the shallowest samples measured, and increases with depth, progressing to a vertical-girdle pattern that tightens to a vertical single-maximum fabric. This single-maximum fabric switches into multiple maxima as the grain size increases rapidly in the deepest, warmest ice. A strong dependence of the fabric on the impurity-mediated grain size is apparent in the deepest samples.

  16. Finding Effective Responses Against Cyber Attacks for Divided Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Force ROKS Republic of Korea Ship RTDS Real-Time Track Display System SAM Surface to Air Missile SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition SSAC...Regular inspections of vulnerabilities and timely applications of update 7 patches are important to mitigate this kind of attack. Note that...to bypass South Korean domestic 36 antivirus software, using its updated server to spread their malware (HP Security Research, 2014). The March 13

  17. Drivers of Plot-Scale Variability of CH4 Consumption in a Well-Aerated Pine Forest Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Maier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available While differences in greenhouse gas (GHG fluxes between ecosystems can be explained to a certain degree, variability of the same at the plot scale is still challenging. We investigated the spatial variability in soil-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O to find out what drives spatial variability on the plot scale. Measurements were carried out in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. forest in a former floodplain on a 250 m2 plot, divided in homogenous strata of vegetation and soil texture. Soil gas fluxes were measured consecutively at 60 points along transects to cover the spatial variability. One permanent chamber was measured repeatedly to monitor temporal changes to soil gas fluxes. The observed patterns at this control chamber were used to standardize the gas fluxes to disentangle temporal variability from the spatial variability of measured GHG fluxes. Concurrent measurements of soil gas diffusivity allowed deriving in situ methanotrophic activity from the CH4 flux measurements. The soil emitted CO2 and consumed CH4 and N2O. Significantly different fluxes of CH4 and CO2 were found for the different soil-vegetation strata, but not for N2O. Soil CH4 consumption increased with soil gas diffusivity within similar strata supporting the hypothesis that CH4 consumption by soils is limited by the supply with atmospheric CH4. Methane consumption in the vegetation strata with dominant silty texture was higher at a given soil gas diffusivity than in the strata with sandy texture. The same pattern was observed for methanotrophic activity, indicating better habitats for methantrophs in silt. Methane consumption increased with soil respiration in all strata. Similarly, methanotrophic activity increased with soil respiration when the individual measurement locations were categorized into silt and sand based on the dominant soil texture, irrespective of the vegetation stratum. Thus, we suggest the rhizosphere and

  18. Optimal plot size in the evaluation of papaya scions: proposal and comparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Felipe Celanti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Evaluating the quality of scions is extremely important and it can be done by characteristics of shoots and roots. This experiment evaluated height of the aerial part, stem diameter, number of leaves, petiole length and length of roots of papaya seedlings. Analyses were performed from a blank trial with 240 seedlings of "Golden Pecíolo Curto". The determination of the optimum plot size was done by applying the methods of maximum curvature, maximum curvature of coefficient of variation and a new proposed method, which incorporates the bootstrap resampling simulation to the maximum curvature method. According to the results obtained, five is the optimal number of seedlings of papaya "Golden Pecíolo Curto" per plot. The proposed method of bootstrap simulation with replacement provides optimal plot sizes equal or higher than the maximum curvature method and provides same plot size than maximum curvature method of the coefficient of variation.

  19. Technical note: A significance test for data-sparse zones in scatter plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vetrova

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Data-sparse zones in scatter plots of hydrological variables can be of interest in various contexts. For example, a well-defined data-sparse zone may indicate inhibition of one variable by another. It is of interest therefore to determine whether data-sparse regions in scatter plots are of sufficient extent to be beyond random chance. We consider the specific situation of data-sparse regions defined by a linear internal boundary within a scatter plot defined over a rectangular region. An Excel VBA macro is provided for carrying out a randomisation-based significance test of the data-sparse region, taking into account both the within-region number of data points and the extent of the region. Example applications are given with respect to a rainfall time series from Israel and also to validation scatter plots from a seasonal forecasting model for lake inflows in New Zealand.

  20. Behavior of QQ-plots and genomic control in studies of gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorman, Arend; Lumley, Thomas; McKnight, Barbara; Rice, Kenneth

    2011-05-12

    Genome-wide association studies of gene-environment interaction (GxE GWAS) are becoming popular. As with main effects GWAS, quantile-quantile plots (QQ-plots) and Genomic Control are being used to assess and correct for population substructure. However, in G x E work these approaches can be seriously misleading, as we illustrate; QQ-plots may give strong indications of substructure when absolutely none is present. Using simulation and theory, we show how and why spurious QQ-plot inflation occurs in G x E GWAS, and how this differs from main-effects analyses. We also explain how simple adjustments to standard regression-based methods used in G x E GWAS can alleviate this problem.

  1. Volcano plots in analyzing differential expressions with mRNA microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentian

    2012-12-01

    A volcano plot displays unstandardized signal (e.g. log-fold-change) against noise-adjusted/standardized signal (e.g. t-statistic or -log(10)(p-value) from the t-test). We review the basic and interactive use of the volcano plot and its crucial role in understanding the regularized t-statistic. The joint filtering gene selection criterion based on regularized statistics has a curved discriminant line in the volcano plot, as compared to the two perpendicular lines for the "double filtering" criterion. This review attempts to provide a unifying framework for discussions on alternative measures of differential expression, improved methods for estimating variance, and visual display of a microarray analysis result. We also discuss the possibility of applying volcano plots to other fields beyond microarray.

  2. Pre-ABoVE: Arctic Vegetation Plots in Flux Tower Footprints, North Slope Alaska, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides vegetation, environmental, and soil data collected from plots located in the footprints of eddy covariance flux towers along a 300 km...

  3. Pre-ABoVE: Arctic Vegetation Plots, Willow Communities, North Slope, Alaska, 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides environmental, soil, and vegetation data collected in July and August 1997 from 85 study plots in willow shrub communities located along a...

  4. Pre-ABoVE: Arctic Vegetation Plots near Spine Road, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset provides environmental, soil, and vegetation data collected from study plots in the vicinity of Lake Colleen off the Spine Road at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska,...

  5. Simkin et al. 2016 PNAS data on herbaceous species richness and associated plot and covariate information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes the geographic location (lat/lon) for 15,136 plots, as well as the herbaceous species richness, climate, soil pH, and other variables related...

  6. User's manual for THPLOT, A FORTRAN 77 Computer program for time history plotting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    A general purpose FORTRAN 77 computer program (THPLOT) for plotting time histories using Calcomp pen plotters is described. The program is designed to read a time history data file and to generate time history plots for selected time intervals and/or selected data channels. The capabilities of the program are described. The card input required to define the plotting operation is described and examples of card input and the resulting plotted output are given. The examples are followed by a description of the printed output, including both normal output and error messages. Lastly, implementation of the program is described. A complete listing of the program with reference maps produced by the CDC FTN 5.0 compiler is included.

  7. Pre-ABoVE: Arctic Vegetation Plots at Arrigetch Peaks, Alaska, 1978-1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides environmental and vegetation data collected between 1978 and 1981 from 439 study plots at Arrigetch Peaks research site, located in the Gates...

  8. Ionospheric Values (Daily Work Sheets), F-Plots, Tabulations, Booklets, Catalogs, and Log Books

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These ionospheric data consist of scaling notes, equipment usage logs, and ionospheric values in the form of daily work sheets, F-Plots, tabulations, and booklets....

  9. Enhancement to the Tektronix PLOT-10 Terminal Control System for creation of graphics metafiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    Many data handling and analysis codes at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) use the Tektronix PLOT-10 Terminal Control System to graphically display data upon Tektronix or Tektronix-emulating graphics devices. Prior to the development of the software libraries and postprocessors discussed within this report, ORNL users were limited to the type of hardcopy output obtainable from the Tektronix PLOT-10 software library. Only Tektronix graphics devices are supported by the PLOT-10 library. The graphics library presented here eliminates this restriction by implementing a suite of software that optionally creates a graphics metafile within the user's disk area while simultaneously drawing a display image on the screen of a user's Tektronix terminal. This graphics metafile can then be postprocessed onto any of the graphics devices at ORNL via the ORNL PLOT command

  10. Behavior of QQ-plots and genomic control in studies of gene-environment interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arend Voorman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies of gene-environment interaction (GxE GWAS are becoming popular. As with main effects GWAS, quantile-quantile plots (QQ-plots and Genomic Control are being used to assess and correct for population substructure. However, in G x E work these approaches can be seriously misleading, as we illustrate; QQ-plots may give strong indications of substructure when absolutely none is present. Using simulation and theory, we show how and why spurious QQ-plot inflation occurs in G x E GWAS, and how this differs from main-effects analyses. We also explain how simple adjustments to standard regression-based methods used in G x E GWAS can alleviate this problem.

  11. Pre-ABoVE: Arctic Vegetation Plots, IBP Tundra Biome, Barrow, Alaska, 1972-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides vegetation cover and environmental plot data collected as part of the International Biological Program (IBP), U. S. Tundra Biome Program, in...

  12. Pre-ABoVE: Arctic Vegetation Plots, Burned and Unburned Tundra, Alaska, 2011-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset provides environmental and vegetation data collected in late June and July of 2011 and of 2012 from study plots located in tundra fire scars and...

  13. Flyby Error Analysis Based on Contour Plots for the Cassini Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, P. W.; Gist, E. M.; Goodson, T. D.; Hahn, Y.; Wagner, S. V.; Williams, P. N.

    2008-01-01

    The maneuver cancellation analysis consists of cost contour plots employed by the Cassini maneuver team. The plots are two-dimensional linear representations of a larger six-dimensional solution to a multi-maneuver, multi-encounter mission at Saturn. By using contours plotted with the dot product of vectors B and R and the dot product of vectors B and T components, it is possible to view the effects delta V on for various encounter positions in the B-plane. The plot is used in operations to help determine if the Approach Maneuver (ensuing encounter minus three days) and/or the Cleanup Maneuver (ensuing encounter plus three days) can be cancelled and also is a linear check of an integrated solution.

  14. Pre-ABoVE: Arctic Vegetation Plots, Oumalik, Alaska, 1983-1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides environmental, soil, and vegetation data collected between 1983 and 1985 from 87 study plots near an abandoned test oil well in Oumalik,...

  15. Pre-ABoVE: Arctic Vegetation Plots at Nome, Alaska, 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides environmental, soil, and vegetation data collected in July and August 1951 from 80 study plots in the Nome River Valley about 10 miles...

  16. Pre-ABoVE: Arctic Vegetation Plots at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, 1973-1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides environmental, soil, and vegetation data collected between 1973 and 1980 from 89 study plots in the Prudhoe Bay region of Alaska. Data...

  17. Pre-ABoVE: Arctic Vegetation Plots at Toolik Lake, Alaska, 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides environmental, soil, and vegetation data collected in August 1989 from 81 study plots at the Toolik Lake research site, located in the...

  18. Pre-ABoVE: Arctic Vegetation Plots at Imnavait Creek, Alaska, 1984-1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides environmental, soil, and vegetation data collected during the periods of August 1984 and August-September 1985 from 84 study plots at the...

  19. Pre-ABoVE: Arctic Vegetation Plots at Happy Valley, Alaska, 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides environmental, soil, and vegetation data collected in July 1994 from 56 study plots at the Happy Valley research site, located along the...

  20. Technical note: A significance test for data-sparse zones in scatter plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrova, V. V.; Bardsley, W. E.

    2012-04-01

    Data-sparse zones in scatter plots of hydrological variables can be of interest in various contexts. For example, a well-defined data-sparse zone may indicate inhibition of one variable by another. It is of interest therefore to determine whether data-sparse regions in scatter plots are of sufficient extent to be beyond random chance. We consider the specific situation of data-sparse regions defined by a linear internal boundary within a scatter plot defined over a rectangular region. An Excel VBA macro is provided for carrying out a randomisation-based significance test of the data-sparse region, taking into account both the within-region number of data points and the extent of the region. Example applications are given with respect to a rainfall time series from Israel and also to validation scatter plots from a seasonal forecasting model for lake inflows in New Zealand.

  1. BRIDGING THE KNOWLEDGE DIVIDE Educational Technology for Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Ozlem OZAN,

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available BRIDGING THE KNOWLEDGE DIVIDEEducational Technology for DevelopmentMarshall,S., Kinuthia, W. & Wallace Taylor., Ed.D.; Information Age Publishing, Charlotte, NC, SBN: 978-1-60752-109-9, p.433, 2009Reviewed by Ozlem OZANFaculty of EducationEskişehir Osmangazi UniversityEskisehir, TURKEYThe concept of a knowledge divide is used to describe the gap in living conditions between those who can find, manage and process information or knowledge, and those who are impaired in this, for one reason or another. In the 21st century, the emergence of the knowledge society becomes pervasive hence the information and ICT systems that support knowledge are very important.This book discusses how educational technology can be used to transform education and assist developing communities to close the knowledge divide. Its broader audience is anyone who is interested in educational technology for development. In the book you can find best practices and case studies especially from countries in Africa.The book is edited by Stewart Marshall, Wanjira Kinuthia, Wallace Taylor. Professor Stewart Marshall, PhD, is the director of the Academic Division of the University of the West Indies Open Campus (UWIOC and holds the UNESCO Chair in Educational Technologies.Dr. Wanjira Kinuthia is assistant professor of Learning Technologies at Georgia State University. She works as an instructional designer in higher education and business and industry for several years. Professor Wallace Taylor, PhD, is a founding director of The Information Society Institute (TISI, a non-profit academic, research, and policy development organization based in South Africa.The book is consisted of 433 pages (+xxxv covering 24 articles divided into four sections and provides information about flexible learning for empowerment, managing and communicating knowledge, flexible delivery in higher education and preparing teacher using flexible approaches.Topics covered in the book are as follows

  2. Digital divide and body size disparities among Chinese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chien Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT in China has increased people's sedentary behavior and raised a number of related issues. ICT screen-viewing activities are increasingly considered to contribute to obesity, and sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, income, age, education, and geographical location seem to magnify the digital divide. Objective: This study first examines dissimilar stages of ICT transition, and then establishes how ICT screen-viewing activities relate to the Chinese obesity epidemic. Finally, this study assesses whether unequal access to digital resources and technology by geographic location and gender reinforces existing obesity disparities in China. Methods: This study uses longitudinal data drawn from 10,616 households and 17,377 person-years of those aged 18-55 who participated in the 2006, 2009, and 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS. Fixed effect linear regression models capture the link between ICT screen-viewing activities and body mass index (BMI. Results: The results show that while between 91.37Š and 96.70Š of individuals had access to televisions during 2006-2011, there is a significant disparity in terms of Internet activity by gender and geographical location. The results show that Internet use could decrease a rural women's BMI by .87 kg/m2, while playing computer games could increase a rural man's BMI by .42 kg/m2. Contribution: This study highlights that unequal access to digital resources and technology might reinforce existing obesity disparities in China.

  3. Robustness of synthetic oscillators in growing and dividing cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paijmans, Joris; Lubensky, David K.; Rein ten Wolde, Pieter

    2017-05-01

    Synthetic biology sets out to implement new functions in cells, and to develop a deeper understanding of biological design principles. Elowitz and Leibler [Nature (London) 403, 335 (2000), 10.1038/35002125] showed that by rational design of the reaction network, and using existing biological components, they could create a network that exhibits periodic gene expression, dubbed the repressilator. More recently, Stricker et al. [Nature (London) 456, 516 (2008), 10.1038/nature07389] presented another synthetic oscillator, called the dual-feedback oscillator, which is more stable. Detailed studies have been carried out to determine how the stability of these oscillators is affected by the intrinsic noise of the interactions between the components and the stochastic expression of their genes. However, as all biological oscillators reside in growing and dividing cells, an important question is how these oscillators are perturbed by the cell cycle. In previous work we showed that the periodic doubling of the gene copy numbers due to DNA replication can couple not only natural, circadian oscillators to the cell cycle [Paijmans et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 113, 4063 (2016), 10.1073/pnas.1507291113], but also these synthetic oscillators. Here we expand this study. We find that the strength of the locking between oscillators depends not only on the positions of the genes on the chromosome, but also on the noise in the timing of gene replication: noise tends to weaken the coupling. Yet, even in the limit of high levels of noise in the replication times of the genes, both synthetic oscillators show clear signatures of locking to the cell cycle. This work enhances our understanding of the design of robust biological oscillators inside growing and diving cells.

  4. INPREP: Interactive Plotting and REPorting manual. Report for August 1987-July 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erinle, O.; Chandrasekharan, S.; Basu, S.

    1989-07-01

    The INteractive Plotting and REporting Program (INPREP) was developed to make the old PREP post-processing program easier for the researcher to use. INPREP is a menu-driven program that allows the user to produce time-history plots and generate output reports for Federal Highway Administration computer-simulation programs. The report serves as a stand-alone manual for the INPREP program and as an addendum to the old PREP manual.

  5. 36 CFR 9.42 - Well records and reports, plots and maps, samples, tests and surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Well records and reports, plots and maps, samples, tests and surveys. 9.42 Section 9.42 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.42 Well records and reports, plots and maps,...

  6. An automatized frequency analysis for vine plot detection and delineation in remote sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Delenne , Carole; Rabatel , G.; Deshayes , M.

    2008-01-01

    The availability of an automatic tool for vine plot detection, delineation, and characterization would be very useful for management purposes. An automatic and recursive process using frequency analysis (with Fourier transform and Gabor filters) has been developed to meet this need. This results in the determination of vine plot boundary and accurate estimation of interrow width and row orientation. To foster large-scale applications, tests and validation have been carried out on standard ver...

  7. Checking the Adequacy of Fit of Models from Split-Plot Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almini, A. A.; Kulahci, Murat; Montgomery, D. C.

    2009-01-01

    One of the main features that distinguish split-plot experiments from other experiments is that they involve two types of experimental errors: the whole-plot (WP) error and the subplot (SP) error. Taking this into consideration is very important when computing measures of adequacy of fit for split......-plot models. In this article, we propose the computation of two R-2, R-2-adjusted, prediction error sums of squares (PRESS), and R-2-prediction statistics to measure the adequacy of fit for the WP and the SP submodels in a split-plot design. This is complemented with the graphical analysis of the two types...... of errors to check for any violation of the underlying assumptions and the adequacy of fit of split-plot models. Using examples, we show how computing two measures of model adequacy of fit for each split-plot design model is appropriate and useful as they reveal whether the correct WP and SP effects have...

  8. Standardized mean differences cause funnel plot distortion in publication bias assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwetsloot, Peter-Paul; Van Der Naald, Mira; Sena, Emily S; Howells, David W; IntHout, Joanna; De Groot, Joris Ah; Chamuleau, Steven Aj; MacLeod, Malcolm R; Wever, Kimberley E

    2017-09-08

    Meta-analyses are increasingly used for synthesis of evidence from biomedical research, and often include an assessment of publication bias based on visual or analytical detection of asymmetry in funnel plots. We studied the influence of different normalisation approaches, sample size and intervention effects on funnel plot asymmetry, using empirical datasets and illustrative simulations. We found that funnel plots of the Standardized Mean Difference (SMD) plotted against the standard error (SE) are susceptible to distortion, leading to overestimation of the existence and extent of publication bias. Distortion was more severe when the primary studies had a small sample size and when an intervention effect was present. We show that using the Normalised Mean Difference measure as effect size (when possible), or plotting the SMD against a sample size-based precision estimate, are more reliable alternatives. We conclude that funnel plots using the SMD in combination with the SE are unsuitable for publication bias assessments and can lead to false-positive results.

  9. Similarity-dissimilarity plot for visualization of high dimensional data in biomedical pattern classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Muhammad

    2012-06-01

    In pattern classification problems, feature extraction is an important step. Quality of features in discriminating different classes plays an important role in pattern classification problems. In real life, pattern classification may require high dimensional feature space and it is impossible to visualize the feature space if the dimension of feature space is greater than four. In this paper, we have proposed a Similarity-Dissimilarity plot which can project high dimensional space to a two dimensional space while retaining important characteristics required to assess the discrimination quality of the features. Similarity-dissimilarity plot can reveal information about the amount of overlap of features of different classes. Separable data points of different classes will also be visible on the plot which can be classified correctly using appropriate classifier. Hence, approximate classification accuracy can be predicted. Moreover, it is possible to know about whom class the misclassified data points will be confused by the classifier. Outlier data points can also be located on the similarity-dissimilarity plot. Various examples of synthetic data are used to highlight important characteristics of the proposed plot. Some real life examples from biomedical data are also used for the analysis. The proposed plot is independent of number of dimensions of the feature space.

  10. Using Radar Plots to Demonstrate the Accuracy and Precision of 6 Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Scott; Dunne, Nancy; Simmons, David A

    2017-09-01

    Previously, fingertip capillary blood glucose measurements from the CONTOUR ® NEXT (CN) blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) and 5 other BGMSs were evaluated in comparison with measurements from a reference YSI glucose analyzer. Here, we use Radar Plots to graphically represent the accuracy and precision results from the previous study, including whether they met ISO 15197:2013 accuracy criteria. A Radar Plot, a new method for capturing a distinct, single visualization of BGMS analytical performance, is a collection of concentric circles, each representing a particular magnitude of error. The center of the plot represents zero error (BGMS result is equivalent to reference result); as points are more distant from the center, the error increases, expressed in units of mg/dL or percentage for YSI values data point above or below the horizontal line bisecting the plot indicates whether the BGMS measurement error was positive (BGMS result > YSI result) or negative (BGMS result Radar Plots provide a different method for visually comparing the analytical performance of multiple BGMSs. The tight clustering of data points at the center of the CN Radar Plot illustrates the analytical performance of CN compared with 5 other BGMSs.

  11. SCALPLO - a universal program for plotting flux output from SCALE modules and related programs. User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersman, A.; Leege, P.F.A. de; Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1992-04-01

    The FORTRAN-77 program SCALPLO is being developed to make an easy and quick graphic survey of flux and/or power data calculated with SCALE modules or other core calculation or shielding codes. The basic plot functions it can perform are one- and two-dimensional plots of flux or power distributions and flux energy spectra. More specifically it can produce plots of the flux distribution in a one-dimensional geometry for one or more energy groups in one figure. It can also plot the flux distribution along a cut through a two- or three-dimensional geometry along one of the coordinate axes and it can plot a two-dimensional view of the flux distribution of a two-dimensional geometry or of a plane cut through a three-dimensional geometry. The same can be done for the power distribution in a system. Furthermore SCALPLO can plot the particle flux spectrum as a function of energy, either as group fluxes or as group fluxes per unit energy or per unit lethargy. (orig./HP)

  12. Health literacy and the digital divide among older Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Helen; Janke, Alexander T; Langa, Kenneth M

    2015-03-01

    digital divide.

  13. Bridging the divide between genomic science and indigenous peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bette; Roffenbender, Jason; Collmann, Jeff; Cherry, Kate; Bitsói, LeManuel Lee; Bassett, Kim; Evans, Charles H

    2010-01-01

    definition of "rigorous scientific research," one that includes both community development and scientific progress as legitimate objectives of genomic research. Innovative translational research is needed to develop practical, mutually acceptable methods for crossing the divide between genomic researchers and indigenous communities. This may mean the difference between success and failure in genomic science, and in improving health for all peoples. © 2010 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  14. Distributed modeling of radiocesium washoff from the experimental watershed plots of the Fukushima fallout zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivva, Sergei; Zheleznyak, Mark; Konoplev, Alexei; Nanba, Kenji; Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama Yoshifumi Wakiyama, Yoshifumi

    2015-04-01

    The distributed hydrological "rainfall- runoff" models provide possibilities of the physically based simulation of surface and subsurface flow on watersheds based on the GIS processed data. The success of such modeling approaches for the predictions of the runoff and soil erosion provides a basis for the implementation of the distributed models of the radionuclide washoff from the watersheds. The field studies provided on the Chernobyl and Fukushima catchments provides a unique data sets for the comparative testing and improvements of the modeling tools for the watersheds located in the areas of the very different geographical and hydro-meteorological condition The set of USLE experimental plots has been established by CRIED, University of Tsukuba after the Fukushima accident to study soil erosion and 137Cs wash off from the watersheds (Onda et al, 2014). The distributed watershed models of surface and subsurface flow, sediment and radionuclide transport has been used to simulate the radionuclide transport in the basin Dnieper River, Ukraine and the watersheds of Prefecture Fuksuhima. DHSVM-R is extension of the distributed hydrological model DHSVM (Lettenmayer, Wigmosta et al, 1996-2014) by the including into it the module of the watershed radionuclide transport. DHSVM is a physically based, distributed hydrology-vegetation model for complex terrain based on the numerical solution of the network of one-dimensional equations. The surface flow submodel of DHSMV has been modified: four-directions schematization for the model's cells has been replaced by the eight-directions scheme, more numerically efficient finite -differences scheme was implemented. The new module of radionuclide wash-off from catchment and transport via stream network in soluble phase and on suspended sediments including bottom-water exchange processes was developed for DHSMV-R. DHSVM-R was implemented recently within Swedish- Ukrainian ENSURE project for the modeling of 234U wash-off from the

  15. Characteristics of Gaseous Carbon Emission from a Tropical Peatland Fire: A Plot-Scale Field Experiment in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Y.; Darung, U.; Limin, S. H.; Hatano, R.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical peatland in Southeast Asia is a vast reservoir of terrestrial carbon, which covers 24.8 million hectares and stores 68.5 PgC peat, equal to 11-14% of global peat carbon. In recent decades, large scale peatland fire has occurred frequently in that region, in which many areas of peatland were reclaimed with intention to use the land for forest plantation and rice paddy. We conducted a plot-scale peat burning experiment to elucidate the characteristics of gaseous carbon emission from a tropical peatland fire at the ground level. The experimental site was established at an open area 20 km southeast from Palangka Raya, Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. The size of the burning plot is 4 m in length and 3 m in width. Gas samples were collected at heights of 1.0, 0.5, 0.0 (aboveground), -0.1 and -0.2 m (belowground) through stainless steel and/or aluminum tubes settled across the edge of the plot. The concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and particulate matter (PM) was determined. Soil temperature was recorded every 10 minutes 0.1 and 0.2 m below the ground surface. Twelve iron rods were installed in 1-m by 1-m square grid to determine the depth of burn scar. After ignition, flaming stage of peat burning was ceased within 1-2 hours. The following smoldering stage continued for a week. In the flaming stage, soil temperature at -0.1 m increased tentatively. After the smoldering stage began, the temperature rapidly increased to 350-450°C. Response of soil temperature at -0.2 m was less prominent. Concentrations of gaseous components became maximal in the flaming stage. During the smoldering stage, the concentrations gradually decreased. The influence of burning on CO2 and PM was prominently remained at -0.1 m, whereas those at -0.2 m were not so much. The averaged burnt depth was 5.8±5.1 cm. Based on bulk density of 0.22 g/cm3 and carbon content of 55.5%, the amount of carbon lost from the plot was 85.3 kg. Most of the

  16. Spectroscopic measurements with a silicon drift detector having a continuous implanted drift cathode-voltage divider

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvicini, V; D'Acunto, L; Franck, D; Gregorio, A; Pihet, P; Rashevsky, A; Vacchi, A; Vinogradov, L I; Zampa, N

    2000-01-01

    A silicon drift detector (SDD) prototype where the drift electrode also plays the role of a high-voltage divider has been realised and characterised for spectroscopic applications at near-room temperatures. Among the advantages of this design, is the absence of metal on the sensitive surface which makes this detector interesting for soft X-rays. The detector prototype has a large sensitive area (2x130 mm sup 2) and the charge is collected by two anodes (butterfly-like detector). The energy resolution of a such a detector has been investigated at near-room temperatures using a commercial, hybrid, low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier. The results obtained for the X-ray lines from sup 5 sup 5 Fe and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am are presented.

  17. Organelle-based aggregation and retention of damaged proteins in asymmetrically dividing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuankai; Slaughter, Brian D; Unruh, Jay R; Guo, Fengli; Yu, Zulin; Mickey, Kristen; Narkar, Akshay; Ross, Rhonda Trimble; McClain, Melainia; Li, Rong

    2014-10-23

    Aggregation of damaged or misfolded proteins is a protective mechanism against proteotoxic stress, abnormalities of which underlie many aging-related diseases. Here, we show that in asymmetrically dividing yeast cells, aggregation of cytosolic misfolded proteins does not occur spontaneously but requires new polypeptide synthesis and is restricted to the surface of ER, which harbors the majority of active translation sites. Protein aggregates formed on ER are frequently also associated with or are later captured by mitochondria, greatly constraining aggregate mobility. During mitosis, aggregates are tethered to well-anchored maternal mitochondria, whereas mitochondria acquired by the bud are largely free of aggregates. Disruption of aggregate-mitochondria association resulted in increased mobility and leakage of mother-accumulated aggregates into the bud. Cells with advanced replicative age exhibit gradual decline of aggregates-mitochondria association, likely contributing to their diminished ability to rejuvenate through asymmetric cell division.

  18. Plot 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Hermansen, Anne-Mette; Ferdinand, Trine

    Her møder eleven både den klassiske litteratur og de helt nye tekster. Nye medieformer giver særlige oplevelsesmuligheder og har anderledes sprogformer. Eleverne møder det hele. De skal arbejde med tekster, som udfordrer dem både sprogligt og intellektuelt, og som rummer den store variation, der ...

  19. The scale effect on soil erosion. A plot approach to understand connectivity on slopes under cultivation at variable plot sizes and under Mediterranean climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Bagarello, Vicenzo; Ferro, Vito; Iovino, Massimo; Borja, Manuel Estaban Lucas; Francisco Martínez Murillo, Juan; González Camarena, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that soil erosion changes along time and seasons and attention was paid to this issue in the past (González Hidalgo et al., 2010; 2012). However, although the scientific community knows that soil erosion is also a time spatial scale-scale dependent process (Parsons et al., 1990; Cerdà et al., 2009; González Hidalgo et al., 2013; Sadeghi et al., 2015) very little is done on this topic. This is due to the fact that at different scales, different soil erosion mechanisms (splash, sheetflow, rill development) are active and their rates change with the scale of measurement (Wainwright et al., 2002; López-Vicente et al., 2015). This is making the research on soil erosion complex and difficult, and it is necessary to develop a conceptual framework but also measurements that will inform about the soil erosion behaviour. Connectivity is the key concept to understand how changes in the scale results in different rates of soil and water losses (Parsons et al., 1996; Parsons et al., 2015; Poeppl et al., 2016). Most of the research developed around the connectivity concept was applied in watershed or basin scales (Galdino et al., 2016; Martínez-Casasnovas et al., 2016; López Vicente et al., 2016; Marchamalo et al., 2015; Masselink et al., 2016), but very little is known about the connectivity issue at slope scale (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011). El Teularet (Eastern Iberian Peninsula) and Sparacia (Sicily) soil erosion experimental stations are being active for 15 years and data collected on different plots sizes can shed light into the effect of scale on runoff generation and soil losses at different scales and give information to understand how the transport of materials is determined by the connectivity between pedon to slope scale (Cerdà et al., 2014; Bagarello et al., 2015a; 2015b). The comparison of the results of the two research stations will shed light into the rates of soil erosion and mechanisms involved that act under different scales. Our

  20. Incomplete split-plots in designs with many entries – a compromise between split-plots and randomized complete block designs

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The paper shows how the Alpha-design (also known as generalised lattice) may be used for constructing incomplete split-plot designs and describes 4 different methods (A, B, C and D) of construction. Intra-block efficiency factors and theoretical considerations are used to compare the methods. Based on those considerations method B was considered to be the most appropriate method for trials where tests for interaction between the two factors were important and thus this method was used and mos...

  1. Reduciblity, Arrhenius plots and the Uroboros Dragon, a reply to the preprint "Correlations in Nuclear Arrhenius-Type Plots" by M.B. Tsang and P. Danielewicz

    OpenAIRE

    Moretto, L. G.; Beaulieu, L.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G. J.

    1997-01-01

    In a recent preprint by Tsang and Danielewicz, the authors attempt to give alternative or trivial explanations for the reducible and "thermal" nature of the intermediate mass fragment excitation functions reported previously (Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1530 (1995), Phys. Lett B 361, 25 (1995), Phys. Rep. 287, 249 (1997)). We demonstrate that their proposed "self-correlation" explanation for linear Arrhenius plots is based upon a flawed autocorrelation analysis involving circular reasoning.

  2. Pseudospherical surfaces with singularities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David

    2017-01-01

    We study a generalization of constant Gauss curvature −1 surfaces in Euclidean 3-space, based on Lorentzian harmonic maps, that we call pseudospherical frontals. We analyse the singularities of these surfaces, dividing them into those of characteristic and non-characteristic type. We give methods...

  3. A randomized comparison between league tables and funnel plots to inform health care decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anell, Anders; Hagberg, Oskar; Liedberg, Fredrik; Ryden, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Comparison of provider performance is commonly used to inform health care decision-making. Little attention has been paid to how data presentations influence decisions. This study analyzes differences in suggested actions by decision-makers informed by league tables or funnel plots. Decision-makers were invited to a survey and randomized to compare hospital performance using either league tables or funnel plots for four different measures within the area of cancer care. For each measure, decision-makers were asked to suggest actions towards 12-16 hospitals (no action, ask for more information, intervene) and provide feedback related to whether the information provided had been useful. Swedish health care. Two hundred and twenty-one decision-makers at administrative and clinical levels. Data presentations in the form of league tables or funnel plots. Number of actions suggested by participants. Proportion of appropriate actions. For all four measures, decision-makers tended to suggest more actions based on the information provided in league tables compared to funnel plots (44% vs. 21%, P funnel plots. However, when using funnel plots, decision-makers more often missed to react even when appropriate. The form of data presentation had an influence on decision-making. With league tables, decision-makers tended to suggest more actions compared to funnel plots. A difference in sensitivity and specificity conditioned by the form of presentation could also be identified, with different implications depending on the purpose of comparisons. Explanations and visualization aids are needed to support appropriate actions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Macroecology of Australian Tall Eucalypt Forests: Baseline Data from a Continental-Scale Permanent Plot Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Sam W; Prior, Lynda D; Stephens, Helen C; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Tracking the response of forest ecosystems to climate change demands large (≥1 ha) monitoring plots that are repeatedly measured over long time frames and arranged across macro-ecological gradients. Continental scale networks of permanent forest plots have identified links between climate and carbon fluxes by monitoring trends in tree growth, mortality and recruitment. The relationship between tree growth and climate in Australia has been recently articulated through analysis of data from smaller forest plots, but conclusions were limited by (a) absence of data on recruitment and mortality, (b) exclusion of non-eucalypt species, and (c) lack of knowledge of stand age or disturbance histories. To remedy these gaps we established the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network: a continental scale network of 48 1 ha permanent plots in highly productive tall eucalypt forests in the mature growth stage. These plots are distributed across cool temperate, Mediterranean, subtropical and tropical climates (mean annual precipitation 850 to 1900 mm per year; mean annual temperature 6 to 21°C). Aboveground carbon stocks (AGC) in these forests are dominated by eucalypts (90% of AGC) whilst non-eucalypts in the understorey dominated species diversity and tree abundance (84% of species; 60% of stems). Aboveground carbon stocks were negatively related to mean annual temperature, with forests at the warm end of the temperature range storing approximately half the amount of carbon as forests at the cool end of the temperature range. This may reflect thermal constraints on tree growth detected through other plot networks and physiological studies. Through common protocols and careful sampling design, the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network will facilitate the integration of tall eucalypt forests into established global forest monitoring initiatives. In the context of projections of rapidly warming and drying climates in Australia, this plot network will enable detection of links between

  5. Next Generation Quality: Assessing the Physician in Clinical History Completeness and Diagnostic Interpretations Using Funnel Plots and Normalized Deviations Plots in 3,854 Prostate Biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonert, Michael; El-Shinnawy, Ihab; Carvalho, Michael; Williams, Phillip; Salama, Samih; Tang, Damu; Kapoor, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Observational data and funnel plots are routinely used outside of pathology to understand trends and improve performance. Extract diagnostic rate (DR) information from free text surgical pathology reports with synoptic elements and assess whether inter-rater variation and clinical history completeness information useful for continuous quality improvement (CQI) can be obtained. All in-house prostate biopsies in a 6-year period at two large teaching hospitals were extracted and then diagnostically categorized using string matching, fuzzy string matching, and hierarchical pruning. DRs were then stratified by the submitting physicians and pathologists. Funnel plots were created to assess for diagnostic bias. 3,854 prostate biopsies were found and all could be diagnostically classified. Two audits involving the review of 700 reports and a comparison of the synoptic elements with the free text interpretations suggest a categorization error rate of 40 cases and together assessed 3,690 biopsies. There was considerable inter-rater variability and a trend toward more World Health Organization/International Society of Urologic Pathology Grade 1 cancers in older pathologists. Normalized deviations plots, constructed using the median DR, and standard error can elucidate associated over- and under-calls for an individual pathologist in relation to their practice group. Clinical history completeness by submitting medical doctor varied significantly (100% to 22%). Free text data analyses have some limitations; however, they could be used for data-driven CQI in anatomical pathology, and could lead to the next generation in quality of care.

  6. Rare earth elements tracing the soil erosion processes on slope surface under natural rainfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mingyong; Tan Shuduan; Dang Haishan; Zhang Quanfa

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment using rare earth elements (REEs) as tracers was conducted to investigate soil erosion processes on slope surfaces during rainfall events. A plot of 10 m x 2 m x 0.16 m with a gradient of 20 o (36.4%) was established and the plot was divided into two layers and four segments. Various REE tracers were applied to the different layers and segments to determine sediment dynamics under natural rainfall. Results indicated that sheet erosion accounted for more than 90% of total erosion when the rainfall amount and density was not large enough to generate concentrated flows. Sediment source changed in different sections on the slope surface, and the primary sediment source area tended to move upslope as erosion progressed. In rill erosion, sediment discharge mainly originated from the toe-slope and moved upwards as erosion intensified. The results obtained from this study suggest that multi-REE tracer technique is valuable in understanding the erosion processes and determining sediment sources. - Highlights: → Soil erosion processes with rare earth elements was conducted under natural rainfall. → Experimental setup developed here has seldom implemented in the world. → Sheet erosion is the main erosion type and main contributor to sediment loss. → Sediment source changed in different sections on the slope surface. → The primary sediment source area tended to move upslope as erosion progressed.

  7. Runoff and soil erosion plot-scale studies under natural rainfall: A meta-analysis of the Brazilian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research to measure soil erosion rates in the United States from natural rainfall runoff plots began in the early 1900’s. In Brazil, the first experimental study at the plot-scale was conducted in the 1940’s; however, the monitoring process and the creation of new experimental field plots have not c...

  8. Maintaining the confidentiality of plot locations by exploiting the low sensitivity of forest structure models to different spectral extraction kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean P. Healey; Elizabeth Lapoint; Gretchen G. Moisen; Scott L. Powell

    2011-01-01

    The United States Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) unit maintains a large national network of inventory plots.While the consistency and extent of this network make FIA data attractive for ecological modelling, the FIA is charged by statute not to publicly reveal inventory plot locations. However, use of FIA plot data by the remote sensing community...

  9. Flow cytometric quantification of all phases of the cell cycle and apoptosis in a two-color fluorescence plot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Vignon

    Full Text Available An optimal technology for cell cycle analysis would allow the concomitant measurement of apoptosis, G0, G1, S, G2 and M phases in combination with cell surface phenotyping. We have developed an easy method in flow cytometry allowing this discrimination in an only two-color fluorescent plot. It is based on the concomitant use of 7-amino-actinomycin D and the antibodies anti-Ki67 and anti-phospho(Ser10-histone H3, both conjugated to Alexa Fluor®488 to discriminate G0 and M phases, respectively. The method is particularly valuable in a clinical setting as verified in our laboratory by analyzing human leukemic cells from marrow samples or after exposure to cell cycle modifiers.

  10. Effect of neighborhood and plot size on experiments with multiple-harvest oleraceous crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the efficiency of the Papadakis method on the quality evaluation of experiments with multiple-harvest oleraceous crops, and on the estimate of the covariate and the ideal plot size. Data from nine uniformity trials (five with bean pod, two with zucchini, and two with sweet pepper and from one experiment with treatments (with sweet pepper were used. Through the uniformity trials, the best way to calculate the covariate was defined and the optimal plot size was calculated. In the experiment with treatments, analyses of variance and covariance were performed, in which the covariate was calculated by the Papadakis method, and experimental precision was evaluated based on four statistics. The use of analysis of covariance with the covariate obtained by the Papadakis method increases the quality of experiments with multiple-harvest oleraceous crops and allows the use of smaller plot sizes. The best covariate is the one that considers a neighboring plot of each side of the reference plot.

  11. The interpretation of quartz optically stimulated luminescence equivalent dose versus time plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Numerical modelling has shown that the form of the quartz OSL shine plateau (hereafter 'D e (t)-plot') is influenced by the effects of phototransferred TL in the ∼110 deg. C region. It is suggested also that the presence of multiple OSL components (as described by Partial bleaching and the decay form characteristics of quartz OSL. Radiat. Meas., 27, 123-136. The form of the optically stimulated luminescence signal of quartz: implications of dating. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of London) affects the form of the D e (t)-plot. Laboratory measurements of a fully reset and artificially dosed sample yielded non-flat D e (t)-plots, the deviation being greater for the larger of the two simulated palaeodoses, in accordance with theoretical predictions. It is suggested that the so-called 'shine plateau' test is of limited use in assessing the bleaching history of quartz sediments

  12. Hard magnetic property and δM(H) plot for sintered NdFeB magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, R.W.; Zhang, D.H.; Li, W.; Li, X.M.; Zhang, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    The hard magnetic properties and the interactions between the grains for sintered Nd 16 Fe 73 Co 5 B 6 magnets are investigated by using δM(H) plot technique. The results show that the δM(H) plot of NdFeB sintered magnet can explain the effects of the microstructure (size, shape and orientation of the grains) and the intergrain interactions on the hard magnetic properties of the magnet. However, the value of δM(H) is positive when the applied field is not strong enough, which means that the common δM(H) plot theory is not completely consistent with the sintered NdFeB magnet

  13. Hipsometric relationship modeling using data sampled in tree scaling and inventory plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Carlos Lima de Andrade

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated eight hypsometric models to represent tree height-diameter relationship, using data obtained from the scaling of 118 trees and 25 inventory plots. Residue graphic analysis and percent deviation mean criteria, qui-square test precision, residual standard error between real and estimated heights and the graybill f test were adopted. The identity of the hypsometric models was also verified by applying the F(Ho test on the plot data grouped to the scaling data. It was concluded that better accuracy can be obtained by using the model prodan, with h and d1,3 data measured in 10 trees by plots grouped into these scaling data measurements of even-aged forest stands.

  14. Measurement of the ω→π+π−π0 Dalitz plot distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Adlarson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the production reactions pd→He3ω and pp→ppω, the Dalitz plot distribution for the ω→π+π−π0 decay is studied with the WASA detector at COSY, based on a combined data sample of (4.408±0.042×104 events. The Dalitz plot density is parametrised by a product of the P-wave phase space and a polynomial expansion in the normalised polar Dalitz plot variables Z and ϕ. For the first time, a deviation from pure P-wave phase space is observed with a significance of 4.1σ. The deviation is parametrised by a linear term 1+2αZ, with α determined to be +0.147±0.036, consistent with the expectations of ρ-meson-type final-state interactions of the P-wave pion pairs.

  15. Swallowing sound detection using hidden markov modeling of recurrence plot features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboofazeli, Mohammad; Moussavi, Zahra

    2009-01-01

    Automated detection of swallowing sounds in swallowing and breath sound recordings is of importance for monitoring purposes in which the recording durations are long. This paper presents a novel method for swallowing sound detection using hidden Markov modeling of recurrence plot features. Tracheal sound recordings of 15 healthy and nine dysphagic subjects were studied. The multidimensional state space trajectory of each signal was reconstructed using the Taken method of delays. The sequences of three recurrence plot features of the reconstructed trajectories (which have shown discriminating capability between swallowing and breath sounds) were modeled by three hidden Markov models. The Viterbi algorithm was used for swallowing sound detection. The results were validated manually by inspection of the simultaneously recorded airflow signal and spectrogram of the sounds, and also by auditory means. The experimental results suggested that the performance of the proposed method using hidden Markov modeling of recurrence plot features was superior to the previous swallowing sound detection methods.

  16. AN EXPERIMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF THE PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER CHARACTERISTICS BY WILSON PLOT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Opatřil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An aim of this paper is suggestion of the evaluation method based on the experimental data and the Wilson plot method for the Plate Heat Exchangers (PHE. For the purpose of the project the new experimental loop was built for the testing of PHE to obtain the overhaul heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop between inlet and outlet of the fluid. The measurement were done for three different PHE with the performance range 30-100kW. The working fluid was water on both sides of the PHE. The differences are in number of pates as well as in extrusion profiles. The Wilson plot evaluation method was involved for the processing experimental data. To obtain more accurate correlations between the experimental data and theoretical results yield of the Wilson plot, the method was enhanced by the measured pressure drop involving. This approach could be useful for PHE designing software and for the manufacturing company.

  17. Comparison of three methods for drawing line in the Rutland-Patlak plot of renography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars; Eskild-Jensen, Anni; Brøchner-Mortensen, Jens

    of cases on the "problematic" data. CONCLUSIONS: Correct drawing of the line is important for correct determination of relative kidney function. The new method 3 gives accurate and precise results in both normal and "problematic" cases. The method is quick and independent of the operator.......BACKGROUND: When individual kidney function is determined by renography, the Rutland-Patlak plot is used in the calculations. In the so-called uptake phase the plot is a straight line, but the duration of this phase may differ from patient to patient. A good method for drawing the correct line...... in the Rutland-Patlak plot should take into account that data may show unusual behaviour or be noisy. AIM: To find a method for the line-drawing that gives reliable results on all groups of data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected from 63 consecutive renographies routinely made at the department...

  18. Point and Fixed Plot Sampling Inventory Estimates at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2004-02-01

    This report provides calculation of systematic point sampling volume estimates for trees greater than or equal to 5 inches diameter breast height (dbh) and fixed radius plot volume estimates for trees < 5 inches dbh at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken County, South Carolina. The inventory of 622 plots was started in March 1999 and completed in January 2002 (Figure 1). Estimates are given in cubic foot volume. The analyses are presented in a series of Tables and Figures. In addition, a preliminary analysis of fuel levels on the SRS is given, based on depth measurements of the duff and litter layers on the 622 inventory plots plus line transect samples of down coarse woody material. Potential standing live fuels are also included. The fuels analyses are presented in a series of tables.

  19. Using volcano plots and regularized-chi statistics in genetic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentian; Freudenberg, Jan; Suh, Young Ju; Yang, Yaning

    2014-02-01

    Labor intensive experiments are typically required to identify the causal disease variants from a list of disease associated variants in the genome. For designing such experiments, candidate variants are ranked by their strength of genetic association with the disease. However, the two commonly used measures of genetic association, the odds-ratio (OR) and p-value may rank variants in different order. To integrate these two measures into a single analysis, here we transfer the volcano plot methodology from gene expression analysis to genetic association studies. In its original setting, volcano plots are scatter plots of fold-change and t-test statistic (or -log of the p-value), with the latter being more sensitive to sample size. In genetic association studies, the OR and Pearson's chi-square statistic (or equivalently its square root, chi; or the standardized log(OR)) can be analogously used in a volcano plot, allowing for their visual inspection. Moreover, the geometric interpretation of these plots leads to an intuitive method for filtering results by a combination of both OR and chi-square statistic, which we term "regularized-chi". This method selects associated markers by a smooth curve in the volcano plot instead of the right-angled lines which corresponds to independent cutoffs for OR and chi-square statistic. The regularized-chi incorporates relatively more signals from variants with lower minor-allele-frequencies than chi-square test statistic. As rare variants tend to have stronger functional effects, regularized-chi is better suited to the task of prioritization of candidate genes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Funnel plots for population-based cancer survival: principles, methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresma, M; Coleman, M P; Rachet, B

    2014-03-15

    Funnel plots are graphical tools designed to detect excessive variation in performance indicators by simple visual inspection of the data. Their main use in the biomedical domain so far has been to detect publication bias in meta-analyses, but they have also been recommended as the most appropriate way to display performance indicators for a vast range of health-related outcomes. Here, we extend the use of funnel plots to population-based cancer survival and several related measures. We present three applications to familiarise the reader with their interpretation. We propose funnel plots for various cancer survival measures, as well as age-standardised survival, trends in survival and excess hazard ratios. We describe the components of a funnel plot and the formulae for the construction of the control limits for each of these survival measures. We include three transformations to construct the control limits for the survival function: complementary log-log, logit and logarithmic transformations. We present applications of funnel plots to explore the following: (i) small-area and temporal variation in cancer survival; (ii) racial and geographical variation in cancer survival; and (iii) geographical variation in the excess hazard of death. Funnel plots provide a simple and informative graphical tool to display geographical variation and trend in a range of cancer survival measures. We recommend their use as a routine instrument for cancer survival comparisons, to inform health policy makers in planning and assessing cancer policies. We advocate the use of the complementary log-log or logit transformation to construct the control limits for the survival function. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.