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Sample records for surface plasminogen activation

  1. Plasminogen activation and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danø, Keld; Behrendt, N.; Hoyer-Hansen, G.

    2005-01-01

    , the regulation of extracellular proteolysis in cancer involves a complex interplay between cancer cells and non-malignant stromal cells in the expression of the molecular components involved. For some types of cancer, this cellular interplay mimics that observed in the tissue of ori- gin during non......Breakdown of the extracellular matrix is crucial for cancer invasion and metastasis. It is accomplished by the concerted action of several proteases, including the serine protease plasmin and a number of matrix metalloproteases.The activity of each of these proteases is regulated by an array...... of activators, inhibitors and cellular receptors.Thus, the generation of plasmin involves the pro-enzyme plasminogen, the urokinase type plasminogen activator uPA and its pro-enzyme pro-uPA, the uPA inhibitor PAI-1, the cell surface uPA receptor uPAR, and the plasmin inhibitor a2 -antiplasmin. Furthermore...

  2. Urokinase plasminogen activator cleaves its cell surface receptor releasing the ligand-binding domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer-Hansen, G; Rønne, E; Solberg, H.

    1992-01-01

    The cellular receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPAR) is a glycolipid-anchored three-domain membrane protein playing a central role in pericellular plasminogen activation. We have found that urokinase (uPA) can cleave its receptor between domains 1 and 2 generating a cell-associat...

  3. Covalent-display of an active chimeric-recombinant tissue plasminogen activator on polyhydroxybutyrate granules surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizi, Akram; Malboobi, Mohamad Ali; Jalali-Javaran, Mokhtar; Maliga, Pal; Alizadeh, Houshang

    2017-11-01

    To develop a deliberately engineered expression and purification system for an active chimeric-recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (crtPA) using co-expression with polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) operon genes. Fusion of crtPA with PhaC-synthase simplified the purification steps through crtPA sedimentation with PHB particles. Moreover, the covalently immobilized crtPA was biologically active as shown in a chromogenic assay. Upon WELQut-protease activity, the released single-chain crtPA converted to the two-chain form which produced a pattern of bands with approx. MW of 32 and 11 kDa in addition to the full length crtPA. Fusion of crtPA with PhaC-synthase not only simplifies purification from the bacterial host lysate, but also co-expression of PHB operon genes creates an oxidative environment, thereby reducing the inclusion body formation possibility. The isolated crtPA-PHB granules exhibited crtPA serine protease activity. Thus, fusion with the PhaC protein could be used as a scaffold for covalent displaying of functional disulfide-rich proteins.

  4. Identification and characterization of the murine cell surface receptor for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, H; Løber, D; Eriksen, J

    1992-01-01

    Cell-binding experiments have indicated that murine cells on their surface have specific binding sites for mouse urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). In contrast to the human system, chemical cross-linking studies with an iodinated ligand did not yield any covalent adducts in the murine...... system, but in ligand-blotting analysis, two mouse u-PA-binding proteins could be visualized. To confirm that these proteins are the murine counterpart of the human u-PA receptor (u-PAR), a peptide was derived from the murine cDNA clone assigned to represent the murine u-PAR due to cross......-blotting analysis. Binding of mouse u-PA to its receptor showed species specificity in ligand-blotting analysis, since mouse u-PA did not bind to human u-PAR and human u-PA did not bind to mouse u-PAR. The apparent M(r) of mouse u-PAR varied between different mouse cell lines and ranged over M(r) 45...

  5. The ligand-binding domain of the cell surface receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Ploug, M; Patthy, L

    1991-01-01

    The purified urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) was cleaved into two fragments by mild chymotrypsin treatment. The smaller fragment (apparent Mr 16,000) possessed the ligand-binding capability, as shown by chemical cross-linking analysis. This fragment constituted the NH2-terminal...... part of the intact receptor, probably including the whole sequence 1-87, and contained N-linked carbohydrate. After detergent phase separation in the Triton X-114 system, the fragment was present in the water phase where its binding activity could be demonstrated in the absence of the rest...

  6. PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR OF YERSINIA PESTIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Evseeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plague has been the cause of three pandemics and has led to the death of millions of people. Plague is a typical zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis that circulates in populations of wild rodents inhabiting natural plague foci on all continents except for Australia. Transmission of plague is provided by flea bites. Circulation of Y. pestis in natural plague foci is supported by a numerous of pathogenicity factors. This review explores one of them, plasminogen activator Pla. This protein is one of representatives of omptins, a family of enterobacterial outer membrane proteases that are responsible for colonization of specific organs or even infection generalization as a result of successful overcoming of the host innate immunity. The review reflects the history of its discovery and studying of its genetic control, biosynthesis, isolation and purification, physicochemical properties. Highly purified preparations of plasminogen activator are deficient in enzymatic activities but renaturation in the presence of Y. pestis lipooligosaccharide restores enzymatic properties of Pla. This pathogenicity factor is absent in representatives of the most ancient phylogenetic group of the plague pathogen, bv. caucasica, while the ancestor of other groups of Y. pestis subsp. microtus obtained in result of horizontal transfer Pla isoform with characteristics similar to properties of omptins from the less virulent enterobacteria. After that in the course of microevolution the “classic” isoform of Pla with increased protease activity was selected that is typical of all highly virulent for humans strains of Y. pestis subsp. pestis. The “classic” isoform of Pla Y. pestis is functionally similar to mammalian plasminogen activators transforming plasminogen into plasmin with the help of limited proteolysis. Pla protease activating plasminogen and also degrading the main plasmin inhibitor — α2-antiplasmin and, respectively, determining Y. pestis ability to lyse

  7. Heat inactivation of native plasmin, plasminogen and plasminogen activators in bovine milk: a revisited study

    OpenAIRE

    Denis, Thierry; Humbert, Gérard; Gaillard, Jean-Luc

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Thermal inactivation, at temperatures between 60 °C and 140 °C, of native plasmin, plasminogen and plasminogen activators were studied in bovine milk using improved enzymatic assays. While measured heat inactivation kinetic of plasmin and plasminogen were in line with previously reported values, plasminogen activators were, surprisingly, found to be as heat sensitive as plasmin and plasminogen in a milk system containing proteins with free SH groups. Activation energie...

  8. Does plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 drive lymphangiogenesis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruyère, Françoise; Melen-Lamalle, Laurence; Blacher, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the function of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) during pathological lymphangiogenesis. PAI-1, the main physiological inhibitor of plasminogen activators is involved in pathological angiogenesis at least by controlling extracellular proteolysis and...

  9. Interactions of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 with vitronectin involve an extensive binding surface and induce mutual conformational rearrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blouse, Grant E; Dupont, Daniel Miotto; Schar, Christine R

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore early events during the association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with its cofactor vitronectin, we have applied a robust strategy that combines protein engineering, fluorescence spectroscopy, and rapid reaction kinetics. Fluorescence stopped-flow experiments...

  10. Binding of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator to its cell surface receptor is inhibited by low doses of suramin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Rønne, E; Danø, K

    1993-01-01

    micrograms/ml when using U937 cells and a ligand concentration of 0.3 nM. This concentration of the drug is well below the serum levels found in suramin-treated patients. Inhibition of binding was also demonstrated at the molecular level, using chemical cross-linking or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...... to the anti-invasive properties of suramin by destroying the cellular potential for localized plasminogen activation and proteolytic matrix degradation....

  11. Glu- and Lys-forms of plasminogen differentially affect phosphatidylserine exposure on the platelet surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Zhernossekov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasminogen/plasmin system is known for its ability to support hemostatic balance of blood. However, plasminogen may be considered as an adhesive ligand and in this way could affect the functioning of blood cells. We showed that exogenous Lys-plasminogen, but not its Glu-form, inhibited platelet aggregation and suppressed platelet α-granule secretion. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of Glu- and Lys-form of plasminogen on the formation of platelet procoagulant surface using phosphatidylserine exposure as a marker. Human platelets were obtained from human platelet-rich plasma (donors were healthy volunteers, men aged 30-40 years by gel-filtration on Sepharose 2B. Phosphatidylserine exposure on the platelet surface was evaluated by flow cytometry with FITC-conjugated annexin A5. Glu- and Lys-plasminogen have different impact on the platelet functioning. Exogenous Lys-plasminogen has no significant effect on phosphatidylserine exposure, while Glu-plasminogen increases phosphatidylserine exposure on the surface of thrombin- and collagen-activated human platelets. Glu-plasminogen can be considered as a co-stimulator of agonist-induced platelet secretion and procoagulant surface formation. Meanwhile effects of Lys-plasminogen are probably directed at platelet-platelet interactions and not related to agonist-stimulated pro-apoptotic changes. The observed different effects of Glu- and Lys-plasminogen on phosphatidylserine exposure can be explained by their structural peculiarities.

  12. Inhibitory effect of angiostatins on activity of the plasminogen/plasminogen activator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisina, R B; Mukhametova, L I; Gulin, D A; Levashov, M Y; Prisyazhnaya, N V; Gershkovich, K B; Varfolomeyev, S D

    2009-10-01

    Angiostatins, kringle-containing fragments of plasminogen, are potent inhibitors of angiogenesis. Effects of three angiostatin forms, K1-3, K1-4, and K1-4.5 (0-2 microM), on the rate of native Glu-plasminogen activation by its physiological activators in the absence or presence of soluble fibrin were investigated in vitro. Angiostatins did not affect the intrinsic amidolytic activities of plasmin and plasminogen activators of tissue type (tPA) and urokinase type (single-chain scuPA and two-chain tcuPA), but inhibited conversion of plasminogen to plasmin in a dose-dependent manner. All three angiostatins suppressed Glu-plasminogen activation by tcuPA independently of the presence of fibrin, and the inhibitory effect increased in the order: K1-3 < K1-4 < K1-4.5. The inhibitory effects of angiostatins on the scuPA activator activity were lower and further decreased in the presence of fibrin. Angiostatin K1-3 (up to 2 microM) had no effect, while 2 microM angiostatins K1-4 and K1-4.5 inhibited the fibrin-stimulated Glu-plasminogen activation by tPA by 50 and 100%, respectively. The difference in effects of the three angiostatins on the Glu-plasminogen activation by scuPA, tcuPA, and tPA in the absence or presence of fibrin is due to the differences in angiostatin structures, mechanisms of action, and fibrin-specificity of plasminogen activators, as well as due to the influence of fibrin on the Glu-plasminogen conformation. Angiostatins in vivo, which mimic plasminogen-binding activity, can inhibit plasminogen activation stimulated by various proteins (including fibrin) of extracellular matrix, thereby blocking cell migration and angiogenesis. The data of this work indicate that the inhibition of Glu-plasminogen activation under the action of physiological plasminogen activators by angiostatins can be implicated in the complex mechanism of their antiangiogenic and antitumor action.

  13. Affinity purification of recombinant human plasminogen activator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop processes for effective isolation and purification of recombinant human plasminogen activator (rhPA) from transgenic rabbit milk. Methods: Immunoaffinity chromatography was selected and improved by a special polyol-responsive monoclonal antibody (PR-mAb). Alteplase was used as immunogen ...

  14. The Glycosylation of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter Durand; Pedersen, Katrine Egelund; Christensen, Anni

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) has three potential sites for N-linked glycosylation, including Asn209Tyr210Thr211, Asn265Met266Thr267, and Asn329Glu330Ser331. Using a HEK293 expression system, we have made mutants with Asp or Gln substitutions of the Asn residue in each of these s...

  15. [Mechanism of inhibitory effect of angiostatin on plasminogen activation by its physiologic activators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aĭsina, R B; Mukhametova, L I; Prisiazhnaia, N V; Gulin, D A; Levashov, M Iu; Gershkovich, K B

    2011-01-01

    The influence of angiostatin K1-4.5--a fragment of the heavy chain of plasmin and a powerful inhibitor of angiogenesis--on kinetic parameters (k(Pg) and K(Pg)) of human Glu-plasminogen activation under the action of urokinase (uPA) not having affinity for fibrin and fibrin-specific tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was investigated. Angiostatin does not affect the k(Pg) value, but increases the value K(Pg) urokinase plasminogen activation. A decrease in the k(Pg) value and an increase in the K(Pg) value were found for fibrin-stimulated plasminogen activation by tPA with increasing concentrations of angiostatin. The obtained results show that angiostatin is competitive inhibitor of the uPA activator activity, while it inhibits the activator activity of tPA by mixed type. Such an influence ofangiostatin on the kinetic constants ofthe urokinase plasminogen activation suggests that angiostatin dose dependent manner replaces plasminogen in the binary enzyme-substrate complex uPA-Pg. In case of fibrin-stimulated plasminogen activation by tPA, both zymogen and tPA are bound to fibrin with formation of the effective triple tPA-Pg-fibrin complex. Angiostatin replaces plasminogen both from the fibrin surface and from the enzyme-substrate tPA-Pg complex that leads to a decrease in k(Pg) and an increase in K(Pg) of plasminogen activation. Inhibition constants by angioststin (Ki) of plasminogen-activator activities of uPA and tPA determined by Dixon method were found to be 0.59 +/- 0.04 and 0.12 +/- 0.05 microM, respectively.

  16. The effects of residual platelets in plasma on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pieters (Marlien); S.A. Barnard (Sunelle A.); D.T. Loots (Du Toit); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractDue to controversial evidence in the literature pertaining to the activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in platelets, we examined the effects of residual platelets present in plasma (a potential pre-analytical variable) on various plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen

  17. The effects of residual platelets in plasma on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlien Pieters

    Full Text Available Due to controversial evidence in the literature pertaining to the activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in platelets, we examined the effects of residual platelets present in plasma (a potential pre-analytical variable on various plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays. Blood samples were collected from 151 individuals and centrifuged at 352 and 1500 g to obtain plasma with varying numbers of platelet. In a follow-up study, blood samples were collected from an additional 23 individuals, from whom platelet-poor (2000 g, platelet-containing (352 g and platelet-rich plasma (200 g were prepared and analysed as fresh-frozen and after five defrost-refreeze cycles (to determine the contribution of in vitro platelet degradation. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen, tissue plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex, plasma clot lysis time, β-thromboglobulin and plasma platelet count were analysed. Platelet α-granule release (plasma β-thromboglobulin showed a significant association with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels but weak associations with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and a functional marker of fibrinolysis, clot lysis time. Upon dividing the study population into quartiles based on β-thromboglobulin levels, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen increased significantly across the quartiles while plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and clot lysis time tended to increase in the 4th quartile only. In the follow-up study, plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen was also significantly influenced by platelet count in a concentration-dependent manner. Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels increased further after complete platelet degradation. Residual platelets in plasma significantly influence plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels mainly

  18. Proteases induce secretion of collagenase and plasminogen activator by fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werb, Z.; Aggeler, J.

    1978-04-01

    We have observed that treatment of rabbit synovial fibroblasts with proteolytic enzymes can induce secretion of collagenase (EC 3.4.24.7) and plasminogen activator (EC 3.4.21.-). Cells treated for 2 to 24 hr with plasmin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, pancreatic elastase, papain, bromelain, thermolysin, or ..cap alpha..-protease but not with thrombin or neuraminidase secreted detectable amounts of collagenase within 16 to 48 hr. Treatment of fibroblasts with trypsin also induced secretion of plasminogen activator. Proteases initiated secretion of collagenase (up to 20 units per 10/sup 6/ cells per 24 hr) only when treatment produced decreased cell adhesion. Collagenase production did not depend on continued presence of proteolytic activity or on subsequent cell adhesion, spreading, or proliferation. Routine subculturing with crude trypsin also induced collagenase secretion by cells. Secretion of collagenase was prevented and normal spreading was obtained if the trypsinized cells were placed into medium containing fetal calf serum. Soybean trypsin inhibitor, ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin, bovine serum albumin, collagen, and fibronectin did not inhibit collagenase production. Although proteases that induced collagenase secretion also removed surface glycoprotein, the kinetics of induction of cell protease secretion were different from those for removal of fibronectin. Physiological inducers of secretion of collagenase and plasminogen activator by cells have not been identified. These results suggest that extracellular proteases in conjunction with plasma proteins may govern protease secretion by cells.

  19. Plasminogen activators in inflammation and sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechlaner, Ch

    2002-01-01

    Mortality of severe sepsis remains at 40% to 50%. Intensive efforts over the past two decades have only marginally improved outcome. Improving outcome in sepsis depends on understanding its pathophysiology, which involves triggers, responses of the organism, and dysfunction. Stress, injury, or infection trigger host responses, including local and systemic orchestrated mechanisms. Dysfunction and outcome depend on both trigger and response. Blood coagulation, inflammation, immunity, and fibrinolysis are critical components of the organism's responses. Understanding their role in sepsis pathophysiology is the key to effective treatment. Relevant studies were identified by a systematic literature search, complemented by manual search of individual citations. Using PubMed, 'sepsis' yields more than 62,000 references, 'plasminogen activators' more than 21,000. The selection of citations was guided by preference for reviews that expand important threads of argumentation. Single original studies were included when relevant to critical points. This analytical review describes the essential elements of pathophysiology and the current status of sepsis treatment. Based on this context, an emerging therapeutic option will be discussed: plasminogen activators.

  20. Surface-associated plasminogen binding of Cryptococcus neoformans promotes extracellular matrix invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Stie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is a leading cause of illness and death in persons with predisposing factors, including: malignancies, solid organ transplants, and corticosteroid use. C. neoformans is ubiquitous in the environment and enters into the lungs via inhalation, where it can disseminate through the bloodstream and penetrate the central nervous system (CNS, resulting in a difficult to treat and often-fatal infection of the brain, called meningoencephalitis. Plasminogen is a highly abundant protein found in the plasma component of blood and is necessary for the degradation of fibrin, collagen, and other structural components of tissues. This fibrinolytic system is utilized by cancer cells during metastasis and several pathogenic species of bacteria have been found to manipulate the host plasminogen system to facilitate invasion of tissues during infection by modifying the activation of this process through the binding of plasminogen at their surface.The invasion of the brain and the central nervous system by penetration of the protective blood-brain barrier is a prerequisite to the establishment of meningoencephalitis by the opportunistic fungal pathogen C. neoformans. In this study, we examined the ability of C. neoformans to subvert the host plasminogen system to facilitate tissue barrier invasion. Through a combination of biochemical, cell biology, and proteomic approaches, we have shown that C. neoformans utilizes the host plasminogen system to cross tissue barriers, providing support for the hypothesis that plasminogen-binding may contribute to the invasion of the blood-brain barrier by penetration of the brain endothelial cells and underlying matrix. In addition, we have identified the cell wall-associated proteins that serve as plasminogen receptors and characterized both the plasminogen-binding and plasmin-activation potential for this significant human pathogen.The results of this study provide evidence for the

  1. The structure and function of the urokinase receptor, a membrane protein governing plasminogen activation on the cell surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Rønne, E; Danø, K

    1995-01-01

    PA receptor, uPAR, is a cell-surface protein which plays an important role in the localization and regulation of these processes. In the present article a number of established conclusions concerning the structure and function of uPAR are presented, and in addition various models are discussed which might...... domain is directly involved in the molecular contact with uPA. The receptor binds uPA as well as its proenzyme, pro-uPA, in such a manner that the activation cascade can occur directly on the cell surface. Furthermore, the activation rates are enhanced relative to the situation in solution, probably due...... between uPAR and uPA. The growing knowledge on the structure and function of uPAR which is a result of protein chemical analyses, functional studies and analyses of other, interacting components, should help to obtain a better understanding of the regulation of extracellular proteolysis. In conjunction...

  2. Aberrant glomerular filtration of urokinase-plasminogen activator in nephrotic syndrome leads to amiloride-sensitive plasminogen activation in urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Mette; Buhl, Kristian Bergholt; Andersen, René F

    2015-01-01

    In nephrotic syndrome, aberrant glomerular filtration of plasminogen and conversion to active plasmin in pre-urine is thought to activate proteolytically ENaC and contribute to sodium retention and edema. The ENaC blocker amiloride is an off-target inhibitor of urokinase-type plasminogen activator...... with aberrant filtration of uPA across the injured glomerular barrier. Amiloride inhibits urine uPA activity which attenuates plasminogen activation and urine protease activity in vivo. Urine uPA is a relevant target for amiloride in vivo....

  3. The role of the plasminogen activating system in the proteolytic and phagocytic clearance of non-viable cells

    OpenAIRE

    Borg, Rachael Jade

    2017-01-01

    The plasminogen activator (PA) system is an enzymatic cascade involved in the breakdown of fibrin, the structural component of a blood clot. tPA co-localises with plasminogen on the fibrin surface via C-terminal lysine residues, leading to the generation of plasmin and subsequent fibrin removal. In this thesis, both tPA and plasminogen were shown to interact with proteins in non-viable cells. Analogous to fibrinolysis, plasminogen binding, but not tPA binding was lysine dependent. Hence, t...

  4. Leishmania mexicana: LACK (Leishmania homolog of receptors for activated C-kinase) is a plasminogen binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arreaza, Amaranta; Acosta, Héctor; Barros-Álvarez, Ximena; Concepción, Juan L; Albericio, Fernando; Avilan, Luisana

    2011-04-01

    Leishmania mexicana is able to interact with the fibrinolytic system through its component plasminogen, the zymogenic form of the protease plasmin. In this study a new plasminogen binding protein of this parasite was identified: LACK, the Leishmania homolog of receptors for activated C-kinase. Plasminogen binds recombinant LACK with a K(d) value of 1.6±0.4 μM, and binding is lysine-dependent since it is inhibited by the lysine analog ε-aminocaproic acid. Inhibition studies with specific peptides and plasminogen binding activity of a mutated recombinant LACK have highlighted the internal motif (260)VYDLESKAV(268), similar to those found in several enolases, as involved in plasminogen binding. Recombinant LACK and secreted proteins, in medium conditioned by parasites, enhance plasminogen activation to plasmin by the tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). In addition to its localization in the cytosol, in the microsomal fraction and as secreted protein in conditioned medium, LACK was also localized on the external surface of the membrane. The results presented here suggest that LACK might bind and enhance plasminogen activation in vivo promoting the formation of plasmin. Plasminogen binding of LACK represents a new function for this protein and might contribute to the invasiveness of the parasite. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Schistosomes Enhance Plasminogen Activation: The Role of Tegumental Enolase.

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara C Figueiredo; Akram A Da'dara; Sergio C Oliveira; Patrick J Skelly

    2015-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is a blood fluke parasite that causes schistosomiasis, a debilitating disease of global public health importance. These relatively large parasites are able to survive prolonged periods in the human vasculature without inducing stable blood clots around them. We show here that the intravascular life stages (schistosomula and adult males and females) can all promote significant plasminogen (PLMG) activation in the presence of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). This results ...

  6. Characterization of a plasminogen activator produced by Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, M M; Alizadeh, H; Gerard, R D; Niederkorn, J Y

    1995-07-01

    Serine proteases play an important role in a diverse array of biological processes, including embryogenesis, metastasis, angiogenesis, thrombolysis and tissue invasion by certain parasites. The latter observation prompted us to explore the possibility that the tissue-invasive ocular parasite Acanthamoeba castellanii elaborates one or more serine proteases. Acanthamoeba sp. are pathogenic free-living amoebae that can produce an invasive, blinding inflammatory disease of the cornea, termed Acanthamoeba keratitis. The present study reports the preliminary purification and characterization of a novel plasminogen activator from an ocular isolate of A. castellanii. The parasite-derived enzyme has a molecular mass of approx. 40 kDa and produces a single band of lysis on fibrinogen-agarose zymographs. Activity of the enzyme is completely inhibited by treatment with diisopropylfluorophosphate, indicating that it is a serine protease. The parasite-derived serine protease is not inhibited by amiloride which is a strong inhibitor of urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Additionally, the enzyme is not inhibited by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 which is the primary physiological inhibitor of both urokinase and tissue-type plasminogen activator. It does not cross-react with antibodies specific for human urokinase or tissue-type plasminogen activator. The parasite-derived enzyme activates plasminogen from several mammalian species, including human, cow and pig. Thus, it is possible that this parasite-derived serine protease contributes to the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba keratitis.

  7. Activation of pro-urokinase and plasminogen on human sarcoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, R W; Pöllänen, J; Tapiovaara, H

    1989-01-01

    by an anticatalytic monoclonal antibody to u-PA, indicating that this enzyme was responsible for the activation. Preincubation of the cells with diisopropyl fluorophosphate-inhibited u-PA led to a decrease in surface-bound plasmin, indicating that a large part, if not all, of the cell surface plasminogen activation...

  8. A novel serine protease secreted by medicinal maggots enhances plasminogen activator-induced fibrinolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Plas, Mariena J A; Andersen, Anders S; Nazir, Sheresma

    2014-01-01

    . Recombinant Sericase degraded plasminogen leading amongst others to the formation of the mini-plasminogen like fragment Val454-plasminogen. In addition, the presence of a non-proteolytic cofactor in secretions was discovered, which plays a role in the enhancement of plasminogen activator-induced fibrinolysis...

  9. Cloning and expression of the receptor for human urokinase plasminogen activator, a central molecule in cell surface, plasmin dependent proteolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan, A.L.; Cubellis, M.V.; Masucci, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    , and therefore the capacity of cells to migrate and invade neighboring tissues. We have isolated a 1.4 kb cDNA clone coding for the entire human uPAR. An oligonucleotide synthesized on the basis of the N-terminal sequence of the purified protein was used to screen a cDNA library made from SV40 transformed human......, a size very close to that of the cloned cDNA. Expression of the uPAR cDNA in mouse cells confirms that the clone is complete and expresses a functional uPA binding protein, located on the cell surface and with properties similar to the human uPAR. Caseinolytic plaque assay, immunofluorescence analysis...... fibroblasts [Okayama and Berg (1983) Mol. Cell Biol., 3, 280-289]. The cDNA encodes a protein of 313 amino acids, preceded by a 21 residue signal peptide. A hydrophobicity plot suggests the presence of a membrane spanning domain close to the C-terminus. The cDNA hybridizes to a 1.4 kb mRNA from human cells...

  10. The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor and its fragments in venous ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Anwar; Saha, Prakash; Evans, Colin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Activation of proteolytic mechanisms at the cell surface through the activity of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) bound to its receptor, uPAR, is an important process in wound healing. The soluble forms of uPAR (suPAR and its fragments I, II, and III) have nonproteolytic...

  11. Schistosomes Enhance Plasminogen Activation: The Role of Tegumental Enolase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara C Figueiredo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni is a blood fluke parasite that causes schistosomiasis, a debilitating disease of global public health importance. These relatively large parasites are able to survive prolonged periods in the human vasculature without inducing stable blood clots around them. We show here that the intravascular life stages (schistosomula and adult males and females can all promote significant plasminogen (PLMG activation in the presence of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA. This results in the generation of the potent fibrinolytic agent plasmin which could degrade blood clots forming around the worms in vivo. We demonstrate that S. mansoni enolase (SmEno is a host-interactive tegumental enzyme that, in recombinant form, can bind PLMG and promote its activation. Like classical members of the enolase protein family, SmEno can catalyze the interconversion of 2-phospho-D-glycerate (2-PGA and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP. The enzyme has maximal activity at pH 7.5, requires Mg2+ for optimal activity and can be inhibited by NaF but not mefloquin. Suppressing expression of the SmEno gene significantly diminishes enolase mRNA levels, protein levels and surface enzyme activity but, surprisingly, does not affect the ability of the worms to promote PLMG activation. Thus, while SmEno can enhance PLMG activation, our analysis suggests that it is not the only contributor to the parasite's ability to perform this function. We show that the worms possess several other PLMG-binding proteins in addition to SmEno and these may have a greater importance in schistosome-driven PLMG activation.

  12. Mapping the topographic epitope landscape on the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) by surface plasmon resonance and X-ray crystallography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Baoyu; Gandhi, Sonu; Yuan, Cai

    2015-01-01

    as a dynamic modular protein structure composed of three homologous Ly6/uPAR domains (LU).This internally flexible protein structure of uPAR enables an allosteric regulation of the interactions with its two principal ligands: the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and the provisional...... matrix protein vitronectin (Vn) (Mertens et al., 2012; Gårdsvoll et al., 2011; Madsen et al., 2007 [2-4]). The data presented here relates to the non-covalent trapping of one of these biologically relevant uPAR-conformations by a novel class of monoclonal antibodies (Zhao et al., 2015 [5......]) and to the general mapping of the topographic epitope landscape on uPAR. The methods required to achieve these data include: (1) recombinant expression and purification of a uPAR-hybrid protein trapped in the desired conformation [patent; WO 2013/020898 A12013]; (2) developing monoclonal antibodies with unique...

  13. Mhp182 (P102) binds fibronectin and contributes to the recruitment of plasmin(ogen) to the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Lisa M; Jenkins, Cheryl; Deutscher, Ania T; Raymond, Benjamin B A; Padula, Matthew P; Tacchi, Jessica L; Bogema, Daniel R; Eamens, Graeme J; Woolley, Lauren K; Dixon, Nicholas E; Walker, Mark J; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a major, economically damaging respiratory pathogen. Although M. hyopneumoniae cells bind plasminogen, the identification of plasminogen-binding surface proteins and the biological ramifications of acquiring plasminogen requires further investigation. mhp182 encodes a highly expressed 102 kDa protein (P102) that undergoes proteolytic processing to generate surface-located N-terminal 60 kDa (P60) and C-terminal 42 kDa (P42) proteins of unknown function. We show that recombinant P102 (rP102) binds plasminogen at physiologically relevant concentrations (K(D) ~ 76 nM) increasing the susceptibility of plasmin(ogen) to activation by tissue-specific plasminogen activator (tPA). Recombinant proteins constructed to mimic P60 (rP60) and P42 (rP42) also bound plasminogen at physiologically significant levels. M. hyopneumoniae surface-bound plasminogen was activated by tPA and is able to degrade fibrinogen, demonstrating the biological functionality of M. hyopneumoniae-bound plasmin(ogen) upon activation. Plasmin(ogen) was readily detected in porcine ciliated airways and plasmin levels were consistently higher in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from M. hyopneumoniae-infected animals. Additionally, rP102 and rP42 bind fibronectin with K(D) s of 26 and 33 nM respectively and recombinant P102 proteins promote adherence to porcine kidney epithelial-like cells. The multifunctional binding ability of P102 and activation of M. hyopneumoniae-sequestered plasmin(ogen) by an exogenous activator suggests P102 plays an important role in virulence. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Quantitation of the receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, E; Behrendt, N; Ploug, M

    1994-01-01

    Binding of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) to a specific cell surface receptor (uPAR) plays a crucial role in proteolysis during tissue remodelling and cancer invasion. An immunosorbent assay for the quantitation of uPAR has now been developed. This assay is based on two monoclonal anti...

  15. Activity of Nanobins Targeted to the Urokinase Plasminogen Activator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Patrick Leon

    While innovations in nanotechnology have resulted in numerous medical advancements for the treatment of cancer, there remains an urgent unmet need for safe and efficient molecular platforms that facilitate the delivery of potent therapeutics to solid tumors. Nanoscale formulations help to overcome the poor bioavailability and systemic organ toxicity associated with many small molecule drugs. Of these nanoparticle drug delivery systems, the greatest clinical successes to date have employed simple nanoscale lipid bilayer assemblies which encase large payloads of chemotherapeutic. While the nanobin platform we have developed has seen initial success through the passive accumulation into tumors, actively targeting nanobins to tumor specific antigens has the potential to increase the therapeutic index of these nanoparticle drugs. We have identified the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its cell surface bound receptor (uPAR) as ideal targets for drug delivery due to their selective overexpression in metastatic cancers and their important role in tumor progression. From a panel of monoclonal antibodies targeted to uPA and uPAR, we have selected ATN291 and ATN658 as lead candidates for nanobin targeting based on their tumor cell binding and ability to be internalized by cells. A novel method of conjugating antibodies to liposomes was developed for our nanobin platform that preserves the high binding affinity and specificity of these antibodies. We evaluated these uPA- and uPAR-targeted nanobins in several xenograft tumor models and found that they were well-tolerated over a wide range of doses and demonstrated significantly increased antitumor efficacy over untargeted nanobins in multiple tumor types. Preliminary studies suggest that uPA-targeted nanobins are readily internalized by tumor cells, and we believe this is the mechanism for their increased antitumor effect. A method for radiolabeling nanobins with gallium-67 was developed, and preliminary SPECT

  16. Platelets retain high levels of active plasminogen activator inhibitor 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helén Brogren

    Full Text Available The vascular fibrinolytic system is crucial for spontaneous lysis of blood clots. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, the principal inhibitor of the key fibrinolytic enzyme tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA, is present in platelets at high concentrations. However, the majority of PAI-1 stored in platelets has been considered to be inactive. Our recent finding (Brogren H, et al. Blood 2004 that PAI-1 de novo synthesized in platelets remained active for over 24 h, suggested that PAI-1 stored in the α-granules might be active to a larger extent than previously reported. To re-evaluate this issue, we performed experiments where the fraction of active PAI-1 was estimated by analyzing the tPA-PAI-1 complex formation. In these experiments platelets were lysed with Triton X-100 in the presence of serial dilutions of tPA and subsequently the tPA-PAI-1 complex was evaluated by Western blot. Also, using a non-immunologic assay, tPA was labeled with (125I, and (125I-tPA and (125I-tPA-PAI-1 was quantified by scintigraphy. Interestingly, both methods demonstrated that the majority (>50% of platelet PAI-1 is active. Further analyses suggested that pre-analytical procedures used in previous studies (sonication or freezing/thawing may have substantially reduced the activity of platelet PAI-1, which has lead to an underestimation of the proportion of active PAI-1. Our in vitro results are more compatible with the role of PAI-1 in clot stabilization as demonstrated in physiological and pathophysiological studies.

  17. Contribution of plasminogen activation towards the pathogenic potential of oral streptococci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Itzek

    Full Text Available Oral streptococci are a heterogeneous group of human commensals, with a potential to cause serious infections. Activation of plasminogen has been shown to increase the virulence of typical human pathogenic streptococci such as S. pneumoniae. One important factor for plasminogen activation is the streptococcal α-enolase. Here we report that plasminogen activation is also common in oral streptococci species involved in clinical infection and that it depends on the action of human plasminogen activators. The ability to activate plasminogen did not require full conservation of the internal plasminogen binding sequence motif FYDKERKVY of α-enolase that was previously described as crucial for increased plasminogen binding, activation and virulence. Instead, experiments with recombinant α-enolase variants indicate that the naturally occurring variations do not impair plasminogen binding. In spite of these variations in the internal plasminogen binding motif oral streptococci showed similar activation of plasminogen. We conclude that the pathomechanism of plasminogen activation is conserved in oral streptococci that cause infections in human. This may contribute to their opportunistic pathogenic character that is unfurled in certain niches.

  18. Ligand binding modulates the structural dynamics and activity of urokinase-type plasminogen activator: A possible mechanism of plasminogen activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Kromann-Hansen

    Full Text Available The catalytic activity of trypsin-like serine proteases is in many cases regulated by conformational changes initiated by binding of physiological modulators to exosites located distantly from the active site. A trypsin-like serine protease of particular interest is urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA, which is involved in extracellular tissue remodeling processes. Herein, we used hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDXMS to study regulation of activity in the catalytic domain of the murine version of uPA (muPA by two muPA specific monoclonal antibodies. Using a truncated muPA variant (muPA16-243, containing the catalytic domain only, we show that the two monoclonal antibodies, despite binding to an overlapping epitope in the 37s and 70s loops of muPA16-243, stabilize distinct muPA16-243 conformations. Whereas the inhibitory antibody, mU1 was found to increase the conformational flexibility of muPA16-243, the stimulatory antibody, mU3, decreased muPA16-243 conformational flexibility. Furthermore, the HDXMS data unveil the existence of a pathway connecting the 70s loop to the active site region. Using alanine scanning mutagenesis, we further identify the 70s loop as an important exosite for the activation of the physiological uPA substrate plasminogen. Thus, the data presented here reveal important information about dynamics in uPA by demonstrating how various ligands can modulate uPA activity by mediating long-range conformational changes. Moreover, the results provide a possible mechanism of plasminogen activation.

  19. Thrombin-specific inactivation of endothelial cell derived plasminogen activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highsmith, R.F.; Gallaher, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Although thrombin (T) has diverse functions in the overall hemostatic mechanism, relatively little is known about its direct effect on components of the fibrinolytic enzyme system. The authors have investigated the interaction of T with plasminogen activators (PA) derived from bovine aortic endothelial cells (EC) in culture (2-5th passage, preconfluent monolayers). Varying concentrations of purified bovine or human thrombin were added to EC-conditioned media (CM). CM + T mixtures were assayed at various times for PA activity using purified plasminogen and a sensitive 125 I-fibrinogenolytic or caseinolytic assay. T (5 nM), but not plasmin or trypsin at equivalent concentrations, resulted in a time-dependent inhibition of the PA activity in CM. T had no effect on the PA activity of urokinase, streptokinase or preformed plasmin. The ability of T to inactivate the EC-derived PA was abolished by prior treatment of T with active site-directed reagents. SDS-PAGE and zymography with copolymerized fibrinogen and plasminogen revealed further specificity in that only one of the multiple-molecular weight forms of PA present in EC-CM was inactivated by T. The authors conclude that in a highly specific fashion, T inactivates the predominant PA present in EC-CM by limited proteolysis. Thus, another potentially important function of T is suggested which may have particular significance in the temporal regulation of coagulation and fibrinolysis at the blood-endothelium interface

  20. Thrombin-specific inactivation of endothelial cell derived plasminogen activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Highsmith, R.F.; Gallaher, M.J.

    1986-03-05

    Although thrombin (T) has diverse functions in the overall hemostatic mechanism, relatively little is known about its direct effect on components of the fibrinolytic enzyme system. The authors have investigated the interaction of T with plasminogen activators (PA) derived from bovine aortic endothelial cells (EC) in culture (2-5th passage, preconfluent monolayers). Varying concentrations of purified bovine or human thrombin were added to EC-conditioned media (CM). CM + T mixtures were assayed at various times for PA activity using purified plasminogen and a sensitive /sup 125/I-fibrinogenolytic or caseinolytic assay. T (5 nM), but not plasmin or trypsin at equivalent concentrations, resulted in a time-dependent inhibition of the PA activity in CM. T had no effect on the PA activity of urokinase, streptokinase or preformed plasmin. The ability of T to inactivate the EC-derived PA was abolished by prior treatment of T with active site-directed reagents. SDS-PAGE and zymography with copolymerized fibrinogen and plasminogen revealed further specificity in that only one of the multiple-molecular weight forms of PA present in EC-CM was inactivated by T. The authors conclude that in a highly specific fashion, T inactivates the predominant PA present in EC-CM by limited proteolysis. Thus, another potentially important function of T is suggested which may have particular significance in the temporal regulation of coagulation and fibrinolysis at the blood-endothelium interface.

  1. The interaction of recombinant tissue type plasminogen activator and recombinant plasminogen activator (r-PA/BM 06.022) with human endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.; Kohnert, U.; Fischer, S.; Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van; Verheijen, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant plasminogen activator (r-PA) comprising the kringle 2 and protease domains of human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) has a four-fold longer half-life time in the circulation than t-PA, possibly resulting in an increased opportunity for r-PA to

  2. The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein/endo180 is coexpressed with its interaction partners urokinase plasminogen activator receptor and matrix metalloprotease-13 during osteogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelholm, L H; Nielsen, B S; Netzel-Arnett, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein/Endo180 (uPARAP/Endo180) is a newly discovered member of the macrophage mannose receptor family that was reported to interact with ligand-bound urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), matrix metalloprotease-13 (MMP-13), and ...

  3. Plasminogen Activators and Ischemic Stroke: Conditions for Acute Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    del Zoppo, Gregory J

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate acute treatment with plasminogen activators (PAs) can significantly increase the probability of minimal or no disability in selected ischemic stroke patients. There is a great deal of evidence showing that intravenous recombinant tissue PAs (rt-PA) infusion accomplishes this goal, recanalization with other PAs has also been demonstrated in the development of this treatment. Recanalization of symptomatic, documented carotid or vertebrobasilar arterial territory occlusions have also...

  4. Amiloride lowers blood pressure and attenuates urine plasminogen activation in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenburg Oxlund, Christina; Buhl, Kristian Bergholt; Jacobsen, Ib A

    2014-01-01

    In conditions with albuminuria, plasminogen is aberrantly filtered across the glomerular barrier and activated along the tubular system to plasmin. In the collecting duct, plasmin activates epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) proteolytically. Hyperactivity of ENaC could link microalbuminuria....../proteinuria to resistant hypertension. Amiloride, an ENaC inhibitor, inhibits urokinase-type plasminogen activator. We hypothesized that amiloride (1) reduces blood pressure (BP); (2) attenuates plasminogen-to-plasmin activation; and (3) inhibits urine urokinase-type plasminogen activator in patients with resistant...

  5. Agreement with evidence for tissue Plasminogen Activator use among emergency physicians: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Alice M; Bryant, Jamie; Carey, Mariko L; Paul, Christine L; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Levi, Christopher R

    2015-06-26

    Emergency department staff play a crucial role in the triage of stroke patients and therefore the capacity to deliver time-dependent treatments such as tissue Plasminogen Activator. This study aimed to identify among emergency physicians, (1) rates of agreement with evidence supporting tissue Plasminogen Activator use in acute stroke care; and (2) individual and hospital factors associated with high agreement with evidence supporting tissue Plasminogen Activator use. Australian fellows and trainees of the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine were invited to complete an online cross-sectional survey assessing perceptions of tissue Plasminogen Activator use in acute stroke. Demographic and hospital characteristics were also collected. 429 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine members responded (13% response rate). Almost half (47.2%) did not agree with any statements regarding the benefits of tissue Plasminogen Activator use for acute stroke. Perceived routine administration of tissue Plasminogen Activator by the head of respondents' emergency department was significantly associated with high agreement with the evidence supporting tissue Plasminogen Activator use in acute stroke. Agreement with evidence supporting tissue Plasminogen Activator use in acute stroke is not high among responding Australian emergency physicians. In order for tissue Plasminogen Activator treatment to become widely accepted and adopted in emergency settings, beliefs and attitudes towards treatment need to be in accordance with clinical practice guidelines.

  6. Pivotal role of tissue plasminogen activator in the mechanism of action of electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoirisch-Clapauch, Silvia; Mezzasalma, Marco A U; Nardi, Antonio E

    2014-02-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy is an important treatment option for major depressive disorders, acute mania, mood disorders with psychotic features, and catatonia. Several hypotheses have been proposed as electroconvulsive therapy's mechanism of action. Our hypothesis involves many converging pathways facilitated by increased synthesis and release of tissue-plasminogen activator. Human and animal experiments have shown that tissue-plasminogen activator participates in many mechanisms of action of electroconvulsive therapy or its animal variant, electroconvulsive stimulus, including improved N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated signaling, activation of both brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor, increased bioavailability of zinc, purinergic release, and increased mobility of dendritic spines. As a result, tissue-plasminogen activator helps promote neurogenesis in limbic structures, modulates synaptic transmission and plasticity, improves cognitive function, and mediates antidepressant effects. Notably, electroconvulsive therapy seems to influence tissue-plasminogen activator metabolism. For example, electroconvulsive stimulus increases the expression of glutamate decarboxylase 65 isoform in γ-aminobutyric acid-releasing neurons, which enhances the release of tissue-plasminogen activator, and the expression of p11, a protein involved in plasminogen and tissue-plasminogen activator assembling. This paper reviews how electroconvulsive therapy correlates with tissue-plasminogen activator. We suggest that interventions aiming at increasing tissue-plasminogen activator levels or its bioavailability - such as daily aerobic exercises together with a carbohydrate-restricted diet, or normalization of homocysteine levels - be evaluated in controlled studies assessing response and remission duration in patients who undergo electroconvulsive therapy.

  7. The contact-system dependent plasminogen activator from human plasma: Identification and characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnema, D.J.; Dooijewaard, G.; Iersel, J.J.L. van; Turion, P.N.C.; Kluft, C.

    1990-01-01

    Apart from tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA), a third PA appears to occur in human plasma. Its activity is initiated when appropriate triggers of the contact system are added, and the activation depends on the presence of factor XII and

  8. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor during allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, E; Andersen, J; Ostrowski, S R

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have found that soluble urokinase plasminogen activation receptor (suPAR) increases during inflammatory and malignant illness and elevated suPAR levels may be associated with poor clinical outcome. The purpose of this study was to investigate plasma levels of suPAR during...... to pretreatment levels. High suPAR levels at day 0 were associated with increased mortality (P = 0.011). The present study found increased suPAR levels during the conditioning in SCT patients. Further, the data indicated that increased suPAR levels may be associated with increased mortality, suggesting su...

  9. [Polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene, plasminogen level and thrombosis in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aĭsina, R B; Mukhametova, L I; Ostriakova, E V; Seredavkina, N V; Patrushev, L I; Patrusheva, N L; Reshetniak, T M; Gulin, D A; Gershkovich, K B; Nasonov, E L; Varfolomeev, S D

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of venous and arterial thromboses and plasminogen level were investigated in 78 patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), 35 of whom with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE+APS) and 43 - with primary APS (PAPS). The levels and genotype of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) were determined in 45 patients with APS, of whom 21 patients with SLE + APS and 24 patients with PAPS. A control group included 10 healthy individuals without autoimmune disease signs and thromboses on period of investigation and in past history. It was shown for the first time that for one third of 67 patients with APS and thromboses high positive levels of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are associated with low plasminogen levels. The levels of PAI-1 antigen measured by ELIZA method, which detects active, latent and bound with plasminogen activator PAI-1, were opposed with frequency of thromboses in APS patients. Correlation between the high and increased levels of PAI-1 and high positive aPL levels was found for one third of 43 patients with APS and thrombosis. One of the possible mechanisms of this interconnection was considered. It was shown that arterial and, to a more extent, venous thromboses are associated with the 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene and high plasma level of the inhibitor in 79% of APS patients. At the presence of the 4G allele patients with SLE+APS had higher PAI-1 levels than patients with PAPS. The obtained results show that measuring the levels of plasminogen and PAI-1 as well as the 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene which is associated with thromboses may have the practical significance for identification of high risk of thrombosis in APS patients.

  10. Highly stable plasminogen activator inhibitor type one (VLHL PAI-1) protects fibrin clots from tissue plasminogen activator-mediated fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankun, Jerzy; Aleem, Ansari M; Selman, Steven H; Skrzypczak-Jankun, Ewa; Lysiak-Szydlowska, Wieslawa; Grafos, Nicholas; Fryer, Hugh J L; Greenfield, Robert S

    2007-11-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the major specific inhibitor of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) which mediates fibrin clot lysis through activation of plasminogen. Wild-type-PAI-1 (wPAI-1) is rapidly converted to the latent form (half-life of approximately 2 h) and loses its ability to inhibit tPA. We developed a very long half-life PAI-1 (VLHL PAI-1), a recombinant protein with a half-life >700 h compared with wPAI-1. In this study, VLHL PAI-1 was assessed for its ability to inhibit clot lysis in vitro. Clot formation was initiated in normal plasma supplemented with tPA by the addition of either tissue factor or human recombinant FVIIa. Clot lysis time, monitored turbidimetrically in a microtiter plate reader, was determined at various concentrations of wPAI-1 and VLHL PAI-1. Both wPAI-1 and VLHL PAI-1 caused a significant increase in clot lysis time, although the latter was somewhat less effective at lower concentrations. The VLHL PAI-1, but not wPAI-1, maintained its anti-fibrinolytic activity after preincubation overnight at 37 degrees. These studies demonstrate that VLHL PAI-1 is an effective inhibitor of fibrin clot degradation. Due to the high stability of VLHL PAI-1 compared with wPAI-1, this novel inhibitor of tPA-mediated fibrinolysis may have therapeutic applications for treating surgical and trauma patients when used directly or in conjunction with the procoagulant recombinant FVIIa.

  11. Arrhenius temperature dependence of in vitro tissue plasminogen activator thrombolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, George J; Dhamija, Ashima; Bavani, Nazli; Wagner, Kenneth R; Holland, Christy K

    2007-01-01

    Stroke is a devastating disease and a leading cause of death and disability. Currently, the only FDA approved therapy for acute ischemic stroke is the intravenous administration of the thrombolytic medication, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). However, this treatment has many contraindications and can have dangerous side effects such as intra-cerebral hemorrhage. These treatment limitations have led to much interest in potential adjunctive therapies, such as therapeutic hypothermia (T ≤ 35 deg. C) and ultrasound enhanced thrombolysis. Such interest may lead to combining these therapies with tPA to treat stroke, however little is known about the effects of temperature on the thrombolytic efficacy of tPA. In this work, we measure the temperature dependence of the fractional clot mass loss Δm(T) resulting from tPA exposure in an in vitro human clot model. We find that the temperature dependence is well described by an Arrhenius temperature dependence with an effective activation energy E eff of 42.0 ± 0.9 kJ mole -1 . E eff approximates the activation energy of the plasminogen-to-plasmin reaction of 48.9 kJ mole -1 . A model to explain this temperature dependence is proposed. These results will be useful in predicting the effects of temperature in future lytic therapies

  12. Biochemical Importance of Glycosylation of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gils, Ann; Pedersen, Katrine Egelund; Skottrup, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a potential target for anti-thrombotic and anti-cancer therapy. PAI-1 has 3 potential sites for N-linked glycosylation. We demonstrate here that PAI-1 expressed recombinantly or naturally by human cell lines display a heterogeneous glycosyla......The serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a potential target for anti-thrombotic and anti-cancer therapy. PAI-1 has 3 potential sites for N-linked glycosylation. We demonstrate here that PAI-1 expressed recombinantly or naturally by human cell lines display a heterogeneous...... with the glycosylation sites could be excluded as explanation for the differential reactivity. The latency transition of non-glycosylated, but not of glycosylated PAI-1, was strongly accelerated by a non-ionic detergent. The different biochemical properties of glycosylated and non-glycosylated PAI-1 depended...... specifically on glycosylation of either one or the other of the utilised sites. The PAI-1-binding protein vitronectin reversed the changes associated with the lack of glycosylation at one of the sites. Our results stress the importance of the source of PAI-1 when studying the mechanisms of action of PAI-1...

  13. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with metabolic syndrome parameters in Malaysian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamodi, Zaid H; Saif-Ali, Riyadh; Ismail, Ikram S; Ahmed, Khaled A; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2012-05-01

    The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G and tissue plasminogen activator Alu-repeat insertion/deletion polymorphisms might be genetic determinations of increased or decreased of their plasma activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G and tissue plasminogen activator Alu-repeat I/D polymorphisms with metabolic syndrome parameters in normal Malaysian subjects and to assess the impact of these polymorphisms on their plasma activities and antigens. The genetic polymorphisms were genotyped in 130 normal subjects. In addition, the plasma activities and antigens of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator as well as levels of insulin, glucose, and lipid profile at fasting state were investigated. The subjects with homozygous 4G/4G showed association with an increased triglyceride (p = 0.007), body mass index (p = 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.03). In addition, the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism modulates plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and antigen and tissue plasminogen activator activity (p = 0.002, 0.014, 0.003) respectively. These results showed that, the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with metabolic syndrome parameters, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator activities in Malaysian subjects, and may serve to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Malaysian subjects.

  14. Physical exercise induces enhancement of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) levels in plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooijewaard, G.; Boer, A.de; Turion, P.N.C.; Cohen, A.F.; Breimer, D.D.; Kluft, C.

    1991-01-01

    The enhancement of the blood fibrinolytic potential by physical exercise is generally attributed to the release of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) from the vessel wall. In this study we have investigated the possible contribution of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). Six healthy

  15. Plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor in children with urinary tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittenhagen, Per; Andersen, Jesper Brandt; Hansen, Anita

    2011-01-01

    In this prospective study we investigated the role of plasma levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in children with urinary tract infection.......In this prospective study we investigated the role of plasma levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in children with urinary tract infection....

  16. Bone matrix degradation by the plasminogen activation system; possible mechanism of bone destruction in arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronday, H.K.

    1997-01-01

    The observed increase in urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) and its receptor (u-PAR) in synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suggests pathophysiological involvement of the plasminogen activation PA system in inflammatory joint disease. In the present study we

  17. Effect of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 and Tissue Plasminogen Activator Polymorphisms on Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes in Malaysian Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid Al-Hamodi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and decreased tissue plasminogen activator (tPA activity are considered to be important risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and metabolic syndrome (MetS. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the PAI-1 4G/5G and tPA Alu-repeat I/D polymorphisms with T2DM in Malaysian subjects. Serum insulin, coronary risk panel, plasma glucose, and PAI-1 4G/5G and tPA Alu-repeat I/D polymorphisms were studied in 303 T2DM subjects (227 with MetS and 76 without MetS and 131 normal subjects without diabetes and MetS. Statistical analysis showed that the dominant and additive models of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism showed a weak association with T2DM without MetS (OR=2.35, P=0.045; OR=1.67, P=0.058. On the other hand, the recessive model of the tPA Alu-repeat I/D polymorphism showed an association with T2DM with MetS (OR=3.32, P=0.013 whereas the dominant and additive models of the tPA Alu-repeat I/D polymorphism were not associated with T2DM either with or without MetS.

  18. Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1 in breast cancer - correlation with traditional prognostic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampelj Maja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1 play a key role in tumour invasion and metastasis. High levels of both proteolytic enzymes are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between traditional prognostic factors and uPA and PAI-1 expression in primary tumour of breast cancer patients.

  19. Substrate specificity of tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, D.C.; Groeneveld, E.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that plasminogen activators not only hydrolyse a specific arginine-valine bond in plasminogen, but may also cleave other proteins such as fibronectin. We studied the substrate specificity, particularly the preference for arginyl over lysyl peptide bonds, of tissue-type

  20. Angiostatin generating capacity and anti-tumour effects of D-penicillamine and plasminogen activators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot-Besseling, R. de; Ruers, T.J.M.; Lamers-Elemans, I.L.; Maass, C.N.; Waal, R.M.W. de; Westphal, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Upregulation of endogenous angiostatin levels may constitute a novel anti-angiogenic, and therefore anti-tumor therapy. In vitro, angiostatin generation is a two-step process, starting with the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin by plasminogen activators (PAs). Next, plasmin excises

  1. Components of the plasminogen activation system promote engraftment of porous polyethylene biomaterial via common and distinct effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Christoph A; Hessenauer, Maximilian E T; Pflieger, Kerstin; Rehberg, Markus; Kanse, Sandip M; Zahler, Stefan; Krombach, Fritz; Berghaus, Alexander; Strieth, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Rapid fibrovascularization is a prerequisite for successful biomaterial engraftment. In addition to their well-known roles in fibrinolysis, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) or their inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) have recently been implicated as individual mediators in non-fibrinolytic processes, including cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Since these events are critical for fibrovascularization of biomaterial, we hypothesized that the components of the plasminogen activation system contribute to biomaterial engraftment. Employing in vivo and ex vivo microscopy techniques, vessel and collagen network formation within porous polyethylene (PPE) implants engrafted into dorsal skinfold chambers were found to be significantly impaired in uPA-, tPA-, or PAI-1-deficient mice. Consequently, the force required for mechanical disintegration of the implants out of the host tissue was significantly lower in the mutant mice than in wild-type controls. Conversely, surface coating with recombinant uPA, tPA, non-catalytic uPA, or PAI-1, but not with non-catalytic tPA, accelerated implant vascularization in wild-type mice. Thus, uPA, tPA, and PAI-1 contribute to the fibrovascularization of PPE implants through common and distinct effects. As clinical perspective, surface coating with recombinant uPA, tPA, or PAI-1 might provide a novel strategy for accelerating the vascularization of this biomaterial.

  2. Plasminogen activation by receptor-bound urokinase. A kinetic study with both cell-associated and isolated receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, V; Behrendt, N; Danø, K

    1991-01-01

    importance for the efficient activation of Plg by receptor-bound uPA. Plasmin generated in the cell-surface Plg activation system described here was also observed to be protected from its principal physiological inhibitor alpha-2-antiplasmin. Together, these data demonstrate that the cell surface constitutes......The specific cellular receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is found on a variety of cell types and has been postulated to play a central role in the mediation of pericellular proteolytic activity. We have studied the kinetics of plasminogen (Plg) activation catalyzed by u.......67 microM, below the physiological Plg concentration of 2 microM. A concomitant 6-fold reduction in kcat resulted in an increase in the overall catalytic efficiency, kcat/Km, of 5.7-fold. This high affinity Plg activation was abolished in the presence of a Plg-binding antagonist. In contrast to intact...

  3. Sialic acid content of plasminogen 2 glycoforms as a regulator of fibrinolytic activity. Isolation, carbohydrate analysis, and kinetic characterization of six glycoforms of plasminogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie-Shepherd, S R; Jett, E A; Andon, N L; Pizzo, S V

    1995-03-17

    Six glycoforms of plasminogen 2 were isolated using a combination of lectin affinity chromatography and chromatofocussing, and the sialic acid content of each glycoform was determined. The kinetics of activation of each glycoform by tissue-type plasminogen activator were analyzed on a fibrin surface and in solution. The second-order rate constant (measured on a fibrin surface) decreased from 1.65 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 to 3.77 x 10(4) M-1 s-1 as the sialic acid content of the glycoforms increased from 1.3 mol/mol of protein to 13.65 mol/mol of protein. A similar correlation was noted for activation in solution. Each glycoform was converted to plasmin, and the inhibition constants for the reaction between alpha 2-antiplasmin and plasmin glycoforms were determined. All overall Ki values, reflecting the final essentially irreversible complex, were in the picomolar range. Sialic acid does not affect inhibition of plasmin by alpha 2-antiplasmin; however, hypersialylated plasmin does not appear to have a kringle-dependent component to inhibition.

  4. Plasminogen activator activity and plasma-coagulum lysis measured by use of optimized fibrin gel structure preformed in microtiter plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Jespersen, J; Gram, J

    1995-01-01

    We introduce a new fibrin plate assay performed in microtiter plates. By means of spectroscopic studies we optimized the structure of the fibrin gel and then used the optimized fibrin gel to determine plasminogen activator activity. Plasminogen activator solutions were applied on top of the fibri...

  5. The nature of interactions between tissue-type plasminogen activator and platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torr, S.R.; Winters, K.J.; Santoro, S.A.; Sobel, B.E.

    1990-01-01

    To elucidate interactions responsible for inhibition of aggregation of platelets in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) harvested from whole blood preincubated with t-PA, experiments were performed with PRP and washed platelets under diverse conditions of preincubation. Both ADP and collagen induced aggregation were inhibited in PRP unless aprotinin had been added to the preincubated whole blood concomitantly with t-PA. However, in washed platelets prepared after the same exposure aggregation was intact. When washed platelets were supplemented with fibrinogen degradation products (FDPs) in concentrations simulating those in whole blood preincubated with t-PA, aggregation induced with either ADP or collagen was inhibited. Thus, the inhibition in PRP depended on generation of FDPs by activated plasminogen. The functional integrity of surface glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptors in washed platelets was documented by autoradiography after SDS-PAGE of surface labeled GPs and by fibrinogen binding despite preincubation of the whole blood or washed platelets themselves with t-PA and plasminogen as long as exogenous calcium (greater than or equal to 0.1 microM) was present. In contrast, when calcium was absent, the platelet GP IIb/IIIa receptor was rendered susceptible to degradation by plasmin, and aggregation was inhibited by preincubation at 37 degrees C even if aprotinin was present when aggregation was being assayed. These observations reconcile disparate results in the literature from studies in vivo and in vitro by demonstrating that inhibition of aggregation of platelets in PRP and in whole blood reflects indirect effects of plasminogen activation rather than direct effects of t-PA or plasmin on the platelets themselves

  6. Turnover of tissue plasminogen activator in normal and hepatectomized rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, S.; Einarsson, M.; Ekvaern, S.H.; Haeggroth, L.M.; Mattsson, C.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution, and clearance of the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was studied in rabbits, rats and mice. Following an intravenous injection of I-labelled tPA a large portion of the radioactive dose was rapidly accumulated in the liver. After one hour the radioactivity in the liver was less than 5 per cent of the injected dose. The highest activity was then found in the intestine, stomach and in the blood. Gel filtration of plasma taken one hour after the injection revealed that the major part (60%) of the radioactivity was present as low molecular weight metabolites or free iodine. The remaining activity was present as high molecular weight inhibitor complexes (26%) or as free tPA (15%). In order to study in vivo reactions between tPA and plasma inhibitors without hepatic interference, plasma turnover was also studied in hepatectomized rabbits. High amounts of radioactivity remained in the plasma after one hour. Gel filtration of this plasma revealed that 54 per cent of the radioactivity was bound to inhibitors, 34 per cent circulated as free tPA while a minor portion (12%) was found as free iodine or metabolites. The half-life of fibrinolytically active tPA in hepatectomized rabbits was 40 minutes compared to 2 minutes in intact rabbits. The increase in the half-life of tPA in hepatectomized rabbits also resulted in an improved thrombolytic effect after treatment with 0.5 mg tPA

  7. Relationship between plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) gene polymorphisms and osteoporosis in Turkish women

    OpenAIRE

    Ozgen, Merih; Cosan, Didem Turgut; Doganer, Fulya; Soyocak, Ahu; Armagan, Onur; Gunes, Hasan Veysi; Degirmenci, Irfan; Ozkara, Gulsah Ogutler; Mutlu, Fezan Sahin

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The development of osteoporosis is associated with several risk factors, such as genetic structures that affect bone turnover and bone mass. The impact of genetic structures on osteoporosis is not known. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 regulates the bone matrix and bone balance. This study assessed the correlation between plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 gene 4G/5G polymorphisms and osteoporosis in a population of Turkish women. METHODS: A total of 195 postmenopausal f...

  8. Targeting the autolysis loop of urokinase-type plasminogen activator with conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botkjaer, Kenneth A; Fogh, Sarah; Bekes, Erin C; Chen, Zhuo; Blouse, Grant E; Jensen, Janni M; Mortensen, Kim K; Huang, Mingdong; Deryugina, Elena; Quigley, James P; Declerck, Paul J; Andreasen, Peter A

    2011-08-15

    Tight regulation of serine proteases is essential for their physiological function, and unbalanced states of protease activity have been implicated in a variety of human diseases. One key example is the presence of uPA (urokinase-type plasminogen activator) in different human cancer types, with high levels correlating with a poor prognosis. This observation has stimulated efforts into finding new principles for intervening with uPA's activity. In the present study we characterize the so-called autolysis loop in the catalytic domain of uPA as a potential inhibitory target. This loop was found to harbour the epitopes for three conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies, two with a preference for the zymogen form pro-uPA, and one with a preference for active uPA. All three antibodies were shown to have overlapping epitopes, with three common residues being crucial for all three antibodies, demonstrating a direct link between conformational changes of the autolysis loop and the creation of a catalytically mature active site. All three antibodies are potent inhibitors of uPA activity, the two pro-uPA-specific ones by inhibiting conversion of pro-uPA to active uPA and the active uPA-specific antibody by shielding the access of plasminogen to the active site. Furthermore, using immunofluorescence, the conformation-specific antibodies mAb-112 and mAb-12E6B10 enabled us to selectively stain pro-uPA or active uPA on the surface of cultured cells. Moreover, in various independent model systems, the antibodies inhibited tumour cell invasion and dissemination, providing evidence for the feasibility of pharmaceutical intervention with serine protease activity by targeting surface loops that undergo conformational changes during zymogen activation. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society

  9. Plasminogen Activators and Ischemic Stroke: Conditions for Acute Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Zoppo, Gregory J

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate acute treatment with plasminogen activators (PAs) can significantly increase the probability of minimal or no disability in selected ischemic stroke patients. There is a great deal of evidence showing that intravenous recombinant tissue PAs (rt-PA) infusion accomplishes this goal, recanalization with other PAs has also been demonstrated in the development of this treatment. Recanalization of symptomatic, documented carotid or vertebrobasilar arterial territory occlusions have also been achieved by local intra-arterial PA delivery, although only a single prospective double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled study has been reported. The increase in intracerebral hemorrhage with these agents by either delivery approach underscores the need for careful patient selection, dose-appropriate safety and efficacy, proper clinical trial design, and an understanding of the evolution of cerebral tissue injury due to focal ischemia. Principles underlying the evolution of focal ischemia have been expanded by experience with acute PA intervention. Several questions remain open that concern the manner in which PAs can be applied acutely in ischemic stroke and how injury development can be limited. PMID:23539414

  10. Role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in senescence and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Mesut; Boe, Amanda E; Klyachko, Ekaterina A; Vaughan, Douglas E

    2014-09-01

    The average age of the US population continues to increase. Age is the most important determinant of disease and disability in humans, but the fundamental mechanisms of aging remain largely unknown. Many age-related diseases are associated with an impaired fibrinolytic system. Elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels are reported in age-associated clinical conditions including cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obesity and inflammation. PAI-1 levels are also elevated in animal models of aging. While the association of PAI-1 with physiological aging is well documented, it is only recently that its critical role in the regulation of aging and senescence has become evident. PAI-1 is synthesized and secreted in senescent cells and contributes directly to the development of senescence by acting downstream of p53 and upstream of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3. Pharmacologic inhibition or genetic deficiency of PAI-1 was shown to be protective against senescence and the aging-like phenotypes in kl/kl and N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester-treated wild-type mice. Further investigation into PAI-1's role in senescence and aging will likely contribute to the prevention and treatment of aging-related pathologies. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Pharmacological modulation of the endotoxin-induced increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor activity in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emeis, J.J.; Hoogen, C.M. van den

    1992-01-01

    Pharmacological modulation of the in vivo induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) synthesis was studied in rats using the induction of PAI-1 by endotoxin as a model system. Both the cyclooxygenase inhibitors acetylsalicylic acid and indomethacin enhanced PAI-1 induction. The

  12. Tissue-type plasminogen activator in somatostatin cells of rat pancreas and hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsson, L I; Danø, K

    1987-01-01

    Plasminogen activators (PAs) proteolytically convert plasminogen to plasmin, which, in turn, can degrade most proteins. This system has been implicated in a variety of biological processes. Using immunocytochemical methods, we here describe the localization of tissue-type PA (t-PA) in rat somatos...... of the hypothalamus. No t-PA immunoreactivity could be detected in somatostatin cells of the gastric and intestinal mucosa....

  13. Photonic Activation of Plasminogen induced by low dose UVB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Correia, Manuel Guiherme L.P. Marins; Snabe, Torben; Thiagarajan, Viruthachalam

    2015-01-01

    ). Such proximity makes its disruption very likely, which may occur upon electron transfer from excited Trp761. Reduction of Cys737-Cys765 will result in likely conformational changes in the catalytic site. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that reduction of Cys737-Cys765 in plasminogen leads to an increase...

  14. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA in sputum of allergic asthma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Zukowski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and its inhibitor (PAI-1 have been associated with asthma. The aim of this study was to evaluate concentration of uPA and PAI-1 in induced sputum of house dust mite allergic asthmatics (HDM-AAs. The study was performed on 19 HDM-AAs and 8 healthy nonatopic controls (HCs. Concentration of uPA and PAI-1 was evaluated in induced sputum supernatants using ELISA method. In HDM-AAs the median sputum concentration of uPA (128 pg/ml; 95% CI 99 to 183 pg/ml and PAI-1 (4063 pg/ml; 95%CI 3319 to 4784 pg/ml were significantly greater than in HCs (17 pg/ml; 95%CI 12 to 32 pg/ml; p<0.001 and 626 pg/ml; 95%CI 357 to 961 pg/ml; p<0.001 for uPA and PAI-1 respectively. The sputum concentration of uPA correlated with sputum total cell count (r=0.781; p=0.0001 and with logarithmically transformed exhaled nitric oxide concentration (eNO (r=0.486; p=0.035 but not with FEV1 or bronchial reactivity to histamine. On the contrary, the sputum PAI-1 concentration correlated with FEV1 (r=-0,718; p=0.0005 and bronchial reactivity to histamine expressed as log(PC20 (r=-0.824; p<0.0001 but did not correlate with sputum total cell count or eNO. The results of this study support previous observations linking PAI-1 with airway remodeling and uPA with cellular inflammation. Moreover, the observed effect of uPA seems to be independent of its fibrynolytic activity.

  15. Activity and expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and matrix metalloproteinases in human colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Dong; Song, Kyoung-Sub; Li, Ge; Choi, Hoon; Park, Hae-Duck; Lim, Kyu; Hwang, Byung-Doo; Yoon, Wan-Hee

    2006-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) are involved in colorectal cancer invasion and metastasis. There is still debate whether the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 differs between tumors located in the colon and rectum. We designed this study to determine any differences in the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and uPA system between colon and rectal cancer tissues. Cancer tissue samples were obtained from colon carcinoma (n = 12) and rectal carcinomas (n = 10). MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels were examined using gelatin zymography and Western blotting; their endogenous inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), were assessed by Western blotting. uPA, uPAR and PAI-1 were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The activity of uPA was assessed by casein-plasminogen zymography. In both colon and rectal tumors, MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 protein levels were higher than in corresponding paired normal mucosa, while TIMP-2 level in tumors was significantly lower than in normal mucosa. The enzyme activities or protein levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and their endogenous inhibitors did not reach a statistically significant difference between colon and rectal cancer compared with their normal mucosa. In rectal tumors, there was an increased activity of uPA compared with the activity in colon tumors (P = 0.0266), however urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) showed no significant difference between colon and rectal cancer tissues. These findings suggest that uPA may be expressed differentially in colon and rectal cancers, however, the activities or protein levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, PAI-1 and uPAR are not affected by tumor location in the colon or the rectum

  16. Tissue-type plasminogen activator-binding RNA aptamers inhibiting low-density lipoprotein receptor family-mediated internalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Nils; Bøtkjær, Kenneth A; Helsen, Nicky; Andreasen, Peter A; Dupont, Daniel M

    2015-07-01

    Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA, trade name Alteplase), currently the only drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of cerebral ischaemic stroke, has been implicated in a number of adverse effects reportedly mediated by interactions with the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) family receptors, including neuronal cell death and an increased risk of cerebral haemorrhage. The tissue-type plasminogen activator is the principal initiator of thrombolysis in human physiology, an effect that is mediated directly via localised activation of the plasmin zymogen plasminogen at the surface of fibrin clots in the vascular lumen. Here, we sought to identify a ligand to tPA capable of inhibiting the relevant LDL family receptors without interfering with the fibrinolytic activity of tPA. Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) was employed to isolate tPA-binding RNA aptamers, which were characterised in biochemical assays of tPA association to low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1, an LDL receptor family member); tPA-mediated in vitro and ex vivo clot lysis; and tPA-mediated plasminogen activation in the absence and presence of a stimulating soluble fibrin fragment. Two aptamers, K18 and K32, had minimal effects on clot lysis, but were able to efficiently inhibit tPA-LRP-1 association and LDL receptor family-mediated endocytosis in human vascular endothelial cells and astrocytes. These observations suggest that coadministration alongside tPA may be a viable strategy to improve the safety of thrombolytic treatment of cerebral ischaemic stroke by restricting tPA activity to the vascular lumen.

  17. Mean transit times and the sites of synthesis and catabolism of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in young subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M; Petersen, K.R.; Vinberg, N

    2001-01-01

    Using an invasive technique, we studied the mean transit time, the net quantitative turnover rate, and the sites of synthesis and catabolism of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in healthy young volunteers in the fasting, steady state. Blood....../min, respectively. The extraction fraction and the mean transit time in the splanchnic circulation were, respectively, 0.63 and 5.6 min for active t-PA and 0.17 and 21 min for t-PA antigen. Active PAI-1 was synthesized in the splanchnic circulation at a rate of 890 IU/min and had a mean transit time of about 9...

  18. Targeting of peptide conjugated magnetic nanoparticles to urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expressing cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line; Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack; Nielsen, Erik Holm

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are currently being used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in vivo, mainly by their passive accumulation in tissues of interest. However, a higher specificity can ideally be achieved when the nanoparticles are targeted...... towards cell specific receptors and this may also facilitate specific drug delivery by an enhanced target-mediated endocytosis. We report efficient peptide-mediated targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to cells expressing the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a surface biomarker for poor...... patient prognosis shared by several cancers including breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. Conjugation of a uPAR specific targeting peptide onto polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated USPIO nanoparticles by click chemistry resulted in a five times higher uptake in vitro in a uPAR positive cell line compared...

  19. A sensitive bioimmunoassay for thrombin-cleaved two-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator in human body fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, E.A.M.; Nauland, U.; Dooijewaard, G.; Rijken, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    Thrombin cleaves single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu-PA) into a two-chain form (tcu-PA/T), which is virtually inactive in plasminogen activator assays. Little is known about the physiological importance of tcu-PA/T. To examine the occurrence of tcu-PA/T in vivo, we developed a

  20. Zymogen-activation kinetics. Modulatory effects of trans-4-(aminomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid and poly-D-lysine on plasminogen activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, L C; Brender, J; Suenson, E

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics of plasminogen activation catalysed by urokinase and tissue-type plasminogen activator were investigated. Kinetic measurements are performed by means of a specific chromogenic peptide substrate for plasmin, D-valyl-L-leucyl-L-lysine 4-nitroanilide. Two methods are proposed for the analysis of the resulting progress curve of nitroaniline formation in terms of zymogen-activation kinetics: a graphical transformation of the parabolic curve and transformation of the curve for nitroaniline production into a linear progress curve by the addition of a specific inhibitor of plasmin, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. The two methods give similar results, suggesting that the reaction between activator and plasminogen is a simple second-order reaction at least at plasminogen concentrations up to about 10 microM. The kinetics of both Glu1-plasminogen (residues 1-790) and Lys77-plasminogen (residues 77-790) activation were investigated. The results confirm previous observations showing that trans-4-(aminomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid at relatively low concentrations enhances the activation rate of Glu1-plasminogen but not that of Lys77-plasminogen. At higher concentrations both Glu1- and Lys77-plasminogen activation are inhibited. The concentration interval for the inhibition of urokinase-catalysed reactions is shown to be very different from that of the tissue-plasminogen activator system. Evidence is presented indicating that binding to the active site of urokinase (KD = 2.0 mM) is responsible for the inhibition of the urokinase system, binding to the active site of tissue-plasminogen activator is approx. 100-fold weaker, and inhibition of the tissue-plasminogen activator system, when monitored by plasmin activity, is mainly due to plasmin inhibition. Poly-D-lysine (Mr 160 000) causes a marked enhancement of plasminogen activation catalysed by tissue-plasminogen activator but not by urokinase. Bell-shaped curves of enhancement as a function of the

  1. Characterization of human endothelial cell urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor protein and messenger RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnathan, E S; Kuo, A; Karikó, K

    1990-01-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture (HUVEC) express receptors for urokinase-type plasminogen activators (u-PA). The immunochemical nature of this receptor and its relationship to u-PA receptors expressed by other cell types is unknown. Cross-linking active site-blocked u-PA to HUVEC...

  2. The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (pai-1) gene locus 4g/5g ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activation of inflammation and coagulation are closely related and mutually interdependent in myocardial infarction (MI). The acute-phase protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), is a key element in the inhibition of fibrinolysis. Elevated levels of PAI-1 have been related to. MI. There are controversial data regarding ...

  3. Relationships between activators and inhibitors of plasminogen, and the progression of small abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Jørgensen, B; Shi, G-P

    2003-01-01

    plasmin is a common activator of the known proteolytic systems involved in the aneurysmal degradation, and is reported to be associated with the expansion of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). The aim of this study was to study the activating pathways of plasminogen as predictors of the progression...

  4. Prevotella intermedia stimulates tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 expression via multiple signaling pathways in human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Su-Min; He, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Ming; Shu, Lei

    2011-06-01

    Prevotella intermedia is an important periodontal pathogen that induces various inflammatory and immune responses. In this study, we investigated the effects of P. intermedia on the plasminogen system in human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells and explored the signaling pathways involved. Using semi-quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and quantitative real-time RT-qPCR, we demonstrated that P. intermedia challenge increased tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-2 expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, but exerted no influence on urokinase-type plasminogen activator and PAI-1mRNA expression in hPDL cells. Prevotella intermedia stimulation also enhanced tPA protein secretion as confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western blot results revealed that P. intermedia treatment increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase (p38). ERK, JNK and protein kinase C inhibitors significantly attenuated the P. intermedia-induced tPA and PAI-2 expression. Furthermore, p38 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors markedly decreased PAI-2 expression, whereas they showed no or little inhibition on tPA expression. In contrast, inhibition of protein kinase A greatly enhanced the upregulatory effect of P. intermedia on tPA and PAI-2 expression. Our results suggest that P. intermedia may contribute to periodontal tissue destruction by upregulating tPA and PAI-2 expression in hPDL cells via multiple signaling pathways. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cell-induced potentiation of the plasminogen activation system is abolished by a monoclonal antibody that recognizes the NH2-terminal domain of the urokinase receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, E; Behrendt, N; Ellis, V

    1991-01-01

    We have raised four monoclonal antibodies recognizing different epitopes within the human cell-surface receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). One of these antibodies completely abolishes the potentiation of plasmin generation observed upon incubation of the zymogens pro...

  6. Phenotypic overlap between MMP-13 and the plasminogen activation system during wound healing in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juncker-Jensen, Anna; Lund, Leif R

    2011-01-01

    Proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix is a crucial step in the healing of incisional skin wounds. Thus, healing of skin wounds is delayed by either plasminogen-deficiency or by treatment with the broad-spectrum metalloproteinase (MP) inhibitor Galardin alone, while the two perturbations...... combined completely prevent wound healing. Both urokinase-type plasminogen activator and several matrix metallo proteinases (MMPs), such as MMP-3, -9 and -13, are expressed in the leading-edge keratinocytes of skin wounds, which may account for this phenotypic overlap between these classes of proteases....

  7. Cell-induced potentiation of the plasminogen activation system is abolished by a monoclonal antibody that recognizes the NH2-terminal domain of the urokinase receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, E; Behrendt, N; Ellis, V

    1991-01-01

    -u-PA and plasminogen with U937 cells. This antibody, which is also the only one to completely inhibit the binding of DFP-inactivated [125I]-u-PA to U937 cells, is directed against the u-PA binding NH2-terminal domain of u-PAR, a well-defined fragment formed by limited chymotrypsin digestion of purified u......-PAR, demonstrating the functional independence of the u-PA binding domain as well as the critical role of u-PAR in the assembly of the cell-surface plasminogen activation system....

  8. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 regulates microglial motility and phagocytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Hyejin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1 is the primary inhibitor of urokinase type plasminogen activators (uPA and tissue type plasminogen activators (tPA, which mediate fibrinolysis. PAI-1 is also involved in the innate immunity by regulating cell migration and phagocytosis. However, little is known about the role of PAI-1 in the central nervous system. Methods In this study, we identified PAI-1 in the culture medium of mouse mixed glial cells by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Secretion of PAI-1 from glial cultures was detected by ELISA and western blotting analysis. Cell migration was evaluated by in vitro scratch-wound healing assay or Boyden chamber assay and an in vivo stab wound injury model. Phagocytic activity was measured by uptake of zymosan particles. Results The levels of PAI-1 mRNA and protein expression were increased by lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ stimulation in both microglia and astrocytes. PAI-1 promoted the migration of microglial cells in culture via the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP 1/Janus kinase (JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1 axis. PAI-1 also increased microglial migration in vivo when injected into mouse brain. PAI-1-mediated microglial migration was independent of protease inhibition, because an R346A mutant of PAI-1 with impaired PA inhibitory activity also promoted microglial migration. Moreover, PAI-1 was able to modulate microglial phagocytic activity. PAI-1 inhibited microglial engulfment of zymosan particles in a vitronectin- and Toll-like receptor 2/6-dependent manner. Conclusion Our results indicate that glia-derived PAI-1 may regulate microglial migration and phagocytosis in an autocrine or paracrine manner. This may have important implications in the regulation of brain microglial activities in health and disease.

  9. Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Levels in Patients With Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Røge, Rasmus; Pristed, Sofie Gry

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiology of schizophrenia remains largely unknown but alterations in the immune system may be involved. In addition to the psychiatric symptoms, schizophrenia is also associated with up to 20 years reduction in life span. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPA...

  10. A sensitive bioimmunoassay for thrombin-cleaved two-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, E.A.M.; Nauland, U.; Dooijewaard, G.; Rijken, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    Thrombin cleaves single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu-PA) into a virtually inactive two-chain form (tcu-PA/T). Little is known about the physiological importance of tcu-PA/T. To examine the occurrence of tcu-PA/T in vivo, we developed a sensitive and specific bioimmunoassay (BIA)

  11. Tumor necrosis factor induces the production of urokinase-type plasminogen activator by human endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van; Berg, E.A. van den; Fiers, W.; Dooijewaard, G.

    1990-01-01

    Endothelial cells play an important role in the regulation of fibrinolysis by the production of several key regulatory proteins. The cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF), lymphotoxin, and interleukin-1 (IL-1), but not interleukin-6, increase the production of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

  12. Central venous catheter associated thrombosis of major veins: thrombolytic treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenhuis, S.; van't Hek, L. G.; Vlasveld, L. T.; Kröger, R.; Dubbelman, R.; van Tol, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    Major thromboses can occur in the venous system in association with central venous catheters. This usually necessitates removal of the catheter. The effectiveness of low dose recombinant tissue type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in combination with heparin was assessed in patients with central

  13. Inactivation of single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator by thrombin in human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, E. A.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Bos, R.; Haverkate, F.; Lassen, M. R.; de Maat, M. P.; Rijken, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    Thrombin cleaves single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu-PA) into a virtually inactive two-chain form (tcu-PA/T), a process that may protect a blood clot from early fibrinolysis. It is not known under what circumstances tcu-PA/T can be generated in vivo. We have studied the occurrence

  14. Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor for Risk Prediction in Patients Admitted with Acute Chest Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbæk, Stig; Andersson, Charlotte; Marott, Jacob L

    2013-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) predict mortality in several clinical settings, but the long-term prognostic importance of suPAR in chest pain patients admitted on suspicion of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS) is uncertain....

  15. Statin Use and Functional Outcome after Tissue Plasminogen Activator Treatment in Acute Ischaemic Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, I; Uyttenboogaart, M; Koopman, K; De Keyser, J; Luijckx, G J

    Background: Preliminary findings suggest that statins may have a neuroprotective effect in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. This study investigated whether patients prior on statin therapy and treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for acute ischaemic stroke have a better functional

  16. Causal effect of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 on coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Ci; Burgess, Stephen; Eicher, John D.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Huang, Jie; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Shin, So Youn; Ding, Jingzhong; Baumert, Jens; Oudot-Mellakh, Tiphaine; Folkersen, Lasse; Smith, Nicholas L.; Williams, Scott M; Ikram, Mohammad Arfan; Kleber, Marcus E.; Becker, Diane M.; Truong, Vinh; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Tang, Weihong; Yang, Qiong; Sennblad, Bengt; Moore, Jason H; Williams, Frances M.K.; Dehghan, Abbas; Silbernagel, Günther; Schrijvers, Elisabeth M.C.; Smith, Shelly; Karakas, Mahir; Tofler, Geoffrey H.; Silveira, Angela; Navis, Gerjan J.; Lohman, Kurt; Chen, Ming Huei; Peters, Annette; Goel, Anuj; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Chambers, John C.; Saleheen, Danish; Lundmark, Per; Psaty, Bruce M.; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Carter, Angela M.; Meisinger, Christa; Peden, John F.; Bis, Joshua C.; McKnight, Barbara; Öhrvik, John; Taylor, Kent D.; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Seedorf, Udo; Collins, Rory; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Goodall, Alison H.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Cushman, Mary; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Folsom, Aaron R.; Basu, Saonli; Matijevic, Nena; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Danesh, John; Clarke, Robert; Meigs, James B; Kathiresan, Sekar; Reilly, Muredach P; Klopp, Norman; Harris, Tamara B.; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Grant, Peter J.; Hillege, Hans L.; Watkins, Hugh; Spector, Timothy D; Becker, Lewis C; Tracy, Russell P.; März, Winfried; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Eriksson, Per; Cambien, Francois; Morange, Pierre Emmanuel; Koenig, Wolfgang; Soranzo, Nicole; van der Harst, Pim; Liu, Yongmei; Hamsten, Anders; Ehret, Georg B.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Bochud, Murielle; Chasman, Daniel I.; Smith, Albert V.; Tobin, Martin D; Verwoert, Germaine C; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Pihur, Vasyl; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L.; Launer, Lenore J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Heath, Simon; Sõber, Siim; Parsa, Afshin; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Hicks, Andrew A.; Jackson, Anne U.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wild, Sarah H.; Rudan, Igor; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N.; Fava, Cristiano; Fox, Ervin R.; Kumari, Meena; Go, Min Jin; Linda Kao, Wen Hong; Sjögren, Marketa; Vinay, D. G.; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H.; Shi, Gang; Kuusisto, Johanna; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Nguyen, Khanh Dung Hoang; Lehtimäki, Terho; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wu, Ying; Gaunt, Tom R.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cooper, Matthew N.; Platou, Carl G P; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Vitart, Veronique; Braund, Peter S; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S.P.M.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Palmas, Walter R.; Campbell, Harry; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Chang, Yen Pei C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Arking, Dan E.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Najjar, Samer; McArdle, Wendy L.; Hadley, David; Brown, Morris J; Connell, John M; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Day, Ian N M; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Beilby, John P.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Ongen, Halit; Dreisbach, Albert W; Li, Yali; Young, J. Hunter; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma S.; Adair, Linda S.; Lee, Nanette R.; Olden, Matthias; Pattaro, Cristian; Hoffman Bolton, Judith A.; Köttgen, Anna; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Chaturvedi, Nish; Frayling, Timothy M.; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Grässler, Jürgen; Groop, Leif C.; Voight, Benjamin F; Kettunen, Johannes; Howard, Philip; Taylor, Andrew; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Barroso, Inês; Khaw, Kay Tee; Weder, Alan B.; Hunt, Steven C.; Sun, Yan V.; Bergman, Richard N.; Collins, Francis S.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Scott, Laura J; Stringham, Heather M.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan Martin; Staessen, Jan A.; Wang, Thomas J.; Burton, Paul R.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt; Rudock, Megan E.; Heckbert, Susan R; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Doumatey, Ayo; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D.; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; Forrester, Terrence; Hilton, Gina; McKenzie, Colin A.; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung Lae; Lee, Jong-Young; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S.; Zhang, Weihua; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter M.; Smith, George Davey; Wong, Andrew; Narisu, Narisu; Stančáková, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J.; Yao, Jie; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Arfan Ikram, M.; Longstreth, W.T. jr.; Mosley, Thomas H; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R.G.; Wain, Louise V.; Morken, Mario A.; Swift, Amy J.; Laitinen, Jaana; Prokopenko, Inga; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Rasheed, Asif; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Mani, K. Radha; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U.S.; Oostra, Ben A.; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lakatta, Edward G; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J.; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Würtz, Peter; Ong, Rick Twee Hee; Dörr, Marcus; Kroemer, Heyo K; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Deloukas, Panos; Mangino, Massimo; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F.; Nalls, Michael A.; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kumar, M. V.Kranthi; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Charchar, Fadi J; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Hayward, Caroline; Guo, Xiuqing; Rotimi, Charles N.; Bots, Michiel L.; Brand, Eva; Samani, Nilesh J.; Polasek, Ozren; Talmud, Philippa J.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Kuh, Diana; Laan, Maris; Hveem, Kristian; Palmer, Lyle J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Casas, Juan P.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Vineis, Paolo; Raitakari, Olli T.; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Wong, Tien-Yin; Shyong Tai, E.; Cooper, Richard S.; Laakso, Markku; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Morris, Richard W.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Kivimaki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G.; Miki, Tetsuro; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Coresh, Josef; Navis, Gerjan J.; Salomaa, Veikko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Melander, Olle; Ridker, Paul M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B.; Wright, Alan F.; Wilson, James F.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Farrall, Martin; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Elosua, Roberto; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rettig, Rainer; Uda, Manuela; Strachan, David P.; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Boehnke, Michael; Larson, Martin G.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Elliott, Paul; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Levy, Daniel; Caulfield, Mark J.; Johnson, Toby; van der Lugt, Aad; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Hofman, Albert; Kraja, Aldi T.; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Ziegler, Andreas; Newman, Anne B; Schillert, Arne; Oostra, Ben A.; Thorsson, Bolli; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Fox, Caroline S.; White, Charles C.; Ballantyne, Christie; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Herrington, David M.; O'Leary, Daniel H.; Siscovick, David S.; Couper, David J; Halperin, Eran; Stoegerer, Eva Maria; Ernst, Florian; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Homuth, Georg; Heiss, Gerardo; Usala, Gianluca; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Shen, Haiqing; Erich Wichmann, H.; Schmidt, Helena; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Markus, Hugh S.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Lüdemann, Jan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Thiery, Joachim; Seissler, Jochen; Massaro, Joseph M.; Polak, Joseph F.; Cunningham, Julie; North, Kari E.; Petrovic, Katja E; Rice, Kenneth M.; Adrienne Cupples, L.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Launer, Lenore J.; de Andrade, Mariza; Feitosa, Mary F.; Kavousi, Maryam; Sitzer, Matthias; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Province, Michael A.; Nalls, Michael A.; Franceschini, Nora; Peyser, Patricia A.; Wolf, Philip A.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Wild, Philipp S; Schnabel, Renate B.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Chilukoti, Ravi Kumar; Schmidt, Reinhold; Sanna, Serena; Demissie, Serkalem; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Blankenberg, Stefan; Bevan, Steve; Elias-Smale, Suzette E.; Zeller, Tanja; Illig, Thomas; Münzel, Thomas; Howard, Timothy D.; Hoffmann, Udo; Schminke, Ulf; Nambi, Vijay; Post, Wendy S.; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Li, Xia; Cheng, Yu Ching

    2017-01-01

    Background--Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) plays an essential role in the fibrinolysis system and thrombosis. Population studies have reported that blood PAI-1 levels are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, it is unclear whether the association

  17. The pro-urokinase plasminogen-activation system in the presence of serpin-type inhibitors and the urokinase receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Niels; List, Karin; Andreasen, Peter A

    2003-01-01

    The reciprocal pro-enzyme activation system of plasmin, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and their respective zymogens is a potent mechanism in the generation of extracellular proteolytic activity. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) acts as a negative regulator. This system...... is complicated by a poorly understood intrinsic reactivity of the uPA pro-enzyme (pro-uPA) before proteolytic activation, directed against both plasminogen and PAI-1. We have studied the integrated activation mechanism under the repression of PAI-1 in a purified system. A covalent reaction between pro...

  18. Comparison of the inhibition of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) activity by monoclonal antibodies specific for u-PA as assessed by different assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boheemen, P.A. van; Hoogen, N.M. van den; Koolwijk, N.

    1995-01-01

    Six murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) were tested for their ability to inhibit u-PA activity in three different assays with respect to amidolytic activity, plasminogen activation and fibrinolytic activity. Two of the MAbs were able to

  19. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, free fatty acids, and insulin resistance in patients with myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruzdeva O

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Olga Gruzdeva, Evgenya Uchasova, Yulia Dyleva, Ekaterina Belik, Ekaterina Shurygina, Olga Barbarash Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases under the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Kemerovo, Russian Federation Background: Insulin resistance is known to be a common feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus and is regarded as an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of this disease. The key pathogenetic mechanisms of insulin resistance progression are free fatty acids metabolism impairment and enhanced activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. Both free fatty acids and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 are recognized as risk factors for coronary heart disease. Methods: The patients were divided into two groups: group 1 included 65 non-diabetic myocardial infarction patients and group 2 enrolled 60 diabetic myocardial infarction patients. The control group consisted of 30 sex- and age-matched volunteers. The concentration of serum free fatty acids, glucose, C-peptide, and insulin were measured on the 1st and 12th days of the study. All the patients had their postprandial glycemia, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations measured 2 hours after a standard carbohydrate breakfast containing 360 kcal (protein 20 g, carbohydrate 57 g, and fat 9 g. Results: Free fatty acids levels in group 1 and in group 2 exceeded the control group values by 7-fold and 11-fold, respectively. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 concentration was 2.5-fold higher in group 1 and 4.6-fold higher in group 2 compared to the control group on the 1st day from the myocardial infarction onset. In addition, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 concentration was significantly reduced in both groups on the 12th day from the myocardial infarction onset; however, it did not achieve the control group values. Conclusion: Increased postprandial glucose level, insulinemia, and elevated levels of free fatty acids and plasminogen activator

  20. Effect of purified, soluble urokinase receptor on the plasminogen-prourokinase activation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Danø, K

    1996-01-01

    The extracellular proteolytic pathway mediated by the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is a cascade system, initiated by activation of the zymogen, pro-uPA. Pro-uPA as well as uPA binds to the cellular uPA receptor (uPAR) which has a central function in cell-dependent acceleration of the cas......The extracellular proteolytic pathway mediated by the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is a cascade system, initiated by activation of the zymogen, pro-uPA. Pro-uPA as well as uPA binds to the cellular uPA receptor (uPAR) which has a central function in cell-dependent acceleration...

  1. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 polymers, induced by inactivating amphipathic organochemical ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Katrine E; Einholm, Anja P; Christensen, Anni

    2003-01-01

    Negatively charged organochemical inactivators of the anti-proteolytic activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) convert it to inactive polymers. As investigated by native gel electrophoresis, the size of the PAI-1 polymers ranged from dimers to multimers of more than 20 units...... to beta-sheet A in another molecule. Induction of serpin polymerization by small organochemical ligands is a novel finding and is of protein chemical interest in relation to pathological protein polymerization in general. Udgivelsesdato: 2003-Jun-15...

  2. Antibody-mediated Targeting of the Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator Proteolytic Function Neutralizes Fibrinolysis in Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ida K.; Jögi, Annika; Rono, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    models, we have now developed murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against murine uPA by immunization of uPA-deficient mice with the recombinant protein. Guided by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, surface plasmon resonance, and enzyme kinetic analyses, we have selected two...... highly potent and inhibitory anti-uPA mAbs (mU1 and mU3). Both mAbs recognize epitopes located on the B-chain of uPA that encompasses the catalytic site. In enzyme activity assays in vitro, mU1 blocked uPA-catalyzed plasminogen activation as well as plasmin-mediated pro-uPA activation, whereas mU3 only...... fibrinolysis in tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)-deficient mice, resulting in a phenotype mimicking that of uPA;tPA double deficient mice. Importantly, this is the first report demonstrating specific antagonist-directed targeting of mouse uPA at the enzyme activity level in a normal physiological...

  3. Acute ischemic stroke after cardiac catheterization: the protamine low-dose recombinant tissue plasminogen activator pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Carlos; Quijada, Alonso; Rosas, Carolina; Bulatova, Katya; Lara, Hugo; Nieto, Elena; Morales, Marcelo

    2017-04-01

    : Intravenous thrombolysis is the preferred treatment for acute ischemic stroke; however, it remains unestablished in the area of cardiac catheterization. We report three patients with acute ischemic stroke after cardiac catheterization. After reversing the anticoagulant effect of unfractionated heparin with protamine, all of the patients were successfully off-label thrombolyzed with reduced doses of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (0.6 mg/kg). This dose was preferred to reduce the risk of symptomatic cerebral or systemic bleeding. The sequential pathway of protamine recombinant tissue plasminogen activator at reduced doses may be safer for reducing intracranial or systemic bleeding events, whereas remaining efficacious for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke after cardiac catheterization.

  4. Inhibition of receptor-bound urokinase by plasminogen-activator inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, Vincent John; Wun, T C; Behrendt, N

    1990-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) binds to a specific receptor on various cell types, the bound molecule retaining its enzymatic activity against plasminogen. We have now investigated whether receptor-bound uPA also retains the ability to react with and be inhibited by plasminogen...... activator inhibitors (PAI-1 and PAI-2). uPA bound to its receptor on human U937 monocyte-like cells was inhibited by PAI-1 (in its active form in the presence of vitronectin fragments) with an association rate constant of 4.5 x 10(6) M-1 s-1, which was 40% lower than that obtained for uPA in solution (7.9 x...... 10(6) M-1 s-1). The inhibition of uPA by PAI-2 was decreased to a similar extent by receptor binding, falling from 5.3 x 10(5) to 3.3 x 10(5) M-1 s-1. Stimulation of U937 cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate was accompanied by a further reduction in receptor-bound uPA inhibition by PAI-1...

  5. Central Venous Catheter-directed Tissue Plasminogen Activator in Massive Pulmonary Embolism

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Gulati

    2018-01-01

    We present the case of an 88-year-old female who presented to the emergency department (ED) with suspected massive pulmonary embolism (PE) causing respiratory failure, right heart strain, and shock, who despite early and aggressive resuscitation with vasopressors and continuous peripheral infusion of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), suffered a cardiac arrest in the ED. We describe the approach of a tPA bolus directed through a central venous catheter, resulting in return of spontaneous cir...

  6. Association of Geographical Factors With Administration of Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Kunisawa, Susumu; Morishima, Toshitaka; Ukawa, Naoto; Ikai, Hiroshi; Otsubo, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Koichi B.; Yokota, Chiaki; Minematsu, Kazuo; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Background Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is an effective treatment for acute ischemic stroke if administered within a few hours of stroke onset. Because of this time restriction, tPA administration remains infrequent. Ambulance use is an effective strategy for increasing tPA administration but may be influenced by geographical factors. The objectives of this study are to investigate the relationship between tPA administration and ambulance use and to examine how patient trave...

  7. Plasminogen-dependent and -independent proteolytic activity of murine endothelioma cells with targeted inactivation of fibrinolytic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijnen, H R; Wagner, E F; Collen, D

    1997-02-01

    Plasminogen-dependent and -independent proteolytic activity of marine endothelioma (End) cells that were derived from mice with targeted inactivation of the tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA-/-), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA-/-) or plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1-/-) genes was studied with the use of fibrin and extracellular matrix degradation assays. In a buffer milieu, the activation rate of plasminogen (final concentration 0.25 microM) with wild-type and t-PA-/- End cells (3 x 10(4) to 4 x 10(6) cells/ml) was comparable, but it was about 4-fold reduced with u-PA-/- End cells and 3-fold enhanced with PAI-1-/- End cells. Plasminogen activation was markedly reduced by addition of amiloride or of anti-murine u-PA antibodies but not by addition of anti-murine t-PA antibodies, and it was not stimulated by addition of fibrin. Lysis of 125I-fibrin labeled matrix in the presence of plasminogen was comparable with wild-type, t-PA-/- and PAI-1-/- End cells (50% lysis in 3 h with 0.7 to 1.5 x 10(6) cells/ml), but was significantly reduced with u-PA-/- End cells (50% lysis in 20 h with 0.87 x 10(6) cells/ml). Lysis of 3H-proline labeled extracellular matrix in the presence of plasminogen with wild-type, t-PA-/- and PAI-1-/- End cells (20% lysis in 48 h with 3 to 5 x 10(6) cells/ml) was comparable, but it was virtually abolished with u-PA-/- End cells. In the absence of plasminogen, lysis of both the fibrin and the extracellular matrix by all four cell types was drastically reduced and was virtually abolished by addition of phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride or 1,10 phenanthroline. These data indicate that the proteolytic activity of the transformed murine endothelioma cells, measured in plasminogen activation or matrix degradation assays, is essentially u-PA-related and largely plasminogen-dependent.

  8. Tissue-type plasminogen activator contributes to remodeling of the rat ductus arteriosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Junichi; Nicho, Naoki; Zheng, Yun-Wen; Ichikawa, Yasuhiro; Ito, Satoko; Umemura, Masanari; Fujita, Takayuki; Ito, Shuichi; Taniguchi, Hideki; Asou, Toshihide; Masuda, Munetaka; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2018-01-01

    Aims The ductus arteriosus (DA) closes after birth to adapt to the robust changes in hemodynamics, which require intimal thickening (IT) to occur. The smooth muscle cells of the DA have been reported to play important roles in IT formation. However, the roles of the endothelial cells (ECs) have not been fully investigated. We herein focused on tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), which is a DA EC dominant gene, and investigated its contribution to IT formation in the DA. Methods and results ECs from the DA and aorta were isolated from fetal rats using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. RT-PCR showed that the t-PA mRNA expression level was 2.7-fold higher in DA ECs than in aortic ECs from full-term rat fetuses (gestational day 21). A strong immunoreaction for t-PA was detected in pre-term and full-term rat DA ECs. t-PA-mediated plasminogen-plasmin conversion activates gelatinase matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Gelatin zymography revealed that plasminogen supplementation significantly promoted activation of the elastolytic enzyme MMP-2 in rat DA ECs. In situ zymography demonstrated that marked gelatinase activity was observed at the site of disruption in the internal elastic laminae (IEL) in full-term rat DA. In a three-dimensional vascular model, EC-mediated plasminogen-plasmin conversion augmented the IEL disruption. In vivo administration of plasminogen to pre-term rat fetuses (gestational day 19), in which IT is poorly formed, promoted IEL disruption accompanied by gelatinase activation and enhanced IT formation in the DA. Additionally, experiments using five human DA tissues demonstrated that the t-PA expression level was 3.7-fold higher in the IT area than in the tunica media. t-PA protein expression and gelatinase activity were also detected in the IT area of the human DAs. Conclusion t-PA expressed in ECs may help to form IT of the DA via activation of MMP-2 and disruption of IEL. PMID:29304073

  9. Metastasis of transgenic breast cancer in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almholt, Kasper; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Frandsen, Thomas Leth

    2003-01-01

    of metastasizing breast cancer. In these tumors, the expression pattern of uPA and PAI-1 resembles that of human ductal breast cancer and plasminogen is required for efficient metastasis. In a cohort of 63 transgenic mice that were either PAI-1-deficient or wild-type sibling controls, primary tumor growth......, high levels of PAI-1 as well as uPA are equally associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients. PAI-1 is thought to play a vital role for the controlled extracellular proteolysis during tumor neovascularization. We have studied the effect of PAI-1 deficiency in a transgenic mouse model...... and vascular density were unaffected by PAI-1 status. PAI-1 deficiency also did not significantly affect the lung metastatic burden. These results agree with the virtual lack of spontaneous phenotype in PAI-1-deficient mice and humans and may reflect that the plasminogen activation reaction is not rate...

  10. Variable Resistance to Plasminogen Activator Initiated Fibrinolysis for Intermediate-Risk Pulmonary Embolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Stubblefield

    Full Text Available We examine the clinical significance and biomarkers of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA-catalyzed clot lysis time (CLT in patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism (PE.Platelet-poor, citrated plasma was obtained from patients with PE. Healthy age- and sex-matched patients served as disease-negative controls. Fibrinogen, α2-antiplasmin, plasminogen, thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI, plasminogen activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, thrombin time and D-dimer were quantified. Clotting was induced using CaCl2, tissue factor, and phospholipid. Lysis was induced using 60 ng/mL tPA. Time to 50% clot lysis (CLT was assessed by both thromboelastography (TEG and turbidimetry (A405.Compared with disease-negative controls, patients with PE exhibited significantly longer mean CLT on TEG (+2,580 seconds, 95% CI 1,380 to 3,720 sec. Patients with PE and a short CLT who were treated with tenecteplase had increased risk of bleeding, whereas those with long CLT had significantly worse exercise tolerance and psychometric testing for quality of life at 3 months. A multivariate stepwise removal regression model selected PAI-1 and TAFI as predictive biomarkers of CLT.The CLT from TEG predicted increased risk of bleeding and clinical failure with tenecteplase treatment for intermediate-risk PE. Plasmatic PAI-1 and TAFI were independent predictors of CLT.

  11. Variable Resistance to Plasminogen Activator Initiated Fibrinolysis for Intermediate-Risk Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, William B; Alves, Nathan J; Rondina, Matthew T; Kline, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    We examine the clinical significance and biomarkers of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-catalyzed clot lysis time (CLT) in patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism (PE). Platelet-poor, citrated plasma was obtained from patients with PE. Healthy age- and sex-matched patients served as disease-negative controls. Fibrinogen, α2-antiplasmin, plasminogen, thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), plasminogen activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), thrombin time and D-dimer were quantified. Clotting was induced using CaCl2, tissue factor, and phospholipid. Lysis was induced using 60 ng/mL tPA. Time to 50% clot lysis (CLT) was assessed by both thromboelastography (TEG) and turbidimetry (A405). Compared with disease-negative controls, patients with PE exhibited significantly longer mean CLT on TEG (+2,580 seconds, 95% CI 1,380 to 3,720 sec). Patients with PE and a short CLT who were treated with tenecteplase had increased risk of bleeding, whereas those with long CLT had significantly worse exercise tolerance and psychometric testing for quality of life at 3 months. A multivariate stepwise removal regression model selected PAI-1 and TAFI as predictive biomarkers of CLT. The CLT from TEG predicted increased risk of bleeding and clinical failure with tenecteplase treatment for intermediate-risk PE. Plasmatic PAI-1 and TAFI were independent predictors of CLT.

  12. Proteolysis of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 by Yersinia pestis remodulates the host environment to promote virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, J L; Schroeder, J A; Zimbler, D L; Caulfield, A J; Lathem, W W

    2016-09-01

    Essentials Effect of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 on plague and its Y. pestis cleavage is unknown. An intranasal mouse model of infection was used to determine the role of PAI-1 in pneumonic plague. PAI-1 is cleaved and inactivated by the Pla protease of Y. pestis in the lung airspace. PAI-1 impacts both bacterial outgrowth and the immune response to respiratory Y. pestis infection. Click to hear Dr Bock discuss pathogen activators of plasminogen. Background The hemostatic regulator plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) inactivates endogenous plasminogen activators and aids in the immune response to bacterial infection. Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, produces the Pla protease, a virulence factor that is required during plague. However, the specific hemostatic proteins cleaved by Pla in vivo that contribute to pathogenesis have not yet been fully elucidated. Objectives To determine whether PAI-1 is cleaved by the Pla protease during pneumonic plague, and to define the impact of PAI-1 on Y. pestis respiratory infection in the presence or absence of Pla. Methods An intranasal mouse model of pneumonic plague was used to assess the levels of total and active PAI-1 in the lung airspace, and the impact of PAI-1 deficiency on bacterial pathogenesis, the host immune response and plasmin generation following infection with wild-type or ∆pla Y. pestis. Results We found that Y. pestis cleaves and inactivates PAI-1 in the lungs in a Pla-dependent manner. The loss of PAI-1 enhances Y. pestis outgrowth in the absence of Pla, and is associated with increased conversion of plasminogen to plasmin. Furthermore, we found that PAI-1 regulates immune cell recruitment, cytokine production and tissue permeability during pneumonic plague. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that PAI-1 is an in vivo target of the Pla protease in the lungs, and that PAI-1 is a key regulator of the pulmonary innate immune response. We conclude that the inactivation of PAI-1 by Y

  13. Preferential Acquisition and Activation of Plasminogen Glycoform II by PAM Positive Group A Streptococcal Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, David M P; Law, Ruby H P; Ly, Diane; Cook, Simon M; Quek, Adam J; McArthur, Jason D; Whisstock, James C; Sanderson-Smith, Martina L

    2015-06-30

    Plasminogen (Plg) circulates in the host as two predominant glycoforms. Glycoform I Plg (GI-Plg) contains glycosylation sites at Asn289 and Thr346, whereas glycoform II Plg (GII-Plg) is exclusively glycosylated at Thr346. Surface plasmon resonance experiments demonstrated that Plg binding group A streptococcal M protein (PAM) exhibits comparative equal affinity for GI- and GII-Plg in the "closed" conformation (for GII-Plg, KD = 27.4 nM; for GI-Plg, KD = 37.0 nM). When Plg was in the "open" conformation, PAM exhibited an 11-fold increase in affinity for GII-Plg (KD = 2.8 nM) compared with that for GI-Plg (KD = 33.2 nM). The interaction of PAM with Plg is believed to be mediated by lysine binding sites within kringle (KR) 2 of Plg. PAM-GI-Plg interactions were fully inhibited with 100 mM lysine analogue ε-aminocaproic acid (εACA), whereas PAM-GII-Plg interactions were shown to be weakened but not inhibited in the presence of 400 mM εACA. In contrast, binding to the KR1-3 domains of GII-Plg (angiostatin) by PAM was completely inhibited in the presence 5 mM εACA. Along with PAM, emm pattern D GAS isolates express a phenotypically distinct SK variant (type 2b SK) that requires Plg ligands such as PAM to activate Plg. Type 2b SK was able to generate an active site and activate GII-Plg at a rate significantly higher than that of GI-Plg when bound to PAM. Taken together, these data suggest that GAS selectively recruits and activates GII-Plg. Furthermore, we propose that the interaction between PAM and Plg may be partially mediated by a secondary binding site outside of KR2, affected by glycosylation at Asn289.

  14. Jet and ultrasonic nebulization of single chain urokinase plasminogen activator (scu-PA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Anna-Marie; Bendstrup, E; Jensen, J.I.

    2000-01-01

    locally by nebulization in a recombinant zymogen form as single chain urokinase plasminogen activator (scu-PA). We aimed to characterize the particle size distribution, drug output, and enzymatic activity of scu-PA after nebulization with a Ventstream jet nebulizer (Medic-Aid, Bognor Regis, UK) and a Syst......'AM DP-100 ultrasonic nebulizer (Pulmolink, Kent, UK). The particle size distribution was measured with a laser diffraction method and the drug output was determined by collection on filters. The amount of protein on the filters was determined with the Lowry method, and the enzymatic activity after...... in terms of particle size distribution and preservation of fibrinolytic activity....

  15. Two distinct expression patterns of urokinase, urokinase receptor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in colon cancer liver metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illemann, Martin; Bird, Nigel; Majeed, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Metastatic growth and invasion by colon cancer cells in the liver requires the ability of the cancer cells to interact with the new tissue environment. Plasmin(ogen) is activated on cell surfaces by urokinase-type PA (uPA), and is regulated by uPAR and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1......). To compare the expression patterns of uPA, uPAR and PAI-1 in colon cancer with that in their liver metastases, we analysed matched samples from 14 patients. In all 14 primary colon cancers, we found upregulation of uPAR, uPA mRNA and PAI-1 in primarily stromal cells at the invasive front. In 5 of the 14......, whereas 8 of the remaining 9 showed direct contact between the cancer cells and the liver parenchyma. We conclude that there are 2 distinct patterns of expression of uPAR, uPA and PAI-1 in colon cancer liver metastases and that these correlate closely with 2 morphological growth patterns. These findings...

  16. Prognostic significance of urokinase plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mRNA expression in lymph node- and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Alexander

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most thoroughly studied systems in relation to its prognostic relevance in patients with breast cancer, is the plasminogen activation system that comprises of, among others, the urokinase Plasminogen Activator (uPA and its main inhibitor, the Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. In this study, we investigated the prognostic value of uPA and PAI-1 at the mRNA level in lymph node- and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Methods The study included a retrospective series of 87 patients with hormone-receptor positive and axillary lymph node-positive breast cancer. All patients received radiotherapy, adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy and five years of tamoxifen treatment. The median patient age was 54 and the median follow-up time was 79 months. Distant relapse occurred in 30 patients and 22 patients died from breast cancer during follow-up. We investigated the prognostic value of uPA and PAI-1 at the mRNA level as measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Results uPA and PAI-1 gene expression was not found to be correlated with any of the established clinical and pathological factors. Metastasis-free Survival (MFS and Breast Cancer specific Survival (BCS were significantly shorter in patients expressing high levels of PAI-1 mRNA (p PAI-1 mRNA appeared to be the strongest prognostic factor for MFS (Hazard Ratio (HR = 10.12; p = 0.0002 and for BCS (HR = 13.17; p = 0.0003. Furthermore, uPA gene expression was not significantly associated neither with MFS (p = 0.41 nor with BCS (p = 0.19. In a Cox-multivariate regression analysis, uPA expression did not demonstrate significant independent prognostic value. Conclusion These findings indicate that high PAI-1 mRNA expression represents a strong and independent unfavorable prognostic factor for the development of metastases and for breast cancer specific survival in a population of hormone receptor- and lymph node-positive breast cancer patients.

  17. Prognostic significance of urokinase plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mRNA expression in lymph node- and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leissner, Philippe; Verjat, Thibault; Bachelot, Thomas; Paye, Malick; Krause, Alexander; Puisieux, Alain; Mougin, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    One of the most thoroughly studied systems in relation to its prognostic relevance in patients with breast cancer, is the plasminogen activation system that comprises of, among others, the urokinase Plasminogen Activator (uPA) and its main inhibitor, the Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). In this study, we investigated the prognostic value of uPA and PAI-1 at the mRNA level in lymph node- and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. The study included a retrospective series of 87 patients with hormone-receptor positive and axillary lymph node-positive breast cancer. All patients received radiotherapy, adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy and five years of tamoxifen treatment. The median patient age was 54 and the median follow-up time was 79 months. Distant relapse occurred in 30 patients and 22 patients died from breast cancer during follow-up. We investigated the prognostic value of uPA and PAI-1 at the mRNA level as measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. uPA and PAI-1 gene expression was not found to be correlated with any of the established clinical and pathological factors. Metastasis-free Survival (MFS) and Breast Cancer specific Survival (BCS) were significantly shorter in patients expressing high levels of PAI-1 mRNA (p < 0.0001; p < 0.0001; respectively). In Cox multivariate analysis, the level of PAI-1 mRNA appeared to be the strongest prognostic factor for MFS (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 10.12; p = 0.0002) and for BCS (HR = 13.17; p = 0.0003). Furthermore, uPA gene expression was not significantly associated neither with MFS (p = 0.41) nor with BCS (p = 0.19). In a Cox-multivariate regression analysis, uPA expression did not demonstrate significant independent prognostic value. These findings indicate that high PAI-1 mRNA expression represents a strong and independent unfavorable prognostic factor for the development of metastases and for breast cancer specific survival in a population of hormone receptor- and lymph node-positive breast cancer

  18. The interaction of streptococcal enolase with canine plasminogen: the role of surfaces in complex formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Balhara

    Full Text Available The enolase from Streptococcus pyogenes (Str enolase F137L/E363G is a homo-octamer shaped like a donut. Plasminogen (Pgn is a monomeric protein composed of seven discrete separated domains organized into a lock washer. The enolase is known to bind Pgn. In past work we searched for conditions in which the two proteins would bind to one another. The two native proteins in solution would not bind under any of the tried conditions. We found that if the structures were perturbed binding would occur. We stated that only the non-native Str enolase or Pgn would interact such that we could detect binding. We report here the results of a series of dual polarization interferometry (DPI experiments coupled with atomic force microscopy (AFM, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC, dynamic light scattering (DLS, and fluorescence. We show that the critical condition for forming stable complexes of the two native proteins involves Str enolase binding to a surface. Surfaces that attract Str enolase are a sufficient condition for binding Pgn. Under certain conditions, Pgn adsorbed to a surface will bind Str enolase.

  19. Analysis of five streptokinase formulations using the euglobulin lysis test and the plasminogen activation assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couto L.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptokinase, a 47-kDa protein isolated and secreted by most group A, C and G ß-hemolytic streptococci, interacts with and activates human protein plasminogen to form an active complex capable of converting other plasminogen molecules to plasmin. Our objective was to compare five streptokinase formulations commercially available in Brazil in terms of their activity in the in vitro tests of euglobulin clot formation and of the hydrolysis of the plasmin-specific substrate S-2251(TM. Euglobulin lysis time was determined using a 96-well microtiter plate. Initially, human thrombin (10 IU/ml and streptokinase were placed in individual wells, clot formation was initiated by the addition of plasma euglobulin, and turbidity was measured at 340 nm every 30 s. In the second assay, plasminogen activation was measured using the plasmin-specific substrate S-2251(TM. Streptase(TM was used as the reference formulation because it presented the strongest fibrinolytic activity in the euglobulin lysis test. The Unitinase(TM and Solustrep(TM formulations were the weakest, showing about 50% activity compared to the reference formulation. All streptokinases tested activated plasminogen but significant differences were observed. In terms of total S-2251(TM activity per vial, Streptase(TM (75.7 ± 5.0 units and Streptonase(TM (94.7 ± 4.6 units had the highest activity, while Unitinase(TM (31.0 ± 2.4 units and Strek(TM (32.9 ± 3.3 units had the weakest activity. Solustrep(TM (53.3 ± 2.7 units presented intermediate activity. The variations among the different formulations for both euglobulin lysis test and chromogenic substrate hydrolysis correlated with the SDS-PAGE densitometric results for the amount of 47-kDa protein. These data show that the commercially available clinical streptokinase formulations vary significantly in their in vitro activity. Whether these differences have clinical implications needs to be investigated.

  20. In vitro activity of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri against gastric cancer progression by downregulation of urokinase plasminogen activator/urokinase plasminogen activator receptor gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Bahareh Sadat; Ghadimi-Darsajini, Ali; Nekouian, Reza; Iragian, Gholam-Reza

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the third leading cause of cancer death, and most patients represent metastatic phenotype at the time of diagnosis. Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) system is well known for its critical roles in cancer cells invasion since uPA/uPA receptor (uPAR) overexpresses in several cancers. Subsequently, suppression of uPA/uPAR gene expression improves patients overall survival and prevents cancer progression. The aim of the current study was to investigate possible effects of live Lactobacillus reuteri as a probiotic in inhibition of GC cells proliferation and invasion. Human gastric adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line (AGS) cells were treated with different ratios of live L. reuteri and were incubated for 24, 48, and 72 h. Viability of cancer cells was measured with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and the effects of L. reuteri on uPA/uPAR gene expression were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Our results showed that L. reuteri inhibits cell proliferation significantly in dose-dependent manner. Expressions of uPA and uPAR were downregulated followed by co-incubation of AGS cells and live L. reuteri compared to untreated-based line level. This study provides strong support in the role of L. reuteri in suppression of GC cell invasion by downregulation of pathways which is involved in extracellular matrix degradation such as uPA and uPAR.

  1. The Plasminogen Receptor, Plg-RKT, and Macrophage Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey A. Miles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When plasminogen binds to cells its activation to plasmin is markedly enhanced compared to the reaction in solution. Thus, cells become armed with the broad spectrum proteolytic activity of plasmin. Cell-surface plasmin plays a key role in macrophage recruitment during the inflammatory response. Proteins exposing basic residues on the cell surface promote plasminogen activation on eukaryotic cells. We have used a proteomics approach combining targeted proteolysis with carboxypeptidase B and multidimensional protein identification technology, MudPIT, and a monocyte progenitor cell line to identify a novel transmembrane protein, the plasminogen receptor, Plg-RKT. Plg-RKT exposes a C-terminal lysine on the cell surface in an orientation to bind plasminogen and promote plasminogen activation. Here we review the characteristics of this new protein, with regard to membrane topology, conservation of sequence across species, the role of its C-terminus in plasminogen binding, its function in plasminogen activation, cell migration, and its role in macrophage recruitment in the inflammatory response.

  2. Escherichia coli lipoprotein binds human plasminogen via an intramolecular domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy eGonzalez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli lipoprotein (Lpp is a major cellular component that exists in two distinct states, bound-form and free-form. Bound-form Lpp is known to interact with the periplasmic bacterial cell wall, while free-form Lpp is localized to the bacterial cell surface. A function for surface-exposed Lpp has yet to be determined. We hypothesized that the presence of C-terminal lysines in the surface-exposed region of Lpp would facilitate binding to the host zymogen plasminogen, a protease commandeered by a number of clinically important bacteria. Recombinant Lpp was synthesized and the binding of Lpp to plasminogen, the effect of various inhibitors on this binding, and the effects of various mutations of Lpp on Lpp-plasminogen interactions were examined. Additionally, the ability of Lpp-bound plasminogen to be converted to active plasmin was analyzed. We determined that Lpp binds plasminogen via an atypical domain located near the center of mature Lpp that may not be exposed on the surface of intact E. coli according to the current localization model. Finally, we found that plasminogen bound by Lpp can be converted to active plasmin. While the consequences of Lpp binding plasminogen are unclear, these results prompt further investigation of the ability of surface exposed Lpp to interact with host molecules such as extracellular matrix components and complement regulators, and the role of these interactions in infections caused by E. coli and other bacteria.

  3. Biochemical mechanism of action of a diketopiperazine inactivator of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einholm, Anja P; Pedersen, Katrine E; Wind, Troels

    2003-01-01

    XR5118 [(3 Z,6 Z )-6-benzylidine-3-(5-(2-dimethylaminoethyl-thio-))-2-(thienyl)methylene-2,5-dipiperazinedione hydrochloride] can inactivate the anti-proteolytic activity of the serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a potential therapeutic target in cancer and cardiovascular diseases......, situated above beta-sheet A, and is in agreement with the hypothesis that XR5118 binds laterally to beta-sheet A. These results improve our understanding of the unique conformational flexibility of serpins and the biochemical basis for using PAI-1 as a therapeutic target. Udgivelsesdato: 2003-Aug-1...

  4. Expression and activity of the urokinase plasminogen activator system in canine primary brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossmeisl JH

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available John H Rossmeisl,1–3 Kelli Hall-Manning,4 John L Robertson,1,3,5 Jamie N King,1,2 Rafael V Davalos,3,5 Waldemar Debinski,3 Subbiah Elankumaran6,† 1Veterinary and Comparative Neuro-Oncology Laboratory, 2Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, 3The Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center Comprehensive Cancer Center, Winston-Salem, NC, 4Virginia Tech Animal Laboratory Services, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, 5Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech, 6Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, VA, USA†The authors regret to advise of the passing of Dr Subbiah Elankumaran prior to publicationBackground: The expression of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein family member, and the activity of its ligand, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA, have been associated with the invasive and metastatic potentials of a variety of human brain tumors through their regulation of extracellular matrix degradation. Domesticated dogs develop naturally occurring brain tumors that share many clinical, phenotypic, molecular, and genetic features with their human counterparts, which has prompted the use of the dogs with spontaneous brain tumors as models to expedite the translation of novel brain tumor therapeutics to humans. There is currently little known regarding the role of the uPA system in canine brain tumorigenesis. The objective of this study was to characterize the expression of uPAR and the activity of uPA in canine brain tumors as justification for the development of uPAR-targeted brain tumor therapeutics in dogs.Methods: We investigated the expression of uPAR in 37 primary canine brain tumors using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, real

  5. Plasminogen-independent initiation of the pro-urokinase activation cascade in vivo. Activation of pro-urokinase by glandular kallikrein (mGK-6) in plasminogen-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, K; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Bugge, T H

    2000-01-01

    The plasminogen activation (PA) system is involved in the degradation of fibrin and various extracellular matrix proteins, taking part in a number of physiological and pathological tissue remodeling processes including cancer invasion. This system is organized as a classical proteolytic cascade......, and as for other cascade systems, understanding the physiological initiation mechanism is of central importance. The attempts to identify initiation routes for activation of the proform of the key enzyme urokinase-type plasminogen activator (pro-uPA) in vivo have been hampered by the strong activator potency...

  6. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of saruplase, an unglycosylated single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator, in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, R. W.; Cohen, A. F.; Hopkins, G. R.; Beier, H.; Günzler, W. A.; van der Wouw, P. A.

    1994-01-01

    We examined in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) the pharmacokinetics of saruplase, an unglycosylated, single chain, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (rscu-PA) by measuring urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) antigen and total u-PA activity, its conversion to active

  7. Preparation of thermosensitive magnetic liposome encapsulated recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for targeted thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hao-Lung [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Jyh-Ping, E-mail: jpchen@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Craniofacial Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Health Industry and Technology, Research Center for Industry of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, Tai-Shan, New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) was encapsulated in thermosensitive magnetic liposome (TML) prepared from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, distearolyphosphatidyl ethanolamine-N-poly(ethylene glycol) 2000, cholesterol and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles by solvent evaporation/sonication and freeze-thaw cycles method. Response surface methodology was proved to be a powerful tool to predict the drug encapsulation efficiency and temperature-sensitive drug release. Validation experiments verified the accuracy of the model that provides a simple and effective method for fabricating TML with controllable encapsulation efficiency and predictable temperature-sensitive drug release behavior. The prepared samples were characterized for physico-chemical properties by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Temperature-sensitive release of rtPA could be confirmed from in vitro thrombolysis experiments. A thrombolytic drug delivery system using TML could be proposed for magnetic targeted delivery of rtPA to the site of thrombus followed by temperature-triggered controlled drug release in an alternating magnetic field. - Highlights: • rtPA and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNP were encapsulated in thermosensitive magnetic liposome (TML). • RSM could predict the drug encapsulation efficiency and temperature-sensitive drug release from TML. • Temperature-sensitive release of rtPA was confirmed from in vitro thrombolysis experiments. • TML-rtPA will be useful as a magnetic targeted nanodrug to improve clinical thrombolytic therapy.

  8. Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 predicts myocardial infarction in HIV-1-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Katzenstein, Terese L; Benfield, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    of antiretroviral therapy, sex, smoking and no known cardiovascular disease. Levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, soluble endothelial selectin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule, matrix metalloprotease 9, myeloperoxidase, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1...... levels of PAI-1 were associated with risk of first-time MI in HIV-1-infected individuals independently of cardiovascular risk factors, HIV parameters and antiretroviral therapy. Therefore PAI-1 may be used for risk stratification and prediction of CHD, but further studies are needed....

  9. Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor as a Marker for Use of Antidepressants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Eva; Grau, Katrine; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of depression. A few cross-sectional population-based studies have found that depression is associated with increased levels of inflammatory markers. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activation receptor (suPAR) is known to be a stable marker...... for inflammation. We investigated the bidirectional association between suPAR levels and use of antidepressants. METHODS: suPAR level was measured in 9305 blood donors and analysed in relation to 5-years follow-up data on purchase of antidepressants and hospital diagnoses of depression from a nationwide Danish...

  10. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is a marker of dysmetabolism in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Kofoed, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) reflects the immune and pro-inflammatory status of the HIV-infected patient. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) suppresses suPAR. Independent of the immune response to HAART, suPAR remains elevated in some HIV-infected......Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) reflects the immune and pro-inflammatory status of the HIV-infected patient. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) suppresses suPAR. Independent of the immune response to HAART, suPAR remains elevated in some HIV...... fluctuate. In conclusion, suPAR may reflect the metabolic status of the HIV-infected patient on HAART, thus linking low-grade inflammation, immune constitution, lipid and glucose metabolism, and fat redistribution. Circadian suPAR concentration appeared stable, suggesting that sampling schedule does...

  11. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids induce plasminogen activator activity and DNA damage in rabbit spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokoli, A N; Lavrentiadou, S N; Zervos, I A; Tsantarliotou, M P; Georgiadis, M P; Nikolaidis, E A; Botsoglou, N; Boscos, C M; Taitzoglou, I A

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect(s) of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) on rabbit semen. Adult rabbit bucks were assigned to two groups that were given two diets, a standard diet (control) and a diet supplemented with ω-3 PUFA. Sperm samples were collected from all bucks with the use of an artificial vagina in 20-day intervals, for a total period of 120 days. The enrichment of membranes in ω-3 PUFA was manifested by the elevation of the 22:5 ω-3 (docosapentaenoic acid [DPA]) levels within 40 days. This increase in DPA content did not affect semen characteristics (i.e., concentration, motility and viability). However, it was associated with the induction of lipid peroxidation in spermatozoa, as determined on the basis of the malondialdehyde content. Lipid peroxidation was associated with DNA fragmentation in ω-3 PUFA-enriched spermatozoa and a concomitant increase in plasminogen activator (PA) activity. The effects of ω-3 PUFA on sperm cells were evident within 40 days of ω-3 PUFA dietary intake and exhibited peack values on day 120. Our findings suggest that an ω-3 PUFA-rich diet may not affect semen characteristics; however, it may have a negative impact on the oxidative status and DNA integrity of the spermatozoa, which was associated with an induction of PAs activity. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Differential regulation of protease activated receptor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator expression by shear stress in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, M.; Ruef, J.; Nguyen, K. T.; Li, F.; Patterson, C.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.; Runge, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cells are responsive to changes in their local hemodynamic environment. The effects of shear stress on the expression of human protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mRNA and protein were investigated in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Under conditions of low shear stress (5 dyn/cm2), PAR-1 mRNA expression was increased transiently at 2 hours compared with stationary control values, whereas at high shear stress (25 dyn/cm2), mRNA expression was decreased (to 29% of stationary control; Pmuscle cells, indicating that the effects of shear stress on human PAR-1 were not species-specific. Flow cytometry and ELISA techniques using rat smooth muscle cells and HASMCs, respectively, provided evidence that shear stress exerted similar effects on cell surface-associated PAR-1 and tPA protein released into the conditioned media. The decrease in PAR-1 mRNA and protein had functional consequences for HASMCs, such as inhibition of [Ca2+] mobilization in response to thrombin stimulation. These data indicate that human PAR-1 and tPA gene expression are regulated differentially by shear stress, in a pattern consistent with their putative roles in several arterial vascular pathologies.

  13. Does low protein concentration of tissue-type plasminogen activator predict a low risk of spontaneous deep vein thrombosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, J; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Jespersen, J

    1995-01-01

    Many reports have demonstrated an abnormal fibrinolysis in a subset of patients with deep vein thrombosis. We have studied systemic global fibrinolytic activity and protein concentrations of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in plasma of 25...... young patients with a previous instance of spontaneous deep vein thrombosis documented by phlebography and in 50 healthy controls. The two populations were comparable with respect to a number of base-line variables (age, height, weight, etc.), while the patients had significantly lower fibrinolytic...

  14. Role of the MMP9 gene in hemorrhagic transformations after tissue-type plasminogen activator treatment in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Cadenas, Israel; Del Río-Espínola, Alberto; Carrera, Caty; Domingues-Montanari, Sophie; Mendióroz, Maite; Delgado, Pilar; Rosell, Anna; Ribó, Marc; Giralt, Dolors; Quintana, Manolo; Castellanos, Mar; Obach, Victor; Martínez, Sergi; Freijo, Mari Mar; Jiménez-Conde, Jordi; Roquer, Jaume; Martí-Fábregas, Joan; Molina, Carlos A; Alvarez-Sabín, José; Montaner, Joan

    2012-05-01

    Despite the benefits of tissue-type plasminogen activator treatment, some stroke patients experience adverse hemorrhagic transformations (HT). Plasma protein levels of MMP9 have been associated with HT occurrence. We aimed to analyze the association of the MMP9 gene with HT occurrence. We analyzed the MMP9 gene in blood samples from 885 stroke patients treated with tissue-type plasminogen activator by tag-SNP, imputed SNP, direct sequencing, and RNA expression. We did not observe any significant association between MMP9 genetic variations or MMP9 expression and HT occurrence. Moreover, no association was found between MMP9 expression and MMP9 polymorphisms. Genetic variations in the MMP9 gene are not associated with HT occurrence in tissue-type plasminogen activator-treated patients.

  15. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 polymers, induced by inactivating amphipathic organochemical ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Katrine E; Einholm, Anja P; Christensen, Anni; Schack, Lotte; Wind, Troels; Kenney, John M; Andreasen, Peter A

    2003-06-15

    Negatively charged organochemical inactivators of the anti-proteolytic activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) convert it to inactive polymers. As investigated by native gel electrophoresis, the size of the PAI-1 polymers ranged from dimers to multimers of more than 20 units. As compared with native PAI-1, the polymers exhibited an increased resistance to temperature-induced unfolding. Polymerization was associated with specific changes in patterns of digestion with non-target proteases. During incubation with urokinase-type plasminogen activator, the polymers were slowly converted to reactive centre-cleaved monomers, indicating substrate behaviour of the terminal PAI-1 molecules in the polymers. A quadruple mutant of PAI-1 with a retarded rate of latency transition also had a retarded rate of polymerization. Studying a number of serpins by native gel electrophoresis, ligand-induced polymerization was observed only with PAI-1 and heparin cofactor II, which were also able to copolymerize. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the binding of ligands in a specific region of PAI-1 leads to so-called loop-sheet polymerization, in which the reactive centre loop of one molecule binds to beta-sheet A in another molecule. Induction of serpin polymerization by small organochemical ligands is a novel finding and is of protein chemical interest in relation to pathological protein polymerization in general.

  16. E2F1-mediated transcriptional inhibition of the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziczak, M; Müller, H; Helin, K

    2001-01-01

    Gene expression of the plasminogen activation system is cell-cycle dependent. Previously, we showed that ectopic expression of E2F1 repressed the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) promoter in a manner dependent on the presence of DNA-binding and transactivation domains of E2F1....... These results all indicate that endogenous E2F can directly repress the PAI-1 gene. DNase I hypersensitive-site analysis of the PAI-1 promoter suggested the involvement of conformation changes in chromatin structure of the PAI-1 promoter. 5' deletion analysis of the PAI-1 promoter showed that multiple sites......-regulation of PAI-1 gene expression correlates with an increase in endogenous E2F activity. When cells were treated with a cdk2/4-specific inhibitor, which maintains E2F in an inactive state, the decline of serum-induced PAI-1 mRNA levels was suppressed. In mutant U2OS cells expressing a temperature...

  17. Purification of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) protein from transplastomic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli Nasab, Maryam; Jalali Javaran, Mokhtar; Cusido, Rosa M; Palazon, Javier

    2016-11-01

    Plants are low cost platforms for the production of recombinant proteins, but their complexity renders the purification of plant recombinant proteins more difficult than proteins expressed in yeast or bacteria. Plastid transformation enables high-level expression of foreign genes and the accumulation of recombinant proteins in plastid organelles. Histidine (His) tags are widely used for affinity purification of recombinant proteins in a nickel column. The human tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is one of the most important pharmaceutical recombinant proteins involved in the breakdown of blood clots in different parts of the body. The truncated form of the tissue plasminogen activator (K2S) has a longer plasma half-life, better diffusion into the clot, and higher fibrinolytic activity. In a construct designed to insert the K2S gene in the tobacco chloroplast, the sequence of six histidines and a factor Xa protease site was fused to the C-terminus of the K2S protein. The presence and amount of tPA recombinant protein in transplastomic tobacco plants was estimated by ELISA analysis using a specific antibody. The protein was purified from total soluble protein, insoluble protein aggregates and the protein was extracted from the isolated chloroplast using nickel resin and a chromatography column. After digestion of the purified protein with factor Xa, the presence of the purified tPA protein was confirmed by western blot analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. A steady-state template model that describes the kinetics of fibrin-stimulated [Glu1]- and [Lys78]plasminogen activation by native tissue-type plasminogen activator and variants that lack either the finger or kringle-2 domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horrevoets, A. J.; Pannekoek, H.; Nesheim, M. E.

    1997-01-01

    The kinetics of activation of both [Glu1]- and [Lys78]Plg(S741C-fluorescein by native (recombinant) tissue-type plasminogen activator and its deletion variants lacking either the finger or kringle-2 domain were measured by fluorescence within fully polymerized fibrin clots. The kinetics conform to

  19. Tissue-type plasminogen activator protects the postsynaptic density in the ischemic brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanneret, Valerie; Ospina, Juan P; Diaz, Ariel; Manrique, Luis G; Merino, Paola; Gutierrez, Laura; Torre, Enrique; Wu, Fang; Cheng, Lihong; Yepes, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia causes the presynaptic release of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). The postsynaptic density (PSD) is a postsynaptic structure that provides a matrix where signaling transduction of excitatory synapses takes place. The postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) is the most abundant scaffolding protein in the postsynaptic density (PSD), where it modulates the postsynaptic response to the presynaptic release of glutamate by regulating the anchoring of glutamate receptors to the PSD. We found that tPA induces the local translation of PSD-95 mRNA and the subsequent recruitment of PSD-95 protein to the PSD, via plasminogen-independent activation of TrkB receptors. Our data show that PSD-95 is removed from the PSD during the early stages of cerebral ischemia, and that this effect is abrogated by either the release of neuronal tPA, or intravenous administration of recombinant tPA (rtPA). We report that the effect of tPA on PSD-95 is associated with inhibition of the phosphorylation and recruitment of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors to the PSD, known to amplify the effect of the excitotoxic injury, and that this is followed by TrkB-mediated protection of dendritic spines from the harmful effects of the hypoxic insult. These data reveal that tPA is a synaptic protector in the ischemic brain.

  20. INDUCTION AND/OR MAINTENANCE OF TUMOR DORMANCY BY DISRUPTION OF UROKINASE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR RECEPTOR-INTEGRIN INTERACTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of inducing cancer cells into dormancy and treating cancer in a subject. This method involves administering to a subject an effective amount of a compound that disrupts interaction between urokinase plasminogen activator receptor and integrin, thereby...... including cancer cells into dormancy and treating cancer in the subject. Also disclosed is a method of disrupting interaction between integrin and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor on cancer cells. The present invention also relates to a method of screening for compounds effective in inducing tumor...... dormancy and treating cancer in a subject....

  1. Low plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in thyroid carcinoma: uPA/PAI-1 paradox in cancer proggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Ucan

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Serum PAI-1 levels were lower in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Our results might support the thesis of PAI-1 is expected to suppress cancer progression due to its ability to inhibit urokinase plasminogen activator activity. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(2.000: 121-125

  2. Presence of urokinase plasminogen activator, its inhibitor and receptor in small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pappot, H.; Pfeiffer, P.; Grøndahl Hansen, J.

    1997-01-01

    Spreading of cancer cells is dependent on the combined action of several proteolytic enzymes, such as serine proteases, comprising the urokinase pathway of plasminogen activation. Previous studies of lung cancer indicate that expression, localization and prognostic impact of the components...... of the plasminogen activation system differ in the different non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) types, whereas the expression of the components in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has only sparingly been investigated. In the present study we investigate the presence of the components of the plasminogen activation...... that the plasminogen activation system could play a role in this type of cancer during invasion. In addition a difference in the levels of the components of the plasminogen activation system in NSCLC and SCLC is found, which could contribute to the differences in biology....

  3. Clinical significance of plasminogen activator inhibitor activity in patients with exercise-induced ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, K.; Kurata, C.; Taguchi, T.; Suzuki, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Yamazaki, N.; Rydzewski, A.; Takada, Y.; Takada, A.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the fibrinolytic system in patients with exercise-induced ischemia and its relation to ischemia and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), 47 patients with CAD confirmed by results of coronary angiography underwent symptom-limited multistage exercise thallium-201 emission computed tomography. All patients with CAD had exercise-induced ischemia as assessed from thallium-201 images. Pre- and peak exercise blood samples from each patient and preexercise blood samples from control subjects were assayed for several fibrinolytic components and were also assayed for plasma adrenaline. The extent of ischemia was defined as delta visual uptake score (total visual uptake score in delayed images minus total visual uptake score in initial images) and the severity of CAD as the number of diseased vessels. In the basal condition, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity was significantly higher in patients with exercise-induced ischemia as compared to control subjects (p less than 0.01), although there were no significant differences in other fibrinolytic variables between the two groups. Moreover, PAI activity in the basal condition displayed a significantly positive correlation with the extent of ischemia (r = 0.47, p less than 0.01). Patients with exercise-induced ischemia were divided into two groups (24 with single-vessel disease and 23 with multivessel disease). There were no significant differences in coronary risk factors, hemodynamics, or plasma adrenaline levels during exercise between single-vessel and multivessel disease except that delta visual uptake score was significantly higher in multivessel disease (p less than 0.01)

  4. Genome-Wide Association Study for Circulating Tissue Plasminogen Activator Levels and Functional Follow-Up Implicates Endothelial STXBP5 and STX2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Jie; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Yamkauchi, Munekazu; Trompet, Stella; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Chen, Wei-Min; Smith, Nicholas L.; Kleber, Marcus E.; Shin, So-Youn; Becker, Diane M.; Tang, Weihong; Dehghan, Abbas; Johnson, Andrew D.; Vinh Truong, [No Value; Folkersen, Lasse; Yang, Qiong; Oudot-Mellkah, Tiphaine; Buckley, Brendan M.; Moore, Jason H.; Williams, Frances M. K.; Campbell, Harry; Silbernagel, Guenther; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Tofler, Geoffrey H.; Navis, Gerjan J.; DeStefano, Anita; Wright, Alan F.; Chen, Ming-Huei; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Rumley, Ann; Bookman, Ebony B.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Chen, Fang; Keene, Keith L.; Franco, Oscar H.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Carter, Angela M.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Sattar, Naveed; Bis, Joshua C.; Ikram, Mohammad A.; Sale, Michele M.; McKnight, Barbara; Fornage, Myriam; Ford, Ian; Taylor, Kent; Slagboom, P. Eline; McArdle, Wendy L.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Goodall, Alison H.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Furie, Karen L.; Cushman, Mary; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Basu, Saonli; Matijevic, Nena; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Wilson, James F.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Reilly, Muredach P.; Tracy, Russell P.; Polasek, Ozren; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Grant, Peter J.; Hillege, Hans L.; Cambien, Francois; Stott, David J.; Lowe, Gordon D.; Spector, Timothy D.; Meigs, James B.; Marz, Winfried; Eriksson, Per; Becker, Lewis C.; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Soranzo, Nicole; Williams, Scott M.; Hayward, Caroline; van der Harst, Pim; Hamsten, Anders; Lowenstein, Charles J.; Strachan, David P.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.

    Objective Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a serine protease, catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, the major enzyme responsible for endogenous fibrinolysis. In some populations, elevated plasma levels of tPA have been associated with myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular

  5. Novel actions of tissue-type plasminogen activator in chronic kidney disease: a paradigm shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kebin; Mars, Wendy M.; Liu, Youhua

    2009-01-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is traditionally viewed as a simple serine protease whose main function is to convert plasminogen into biologically active plasmin. As a protease, tPA plays a crucial role in regulating blood fibrinolysis, in maintaining the homeostasis of extracellular matrix (ECM) and in modulating the post-translational activation of growth factors. However, emerging evidence indicates that tPA may also function as a cytokine that transmits its signal across the cell membrane, initiates a diverse array of intracellular signaling, and dictates gene expression in the nuclei. Structurally, tPA is a kringle-containing protein that shares significant similarity to other classic cytokines such as hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP). Although there is no dedicated receptor, tPA binds to the cell membrane low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1), triggers LRP-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, and activates various intracellular signaling. As a cytokine, tPA plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of renal interstitial fibrosis through diverse mechanisms. It induces matrix matelloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene expression in renal interstitial fibroblasts, which causes the destruction of the tubular basement membrane (TBM), thereby facilitating tubular epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). tPA also potentiates myofibroblast activation from quiescent interstitial fibroblasts through LRP-1-mediated recruitment of β1 integrin signaling. Furthermore, tPA acts as a survival factor that protects renal interstitial fibroblasts/myofibroblasts from apoptosis, thereby resulting in an expansion of myofibroblast populations in diseased kidney. Together, a growing body of evidence has implicated tPA as a fibrogenic cytokine that promotes the progression of kidney diseases. These new findings have radically changed our conception of tPA in renal fibrogenesis and represent a paradigm shift towards uncovering

  6. Different effects of lipopolysaccharide on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 production in aortic media in vivo and in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, R.T.J. van; Quax, P.H.A.; Tippins, J.R.; Antoniw, J.W.; Andreotti, F.; Maseri, A.; Kluft, C.; Sperti, G.

    1996-01-01

    Background: Lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) has been shown to increase the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) in the vessel wall. Endotoxin is known to increase PAI-1 production in endothelial cells, but its action on smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is presently not clear. In

  7. Serum levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is associated with parasitemia in children with acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch, M; Kofoed, P; Fischer, TK

    2004-01-01

    Serum levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) are significantly elevated and of prognostic value in patients suffering from serious infectious diseases such as HIV and tuberculosis. Our objective was to investigate suPAR levels during symptomatic malaria infection and 7...... an important association between suPAR and acute malaria infection in humans....

  8. High-fat diet enhances and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency attenuates bone loss in mice with Lewis Lung carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study determined the effects of a high-fat diet and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency (PAI-1-/-) on bone structure in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in lungs. Reduction in bone volume fraction (BV/TV) by 22% and 21%, trabecular number (Tb.N) by 8% and 4% and bone mineral de...

  9. Studies on functional and structural role of urokinase receptor and other components of the plasminogen activation system in malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidle, U H; Wöllisch, E; Rønne, E

    1994-01-01

    Using immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization, we studied the expression of the components of the plasminogen activation system during progression to malignant melanoma with fresh melanocytic lesions. Expression of these components is confined to late stages of melanoma. t-PA expression...

  10. The inactivation of single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator by thrombin in a plasma milieu : effect of thrombomodulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, E.A.M.; Los, P.; Rijken, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    Thrombin cleaves single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu- PA) into a virtually inactive two-chain form (tcu-PA/T), a process which may contribute to the maintenance of a fresh blood clot. We have examined the inactivation of scu-PA by thrombin in a plasma milieu to get more insight in

  11. The suicide substrate reaction between plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 acid thrombin is regulated by the cofactors vitronectin and heparin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meijer, M.; Smilde, A.; Tans, G.; Nesheim, M. E.; Pannekoek, H.; Horrevoets, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of thrombin with plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is shown to result in the simultaneous formation of both cleaved PAI-1 and a sodium dodecyl sulfate-stable thrombin-PAI-1 complex. The kinetics of this reaction can be described by a ''suicide substrate'' mechanism that

  12. Polymorphism of the blood clot lysis enzyme tissue-type plasminogen activator is associated with myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bom, J.G. van der; Knijff, P. de; Bots, M.L.; Haverkate, F.; Hofman, A.; Kluft, C.; Grobbee, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Impaired fibrinolysis has been suggested to be associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction. An insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) gene has been described which may be associated with impaired fibrinolysis. We studied the

  13. The liberated domain I of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor--a new tumour marker in small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almasi, Charlotte E; Drivsholm, Lars; Pappot, Helle

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains poor with a 5-year survival rate of 4-6%. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), high levels of intact and cleaved forms of the receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR) are significantly associated with short overall survival. Our...

  14. Calcium spirulan as an inducer of tissue-type plasminogen activator in human fetal lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Y; Hayashi, T; Hayashi, K; Ozawa, T; Niiya, K; Sakuragawa, N

    1997-03-01

    Calcium spirulan (Ca-SP), a novel sulfated polysaccharide isolated from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, has been found to have antiviral and heparin cofactor II-dependent antithrombin activities. We have obtained evidence that Ca-SP is a potent inducer of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) production. The addition of Ca-SP to a culture of IMR-90 human fetal lung fibroblasts increased t-PA concentrations in the conditioned medium, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but in the cell lysate, t-PA concentrations were unchanged, suggesting that t-PA induced by Ca-SP is easily secreted into the conditioned medium. The amount of newly synthesized t-PA in IMR-90 cells, as measured by labeling with [35S]methionine and subsequent immunoprecipitation of t-PA from conditioned medium, was significantly increased by Ca-SP-stimulation. However, Ca-SP did not increase the t-PA mRNA levels. As previously reported, thrombin stimulated t-PA gene transcription in IMR-90 cells, and the simultaneous treatment with Ca-SP and thrombin caused further enhancement of t-PA production, in a synergistic manner. It would thus appear that Ca-SP increases t-PA production through post-transcriptional processes. IMR-90 cells also produce plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), but Ca-SP showed little effect on the PAI-1 production. H-SP, which was obtained by removing the calcium from Ca-SP, had no effect on the t-PA production. Na-SP, which was prepared by replacement of the calcium with sodium, stimulated the t-PA production similarly to Ca-SP. Thus, Ca-SP specifically induces t-PA production, and the molecular conformation of Ca-SP maintained by Ca or Na may be essential for the stimulation of t-PA synthesis.

  15. Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysm Detected after Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Yoneda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic guidelines of intravenous thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA for hyperacute ischemic stroke are very strict. Because of potential higher risk of bleeding complications, the presence of unruptured cerebral aneurysm is a contraindication for systemic thrombolysis with tPA. According to the standard CT criteria, a 66-year-old woman who suddenly developed aphasia and hemiparesis received intravenous tPA within 3 h after ischemic stroke. Magnetic resonance angiography during tPA infusion was performed and the presence of a small unruptured cerebral aneurysm was suspected at the anterior communicating artery. Delayed cerebral angiography confirmed an aneurysm with a size of 7 mm. The patient did not experience any adverse complications associated with the aneurysm. Clinical experiences of this kind of accidental off-label thrombolysis may contribute to modify the current rigid tPA guidelines for stroke.

  16. STUDY OF HEARING OUTCOMES IN SUDDEN SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS TREATED WITH TISSUE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR (TPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Krishna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SSHNL is a clinical condition that requires immediate management. There are many treatment options, which may not always revert the hearing to normal. Not only recording the degree of hearing loss, but also establishing the concurrent dysfunction of saccule by VEMP has facilitated a new approach to treatment strategy. Recombinant tissue Plasminogen Activator ((rtPA proved its efficacy in stroke and subsequently considered an option in the management of ISSNHL. The curren t study, conducted at different centres, on 15 patients utilized rtPA. The results showed a promising trend when saccular pathology is also evident by VEMP in association with Hearing loss. We recommend use of rtPA as primary modality in cases of ISSNHL wi th Saccular involvement.

  17. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor forms in plasma as markers of atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, Fredrik J; Thurison, Tine; Ryndel, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: To test if circulating forms of the soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) are potential biomarkers of plaque vulnerability. DESIGN AND METHODS:: Plasma concentrations of suPAR(I-III), suPAR(II-III) and uPAR(I) were measured by time-resolved fluorescence...... immunoassays in Caucasian patients operated for symptomatic carotid atherosclerosis (n=255). Local suPAR release from plaques into the circulation was assessed in plasma passing retrogradely over the plaque in the carotid artery, collected during surgery (n=7). RESULTS:: The suPAR(I-III) (P=0.03) and su......PAR(II-III) (P=0.006) concentrations were higher after ischemic strokes and transient ischemic attacks, i.e., clinical subgroups associated with poorer prognosis and a less stable plaque phenotype, than after amaurosis fugax. Slightly elevated suPAR(I-III) levels were found in plasma from the carotid lesion...

  18. Analysis of a two-domain binding site for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator-plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex in low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, O M; Petersen, H H; Jacobsen, C; Moestrup, S K; Etzerodt, M; Andreasen, P A; Thøgersen, H C

    2001-07-01

    The low-density-lipoprotein-receptor (LDLR)-related protein (LRP) is composed of several classes of domains, including complement-type repeats (CR), which occur in clusters that contain binding sites for a multitude of different ligands. Each approximately 40-residue CR domain contains three conserved disulphide linkages and an octahedral Ca(2+) cage. LRP is a scavenging receptor for ligands from extracellular fluids, e.g. alpha(2)-macroglobulin (alpha(2)M)-proteinase complexes, lipoprotein-containing particles and serine proteinase-inhibitor complexes, like the complex between urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). In the present study we analysed the interaction of the uPA-PAI-1 complex with an ensemble of fragments representing a complete overlapping set of two-domain fragments accounting for the ligand-binding cluster II (CR3-CR10) of LRP. By ligand blotting, solid-state competition analysis and surface-plasmon-resonance analysis, we demonstrate binding to multiple CR domains, but show a preferential interaction between the uPA-PAI-1 complex and a two-domain fragment comprising CR domains 5 and 6 of LRP. We demonstrate that surface-exposed aspartic acid and tryptophan residues at identical positions in the two homologous domains, CR5 and CR6 (Asp(958,CR5), Asp(999,CR6), Trp(953,CR5) and Trp(994,CR6)), are critical for the binding of the complex as well as for the binding of the receptor-associated protein (RAP) - the folding chaperone/escort protein required for transport of LRP to the cell surface. Accordingly, the present work provides (1) an identification of a preferred binding site within LRP CR cluster II; (2) evidence that the uPA-PAI-1 binding site involves residues from two adjacent protein domains; and (3) direct evidence identifying specific residues as important for the binding of uPA-PAI-1 as well as for the binding of RAP.

  19. Plasminogen activation independent of uPA and tPA maintains wound healing in gene-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Leif R; Green, Kirsty A; Stoop, Allart A

    2006-01-01

    to a degree indistinguishable from that observed in Plg-deficient mice, and completely blocks the activity of pKal, but not uPA and tPA in wound extracts. These findings demonstrate that an additional plasminogen activator provides sufficient plasmin activity to sustain the healing process albeit at decreased......Simultaneous ablation of the two known activators of plasminogen (Plg), urokinase-type (uPA) and the tissue-type (tPA), results in a substantial delay in skin wound healing. However, wound closure and epidermal re-epithelialization are significantly less impaired in uPA;tPA double-deficient mice...... than in Plg-deficient mice. Skin wounds in uPA;tPA-deficient mice treated with the broad-spectrum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor galardin (N-[(2R)-2-(hydroxamido-carbonylmethyl)-4-methylpentanoyl]-L-tryptophan methylamide) eventually heal, whereas skin wounds in galardin-treated Plg...

  20. Bacterial endotoxin enhances colorectal cancer cell adhesion and invasion through TLR-4 and NF-kappaB-dependent activation of the urokinase plasminogen activator system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, S D

    2009-05-19

    Perioperative exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with accelerated metastatic colorectal tumour growth. LPS directly affects cells through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and the transcription factor NF-kappaB. The urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) system is intimately implicated in tumour cell extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions fundamental to tumour progression. Thus we sought to determine if LPS directly induces accelerated tumour cell ECM adhesion and invasion through activation of the u-PA system and to elucidate the cellular pathways involved. Human colorectal tumour cell lines were stimulated with LPS. u-PA concentration, u-PA activity, active u-PA, surface urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) and TLR-4 expression were assessed by ELISA, colorimetric assay, western blot analysis and flow cytometry respectively. In vitro tumour cell vitronectin adhesion and ECM invasion were analysed by vitronectin adhesion assay and ECM invasion chambers. u-PA and u-PAR function was inhibited with anti u-PA antibodies or the selective u-PA inhibitors amiloride or WXC-340, TLR-4 by TLR-4-blocking antibodies and NF-kappaB by the selective NF-kappaB inhibitor SN-50. LPS upregulates u-PA and u-PAR in a dose-dependent manner, enhancing in vitro tumour cell vitronectin adhesion and ECM invasion by >40% (P<0.01). These effects were ameliorated by u-PA and u-PAR inhibition. LPS activates NF-kappaB through TLR-4. TLR-4 and NF-kappaB inhibition ameliorated LPS-enhanced u-PA and u-PAR expression, tumour cell vitronectin adhesion and ECM invasion. LPS promotes tumour cell ECM adhesion and invasion through activation of the u-PA system in a TLR-4- and NF-kappaB-dependent manner.

  1. Tissue plasminogen activator inhibits NMDA-receptor-mediated increases in calcium levels in cultured hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel D Robinson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available NMDA receptors (NMDARs play a critical role in neurotransmission, acting as essential mediators of many forms of synaptic plasticity, and also modulating aspects of development, synaptic transmission and cell death. NMDAR-induced responses are dependent on a range of factors including subunit composition and receptor location. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA is a serine protease that has been reported to interact with NMDARs and modulate NMDAR activity. In this study we report that tPA inhibits NMDAR-mediated changes in intracellular calcium levels in cultures of primary hippocampal neurons stimulated by low (5 μM but not high (50 μM concentrations of NMDA. tPA also inhibited changes in calcium levels stimulated by presynaptic release of glutamate following treatment with bicucculine/4-AP. Inhibition was dependent on the proteolytic activity of tPA but was unaffected by α2-antiplasmin, an inhibitor of the tPA substrate plasmin, and RAP, a pan-ligand blocker of the low-density lipoprotein receptor, two proteins previously reported to modulate NMDAR activity. These findings suggest that tPA can modulate changes in intracellular calcium levels in a subset of NMDARs expressed in cultured embryonic hippocampal neurons through a mechanism that involves the proteolytic activity of tPA and synaptic NMDARs.

  2. Improvement of Psychotic Symptoms and the Role of Tissue Plasminogen Activator

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    Silvia Hoirisch-Clapauch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA mediates a number of processes that are pivotal for synaptogenesis and remodeling of synapses, including proteolysis of the brain extracellular matrix, degradation of adhesion molecules, activation of neurotrophins, and activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. Abnormalities in these processes have been consistently described in psychotic disorders. In this paper, we review the physiological roles of tPA, focusing on conditions characterized by low tPA activity, which are prevalent in schizophrenia. We then describe how tPA activity is influenced by lifestyle interventions and nutritional supplements that may ameliorate psychotic symptoms. Next, we analyze the role of tPA in the mechanism of action of hormones and medications effective in mitigating psychotic symptoms, such as pregnenolone, estrogen, oxytocin, dopamine D3 receptor antagonists, retinoic acid, valproic acid, cannabidiol, sodium nitroprusside, N-acetyl cysteine, and warfarin. We also review evidence that tPA participates in the mechanism by which electroconvulsive therapy and cigarette smoking may reduce psychotic symptoms.

  3. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 is an intracellular inhibitor of furin proprotein convertase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernot, Denis; Stalin, Jimmy; Stocker, Pierre; Bonardo, Bernadette; Scroyen, Ilse; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Peiretti, Franck

    2011-04-15

    Proprotein convertases (PCs) are a family of serine proteases that are involved in the post-translational processing and activation of a wide range of regulatory proteins. The upstream role of PCs in the control of many physiological and pathological processes generates a growing interest in understanding their regulation. Here, we demonstrate that the serine protease inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) forms an SDS-stable complex with the PC furin, which leads to the inhibition of the intra-Golgi activity of furin. It is known that elevated PAI-1 plasma levels are correlated with the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and we show that PAI-1 reduces the furin-dependent maturation and activity of the insulin receptor and ADAM17: two proteins involved in the onset of these metabolic disorders. In addition to demonstrating that PAI-1 is an intracellular inhibitor of furin, this study also provides arguments in favor of an active role for PAI-1 in the development of metabolic disorders.

  4. Stability of the Octameric Structure Affects Plasminogen-Binding Capacity of Streptococcal Enolase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ruby H. P.; Casey, Lachlan W.; Valkov, Eugene; Bertozzi, Carlo; Stamp, Anna; Jovcevski, Blagojce; Aquilina, J. Andrew; Whisstock, James C.; Walker, Mark J.; Kobe, Bostjan

    2015-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human pathogen that has the potential to cause invasive disease by binding and activating human plasmin(ogen). Streptococcal surface enolase (SEN) is an octameric α-enolase that is localized at the GAS cell surface. In addition to its glycolytic role inside the cell, SEN functions as a receptor for plasmin(ogen) on the bacterial surface, but the understanding of the molecular basis of plasmin(ogen) binding is limited. In this study, we determined the crystal and solution structures of GAS SEN and characterized the increased plasminogen binding by two SEN mutants. The plasminogen binding ability of SENK312A and SENK362A is ~2- and ~3.4-fold greater than for the wild-type protein. A combination of thermal stability assays, native mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography approaches shows that increased plasminogen binding ability correlates with decreased stability of the octamer. We propose that decreased stability of the octameric structure facilitates the access of plasmin(ogen) to its binding sites, leading to more efficient plasmin(ogen) binding and activation. PMID:25807546

  5. Stability of the octameric structure affects plasminogen-binding capacity of streptococcal enolase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J Cork

    Full Text Available Group A Streptococcus (GAS is a human pathogen that has the potential to cause invasive disease by binding and activating human plasmin(ogen. Streptococcal surface enolase (SEN is an octameric α-enolase that is localized at the GAS cell surface. In addition to its glycolytic role inside the cell, SEN functions as a receptor for plasmin(ogen on the bacterial surface, but the understanding of the molecular basis of plasmin(ogen binding is limited. In this study, we determined the crystal and solution structures of GAS SEN and characterized the increased plasminogen binding by two SEN mutants. The plasminogen binding ability of SENK312A and SENK362A is ~2- and ~3.4-fold greater than for the wild-type protein. A combination of thermal stability assays, native mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography approaches shows that increased plasminogen binding ability correlates with decreased stability of the octamer. We propose that decreased stability of the octameric structure facilitates the access of plasmin(ogen to its binding sites, leading to more efficient plasmin(ogen binding and activation.

  6. Half-life of single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu-PA) and two-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (tcu-PA) in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, M; Sen, S; Miyashita, C; Hermes, R; Pindur, G; Heiden, M; Berg, G; Mörsdorf, S; Leipnitz, G; Zeppezauer, M

    1991-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of urokinase (two-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator, tcu-PA) and single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu-PA) were studied in 20 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Ten consecutive patients received 2.5 million units tcu-PA by bolus injection within 5 min during the first 6 h after AMI (group I). Ten further consecutive patients received 250,000 U tcu-PA within 5 min, followed by 4.5 million U scu-PA by intravenous infusion over 40 min (group II). An enzyme immunoassay was developed for urokinase antigen determinations, and a fibrin plate assay for determinations of fibrinolytic activity was applied. Using a 3-compartment model, in group I 98% of urokinase antigen were cleared with a half-life of 60.8 min. After scu-PA, urokinase antigen was cleared with half-lives (area under the curve in parentheses) of 6.9 min (74.8%), 26.5 min (23.6%), and 329.7 min (2.2%). The half-disappearance times of fibrinolytic activity were 18 and 8 min in group I and II, respectively. A more pronounced decrease of plasminogen was observed after tcu-PA.

  7. Isolation and characterization of the rat plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzdzinski, C J; Riordan-Johnson, M; Nordby, E C; Suter, S M; Gelehrter, T D

    1990-02-05

    We have reported that glucocorticoids and cyclic nucleotides regulate tissue-type plasminogen activator activity in HTC rat hepatoma cells primarily by modulating plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) gene expression. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying this hormonal regulation, we have cloned the rat PAI-1 gene from an HTC genomic library. The gene is approximately 10.5 kilobases (kb) in size and is comprised of nine exons and eight introns. Comparison of this gene with the human PAI-1 gene (Bosma, P. J., van den Berg, E., Kooistra, T., Siemieniak, D. R., and Slightom, J. L. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 9129-9141) revealed strict conservation of the exon-intron structure. The start site of transcription is identical to that in the human PAI-1 gene. The complete nucleotide sequence of the rat PAI-1 gene, including 2.4 kb of 5'- and 1 kb of 3'-flanking DNA, has been determined. Two regions in the 5'-flanking sequence of the rat PAI-1 gene show a high degree of similarity to sequences in the upstream region of the human PAI-1 gene: a 60-base pair region from -90 to the TATA box (90% identical), and a more distal sequence located at -753 to -510 (greater than 80% identical). Both of these regions have been shown to be involved in the glucocorticoid regulation of expression of the human PAI-1 gene (van Zonneveld, A.-J., Curriden, S. A., and Loskutoff, D. J. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 5525-5529), although neither region contains the hexamer consensus sequence for glucocorticoid response elements. Five putative glucocofticoid response elements, 100% identical to the hexamer consensus sequence, were identified in the 5'-flanking region of the rat gene, none of which is present in the regions of sequence similarity. Seven putative cyclic AMP response elements that are 75% identical to the octamer consensus sequence are located upstream of the rat gene. There is only one such sequence within the 5'-flanking region of the human gene; however

  8. Simvastatin suppresses dexamethasone-induced secretion of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in human bone marrow adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Hideo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a common complication of high-dose glucocorticoid treatment. Intravascular thrombosis is thought to be associated with the ischemic state of the femoral head. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 is an adipokine, which are physiologically active substances secreted from visceral and subcutaneous adipocytes. PAI-1 suppresses fibrinolysis by binding tissue-type plasminogen activator. Several reports have described the relationship between PAI-1 and steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head, and the preventive effects of lipid-lowering agents (statins against steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head. We previously reported that adipokines and dexamethasone induced PAI-1 secretion from bone marrow adipocytes. The purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of simvastatin on PAI-1 secretion from human bone marrow adipocytes in vitro. Methods Primary bone marrow adipocytes were extracted from collagenase-treated bone marrow fluid obtained from the femoral necks of 40 patients (6 men, 34 women; age range, 52-81 years undergoing hip joint replacement surgery. After suspended culture with or without dexamethasone or simvastatin, PAI-1 mRNA expression was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. Total PAI-1 protein secretion in culture medium was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results PAI-1 mRNA expression was up-regulated by 388% (P = 0.002 with dexamethasone, and down-regulated by 45% (P = 0.002 with simvastatin, as compared to control levels. Dexamethasone increased total PAI-1 secretion by 166% (P = 0.001 and simvastatin decreased total PAI-1 secretion by 64% (P = 0.002. No significant changes were observed in adiponectin mRNA expression and secretion by dexamethasone and simvastatin, while pre-treatment with simvastatin reversed dexamethasone induced PAI-1 secretion by 89%, as compared to control levels. Conclusion The present study confirmed the suppressive

  9. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type I may contribute to transient, non-specific changes in immunity in the subacute phase of murine tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kager, Liesbeth M.; van der Windt, Gerritje J. W.; Wieland, Catharina W.; Florquin, Sandrine; van 't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis, is a devastating infectious disease causing many deaths worldwide. Non-specific host defense mechanisms such as the coagulation and fibrinolytic system may give insight in possible new therapeutic targets. Plasminogen activator inhibitor

  10. Presence of urokinase plasminogen activator, its inhibitor and receptor in small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pappot, H.; Pfeiffer, P.; Grøndahl Hansen, J.

    1997-01-01

    Spreading of cancer cells is dependent on the combined action of several proteolytic enzymes, such as serine proteases, comprising the urokinase pathway of plasminogen activation. Previous studies of lung cancer indicate that expression, localization and prognostic impact of the components...... of the plasminogen activation system differ in the different non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) types, whereas the expression of the components in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has only sparingly been investigated. In the present study we investigate the presence of the components of the plasminogen activation...... and the clinical parameters. This is the first report of a study using a quantitative method to compare levels of the components of the plasminogen activation system in tissue extracts from the two major lung cancer groups. The study shows that uPA, PAI-1 and uPAR are present in SCLC-tissue, suggesting...

  11. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type I may contribute to transient, non-specific changes in immunity in the subacute phase of murine tuberculosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kager, L.M.; Windt, G.J. van der; Wieland, C.W.; Florquin, S.; Veer, C. van't; Poll, T. van der

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis, is a devastating infectious disease causing many deaths worldwide. Non-specific host defense mechanisms such as the coagulation and fibrinolytic system may give insight in possible new therapeutic targets. Plasminogen activator inhibitor

  12. Terminalia catappa attenuates urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression through Erk pathways in Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chao-Bin; Yu, Yung-Luen; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chiou, Hui-Ling; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Yang, Shun-Fa

    2014-04-30

    The survival rate of malignant tumors, and especially hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), has not improved primarily because of uncontrolled metastasis. In our previous studies, we have reported that Terminalia catappa leaf extract (TCE) exerts antimetastasis effects on HCC cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) in HCC metastasis have not been thoroughly investigated, and remain poorly understood. The activities and protein levels of u-PA were determined by casein zymography and western blotting. Transcriptional levels of u-PA were detected by real-time PCR and promoter assays. We found that treatment of Huh7 cells with TCE significantly reduced the activities, protein levels and mRNA levels of u-PA. A chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed that TCE inhibited the transcription protein of nuclear factors SP-1 and NF-κB. TCE also did inhibit the effects of u-PA by reducing the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 pathway. These results show that u-PA expression may be a potent therapeutic target in the TCE-mediated suppression of HCC metastasis.

  13. Tissue Plasminogen Activator Alters Intracellular Sequestration of Zinc through Interaction with the Transporter ZIP4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmetsberger, Jaime; Mirrione, Martine M.; Zhou, Chun; Fernandez-Monreal, Monica; Siddiq, Mustafa M.; Ji, Kyungmin; Tsirka, Stella E. (SBU)

    2010-09-17

    Glutamatergic neurons contain free zinc packaged into neurotransmitter-loaded synaptic vesicles. Upon neuronal activation, the vesicular contents are released into the synaptic space, whereby the zinc modulates activity of postsynaptic neurons though interactions with receptors, transporters and exchangers. However, high extracellular concentrations of zinc trigger seizures and are neurotoxic if substantial amounts of zinc reenter the cells via ion channels and accumulate in the cytoplasm. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a secreted serine protease, is also proepileptic and excitotoxic. However, tPA counters zinc toxicity by promoting zinc import back into the neurons in a sequestered form that is nontoxic. Here, we identify the zinc influx transporter, ZIP4, as the pathway through which tPA mediates the zinc uptake. We show that ZIP4 is upregulated after excitotoxin stimulation of the mouse, male and female, hippocampus. ZIP4 physically interacts with tPA, correlating with an increased intracellular zinc influx and lysosomal sequestration. Changes in prosurvival signals support the idea that this sequestration results in neuroprotection. These experiments identify a mechanism via which neurons use tPA to efficiently neutralize the toxic effects of excessive concentrations of free zinc.

  14. Elevated levels of plasminogen activators in the pathogenesis of delayed radiation damage in rat cervical spinal cord in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawaya, R.; Rayford, A.; Kono, S.; Rao, J.S.; Ang, K.K.; Feng, Y.; Stephens, L.C.

    1994-01-01

    The pathophysiology of the cellular basis of radiation-induced demyelination and white-matter necrosis of the central nervous system (CNS) is poorly understood. Preliminary data suggest that tissue damage is partly mediated through changes in the proteolytic enzymes. In this study, we irradiated rat cervical spinal cords with single doses of 24 Gy of 18 MV photons or 20 MeV electrons and measured the levels of plasminogen activators at days 2, 7, 30, 60, 90, 120, 130 and 145 after irradiation, using appropriate controls at each time. Fibrin zymography revealed fibrinolytic bands representing molecular weights of 68,000 and 48,000 in controls and irradiated samples; these bands increased significantly at days 120, 130 and 145 after irradiation. Inhibition of these enzymatic bands with specific antibodies against tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and amiloride, an inhibitor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), confirmed that these bands were tPA and uPA. Enzymatic levels quantified by densitometry showed a twofold elevation in the levels of tPA and more than a tenfold increase in uPA after 120 days' irradiation. Activity of uPA was increased threefold by day 2 and increased steadily with time compared to nonirradiated control samples. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) also showed a threefold increase in the tPA content in the extracts of irradiated rat cervical spinal cords at days 120, 130 and 145. This study adds additional information to the proposed role of plasminogen activators in the pathogenic pathways of radiation damage in the CNS. 38 refs., 6 figs

  15. Elevated levels of plasminogen activators in the pathogenesis of delayed radiation damage in rat cervical spinal cord in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawaya, R.; Rayford, A.; Kono, S.; Rao, J.S.; Ang, K.K.; Feng, Y.; Stephens, L.C. [Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The pathophysiology of the cellular basis of radiation-induced demyelination and white-matter necrosis of the central nervous system (CNS) is poorly understood. Preliminary data suggest that tissue damage is partly mediated through changes in the proteolytic enzymes. In this study, we irradiated rat cervical spinal cords with single doses of 24 Gy of 18 MV photons or 20 MeV electrons and measured the levels of plasminogen activators at days 2, 7, 30, 60, 90, 120, 130 and 145 after irradiation, using appropriate controls at each time. Fibrin zymography revealed fibrinolytic bands representing molecular weights of 68,000 and 48,000 in controls and irradiated samples; these bands increased significantly at days 120, 130 and 145 after irradiation. Inhibition of these enzymatic bands with specific antibodies against tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and amiloride, an inhibitor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), confirmed that these bands were tPA and uPA. Enzymatic levels quantified by densitometry showed a twofold elevation in the levels of tPA and more than a tenfold increase in uPA after 120 days` irradiation. Activity of uPA was increased threefold by day 2 and increased steadily with time compared to nonirradiated control samples. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) also showed a threefold increase in the tPA content in the extracts of irradiated rat cervical spinal cords at days 120, 130 and 145. This study adds additional information to the proposed role of plasminogen activators in the pathogenic pathways of radiation damage in the CNS. 38 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Airway tissue plasminogen activator prevents acute mortality due to lethal sulfur mustard inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veress, Livia A; Anderson, Dana R; Hendry-Hofer, Tara B; Houin, Paul R; Rioux, Jacqueline S; Garlick, Rhonda B; Loader, Joan E; Paradiso, Danielle C; Smith, Russell W; Rancourt, Raymond C; Holmes, Wesley W; White, Carl W

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical weapon stockpiled today in volatile regions of the world. SM inhalation causes a life-threatening airway injury characterized by airway obstruction from fibrin casts, which can lead to respiratory failure and death. Mortality in those requiring intubation is more than 80%. No therapy exists to prevent mortality after SM exposure. Our previous work using the less toxic analog of SM, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, identified tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) an effective rescue therapy for airway cast obstruction (Veress, L. A., Hendry-Hofer, T. B., Loader, J. E., Rioux, J. S., Garlick, R. B., and White, C. W. (2013). Tissue plasminogen activator prevents mortality from sulfur mustard analog-induced airway obstruction. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 48, 439-447). It is not known if exposure to neat SM vapor, the primary agent used in chemical warfare, will also cause death due to airway casts, and if tPA could be used to improve outcome. Adult rats were exposed to SM, and when oxygen saturation reached less than 85% (median: 6.5 h), intratracheal tPA or placebo was given under isoflurane anesthesia every 4 h for 48 h. Oxygen saturation, clinical distress, and arterial blood gases were assessed. Microdissection was done to assess airway obstruction by casts. Intratracheal tPA treatment eliminated mortality (0% at 48 h) and greatly improved morbidity after lethal SM inhalation (100% death in controls). tPA normalized SM-associated hypoxemia, hypercarbia, and lactic acidosis, and improved respiratory distress. Moreover, tPA treatment resulted in greatly diminished airway casts, preventing respiratory failure from airway obstruction. tPA given via airway more than 6 h after exposure prevented death from lethal SM inhalation, and normalized oxygenation and ventilation defects, thereby rescuing from respiratory distress and failure. Intra-airway tPA should be considered as a life-saving rescue therapy after a significant SM

  17. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is elevated in patients with COPD independent of metabolic and cardiovascular function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waschki B

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin Waschki,1–3 Henrik Watz,2,3 Olaf Holz,4,5 Helgo Magnussen,2,3 Beata Olejnicka,6 Tobias Welte,5,7 Klaus F Rabe,1,3 Sabina Janciauskiene5,7 1Pneumology, LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 2Pulmonary Research Institute at LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 3Airway Research Center North (ARCN, German Center for Lung Research (DZL, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 4Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover, Germany; 5Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH, German Center for Lung Research (DZL, Hannover, Germany; 6Department of Medicine, Trelleborg Hospital, Trelleborg, Sweden; 7Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany Introduction: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, a major inhibitor of fibrinolysis, is associated with thrombosis, obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and premature aging, which all are coexisting conditions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The role of PAI-1 in COPD with respect to metabolic and cardiovascular functions is unclear. Methods: In this study, which was nested within a prospective cohort study, the serum levels of PAI-1 were cross-sectionally measured in 74 stable COPD patients (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I–IV and 18 controls without lung disease. In addition, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, smoking status, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, adiponectin, ankle–brachial index, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and history of comorbidities were also determined. Results: The serum levels of PAI-1 were significantly higher in COPD patients than in controls, independent of a broad spectrum of possible confounders including metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction. A multivariate regression analysis revealed

  18. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor as a prognostic marker of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a black population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botha, Shani; Fourie, Carla M T; Schutte, Rudolph

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are well-known risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. The less familiar marker, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), is known to predict cancer, infections and all-cause mo......BACKGROUND: Elevated inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are well-known risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. The less familiar marker, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), is known to predict cancer, infections and all......-cause mortality. We determined whether suPAR, CRP and IL-6 are predictive of both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a black population, highly burdened by cardiovascular disease and HIV infection. METHODS: We included 1425 black South Africans, of which 208 died within five years after baseline data...

  19. Wood Bark Smoke Induces Lung and Pleural Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 and Stabilizes Its mRNA in Porcine Lung Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    in situ. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 was measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids by Western blotting. Induction of PAI-1 was determined at the...APRV Airway-pressure-release ventilation; ATII Alveolar type II cells; AU Arbitrary fluorescence emission units; BAL Bronchoalveolar lavage ; BALF BAL...As measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, this defect in fibrinolysis is mainly attributable to overexpression of plasminogen activator

  20. Expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 by olfactory ensheathing glia promotes axonal regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón, Diana; Martín-Bermejo, Maria Jesús; Gallego-Hernández, Maria Teresa; Pastrana, Erika; García-Escudero, Vega; García-Gómez, Ana; Lim, Filip; Díaz-Nido, Javier; Avila, Jesús; Moreno-Flores, Maria Teresa

    2011-10-01

    Olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) cells are known to facilitate repair following axotomy of adult neurons, although the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood. We previously identified plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), and thrombomodulin (TM) as candidates to regulate rat OEG-dependent axonal regeneration. In this study, we have validated the involvement of these proteins in promoting axonal regeneration by immortalized human OEGs. We studied the effect of silencing these proteins in OEGs on their capacity to promote the regeneration of severed adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) axons. Our results support the role of glial PAI-1 as a downstream effector of PAR-1 in promoting axon regeneration. In contrast, we found that TM inhibits OEG induced-axonal regeneration. We also assessed the signaling pathways downstream of PAR-1 that might modulate PAI-1 expression, observing that specifically inhibiting Gα(i), Rho kinase, or PLC and PKC downregulated the expression of PAI-1 in OEGs, with a concomitant reduction in OEG-dependent axon regeneration in adult RGCs. Our findings support an important role for the thrombin system in regulating adult axonal regeneration by OEGs. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Quantitative PET of human urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor with 64Cu-DOTA-AE105

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Madsen, Jacob; Østergaard, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Expression levels of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) represent an established biomarker for poor prognosis in a variety of human cancers. The objective of the present study was to explore whether noninvasive PET can be used to perform a quantitative assessment of expressi...... levels of uPAR across different human cancer xenograft models in mice and to illustrate the clinical potential of uPAR PET in future settings for individualized therapy....

  2. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) facilitates retinal angiogenesis in a model of oxygen-induced retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anupam; Menicucci, Gina; Maestas, Joann; Das, Arup; McGuire, Paul

    2009-10-01

    Angiogenesis, or the formation of new retinal blood vessels, is a key feature of many proliferative retinal diseases including diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, and retinopathy of prematurity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the serine proteinase inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor -1 (PAI-1) in facilitating retinal angiogenesis. The temporal expression of PAI-1 was examined by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry in retinal tissues from mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy. The requirement for PAI-1 in facilitating the retinal angiogenic response in this model was examined by quantitating the angiogenic response with wild-type and PAI-1 null mice. The mechanism by which PAI-1 mediates angiogenesis was further investigated with isolated human retinal vascular endothelial cells. PAI-1 expression was upregulated in the retinas of mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy, which coincided with a significant increase in the expression of vitronectin in the retina of the experimental mice. There was significant reduction in the angiogenic response of PAI-1(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. PAI-1 promotes endothelial cell migration in vitro and facilitates the migration of cells on a vitronectin substrate by regulating alpha v integrin cell surface expression. These observations suggest a role for PAI-1 during retinal angiogenesis and point to a potential new therapeutic target in the prevention or treatment of retinal neovascularization seen in many ocular diseases.

  3. Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is upregulated by Acanthamoeba plasminogen activator (aPA) and induces proinflammatory cytokine in human corneal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Trivendra; Abdi, Mahshid; Alizadeh, Hassan

    2014-05-29

    (P aPA-stimulated IL-8 mRNA expression and protein production in HCE cells. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry showed that aPA and SLIGRL-NH2 (PAR2 agonist) upregulated PAR2 surface protein as compared to that in unstimulated HCE cells. Thrombin, but not aPA, stimulated PAR1 surface protein in HCE cells. Acanthamoeba plasminogen activator specifically induces expression and production of IL-8 in HCE cells via PAR2 pathway, and PAR2 antagonists may be used as a therapeutic target in AK. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  4. Combination Low Dose Tissue Type-Plasminogen Activator plus Annexin A2 for Improving Thrombolytic Stroke Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghua eJiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk of hemorrhagic transformation, incomplete reperfusion, neurotoxicity and a short treatment time window comprise major challenges for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA thrombolytic stroke therapy. Improving tPA therapy has become one of the highest priorities in the stroke field. This mini review article focuses on our recent efforts aimed at evaluating a novel combination approach of low-dose tPA plus recombinant annexin A2 (rA2, a tPA and plasminogen co-receptor, that might enhance tPA thrombolytic efficacy, while reducing its associated complications related to intracerebral hemorrhagic (ICH transformation. Results of our experimental studies using a focal embolic stroke model in rats support the feasibility of the combination approach and suggest the potential for successful clinical translation.

  5. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator: a new target for male contraception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ying; Han, Yan; Xiong, Cheng-Liang; Li, Hong-Gang; Hu, Lian; Zhang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is closely related to male reproduction. With the aim of investigating the possibility for uPA as a potential contraceptive target, in the present work, Kunming male mice were immunized by human uPA subcutaneous injection at three separate doses for 3 times. Then the potency of the anti-human uPA antibody in serum was analyzed, and mouse fertility was evaluated. Serum antibody titers for human uPA in immunized groups all reached 1:10,240 or higher levels by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and mating experiments revealed that pregnancy rates and the mean number of embryos implanted after mating declined obviously (P male mice. Sperm function tests suggested that the sperm concentration, sperm viability, sperm motility, and in vitro fertilization rate for the cauda epididymis sperm in uPA-immunized groups were lower than those in the controls (P male mice could effectively reduce their fertility, and uPA could become a new target for immunocontraception in male contraceptive development.

  6. Role of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 in radiation-induced normal tissues injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahmani, R.

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an essential tool for cancer treatment, but there is a balance between benefits and risks related to the use of ionizing radiation: the objective is to deliver a maximum dose to the tumour to destroy or to sterilize it while protecting surrounding normal tissues. Radio-induced damages to normal tissues are therefore a limiting factor when increasing the dose delivered to the tumour. One of the objectives of this research thesis is to bring to the fore a relationship between the initiation of lesions and the development of late damages, more particularly in the intestine, and to identify the involved molecular actors and their inter-connectivity. After a first part presenting ionizing radiation, describing biological effects of ionizing radiation and their use in radiotherapy, presenting the intestine and the endothelium and discussing the intestine radio-sensitivity, discussing the radio-induced intestine damages and radiotherapy-induced complications, and presenting the plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and its behaviour in presence of ionizing radiation, two articles are reproduced. The first one addresses the effect of a pharmacological inhibition and of genetic deficiency in PAI-1 on the evolution of radio-induced intestine lesions. The second one discusses the fact that radio-induced PAI-1-related death of endothelial cells determines the severity of early radio-induced intestine lesions

  7. A Novel Approach to the Treatment of Orolingual Angioedema After Tissue Plasminogen Activator Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahs, Lesley; Droege, Chris; Kneale, Hilary; Pancioli, Arthur

    2016-09-01

    Orolingual angioedema is a rare adverse effect of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), with an incidence of 1% to 5%. There are currently no published reports describing resolution of tPA-induced orolingual angioedema with complement inhibitor therapy. A 72-year-old man receiving home angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy presented to the emergency department with newly developed orolingual angioedema after treatment with tPA for acute ischemic stroke. Therapy was initiated with intravenous methylprednisolone 125 mg, famotidine 20 mg, and diphenhydramine 50 mg, without significant improvement. Because of increased concern for airway protection, plasma-derived C1 esterase inhibitor was administered. Concerns about progressive and airway-threatening orolingual angioedema subsided 2 hours after administration, and invasive airway maneuvers were avoided. Orolingual angioedema is an infrequent, severe adverse effect of tPA for treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Complement inhibitors may be an additional therapeutic option for patients presenting with orolingual angioedema with potential airway compromise that is refractory to standard anaphylactic therapies. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Type I plasminogen activator inhibitor 4G allele frequency is associated with chronic venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrancioglu, N; Manduz, S; Ozen, F; Yilmaz, M Birhan; Karahan, O; Ozdemir, O; Berkan, O

    2010-01-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is a common disease associated with poor quality of life. Genetic polymorphisms causing coagulation abnormalities may account for some of the CVI pathogenesis. Type I plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) is responsible for fibrinolytic system regulation, and plasma levels of PAI-1 are strongly correlated with PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism. The association between PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism and CVI was investigated. In 34 consecutive patients with clinically overt CVI, the PAI-1 4G/4G polymorphism was detected in three cases (8.8%); the 4G/5G polymorphism was detected in 28 (82.4%). In 34 age- and sex-matched controls, the PAI-1 4G/4G polymorphism was detected in one case (2.9%) and the 4G/5G polymorphism was detected in 14 cases (41.2%). The PAI-1 4G allele was found significantly more frequently in CVI patients than in controls. The 4G allele was associated with a 3.25-fold increase in CVI risk. Thus, a relationship between CVI and the PAI-1 4G allele is apparent.

  9. Factors predicting intracerebral hemorrhage of patients treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yoichiro; Torihashi, Kouichi; Sadamasa, Nobutake; Narumi, Osamu; Chin, Masaki; Yamagata, Sen; Yoshida, Kazumichi

    2010-01-01

    The use of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) was approved in Japan in October 2005, and has had a marked effect on the treatment of patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke. Since the administration of rt-PA might cause intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and a poor prognosis, it is necessary to identify predictors of ICH after treatment with rt-PA. In this article, we examined 58 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous rt-PA within 3 hours of symptom onset for 45 months, March 2006 to November 2009. In principle, we evaluated patients before and one day after rt-PA with MRI. We made a retrospective comparison of 21 patients with hemorrhagic change on CT and MRI T2* within 36 hours and 37 patients without hemorrhagic change. The rate of ICH with or without symptoms was increased with a higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and infarction range, defined by diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) Alberta Stroke Programme Early CT Score (ASPECTS). Major artery occlusion and reperfusion, including partial recanalization in MR angiography (MRA), were taken as factors in the hemorrhage group. In conclusion, DWI ASPECTS and NIHSS were useful predictors of ICH after rt-PA administration. (author)

  10. Interactions between iodinated contrast media and tissue plasminogen activator: In vitro comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, Eszter; Deres, László; Halmosi, Róbert; Várady, Edit; Tóth, Kálmán; Battyáni, István

    2017-01-01

    Iodinated contrast media (Xenetix®, Ultravist®, Omnipaque®, Visipaque® and Iomeron®) used for computed tomography (CT) may decrease fibrinolysis by recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). We hypothesized that receiving iodinated contrast media before rt-PA may impair thrombolysis as measured by a new model system. Whole blood from Wistar Kyoto rats (n = 10) was obtained and allowed to form blood clots. Thrombolysis was performed by placing individually the prepared clots into 15 mL tubes and adding 5 mL saline buffer, 100μg rt-PA and a different contrast media; adjusting the quantity of iodine to either 30 mg or 60 mg. The thrombolytic efficacy was quantified by measuring the optical density (OD415) of the supernatant at different time points, namely at 0, 30, 60, and 90 min. There was a significant decrease in clot lysis efficiency observed in presence of iodine containing contrast media comparing to positive control group. Moreover, when the quantity of iodine was increased from 30 mg to 60 mg; the dissolution rate downturned with additional ∼50%. In conclusion, our study suggests that high dose of iodine potentially could negatively affect the efficiency of the thrombolytic therapy performed by rt-PA.

  11. Topical tissue plasminogen activator appears ineffective for the clearance of intraocular fibrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, J; Latimer, W B

    1998-06-01

    To determine the efficacy of topical tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for the resolution of postoperative or inflammatory intraocular fibrinous exudates. Each treatment consisted of drops of 1 mg/ml tPA given 9 times 5 minutes apart. Records were reviewed and the results at 24 and 48 hours were recorded. Sixty-two patients had a total of 94 treatments. Fibrin exudates following intraocular surgery in 34 patients were treated 44 times. In 6 patients there was a positive result. Fibrin associated with intraocular infection was treated in 9 patients. None showed clear improvement. Nineteen patients had a total of 34 treatments for poorly controlled intraocular pressure (IOP) after glaucoma surgery. Five patients showed adequate control of the IOP, 12 did not change, and 2 had a questionable improvement. Eleven patients had adequate IOP control after additional treatment. Seven required suture lysis, 2 ab interno bleb revision, and 2 YAG capsulotomy or iridotomy to reduce the IOP to an acceptable level. Within the limits of this retrospective study and taking into account that fibrin may resolve spontaneously, it appears that topical tPA drops are not effective for the liquefaction of intraocular fibrin after surgery or in association with intraocular inflammation. They did not improve IOP control after glaucoma surgery.

  12. Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor as a Marker for Use of Antidepressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haastrup, Eva; Grau, Katrine; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Thorball, Christian; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Ullum, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of depression. A few cross-sectional population-based studies have found that depression is associated with increased levels of inflammatory markers. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activation receptor (suPAR) is known to be a stable marker for inflammation. We investigated the bidirectional association between suPAR levels and use of antidepressants. Methods suPAR level was measured in 9305 blood donors and analysed in relation to 5-years follow-up data on purchase of antidepressants and hospital diagnoses of depression from a nationwide Danish register. Results For men and women without prior use of antidepressants we found a significantly higher risk for incident use of antidepressants with higher suPAR values. For men, the risk of first use of antidepressants increased by 72% from the 1st to the 4th quartile (HR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.11–2.69). For women, it increased by 108% from the 1st to the 4th quartile (HR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.45–2.98). Previous use of antidepressants was also significantly associated with higher suPAR levels (p = 0.002). Conclusions High suPAR levels are associated with an increased risk for both previous and future use of antidepressants in healthy men and women. High suPAR are also associated with increased risk for a hospital diagnosis of depression. PMID:25329298

  13. Plasminogen activator inhibitor I 4G/5G polymorphism in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armangil, Didem; Yurdakök, Murat; Okur, Hamza; Gürgey, Aytemiz

    2011-08-01

    Fibrin monomers inhibit surfactant function. 4G/5G insertion/deletion polymorphism plays an important role in the regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) gene expression. To examine the genotype distribution of PAI-1 polymorphism in 60 infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and 53 controls, an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used. The proportion of 4G/4G, 4G/5G, and 5G/5G genotypes did not differ statistically between the RDS and control groups (P > .05). Having PAI-1 4G/4G genotype polymorphism appears to increase the risk of RDS (odds ratio [OR] =1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-4.3), although it was not statistically significant. No relation was found between the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphisms and RDS, but there was an increased risk associated with the 4G variant of the PAI-1 gene. We believe that our findings of increased 4G allele of the PAI-1 gene in infants with RDS would also help to clarify the pathogenesis of RDS.

  14. The Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 4G/5G Polymorphism and the Risk of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekih-Mrissa, Najiba; Mansour, Malek; Sayeh, Aicha; Bedoui, Ines; Mrad, Meriem; Riahi, Anis; Mrissa, Ridha; Nsiri, Brahim

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is associated with the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Tunisian patients. We analyzed the genotype and allele frequency distribution of the PAI-1 polymorphism in 60 Tunisian patients with AD and 120 healthy controls. The results show a significantly increased risk of AD in carriers of the 4G/4G and 4G/5G genotypes versus the wild-type 5G/5G genotype (4G/4G: 28.33% in patients vs 10.0% in controls; P 5G: 55.0% in patients vs 38.33% in controls; OR = 4.45; P < 10 -3 ). The 4G allele was also more frequently found in patients compared with controls; P < 10 -3 ; OR = 3.07. For all participants and by gender, homozygotic carriers (4G/4G) were at an increased risk of AD over heterozygotes and women were at an increased risk over their male genotype counterparts. The odds ratio for AD among 4G/4G carriers for any group was approximately twice that of heterozygotes in the same group. Women homozygotes ranked highest for AD risk (OR = 20.8) and, in fact, women heterozygotes (OR = 9.03) ranked higher for risk than male homozygotes (OR = 6.12). These preliminary exploratory results should be confirmed in a larger study.

  15. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with type 2 diabetes risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luqian; Huang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies were performed to assess the association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G polymorphism and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, the results were inconsistent and inconclusive. In the present study, the possible association was investigated by a meta-analysis. Eligible articles were identified for the period up to June 2013. Pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were appropriately derived from random-effects models or fixed-effects models. Fourteen case-control studies with a total of 2487 cases and 3538 controls were eligible. In recessive model, PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was associated with T2DM risk (OR = 1.23; 95% CI 1.07-1.41; P = 0.004). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, a significant association was found among Asians (OR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.08-1.51; P = 0.005). This meta-analysis suggested that PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism may be associated with T2DM development. PMID:24040470

  16. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 and Diagnosis of the Metabolic Syndrome in a West African Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaman, Nuri; Aldrich, Melinda C; Sobota, Rafal; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Brown, Nancy J; Moore, Jason H; Williams, Scott M

    2016-10-03

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is diagnosed by the presence of at least 3 of the following: obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and low high-density lipoprotein. Individuals with MetS also typically have elevated plasma levels of the antifibrinolytic factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), but the relationships between PAI-1 and MetS diagnostic criteria are not clear. Understanding these relationships can elucidate the relevance of MetS to cardiovascular disease risk, because PAI-1 is associated with ischemic events and directly involved in thrombosis. In a cross-sectional analysis of 2220 Ghanaian men and women from urban and rural locales, we found the age-standardized prevalence of MetS to be as high as 21.4% (urban women). PAI-1 level increased exponentially as the number of diagnostic criteria increased linearly (PWest African population we studied was comparable to that of the industrialized West. PAI-1 may serve as a key link between MetS, as currently defined, and the endpoints with which it is associated. Whether this association is generalizable will require follow-up. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  17. A regulatory hydrophobic area in the flexible joint region of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, defined with fluorescent activity-neutralizing ligands. Ligand-induced serpin polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, R; Einholm, A P; Pedersen, K E

    2001-01-01

    We have characterized the neutralization of the inhibitory activity of the serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) by a number of structurally distinct organochemicals, including compounds with environment-sensitive spectroscopic properties. In contrast to latent and reactive center-clea...

  18. The plasminogen activation system modulates differently adipogenesis and myogenesis of embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Hadadeh

    Full Text Available Regulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM plays an important functional role either in physiological or pathological conditions. The plasminogen activation (PA system, comprising the uPA and tPA proteases and their inhibitor PAI-1, is one of the main suppliers of extracellular proteolytic activity contributing to tissue remodeling. Although its function in development is well documented, its precise role in mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC differentiation in vitro is unknown. We found that the PA system components are expressed at very low levels in undifferentiated ESCs and that upon differentiation uPA activity is detected mainly transiently, whereas tPA activity and PAI-1 protein are maximum in well differentiated cells. Adipocyte formation by ESCs is inhibited by amiloride treatment, a specific uPA inhibitor. Likewise, ESCs expressing ectopic PAI-1 under the control of an inducible expression system display reduced adipogenic capacities after induction of the gene. Furthermore, the adipogenic differentiation capacities of PAI-1(-/- induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs are augmented as compared to wt iPSCs. Our results demonstrate that the control of ESC adipogenesis by the PA system correspond to different successive steps from undifferentiated to well differentiated ESCs. Similarly, skeletal myogenesis is decreased by uPA inhibition or PAI-1 overexpression during the terminal step of differentiation. However, interfering with uPA during days 0 to 3 of the differentiation process augments ESC myotube formation. Neither neurogenesis, cardiomyogenesis, endothelial cell nor smooth muscle formation are affected by amiloride or PAI-1 induction. Our results show that the PA system is capable to specifically modulate adipogenesis and skeletal myogenesis of ESCs by successive different molecular mechanisms.

  19. The plasminogen activation system modulates differently adipogenesis and myogenesis of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadadeh, Ola; Barruet, Emilie; Peiretti, Franck; Verdier, Monique; Bernot, Denis; Hadjal, Yasmine; Yazidi, Claire El; Robaglia-Schlupp, Andrée; De Paula, Andre Maues; Nègre, Didier; Iacovino, Michelina; Kyba, Michael; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Binétruy, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important functional role either in physiological or pathological conditions. The plasminogen activation (PA) system, comprising the uPA and tPA proteases and their inhibitor PAI-1, is one of the main suppliers of extracellular proteolytic activity contributing to tissue remodeling. Although its function in development is well documented, its precise role in mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation in vitro is unknown. We found that the PA system components are expressed at very low levels in undifferentiated ESCs and that upon differentiation uPA activity is detected mainly transiently, whereas tPA activity and PAI-1 protein are maximum in well differentiated cells. Adipocyte formation by ESCs is inhibited by amiloride treatment, a specific uPA inhibitor. Likewise, ESCs expressing ectopic PAI-1 under the control of an inducible expression system display reduced adipogenic capacities after induction of the gene. Furthermore, the adipogenic differentiation capacities of PAI-1(-/-) induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are augmented as compared to wt iPSCs. Our results demonstrate that the control of ESC adipogenesis by the PA system correspond to different successive steps from undifferentiated to well differentiated ESCs. Similarly, skeletal myogenesis is decreased by uPA inhibition or PAI-1 overexpression during the terminal step of differentiation. However, interfering with uPA during days 0 to 3 of the differentiation process augments ESC myotube formation. Neither neurogenesis, cardiomyogenesis, endothelial cell nor smooth muscle formation are affected by amiloride or PAI-1 induction. Our results show that the PA system is capable to specifically modulate adipogenesis and skeletal myogenesis of ESCs by successive different molecular mechanisms.

  20. Effect of Regulatory Element DNA Methylation on Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Dunoyer-Geindre

    Full Text Available Expression of the tissue-type plasminogen activator gene (t-PA; gene name PLAT is regulated, in part, by epigenetic mechanisms. We investigated the relationship between PLAT methylation and PLAT expression in five primary human cell types and six transformed cell lines. CpG methylation was analyzed in the proximal PLAT gene promoter and near the multihormone responsive enhancer (MHRE -7.3 kilobase pairs upstream of the PLAT transcriptional start site (TSS, -7.3 kb. In Bowes melanoma cells, the PLAT promoter and the MHRE were fully unmethylated and t-PA secretion was extremely high. In other cell types the region from -647 to -366 was fully methylated, whereas an unmethylated stretch of DNA from -121 to +94 was required but not sufficient for detectable t-PA mRNA and t-PA secretion. DNA methylation near the MHRE was not correlated with t-PA secretion. Specific methylation of the PLAT promoter region -151 to +151, inserted into a firefly luciferase reporter gene, abolished reporter gene activity. The region -121 to + 94 contains two well-described regulatory elements, a PMA-responsive element (CRE near -106 and a GC-rich region containing an Sp1 binding site near +59. Methylation of double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides containing the CRE or the GC-rich region had little or no effect on transcription factor binding. Methylated CpGs may attract co-repressor complexes that contain histone deacetylases (HDAC. However, reporter gene activity of methylated plasmids was not restored by the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin. In conclusion, efficient PLAT gene expression requires a short stretch of unmethylated CpG sites in the proximal promoter.

  1. Basilar Artery Thrombosis in a Child Treated With Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator and Endovascular Mechanical Thrombectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topsøe, Jakob Fink; Sonnenborg, Laura; Larsen, Line Lunde

    2013-01-01

    Basilar artery occlusion in children is rare. It has a high mortality and morbidity if recanalization is not achieved before extensive brainstem infarction has occurred. An 11-year-old boy presented with a clinical and radiological "top-of-the-basilar" syndrome. Intravenous tissue plasminogen...

  2. A 55,000-60,000 Mr receptor protein for urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Identification in human tumor cell lines and partial purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Søegaard; Kellerman, G M; Behrendt, N

    1988-01-01

    a bifunctional amino-reactive reagent followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography revealed with the four cell lines studied the occurrence of a single band migrating with an Mr of 70,000-75,000, indicating complex formation with an Mr of 55,000-60,000 u-PA receptor...... protein (u-PA-R). In the human monocyte cell line U937 cultivated in the presence of phorbol ester, the amount of complex was strongly increased, and a fraction of the complex had a slower electrophoretic mobility. Comparison between autoradiograms of reduced and unreduced samples suggests that u......The iodinated Mr approximately equal to 15,000 amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) molecule bound specifically to the cell surface of all of seven cultured human tumor cell lines studied. Cross-linking of iodinated ATF to the cell surface using...

  3. Tissue Plasminogen Activator Prescription and Administration Errors within a Regional Stroke System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Lee S; Tkach, Aleksander; Lingenfelter, Erin M; Dehoney, Sarah B; Rollo, Jeannie; de Havenon, Adam; DeWitt, L Dana; Grantz, Matthew R; Wang, Haimei; Wold, Jana J; Hannon, Peter M; Weathered, Natalie R; Majersik, Jennifer J

    2016-03-01

    Intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) utilization in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) requires weight-based dosing and a standardized infusion rate. In our regional network, we have tried to minimize tPA dosing errors. We describe the frequency and types of tPA administration errors made in our comprehensive stroke center (CSC) and at community hospitals (CHs) prior to transfer. Using our stroke quality database, we extracted clinical and pharmacy information on all patients who received IV tPA from 2010-11 at the CSC or CH prior to transfer. All records were analyzed for the presence of inclusion/exclusion criteria deviations or tPA errors in prescription, reconstitution, dispensing, or administration, and for association with outcomes. We identified 131 AIS cases treated with IV tPA: 51% female; mean age 68; 32% treated at the CSC, and 68% at CHs (including 26% by telestroke) from 22 CHs. tPA prescription and administration errors were present in 64% of all patients (41% CSC, 75% CH, P < .001), the most common being incorrect dosage for body weight (19% CSC, 55% CH, P < .001). Of the 27 overdoses, there were 3 deaths due to systemic hemorrhage or ICH. Nonetheless, outcomes (parenchymal hematoma, mortality, modified Rankin Scale score) did not differ between CSC and CH patients nor between those with and without errors. Despite focus on minimization of tPA administration errors in AIS patients, such errors were very common in our regional stroke system. Although an association between tPA errors and stroke outcomes was not demonstrated, quality assurance mechanisms are still necessary to reduce potentially dangerous, avoidable errors. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Tissue plasminogen activator-assisted vitrectomy for submacular hemorrhage due to age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Gok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment efficacy of vitrectomy combined with subretinal recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA and factors affecting visual improvement in patients with submacular hemorrhage (SMH due to neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 17 consecutive patients diagnosed with SMH secondary to nAMD were retrospectively reviewed. The initial surgical procedure involved a 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy, subretinal r-tPA application through a self-sealing inferior retinotomy, and sulfur hexafluoride gas for tamponade in all patients. The duration, size, and thickness of the hemorrhage and the pre- and post-operative visual acuity (VA using a Snellen chart were recorded. VA was converted to logMAR for statistical analysis. Results: The average duration and size of the SMH were 12.8 ± 18.2 days and 8.6 ± 5.3 disc areas, respectively. The mean follow-up time was 16.9 ± 4.7 months. A statistically significant visual improvement was found when comparing initial VA with postoperative best-corrected VA (BCVA and final BCVA (Wilcoxon rank test, P ≤ 0.01. There was no significant correlation between the size of the hemorrhage and postoperative BCVA and final BCVA (Spearman's rho test. There was no statistically significant correlation between the initial VA and postoperative BCVA and final BCVA (Spearman's rho test. There was no significant correlation between the duration of hemorrhage and postoperative BCVA and final BCVA (Spearman's rho test. The preoperative thickness of hemorrhage (747.5 ± 30 μm was not correlated with postoperative BCVA or final BCVA (Pearson's test. Conclusions: Vitrectomy combined with subretinal r-tPA injection and gas tamponade is an effective surgical intervention to preserve VA in selected patients with apparent SMH.

  5. Tissue Plasminogen Activator Prevents Mortality from Sulfur Mustard Analog–Induced Airway Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry-Hofer, Tara B.; Loader, Joan E.; Rioux, Jacqueline S.; Garlick, Rhonda B.; White, Carl W.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation causes the rare but life-threatening disorder of plastic bronchitis, characterized by bronchial cast formation, resulting in severe airway obstruction that can lead to respiratory failure and death. Mortality in those requiring intubation is greater than 80%. To date, no antidote exists for SM toxicity. In addition, therapies for plastic bronchitis are solely anecdotal, due to lack of systematic research available to assess drug efficacy in improving mortality and/or morbidity. Adult rats exposed to SM analog were treated with intratracheal tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) (0.15–0.7 mg/kg, 5.5 and 6.5 h), compared with controls (no treatment, isoflurane, and placebo). Respiratory distress and pulse oximetry were assessed (for 12 or 48 h), and arterial blood gases were obtained at study termination (12 h). Microdissection of fixed lungs was done to assess airway obstruction by casts. Optimal intratracheal tPA treatment (0.7 mg/kg) completely eliminated mortality (0% at 48 h), and greatly improved morbidity in this nearly uniformly fatal disease model (90–100% mortality at 48 h). tPA normalized plastic bronchitis–associated hypoxemia, hypercarbia, and lactic acidosis, and improved respiratory distress (i.e., clinical scores) while decreasing airway fibrin casts. Intratracheal tPA diminished airway-obstructive fibrin–containing casts while improving clinical respiratory distress, pulmonary gas exchange, tissue oxygenation, and oxygen utilization in our model of severe chemically induced plastic bronchitis. Most importantly, mortality, which was associated with hypoxemia and clinical respiratory distress, was eliminated. PMID:23258228

  6. NURR1 involvement in recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator treatment complications after ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Zamorano, Cristina; Hernández-Guillamon, Mar; Jullienne, Amandine; Le Béhot, Audrey; Bardou, Isabelle; Parés, Mireia; Fernández-Cadenas, Israel; Giralt, Dolors; Carrera, Caty; Ribó, Marc; Vivien, Denis; Ali, Carine; Rosell, Anna; Montaner, Joan

    2015-02-01

    Despite the effectiveness of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (r-tPA) during the acute phase of ischemic stroke, the therapy remains limited by a narrow time window and the occurrence of occasional vascular side effects, particularly symptomatic hemorrhages. Our aim was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the endothelial damage resulting from r-tPA treatment in ischemic-like conditions. Microarray analyses were performed on cerebral endothelial cells submitted to r-tPA treatment during oxygen and glucose deprivation to identify novel biomarker candidates. Validation was then performed in vivo in a mouse model of thromboembolic stroke and culminated in an analysis in a clinical cohort of patients with ischemic stroke treated with thrombolysis. The transcription factor NURR1 (NR4A2) was identified as a downstream target induced by r-tPA during oxygen and glucose deprivation. Silencing NURR1 expression reversed the endothelial-toxicity induced by the combined stimuli, a protective effect attributable to reduced levels of proinflammatory mediators, such as nuclear factor-kappa-beta 2 (NF-κ-B2), interleukin 1 alpha (IL1α), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), SMAD family member 3 (SMAD3), colony stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage; CSF2). The detrimental effect of delayed thrombolysis, in conditions in which NURR1 gene expression was enhanced, was confirmed in the preclinical stroke model. Finally, we determined that patients with stroke who had a symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation after r-tPA treatment exhibited higher baseline serum NURR1 levels than did patients with an asymptomatic or absence of cerebral bleedings. Our results suggest that NURR1 upregulation by r-tPA during ischemic stroke is associated with endothelial dysfunction and inflammation and the enhancement of hemorrhagic complications associated to thrombolysis. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Therapeutic Strategies to Attenuate Hemorrhagic Transformation After Tissue Plasminogen Activator Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Masato; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Shimohata, Takayoshi

    2017-03-01

    This review focuses on the mechanisms and emerging concepts of stroke and therapeutic strategies for attenuating hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) treatment for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The therapeutic time window for tPA treatment has been extended. However, the patients who are eligible for tPA treatment are still <5% of all patients with AIS. The risk of serious or fatal symptomatic hemorrhage increases with delayed initiation of treatment. HT is thought to be caused by 1) ischemia/reperfusion injury; 2) the toxicity of tPA itself; 3) inflammation; and/or 4) remodeling factor-mediated effects. Modulation of these pathophysiologies is the basis of direct therapeutic strategies to attenuate HT after tPA treatment. Several studies have revealed that matrix metalloproteinases and free radicals are potential therapeutic targets. In addition, we have demonstrated that the inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor-signaling pathway and supplemental treatment with a recombinant angiopoietin-1 protein might be a promising therapeutic strategy for attenuating HT after tPA treatment through vascular protection. Moreover, single-target therapies could be insufficient for attenuating HT after tPA treatment and improving the therapeutic outcome of patients with AIS. We recently identified progranulin, which is a growth factor and a novel target molecule with multiple therapeutic effects. Progranulin might be a therapeutic target that protects the brain through suppression of vascular remodeling (vascular protection), neuroinflammation, and/or neuronal death (neuroprotection). Clinical trials which evaluate the effects of anti-VEGF drugs or PGRN-based treatment with tPA will be might worthwhile.

  8. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor: a risk factor for carotid plaque, stroke, and coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Margaretha; Östling, Gerd; Smith, Gustav; Hamrefors, Viktor; Melander, Olle; Hedblad, Bo; Engström, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the urokinase system could have an important role in atherogenesis and plaque rupture. The relationships among the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), carotid plaque, and incidence of ischemic stroke and coronary artery disease (CAD) events were studied in a prospective cohort. Occurrence of carotid plaque and plasma levels of suPAR were assessed in 5166 men and women, aged 45 to 68 years, participating in the Malmö Diet and Cancer study. Incidences of ischemic stroke and CAD were monitored during a mean follow-up of 15 years. Subjects with carotid plaque had significantly higher levels of suPAR compared with those without carotid plaque. suPAR was associated with increased incidence of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio [HR] for third versus first tertile, 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-2.11) and CAD (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.13-2.13) after adjustment for risk factors. The risk factor-adjusted HR for ischemic stroke was 2.21 (95% CI, 1.52-3.22) in subjects with carotid plaque and high suPAR (ie, third tertile) and 1.51 (95% CI, 1.05-2.17) in subjects with carotid plaque and low suPAR compared with those without carotid plaque and low suPAR (reference). High levels of suPAR significantly increased the risk of ischemic stroke and CAD in subjects with carotid plaque. suPAR is associated with increased occurrence of carotid plaque and increased incidence of ischemic stroke and CAD. Presence of both elevated levels of suPAR and carotid plaque increases the risk of ischemic stroke in an additive way.

  9. Current status of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator dosage for acute ischaemic stroke: an updated systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; You, Shoujiang; Sato, Shoichiro; Yang, Jie; Carcel, Cheryl; Zheng, Danni; Yoshimura, Sohei; Anderson, Craig S; Sandset, Else Charlotte; Robinson, Thompson; Chalmers, John; Sharma, Vijay K

    2018-03-01

    The optimal dose of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) for acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) remains controversial, especially in Asian countries. We aimed to update the evidence regarding the use of low-dose versus standard-dose rtPA. We performed a systematic literature search across MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PsycINFO and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) from inception to 22 August 2016 to identify all related studies. The outcomes were death or disability (defined by modified Rankin Scale 2-6), death, and symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (sICH). Where possible, data were pooled for meta-analysis with ORs and corresponding 95% CIs by means of random-effects or fixed-effects meta-analysis. We included 26 observational studies and 1 randomised controlled trial with a total of 23 210 patients. Variable doses of rtPA were used for thrombolysis of AIS in Asia. Meta-analysis shows that low-dose rtPA was not associated with increased risk of death or disability (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.33), or death (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.01), or decreased risk of sICH (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.72). The results remained consistent when sensitivity analyses were performed including only low-dose and standard-dose rtPA or only Asian studies. Our review shows small difference between the outcomes or the risk profile in the studies using low-dose and/or standard-dose rtPA for AIS. Low-dose rtPA was not associated with lower risk of death or disability, death alone, or sICH.

  10. Saturated fatty acid intake can influence increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masquio, D C L; de Piano, A; Campos, R M S; Sanches, P L; Corgosinho, F C; Carnier, J; Oyama, L M; do Nascimento, C M P O; de Mello, M T; Tufik, S; Dâmaso, A R

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if saturated fatty acid intake adjusted by tertiles can influence metabolic, inflammation, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in obese adolescents. Body mass, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and body composition of 108 obese adolescents were obtained. Fasting glucose, insulin, PAI-1, and CRP were determined. Insulin resistance was assessed by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity by Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI). Dietetic intake was estimated by a 3-day dietary record, and volunteers were divided according to consumption of saturated fatty acids: tertile 1 [Low Saturated Fatty Acid Intake (Low-SFA): ≤12.14 g], tertile 2 [Moderate Saturated Fatty Intake (Moderate SFA intake): 12.15-20.48 g], and tertile 3 [High Saturated Fatty Acid Intake (High-SFA Intake); >20.48 g]. Statistical analysis was performed using STATISTICA 7.0 software and the significance level was set at pstudy is that Moderate and High-SFA intakes presented significantly higher values of PAI-1 than Low-SFA Intake. PAI-1 was positively associated with saturated fatty intake, waist circumference, mean blood pressure, and HOMA-IR. SFA intake was predictor of PAI-1 independent of body fat, HOMA-IR and total-cholesterol. In addition, PAI-1 was an independent predictor of blood pressure. HOMA-IR and QUICKI presented significantly higher and lower, respectively, in High-SFA compared to Moderate-SFA intake. High-SFA influenced cardiovascular disease risks, since it increased PAI-1 and insulin resistance, and decreased insulin sensibility, leading to vicious cycle among food ingestion, pro-thrombotic state, and cardiovascular risks in obese adolescents. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator Can Be Safely Given without Complete Blood Count Results Back.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Dong

    Full Text Available It is well known that the efficacy of intravenous (i.v. tissue plasminogen activator (tPA is time-dependent when used to treat patients with acute ischemic strokes.Our study examines the safety issue of giving IV tPA without complete blood count (CBC resulted.This is a retrospective observational study by examining the database from Huashan Hospital in China and OSF/INI Comprehensive Stroke Center in United States. Patient data collected included demographics, occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, door to needle intervals, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores on admission, CBC results on admission and follow-up modified Rankin Scale scores. Linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to identify factors that would have an impact on door-to-needle intervals.Our study included 120 patients from Huashan Hospital and 123 patients from INI. Among them, 36 in Huashan Hospital and 51 in INI received i.v. tPA prior to their CBC resulted. Normal platelet count was found in 98.8% patients after tPA was given. One patient had thrombocytopenia but no hemorrhagic event. A significantly shorter door to needle interval (DTN was found in the group without CBC resulted. There was also a difference in treatment interval between the two hospitals. Door to needle intervals had a strong correlation to onset to treatment intervals and NIHSS scores on admission.In patients presented with acute ischemic stroke, the risk of developing hemorrhagic event is low if i.v. tPA is given before CBC has resulted. The door to needle intervals can be significantly reduced.

  12. DNA repair and induction of plasminogen activator in human fetal cells treated with ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Ishai, R.; Sharon, R.; Rothman, M.; Miskin, R.

    1984-01-01

    We have tested human fetal fibroblasts for development associated changes in DNA repair by utilizing nucleoid sedimentation as an assay for excision repair. Among skin fibroblasts the rate of excision repair was significantly higher in non-fetal cells than in fibroblasts derived from an 8 week fetus; this was evident by a delay in both the relaxation and the restoration of DNA supercoiling in nucleoids after irradiation. Skin fibroblasts derived at 12 week gestation were more repair proficient than those derived at 8 week gestation. However, they exhibited a somewhat lower rate of repair than non-fetal cells. The same fetal and non-fetal cells were also tested for induction of the protease plasminogen activator (PA) after u.v. irradiation. Enhancement of PA was higher in skin fibroblasts derived at 8 week than in those derived at 12 week gestation and was absent in non-fetal skin fibroblasts. These results are consistent with our previous findings that in human cells u.v. light-induced PA synthesis is correlated with reduced DNA repair capacity. Excision repair and PA inducibility were found to depend on tissue of origin in addition to gestational stage, as shown for skin and lung fibroblasts from the same 12 week fetus. Lung compared to skin fibroblasts exhibited lower repair rates and produced higher levels of PA after irradiation. The sedimentation velocity of nucleoids, prepared from unirradiated fibroblasts, in neutral sucrose gradients with or without ethidium bromide, indicated the presence of DNA strand breaks in fetal cells. It is proposed that reduced DNA repair in fetal cells may result from alterations in DNA supercoiling, and that persistent DNA strand breaks enhance transcription of PA gene(s)

  13. Safety of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator administration with computed tomography evidence of prior infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Michael J; Houston, J Thomas; Boehme, Amelia K; Albright, Karen C; Bavarsad Shahripour, Reza; Palazzo, Paola; Alvi, Muhammed; Rawal, Pawan V; Kapoor, Niren; Sisson, April; Alexandrov, Anne W; Alexandrov, Andrei V

    2014-07-01

    Prior stroke within 3 months excludes patients from thrombolysis; however, patients may have computed tomography (CT) evidence of prior infarct, often of unknown time of origin. We aimed to determine if the presence of a previous infarct on pretreatment CT is a predictor of hemorrhagic complications and functional outcomes after the administration of intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). We retrospectively analyzed consecutive patients treated with IV tPA at our institution from 2009-2011. Pretreatment CTs were reviewed for evidence of any prior infarct. Further review determined if any hemorrhagic transformation (HT) or symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) were present on repeat CT or magnetic resonance imaging. Outcomes included sICH, any HT, poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score of 4-6), and discharge disposition. Of 212 IV tPA-treated patients, 84 (40%) had evidence of prior infarct on pretreatment CT. Patients with prior infarcts on CT were older (median age, 72 versus 65 years; P=.001) and had higher pretreatment National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores (median, 10 versus 7; P=.023). Patients with prior infarcts on CT did not experience more sICH (4% versus 2%; P=.221) or any HT (18% versus 14%; P=.471). These patients did have a higher frequency of poor functional outcome at discharge (82% versus 50%; P<.001) and were less often discharged to home or inpatient rehabilitation center (61% versus 73%; P=.065). Visualization of prior infarcts on pretreatment CT did not predict an increased risk of sICH in our study and should not be viewed as a reason to withhold systemic tPA treatment after clinically evident strokes within 3 months were excluded. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke: a feasibility and safety study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi-Hokmabadi E

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Elyar Sadeghi-Hokmabadi, Mehdi Farhoudi, Aliakbar Taheraghdam, Mazyar Hashemilar, Daryous Savadi-Osguei, Reza Rikhtegar, Kaveh Mehrvar, Ehsan Sharifipour, Parisa Youhanaee, Reshad Mirnour Neurosciences Research Center, Neurology Department, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, East Azerbaijan, Iran Background: In developing countries, intravenous thrombolysis (IVT is available at a limited number of centers. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and safety of IVT at Tabriz Imam Reza Hospital. Methods: In a prospective study, over a 55-month period, any patient at the hospital for whom stroke code had been activated was enrolled in the study. Data on demographic characteristics, stroke risk factors, admission blood pressure, blood tests, findings of brain computed tomography (CT scans, time of symtom onset, time of arrival to the emergency department, time of stroke code activation, time of CT scan examination, and the time of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator administration were recorded. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale assessments were performed before IVT bolus, at 36 hours, at either 7 days or discharge (which ever one was earlier, and at 3-month follow-up. Brain CT scans were done for all patients before and 24 hours after the treatment. Results: Stroke code was activated for 407 patients and IVT was done in 168 patients. The rate of functional independence (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] 0–1 at 3 months was 39.2% (62/158. The mortality rate at day 7 was 6% (10/168. Hemorrhagic transformation was noted in 16 patients (9.5%. Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 5 (3%, all of which were fatal. One case of severe urinary bleeding and one other fatal case of severe angioedema were observed. Conclusion: During the first 4–5 years of administration of IVT in the hospital, it was found to be feasible and safe, but to increase the efficacy, poststroke care should be more organized and a stroke center

  15. Risk Factors Associated with Serum Levels of the Inflammatory Biomarker Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor in a General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haupt, Thomas H; Kallemose, Thomas; Ladelund, Steen

    2014-01-01

    The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a biomarker of mortality risk in various patient populations. However, little is known about the implications of lifestyle for suPAR levels in the general population. Lifestyle, demographic, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor...... data were collected from 5,538 participants in the Danish population-based Inter99 study. Their suPAR levels were measured using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the final adjusted model, smoking and morbid obesity were strongly associated with higher suPAR levels (P

  16. Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels and peripheral arterial disease outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samman Tahhan, Ayman; Hayek, Salim S; Sandesara, Pratik; Hajjari, Jamal; Hammadah, Muhammad; O'Neal, Wesley T; Kelli, Heval M; Alkhoder, Ayman; Ghasemzadeh, Nima; Ko, Yi-An; Aida, Hiroshi; Gafeer, Mohamad Mazen; Abdelhadi, Naser; Mohammed, Kareem Hosny; Patel, Keyur; Arya, Shipra; Reiser, Jochen; Vaccarino, Viola; Sperling, Laurence; Quyyumi, Arshed

    2017-09-01

    Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a marker of immune activation associated with atherosclerosis. Whether suPAR levels are associated with prevalent peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and its adverse outcomes remains unknown and is the aim of the study. SuPAR levels were measured in 5810 patients (mean age 63 years, 63% male, 77% with obstructive coronary artery disease [CAD]) undergoing cardiac catheterization. The presence of PAD (n = 967, 17%) was classified as carotid (36%), lower/upper extremities (30%), aortic (15%) and multisite disease (19%). Multivariable logistic and Cox regression models were used to determine independent predictors of prevalent PAD and outcomes including all-cause death, cardiovascular death and PAD-related events after adjustment for age, gender, race, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, renal function, heart failure history, and obstructive CAD. Plasma suPAR levels were 22.5% (p < 0.001) higher in patients with PAD compared to those without PAD. Plasma suPAR was higher in patients with more extensive PAD (≥2 compared to single site) p < 0.001. After multivariable adjustment, suPAR was associated with prevalent PAD; odds ratio (OR) for highest compared to lowest tertile of 2.0, 95% CI (1.6-2.5) p < 0.001. In Cox survival analyses adjusted for clinical characteristics and medication regimen, suPAR (in the highest vs. lowest tertile) remained an independent predictor of all-cause death [HR 3.1, 95% CI (1.9-5.3)], cardiovascular death [HR 3.5, 95% CI (1.8-7.0)] and PAD-related events [HR = 1.8, 95% CI (1.3-2.6) p < 0.001 for all]. Plasma suPAR level is predictive of prevalent PAD and of incident cardiovascular and PAD-related events. Whether SuPAR measurement can help screen, risk stratify, or monitor therapeutic responses in PAD requires further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Progression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and fibrinogen levels in relation to incident type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, Andreas; Williams, Ken; Tracy, Russell P; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Haffner, Steven M

    2006-04-11

    Several studies have shown that fibrinolytic and coagulation abnormalities as well as low-grade inflammation predict cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. We studied in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study the relation of incident diabetes to dynamic changes of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and fibrinogen. After a follow-up of 5.2 years, diabetes developed in 140 (16.6%) of 843 individuals (57% women; mean age [range], 54.7 [40, 69] years) (converters versus nonconverters). Baseline and follow-up levels of PAI-1 and fibrinogen (demographically and smoking adjusted) were higher in converters versus nonconverters (mean [SE]): at baseline, 23.7 ng/mL (1.5) versus 14.5 (0.4) and 286.2 mg/dL (4.8) versus 273.6 (2.1); at follow-up, 45.3 ng/mL (3.2) versus 25.9 (0.8) and 292.0 mg/dL (5.6) versus 275.2 (2.5); all P<0.05. In a demographically and smoking-adjusted logistic regression model, the change in PAI-1 was related to incident diabetes (OR for a 1-SD change [CI], 1.75 [1.37, 2.22]; P<0.001) after adjusting for baseline PAI-1 levels. After further adjusting for insulin sensitivity (SI) or waist, change in PAI-1 remained significantly related to incident diabetes (OR, 1.66 [1.28, 2.15], and 1.64 [1.28, 2.10]; P<0.001). In contrast, change in fibrinogen was not significantly related to incident diabetes. Progression of PAI-1 levels over time, in addition to high baseline PAI-1 levels, is associated with incident diabetes. PAI-1 levels (but not fibrinogen) further increase with the rising glucose levels and the development of diabetes. These findings extend the current knowledge on the relation of fibrinolysis and coagulation abnormalities to the development of type 2 diabetes.

  18. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 removal using dextran sulphate columns. Evidence of PAI-1 homeostasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maher, Vincent M G

    2009-08-01

    Patients with high plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antigen levels are prone to develop thrombosis. Lowering PAI-1 levels may offer a therapeutic option and help to better understand PAI-1 metabolism. We examined the effect on plasma PAI-1 levels of LDL-apheresis using dextran sulphate (DS) columns in 12 patients (9 male, 3 female, 49 +\\/- 10 years) with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia and coronary artery disease. One plasma volume equivalent (2.3-4.0 l) was treated during each procedure (at flow rates of 23 +\\/- 2 ml\\/min). Lipids and PAI-1 antigen levels were measured in plasma before and immediately after 19 aphereses (once in 7 patients, twice in 3 patients and three times in 2 patients) and also at 3 and 7 days post apheresis in five of these patients and in the column eluates from 8 of these patients. DS-apheresis reduced plasma cholesterol (50 +\\/- 8%), triglyceride (45 +\\/- 27%), apolipoprotein B (59 +\\/- 10%) and PAI-1 antigen levels from 10.2 +\\/- 5.2 to 6.0 +\\/- 3.1 ng\\/ml (P = 0.005). The PAI-I changes were independent of circadian variation. PAI-I bound to the DS-columns (3.51 +\\/- 1.03 ng\\/ml filtered plasma) and the percent of filtered PAI-1 that was bound correlated inversely (r = -0.81, P < 0.02) with basal PAI-1 levels indicating a high affinity saturable binding process. In four patients, plasma PAI-1 levels post-apheresis were higher than expected based on the amount of PAI-removed by the DS columns. The difference between the expected and actual PAI-1 level post apheresis, reflecting PAI-1 secretion or extracellular redistribution, correlated inversely with basal PAI-1 levels (r = -0.83, P = 0.01). PAI-1 levels returned to baseline pre-apheresis values 7 days post apheresis. PAI-1 antigen may be removed from plasma without adverse effect, resulting temporarily in its extracellular redistribution and restoration to baseline levels over one week. PAI-1 redistribution particularly when baseline pre

  19. Thrombolysis by intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). Current status and future direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanahashi, Norio

    2009-01-01

    In Japan, the intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) Alteplase (0.6 mg/kg) administration of the within 3 h of the onset of acute ischemic stroke was approved for therapeutic use in the year 2006. t-PA induces thrombolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke, and this method has gradually gained recognition among physicians and the general population. However, the number of patients who were treated using Alteplase is low (4,000-5,000 patients/year), and this figure accounts for only 2-3% of the annual number of cases of ischemic stroke. There is little doubt that Alteplase treatment is a potentially effective modality for some patients with acute ischemic stroke. The post-marketing surveillance of 4,749 Japanese patients treated using Alteplase showed that 33% of the patients had modified Rankin scale (mRS) scores of 0-1, 17% of patients died and 4.5% presented with symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH); these results were comparable to those from other countries. The expansion of the therapeutic time window has been a matter of concern. The investigators of the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS) have reported that there was significant improvement in the clinical outcomes of patients with acute ischemie stroke when Alteplase was administered 3-4.5 h after the onset of the symptoms. Mismatches in perfusion- and diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images have been used for selecting patients 3 h after the onset of symptoms, and the findings from MRI, dwimages (DWI) and MR angiography are practical predictors of t-PA therapy within 3 h of onset. The Middle Cerebral Artery Embolism Local Fibrinolytic Intervention Trial (MELT) Japan study showed that local intra-arterial fibrinolysis is effective in patients with embolic MCA occlusion within 6 h of the onset of symptoms. Combining the initiation of intravenous t-PA administration with further intra-arterial fibrinolysis or mechanical thrombolectomy may improve the

  20. Recombinant Human Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Accelerates Odontoblastic Differentiation of Human Stem Cells from Apical Papilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Bin; Choung, Pill-Hoon

    2016-05-01

    Dental caries, the most prevalent oral disease in dental patients, involves the phases of demineralization and destruction of tooth hard tissues like enamel, dentin, and cementum. Dentin is a major component of the root and is also the innermost layer that protects the tooth nerve, exposure of which results in pain. In this study, we used human stem cells from apical papilla (hSCAP), which are early progenitor cells, to examine the effects of recombinant human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (rhPAI-1) on odontogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that rhPAI-1 promoted the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of hSCAP and increased the expression levels of odontoblast-associated markers. We also observed that rhPAI-1 upregulated the expression of Smad4, nuclear factor I-C (NFI-C), Runx2, and osterix (OSX) during odontogenic differentiation. Notably, transplantation of rhPAI-1-treated hSCAP effectively induced odontoblastic differentiation and dentinal formation. And the differentiated odontoblast-like cells showed numerous odontoblast processes inserted in dentin tubules and arranged collagen fibers. Furthermore, odontoblast-associated markers were more highly expressed in the rhPAI-1-induced differentiated odontoblast-like cells compared with the control group. These markers were also more highly expressed in the newly formed dentin-like tissue of the rhPAI-1-treated group compared with the control group. Consistent with our in vitro results, the expression levels of Smad4, NFI-C, and OSX were also increased in the rhPAI-1-treated group compared with the control group. Taken together, these results suggest that rhPAI-1 promotes odontoblast differentiation and dentin formation of hSCAP, and Smad4/NFI-C/OSX may play critical roles in the rhPAI-1-induced odontogenic differentiation. Thus, dental stem cells from apical papilla combined with rhPAI-1 could lead to dentin regeneration in clinical implications.

  1. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor is a novel biomarker predicting acute exacerbation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumus A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aziz Gumus,1 Nejat Altintas,2 Halit Cinarka,1 Aynur Kirbas,3 Muge Haziroglu,1 Mevlut Karatas,1 Unal Sahin1 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, School of Medicine, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Rize, Turkey; 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, School of Medicine, Namik Kemal University, Tekirdag, Turkey; 3Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Rize, Turkey Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a chronic inflammatory condition, and progresses with acute exacerbations. (AE. During AE, levels of acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP and inflammatory cells in the circulation increase. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR levels increase in acute viral and bacterial infections and in diseases involving chronic inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of suPAR in predicting diagnosis of AE of COPD (AE-COPD and response to treatment. Methods: The study population consisted of 43 patients diagnosed with AE-COPD and 30 healthy controls. suPAR, CRP, and fibrinogen levels were measured on the first day of hospitalization and on the seventh day of treatment. Results: We found that fibrinogen (P<0.001, CRP (P<0.001, and suPAR (P<0.001 were significantly higher in patients with AE-COPD than in healthy controls. Fibrinogen (P<0.001, CRP (P=0.001, and suPAR (P<0.001 were significantly decreased by the seventh day of treatment. However, the area under receiver operator characteristic curve showed that suPAR is superior to CRP and fibrinogen in distinguishing AE-COPD. There was a correlation between fibrinogen, CRP, and suPAR. However, only fibrinogen was a powerful predictor of suPAR in multiple linear regression. In multiple logistic regression, only suPAR and fibrinogen were strong predictors of AE-COPD (P=0.002 and P=0.014, respectively. Serum suPAR was negatively correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1

  2. Combined lysis of thrombus with ultrasound and systemic tissue plasminogen activator for emergent revascularization in acute ischemic stroke (CLOTBUST-ER)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellinger, Peter D; Alexandrov, Andrei V; Barreto, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We designed a Phase 3 clinical trial to determine the safety and efficacy of adding transcranial ultrasound using an operator-independent headframe to recombinant tissue-plasminogen-activator for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: Combined lysis of thrombus with ultrasound...... and systemic tissue-plasminogen-activator for emergent revascularization in acute ischemic stroke is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial that will enroll subjects with the following main inclusion criteria: less than 4·5 hours from symptom onset (three-hours in US and Canada), age 18...... events. CONCLUSIONS: Since intravenous recombinant tissue-plasminogen-activator remains the only medical therapy to reverse ischemic stroke applicable in the emergency department, our trial will determine if the additional use of transcranial ultrasound improves functional outcomes in patients...

  3. Structure, function and expression on blood and bone marrow cells of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, uPAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, T; Behrendt, N; Ploug, M

    1997-01-01

    patients with the rare blood disease paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) that fail to express glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins including uPAR, show a very significantly reduced transmigration over an endothelial barrier. Cell-associated plasminogen activation by PNH......), most importantly PAI-1 and PAI-2, providing means of temporally restricting the process of plasminogen activation. In addition to its role in plasminogen activation, compelling evidence has demonstrated a role for uPAR in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, both directly and indirectly. u......PAR is directly involved in binding to the extracellular matrix molecule, vitronectin, and the affinity of this binding is increased when uPAR is occupied by (pro-)uPA. A more indirect but presumably very important role of uPAR in cell adhesion seems to be mediated through interactions between uPAR and beta 1...

  4. ROLE OF GENE POLYMORFISM OF PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR INGIBITOR TYPE I AS A RISK FACTOR FOR PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE AT TERM PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Nikolayeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The retrospective study was designed to identify association of premature rupture of the fetal membranes (PROM with carrying polymorphisms in genes encoding folate metabolism and hemostasis in 717 women. More than one hundred potential predictors were analyzed including carriage of thrombogenic genes polymorphisms and genes encoding folate metabolism: FV[Arg506Gln], F II [20210 G/A], MTHFR [Ala222Val], (PAI-I[-675 5G/4G]. Study revealed that plasminogen activator ingibitor-1 gene polymorphism increases significantly the risk of premature rupture of the fetal membranes in term pregnancy (PROM: heterozygous plasminogen activator ingibitor-1 gene polymorphism is associated with 3.6-fold (95% CI 2.4–5.4; p < 0.001, homozygous plasminogen activator ingibitor-1 gene polymorphism – with 1.7-fold (95% CI 1.1–2.6; p = 0.01 risk rise of PROM.

  5. Dual role for plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 as soluble and as matricellular regulator of epithelial alveolar cell wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquerlot, François; Galiacy, Stephane; Malo, Michel; Guignabert, Christophe; Lawrence, Daniel A; d'Ortho, Maria-Pia; Barlovatz-Meimon, Georgia

    2006-11-01

    Epithelium repair, crucial for restoration of alveolo-capillary barrier integrity, is orchestrated by various cytokines and growth factors. Among them keratinocyte growth factor plays a pivotal role in both cell proliferation and migration. The urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) system also influences cell migration through proteolysis during epithelial repair. In addition, the complex formed by uPAR-uPA and matrix-bound plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) exerts nonproteolytic roles in various cell types. Here we present new evidence about the dual role of PAI-1 under keratinocyte growth factor stimulation using an in vitro repair model of rat alveolar epithelial cells. Besides proteolytic involvement of the uPA system, the availability of matrix-bound-PAI-1 is also required for an efficient healing. An unexpected decrease of healing was shown when PAI-1 activity was blocked. However, the proteolytic action of uPA and plasmin were still required. Moreover, immediately after wounding, PAI-1 was dramatically increased in the newly deposited matrix at the leading edge of wounds. We thus propose a dual role for PAI-1 in epithelial cell wound healing, both as a soluble inhibitor of proteolysis and also as a matrix-bound regulator of cell migration. Matrix-bound PAI-1 could thus be considered as a new member of the matricellular protein family.

  6. The X-ray Crystal Structure of Full-Length Human Plasminogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby H.P. Law

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Plasminogen is the proenzyme precursor of the primary fibrinolytic protease plasmin. Circulating plasminogen, which comprises a Pan-apple (PAp domain, five kringle domains (KR1-5, and a serine protease (SP domain, adopts a closed, activation-resistant conformation. The kringle domains mediate interactions with fibrin clots and cell-surface receptors. These interactions trigger plasminogen to adopt an open form that can be cleaved and converted to plasmin by tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators. Here, the structure of closed plasminogen reveals that the PAp and SP domains, together with chloride ions, maintain the closed conformation through interactions with the kringle array. Differences in glycosylation alter the position of KR3, although in all structures the loop cleaved by plasminogen activators is inaccessible. The ligand-binding site of KR1 is exposed and likely governs proenzyme recruitment to targets. Furthermore, analysis of our structure suggests that KR5 peeling away from the PAp domain may initiate plasminogen conformational change.

  7. Interaction of urokinase A chain with the receptor of human keratinocytes stimulates release of urokinase-like plasminogen activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fibbi, G.; Magnelli, L.; Pucci, M.; Del Rosso, M. (Florence Univ. (Italy))

    1990-03-01

    On the basis of a fibrinolytic assay with {sup 125}I-fibrin, zymography, and immunoprobing with anti-human urokinase antibody, the authors have observed that the in vitro established NCTC human keratinocyte cell line releases into the culture medium a 54,000-Da plasminogen activator which is indistinguishable from human urokinase. Only the early release following the washing of keratinocyte monolayers is accounted for by secretion of preformed enzyme, while late secretory events require the de novo synthesis of urokinase. The released enzyme can interact by autocriny with its own receptor present on keratinocytes. The addition to the keratinocyte culture medium of the urokinase A chain can stimulate a concentration-dependent urokinase oversecretion, which is not paralleled by oversecretion of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Since stimulation of urokinase production can be obtained by an A chain concentration which was previously shown to be efficient in inducing keratinocyte mobilization in an in vitro migration model system, they hypothesize that this mechanism may be important in vivo during the process of wound repair.

  8. Assessment of plasminogen synthesis in vitro by mouse tumor cells using a competition radioimmunoassay for mouse plasminogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roblin, R.O.; Bell, T.E.; Young, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    A sensitive, specific competition radioimmunoassay for mouse plasmin(ogen) has been developed in order to determine whether mouse tumor cells can synthesize plasminogen in vitro. The rabbit anti-BALB/c mouse plasminogen antibodies used in the assay react with the plasminogen present in serum from BALB/c, C3H, AKR and C57BL/6 mice, and also recognized mouse plasmin. The competition radiommunoassay can detect as little as 50 ng of mouse plasminogen. No competition was observed with preparations of fetal calf, human and rabbit plasminogens. A variety of virus-transformed and mouse tumor cell lines were all found to contain less than 100 ng mouse plasminogen/mg of cell extract protein. Thus, if the plasminogen activator/plasmin system is important in the growth or movement of this group of tumor cells, the cells will be dependent upon the circulatory system of the host for their plasminogen supply. (Auth.)

  9. Serum level of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor is a strong and independent predictor of survival in human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, N; Sier, CFM; Ullum, H

    2000-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection has been shown to result in up-regulation of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR/CD87) on leukocytes in vitro and in vivo. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this up-regulation is paralleled by higher serum...... that the serum suPAR level is a novel, strong, and independent predictor of survival in HIV-1 infection. This report is the first to demonstrate an important association between the plasminogen activator system and disease progression in HIV-1 infection....

  10. A bio-immuno assay to determine free tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) in Stabilyte® plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Revet, M.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes a two-step bio-immuno assay (BIA), which determines active (free) tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) in (acidified) plasma. Plasma samples, diluted in buffer of pH 6.0, are added to the wells of a microtiter plate containing an immobilised monoclonal antibody which binds

  11. Targeting tumor cell invasion and dissemination in vivo by an aptamer that inhibits urokinase-type plasminogen activator through a novel multifunctional mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botkjaer, Kenneth A; Deryugina, Elena I; Dupont, Daniel Miotto

    2012-01-01

    Data accumulated over the latest two decades have established that the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is a potential therapeutic target in cancer. When designing inhibitors of the proteolytic activity of serine proteases, obtaining sufficient specificity is problematic...

  12. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischaemic stroke: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlaw, Joanna M; Murray, Veronica; Berge, Eivind; del Zoppo, Gregory; Sandercock, Peter; Lindley, Richard L; Cohen, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA, alteplase) improved functional outcome in patients treated soon after acute ischaemic stroke in randomised trials, but licensing is restrictive and use varies widely. The IST-3 trial adds substantial new data. We therefore assessed all the evidence from randomised trials for rt-PA in acute ischaemic stroke in an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods We searched for randomised trials of intravenous rt-PA versus control given within 6 h of onset of acute ischaemic stroke up to March 30, 2012. We estimated summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI in the primary analysis for prespecified outcomes within 7 days and at the final follow-up of all patients treated up to 6 h after stroke. Findings In up to 12 trials (7012 patients), rt-PA given within 6 h of stroke significantly increased the odds of being alive and independent (modified Rankin Scale, mRS 0–2) at final follow-up (1611/3483 [46·3%] vs 1434/3404 [42·1%], OR 1·17, 95% CI 1·06–1·29; p=0·001), absolute increase of 42 (19–66) per 1000 people treated, and favourable outcome (mRS 0–1) absolute increase of 55 (95% CI 33–77) per 1000. The benefit of rt-PA was greatest in patients treated within 3 h (mRS 0–2, 365/896 [40·7%] vs 280/883 [31·7%], 1·53, 1·26–1·86, p<0·0001), absolute benefit of 90 (46–135) per 1000 people treated, and mRS 0–1 (283/896 [31·6%] vs 202/883 [22·9%], 1·61, 1·30–1·90; p<0·0001), absolute benefit 87 (46–128) per 1000 treated. Numbers of deaths within 7 days were increased (250/2807 [8·9%] vs 174/2728 [6·4%], 1·44, 1·18–1·76; p=0·0003), but by final follow-up the excess was no longer significant (679/3548 [19·1%] vs 640/3464 [18·5%], 1·06, 0·94–1·20; p=0·33). Symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (272/3548 [7·7%] vs 63/3463 [1·8%], 3·72, 2·98–4·64; p<0·0001) accounted for most of the early excess deaths. Patients older than 80 years achieved similar

  13. Preclinical evaluation of a urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-targeted nanoprobe in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Y

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Yushu Chen,1 Li Gong,2 Ning Gao,3 Jichun Liao,1 Jiayu Sun,1 Yuqing Wang,1 Lei Wang,1 Pengjin Zhu,1 Qing Fan,1 Yongqiang Andrew Wang,4 Wen Zeng,2 Hui Mao,3 Lily Yang,5 Fabao Gao11Molecular Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 2Sichuan Primed Bio-Tech Group Co, Ltd, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 4Ocean NanoTech, LLC, San Diego, CA, 5Department of Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USAPurpose: To translate a recombinant peptide containing the amino-terminal fragment (ATF of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-targeted magnetic iron oxide (IO nanoparticles (uPAR-targeted human ATF-IONPs into clinical applications, we conducted a pilot study to evaluate the toxicity and pharmacokinetics of this nanoparticle in normal rhesus monkeys.Methods: We assessed the changes in the following: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI signals from pretreatment stage to 14 days posttreatment, serum iron concentrations from 5 minutes posttreatment to 12 weeks posttreatment, routine blood examination and serum chemistry analysis results from pretreatment stage to 12 weeks after administration, and results of staining of the liver with Perls’ Prussian Blue and hematoxylin–eosin at 24 hours and 3 months posttreatment in two rhesus monkeys following an intravenous administration of the targeted nanoparticles either with a polyethylene glycol (ATF-PEG-IONP or without a PEG (ATF-IONP coating.Results: The levels of alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, and direct bilirubin in the two monkeys increased immediately after the administration of the IONPs but returned to normal within 20 days and stayed within the normal reference range 3 months after the injection. The creatinine levels of the two monkeys stayed within the normal range during the study. In addition, red blood cells

  14. Regulatory T cells ameliorate tissue plasminogen activator-induced brain haemorrhage after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Leilei; Li, Peiying; Zhu, Wen; Cai, Wei; Liu, Zongjian; Wang, Yanling; Luo, Wenli; Stetler, Ruth A; Leak, Rehana K; Yu, Weifeng; Gao, Yanqin; Chen, Jun; Chen, Gang; Hu, Xiaoming

    2017-07-01

    Delayed thrombolytic treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) may exacerbate blood-brain barrier breakdown after ischaemic stroke and lead to lethal haemorrhagic transformation. The immune system is a dynamic modulator of stroke response, and excessive immune cell accumulation in the cerebral vasculature is associated with compromised integrity of the blood-brain barrier. We previously reported that regulatory T cells, which function to suppress excessive immune responses, ameliorated blood-brain barrier damage after cerebral ischaemia. This study assessed the impact of regulatory T cells in the context of tPA-induced brain haemorrhage and investigated the underlying mechanisms of action. The number of circulating regulatory T cells in stroke patients was dramatically reduced soon after stroke onset (84 acute ischaemic stroke patients with or without intravenous tPA treatment, compared to 115 age and gender-matched healthy controls). Although stroke patients without tPA treatment gradually repopulated the numbers of circulating regulatory T cells within the first 7 days after stroke, post-ischaemic tPA treatment led to sustained suppression of regulatory T cells in the blood. We then used the murine suture and embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion models of stroke to investigate the therapeutic potential of adoptive regulatory T cell transfer against tPA-induced haemorrhagic transformation. Delayed administration of tPA (10 mg/kg) resulted in haemorrhagic transformation in the ischaemic territory 1 day after ischaemia. When regulatory T cells (2 × 106/mouse) were intravenously administered immediately after delayed tPA treatment in ischaemic mice, haemorrhagic transformation was significantly decreased, and this was associated with improved sensorimotor functions. Blood-brain barrier disruption and tight junction damages were observed in the presence of delayed tPA after stroke, but were mitigated by regulatory T cell transfer. Mechanistic

  15. Laminin and estradiol regulation of the plasminogen-activator system in MCF-7 breast-carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonohara, S; Mira-y-Lopez, R; Brentani, M M

    1998-03-30

    We have investigated the effects of laminin, on the plasminogen-activator system of MCF-7 breast-carcinoma cells. MCF-7 cells were incubated on plastic or laminin-coated wells, and medium and cell lysate aliquots were assayed for tissue-type (tPA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) by a chromogenic assay in combination with anti-uPA antibodies. Cells cultured on laminin displayed a 5-fold increase in tPA activity and a 2-fold decrease in uPA activity relative to cells on plastic. These effects could be mimicked by laminin fragment P1 but not by collagen I or fibronectin. tPA activity of cells treated with estradiol (10 nM) was 3-fold higher, that of cells on laminin treated with estradiol was 15-fold higher, than that of control. Northern-blot analysis showed that tPA mRNA levels were up-regulated by estradiol and laminin, whereas PAI-1 mRNA levels were down-regulated by laminin and not affected by E2. Concomitant treatment with laminin and estradiol, decreased PAI-1 mRNA and increased tPA mRNA levels, accounting for the synergistic increase in tPA activity. Laminin exerted only a modest (approx. 2-fold) inhibitory effect on uPA mRNA levels. In the breast-carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231, down-regulation of PAI-1 and uPA mRNA by laminin was not observed. Adhesion assays indicated that alpha2beta1 is the predominant receptor for laminin in MCF-7 cells. MDA-MB-231 cells expressed alpha2 (54%) but this integrin is not used as a laminin receptor. These results support a role for alpha2beta1 in mediating interactions of MCF-7 with LN.

  16. Activation of the zymogen to urokinase-type plasminogen activator is associated with increased interdomain flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Manja A; Bøtkjær, Kenneth Alrø; Goswami, Sumit

    2011-01-01

    A key regulatory step for serine proteases of the trypsin clan is activation of the initially secreted zymogens, leading to an increase in activity by orders of magnitude. Zymogen activation occurs by cleavage of a single peptide bond near the N-terminus of the catalytic domain. Besides the catal...

  17. Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator and immediate angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction. : One-year follow up. The European Cooperative Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E.R. Arnold (Alfred); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); D.P. de Bono (David); J.G.P. Tijssen (Jan); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M. Verstraete (Marc); J. Lubsen (Jacob); F.J.J. van de Werf (Frans)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND. The European Cooperative Study Group conducted two randomized trials in patients with suspected myocardial infarction to assess the effect of 100 mg single-chain recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA, alteplase) on enzymatic infarct size, left ventricular

  18. Reasons for the lack of benefit of immediate angioplasty during recombinant tissue plasminogen activator therapy for acute myocardial infarction: a regional wall motion analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); W.R. Rutsch (Wolfgang); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); D.P. de Bono (David); J.G.P. Tijssen (Jan); J. Lubsen (Jacob); M. Verstraete (Marc); A.E.R. Arnold (Alfred)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractRegional ventricular wall motion analysis utilizing three different methods was performed on predischarge left ventriculograms from 291 of 367 patients enrolled in a randomized trial of single chain recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA), aspirin and heparin with and

  19. Stimulation of tissue-type plasminogen activator gene expression by sodium butyrate and trichostatin A in human endothelial cells involves histone acetylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.; Lansink, T.; Grimbergen, J.; Toet, K.H.; Kooistra, T.

    1995-01-01

    We have previously shown that the pleiotropic agent sodium butyrate strongly stimulates tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Here we provide the following evidence that the butyrate-induced t-PA expression in HUVEC involves histone H4

  20. Preoperative plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 and serum C-reactive protein levels in patients with colorectal cancer. The RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Sørensen, Steen

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a prognostic variable in patients with colorectal cancer. It has been suggested, however, that plasma PAI-1 is a nonspecific prognostic parameter similar to the acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP). In the present...

  1. Distinctive binding modes and inhibitory mechanisms of two peptidic inhibitors of urokinase-type plasminogen activator with isomeric P1 residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Longguang; Zhao, Baoyu; Xu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two isomeric piperidine derivatives (meta and para isomers) were used as arginine mimics in the P1 position of a cyclic peptidic inhibitor (CPAYSRYLDC) of urokinase-type plasminogen activator. The two resulting cyclic peptides showed vastly different affinities (∼70 fold) to the target...

  2. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G allele in the 4G/5G promoter polymorphism increases the occurrence of cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergouwen, M. D. I.; Frijns, C. J. M.; Roos, Y. B. W. E. M.; Rinkel, G. J. E.; Baas, F.; Vermeulen, M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In several acute life-threatening diseases, the 4G-allele in the 4G/5G-promotor polymorphism in the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene is associated with higher PAI-1 levels and increased poor outcome, probably by promoting the formation of microthrombi. The aim

  3. Lysosomal degradation of receptor-bound urokinase-type plasminogen activator is enhanced by its inhibitors in human trophoblastic choriocarcinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Poul Henning; Christensen, Erik Ilsø; Ebbesen, P.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the effect of plasminogen activator inhibitors PAI-1 and PAI-2 on the binding of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) to its receptor in the human choriocarcinoma cell line JAR. With 125I-labeled ligands in whole-cell binding assays, both uncomplexed u-PA and u-PA-inhibitor......We have studied the effect of plasminogen activator inhibitors PAI-1 and PAI-2 on the binding of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) to its receptor in the human choriocarcinoma cell line JAR. With 125I-labeled ligands in whole-cell binding assays, both uncomplexed u-PA and u...... in an apparently intact form in the medium or was still cell associated. The degradation could be inhibited by inhibitors of vesicle transport and lysosomal hydrolases. By electron microscopic autoradiography, both 125I-u-PA and 125I-u-PA-inhibitor complexes were located over the cell membrane at 4 degrees C...

  4. Differential effects of tissue plasminogen activator and streptokinase on infarct size and on rate of enzyme release: influence of early infarct related artery patency : The GUSTO Enzyme Substudy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Baardman (Taco); W.T. Hermens (Wim); G.P. Molhoek; G. Grollier (Gilles); M.E. Pfisterer (Matthias); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); T. Lenderink (Timo)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The recent international GUSTO trial of 41,021 patients with acute myocardial infarction demonstrated improved 90-min infarct related artery patency as well as reduced mortality in patients treated with an accelerated regimen of tissue plasminogen activator, compared to

  5. Isolation of a human tissue-type plasminogen-activator genomic DNA clone and its expression in mouse L-cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Brown (Morris); A.W.R. Tyrrell; C.G. Chapman; J.E. Carey (Janet); D.M. Glover; F.G. Grosveld (Frank); I. Dodd; J.H. Robinson

    1985-01-01

    textabstractWe have isolated a cDNA clone corresponding to a substantial portion of the human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) protein. It encodes almost all of the protein B chain and part of the 3' untranslated region. We have used this clone to screen bacteriophage lambda and cosmid

  6. PATTERNS OF CYTOKINES, PLASMA ENDOTOXIN, PLASMINOGEN-ACTIVATOR INHIBITOR, AND ACUTE-PHASE PROTEINS DURING THE TREATMENT OF SEVERE SEPSIS IN HUMANS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOFFERHOFF, ASM; BOM, VJJ; DEVRIESHOSPERS, HG; VANINGEN, J; VANDERMEER, J; HAZENBERG, BPC; MULDER, POM; WEITS, J

    Objective: To study the patterns of plasma concentrations of endotoxin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, C-reactive protein, and serum amyloid A during the treatment of human sepsis. Design: A prospective case series study. Setting: ICU of

  7. Involvement of calcium and G proteins in the acute release of tissue- type plasminogen activator and von Willebrand factor from cultured human endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden-Schrauwen, Y. van den; Atsma, D.E.; Lupu, F.; Vries, R.E.M. de; Kooistra, T.; Emeis, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of Ca2+ and G proteins in thrombin-induced acute release (regulated secretion) of tissue-type plasminogen activator (TPA) and yon Willebrand factor (vWF), using a previously described system of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The acute

  8. Prognostic value of plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in Danish patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (REOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begum, Farah Diba; Høgdall, Estrid V S; Riisbo, Rikke

    2006-01-01

    The level of the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is elevated in tumour tissue from several types of cancer. This is the first study aiming to predict the prognosis for survival by the use of a pre-chemotherapeutic plasma suPAR value in 71 patients with recurrent epithelial...

  9. A sensitive ELISA for human tissue-type plasminogen activator applicable to the study of acute release from cultured human endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwen, Y.; Emeis, J.J.; Kooistra, T.

    1994-01-01

    The development of a highly sensitive, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is described. The use of a biotin-avidin system resulted in a detection limit of 10 pg of tPA per ml, which is 50 to 150 times more sensitive than commercially-available

  10. Reasons for the lack of benefit of immediate angioplasty during recombinant tissue plasminogen activator therapy for acute myocardial infarction: a regional wall motion analysis. European Cooperative Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, A. E.; Serruys, P. W.; Rutsch, W.; Simoons, M. L.; de Bono, D. P.; Tijssen, J. G.; Lubsen, J.; Verstraete, M.

    1991-01-01

    Regional ventricular wall motion analysis utilizing three different methods was performed on predischarge left ventriculograms from 291 of 367 patients enrolled in a randomized trial of single chain recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA), aspirin and heparin with and without immediate

  11. Evaluation of a weight-adjusted single-bolus plasminogen activator in patients with myocardial infarction - A double-blind, randomized angiographic trial of lanoteplase versus alteplase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, P; Vermeer, F; Ambrosioni, E; Sadowski, Z; Lopez-Sendon, JL; von Essen, R; Beaufils, P; Thadani, U; Adgey, J; Pierard, L; Brinker, J; Davies, RF; Smalling, RW; Wallentin, L; Caspi, A; Pangerl, A; Trickett, L; Hauck, C; Henry, D; Chew, P

    1998-01-01

    Background-Lanoteplase (nPA) is a rationally designed variant of tissue plasminogen activator with greater fibrinolytic potency and slower plasma clearance than alteplase. Methods and Results-InTIME (Intravenous nPA for Treatment of Infarcting Myocardium Early), a multicenter, double-blind,

  12. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor plays a role in neutrophil migration during lipopolysaccharide-induced peritoneal inflammation but not during Escherichia coli-induced peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renckens, Rosemarijn; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Florquin, Sandrine; van der Poll, Tom

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is expressed on many different cells, including leukocytes. uPAR has been implicated to play a role in neutrophil migration to sites of inflammation. METHODS: To determine the role that uPAR plays in neutrophil recruitment in response

  13. Increased clearance explains lower plasma levels of tissue-type plasminogen activator by estradiol: Evidence for potently enhanced mannose receptor expression in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansink, M.; Jong, M.; Bijsterbosch, M.; Bekkers, M.; Toet, K.; Havekes, L.; Emeis, J.; Kooistra, T.

    1999-01-01

    Several clinical studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between circulating levels of estrogen and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA). The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that estrogen lower plasma levels of t-PA by increasing its clearance from the bloodstream.

  14. Triglyceride concentration and waist circumference influence alcohol-related plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity increase in black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Marlien; de Lange, Zelda; Hoekstra, Tiny; Ellis, Suria M; Kruger, Annamarie

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (PAI-1act) and fibrinogen concentration in a black South African population presenting with lower PAI-1act and higher fibrinogen than what is typically observed in white populations. We, furthermore, wanted to investigate the effect of urbanization, sex, central obesity, increased triglycerides, 4G/5G polymorphism (PAI-1 only) and BMI on the association of alcohol with PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Data from 2010 apparently healthy, randomly collected black South African volunteers from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study were cross-sectionally analyzed. Alcohol consumption was recorded using quantitative food frequency questionnaires and fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis including PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with significantly increased PAI-1act, in the total population as well as in the women separately, and tended to be so in men. This alcohol-related PAI-1act increase was observed in volunteers with increased triglycerides and central obesity but not in volunteers with normal levels and waist circumference. Urbanization, the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI did not affect the association of alcohol with PAI-1act. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased fibrinogen concentration. Sex and level of urbanization did not affect the association of alcohol with fibrinogen. Fibrinogen decreased in normal and overweight volunteers but not in obese and centrally obese volunteers following moderate alcohol consumption. Triglyceride levels and waist circumference influence alcohol-related PAI-1act increase potentially through modulating adipocyte and triglyceride-induced PAI-1 production. Obesity prevented alcohol-related fibrinogen decrease possibly by counteracting the anti-inflammatory effect of moderate alcohol consumption.

  15. Importance of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) for preventing single chain urokinase plasminogen activator (scu-PA) conversion into two chain urokinase plasminogen activator (tcu-PA) in plasma in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosne, A M; Dubor, F; Samama, M

    1991-09-01

    We have studied the effects of PAI-1 on the conversion of scu-PA into tcu-PA in vitro in plasma containing or not a 125I-fibrin clot by determining tcu-PA activity on S2444. Two preparations of PAI-1 have been used, a fraction of medium conditioned with the monkey Vero cells (Vero-Prep), the antiurokinase activity of which is inhibited at 83% by anti PAI-1 IgG, or purified human PAI-1 from HT 1080 fibrosarcoma cells. Scu-PA purified from human kidney cells has been treated with diisopropylfluorophosphate before use. In plasma, conversion of scu-PA into the tc form is accelerated by addition of anti PAI-1 IgG. In plasma containing a clot, generation of tcu-PA, is considerably delayed after addition of the Vero-Prep or human PAI-1. Clot lysis is also decreased but to a lesser extent than it would be expected from the level of tcu-PA activity. Addition of anti PAI-1 antibodies shortens the lag phase before tcu-PA appears and moderatly accelerates clot lysis. These results demonstrate the importance of PAI-1 for the stability of scu-PA in plasma in vitro by delaying its conversion into tcu-PA.

  16. Immunoradiometric quantitation of tissue plasminogen activator-related antigen in human plasma: crypticity phenomenon and relationship to plasma fibrinolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wun, T.C.; Capuano, A.

    1987-01-01

    A two-site immunoradiometric assay for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) antigen has been developed using immunoaffinity purified antibody. Various treatments enhanced the detection of tPA antigen in the plasma samples. Maximum detection was obtained by acidification of plasma to pH 4.8 to 6.5 or addition of 0.5 mol/L of L-lysine or L-arginine. Acidification or addition of lysine to plasma is also required for maximum immunoadsorption of plasma tPA antigen on anti-tPA-Ig-sepharose. These results indicate that plasma tPA antigen is partially cryptic to antibody in untreated plasma. The plasma tPA antigen isolated by immunoadsorption of either untreated plasma or acidified plasma on anti-tPA-Ig-sepharose consists mainly of a 100-kd plasminogen activator species as determined by fibrin-agar zymography. The 100-kd activity is possibly a tPA:inhibitor complex. A standardized sample preparation method was conveniently adopted by mixing 3 vol of plasma and 1 vol of 2 mol/L of L-lysine for the assay. Reconstitution and recovery studies showed that the method is specific and permits full detection of both free tPA and tPA:inhibitor complex. The validity of the assay is further supported by the finding that the spontaneous plasma fibrinolysis previously demonstrated to be dependent on plasma tPA antigen is correlated with tPA antigen content. Using the standardized assay, we found that tPA antigen concentrations in 16 blood bank plasmas are equivalent to 3.7 to 20 ng of 60 kd tPA/mL. In all the plasma tested, more than half of the antigen is undetected unless the plasma is treated as described above

  17. Immunoradiometric quantitation of tissue plasminogen activator-related antigen in human plasma: crypticity phenomenon and relationship to plasma fibrinolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wun, T.C.; Capuano, A.

    1987-05-01

    A two-site immunoradiometric assay for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) antigen has been developed using immunoaffinity purified antibody. Various treatments enhanced the detection of tPA antigen in the plasma samples. Maximum detection was obtained by acidification of plasma to pH 4.8 to 6.5 or addition of 0.5 mol/L of L-lysine or L-arginine. Acidification or addition of lysine to plasma is also required for maximum immunoadsorption of plasma tPA antigen on anti-tPA-Ig-sepharose. These results indicate that plasma tPA antigen is partially cryptic to antibody in untreated plasma. The plasma tPA antigen isolated by immunoadsorption of either untreated plasma or acidified plasma on anti-tPA-Ig-sepharose consists mainly of a 100-kd plasminogen activator species as determined by fibrin-agar zymography. The 100-kd activity is possibly a tPA:inhibitor complex. A standardized sample preparation method was conveniently adopted by mixing 3 vol of plasma and 1 vol of 2 mol/L of L-lysine for the assay. Reconstitution and recovery studies showed that the method is specific and permits full detection of both free tPA and tPA:inhibitor complex. The validity of the assay is further supported by the finding that the spontaneous plasma fibrinolysis previously demonstrated to be dependent on plasma tPA antigen is correlated with tPA antigen content. Using the standardized assay, we found that tPA antigen concentrations in 16 blood bank plasmas are equivalent to 3.7 to 20 ng of 60 kd tPA/mL. In all the plasma tested, more than half of the antigen is undetected unless the plasma is treated as described above.

  18. Myocardial Production of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 is Associated with Coronary Endothelial and Ventricular Dysfunction after Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takuya; Uematsu, Manabu; Yoshizaki, Toru; Obata, Jun-Ei; Nakamura, Takamitsu; Fujioka, Daisuke; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Yosuke; Kugiyama, Kiyotaka

    2016-05-02

    Although plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is abundantly expressed in infarcted myocardium, the pathogenic role of myocardial PAI-1 remains unknown. This study examined whether PAI-1 in the infarcted lesion contributes to coronary endothelial dysfunction and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Plasma levels of PAI-1 activity and tissue-plasminogen activator (tPA) antigen were measured 2 weeks and 6 months after MI by ELISA in plasma obtained from the aortic root (AO) and anterior interventricular vein (AIV) in 28 patients with a first AMI due to occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Coronary blood flow responses in LAD to intracoronary infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) and left ventriculography were measured at the same time points: 2 weeks and 6 months after MI. The trans-myocardial gradient of PAI-1 from AO to AIV, reflecting production/release of PAI-1 in the infarcted lesion, was inversely correlated with the coronary blood flow response to ACh 6 months after MI (r=-0.43, p=0.02) and with the percentage change in LV regional motion in the LAD territory from 2 weeks to 6 months after MI (r=-0.38, p=0.04). The trans-myocardial gradient of tPA level showed no significant correlations. PAI-1 produced in the infarcted myocardium and released into the coronary circulation is associated with endothelial dysfunction in resistance vessels of the infarct-related coronary arteries and with progressive dysfunction of the infarcted region of the left ventricle in AMI survivors.

  19. Low-dose spironolactone ameliorates insulin resistance and suppresses elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 during gestational testosterone exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Lawrence A; Usman, Taofeek O; Akinade, Aminat I; Adeyanju, Oluwaseun A; Kim, InKyeom; Soladoye, Ayodele O

    2017-12-01

    Elevated gestational circulating testosterone has been associated with pathological pregnancies that increase the risk of development of cardiometabolic disorder in later life. We hypothesised that gestational testosterone exposure, in late pregnancy, causes glucose deregulation and atherogenic dyslipidaemia that would be accompanied by high plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). The study also hypothesise that low-dose spironolactone treatment would ameliorate these effects. Pregnant Wistar rats received vehicle, testosterone (0.5 mg/kg; sc), spironolactone (0.5 mg/kg, po) or testosterone and spironolactone daily between gestational days 15 and 19. Gestational testosterone exposure led to increased HOMA-IR, circulating insulin, testosterone, 1-h post-load glucose, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, PLR, PAI-1 and MDA. However, all these effects, except that of circulating testosterone, were ameliorated by spironolactone. These results demonstrate that low-dose spironolactone ameliorates glucose deregulation and atherogenic dyslipidaemia during elevated gestational testosterone exposure, at least in part, by suppressing elevated PAI-1.

  20. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels are elevated and associated with complications in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, S; Lyngbaek, S; Hansen, T W

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a marker of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. We investigated the associations between suPAR and diabetes, including diabetes duration and complications, in patients with type 1 diabetes. DESIGN, SETTING AND SUBJECTS......: From 2009 to 2011, 667 patients with type 1 diabetes and 51 nondiabetic control subjects were included in a cross-sectional study at Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark. suPAR levels were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The investigated diabetic...... of arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity ≥10 m s(-1) ). Analyses were adjusted for gender, age, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, UAER, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c ), total cholesterol, body mass index, C-reactive protein, antihypertensive treatment and smoking. RESULTS: Soluble...

  1. Obstructive Prosthetic Mitral Valve Thrombosis Successfully Thrombolysed with Low-Dose Ultra-Slow Infusion of Tissue Plasminogen Activator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macit Kalçık

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT is one of the major causes of posthetic heart valve failure. Treatment modalities for this rare but life threatening complication include anticoagulation with heparin, thrombolytic therapy (TT and re-do valve surgery. Guidelines lack definitive class I recommendations due to lack of randomised controlled trials, and usually leave the choice of treatment to the clinician’s experience. Surgery is suggested as a first line strategy in most situations of left sided PVT; however, TT has been recently used with successful outcomes1-3. This report describes a patient with giant thrombus located on the prosthetic mitral valve, which was succesfully treated with ultraslow infusion (25 hours of low dose (25 mg tissue plasminogen activator (tPA under the guidance of two-dimensional (2D and real-time three-dimensional (RT -3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE and fluoroscopy.

  2. Urokinase vs Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator for Thrombolytic Evacuation of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Basal Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqian Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is a devastating form of stroke, which leads to a high rate of mortality and poor neurological outcomes worldwide. Thrombolytic evacuation with urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA or tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA has been showed to be a hopeful treatment for ICH. However, to the best of our knowledge, no clinical trials were reported to compare the efficacy and safety of these two fibrinolytics administrated following minimally invasive stereotactic puncture (MISP in patients with spontaneous basal ganglia ICH. Therefore, the authors intended here to evaluate the differential impact of uPA and tPA in a retrospective study. In the present study, a total of 86 patients with spontaneous ICH in basal ganglia using MISP received either uPA (uPA group, n = 45 or tPA (tPA group, n = 41, respectively. The clinical baseline characteristics prior to the operation were collected. In addition, therapeutic responses were assessed by the short-term outcomes within 30 days postoperation, as well as long-term outcomes at 1 year postoperation. Our findings showed that, in comparison with tPA, uPA was able to better promote hematoma evacuation and ameliorate perihematomal edema, but the differences were not statistically significant. Moreover, the long-term functional outcomes of both groups were similar, with no statistical difference. In conclusion, these results provide evidence supporting that uPA and tPA are similar in the efficacy and safety for thrombolytic evacuation in combination with MISP in patients with spontaneous basal ganglia ICH.

  3. Interconversion of active and inactive conformations of urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhuo; Kromann-Hansen, Tobias; Lund, Ida K.

    2012-01-01

    The catalytic activity of serine proteases depends on a salt-bridge between the amino group of residue 16 and the side chain of Asp194. The salt-bridge stabilizes the oxyanion hole and the S1 specificity pocket of the protease. Some serine proteases exist in only partially active forms, in which...... active state. Both a monoclonal antibody (mU3) and a peptidic inhibitor (mupain-1--16) stabilize the active state. The epitope of mU3 is located in the 37- and 70-loops at a site homologous to exosite I of thrombin. The N-terminus((Ile16)) of muPA((16--243)) was less exposed upon binding of mU3 or mupain......-1--16. In contrast, introduction of the mutations F40Y or E137A into muPA((16--243)) increased exposure of the N-terminus((Ile16)) and resulted in large changes in the thermodynamic parameters for mupain-1--16 binding. We conclude that the distorted state of muPA((16--243)) is conformationally...

  4. Tumour microenvironments induce expression of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR and concomitant activation of gelatinolytic enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synnøve Magnussen

    Full Text Available The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR is associated with poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, and increased expression of uPAR is often found at the invasive tumour front. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the role of uPAR in invasion and metastasis of OSCC, and the effects of various tumour microenvironments in these processes. Furthermore, we wanted to study whether the cells' expression level of uPAR affected the activity of gelatinolytic enzymes.The Plaur gene was both overexpressed and knocked-down in the murine OSCC cell line AT84. Tongue and skin tumours were established in syngeneic mice, and cells were also studied in an ex vivo leiomyoma invasion model. Soluble factors derived from leiomyoma tissue, as well as purified extracellular matrix (ECM proteins, were assessed for their ability to affect uPAR expression, glycosylation and cleavage. Activity of gelatinolytic enzymes in the tissues were assessed by in situ zymography.We found that increased levels of uPAR did not induce tumour invasion or metastasis. However, cells expressing low endogenous levels of uPAR in vitro up-regulated uPAR expression both in tongue, skin and leiomyoma tissue. Various ECM proteins had no effect on uPAR expression, while soluble factors originating from the leiomyoma tissue increased both the expression and glycosylation of uPAR, and possibly also affected the proteolytic processing of uPAR. Tumours with high levels of uPAR, as well as cells invading leiomyoma tissue with up-regulated uPAR expression, all displayed enhanced activity of gelatinolytic enzymes.Although high levels of uPAR are not sufficient to induce invasion and metastasis, the activity of gelatinolytic enzymes was increased. Furthermore, several tumour microenvironments have the capacity to induce up-regulation of uPAR expression, and soluble factors in the tumour microenvironment may have an important role in the regulation of posttranslational

  5. Tumour Microenvironments Induce Expression of Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR) and Concomitant Activation of Gelatinolytic Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Synnøve; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Latysheva, Nadezhda; Pirila, Emma; Steigen, Sonja E.; Hanes, Robert; Salo, Tuula; Winberg, Jan-Olof; Uhlin-Hansen, Lars; Svineng, Gunbjørg

    2014-01-01

    Background The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is associated with poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and increased expression of uPAR is often found at the invasive tumour front. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the role of uPAR in invasion and metastasis of OSCC, and the effects of various tumour microenvironments in these processes. Furthermore, we wanted to study whether the cells’ expression level of uPAR affected the activity of gelatinolytic enzymes. Methods The Plaur gene was both overexpressed and knocked-down in the murine OSCC cell line AT84. Tongue and skin tumours were established in syngeneic mice, and cells were also studied in an ex vivo leiomyoma invasion model. Soluble factors derived from leiomyoma tissue, as well as purified extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, were assessed for their ability to affect uPAR expression, glycosylation and cleavage. Activity of gelatinolytic enzymes in the tissues were assessed by in situ zymography. Results We found that increased levels of uPAR did not induce tumour invasion or metastasis. However, cells expressing low endogenous levels of uPAR in vitro up-regulated uPAR expression both in tongue, skin and leiomyoma tissue. Various ECM proteins had no effect on uPAR expression, while soluble factors originating from the leiomyoma tissue increased both the expression and glycosylation of uPAR, and possibly also affected the proteolytic processing of uPAR. Tumours with high levels of uPAR, as well as cells invading leiomyoma tissue with up-regulated uPAR expression, all displayed enhanced activity of gelatinolytic enzymes. Conclusions Although high levels of uPAR are not sufficient to induce invasion and metastasis, the activity of gelatinolytic enzymes was increased. Furthermore, several tumour microenvironments have the capacity to induce up-regulation of uPAR expression, and soluble factors in the tumour microenvironment may have an important role in the

  6. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism, factor V Leiden, prothrombin mutations and the risk of VTE recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, Kristina; Wang, Xiao; Svensson, Peter J; Sundquist, Jan; Hedelius, Anna; Larsson Lönn, Sara; Zöller, Bengt; Memon, Ashfaque A

    2015-11-25

    Plasminogen-activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is an important inhibitor of the plasminogen/plasmin system. PAI-1 levels are influenced by the 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 promoter. We investigated the relationship between the PAI-1 polymorphism and VTE recurrence, and its possible modification by factor V Leiden (FVL) and prothrombin (PTM) mutations. Patients (n=1,069) from the Malmö Thrombophilia Study were followed from discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment until diagnosis of VTE recurrence or the end of the study (maximum follow-up 9.8 years). One hundred twenty-seven patients (11.9 %) had VTE recurrence. PAI-1 was genotyped by TaqMan PCR. Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, sex and acquired risk factors of VTE showed no evidence of an association between PAI-1 genotype and risk of VTE recurrence in the study population as a whole. However, by including an interaction term in the analysis we showed that FVL but not PTM modified the effect of PAI-1 genotype: patients with the 4G allele plus FVL had a higher risk of VTE recurrence [hazard ratio (HR) =2.3, 95 % confidence interval (CI) =1.5-3.3] compared to patients with the 4G allele but no FVL (reference group) or FVL irrespective of PAI-1 genotype (HR=1.8, 95 % CI=1.3-2.5). Compared to reference group, 5G allele irrespective of FVL was associated with lower risk of VTE recurrence only when compared with 4G allele together with FVL. In conclusion, FVL has a modifying effect on PAI-1 polymorphism in relation to risk of VTE recurrence. The role of PAI-1 polymorphism as a risk factor of recurrent VTE may be FVL dependent.

  7. Monitoring of chemotherapy successfulness of Platina/Taxol chemotherapy protocol by using determination of serum urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR in patients with ovarian carcinoma FIGO II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dženita Ljuca

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In about 70% of cases, ovarian carcinoma has been diagnosed at an advanced stage. Invasion and metastasis of solid tumors request protease activity resulting in basal membrane destruction and surrounding matrix. In that process, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and its receptor, urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR play a key role, that via plasmin activation lead to basal membrane and matrix degradation in surrounding of the tumor, enable to its invasion and metastasis. Determination of serum concentration of those tumor markers can be useful in preoperative as well as in postoperative period. Their serum concentrations in ovarian cancer patients may help in good monitoring of remission or progression during chemotherapy treatment. In late 1950s and eariy 1960s, when it was found out that malignant ovarian tumors were chemosensitive, their chemotherapy treatment has begun. In the beginning it was used only mono-therapy, and by discovering new cytostatics it was replaced by poly-chemotherapy. Now days, in the therapy of advanced stages of ovarian carcinoma combination of cisplatine or carboplatine with paclitaxel is considering as standard treatment. Aim of this study was to determine serum uPA, suPAR and CEA in FIGO II and III patients with different histo-logical type (serous, mucinous, clear cell tumor before and after PT chemotherapy protocol during following three cycles. In this prospective study we have analyzed 17 patients with ovarian carcinoma, those have been after surgery treated by chemotherapy. Serum levels of uPA and suPAR have been determined by ELISA-test (Imubind uPA, Imubind uPAR, American Diagnostica, and CEA by OPUS Imunoassay method. Results of this study have shown that uPA, suPAR and CEA met criteria for prognostic markers for monitoring of successful-ness of platina/taxol chemotherapy protocol for serous, mucinous and clear cell tumor FIGO II and III stage of ovarian carcinoma. In case of PT chemotherapy

  8. SCM, a novel M-like protein from Streptococcus canis, binds (mini)-plasminogen with high affinity and facilitates bacterial transmigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulde, Marcus; Rohde, Manfred; Hitzmann, Angela; Preissner, Klaus T; Nitsche-Schmitz, D Patric; Nerlich, Andreas; Chhatwal, Gursharan Singh; Bergmann, Simone

    2011-03-15

    Streptococcus canis is an important zoonotic pathogen capable of causing serious invasive diseases in domestic animals and humans. In the present paper we report the binding of human plasminogen to S. canis and the recruitment of proteolytically active plasmin on its surface. The binding receptor for plasminogen was identified as a novel M-like protein designated SCM (S. canis M-like protein). SPR (surface plasmon resonance) analyses, radioactive dot-blot analyses and heterologous expression on the surface of Streptococcus gordonii confirmed the plasminogen-binding capability of SCM. The binding domain was located within the N-terminus of SCM, which specifically bound to the C-terminal part of plasminogen (mini-plasminogen) comprising kringle domain 5 and the catalytic domain. In the presence of urokinase, SCM mediated plasminogen activation on the bacterial surface that was inhibited by serine protease inhibitors and lysine amino acid analogues. Surface-bound plasmin effectively degraded purified fibrinogen as well as fibrin clots, resulting in the dissolution of fibrin thrombi. Electron microscopic illustration and time-lapse imaging demonstrated bacterial transmigration through fibrinous thrombi. The present study has led, for the first time, to the identification of SCM as a novel receptor for (mini)-plasminogen mediating the fibrinolytic activity of S. canis.

  9. Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Transcriptionally Controlled Adenoviruses Eradicate Pancreatic Tumors and Liver Metastasis in Mouse Models12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huch, Meritxell; Gros, Alena; José, Anabel; González, Juan Ramon; Alemany, Ramon; Fillat, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Treatment options for pancreatic cancer have shown limited success mainly owing to poor selectivity for pancreatic tumor tissue and to a lack of activity in the tumor. In this study, we describe the ability of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) promoter to efficiently and selectively target pancreatic tumors and metastases, which enables the successful management of pancreatic cancer. We have generated a replication-defective reporter adenovirus, AduPARLuc, and a conditionally replicating adenovirus, AduPARE1A, and we have studied the selectivity and antitumoral efficacy in pancreatic tumors and metastases. Toxicity was studied on intravascular delivery. We demonstrate that the uPAR promoter is highly active in pancreatic tumors but very weak in normal tissues. Tumor specificity is evidenced by a 100-fold increase in the tumor-to-liver ratio and by selective targeting of liver metastases (P < .001). Importantly, the AduPARE1A maintains the oncolytic activity of the wild-type virus, with reduced toxicity, and exhibits significant antitumoral activity (25% tumor eradication) and prolonged survival in pancreatic xenograft models (P < .0001). Furthermore, upon intravascular delivery, we demonstrate complete eradication of liver metastasis in 33% of mice, improving median survival (P = 5.43 x 10-5). The antitumoral selective activity of AduPARE1A shows the potential of uPAR promoter-based therapies in pancreatic cancer treatment. PMID:19484141

  10. Selective screening of a large phage display library of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 mutants to localize interaction sites with either thrombin or the variable region 1 of tissue-type plasminogen activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meijer, M; Roelofs, Y; Neels, J; Horrevoets, A J; van Zonneveld, A J; Pannekoek, H

    1996-03-29

    Phage display technology has been exploited to study in detail the interaction between plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and either thrombin or an essential positively charged "loop" of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), denoted variable region 1 (VR1). For this purpose, a PAI-1 mutant phage library was used that served as a reservoir of PAI-1 proteins potentially deficient in the interaction with either VR1 or thrombin. A stringent two-step selection procedure was developed. (i) A negative selection was performed by incubating the pComb3/PAI-1 mutant library with an excess of a thrombin mutant with its VR1 domain substituted with that of t-PA (thrombin-VR1). (ii) The remaining phages were complexed with t-PA (positive selection) and selected by panning with an immobilized anti-t-PA monoclonal antibody. Four consecutive panning rounds yielded an enrichment of pComb3/PAI-1 mutant phages of approximately 50-fold. Sequence analysis of 16 different cDNAs, encoding PAI-1 mutants that are hampered in the binding to thrombin-VR1, revealed the following mutations. Four independent variants share a mutation of the P4' residue (Glu350 --> Lys). Nine independent PAI-1 variants share a substitution of P1' (Met347 --> Lys), whereas three others share a P2 substitution (Ala345 --> Asp). Kinetic analysis of representative PAI-1 mutants provides evidence that the P4' residue is essential for the interaction with the VR1 domain, consistent with the data of Madison et al. (Madison, E.L., Goldsmith, E.J., Gething, M.J., Sambrook, J.F., and Gerard, R.D. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 21423-21426), whereas the P1' and P2 residues confer thrombin specificity. Concordant with the design of the selection procedure, mutants were obtained that inhibit thrombin-VR1 at least 100-fold slower than wild-type PAI-1, identifying residues that are central to the interaction with either thrombin or VR1. This study demonstrates that phage technology can be used to analyze large numbers of

  11. Active Expression of Human Tissue Plasminogen Activator (t-PA) c-DNA from Pulmonary Metastases in the Methylotrophic Yeast Pichia Pastoris KM71H Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Amir Hossein; Soleimani, Mohammad; Majidzadeh-A, Keivan; Taghinezhad-S, Sedigheh; Keyvani, Hossein

    2017-08-27

    Background: Human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is a key protease of the trypsin family. It catalyzes the activation of zymogen plasminogen to the fibrin-degrading proteinase, plasmin, leading to digestion of fibrin clots. The recombinant enzyme produced by recombinant technology issued to dissolve blood clots in treatment of various human diseases such as coronary artery thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Pichia pastoris expression system is a unique system for the production of high level of recombinant proteins. GS115 and KM71H are two kinds of Pichia pastoris strains whilst production of recombinant proteins in these strains is not predictable. The aim of the study was evaluation of t-PA expression in KM71H strains. Methods: In this study, the cDNA of the t-PA gene was amplified by PCR, sequenced and cloned into Pichia pastoris KM71H host strain using pPICZalphaA expression vector that allows methanol-induced expression and secretion of the protein. Results: Dot blotting results confirmed the presence oft-PA in the cell supernatant. Western blotting test revealed the approximate size of 70 KDa for recombinant t-PA. Quantitative ELISA experiment showed 810 μg/L of t-PA in the supernatant samples. Zymography analysis confirmed the proteolytic activity and biological function of the expressed recombinant t-PA. Conclusions: Correspondingly, Pichia pastoris KM71H is an appropriate strain for production of active recombinant protein. Creative Commons Attribution License

  12. The association between the 4G/5G polymorphism in the promoter of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene and extension of postsurgical calf vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Filippo; Meli, Francesco; Raimondi, Francesco; Montalto, Salvatore; Cospite, Valentina; Novo, Giuseppina; Novo, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the presence of a plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) promoter polymorphism 4G/5G could significantly influence the proximal extension of vein thrombosis in spite of anticoagulant treatment in patients with calf vein thrombosis (CVT) following orthopaedic, urological and abdominal surgery. We studied 168 patients with CVT, who had undergone orthopaedic, urological and abdominal surgery, subdivided as follows: first, 50 patients with thrombosis progression; second, 118 patients without thrombosis progression. The 4G/5G polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 was evaluated in all patients and in 70 healthy matched controls. We also studied PAI-1 activity in plasma. The presence of 4G/5G genotype was significantly increased in the group of patients with the extension of thrombotic lesions and was associated with an increase in CVT extension risk (odds ratio adjusted for sex 2.692; 95% confidence interval 1.302-4.702). Moreover, we observed a significant increase of PAI-1 plasma activity in patients with extension of thrombotic lesion vs. patients without extension (P=0.0001). Patients with 4G/5G genotype in the promoter of the plasminogen activator inhibitor - 1 gene present a higher risk of extension of thrombotic lesions.

  13. Cadmium exposure is associated with soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, a circulating marker of inflammation and future cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagerberg, Björn; Borné, Yan; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Forsgard, Niklas; Hedblad, Bo; Persson, Margaretha; Engström, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diet and smoking are the main sources of cadmium exposure in the general population. Cadmium increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, and experimental studies show that it induces inflammation. Blood cadmium levels are associated with macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaques. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is an emerging biomarker for cardiovascular events related to inflammation and atherosclerotic plaques. The aim was to examine whether blood cadmium levels are associated with circulating suPAR and other markers of inflammation. Methods: A population sample of 4648 Swedish middle-aged women and men was examined cross-sectionally in 1991–1994. Plasma suPAR was assessed by ELISA, leukocytes were measured by standard methods, and blood cadmium was analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Prevalent cardiovascular disease, ultrasound-assessed carotid plaque occurrence, and several possible confounding factors were recorded. Results: After full adjustment for risk factors and confounding variables, a 3-fold increase in blood cadmium was associated with an 10.9% increase in suPAR concentration (p<0.001). In never-smokers, a 3-fold increase in blood cadmium was associated with a 3.7% increase in suPAR concentration (p<0.01) after full adjustment. Blood cadmium was not associated with C-reactive protein, white blood cell count and Lp-PLA2 but with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in one of two statistical models. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium was associated with increased plasma suPAR in the general population, independently of smoking and cardiovascular disease. These results imply that cadmium is a possible cause for raised levels of this inflammatory marker. - Highlights: • Cadmium is a toxic proinflammatory, proatherosclerotic metal. • Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in plasma is a promising proinflammatory marker of atherosclerosis. • Blood cadmium and plasma su

  14. Overexpression of SERBP1 (Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 RNA binding protein in human breast cancer is correlated with favourable prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serce Nuran Bektas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 overexpression is an important prognostic and predictive biomarker in human breast cancer. SERBP1, a protein that is supposed to regulate the stability of PAI-1 mRNA, may play a role in gynaecological cancers as well, since upregulation of SERBP1 was described in ovarian cancer recently. This is the first study to present a systematic characterisation of SERBP1 expression in human breast cancer and normal breast tissue at both the mRNA and the protein level. Methods Using semiquantitative realtime PCR we analysed SERBP1 expression in different normal human tissues (n = 25, and in matched pairs of normal (n = 7 and cancerous breast tissues (n = 7. SERBP1 protein expression was analysed in two independent cohorts on tissue microarrays (TMAs, an initial evaluation set, consisting of 193 breast carcinomas and 48 normal breast tissues, and a second large validation set, consisting of 605 breast carcinomas. In addition, a collection of benign (n = 2 and malignant (n = 6 mammary cell lines as well as breast carcinoma lysates (n = 16 were investigated for SERBP1 expression by Western blot analysis. Furthermore, applying non-radioisotopic in situ hybridisation a subset of normal (n = 10 and cancerous (n = 10 breast tissue specimens from the initial TMA were analysed for SERBP1 mRNA expression. Results SERBP1 is not differentially expressed in breast carcinoma compared to normal breast tissue, both at the RNA and protein level. However, recurrence-free survival analysis showed a significant correlation (P = 0.008 between abundant SERBP1 expression in breast carcinoma and favourable prognosis. Interestingly, overall survival analysis also displayed a tendency (P = 0.09 towards favourable prognosis when SERBP1 was overexpressed in breast cancer. Conclusions The RNA-binding protein SERBP1 is abundantly expressed in human breast cancer and may represent a

  15. Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, plasminogen activator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast cancer is one of the most important leading causes of cancer deathin the less developed countries.The identification of markers that could assist in diagnosis, evaluation of therapeutic response, detection of recurrence and metastasis is a useful tool. The present study is undertaken to provide insights about the role of ...

  16. Inhibition of plasmin, urokinase, tissue plasminogen activator, and C1S by a myxoma virus serine proteinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, D A; Evans, D L; Upton, C; McFadden, G; Carrell, R W

    1993-01-05

    The myxoma and malignant rabbit fibroma poxviruses are lethal tumorigenic viruses of rabbits whose virulence is modulated by the production of a virus-encoded secreted serine proteinase inhibitor, SERP-1. This viral protein was detected in medium harvested from myxoma and malignant rabbit fibroma virus-infected cells, and its inhibitory profile has been characterized by gel and kinetic analysis. SERP-1 forms complexes with and inhibits the human fibrinolytic enzymes plasmin, urokinase, and two-chain tissue-type plasminogen activator (association rate constants 3.4 x 10(4), 4.3 x 10(4), and 3.6 x 10(4) M-1 s-1 respectively). It is also able to inhibit C1S, the first enzyme in the complement cascade with an association rate constant which was unaffected by the addition of heparin (1.3 x 10(3) M-1 s-1). SERP-1 acts as a substrate for and is cleaved by thrombin, porcine trypsin, human neutrophil elastase, porcine pancreatic elastase, thermolysin, subtilisin, bovine alpha-chymotrypsin, and factor Xa. Incubation with kallikrein and cathepsin G had no effect. The structure of SERP-1 has been modeled on other members of the serpin family which revealed the characteristic serpin architecture apart from the absence of the D-helix. Structural analysis and kinetic assays demonstrate that the absence of this region does not prevent inhibitory activity and furthermore allow the identification of cysteine residues involved in internal and intermolecular disulfide bonding.

  17. Evaluation of 12-Lipoxygenase (12-LOX and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 as Prognostic Markers in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Gondek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In carcinoma of prostate, a causative role of platelet 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 for tumor progression has been firmly established in tumor and/or adjacent tissue. Our goal was to investigate if 12-LOX and/or PAI-1 in patient’s plasma could be used to predict outcome of the disease. The study comprised 149 patients (age 70±9 divided into two groups: a study group with carcinoma confirmed by positive biopsy of prostate (n=116 and a reference group (n=33 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. The following parameters were determined by the laboratory test in plasma or platelet-rich plasma: protein level of 12-LOX, PAI-1, thromboglobulin (TGB, prostate specific antigen (PSA, C-reactive protein (CRP, hemoglobin (HGB, and hematocrit (HCT, as well as red (RBC and white blood cells (WBC, number of platelets (PLT, international normalized ratio of blood clotting (INR, and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT. The only difference of significance was noticed in the concentration of 12-LOX in platelet rich plasma, which was lower in cancer than in BPH group. Standardization to TGB and platelet count increases the sensitivity of the test that might be used as a biomarker to assess risk for prostate cancer in periodically monitored patients.

  18. Ketogenic diet disrupts the circadian clock and increases hypofibrinolytic risk by inducing expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Katsutaka; Uchida, Daisuke; Ohkura, Naoki; Doi, Ryosuke; Ishida, Norio; Kadota, Koji; Horie, Shuichi

    2009-10-01

    Metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity are considered risk factors for cardiovascular diseases by increasing levels of blood plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Ketogenic diets (KDs) have been used as an approach to weight loss in both obese and nonobese individuals. We examined circadian changes in plasma PAI-1 and its mRNA expression levels in tissues from mice fed with a KD (KD mice), to evaluate its effects on fibrinolytic functions. Two weeks on the kDa increased plasma levels of free fatty acids and ketones accompanied by hypoglycemia in mice. Plasma PAI-1 concentrations were extremely elevated in accordance with mRNA expression levels in the heart and liver, but not in the kidneys of KD mice. Circadian expression of PAI-1 mRNA was phase-advanced for 4.7, 7.9, and 7.8 hours in the heart, kidney, and adipose tissues, respectively, as well as that of circadian genes mPer2 and DBP in KD mice, suggesting that peripheral clocks were phase-advanced by ketosis despite feeding ad libitum under a periodic light-dark cycle. The circadian clock that regulates behavioral activity rhythms was also phase-advanced, and its free-running period was significantly shortened in KD mice. Our findings suggest that ketogenic status increases hypofibrinolytic risk by inducing abnormal circadian expression of PAI-1.

  19. Impact of the 4G/5G polymorphism in the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene on primary nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuezhong; Wang, Chao; Tu, Haitao

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the four guanosines (4G)/five guanosines (5G) polymorphism in the gene coding for plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) affects the clinical features of primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS). A cohort of 200 biopsy-diagnosed PNS patients was studied, with 40 healthy subjects as controls. The PAI-1 gene polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Associations between the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and clinical features and pathological types of PNS were analyzed. The results indicated that the PAI-1 genotype distribution is significantly different between patients with PNS and healthy controls, with significantly higher numbers of the 4G/4G genotype and lower numbers of the 5G5G genotype detected in PNS patients compared to controls (both P5G genotypes, as well as of the 4G allele. The increased 4G frequency was also detected in patients with minimal change disease (MCD). Significantly increased international normalized ratio (INR) and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were observed in 4G/4G compared to 5G/5G PNS subjects. The response to steroids was not significantly different among the three genotypes. In conclusion, the 4G allele of the PAI-1 gene appears to be associated with PNS, especially in MN and IgAN patients. These findings suggest that specific targeting may be required for the treatment of PNS patients with the 4G/4G genotype.

  20. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor levels in patients with burn injuries and inhalation trauma requiring mechanical ventilation: an observational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Backes, Yara; van der Sluijs, Koenraad F; Tuip de Boer, Anita M; Hofstra, Jorrit Jan; Vlaar, Alexander PJ; Determann, Rogier M; Knape, Paul; Mackie, David P; Schultz, Marcus J

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been proposed as a biologic marker of fibrinolysis and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of systemic and pulmonary levels of suPAR in burn patients with inhalation trauma who need mechanical ventilation. Methods suPAR was measured in plasma and nondirected lung-lavage fluid of mechanically ventilated burn patients with inhalation trauma. The samples were obta...

  1. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator plus heparin compared with heparin alone for patients with acute submassive pulmonary embolism: one-year outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Mi, Yu-Hong; Liang, Ying; Lu, Yan-Hui; Li, Ya-Min; Liu, Wen-Xu; Qian, Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the long-term effects of thrombolysis on patients with submassive pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods Data of 136 patients with acute submassive PE and low risk of bleeding were prospectively collected from January 2005 to October 2011 in a single medical center. Patients received recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA) plus low molecular weight heparin (LMWH, TT group, n = 79) or LMWH alone (AT group, n = 57), depending on treating physician's recommendation and p...

  2. Elevated plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 is an independent predictor of coronary microvascular dysfunction in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naya, Masanao; Tsukamoto, Takahiro; Inubushi, Masayuki; Morita, Koichi; Katoh, Chietsugu; Furumoto, Tomoo; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Tamaki, Nagara

    2007-01-01

    Elevated plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is related to cardiovascular events, but its role in subclinical coronary microvascular dysfunction remains unknown. Thus, in the present study it was investigated whether elevated plasma PAI-1 activity is associated with coronary microvascular dysfunction in hypertensive patients. Thirty patients with untreated essential hypertension and 10 age-matched healthy controls were studied prospectively. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by using 15 O-water positron emission tomography. Clinical variables associated with atherosclerosis (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglyceride, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), and PAI-1 activity) were assessed to determine their involvement in coronary microvascular dysfunction. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-induced hyperemic MBF and coronary flow reserve (CFR) were significantly lower in hypertensive patients than in healthy controls (ATP-induced MBF: 2.77±0.82 vs 3.49±0.71 ml·g -1 ·min -1 ; p<0.02 and CFR: 2.95±1.06 vs 4.25±0.69; p<0.001). By univariate analysis, CFR was positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol (r=0.46, p<0.02), and inversely with HOMA-IR (r=-0.39, p<0.05) and PAI-1 activity (r=-0.61, p<0.001). By multivariate analysis, elevated PAI-1 activity remained a significant independent determinant of diminished CFR. Elevated plasma PAI-1 activity was independently associated with coronary microvascular dysfunction, which suggests that plasma PAI-1 activity is an important clue linking hypofibrinolysis to the development of atherosclerosis. (author)

  3. Association of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 Gene Polymorphisms with Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures (OVCFs in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Oh Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures are strongly associated with mortality and morbidity, both in developing and developed countries. Menopause accelerates bone loss due to estrogen deficiency and age-related linear bone loss. We investigated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 gene polymorphisms in postmenopausal women with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs. In this case-control study, 355 postmenopausal women were genotyped for the presence of PAI-1 gene polymorphisms −844A > G, −675 4G > 5G, 43G > A, 9785A > G, and 11053T > G. Genetic polymorphisms of PAI-1 were analyzed by the polymerization chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism assay, and their association with disease status and folate and homocysteine levels was determined in 158 OVCF patients and 197 control subjects. The PAI-1 −675 5G5G (adjusted odds ratio (AOR, 3.302; p = 0.017 and 43GA + AA (AOR, 2.087; p = 0.042 genotype frequencies showed significant association with the increased prevalence of OVCFs in postmenopausal women. In addition, we performed gene–environment interaction studies and demonstrated an association between PAI-1 gene polymorphisms and OVCF prevalence. Our novel finding is the identification of several PAI-1 genetic variants that increase susceptibility to OVCF. Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in PAI-1 may contribute to OVCF, and that they can be developed as biomarkers for evaluating OVCF risk.

  4. ELISA for complexes between urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its receptor in lung cancer tissue extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Witte, H; Pappot, H; Brünner, N

    1997-01-01

    A sandwich-type ELISA has been developed for the assessment of complexes between urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) in extracts of squamous cell lung carcinomas. The assay is based on a combination of rabbit polyclonal anti-uPA antibodies and a biotinylated mouse...... anti-uPAR monoclonal antibody (MAb). The detection limit of the assay is approximately 0.5 fmol/ml. A linear dose-response is obtained with up to 40 fmol/ml of uPA:uPAR complexes, while uPA and uPAR separately do not cause any response in the ELISA. A buffer which has been used previously for optimal...... extraction of uPAR yields the highest amounts of uPA:uPAR complexes. Absorption of tumor extracts with anti-uPA or anti-uPAR MAbs results in a complete disappearance of the ELISA signal, demonstrating the specificity of the ELISA. The recovery of chemically cross-linked uPA:uPAR complexes added to tumor...

  5. Massive Pulmonary Embolism: Treatment with Thrombus Fragmentation and Local Fibrinolysis with Recombinant Human-Tissue Plasminogen Activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, Klaus Wilhelm; Jacob, Augustinus Ludwig; Schnabel, Karl Jakob; Bongartz, Georg; Steinbrich, Wolfgang

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To report the results of thrombus fragmentation in combination with local fibrinolysis using recombinant human-tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) in patients with massive pulmonary embolism. Methods: Five patients with massive pulmonary embolism were treated with thrombus fragmentation followed by intrapulmonary injection of rtPA. Clot fragmentation was performed with a guidewire, angiographic catheter, and balloon catheter. Three patients had undergone recent surgery; one of them received a reduced dosage of rtPA. Results: All patients survived and showed clinical improvement with a resultant significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the pulmonary blood pressure (mean systolic pulmonary blood pressure before treatment, 49 mmHg; 4 hr after treatment, 28 mmHg). Angiographic follow-up in three patients revealed a decrease in thrombus material and an increase in pulmonary perfusion. Two patients developed retroperitoneal hematomas requiring transfusion. Conclusion: Clot fragmentation and local fibrinolysis with rtPA was an effective therapy for massive pulmonary embolism. Bleeding at the puncture site was a frequent complication

  6. Association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism and sepsis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Nie, Wei; Zhou, Hongfeng; Yuan, Weifeng; Li, Weifeng; Huang, Wenjie

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have evaluated the association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) -675 4G/5G polymorphism and sepsis in different populations. However, the available results are conflicting. A search of Pubmed and EMBASE databases was performed to identify relevant studies for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined using a random-effects model. Twelve case-control studies and three cohort studies were included. Overall, a significant association between 4G/5G polymorphism and sepsis risk was observed for 4G/4G vs. 4G/5G +5G/5G (OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.08-1.56, P = 0.006). In addition, there was a significant association between PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and sepsis-related mortality (OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.27-2.33, P = 0.0005). In subgroup analyses, increased sepsis risk and mortality risk were found in Caucasians and in patients with sepsis. This meta-analysis suggested that the PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism was a risk factor for sepsis and sepsis mortality.

  7. Recurrent pregnancy loss, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (-675) 4G/5G polymorphism and antiphospholipid antibodies in Czech women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrt, Ivan; Ulcova-Gallova, Zdenka; Cerna, Monika; Hejnalova, Marketa; Slovanova, Jitka; Bibkova, Katarina; Micanova, Zdenka

    2013-07-01

    This study compares the frequencies of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (-675) 4G/5G polymorphism and its relationship with eight antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) in serum of 157 patients with repeated pregnancy loss (RPL). PAI-1 (-675) 4G/5G polymorphism was determined using standard PCR-RFLP method. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for the detection of aPLs against ph-serine, ph-ethanolamine, ph-inositol, ph-DL-glycerol, phosphatidic acid, annexin V, cardiolipin, and beta2-GPI. Allelic frequency and distribution of genotypes were calculated. The prevalence of the risk conferring 4G allele and 4G/4G homozygous genotype in patients and controls was compared, and the correlation between aPLs positivity and PAI-1 4G/4G genotype was tested by chi-square test. Statistically highly significant correlation between RPL and PAI-1 (-675) 4G/4G genotype was found. No correlation between PAI-1 (-675) 4G/5G polymorphism and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in RPL patients was observed. PAI-1 (-675) 4G/4G homozygous genotype increases the risk of RPL independently from the aPLs positivity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Combining statins with tissue plasminogen activator treatment after experimental and human stroke: a safety study on hemorrhagic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Mireia; García-Bonilla, Lidia; Hernández-Guillamon, Mar; Barceló, Verónica; Morancho, Anna; Quintana, Manolo; Rubiera, Marta; Rosell, Anna; Montaner, Joan

    2013-11-01

    Statins may afford neuroprotection against ischemic injury, but it remains controversial whether combined treatment with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) after stroke increases the risk of hemorrhagic transformation (HT), the major tPA-related complication. We evaluated the safety of combining statin with tPA administration during the acute phase of both experimental and human stroke. The occurrence and severity of HT, infarct volume, and neurological outcome were evaluated in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) subjected to embolic middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAO), which received vehicle or simvastatin (20 mg/kg), 15 min after ischemia and tPA (9 mg/kg) 3 h after ischemia. Additionally, HT rate was evaluated in stroke patients who were treated with tPA (0.9 mg/kg) within 3 h after symptom onset, considering whether or not were under statins treatment when the stroke occurred. In the experimental study, no differences in HT rates and severity were found between treatment groups, neither regarding mortality, neurological deficit, infarct volume, or metalloproteinases (MMPs) brain content. In the clinical study, HT rates and hemorrhage type were similar in stroke patients who were or not under statins treatment. This study consistently confirms that the use of statins does not increase HT rates and severity when is combined with tPA administration. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Pentoxifylline Regulates Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Expression and Protein Kinase A Phosphorylation in Radiation-Induced Lung Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Geol Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Radiation-induced lung fibrosis (RILF is a serious late complication of radiotherapy. In vitro studies have demonstrated that pentoxifylline (PTX has suppressing effects in extracellular matrix production in fibroblasts, while the antifibrotic action of PTX alone using clinical dose is yet unexplored. Materials and Methods. We used micro-computed tomography (micro-CT and histopathological analysis to evaluate the antifibrotic effects of PTX in a rat model of RILF. Results. Micro-CT findings showed that lung density, volume loss, and mediastinal shift are significantly increased at 16 weeks after irradiation. Simultaneously, histological analysis demonstrated thickening of alveolar walls, destruction of alveolar structures, and excessive collagen deposition in the irradiated lung. PTX treatment effectively attenuated the fibrotic changes based on both micro-CT and histopathological analyses. Western analysis also revealed increased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor- (PAI- 1 and fibronectin (FN and PTX treatment reduced expression of PAI-1 and FN by restoring protein kinase A (PKA phosphorylation but not TGF-β/Smad in both irradiated lung tissues and epithelial cells. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate the antifibrotic effect of PTX on radiation-induced lung fibrosis and its effect on modulation of PKA and PAI-1 expression as possible antifibrotic mechanisms.

  10. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and interleukin-6 levels in hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desdicioglu, Raziye; Yildirim, Melahat; Kocaoglu, Gulcan; Demir Cendek, Busra; Avcioglu, Gamze; Tas, Emre Erdem; Sengul, Ozlem; Erel, Ozcan; Yavuz, Ayse Filiz

    2017-10-09

    The aim was to compare serum soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) levels as well as interleukin-6 levels (IL-6) in pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) and asymptomatic pregnant women. Our study population consists of voluntary first trimester-pregnant women who applied to the outpatient clinic of the department of obstetrics and gynecology of Ankara Ataturk Training and Research Hospital. Between February and May 2016, 60 pregnant women were included in our prospective study. Serum suPAR and IL-6 levels were evaluated with the ELISA method. Twenty-nine pregnant women with HG and 31 asymptomatic pregnant women were included in the study. Serum suPAR level in the HG group was measured as 0.36 ± 0.56 ng/ml, whereas this level in the healthy pregnant control group was measured as 0.15 ± 0.15 ng/ml (p hyperemesis gravidarum. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  11. The influence of dehydration on the prognosis of acute ischemic stroke for patients treated with tissue plasminogen activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei-Fan; Hung, Yen-Chu; Tsai, Y H; Yang, Jen-Tsung; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Liow, Chia-Wei; Lee, Jiann-Der; Lin, Chung-Jen; Peng, Tsung-I; Lin, Leng-Chieh

    2017-06-13

    Many studies have determined that dehydration is an independent predictor of outcome after ischemic stroke (IS); however, none have determined if the use of thrombolytic therapy modifies the negative impact of poor hydration. To inform the stroke registry established at our institution, we conducted a retrospective study to determine if dehydration remains a negative prognostic factor after IS patients treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Between 2007 and 2012, we recruited 382 subjects; 346 had data available and were divided into 2 groups on the basis of their blood urea nitrogen/creatinine (BUN/Cr) ratio. Dehydrated subjects had a BUN/Cr ratio ≥ 15; hydrated subjects had a BUN/Cr dehydration group had a greater mean age; more women; lower mean levels of hemoglobin, triglycerides, and sodium; and higher mean potassium and glucose levels. A favorable outcome as assessed by the mRS (≤2) was significantly less frequent among dehydrated subjects, but a favorable outcome by the BI (≥60) was not. Logistic regression and multivariate models confirmed that dehydration is an independent predictor of poor outcome by both the mRS and the BI; however, it was not predictive when patients were stratified by Trial of Org 10,172 in Acute Stroke Treatment subtype. Our findings indicate that use of thrombolytic therapy does not eliminate the need to closely monitor hydration status in patients with IS.

  12. Meta-analysis of the association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism and recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejiao; Liu, Yukun; Zhang, Rui; Tan, Jianping; Chen, Libin; Liu, Yinglin

    2015-04-11

    The association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G polymorphism and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) risk is still contradictory. We thus performed a meta-analysis. Relevant studies were searched for in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library. An odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the association between PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and RPL risk. A total of 22 studies with 4306 cases and 3076 controls were included in this meta-analysis. We found that PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased RPL risk (OR=1.89; 95% CI 1.34-2.67; P=0.0003). In the subgroup analysis by race, PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased RPL risk in Caucasians (OR=2.23; 95% CI 1.44-3.46; P=0.0003). However, no significant association was observed in Asians (OR=1.47; 95% CI 0.84-2.59; P=0.18). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism might be associated with RPL development in Caucasians.

  13. Clinicopathological significance of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene polymorphism in breast cancer patients from North West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Younesi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A common polymorphism 4G/5G in the promoter region of the Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 gene has been reported to influence the expression levels of PAI-1. According to the evidence, progression of breast cancer can be associated with elevated levels of PAI-1, it seems that evaluation of a possible correlation between the polymorphism and clinical status of breast cancer patients is reasonable. Methods: This descriptive-analytical study included 160 unrelated patients from North West of Iran. According to established clinical criteria, these paitients were diagnosed with breast cancer. Based on previous study, PAI-1 4G/5G had been determined. In order to investigate the association of this polymorphism with clinicopathological features Fisher’s exact tests and SPSS software was used with a significance level of 0.05. Results: All declared features of breast cancer regarding PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism were investigated. Results indicated that PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism positive correlation with several traditional prognostic factors, including tumor size, lymph node metastases and tumor stage. Conclusion: Data showed that the patients with 5G/5G genotype are more susceptible to the development of breast cancer, while the paitients with 4G/4G and 4G/5G genotypes show lower sensitivity to the breast cancer. Therefore, the 4G allele likely has a protective role against the development of breast cancer in this cohort.

  14. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 4G/5G and -844G/A variants in idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdoud, Kalthoum; Herbepin, Viviana G; Touraine, Renaud; Almawi, Wassim Y; Mahjoub, Touhami

    2013-09-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) regulates fibrinolysis, and the common promoter region variants -675G/A (4G/5G) and -844G/A are associated with increased thrombotic risk. Despite evidence linking altered fibrinolysis with adverse pregnancy events, including idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), the contribution of PAI-1 variants to RPL risk remains controversial. We investigated the association between the PAI-1 -844G/A and 4G/5G (-675G/A) variants with altered risk of RPL. This was a case-control study involving 304 women with confirmed RPL and 371 age- and ethnically matched control women. PAI-1 genotyping was performed by PCR single-specific primer -675 (G/A) and real-time PCR (-844G/A) analysis. Minor allele frequency (MAF) of 4G/5G (P 5G single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was significantly associated with RPL under additive, dominant, and recessive genetic models; no association of -844G/A with RPL was seen irrespective of the genetic model tested. Taking common -844G/5G haplotype as reference (OR = 1.00), multivariate analysis confirmed the association of 4G-containing -844A/4G (P 5G, but not -844G/A, PAI-1 variant is associated with an increased risk of RPL. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene 4G/5G alleles frequency distribution in the Lebanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammaa, Dina M R; Sabbagh, Amira S; Taher, Ali T; Zaatari, Ghazi S; Mahfouz, Rami A R

    2008-09-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is an inhibitor of fibrinolysis. Increased plasma PAI-1 levels play an essential role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular risk and other diseases associated with thrombosis. The 4G/5G polymorphism of the PAI-1 promoter region has been extensively studied in different populations. We studied 160 healthy unrelated Lebanese individuals using a reverse hybridization PCR assay to detect the 5G/5G, 4G/5G and, 4G/4G genotypes of the PAI-1 gene and the frequencies of the 4G and 5G alleles. We found that 4G/5G genotype was the most prevalent (45.6%) followed by 5G/5G (36.9%) and 4G/4G (17.5%). The frequencies of the 4G and 5G alleles were calculated to be 0.403 and 0.597, respectively. Compared to other ethnic communities, the Lebanese population was found to harbour a relatively high prevalence of the rare 4G allele. This, in turn, may predispose this population to develop cardiovascular diseases and other thrombotic clinical conditions. This study aids to enhance our understanding of the genetic features of the Lebanese population.

  16. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor I exert different effects on plasminogen activator production or cell growth in the ovine thyroid cell line OVNIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degryse, B; Maisonobe, F; Hovsépian, S; Fayet, G

    1991-11-01

    Insulin and Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) are evaluated for their capacity to affect cell proliferation and plasminogen activator (PA) activity production in an ovine thyroid cell line OVNIS. Insulin at physiological and supraphysiological doses induces cell proliferation and increases PA activity. IGF-I, which is also clearly mitogenic for these cells, surprisingly does not modulate PA activity. The results indicate that the growth promoting effect is mediated through the insulin and IGF-I receptors whereas PA activity is solely regulated via the insulin receptors.

  17. Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein 1-Induced Antibodies Cross-React with Human Plasminogen and Enhance Its Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yung-Chun; Lin, Jessica; Lin, Yee-Shin; Wang, Shuying; Yeh, Trai-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease, and it can cause life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Abnormal activation of the coagulation and fibrinolysis system is one of the hallmarks of DHF/DSS. However, the mechanism underlying hemorrhage in DHF/DSS remains elusive. In previous studies, plasminogen (Plg) cross-reactive Abs, which can recognize DENV nonstructural protein (NS) 1, have been found in dengue patients. However, it is unclear whether these Abs are indeed induced by DENV NS1. Thus, we immunized mice with recombinant NS1 from both bacteria and drosophila to determine whether NS1 can induce Plg cross-reactive Abs. The results from the NS1-immunized mouse sera indicated that NS1 immunization induced Abs that could cross-react with Plg. To study the effects of these NS1-induced Plg cross-reactive Abs on fibrinolysis, we isolated several Plg cross-reactive anti-NS1 mAbs from these mice and found that some of them could enhance Plg activation. In addition, epitope mapping with a phage-displayed random peptide library revealed that one of these mAbs (2A5) could recognize NS1 C-terminal residues 305-311, which share sequence homology with Plg residues 590-597. A synthetic peptide of NS1 residues 305-311 could inhibit the binding of both 2A5 and its Fab to Plg and its enhanced activation. Thus, our results suggest that DENV NS1 can induce Plg cross-reactive Abs through molecular mimicry, which can enhance Plg activation and may contribute to the pathogenesis of DHF/DSS. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Expression of recombinant staphylokinase, a fibrin-specific plasminogen activator of bacterial origin, in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerszberg, Aneta; Wiktorek-Smagur, Aneta; Hnatuszko-Konka, Katarzyna; Łuchniak, Piotr; Kononowicz, Andrzej K

    2012-03-01

    One of the most dynamically developing sectors of green biotechnology is molecular farming using transgenic plants as natural bioreactors for the large scale production of recombinant proteins with biopharmaceutical and therapeutic values. Such properties are characteristic of certain proteins of bacterial origin, including staphylokinase. For many years, work has been carried out on the use of this protein in thrombolytic therapy. In this study, transgenic Solanum tuberosum plants expressing a CaMV::sak-mgpf-gusA gene fusion, were obtained. AGL1 A. tumefaciens strain was used in the process of transformation. The presence of the staphylokinase gene was confirmed by PCR in 22.5% of the investigated plants. The expression of the fusion transgene was detected using the β-glucuronidase activity assay in 32 putative transgenic plants. Furthermore, on the basis of the GUS histochemical reaction, the transgene expression pattern had a strong, constitutive character in seven of the transformants. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a protein extract from the SAK/PCR-positive plants, revealed the presence of a119 kDa protein that corresponds to that of the fusion protein SAK-mGFP-GUSA. Western blot analysis, using an antibody against staphylokinase, showed the presence of the staphylokinase domain in the 119 kDa protein in six analyzed transformants. However, the enzymatic test revealed amidolytic activity characteristic of staphylokinase in the protein extract of only one plant. This is the first report on a Solanum tuberosum plant producing a recombinant staphylokinase protein, a plasminogen activator of bacterial origin.

  19. Tumor marker utility and prognostic relevance of cathepsin B, cathepsin L, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1, CEA and CA 19-9 in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herszényi, László; Farinati, Fabio; Cardin, Romilda; István, Gábor; Molnár, László D; Hritz, István; De Paoli, Massimo; Plebani, Mario; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2008-01-01

    Cathepsin B and L (CATB, CATL), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor PAI-1 play an important role in colorectal cancer invasion. The tumor marker utility and prognostic relevance of these proteases have not been evaluated in the same experimental setting and compared with that of CEA and CA-19-9. Protease, CEA and CA 19-9 serum or plasma levels were determined in 56 patients with colorectal cancer, 25 patients with ulcerative colitis, 26 patients with colorectal adenomas and 35 tumor-free control patients. Protease, CEA, CA 19-9 levels have been determined by ELISA and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, respectively; their sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy have been calculated and correlated with clinicopathological staging. The protease antigen levels were significantly higher in colorectal cancer compared with other groups. Sensitivity of PAI-1 (94%), CATB (82%), uPA (69%), CATL (41%) were higher than those of CEA or CA 19-9 (30% and 18%, respectively). PAI-1, CATB and uPA demonstrated a better accuracy than CEA or CA 19-9. A combination of PAI-1 with CATB or uPA exhibited the highest sensitivity value (98%). High CATB, PAI-1, CEA and CA 19-9 levels correlated with advanced Dukes stages. CATB (P = 0.0004), CATL (P = 0.02), PAI-1 (P = 0.01) and CA 19-9 (P = 0.004) had a significant prognostic impact. PAI-1 (P = 0.001), CATB (P = 0.04) and CA 19-9 (P = 0.02) proved as independent prognostic variables. At the time of clinical detection proteases are more sensitive indicators for colorectal cancer than the commonly used tumor markers. Determinations of CATB, CATL and PAI-1 have a major prognostic impact in patients with colorectal cancer

  20. Whole grain wheat sourdough bread does not affect plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in adults with normal or impaired carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, K A; Tucker, A J; Duncan, A M; Graham, T E; Robinson, L E

    2012-09-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest whole grain consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly through alterations in glucose metabolism and subsequent effects on plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, a novel biomarker for CVD. Our aim was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole grain wheat sourdough bread consumption versus refined white bread on PAI-1. Normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic (NGI; n = 14; age 53 ± 6 y; BMI 26.5 ± 2.9 kg/m(2)) and hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic (HGI; n = 14; age 57 ± 7 y; BMI 35.7 ± 5.7 kg/m(2)) adults incorporated whole grain wheat sourdough (162.5 g) or white (168.8 g) bread into their diet, for 6 wk in a randomized crossover study. Pre- and post-intervention, fasting blood samples were analyzed for PAI-1 (primary outcome), as well as glucose, insulin and glucagon (secondary outcomes) at fasting and postprandially after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Anthropometric measures, fasting glucose, insulin, glucagon and PAI-1 antigen and activity were not different between treatments in either NGI or HGI adults. Glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was lower (19%, P = 0.02) after 6 wk consumption of whole grain wheat sourdough bread compared to white bread in the HGI group, with no differences in insulin or glucagon iAUC in either group. Our data showed decreased glucose iAUC after an OGTT following 6 wk whole grain wheat bread consumption in adults with differing glycemic/insulinemic status, but no improvements in PAI-1 or fasting glycemic parameters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. SERPINE2, an inhibitor of plasminogen activators, is highly expressed in the human endometrium during the secretory phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwu Yuh-Ming

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SERPINE2, also known as protease nexin-1, belongs to the serine protease inhibitor (SERPIN superfamily. It is one of the potent SERPINs that modulates the activity of plasminogen activators (PAs. PAs and their SERPIN inhibitors, such as SERPINB2 and SERPINE1, were expressed in the human endometrium and were implicated in implantation. However, expression data about SERPINE2 in the human endometrium is still unknown. Thus, we conducted an investigation to reveal the spatiotemporal and cellular expression of SERPINE2 in the human uterus during the menstrual cycle. Methods Seven patients who underwent a hysterectomy and samples of 120 archived patients' endometrial curettage or parts of the uterus that were formalin-fixed and embedded in paraffin. Western blotting was performed to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of the antibody. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to localize the SERPINE2 expression site. Quantitative analysis was conducted to evaluate expression levels of SERPINE2 in various sub-phases of the menstrual cycle. Results The SERPINE2 protein was primarily detected in the uterine fluid during the mid- and late-secretory phases of the menstrual cycle. It was predominantly expressed in the luminal and glandular epithelium, less in the myometrium, and only dispersedly in certain stromal cells throughout the menstrual cycle. A quantitative analysis of expression levels of SERPINE2 in the glandular epithelium revealed that it was highly expressed in the endometrium during the secretory phase compared to the proliferative phase. Conclusions The SERPINE2 protein is highly expressed in the endometrium during the secretory phase, indicating that it may participate in tissue remodeling involved in implantation.

  2. Association of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-Type 1 (-675 4G/5G) Polymorphism with Pre-Eclampsia: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jessie A.; Bombell, Sarah; McGuire, William

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Excessive generation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-type 1 (PAI-1) is implicated in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia and related conditions. The PAI-1 (−675 4G/5G) promoter polymorphism (rs1799889) affects transcriptional activity and is a putative genetic risk factor for pre-eclampsia. The aim of this study was identify, appraise and synthesise the available evidence for the association of the PAI-1 (−675 4G/5G) polymorphism with pre-eclampsia. Methods Systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of genetic association studies. Results We found 12 eligible genetic association studies in which a total of 1511 women with pre-eclampsia, eclampsia or HELLP syndrome and 3492 controls participated. The studies were generally small (median number of cases 102, range 24 to 403) and underpowered to detect plausible association sizes. Meta-analysis of all of the studies detected statistically significant gene-disease associations in the recessive [pooled odds ratio 1.28 (95% confidence interval 1.09, 1.50); population attributable risk 7.7%] and dominant [pooled odds ratio 1.21 (95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.44); population attributable risk 13.7%] models. We did not find evidence of statistical heterogeneity, funnel plot asymmetry or small study bias. Conclusions These data suggest that the fibrinolytic pathway regulated by the PAI-1 gene may contribute to the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia and related conditions. This association, if confirmed in larger genetic association studies, may inform research efforts to develop novel interventions or help to prioritise therapeutic targets that merit evaluation in randomised clinical trials. PMID:23457639

  3. Lapachol suppresses cell proliferation and secretion of interleukin-6 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 of fibroblasts derived from hypertrophic scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takuya; Ito, Chihiro; Oda, Makiko; Itoigawa, Masataka; Yokoo, Kazuhisa; Okada, Tadashi; Furukawa, Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    The pathogenesis and therapy of hypertrophic scar have not yet been established. Our aim was to investigate the antiproliferative and antisecretory effects of lapachol, isolated from the stem bark of Avicennia rumphiana Hall. f., on hypertrophic scar fibroblasts. The effects of lapachol on hypertrophic scar fibroblast proliferation were measured using the MTT assay, cell-cycle analyses and lactate dehydrogenase assays. The type I collagen α-chain (COL1A1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) mRNA and/or protein levels of hypertrophic scar-fibroblasts were quantitated by real-time PCR and ELISA. Lapachol at 25 and 50 µm significantly inhibited the in vitro proliferation of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts, but not fibroblasts from non-lesional skin sites. In addition, lapachol had no apparent effect on cell cycle and lactate dehydrogenase activity in conditioned medium from lapachol-treated hypertrophic scar fibroblasts was nearly equal to that in medium from vehicle-treated cells. Lapachol treatment also inhibited COL1A1 and PAI-1 mRNA levels in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts, but did not affect IL-6 mRNA levels. The protein levels of IL-6 and PAI-1 in conditioned medium from hypertrophic scar fibroblasts treated with 50 µm lapachol were lower than those from vehicle-treated hypertrophic scar fibroblasts. Lapachol decreased the proliferation rate of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts. As IL-6 and PAI-1 secretion was also lowered in lapachol-treated hypertrophic scar fibroblasts, our findings suggested that lapachol may have suppressed extracellular matrix hyperplasia in wound healing and possibly alleviated the formation of hypertrophic scar. © 2011 The Authors. JPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Truncated Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Protein Protects From Pulmonary Fibrosis Mediated by Irradiation in a Murine Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eun Joo; McKay-Corkum, Grace; Chung, Su; White, Ayla; Scroggins, Bradley T. [Radiation Oncology, Center for Cancer Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Mitchell, James B. [Radiation Biology Branches, Center for Cancer Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Mulligan-Kehoe, Mary Jo [Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Citrin, Deborah, E-mail: citrind@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Oncology, Center for Cancer Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the delivery of recombinant truncated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) protein (rPAI-1{sub 23}) would protect from the development of radiation-induced lung injury. Methods and Materials: C57Bl/6 mice received intraperitoneal injections of rPAI-1{sub 23} (5.4 μg/kg/d) or vehicle for 18 weeks, beginning 2 days before irradiation (IR) (5 daily fractions of 6 Gy). Cohorts of mice were followed for survival (n=8 per treatment) and tissue collection (n=3 per treatment and time point). Fibrosis in lung was assessed with Masson-Trichrome staining and measurement of hydroxyproline content. Senescence was assessed with staining for β-galactosidase activity in lung and primary pneumocytes. Results: Hydroxyproline content in irradiated lung was significantly reduced in mice that received rPAI-1{sub 23} compared with mice that received vehicle (IR+vehicle: 84.97 μg/lung; IR+rPAI-1{sub 23}: 56.2 μg/lung, P=.001). C57Bl/6 mice exposed to IR+vehicle had dense foci of subpleural fibrosis at 19 weeks, whereas the lungs of mice exposed to IR+rPAI-1{sub 23} were largely devoid of fibrotic foci. Cellular senescence was significantly decreased by rPAI-1{sub 23} treatment in primary pneumocyte cultures and in lung at multiple time points after IR. Conclusions: These studies identify that rPAI-1{sub 23} is capable of preventing radiation-induced fibrosis in murine lungs. These antifibrotic effects are associated with increased fibrin metabolism, enhanced matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression, and reduced senescence in type 2 pneumocytes. Thus, rPAI-1{sub 23} is a novel therapeutic option for radiation-induced fibrosis.

  5. EFFECT OF RECOMBINANT TISSUE-PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR ON INTRAABDOMINAL ABSCESS FORMATION IN RATS WITH GENERALIZED PERITONITIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Harry; de Graaf, JS; Kooi, K; Sluiter, WJ; Bom, VJJ; van der Meer, J; Bleichrodt, RP

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During generalized peritonitis, intraabdominal fibrin deposition is stimulated whereas fibrinolytic activity is reduced, which predisposes intra-abdominal abscess formation. We investigated the effects of increasing the intra-abdominal fibrinolytic activity on abscess formation by

  6. Targeting the autolysis loop of urokinase-type plasminogen activator with conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtkjær, Kenneth Alrø; Fogh, Sarah; Bekes, Erin C

    2011-01-01

    , with high levels correlating with a poor prognosis. This observation has stimulated efforts into finding new principles for intervening with uPA's activity. In the present study we characterize the so-called autolysis loop in the catalytic domain of uPA as a potential inhibitory target. This loop was found......, demonstrating a direct link between conformational changes of the autolysis loop and the creation of a catalytically mature active site. All three antibodies are potent inhibitors of uPA activity, the two pro-uPA-specific ones by inhibiting conversion of pro-uPA to active uPA and the active u...

  7. Current perspectives on the use of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA for treatment of acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman SN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sherita N Chapman,1 Prachi Mehndiratta,1 Michelle C Johansen,1 Timothy L McMurry,2 Karen C Johnston,1,2 Andrew M Southerland1,2 1Department of Neurology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 2Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA Abstract: In 1995, the NINDS (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke tPA (tissue plasminogen activator Stroke Study Group published the results of a large multicenter clinical trial demonstrating efficacy of intravenous tPA by revealing a 30% relative risk reduction (absolute risk reduction 11%–15% compared with placebo at 90 days in the likelihood of having minimal or no disability. Since approval in 1996, tPA remains the only drug treatment for acute ischemic stroke approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Over the years, an abundance of research and clinical data has supported the safe and efficacious use of intravenous tPA in all eligible patients. Despite such supporting data, it remains substantially underutilized. Challenges to the utilization of tPA include narrow eligibility and treatment windows, risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, perceived lack of efficacy in certain high-risk subgroups, and a limited pool of neurological and stroke expertise in the community. With recent US census data suggesting annual stroke incidence will more than double by 2050, better education and consensus among both the medical and lay public are necessary to optimize the use of tPA for all eligible stroke patients. Ongoing and future research should continue to improve upon the efficacy of tPA through more rapid stroke diagnosis and treatment, refinement of advanced neuroimaging and stroke biomarkers, and successful demonstration of alternative means of reperfusion. Keywords: IV tPA, rtPA, t-PA, rt-PA, cerebrovascular disease, cerebrovascular accident

  8. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Antagonist TM5484 Attenuates Demyelination and Axonal Degeneration in a Mice Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pelisch

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is characterized by inflammatory demyelination and deposition of fibrinogen in the central nervous system (CNS. Elevated levels of a critical inhibitor of the mammalian fibrinolitic system, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 have been demonstrated in human and animal models of MS. In experimental studies that resemble neuroinflammatory disease, PAI-1 deficient mice display preserved neurological structure and function compared to wild type mice, suggesting a link between the fibrinolytic pathway and MS. We previously identified a series of PAI-1 inhibitors on the basis of the 3-dimensional structure of PAI-1 and on virtual screening. These compounds have been reported to provide a number of in vitro and in vivo benefits but none was tested in CNS disease models because of their limited capacity to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB. The existing candidates were therefore optimized to obtain CNS-penetrant compounds. We performed an in vitro screening using a model of BBB and were able to identify a novel, low molecular PAI-1 inhibitor, TM5484, with the highest penetration ratio among all other candidates. Next, we tested the effects on inflammation and demyelination in an experimental allergic encephalomyelitis mice model. Results were compared to either fingolimod or 6α-methylprednisolone. Oral administration of TM5484 from the onset of signs, ameliorates paralysis, attenuated demyelination, and axonal degeneration in the spinal cord of mice. Furthermore, it modulated the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which plays a protective role in neurons against various pathological insults, and choline acetyltransferase, a marker of neuronal density. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potential benefits of a novel PAI-1 inhibitor, TM5484, in the treatment of MS.

  9. Need for tissue plasminogen activator for central venous catheter dysfunction is significantly associated with thrombosis in pediatric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Jessica; MacDonald, Tamara; Digout, Carol; Smith, Nadine; Rigby, Krista; Kulkarni, Ketan

    2018-03-14

    Central venous catheter (CVC) dysfunction is a common complication among pediatric cancer patients. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is administered to resolve CVC dysfunction. The present study was designed to determine risk factors associated with requirement of tPA for CVC dysfunction and to assess the clinical impact of CVC dysfunction in terms of CVC loss and venous thrombotic events (VTE). Case records of all pediatric patients with cancer from the Maritimes, Canada were reviewed following ethics approval. Data regarding demographics, clinical diagnosis, CVC dysfunction, characteristics of CVCs, and VTE were pooled from multiple data sources. Seven hundred and forty-one patients required ≥1 CVC. 26.3% of patients required tPA for ≥1 episodes of CVC dysfunction. Requirement of one or more doses of tPA for episodes of CVC dysfunction increased the odds of VTE by two times (95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.6). Patients that required ≥1 doses of tPA required significantly more CVCs (2.05 ± 1.29 per individual patient, 55% of the patients needed >1 CVCs) as compared to the remainder (1.52 ± 0.95 per individual patient, 32% needed >1 CVCs) (P = 0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed age > 10 years, diagnosis of sarcoma, and tunneled line were independently associated with tPA requirement. We determined independent risk factors associated with requirement of tPA for CVC dysfunction. Requirement of tPA for CVC dysfunction was associated with significantly increased risk of VTE and requirement of more CVCs. These observations can assist in identification of patients at increased risk of CVC dysfunction and inform approaches to reduce CVC loss and VTE. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1: A Possible Novel Biomarker of Late Pituitary Dysfunction after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frendl, Istvan; Katko, Monika; Galgoczi, Erika; Boda, Judit; Zsiros, Noemi; Nemeti, Zoltan; Bereczky, Zsuzsanna; Hudak, Renata; Kappelmayer, Janos; Erdei, Annamaria; Turchanyi, Bela; Nagy, Endre V

    2017-12-01

    More than 80% of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients suffer from mild TBI (mTBI). However, even mTBI carries the risk of late pituitary dysfunction. A predictive biomarker at the time of injury that could identify patients who subsequently may develop permanent pituitary dysfunction would help to direct patients toward endocrine care. We enrolled 508 TBI patients (406 with mTBI) into our study. Blood samples were collected for identification of predictive biomarkers of late pituitary dysfunction at the time of admission. Follow-up blood samples were collected between 6 and 12 months after the TBI and were evaluated for pituitary function. Of the 406 mTBI patients, 76 were available for follow-up. Pre-existing mild pituitary dysfunction was found for 15 patients based on hormone levels at the time of injury. Of the remaining 61 patients, 10 have shown deficiency in at least one pituitary hormone: 4 had growth hormone deficiency, 3 gonadotropin, 2 thyrotropin, and 1 patient combined gonadotropin and thyrotropin deficiency. Hence, newly developed pituitary hormone deficiency was found in 16% of mTBI patients. Neither the cause of mTBI nor its complications were predictive of late pituitary dysfunction. Of the hemostasis parameters studied, lower plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) level at the time of injury was found to be predictive for the development of late pituitary dysfunction; sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 80%, 67%, 32%, and 94%, respectively. Even mTBI carries a substantial risk of endocrine consequences. Serum PAI-1 level at the time of TBI may serve as a predictive biomarker of late pituitary dysfunction in mTBI patients.

  11. Relationship of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 gene 4G/5G polymorphisms to hypertension in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-nam; Kim, Kwang-min; Kim, Bom-taeck; Joo, Nam-seok; Cho, Doo-yeoun; Lee, Duck-joo

    2012-04-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is a major determinant of various cardiovascular events. Plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) modulate this risk. A deletion/insertion polymorphism within the PAI-1 loci (4G/4G, 4G/5G, 5G/5G) affects the expression of this gene. The present study investigated the association between PAI-1 loci polymorphisms and HTN in Korean women. Korean women (n = 1312) were enrolled in this study to evaluate the association between PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphisms and HTN as well as other metabolic risk factors. PAI-1 loci polymorphisms were investigated using polymerase chain reaction amplification and single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. The three genotype groups differed with respect to systolic blood pressure (P = 0.043), and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.009) but not with respect to age, body mass index, total cholesterol, low or high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, or fasting blood glucose. Carriers of the PAI-1 4G allele had more hypertension significantly (PAI-1 4G/5G vs. PAI-1 5G/5G, P = 0.032; PAI-1 4G/4G vs. PAI-1 5G/5G, P = 0.034). When stratified according to PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism, there was no significant difference in all metabolic parameters among PAI-1 genotype groups in patients with HTN as well as subjects with normal blood pressure. The estimated odds ratio of the 4G/4G genotype and 4G/5G for HTN was 1.7 (P = 0.005), and 1.6 (P = 0.015), respectively. These findings might indicate that PAI-1 loci polymorphisms independently contribute to HTN and that gene-environmental interaction may be not associated in Korean women.

  12. The 4G/5G polymorphism in the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene is not associated with HELLP syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muetze, Sabine; Eggermann, Thomas; Leeners, Brigitte; Birke, Cornelia; Kuse, Sabine; Ortlepp, Jan Rudolf; Rudnik-Schoeneborn, Sabine; Zerres, Klaus; Rath, Werner

    2009-02-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a major inhibitor of fibrinolysis, and a single nucleotide insertion/deletion (4G/5G) polymorphism in the promoter region of the PAI-1 gene has been identified. Subjects homozygous for the 4G allele have the highest PAI-levels due to increased PAI-1 gene transcription. Pre-eclampsia, and one of its most severe forms, the HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) syndrome, are characterized by increased placental thrombosis based on a procoagulatory state in the mother. Several studies have investigated the role of the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism in pre-eclampsia, but no study has focused especially on HELLP syndrome. Therefore we aimed to assess the association between HELLP syndrome and the 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene. Genotyping of the PAI-1 4G/5G promoter polymorphism was performed in 102 Caucasian women with HELLP syndrome and 102 Caucasian women with uncomplicated pregnancies. The 4G/4G genotype was more frequent in women with HELLP syndrome than in controls (35.3% vs. 22.5%, respectively) but this difference was not significantly different (P = 0.129). The frequency of the 4G allele was 0.588 in patients and 0.515 in controls. These data suggest that women carrying a 4G/4G genotype of the PAI-1 gene are not at increased risk for developing HELLP syndrome and are thus in line with the majority of previous studies on the association between the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and pre-eclampsia.

  13. Hyperacute thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator of acute ischemic stroke: Feasibility and effectivity from an Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the constraints of resources, thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke (AIS is under evaluation in developing countries like India, especially in areas such as western Utter Pradesh, where it is overly crowded and there is poor affordability. Aim: This study was done to evaluate recombinant tissue plasminogen activator r-tpa in acute ischemic stroke in hyper acute phase, in selected patients of western Utter Pradesh, in terms of feasibility and effectivity. Design: Open, non randomized study. Materials and Methods: Thirty two patients were classified using Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke treatment (TOAST criteria (large artery atherosclerotic = 8; cardio embolic = 6; small vessel occlusion = 14; other determined etiology = 2; undetermined etiology = 2. The mean time to reach the hospital was 2 h (1.15-3.0, the mean door to CT scan 20 min (10-40 and door to r-tpa injection was 30 min (24-68. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores ranged from 11-22 (mean 15.5 +2.7. The dose of r-tpa administered was 0.9 mg/kg. Results: Twenty one patients (65.6% showed significant improvement on the NIHSS score, at 48 h (4 points. (Mean change = 10; range = 4-17. At one month, 25 (78% recorded improvement on the Barthel index (mean change = 45%. One developed frontal lobe hemorrhage and another developed recurrent stroke; one died of aspiration; and four showed no improvement. Modified Rankin score (m RS was administered at the end of three months to 28 patients (90%; however, the rest could not be directly observed. The average modified Rankin Score was 1.2 (0-2. Conclusions: Hyperacute thrombolysis was found feasible and effective in selected patients with AIS from western Utter Pradesh and who had poor affordability.

  14. A Four-Year Experience of Symptomatic Intracranial Hemorrhage Following Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator at a Comprehensive Stroke Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Alessandro; Wagner, Jeffrey C; Fanale, Christopher V; Whaley, Michelle; McCarthy, Kathryn L; Bar-Or, David

    2016-04-01

    To describe the 4-year experience of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) rate at a high-volume comprehensive stroke center. All admitted adult (≥18 years) patients presenting with an ischemic stroke from 2010 to 2013 were included in this study. The primary outcome was sICH, defined as any hemorrhage with neurological deterioration (change in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≥4) within 36 hours of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) treatment, or any hemorrhage resulting in death. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and having a favorable modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score (≤2). A total of 1925 did not receive intravascular (IV) or intra-arterial (IA) therapy; only 451 received IV therapy; and 175 received both IV and IA therapies. In IV-only patients, the overall rate of sICH was 2.2%; in IV and IA patients, the rate was 5.7%; and in patients who received no therapy, the rate was .4%. The IV-only group had an sICH rate of .9% in 2013. There were no differences in the adjusted odds of dying in the hospital between the study groups. IV-only treatment offered significantly better odds of achieving a favorable functional outcome, compared to no therapy, among patients with moderate stroke severity, whereas IV and IA treatments offered significantly better odds among patients with severe strokes. The odds of achieving a favorable functional outcome by discharge were decreased by 97% if patients suffered an sICH (OR = .03, 95%CI = .004, .19). Despite an increased risk of sICH with IV-tPA, treatment with IV-tPA continues to be associated with increased odds of a favorable discharge mRS. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High-density lipoprotein-based therapy reduces the hemorrhagic complications associated with tissue plasminogen activator treatment in experimental stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapergue, Bertrand; Dang, Bao Quoc; Desilles, Jean-Philippe; Ortiz-Munoz, Guadalupe; Delbosc, Sandrine; Loyau, Stéphane; Louedec, Liliane; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Mazighi, Mikael; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Meilhac, Olivier; Amarenco, Pierre

    2013-03-01

    We have previously reported that intravenous injection of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) was neuroprotective in an embolic stroke model. We hypothesized that HDL vasculoprotective actions on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may decrease hemorrhagic transformation-associated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration in acute stroke. We used tPA alone or in combination with HDLs in vivo in 2 models of focal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) (embolic and 4-hour monofilament MCAO) and in vitro in a model of BBB. Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to MCAO, n=12 per group. The rats were then randomly injected with tPA (10 mg/kg) or saline with or without human plasma purified-HDL (10 mg/kg). The therapeutic effects of HDL and BBB integrity were assessed blindly 24 hours later. The integrity of the BBB was also tested using an in vitro model of human cerebral endothelial cells under oxygen-glucose deprivation. tPA-treated groups had significantly higher mortality and rate of hemorrhagic transformation at 24 hours in both MCAO models. Cotreatment with HDL significantly reduced stroke-induced mortality versus tPA alone (by 42% in filament MCAO, P=0.009; by 73% in embolic MCAO, P=0.05) and tPA-induced intracerebral parenchymal hematoma (by 92% in filament MCAO, by 100% in embolic MCAO; Phemorrhagic transformation in rat models of MCAO. Both in vivo and in vitro results support the vasculoprotective action of HDLs on BBB under ischemic conditions.

  16. Effects of angiopoietin-1 on hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema after tissue plasminogen activator treatment for ischemic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kunio; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Kanazawa, Masato; Igarashi, Hironaka; Nakada, Tsutomu; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Shimohata, Takayoshi

    2014-01-01

    An angiogenesis factor, angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), is associated with the blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption after focal cerebral ischemia. However, whether hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema after tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) treatment are related to the decrease in Ang1 expression in the BBB remains unknown. We hypothesized that administering Ang1 might attenuate hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema after tPA treatment by stabilizing blood vessels and inhibiting hyperpermeability. Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to thromboembolic focal cerebral ischemia were assigned to a permanent ischemia group (permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion; PMCAO) and groups treated with tPA at 1 h or 4 h after ischemia. Endogenous Ang1 expression was observed in pericytes, astrocytes, and neuronal cells. Western blot analyses revealed that Ang1 expression levels on the ischemic side of the cerebral cortex were decreased in the tPA-1h, tPA-4h, and PMCAO groups as compared to those in the control group (P = 0.014, 0.003, and 0.014, respectively). Ang1-positive vessel densities in the tPA-4h and PMCAO groups were less than that in the control group (p = 0.002 and treatment was given after the therapeutic time window (4 h). Administering Ang1 fused with cartilage oligomeric protein (COMP) to supplement this decrease has the potential to suppress hemorrhagic transformation as measured by hemoglobin content in a whole cerebral homogenate (p = 0.007) and cerebral edema due to BBB damage (p = 0.038), as compared to administering COMP protein alone. In conclusion, Ang1 might be a promising target molecule for developing vasoprotective therapies for controlling hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema after tPA treatment.

  17. Routine 24-Hour Computed Tomography Brain Scan is not useful in stable patients Post Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhwe, Mary; Utley-Smith, Queen; Blessing, Robert; Goldstein, Larry B

    2016-03-01

    Obtaining a routine computed tomography (CT) brain scan 24 hours after treatment with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) is included in the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association acute stroke guidelines. The usefulness of the test in stable patients is not known. We hypothesized that the results of routine, 24-hour post-treatment neuroimaging (CT or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] brain scans) would not alter the management of clinically stable patients. Patients treated with IV-tPA between January 2011 and December 2013 were identified from a single hospital's stroke registry. All patients were closely monitored for changes in stroke severity. Demographics, changes in neurological status, neuroimaging results, and changes in therapy were abstracted from the patients' medical records. Patients having a neuroimaging study because of neurological deterioration were excluded. Of 136 patients treated with IV-tPA, 131 met criteria for inclusion. Of these, 86.7% had moderate to severe neurological deficits (i.e., initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score > 5 points; median 8 points). All patients had routine imaging ~24 hours after treatment (CT brain 62.6%, MRI brain 12.4%, both CT and MRI brain 25%). Asymptomatic hemorrhagic transformation occurred in 6.7% and potentially changed management in a single patient (target systolic blood pressure was lowered from 185 to 180 mmHg). Over a 3-year period, routine neuroimaging ~24-hours after IV-tPA in clinically stable patients was associated with a change in therapy in only 1 (.95%) patient. If confirmed in other cohorts, these results suggest that routine neuroimaging after IV-tPA may be safely avoided in clinically stable patients, eliminating unnecessary radiation exposure in those having CT brain and reducing costs. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type-1 Tag Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siokas, Vasileios; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Sokolakis, Thomas; Kotoula, Maria; Tachmitzi, Sophia V; Chatzoulis, Dimitrios Z; Almpanidou, Pavlina; Stefanidis, Ioannis; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M; Tsironi, Evangelia E

    2017-07-01

    There is accumulating evidence for genetic susceptibility to the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in DR risk remains controversial. The present study was designed to investigate possible influence of PAI-1 gene region polymorphisms on the risk of DR and on the risk of developing DR early vs late in the course of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 138 patients with DR, 107 patients with T2DM without DR, and 315 healthy controls were recruited. To cover the majority of the genetic variability across the extended region of PAI-1 gene, five tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the HapMap using a pairwise approach and an r 2 ≥ 0.8 and a minor allele frequency (MAF) of >0.05 were identified. Using logistic regression analyses, tag SNPs and haplotypes were tested for associations with DR risk and risk of DR development early or late in the course of T2DM. The generalized odds ratio (OR G ) was calculated to estimate the mutational load effect on DR development among all participants. Corrections for multiple comparisons were carried out (p-value < 0.01). A significant effect of rs2070682 on the risk of early DR onset was found in the codominant model of inheritance [odds ratio, OR (95% confidence interval, CI): 5.04 (1.47-17.28), p = 0.018]. However, this association marginally did not survive multiple testing corrections. No other significant association between PAI-1 tag-SNPs and haplotypes was revealed. Furthermore, no significant mutational load effect of PAI-1 tag SNPs on the risk of DR development in T2DM course was found. In conclusion, the present study does not provide any strong evidence that PAI-1 gene variants are implicated in the risk of DR or the development of DR during T2DM course.

  19. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene 4G/5G polymorphism in Turkish children with asthma and allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Ozlem Yilmaz; Ataç, F Belgin; Ogus, Ersin; Ozbek, Namik

    2009-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) has an essential role in tissue remodeling after inflammation. Recent literature revealed only one study evaluating PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism in children with asthma and none in children with allergic rhinitis. We aimed to investigate distribution of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism in a group of Turkish children with asthma and allergic rhinitis and compare these findings with those obtained in normal peers. Patients with physician-diagnosed asthma (n = 106) and allergic rhinitis (n = 99) and 83 healthy peers were included in this study. We evaluated PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism genotype as well as the possible association between PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and pulmonary function tests, serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE), total eosinophil count, and skin-prick test positivity in our study. The prevalence of the 4G allele significantly exceeded the values found in the controls both in patients with asthma (p = 0.001) and in patients with allergic rhinitis (p = 0.002). Interestingly, comparison of asthmatic patients revealed that mean baseline percent forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity were significantly higher in patients who bear 5G/5G genotype than in those who have 4G/4G or 4G/5G genotypes. No statistically significant relationship were found between PAI-1 polymorphism and total serum IgE levels, total eosinophil count, or selected skin test responses to aeroallergens. Our study suggests that Turkish children with asthma or allergic rhinitis have a higher prevalence of PAI-1 4G allele compared with their healthy peers.

  20. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 5G/5G genotype is a protecting factor preventing posttransplant diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Horng-Rong; Yang, Shun-Fa; Tsai, Jen-Pi; Hsieh, Ming-Chia; Wu, Sheng-Wen; Tsai, Hui-Ching; Hung, Tung-Wei; Huang, Jun-Huang; Lian, Jong-Da

    2011-01-30

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. A connection between gestational diabetes mellitus and the functional -675 PAI-1 genotype has been reported. Therefore, we examined the role of the PAI-1 gene polymorphism in kidney transplant recipients. A total of 376 kidney transplant recipients were prospectively screened for posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM). Eighty-one (21.5%) patients were diagnosed with PTDM and the other 295 patients were non-diabetic following kidney transplantation. DNA samples were isolated from the sera and analyzed for the functional -675 4G/5G promoter polymorphisms of the PAI-1 gene. Kidney transplant recipients with PTDM were significantly associated with tacrolimus use (p=0.03), older age (p=0.036), and higher body mass index (p=0.001). The genotype distribution was significantly different between the patients with PTDM (genotype 4G/4G:4G/5G:5G/5G=33.3%:60.5%:6.2%) and those without PTDM (genotype 4G/4G:4G/5G:5G/5G=36.9%:44.1%:19.0%) (p=0.018). Patients with homozygosity for 5G had a significantly lower rate of PTDM (aOR, 0.286, p=0.022) and higher cumulative event-free probability of time to PTDM (log rank test, p=0.0058). Homozygosity for the 5G allele of the PAI-1 gene constitutes a protecting factor for the development of PTDM. Our findings are similar to a previous study on gestational diabetes mellitus, and strongly support a possible genetic role of PAI-1 in the development of PTDM. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk: a meta-analysis in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuezhou; Chen, Weixian; Qian, Yun; Zeng, Yanying; Liu, Wenhua

    2014-12-01

    The guanosine insertion/deletion polymorphism (4G/5G) of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene has been suggested as a risk factor for ischemic stroke (IS), but direct evidence from genetic association studies remains inconclusive even in Chinese population. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate this association. All of the relevant studies were identified from PubMed, Embase, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database and Chinese Wanfang database up to September 2013. Statistical analyses were conducted with Revman 5.2 and STATA 12.0 software. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) values were applied to evaluate the strength of the association. Heterogeneity was evaluated by Q-test and the I² statistic. The Begg's test and Egger's test were used to assess the publication bias. A significant association and a borderline association between the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and IS were found under the recessive model (OR = 1.639, 95% CI = 1.136-2.364) and allelic model (OR = 1.256, 95% CI = 1.000-1.578), respectively. However, no significant association was observed under homogeneous comparison model (OR = 1.428, 95% CI = 0.914-2.233), heterogeneous comparison model (OR = 0.856, 95% CI = 0.689-1.063) and dominant model (OR = 1.036, 95% CI = 0.846-1.270). This meta-analysis suggested that 4G4G genotype of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism might be a risk factor for IS in the Chinese population.

  2. Clinicopathological significance of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism in breast cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Han; Kim, Younghye; Choi, Jung-Woo; Kim, Young-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. Transcriptional expression of the PAI-1 can be controlled by PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism. However, the significance of PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism in breast cancer patients is contentious. To address this controversy, we conducted a meta-analysis for the relationships between PAI-1 promoter polymorphism and clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer. Relevant published studies were identified using a search of PubMed, Embase, and the ISI Web of Science. The effect sizes of PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism on breast cancer risk, lymph node metastasis, histologic grade, and overall survival were calculated by odds ratio (OR) or hazard ratio. The effect sizes were combined using a random-effects model. Individuals with 4G/4G genotype had a higher risk of breast cancer than those with the combined 4G/5G and 5G/5G genotypes (OR = 1.388; p = 0.031). Breast cancer patients with the 5G/5G genotype displayed lymph node metastasis more than patients with either the combined other genotypes (OR = 1.495; p = 0.027) or with the 4G/4G genotype (OR = 1.623; p = 0.018). However, the PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism was not associated with histological grade or overall survival. PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with a relatively increased risk of breast cancer development and lymph node metastasis. Copyright © 2013 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and angiotensin converting enzyme polymorphisms with recurrent pregnancy loss in Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shakarami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL defined by two or more failed pregnancies before 20 weeks of gestation. Several factors play a role in RPL including thrombophilic conditions which can be influenced by gene polymorphisms. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE genes are closely related to fibrinolytic process, embryonic development and pregnancy success. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between RPL and common polymorphisms in ACE and PAI-1 genes. Materials and Methods: In this case control study, 100 women with recurrent abortions (at least two were selected as cases and 100 healthy women with two or more normal term deliveries without a history of abortion as controls. Total genomic DNA was isolated from blood leukocytes. The status of the PAI-1 4G/5G and ACE (D/I polymorphism was determined by PCR-RFLP. Results: Homozygosity for PAI-1 4G polymorphism was seen in 17 cases (17%, and 5 controls (5% (p=0.006 so patients with homozygote 4G mutation were significantly more prone to RPL in contrast to control group (OR: 4.63, % 95 CI: 1.55-13.84. In addition, 7 patients (7 %, and no one from the control group, were homozygote (I/I for ACE polymorphism (p=0.034, suggesting no significant associations between ACE D allele or DD genotype and RPL. Conclusion: Considering these results, because 4G/4G polymorphism for PAI-1 gene could be a thrombophilic variant leading to abortion, analysis of this mutation and other susceptibility factors are recommended in patients with RPL.

  4. Prognostic value analysis of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor in oral squamous cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacchiocchi, Roberta; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Fazioli, Francesca; Rubini, Corrado; Pierpaoli, Elisa; Borghetti, Giulia; Procacci, Pasquale; Nocini, Pier Francesco; Santarelli, Andrea; Rocchetti, Romina; Ciavarella, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents the most common oral malignancy. Despite recent advances in therapy, up to 50% of the cases have relapse and/or metastasis. There is therefore a strong need for the identification of new biological markers able to predict the clinical behaviour of these lesions in order to improve quality of life and overall survival. Among tumour progression biomarkers, already known for their involvement in other neoplasia, a crucial role is ascribed to the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), which plays a multiple role in extracellular proteolysis, cell migration and tissue remodelling not only as a receptor for the zymogen pro-uPA but also as a component for cell adhesion and as a chemoattractant. The purpose of this study was to gain information on the expression of uPAR in OSCC and to verify whether this molecule can have a role as a prognostic/predictive marker for this neoplasia. In a retrospective study, a cohort of 189 OSCC patients was investigated for uPAR expression and its cellular localization by immunohistochemistry. As standard controls, 8 normal oral mucosal tissues free of malignancy, obtained from patients with no evidence or history of oral cavity tumours, were similarly investigated. After grouping for uPAR expression, OSCCs were statistically analyzed for the variables age, gender, histological grading (G), tumour size, recurrence, TNM staging and overall survival rate. In our immunohistochemical study, 74 cases (39.1%) of OSCC showed a mostly cytoplasmic positivity for uPAR, whereas 115 were negative. uPAR expression correlated with tumour differentiation grade and prognosis: percentage of positive cases was the greatest in G3 (70.4%) and patients positives for uPAR expression had an expectation of life lower than those for uPAR negatives. The results obtained in this study suggest a role of uPAR as a potential biomarker useful to identify higher risk subgroups of OSCC patients

  5. Uric acid therapy improves the outcomes of stroke patients treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and mechanical thrombectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Ángel; Amaro, Sergio; Castellanos, Mar; Gomis, Meritxell; Urra, Xabier; Blasco, Jordi; Arenillas, Juan F; Román, Luis S; Muñoz, Roberto; Macho, Juan; Cánovas, David; Marti-Fabregas, Joan; Leira, Enrique C; Planas, Anna M

    2017-06-01

    Background Numerous neuroprotective drugs have failed to show benefit in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, making the search for new treatments imperative. Uric acid is an endogenous antioxidant making it a drug candidate to improve stroke outcomes. Aim To report the effects of uric acid therapy in stroke patients receiving intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy. Methods Forty-five patients with proximal vessel occlusions enrolled in the URICO-ICTUS trial received intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 4.5 h after stroke onset and randomized to intravenous 1000 mg uric acid or placebo (NCT00860366). These patients also received mechanical thrombectomy because a brain computed tomogaphy angiography confirmed the lack of proximal recanalization at the end of systemic thrombolysis. The primary outcome was good functional outcome at 90 days (modified Rankin Score 0-2). Safety outcomes included mortality, symptomatic intracerebral bleeding, and gout attacks. Results The rate of successful revascularization was >80% in the uric acid and the placebo groups but good functional outcome was observed in 16 out of 24 (67%) patients treated with uric acid and 10 out of 21 (48%) treated with placebo (adjusted Odds Ratio, 6.12 (95% CI 1.08-34.56)). Mortality was observed in two out of 24 (8.3%) patients treated with uric acid and one out of 21 (4.8%) treated with placebo (adjusted Odds Ratio, 3.74 (95% CI 0.06-226.29)). Symptomatic cerebral bleeding and gout attacks were similar in both groups. Conclusions Uric acid therapy was safe and improved stroke outcomes in stroke patients receiving intravenous thrombolysis followed by thrombectomy. Validation of this simple strategy in a larger trial is urgent.

  6. The role of proteasome beta subunits in gastrin-mediated transcription of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 and regenerating protein1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian O'Hara

    Full Text Available The hormone gastrin physiologically regulates gastric acid secretion and also contributes to maintaining gastric epithelial architecture by regulating expression of genes such as plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI-2 and regenerating protein 1 (Reg1. Here we examine the role of proteasome subunit PSMB1 in the transcriptional regulation of PAI-2 and Reg1 by gastrin, and its subcellular distribution during gastrin stimulation. We used the gastric cancer cell line AGS, permanently transfected with the CCK2 receptor (AGS-GR to study gastrin stimulated expression of PAI-2 and Reg1 reporter constructs when PSMB1 was knocked down by siRNA. Binding of PSMB1 to the PAI-2 and Reg1 promoters was assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay. Subcellular distribution of PSMB1 was determined by immunocytochemistry and Western Blot. Gastrin robustly increased expression of PAI-2 and Reg1 in AGS-GR cells, but when PSMB1 was knocked down the responses were dramatically reduced. In ChIP assays, following immunoprecipitation of chromatin with a PSMB1 antibody there was a substantial enrichment of DNA from the gastrin responsive regions of the PAI-2 and Reg1 promoters compared with chromatin precipitated with control IgG. In AGS-GR cells stimulated with gastrin there was a significant increase in the ratio of nuclear:cytoplasmic PSMB1 over the same timescale as recruitment of PSMB1 to the PAI-2 and Reg1 promoters seen in ChIP assays. We conclude that PSMB1 is part of the transcriptional machinery required for gastrin stimulated expression of PAI-2 and Reg1, and that its change in subcellular distribution in response to gastrin is consistent with this role.

  7. Inhibition of receptor-bound urokinase by plasminogen-activator inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, Vincent John; Wun, T C; Behrendt, N

    1990-01-01

    activator inhibitors (PAI-1 and PAI-2). uPA bound to its receptor on human U937 monocyte-like cells was inhibited by PAI-1 (in its active form in the presence of vitronectin fragments) with an association rate constant of 4.5 x 10(6) M-1 s-1, which was 40% lower than that obtained for uPA in solution (7.9 x...

  8. Mechanics of active surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbreux, Guillaume; Jülicher, Frank

    2017-09-01

    We derive a fully covariant theory of the mechanics of active surfaces. This theory provides a framework for the study of active biological or chemical processes at surfaces, such as the cell cortex, the mechanics of epithelial tissues, or reconstituted active systems on surfaces. We introduce forces and torques acting on a surface, and derive the associated force balance conditions. We show that surfaces with in-plane rotational symmetry can have broken up-down, chiral, or planar-chiral symmetry. We discuss the rate of entropy production in the surface and write linear constitutive relations that satisfy the Onsager relations. We show that the bending modulus, the spontaneous curvature, and the surface tension of a passive surface are renormalized by active terms. Finally, we identify active terms which are not found in a passive theory and discuss examples of shape instabilities that are related to active processes in the surface.

  9. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-type I: its plasma determinants and relation with cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, T.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Schouten, E.G.; Kluft, C.

    2004-01-01

    The habitual level of PAI-1 is influenced by many factors, of which obesity and insulin resistance are the most important. It is possible to reduce plasma PAI-1 by changes in life style, e.g. weight reduction and physical activity. Data on potential interactions between environmental and metabolic

  10. E2F1-mediated transcriptional inhibition of the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziczak, M; Müller, H; Helin, K

    2001-01-01

    -sensitive retinoblastoma protein (pRB), a shift to a permissive temperature induced PAI-1 mRNA expression. In U2OS cells stably expressing an E2F1-estrogen receptor chimeric protein that could be activated by tamoxifen, PAI-1 gene transcription was markedly reduced by tamoxifen even in the presence of cycloheximide...

  11. Tissue type plasminogen activator regulates myeloid-cell dependent neoangiogenesis during tissue regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohki, Makiko; Ohki, Yuichi; Ishihara, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    tissue regeneration is not well understood. Bone marrow (BM)-derived myeloid cells facilitate angiogenesis during tissue regeneration. Here, we report that a serpin-resistant form of tPA by activating the extracellular proteases matrix metalloproteinase-9 and plasmin expands the myeloid cell pool...

  12. Characterization of the plasminogen activator of herpesvirus-transformed cells and examination of its correlation with the tumorigenic and metastatic ability of in vivo-derived sublines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed hamster embryo fibroblasts (333-8-9 cells) produce increased amounts of plasminogen activator (PA) compared with normal hamster cells. The 333-8-9 PA activity was quantitated in comparison to a PA standard, urokinase (UK). Using a direct PA assay in which 125 I-labeled plasminogen is cleaved, a linear dose-response was seen over a 1000-fold range in UK concentration when plotted on a semi-logarithmic scale. Extracellular PA activity secreted by the HSV-2-transformed cell line, 333-8-9, followed a similar dose-response slop. The optimum pH and osmolarity for detection of the 333-8-9 extracellular PA activity were pH 8.9 and approximately 150 mOsmol, respectively. Secretion of PA by the 333-8-9 cells did not vary significantly on a per cell basis over cell densities ranging from 0.1 to 8.0 x 10 7 cells/T-75 cm 2 flask. This assay was accurate, reproducible, and demonstrated that the 333-8-9 cells produced at least a 20-fold greater amount of PA activity than their normal cell counterparts. Based on the molecular weight (50-58 Kd) of the secreted 333-8-9 cell PA and lack of fibrin stimulation of the PA activity, it is concluded to be a urokinase-type PA

  13. The immune marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is associated with new-onset diabetes in non-smoking women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S B; Andersen, O; Hansen, T W

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To explore the putative association of new-onset diabetes and the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), which is a new and stable plasma marker of immune function and low-grade inflammation. This association has been previously suggested by using the less sensitive...... International Classification of Disease system to detect incident diabetes in the Danish MONICA 10 cohort. Methods: The Danish National Diabetes Register enabled more accurate identification of incident diabetes during a median follow-up of 13.8 years in the Danish MONICA 10 cohort (n = 2353 generally healthy......-onset diabetes (P...

  14. Prognostic value of intact and cleaved forms of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor in a retrospective study of 518 colorectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Anne Fog; Christensen, Ib J; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    The levels of the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in blood have been shown to correlate with prognosis in various cancers. Plasma levels of the combined suPAR forms have previously shown to be a strong prognostic marker in the present cohort of CRC patients and could...... potentially identify high-risk patients among those with early stage disease. In order to investigate whether the individual suPAR forms are stronger prognostic markers than the combined amount we measured the different uPAR forms in serum from the same cohort and evaluated their prognostic significance....

  15. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1: Mechanisms of its synergistic regulation by growth factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xiaoling [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    My research is on the synergistic regulation of PAI-1 by EGF and TGF-β. The mechanism of synergistic regulation of PAI-1 by EGF and TGF-β are addressed. Methods are described for effective identification of RNA accessible sites for antisense oligodexoxynucleotides (ODNs) and siRNA. In this study effective AS-ODN sequences for both Lcn2 and Bcl2 were identified by in vitro tiled microarray studies. Our results suggest that hybridization of ODN arrays to a target mRNA under physiological conditions might be used as a rapid and reliable in vitro method to accurately identify targets on mRNA molecules for effective antisense and potential siRNA activity in vivo.

  16. Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor as a Potential PET Biomarker in Glioblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Nedergaard, Mette K; Brandt-Larsen, Malene

    2016-01-01

    -fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine ((18)F-FET). One MRI scan was obtained for each mouse to confirm tumor location. The uPAR specificity of (64)Cu-NOTA-AE105 was confirmed by alignment of hematoxylin- and eosin-stained and uPAR immunohistochemistry-stained slides of the brain with the activity distribution as determined using....../μmol and a radiochemical purity of more than 98% for (64)Cu-NOTA-AE105 and more than 97% for (68)Ga-NOTA-AE105. High image contrast resulting in clear tumor delineation was found for both (68)Ga-NOTA-AE105 and (64)Cu-NOTA-AE105. Absolute uptake in tumor was higher for (18)F-FET (3.5 ± 0.8 percentage injected dose [%ID...

  17. Regulation of programmed cell death by plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lademann, Ulrik Axel; Rømer, Maria Unni Koefoed

    2008-01-01

    numbers of reports suggest that PAI-1 also can regulate programmed cell death (PCD) in cancer cells and normal cells. A number of reports suggest that PAI-1 can inhibit PCD through its pro-adhesive/anti-proteolytic property whereas other reports suggest that PAI-1 induces PCD through its anti......-adhesive property.Furthermore,it has been suggested that PAI-1 can either induce or inhibit PCD though activation of cell signalling pathways.This review will focus on the regulation of programmed cell death by PAI-1 in both normal cells and cancer cells.......PA) observed in tumours; however, several lines of evidence suggest that PAI-1 may contribute directly to the pathology of the disease. PAI-1 has been reported to have an effect on most of the basic cellular processes including cell adhesion, cell migration, cell invasion, and cell proliferation and increasing...

  18. Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor affects bone homeostasis by regulating osteoblast and osteoclast function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furlan, Federico; Galbiati, Clara; Jørgensen, Niklas R

    2007-01-01

    The uPAR and its ligand uPA are expressed by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Their function in bone remodeling is unknown. We report that uPAR-lacking mice display increased BMD, increased osteogenic potential of osteoblasts, decreased osteoclasts formation, and altered cytoskeletal reorganizat......The uPAR and its ligand uPA are expressed by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Their function in bone remodeling is unknown. We report that uPAR-lacking mice display increased BMD, increased osteogenic potential of osteoblasts, decreased osteoclasts formation, and altered cytoskeletal...... reorganization in mature osteoclasts. INTRODUCTION: Urokinase receptor (uPAR) is actively involved in the regulation of important cell functions, such as proliferation, adhesion, and migration. It was previously shown that the major players in bone remodeling, osteoblasts and osteoclasts, express u......PAR and produce urokinase (uPA). The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of uPAR in bone remodeling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vivo studies were performed in uPAR knockout (KO) and wildtype (WT) mice on a C57Bl6/SV129 (75:25) background. Bone mass was analyzed by pQCT. Excised tibias were subjected...

  19. Serum creatinine may indicate risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Elisabeth B; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Hillis, Argye E; Urrutia, Victor C; Llinas, Rafael H

    2013-11-01

    Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) is a known complication following administration of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) for acute ischemic stroke. sICH results in high rates of death or long-term disability. Our ability to predict its occurrence is important in clinical decision making and when counseling families. The initial National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) investigators developed a list of relative contraindications to IV tPA meant to decrease the risk of subsequent sICH. To date, the impact of renal impairment has not been well studied. In the current study we evaluate the potential association between renal impairment and post-tPA intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Admission serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were recorded in 224 patients presenting within 4.5 hours from symptom onset and treated with IV tPA based on NINDS criteria. Neuroimaging was obtained 1 day post-tPA and for any change in neurologic status to evaluate for ICH. Images were retrospectively evaluated for hemorrhage by a board-certified neuroradiologist and 2 reviewers blinded to the patient's neurologic status. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively for evidence of neurologic decline indicating a "symptomatic" hemorrhage. sICH was defined as subjective clinical deterioration (documented by the primary neurology team) and hemorrhage on neuroimaging that was felt to be the most likely cause. Renal impairment was evaluated using both serum creatinine and eGFR in a number of ways: 1) continuous creatinine; 2) any renal impairment by creatinine (serum creatinine >1.0 mg/dL); 3) continuous eGFR; and 4) any renal impairment by eGFR (eGFR serum creatinine >1.0 mg/dL) was not associated with combined symptomatic and asymptomatic intracranial bleeding (p = 0.359); however, there was an adjusted 5.5-fold increased odds of sICH when creatinine was >1.0 mg/dL (95% confidence interval, 1.08-28.39), and the frequency

  20. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism and retinopathy risk in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tengyue; Pang, Chong; Li, Ningdong; Zhou, Elaine; Zhao, Kanxing

    2013-01-02

    Mounting evidence has suggested that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a candidate for increased risk of diabetic retinopathy. Studies have reported that insertion/deletion polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene may influence the risk of this disease. To comprehensively address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the association of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes. Data were retrieved in a systematic manner and analyzed using Review Manager and STATA Statistical Software. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations. Nine studies with 1, 217 cases and 1, 459 controls were included. Allelic and genotypic comparisons between cases and controls were evaluated. Overall analysis suggests a marginal association of the 4G/5G polymorphism with diabetic retinopathy (for 4G versus 5G: OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.01 to 1.26; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G: OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.04 to 1.64; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G + 4G/5G: OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.05 to 1.52). In subgroup analysis by ethnicity, we found an association among the Caucasian population (for 4G versus 5G: OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.30; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G: OR 1.33, 95%CI 1.02 to 1.74; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G + 4G/5G: OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.13 to 1.77). When stratified by the average duration of diabetes, patients with diabetes histories longer than 10 years have an elevated susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy than those with shorter histories (for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G: OR 1.47, 95%CI 1.08 to 2.00). We also detected a higher risk in hospital-based studies (for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G+4G/5G: OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.02 to 1.57). The present meta-analysis suggested that 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene potentially increased the risk of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes and showed a discrepancy in different ethnicities. A higher susceptibility in patients with longer duration of diabetes (more than 10 years) indicated a gene

  1. Acute, massive pulmonary embolism with right heart strain and hypoxia requiring emergent tissue plasminogen activator (TPA infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Patane

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 63-year-old male presented to the emergency department with shortness of breath. He had a history of prostate cancer and two previous pulmonary embolisms, but was not currently on blood thinners. He had no associated chest pain at the time of presentation, but endorsed hemoptysis. Vital signs were significant for a heart rate of 88, blood pressure 145/89, oxygen saturation in the mid-70’s on room air which increased to mid-80’s on 15L facemask. His exam was significant for clear lung sounds bilaterally. He immediately underwent chest x-ray which showed no acute abnormalities. A bedside ultrasound was performed which showed evidence of right ventricular and atrial dilation, consistent with right heart strain. Given that the patient’s oxygen saturations improved to 88% on 15L facemask, the patient was felt to be stable enough for CT angiography. Significant findings: CT angiogram showed multiple large acute pulmonary emboli, most significantly in the distal right main pulmonary artery (image 1 and 2. Additional pulmonary emboli were noted in the bilateral lobar, segmental, and subsegmental levels of all lobes. There was a peripheral, wedge-shaped consolidation surrounded by groundglass changes in the posterolateral basal right lower lobe that was consistent with a small lung infarction (image 3. Discussion: The patient underwent in the Emergency Department a tissue plasminogen activator (TPA infusion of alteplase 100 mg over 2 hours for his massive acute pulmonary embolisms. Throughout his TPA infusion his oxygen saturations became improved to mid-90’s and his shortness of breath symptoms began improving. His troponin returned at 0.15 ng/mL, suggesting right heart strain. He was admitted to the ICU for continued monitoring and treatment. An acute, massive pulmonary embolism is described as having more than 50% occlusion of pulmonary blood flow.1 The main causes of hypoxia includes ventilation

  2. Multicenter Study of Adverse Events After Intravenous Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gotico, Hannah; Lightfoot, Tiffany; Meighan, Melissa

    2017-02-01

    The approved treatment by the Food and Drug Administration for acute ischemic stroke is intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (IV tPA). After IV tPA administration, patients are monitored for adverse events using an American Heart Association/American Stroke Association guideline instituted in 1996. There is limited evidence describing the safest and most efficient method to monitor patients during the first 24 hours after tPA administration. Although the overall rates of adverse events have been reported, the time when patients may be at most risk for an event has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to identify the time of adverse event occurrences in the first 24 hours after IV tPA administration. This was a descriptive, retrospective chart review study of patients admitted to an integrated health system and treated with IV tPA for acute stroke between July 2010 and July 2012. Charts were reviewed for adverse events using the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Global Trigger Tool for Measuring Adverse Events. Possible chart indicators of adverse events or "triggers" included neurological decline, vital signs elevated above specified parameters, and emergent imaging. Adverse events included episodes of neurological decline, angioedema, allergic reactions, bleeding, and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The timing of each detected event was determined, and descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Fourteen adverse events (2.8%) were detected in a population of 498 patients. Reactions consisted of allergic reaction (n = 1), angioedema (n = 1), neurological decline without ICH (n = 1), gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 1), bleeding gums (n = 1), and high-risk ICH (n = 9). Thirteen of the 14 adverse events (92.9%) occurred within the first 12 hours after IV tPA administration. Close monitoring during the first 12 hours after IV tPA treatment may be essential. However, close monitoring after 12 hours may not contribute significantly to

  3. Influence of decreased fibrinolytic activity and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism on the risk of venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuckovic, Biljana A; Djeric, Mirjana J; Tomic, Branko V; Djordjevic, Valentina J; Bajkin, Branislav V; Mitic, Gorana P

    2018-01-01

    : Objective of our study is to determine whether decreased fibrinolytic activity or plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 4G/5G polymorphism influence the risk of venous thrombosis.Our case-control study included 100 patients with venous thrombosis, and 100 random controls. When patients were compared with random controls, unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Decreased fibrinolytic activity yielded a 2.7-fold increase in risk for venous thrombosis than physiological fibrinolytic activity (OR 2.70; 95% CI 1.22-5.98), when comparing patients with random controls. Adjustment for several putative confounders did not change the estimate (OR 3.02; 95% CI 1.26-7.22). Analysis of venous thrombotic risk influenced by PAI-1 genotype, showed no influence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant in comparison with 5G/5G genotype (OR 0.57 95% CI; 0.27-1.20).Decreased fibrinolytic activity increased, whereas PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism did not influence venous thrombosis risk in this study.

  4. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene is located at region q21. 3-q22 of chromosome 7 and genetically linked with cystic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinger, K.W.; Winqvist, R.; Riccio, A.; Andreasen, P.A.; Sartorio, R.; Nielsen, L.S.; Stuart, N.; Stanislovitis, P.; Watkins, P.; Douglas, R.

    1987-12-01

    The regional chromosomal location of the human gene for plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI1) was determined by three independent methods of gene mapping. PAI1 was localized first to 7cen-q32 and then to 7q21.3-q22 by Southern blot hybridization analysis of a panel of human and mouse somatic cell hybrids with a PAI1 cDNA probe and in situ hybridization, respectively. The authors frequent HindIII restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the PAI1 gene with an information content of 0.369. In family studies using this polymorphism, genetic linkage was found between PAI1 and the loci for erythropoietin (EPO), paraoxonase (PON), the met protooncogene (MET), and cystic fibrosis (CF), all previously assigned to the middle part of the long arm of chromosome 7. The linkage with EPO was closest with an estimated genetic distance of 3 centimorgans, whereas that to CF was 20 centimorgans. A three-point genetic linkage analysis and data from previous studies showed that the most likely order of these loci is EPO, PAI1, PON, (MET, CF), with PAI1 being located centromeric to CF. The PAI1 RFLP may prove to be valuable in ordering genetic markers in the CF-linkage group and may also be valuable in genetic analysis of plasminogen activation-related diseases, such as certain thromboembolic disorders and cancer.

  5. Inhibitory effect of berberine on the invasion of human lung cancer cells via decreased productions of urokinase-plasminogen activator and matrix metalloproteinase-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, P.-L.; Hsieh, Y.-S.; Wang, C.-J.; Hsu, J.-L.; Chou, F.-P.

    2006-01-01

    Berberine, a compound isolated from medicinal herbs, has been reported with many pharmacological effects related to anti-cancer and anti-inflammation capabilities. In this study, we observed that berberine exerted a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on the motility and invasion ability of a highly metastatic A549 cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. In cancer cell migration and invasion process, matrix-degrading proteinases are required. A549 cell treated with berberine at various concentrations showed reduced ECM proteinases including matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and urokinase-plasminogen activator (u-PA) by gelatin and casein zymography analysis. The inhibitory effect is likely to be at the transcriptional level, since the reduction in the transcripts levels was corresponding to the proteins. Moreover, berberine also exerted its action via regulating tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and urokinase-plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI). The upstream mediators of the effect involved c-jun, c-fos and NF-κB, as evidenced by reduced phosphorylation of the proteins. These findings suggest that berberine possesses an anti-metastatic effect in non-small lung cancer cell and may, therefore, be helpful in clinical treatment

  6. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene is located at region q21.3-q22 of chromosome 7 and genetically linked with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, K.W.; Winqvist, R.; Riccio, A.

    1987-01-01

    The regional chromosomal location of the human gene for plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI1) was determined by three independent methods of gene mapping. PAI1 was localized first to 7cen-q32 and then to 7q21.3-q22 by Southern blot hybridization analysis of a panel of human and mouse somatic cell hybrids with a PAI1 cDNA probe and in situ hybridization, respectively. The authors frequent HindIII restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the PAI1 gene with an information content of 0.369. In family studies using this polymorphism, genetic linkage was found between PAI1 and the loci for erythropoietin (EPO), paraoxonase (PON), the met protooncogene (MET), and cystic fibrosis (CF), all previously assigned to the middle part of the long arm of chromosome 7. The linkage with EPO was closest with an estimated genetic distance of 3 centimorgans, whereas that to CF was 20 centimorgans. A three-point genetic linkage analysis and data from previous studies showed that the most likely order of these loci is EPO, PAI1, PON, (MET, CF), with PAI1 being located centromeric to CF. The PAI1 RFLP may prove to be valuable in ordering genetic markers in the CF-linkage group and may also be valuable in genetic analysis of plasminogen activation-related diseases, such as certain thromboembolic disorders and cancer

  7. Aspirin Inhibits IKK-β-mediated Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion by Targeting Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chongjun; Zhang, Nini; Feng, Yang; Cao, Jiewei; Chen, Xuyi; Liu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Aspirin has been demonstrated to possess potent chemopreventive and anticancer effects on prostate cancer. However, the more detailed molecular mechanisms of aspirin to suppress prostate cancer cell invasion have not been clearly elucidated. Transwell assays were performed to evaluate the effects of aspirin on cell invasion. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and serine proteinases activities in cell media were examined by gelatin zymography and ELISA. In addition, inhibitor of κB (IκB) kinase-β (IKK-β) phosphorylation and IKK-β kinase activity were measured to assess the effects of aspirin on IKK-β activation. We found that aspirin suppressed the invasion and attachment in human prostate cancer cells. Aspirin treatment significantly resulted in reduction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and upregulation of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) activity, which are the proteolytic enzymes contributing to the degradation of extracellular matrix and basement membrane in cell invasion and metastasis. Our data further showed that aspirin was able to inhibit both urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression in the cells. In addition, aspirin treatment caused a strong decrease in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation, inhibitor of κB (IκB)-α phosphorylation together with translocation of NF-κB p65 to nucleus and IκB kinase (IKK)- β activation. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of aspirin on cell invasion were reversed by IKK-β overexpression, while the IKK inhibitor sensitizes the anti-invasive effect of aspirin in prostate cancer cells. The present research concluded that aspirin suppressed prostate cancer cell invasion by reducing MMP-9 activity and uPA expression through decreasing of IKK-β-mediated NF-κB activation, indicating that the ability of aspirin to inhibit cell invasion might be useful in the chemoprevention of metastatic prostate cancer. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by

  8. Aspirin Inhibits IKK-β-mediated Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion by Targeting Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongjun Shi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Aspirin has been demonstrated to possess potent chemopreventive and anticancer effects on prostate cancer. However, the more detailed molecular mechanisms of aspirin to suppress prostate cancer cell invasion have not been clearly elucidated. Methods: Transwell assays were performed to evaluate the effects of aspirin on cell invasion. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and serine proteinases activities in cell media were examined by gelatin zymography and ELISA. In addition, inhibitor of κB (IκB kinase-β (IKK-β phosphorylation and IKK-β kinase activity were measured to assess the effects of aspirin on IKK-β activation. Results: We found that aspirin suppressed the invasion and attachment in human prostate cancer cells. Aspirin treatment significantly resulted in reduction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 and upregulation of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 activity, which are the proteolytic enzymes contributing to the degradation of extracellular matrix and basement membrane in cell invasion and metastasis. Our data further showed that aspirin was able to inhibit both urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 expression in the cells. In addition, aspirin treatment caused a strong decrease in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB activation, inhibitor of κB (IκB-α phosphorylation together with translocation of NF-κB p65 to nucleus and IκB kinase (IKK- β activation. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of aspirin on cell invasion were reversed by IKK-β overexpression, while the IKK inhibitor sensitizes the anti-invasive effect of aspirin in prostate cancer cells. Conclusion: The present research concluded that aspirin suppressed prostate cancer cell invasion by reducing MMP-9 activity and uPA expression through decreasing of IKK-β-mediated NF-κB activation, indicating that the ability of aspirin to inhibit cell invasion might be useful in the chemoprevention of

  9. Cell-type specific DNA-protein interactions at the tissue-type plasminogen activator promoter in human endothelial and HeLa cells in vivo and in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.; Herr, I.; Lansink, M.; Angel, P.; Kooistra, T.

    1997-01-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) gene expression in human endothelial cells and HeLa cells is stimulated by the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) at the level of transcription. To study the mechanism of transcriptional regulation, we have characterized a

  10. Residual vein thrombosis and onset of post-thrombotic syndrome: influence of the 4G/5G polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incalcaterra, Egle; Meli, Francesco; Muratori, Ida; Corrado, Egle; Amato, Corrado; Canino, Baldassare; Ferrara, Filippo

    2014-03-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the most important inhibitor of plasminogen activator. The functional 4G/5G polymorphism of the gene coding for PAI-1 may affect PAI-1 plasmatic activity, influencing the imbalance between coagulation and fibrinolysis cascades. In this prospective cohort analytic study, we investigated the role of this single nucleotide polymorphism in the persistence of thrombotic lesion and the occurrence of post-thrombotic syndrome. In a group of 168 patients with post-surgical deep vein thrombosis of the legs, we analyzed the 4G/5G polymorphism in the promoter of PAI-1 gene and plasmatic PAI-1 activity. Enrolled patients were divided in two groups: patients with 4G/5G polymorphism and increased PAI-1 activity (n=85) and patients without 4G/5G polymorphism and normal PAI-1 activity (n=83). All patients were treated according to current protocols and re-examined after 3, 12 and 36 months in order to evaluate the persistence of thrombotic lesion and the occurrence of post-thrombotic syndrome. We found a significantly increased PAI activity in carrier of the 4G allele, who experienced much more frequently a persistence of thrombosis after 3, 12 and 36 months and/or the development of post-thrombosis syndrome, in spite of the anticoagulant treatment. These data not only confirm the role played by PAI-1 activity and by the 4G/5G SNP of the PAI-1 gene, but also suggest that current therapeutic protocols, recommending the administration of low weight molecular heparin and oral anticoagulant for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis, could be non sufficient for patients genetically predisposed to a less efficient clot lysis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. In vitro and in vivo antiangiogenic activity of a novel deca-peptide derived from human tissue-type plasminogen activator kringle 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Li; Xu, Xun; Zhao, Hui; Gu, Qing [Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Affiliate of Shanghai Jiaotong University, No. 100 Haining Road, Shanghai 200080 (China); Zou, Haidong, E-mail: zouhaidong@hotmail.com [Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Affiliate of Shanghai Jiaotong University, No. 100 Haining Road, Shanghai 200080 (China)

    2010-06-11

    A synthetic deca-peptide corresponding to the amino acid sequence Arg{sup 54}-Trp{sup 63} of human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) kringle 2 domain, named TKII-10, is produced and tested for its ability to inhibit endothelial cell proliferation, migration, tube formation in vitro, and angiogenesis in vivo. At the same time, another peptide TKII-10S composed of the same 10 amino acids as TKII-10, but in a different sequence, is also produced and tested. The results show that TKII-10 potently inhibits VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell migration and tube formation in a dose-dependent, as well as sequence-dependent, manner in vitro while it is inactive in inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation. Furthermore, TKII-10 potently inhibits angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane and mouse cornea. The middle four amino acids DGDA in their sequence play an important role in TKII-10 angiogenesis inhibition{sub .} These results suggest that TKII-10 is a novel angiogenesis inhibitor that may serve as a prototype for antiangiogenic drug development.

  12. Plasminogen and angiostatin interact with heat shock proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudani, Anil K; Mehic, Jelica; Martyres, Anthony

    2007-06-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory have demonstrated that plasminogen and angiostatin bind to endothelial cell (EC) surface-associated actin via their kringles in a specific manner. Heat shock proteins (hsps) like hsp 27 are constitutively expressed by vascular ECs and regulate actin polymerization, cell growth, and migration. Since many hsps have also been found to be highly abundant on cell surfaces and there is evidence that bacterial surface hsps may interact with human plasminogen, the purpose of this study was to determine whether human plasminogen and angiostatin would interact with human hsps. ELISAs were developed in our laboratory to assess these interactions. It was observed that plasminogen bound to hsps 27, 60, and 70. In all cases, binding was inhibited (85-90%) by excess (50 mM) lysine indicating kringle involvement. Angiostatin predominantly bound to hsp 27 and to hsp 70 in a concentration- and kringle-dependent manner. As observed previously for actin, there was concentration-dependent inhibition of angiostatin's interaction with hsp 27 by plasminogen. In addition, 30-fold molar excess actin inhibited (up to 50%), the interaction of plasminogen with all hsps. However, 30-fold molar excess actin could only inhibit the interaction of angiostatin with hsp 27 by 15-20%. Collectively, these data indicate that (i) while plasminogen interacts specifically with hsp 27, 60, and 70, angiostatin interacts predominantly with hsp 27 and to some extent with hsp 70; (ii) plasminogen only partially displaces angiostatin's binding to hsp 27 and (iii) actin only partially displaces plasminogen/angiostatin binding to hsps. It is conceivable therefore that surface-associated hsps could mediate the binding of these ligands to cells like ECs.

  13. Artificial exon shuffling between tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase (u-PA): a comparative study on the fibrinolytic properties of t-PA/u-PA hybrid proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, C. [=Carlie J. M.; Veerman, H.; Blasi, F.; Pannekoek, H.

    1988-01-01

    We constructed two human tissue-type plasminogen activator/urokinase (t-PA/u-PA) hybrid cDNAs which were expressed by transfection of mouse Ltk- cells. The properties of the secreted proteins were compared with those of recombinant t-PA (rt-PA) and high molecular weight (HMW) u-PA. The hybrid

  14. Role of the low density lipoprotein receptorrelated protein (lrp) in the clearance and liver uptake of recombinant single chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (rscu-pa) in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaaden, M.E. van der; Riiken, D.C.; Kruiit, J.K.; Berkel, T. van; Kuiper, J.

    1996-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) is used as a thrombolytic agent in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. In vitro, E.coli produced rscu-PA is recognized by LRP on parenchyma! liver cells. In this study we investigated the role of LRP in the liver uptake and plasma clearance of

  15. Increased serum levels of fibrinogen degradation products due to treatment with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator for acute myocardial infarction are related to bleeding complications, but not to coronary patency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Brower (Ronald); D. Collen; G.A. van Es (Gerrit Anne); J. Lubsen (Jacob); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); M. Verstraete (Marc); A.E.R. Arnold (Alfred)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractThe association of increasing serum levels of fibrinogen degradation products after recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) therapy with bleeding and early coronary patency was assessed in 242 patients with acute myocardial infarction. After administration of 5,000 IU

  16. Staurosporine induces ganglion cell differentiation in part by stimulating urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression and activation in the developing chick retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeoun-Hee; Chang, Yongmin; Jung, Jae-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Staurosporine mediates stimulation of RGC differentiation in vitro cultured retinal neuroblasts. ► Staurosporine mediates uPA activation during RGC differentiation in vitro. ► Inhibition of uPA blocks the staurosporine mediated RGC differentiation both in vitro and in ovo. ► Thus, uPA may play a role in the staurosporine-mediated stimulation of RGC differentiation. -- Abstract: Here, we investigated whether staurosporine-mediated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) activation is involved in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) differentiation. Retinal cells were isolated from developing chick retinas at embryonic day 6 (E6). Relatively few control cells grown in serum-free medium started to form processes by 12 h. In contrast, staurosporine-treated cells had processes within 3 h, and processes were evident at 8 h. Immunofluorescence staining showed that Tuj-1-positive cells with shorter neurites could be detected in control cultures at 18 h, whereas numerous Tuj-1 positive ganglion cells with longer neuritic extensions were seen in staurosporine-treated cultures. BrdU-positive proliferating cells were more numerous in control cultures than in staurosporine-treated cultures, and the BrdU staining was not detected in post-mitotic Tuj-1 positive ganglion cells. Western blotting of cell lysates showed that staurosporine induced high levels of the active form of uPA. The staurosporine-induced uPA signal was localized predominantly in the soma, neurites and axons of Tuj-1-positive ganglion cells. Amiloride, an inhibitor of uPA, markedly reduced staurosporine-induced Tuj-1 staining, neurite length, neurite number, and uPA staining versus controls. In developing retinas in ovo, amiloride administration remarkably reduced the staurosporine-induced uPA staining and RGC differentiation. Taken together, our in vitro and in vivo data collectively indicate that uPA plays a role in the staurosporine-mediated stimulation of RGC differentiation.

  17. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 polymorphism associates with recurrent coronary event risk in patients with high HDL and C-reactive protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsetti, James P; Salzman, Peter; Ryan, Dan; Moss, Arthur J; Zareba, Wojciech; Sparks, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate whether fibrinolysis plays a role in establishing recurrent coronary event risk in a previously identified group of postinfarction patients. This group of patients was defined as having concurrently high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and was previously demonstrated to be at high-risk for recurrent coronary events. Potential risk associations of a genetic polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) were probed as well as potential modulatory effects on such risk of a polymorphism of low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein (LRP-1), a scavenger receptor known to be involved in fibrinolysis in the context of cellular internalization of plasminogen activator/plansminogen activator inhibitor complexes. To this end, Cox multivariable modeling was performed as a function of genetic polymorphisms of PAI-2 (SERPINB, rs6095) and LRP-1 (LRP1, rs1800156) as well as a set of clinical parameters, blood biomarkers, and genetic polymorphisms previously demonstrated to be significantly and independently associated with risk in the study population including cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP, rs708272), p22phox (CYBA, rs4673), and thrombospondin-4 (THBS4, rs1866389). Risk association was demonstrated for the reference allele of the PAI-2 polymorphism (hazard ratio 0.41 per allele, 95% CI 0.20-0.84, p=0.014) along with continued significant risk associations for the p22phox and thrombospondin-4 polymorphisms. Additionally, further analysis revealed interaction of the LRP-1 and PAI-2 polymorphisms in generating differential risk that was illustrated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. We conclude from the study that fibrinolysis likely plays a role in establishing recurrent coronary risk in postinfarction patients with concurrently high levels of HDL-C and CRP as manifested by differential effects on risk by polymorphisms of several genes linked to key

  18. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 polymorphism associates with recurrent coronary event risk in patients with high HDL and C-reactive protein levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Corsetti

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate whether fibrinolysis plays a role in establishing recurrent coronary event risk in a previously identified group of postinfarction patients. This group of patients was defined as having concurrently high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and C-reactive protein (CRP and was previously demonstrated to be at high-risk for recurrent coronary events. Potential risk associations of a genetic polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2 were probed as well as potential modulatory effects on such risk of a polymorphism of low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein (LRP-1, a scavenger receptor known to be involved in fibrinolysis in the context of cellular internalization of plasminogen activator/plansminogen activator inhibitor complexes. To this end, Cox multivariable modeling was performed as a function of genetic polymorphisms of PAI-2 (SERPINB, rs6095 and LRP-1 (LRP1, rs1800156 as well as a set of clinical parameters, blood biomarkers, and genetic polymorphisms previously demonstrated to be significantly and independently associated with risk in the study population including cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP, rs708272, p22phox (CYBA, rs4673, and thrombospondin-4 (THBS4, rs1866389. Risk association was demonstrated for the reference allele of the PAI-2 polymorphism (hazard ratio 0.41 per allele, 95% CI 0.20-0.84, p=0.014 along with continued significant risk associations for the p22phox and thrombospondin-4 polymorphisms. Additionally, further analysis revealed interaction of the LRP-1 and PAI-2 polymorphisms in generating differential risk that was illustrated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. We conclude from the study that fibrinolysis likely plays a role in establishing recurrent coronary risk in postinfarction patients with concurrently high levels of HDL-C and CRP as manifested by differential effects on risk by polymorphisms of several genes linked

  19. The 4G/4G polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene as an independent risk factor for placental insufficiency, which triggers fetal hemodynamic centralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, P C P; Alves, J A G; Maia, S M; Araujo Júnior, E; Santana, E F M; Silva Costa, F Da

    2015-01-01

    To describe a case report of 4G/4G polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene as an independent risk factor for placental insufficiency. Case report. Department of Public Health, State University of Ceará (UECE), Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Hereditary hypofibrinolysis, which is mediated by 4G/4G homozygosity for the PAI-1 gene, is an independent risk factor for pregnancy complications, probably acting through thrombotic induction of placental insufficiency. We report a case of a low risk pregnancy, which separately presented placental insufficiency and fetal centralization at the beginning of the third trimester, without any other clinical manifestations during pregnancy. However, immediately after childbirth, the patient had a deep vein thrombosis of a lower limb. The anatomopathological examination of the placenta showed old and recent placental infarcts. Homozygosity for the 4G allele of PAI-1 gene was subsequently diagnosed as the sole probable causal factor.

  20. Dissecting the effect of RNA aptamer binding on the dynamics of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 using hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trelle, Morten B; Dupont, Daniel Miotto; Madsen, Jeppe Buur

    2014-01-01

    , about their effects on protein conformation and dynamics. We have employed hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry to study the effect of RNA aptamers on the structural flexibility of the serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). The aptamers have characteristic effects...... of the aptamers to PAI-1 is associated with substantial and widespread protection against deuterium uptake in PAI-1. The aptamers induce protection against exchange with the solvent both in the protein-aptamer interface as well as in other specific areas. Interestingly, the aptamers induce substantial protection...... against exchange in α-helices B, C and I. This observation substantiates the relevance of structural instability in this region for transition to the latent state and argues for involvement of flexibility in regions not commonly associated with regulation of latency transition in serpins....

  1. A 55,000-60,000 Mr receptor protein for urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Identification in human tumor cell lines and partial purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L S; Kellerman, G M; Behrendt, N

    1988-01-01

    -PA-R consists of one polypeptide chain. Two forms of u-PA-R, which differed with respect to affinity to concanavalin A, were identified. u-PA-R retained its ability to bind to ATF after cell lysis, and it was purified approximately 2,200-fold from biosynthetically labeled U937 cells by affinity chromatography...... protein (u-PA-R). In the human monocyte cell line U937 cultivated in the presence of phorbol ester, the amount of complex was strongly increased, and a fraction of the complex had a slower electrophoretic mobility. Comparison between autoradiograms of reduced and unreduced samples suggests that u...... with proenzyme u-PA coupled to Sepharose. The purified Mr 55,000-60,000 protein was specifically bound and cross-linked to u-PA, proenzyme u-PA, and ATF, but not to tissue-type plasminogen activator or other unrelated proteins....

  2. A high-protein diet during hospitalization is associated with an accelerated decrease in soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels in acutely ill elderly medical patients with SIRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavenier, Juliette; Haupt, Thomas Huneck; Andersen, Aino L

    2017-01-01

    inflammation in healthy elderly. We hypothesized that nutritional support and resistance training would accelerate the resolution of inflammation in hospitalized elderly patients with SIRS. Acutely admitted patients aged >65 years with SIRS were randomized to an intervention consisting of a high-protein diet......Acute illness and hospitalization in elderly individuals are often accompanied by the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and malnutrition, both associated with wasting and mortality. Nutritional support and resistance training were shown to increase muscle anabolism and reduce...... (1.7 g/kg per day) during hospitalization, and daily protein supplement (18.8 g) and 3 weekly resistance training sessions for 12 weeks after discharge (Intervention, n=14), or to standard-care (Control, n=15). Plasma levels of the inflammatory biomarkers soluble urokinase plasminogen activator...

  3. Structure-function relationships in the interaction between the urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Michael

    2003-01-01

    activation potential in proximity of the cell surface. This review will focus on molecular properties of uPAR including its membrane attachment by glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol, its multidomain structure and its relationship to the Ly-6/uPAR/alpha-neurotoxin protein domain family. Furthermore a mapping...

  4. In vivo distribution of Tc-99m labeled recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator in control and thrombus-bearing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Eriko

    1992-01-01

    In vivo distribution of Tc-99m labeled recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (Tc-99m-rt-PA) was studied in control rats and thrombus-bearing rats. To compare fibrin binding in vivo with that in vitro, Tc-99m-rt-PA binding to fibrin gel in vitro was also imaged. Rapid blood clearance and accumulation into the liver and kidneys were observed in both control and thrombus-bearing rats. Accumulation in the stomach, which indicates instability of labeled rt-PA in vivo, was very low until two hours after injection. Tc-99m-rt-PA accumulation in the clots was higher than that in skeletal and heart muscles, although it was lower than in blood, liver, and kidneys. Administration of aprotinin, an antifibrinolytic agent, significantly prolonged clot accumulation of Tc-99m-rt-PA at 30 minutes after injection. These results suggest that fibrinolysis is responsible for the low rt-PA concentration in the clots. A scintigram of a thrombus-bearing rat demonstrated increased radioactivity at the clot forming site. On the other hand, Tc-99m-labeled human albumin, which was used as a control, was not accumulated in the clot. Tc-99m-rt-PA binding to fibrin gel in vitro was clearly imaged. By comparison, in vivo fibrin binding of Tc-99m-rt-PA was much lower than in vitro. The reasons for low thrombus uptake in vivo may be: (1) biochemical inactivation of extrinsically administered rt-PA by t-PA inhibitor; (2) fibrinolysis by rt-PA activated plasminogen. Overcoming these limitations will enable Tc-99m-rt-PA to reach the stage of clinical trials. (author)

  5. Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Induces Neurological Side Effects Independent on Thrombolysis in Mechanical Animal Models of Focal Cerebral Infarction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Xue Dong

    Full Text Available Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA is the only effective drug approved by US FDA to treat ischemic stroke, and it contains pleiotropic effects besides thrombolysis. We performed a meta-analysis to clarify effect of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA on cerebral infarction besides its thrombolysis property in mechanical animal stroke.Relevant studies were identified by two reviewers after searching online databases, including Pubmed, Embase, and ScienceDirect, from 1979 to 2016. We identified 6, 65, 17, 12, 16, 12 and 13 comparisons reporting effect of endogenous tPA on infarction volume and effects of rtPA on infarction volume, blood-brain barrier, brain edema, intracerebral hemorrhage, neurological function and mortality rate in all 47 included studies. Standardized mean differences for continuous measures and risk ratio for dichotomous measures were calculated to assess the effects of endogenous tPA and rtPA on cerebral infarction in animals. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable score. Subgroup analysis, meta-regression and sensitivity analysis were performed to explore sources of heterogeneity. Funnel plot, Trim and Fill method and Egger's test were obtained to detect publication bias.We found that both endogenous tPA and rtPA had not enlarged infarction volume, or deteriorated neurological function. However, rtPA would disrupt blood-brain barrier, aggravate brain edema, induce intracerebral hemorrhage and increase mortality rate.This meta-analysis reveals rtPA can lead to neurological side effects besides thrombolysis in mechanical animal stroke, which may account for clinical exacerbation for stroke patients that do not achieve vascular recanalization with rtPA.

  6. Activated protein C analog protects from ischemic stroke and extends the therapeutic window of tissue-type plasminogen activator in aged female mice and hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaoming; Zhao, Zhen; Chow, Nienwen; Rajput, Padmesh S; Griffin, John H; Lyden, Patrick D; Zlokovic, Berislav V

    2013-12-01

    3K3A-activated protein C (APC) protects young, healthy male rodents after ischemic stroke. 3K3A-APC is currently under development as a neuroprotectant for acute ischemic stroke in humans. Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable recommends that after initial studies in young, healthy male animals, further studies should be performed in females, aged animals, and animals with comorbid conditions. Here, we studied the effects of delayed 3KA-APC therapy alone and with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in aged female mice and spontaneously hypertensive rats. We used Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable recommendations for ensuring good scientific inquiry. Murine recombinant 3K3A-APC (0.2 mg/kg) alone or with recombinant tPA (10 mg/kg) was given intravenously 4 hours after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in aged female mice and rats and after embolic stroke in spontaneously hypertensive rat. 3K3A-APC was additionally administered within 3 to 7 days after stroke. The neuropathological analysis and neurological scores, foot-fault, forelimb asymmetry, and adhesive removal tests were performed within 7 and 28 days of stroke. In all models, tPA alone had no effects on the infarct volume or behavior. 3K3A-APC alone or with tPA reduced the infarct volume 7 days after the middle cerebral artery occlusion in aged female mice and embolic stroke in spontaneously hypertensive rat by 62% to 66% and 50% to 53%, respectively, significantly improved (Pmice, 3K3A-APC was protective within 4 weeks of stroke. 3K3A-APC protects from ischemic stroke and extends the therapeutic window of tPA in aged female mice and in spontaneously hypertensive rat with a comorbid condition.

  7. Amphoteric surface active agents

    OpenAIRE

    Eissa, A.M. F.

    1995-01-01

    2-[trimethyl ammonium, triethyl ammonium, pyridinium and 2-amino pyridinium] alkanoates, four series of surface active agents containing carbon chain C12, C14, C16 and C18carbon atoms, were prepared. Their structures were characterized by microanalysis, infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Surface and interfacial tension, Krafft point, wetting time, emulsification power, foaming height a...

  8. Development of a plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) assay and comparison of plasma PAI-1 activity in hyperlipidemic/dyslipidemic dogs with either hyperadrenocorticism or diabetes mellitus, and healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Cheryl J; Koch, Michael; Behling-Kelly, Erica L

    2017-04-01

    Thrombosis is a serious complication of many canine diseases and may be related to decreased fibrinolytic potential. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the key regulator of fibrinolysis with increased levels demonstrated in states of pro-thrombosis and abnormal lipid metabolism. Our objective was to develop and validate a canine PAI-1 activity assay and test whether dogs with hyperadrenocorticism or diabetes mellitus that are hyperlipidemic/dyslipidemic have increased plasma PAI-1 activity. Functionally active PAI-1 in the plasma sample was incubated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), allowing the formation of a 1:1 stoichiometric inactive complex. Residual unbound tPA was then reacted with excess plasminogen in the presence of a colorimetric plasmin substrate. Plasmin production is quantified by computing the area under the curve of time (x) vs optical density (y) plot and converted to tPA IU/mL by comparison to a calibration curve of tPA standards. PAI-1 activity was determined by calculating the proportion of exogeneous tPA suppressed by PAI-1 in plasma. Assay verification included assessment of linearity, specificity, precision, sensitivity, and stability. PAI-1 activity was increased in hyperlipidemic compared to healthy dogs, but there was no significant difference between dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and diabetes mellitus. A near significant decrease in activity was detected in thawed plasma stored for 20h at 4°C. Our successfully validated assay offers a new tool for investigating fibrinolysis in dogs. Investigation of PAI-1 activity in dogs with other diseases associated with an increased risk of thrombosis would be valuable. Future studies of PAI-1 activity should consider its lability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nicotine stimulates urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor expression and cell invasiveness through mitogen-activated protein kinase and reactive oxygen species signaling in ECV304 endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoi, Pham Ngoc; Park, Jung Sun; Kim, Nam Ho; Jung, Young Do

    2012-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression is elevated during inflammation, tissue remodeling and in many human cancers. This study investigated the effect of nicotine, a major alkaloid in tobacco, on uPAR expression and cell invasiveness in ECV304 endothelial cells. Nicotine stimulated uPAR expression in a dose-dependent manner and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1/2 (Erk-1/2), c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). Specific inhibitors of MEK-1 (PD98059) and JNK (SP600125) inhibited the nicotine-induced uPAR expression, while the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 did not. Expression vectors encoding dominant negative MEK-1 (pMCL-K97M) and JNK (TAM67) also prevented nicotine-induced uPAR promoter activity. The intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) content was increased by nicotine treatment. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine prevented nicotine-activated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and uPAR expression. Furthermore, exogenous H 2 O 2 increased uPAR mRNA expression. Deleted and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated the involvement of the binding sites of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and activator protein (AP)-1 in the nicotine-induced uPAR expression. Studies with expression vectors encoding mutated NF-κB signaling molecules and AP-1 decoy confirmed that NF-κB and AP-1 were essential for the nicotine-stimulated uPAR expression. MAPK (Erk-1/2 and JNK) and ROS functioned as upstream signaling molecules in the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB, respectively. In addition, ECV304 endothelial cells treated with nicotine displayed markedly enhanced invasiveness, which was partially abrogated by uPAR neutralizing antibodies. The data indicate that nicotine induces uPAR expression via the MAPK/AP-1 and ROS/NF-κB signaling pathways and, in turn, stimulates invasiveness in human ECV304 endothelial cells. -- Highlights: ► Endothelial cells treated with nicotine

  10. Nicotine stimulates urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor expression and cell invasiveness through mitogen-activated protein kinase and reactive oxygen species signaling in ECV304 endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoi, Pham Ngoc; Park, Jung Sun; Kim, Nam Ho; Jung, Young Do, E-mail: ydjung@chonnam.ac.kr

    2012-03-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression is elevated during inflammation, tissue remodeling and in many human cancers. This study investigated the effect of nicotine, a major alkaloid in tobacco, on uPAR expression and cell invasiveness in ECV304 endothelial cells. Nicotine stimulated uPAR expression in a dose-dependent manner and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1/2 (Erk-1/2), c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). Specific inhibitors of MEK-1 (PD98059) and JNK (SP600125) inhibited the nicotine-induced uPAR expression, while the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 did not. Expression vectors encoding dominant negative MEK-1 (pMCL-K97M) and JNK (TAM67) also prevented nicotine-induced uPAR promoter activity. The intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) content was increased by nicotine treatment. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine prevented nicotine-activated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and uPAR expression. Furthermore, exogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} increased uPAR mRNA expression. Deleted and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated the involvement of the binding sites of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and activator protein (AP)-1 in the nicotine-induced uPAR expression. Studies with expression vectors encoding mutated NF-κB signaling molecules and AP-1 decoy confirmed that NF-κB and AP-1 were essential for the nicotine-stimulated uPAR expression. MAPK (Erk-1/2 and JNK) and ROS functioned as upstream signaling molecules in the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB, respectively. In addition, ECV304 endothelial cells treated with nicotine displayed markedly enhanced invasiveness, which was partially abrogated by uPAR neutralizing antibodies. The data indicate that nicotine induces uPAR expression via the MAPK/AP-1 and ROS/NF-κB signaling pathways and, in turn, stimulates invasiveness in human ECV304 endothelial cells. -- Highlights: ► Endothelial cells

  11. Staurosporine induces ganglion cell differentiation in part by stimulating urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression and activation in the developing chick retina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeoun-Hee [Department of Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yongmin [Department of Molecular Medicine, Kyungpook National University College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 200 Dongduk-Ro Jung-Gu, Daegu 700-714 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae-Chang, E-mail: jcjung@knu.ac.kr [Department of Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Staurosporine mediates stimulation of RGC differentiation in vitro cultured retinal neuroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Staurosporine mediates uPA activation during RGC differentiation in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of uPA blocks the staurosporine mediated RGC differentiation both in vitro and in ovo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thus, uPA may play a role in the staurosporine-mediated stimulation of RGC differentiation. -- Abstract: Here, we investigated whether staurosporine-mediated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) activation is involved in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) differentiation. Retinal cells were isolated from developing chick retinas at embryonic day 6 (E6). Relatively few control cells grown in serum-free medium started to form processes by 12 h. In contrast, staurosporine-treated cells had processes within 3 h, and processes were evident at 8 h. Immunofluorescence staining showed that Tuj-1-positive cells with shorter neurites could be detected in control cultures at 18 h, whereas numerous Tuj-1 positive ganglion cells with longer neuritic extensions were seen in staurosporine-treated cultures. BrdU-positive proliferating cells were more numerous in control cultures than in staurosporine-treated cultures, and the BrdU staining was not detected in post-mitotic Tuj-1 positive ganglion cells. Western blotting of cell lysates showed that staurosporine induced high levels of the active form of uPA. The staurosporine-induced uPA signal was localized predominantly in the soma, neurites and axons of Tuj-1-positive ganglion cells. Amiloride, an inhibitor of uPA, markedly reduced staurosporine-induced Tuj-1 staining, neurite length, neurite number, and uPA staining versus controls. In developing retinas in ovo, amiloride administration remarkably reduced the staurosporine-induced uPA staining and RGC differentiation. Taken together, our in vitro and in vivo data collectively indicate that

  12. Plasminogen: A cellular protein cofactor for PrPSc propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Charles E; Ryou, Chongsuk

    2011-01-01

    The biochemical essence of prion replication is the molecular multiplication of the disease-associated misfolded isoform of prion protein (PrP), termed PrPSc, in a nucleic acid-free manner. PrP(Sc) is generated by the protein misfolding process facilitated by conformational conversion of the host-encoded cellular PrP to PrP(Sc). Evidence suggests that an auxiliary factor may play a role in PrP(Sc) propagation. We and others previously discovered that plasminogen interacts with PrP, while its functional role for PrPSc propagation remained undetermined. In our recent in vitro PrP conversion study, we showed that plasminogen substantially stimulates PrP(Sc) propagation in a concentration-dependent manner by accelerating the rate of PrP(Sc) generation, while depletion of plasminogen, destabilization of its structure, and interference with the PrP-plasminogen interaction hinder PrP(Sc) propagation. Further investigation in cell culture models confirmed an increase of PrP(Sc) formation by plasminogen. Although molecular basis of the observed activity for plasminogen remain to be addressed, our results demonstrate that plasminogen is the first cellular protein auxiliary factor proven to stimulate PrP(Sc) propagation.

  13. Amphoteric surface active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A.M. F.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available 2-[trimethyl ammonium, triethyl ammonium, pyridinium and 2-amino pyridinium] alkanoates, four series of surface active agents containing carbon chain C12, C14, C16 and C18carbon atoms, were prepared. Their structures were characterized by microanalysis, infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Surface and interfacial tension, Krafft point, wetting time, emulsification power, foaming height and critical micelle concentration (cmc were determined and a comparative study was made between their chemical structure and surface active properties. Antimicrobial activity of these surfactants was also determined.

    Se prepararon cuatro series de agentes tensioactivos del tipo 2-[trimetil amonio, trietil amonio, piridinio y 2-amino piridinio] alcanoatos, que contienen cadenas carbonadas con C12, C14, C16 y C18 átomos de carbono.
    Se determinaron la tensión superficial e interfacial, el punto de Krafft, el tiempo humectante, el poder de emulsionamiento, la altura espumante y la concentración critica de miscela (cmc y se hizo un estudio comparativo entre la estructura química y sus propiedades tensioactivas. Se determinó también la actividad antimicrobiana de estos tensioactivos. Estas estructuras se caracterizaron por microanálisis, infrarrojo (IR y resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN.

  14. The ligand-binding domain of the cell surface receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Ploug, M; Patthy, L

    1991-01-01

    with the internal repeats of u-PAR constitute the extracellular part of Ly-6 antigens and of the squid glycoprotein Sgp-2. Like u-PAR, these proteins are attached to the membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor. The hydrophilic, ligand-binding u-PAR domain identified in the present study has potential...

  15. Association of serial biochemical markers with acute ischemic stroke: the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Stroke Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Edward C; Lindsell, Christopher; Broderick, Joseph; Fagan, Susan C; Tilley, Barbara C; Levine, Steven R

    2006-10-01

    Biochemical markers of acute neuronal injury may aid in the diagnosis and management of acute ischemic stroke. Serum samples from the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Stroke Study were analyzed for the presence of 4 biochemical markers of neuronal, glial, and endothelial cell injury. These biochemical markers, myelin basic protein (MBP), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S100beta, and soluble thrombomodulin, were studied for an association with initial stroke severity, infarct volume, and functional outcome. In the original NINDS study, serum samples were drawn from all patients on presentation to the Emergency Department and at approximately 2 and 24 hours after initiation of study therapy. In this analysis, stored serum samples were available for 359 patients; 107 patients had samples for all 3 time points. Serum marker concentrations were measured by ELISA techniques. We examined the relation between serum concentrations of each marker and the degree of baseline neurological deficit, functional outcome, and infarct size on computed tomography at 24 hours and the effect of fibrinolytic therapy. Higher 24-hour peak concentrations of MBP, NSE, and S100beta were associated with higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale baseline scores (r=0.186, P<0.0001; r=0.117, P=0.032; and r=0.263, P<0.0001, respectively). Higher peak concentrations of MBP and S100beta (r=0.209, P<0.0001; r=0.239, P<0.0001) were associated with larger computed tomography lesion volumes. Patients with favorable outcomes had smaller changes in MBP and S100beta (P<0.05) concentrations in the first 24 hours. Soluble thrombomodulin was not associated with any severity or outcome measure. This study corroborates previous work demonstrating correlations of MBP, NSE, and S100beta with clinical and radiographic features in acute stroke. Despite significantly better outcomes in the tissue plasminogen activator-treated group, we

  16. Evaluation of Serum Fibrinogen, Plasminogen, α2-Anti-Plasmin, and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Levels (PAI and Their Correlation with Presence of Retinopathy in Patients with Type 1 DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefika Burcak Polat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the leading cause of blindness in the world. Retinopathy can still progress despite optimal metabolic control. The aim of the study was to determine whether different degrees of DR (proliferative or nonproliferative were associated with abnormally modulated hemostatic parameters in patients with T1DM. Method. 52 T1DM patients and 40 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Patients were subdivided into three categories. Group I was defined as those without retinopathy, group II with NPRP, and group III with PRP. We compared these subgroups with each other and the control group (Group IV according to the serum fibrinogen, plasminogen, alpha2-anti-plasmin (α2-anti-plasmin, and PAI. Results. We detected that PAI-1, serum fibrinogen, and plasminogen levels were similar between the diabetic and control groups (P=0.209, P=0.224, and P=0.244, resp., whereas α2-anti-plasmin was higher in Groups I, II, and III compared to the control group (P<0.01, P<0.05, and P<0.001, resp.. There was a positive correlation between serum α2-anti-plasmin and HbA1c levels (r=0,268, P=0.031. Conclusion. To our knowledge there is scarce data in the literature about α2-anti-plasmin levels in type 1 diabetes. A positive correlation between α2-anti-plasmin with HbA1c suggests that fibrinolytic markers may improve with disease regulation and better glycemic control.

  17. Dissecting the effect of RNA aptamer binding on the dynamics of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 using hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trelle, Morten B; Dupont, Daniel M; Madsen, Jeppe B; Andreasen, Peter A; Jørgensen, Thomas J D

    2014-01-17

    RNA aptamers, selected from large synthetic libraries, are attracting increasing interest as protein ligands, with potential uses as prototype pharmaceuticals, conformational probes, and reagents for specific quantification of protein levels in biological samples. Very little is known, however, about their effects on protein conformation and dynamics. We have employed hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry to study the effect of RNA aptamers on the structural flexibility of the serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). The aptamers have characteristic effects on the biochemical properties of PAI-1. In particular, they are potent inhibitors of the structural transition of PAI-1 from the active state to the inactive, so-called latent state. This transition is one of the largest conformational changes of a folded protein domain without covalent modification. Binding of the aptamers to PAI-1 is associated with substantial and widespread protection against deuterium uptake in PAI-1. The aptamers induce protection against exchange with the solvent both in the protein-aptamer interface as well as in other specific areas. Interestingly, the aptamers induce substantial protection against exchange in α-helices B, C and I. This observation substantiates the relevance of structural instability in this region for transition to the latent state and argues for involvement of flexibility in regions not commonly associated with regulation of latency transition in serpins.

  18. Genome-wide association study for circulating tissue plasminogen activator levels and functional follow-up implicates endothelial STXBP5 and STX2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Huffman, Jennifer E; Yamakuchi, Munekazu; Yamkauchi, Munekazu; Trompet, Stella; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Chen, Wei-Min; Smith, Nicholas L; Kleber, Marcus E; Shin, So-Youn; Becker, Diane M; Tang, Weihong; Dehghan, Abbas; Johnson, Andrew D; Truong, Vinh; Folkersen, Lasse; Yang, Qiong; Oudot-Mellkah, Tiphaine; Buckley, Brendan M; Moore, Jason H; Williams, Frances M K; Campbell, Harry; Silbernagel, Günther; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Navis, Gerjan J; Destefano, Anita; Wright, Alan F; Chen, Ming-Huei; de Craen, Anton J M; Worrall, Bradford B; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Rumley, Ann; Bookman, Ebony B; Psaty, Bruce M; Chen, Fang; Keene, Keith L; Franco, Oscar H; Böhm, Bernhard O; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Carter, Angela M; Jukema, J Wouter; Sattar, Naveed; Bis, Joshua C; Ikram, Mohammad A; Sale, Michèle M; McKnight, Barbara; Fornage, Myriam; Ford, Ian; Taylor, Kent; Slagboom, P Eline; McArdle, Wendy L; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Goodall, Alison H; Yanek, Lisa R; Furie, Karen L; Cushman, Mary; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Folsom, Aaron R; Basu, Saonli; Matijevic, Nena; van Gilst, Wiek H; Wilson, James F; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Kathiresan, Sekar; Reilly, Muredach P; Tracy, Russell P; Polasek, Ozren; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Grant, Peter J; Hillege, Hans L; Cambien, Francois; Stott, David J; Lowe, Gordon D; Spector, Timothy D; Meigs, James B; Marz, Winfried; Eriksson, Per; Becker, Lewis C; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Soranzo, Nicole; Williams, Scott M; Hayward, Caroline; van der Harst, Pim; Hamsten, Anders; Lowenstein, Charles J; Strachan, David P; O'Donnell, Christopher J

    2014-05-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a serine protease, catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, the major enzyme responsible for endogenous fibrinolysis. In some populations, elevated plasma levels of tPA have been associated with myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular diseases. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies to identify novel correlates of circulating levels of tPA. Fourteen cohort studies with tPA measures (N=26 929) contributed to the meta-analysis. Three loci were significantly associated with circulating tPA levels (P<5.0×10(-8)). The first locus is on 6q24.3, with the lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs9399599; P=2.9×10(-14)) within STXBP5. The second locus is on 8p11.21. The lead SNP (rs3136739; P=1.3×10(-9)) is intronic to POLB and <200 kb away from the tPA encoding the gene PLAT. We identified a nonsynonymous SNP (rs2020921) in modest linkage disequilibrium with rs3136739 (r(2)=0.50) within exon 5 of PLAT (P=2.0×10(-8)). The third locus is on 12q24.33, with the lead SNP (rs7301826; P=1.0×10(-9)) within intron 7 of STX2. We further found evidence for the association of lead SNPs in STXBP5 and STX2 with expression levels of the respective transcripts. In in vitro cell studies, silencing STXBP5 decreased the release of tPA from vascular endothelial cells, whereas silencing STX2 increased the tPA release. Through an in silico lookup, we found no associations of the 3 lead SNPs with coronary artery disease or stroke. We identified 3 loci associated with circulating tPA levels, the PLAT region, STXBP5, and STX2. Our functional studies implicate a novel role for STXBP5 and STX2 in regulating tPA release.

  19. Genome-Wide Association Study for Circulating Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) Levels and Functional Follow-up Implicates Endothelial STXBP5 and STX2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Yamkauchi, Munekazu; Trompet, Stella; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Chen, Wei-Min; Smith, Nicholas L.; Kleber, Marcus E.; Shin, So-Youn; Becker, Diane M.; Tang, Weihong; Dehghan, Abbas; Johnson, Andrew D.; Truong, Vinh; Folkersen, Lasse; Yang, Qiong; Oudot-Mellakh, Tiphaine; Buckley, Brendan M.; Moore, Jason H.; Williams, Frances M.K.; Campbell, Harry; Silbernagel, Günther; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Tofler, Geoffrey H.; Navis, Gerjan J.; DeStefano, Anita; Wright, Alan F.; Chen, Ming-Huei; de Craen, Anton J.M.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Rumley, Ann; Bookman, Ebony B.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Chen, Fang; Keene, Keith L.; Franco, Oscar H.; Böhm, Bernhard O.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Carter, Angela M.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Sattar, Naveed; Bis, Joshua C.; Ikram, Mohammad A.; Sale, Michèle M.; McKnight, Barbara; Fornage, Myriam; Ford, Ian; Taylor, Kent; Slagboom, P. Eline; McArdle, Wendy L.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Goodall, Alison H.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Furie, Karen L.; Cushman, Mary; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline CM.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Basu, Saonli; Matijevic, Nena; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Wilson, James F.; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Reilly, Muredach P.; Tracy, Russell P.; Polasek, Ozren; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Grant, Peter J.; Hillege, Hans L.; Cambien, Francois; Stott, David J.; Lowe, Gordon D.; Spector, Timothy D.; Meigs, James B.; Marz, Winfried; Eriksson, Per; Becker, Lewis C.; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Soranzo, Nicole; Williams, Scott M.; Hayward, Caroline; van der Harst, Pim; Hamsten, Anders; Lowenstein, Charles J.; Strachan, David P.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a serine protease, catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, the major enzyme responsible for endogenous fibrinolysis. In some populations, elevated plasma levels of tPA have been associated with myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify novel correlates of circulating levels of tPA. Approach and Results Fourteen cohort studies with tPA measures (N=26,929) contributed to the meta-analysis. Three loci were significantly associated with circulating tPA levels (P <5.0×10−8). The first locus is on 6q24.3, with the lead SNP (rs9399599, P=2.9×10−14) within STXBP5. The second locus is on 8p11.21. The lead SNP (rs3136739, P=1.3×10−9) is intronic to POLB and less than 200kb away from the tPA encoding gene PLAT. We identified a non-synonymous SNP (rs2020921) in modest LD with rs3136739 (r2 = 0.50) within exon 5 of PLAT (P=2.0×10−8). The third locus is on 12q24.33, with the lead SNP (rs7301826, P=1.0×10−9) within intron 7 of STX2. We further found evidence for association of lead SNPs in STXBP5 and STX2 with expression levels of the respective transcripts. In in vitro cell studies, silencing STXBP5 decreased release of tPA from vascular endothelial cells, while silencing of STX2 increased tPA release. Through an in-silico lookup, we found no associations of the three lead SNPs with coronary artery disease or stroke. Conclusions We identified three loci associated with circulating tPA levels, the PLAT region, STXBP5 and STX2. Our functional studies implicate a novel role for STXBP5 and STX2 in regulating tPA release. PMID:24578379

  20. The Association of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 (PAI-1) Level and PAI-1 4G/5G Gene Polymorphism with the Formation and the Grade of Endometrial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Malik Ejder; Karakuş, Savas; Kurtulgan, Hande Küçük; Kılıçgün, Hasan; Erşan, Serpil; Bakır, Sevtap

    2017-08-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is a serine protease inhibitor (Serpine 1), and it inhibits both tissue plasminogen activator and urokinase plasminogen activator which are important in fibrinolysis. We aimed to find whether there is a possible association between PAI-1 level, PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism, and endometrial cancer. PAI-1 levels in peripheral blood were determined in 82 patients with endometrial carcinoma and 76 female healthy controls using an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Then, the genomic DNA was extracted and screened by reverse hybridization procedure (Strip assay) to detect PAI 1 4G/5G polymorphism. The levels of PAI-1 in the patients were higher statistically in comparison to controls (P 5G polymorphism was quite different between patients and controls (P = 0.008), and 4G allelic frequency was significantly higher in the patients of endometrial cancer than in controls (P = 0.026). We found significant difference between Grade 1 and Grade 2+3 patients in terms of the PAI-1 levels (P = 0.047). There was no association between PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and the grades of endometrial cancer (P = 0.993). Our data suggest that the level of PAI-1 and PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism are effective in the formation of endometrial cancer. PAI-1 levels are also associated with the grades of endometrial cancer.

  1. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) stimulates triglyceride synthesis in Huh7 hepatoma cells via p38-dependent upregulation of DGAT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paland, Nicole; Gamliel-Lazarovich, Aviva; Coleman, Raymond; Fuhrman, Bianca

    2014-11-01

    The liver is the central organ of fatty acid and triglyceride metabolism. Oxidation and synthesis of fatty acids and triglycerides is under the control of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) α. Impairment of these receptors' function contributes to the accumulation of triglycerides in the liver resulting in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) was shown to regulate gene expression in the liver involving PPARγ transcriptional activity. In this study we questioned whether uPA modulates triglyceride metabolism in the liver, and investigated the mechanisms involved in the observed processes. Huh7 hepatoma cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of uPA for 24 h uPA dose-dependently increased the cellular triglyceride mass, and this effect resulted from increased de novo triglyceride synthesis mediated by the enzyme diglyceride acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2). Also, the amount of free fatty acids was highly up regulated by uPA through activation of the transcription factor SREBP-1. Chemical activation of PPARα further increased uPA-stimulated triglyceride synthesis, whereas inhibition of p38, an upstream activator of PPARα, completely abolished the stimulatory effect of uPA on both triglyceride synthesis and DGAT2 upregulation. The effect of uPA on triglyceride synthesis in Huh7 cells was mediated via binding to its receptor, the uPAR. In vivo studies in uPAR(-/-) mice demonstrated that no lipid droplets were observed in their livers compared to C57BL/6 mice and the triglyceride levels were significantly lower. This study presents a new biological function of the uPA/uPAR system in the metabolism of triglycerides and might present a new target for an early therapeutic intervention for NAFLD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASE 1, MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 9, ALPHA-1 ANTITRYPSIN, METALLOTHIONEIN AND UROKINASE TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR RECEPTOR IN SKIN BIOPSIES FROM PATIENTS AFFECTED BY AUTOIMMUNE BLISTERING DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors have been described to play a role in autoimmune skin blistering diseases. We studied skin lesional biopsies from patients affected by several autoimmune skin blistering diseases for proteinases and proteinase inhibitors. Methods: We utilized immunohistochemistry to evaluate biopsies for alpha-1-antitrypsin, human matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9, human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1, metallothionein and urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR. We tested 30 patients affected by endemic pemphigus, 30 controls from the endemic area, and 15 normal controls. We also tested 30 biopsies from patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus, and 14 with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH. Results: Contrary to findings in the current literature, most autoimmune skin blistering disease biopsies were negative for uPAR and MMP9. Only some chronic patients with El Bagre-EPF were positive to MMP9 in the dermis, in proximity to telocytes. TIMP-1 and metallothionein were positive in half of the biopsies from BP patients at the basement membrane of the skin, within several skin appendices, in areas of dermal blood vessel inflammation and within dermal mesenchymal-epithelial cell junctions.

  3. Is the Susceptibility Vessel Sign on 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance T2*-Weighted Imaging a Useful Tool to Predict Recanalization in Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, N; Satomi, J; Harada, M; Izumi, Y; Nagahiro, S; Kaji, R

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the independent factors associated with the absence of recanalization approximately 24 h after intravenous administration of tissue-type plasminogen activator (IV TPA). The previous studies have been conducted using 1.5-Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We studied whether the characteristics of 3-T MRI findings were useful to predict outcome and recanalization after IV tPA. Patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) or middle cerebral artery (MCA) (horizontal portion, M1; Sylvian portion, M2) occlusion and treated by IV tPA were enrolled. We studied whether the presence of susceptibility vessel sign (SVS) at M1 and low clot burden score on T2*-weighted imaging (T2*-CBS) on 3-T MRI were associated with the absence of recanalization. A total of 49 patients were enrolled (27 men; mean age, 73.9 years). MR angiography obtained approximately 24 h after IV tPA revealed recanalization in 21 (42.9 %) patients. Independent factors associated with the absence of recanalization included ICA or proximal M1 occlusion (odds ratio, 69.6; 95 % confidence interval, 5.05-958.8, p = 0.002). In this study, an independent factor associated with the absence of recanalization may be proximal occlusion of the cerebral arteries rather than SVS in the MCA or low T2*-CBS on 3-T MRI.

  4. Xenon-helium gas mixture at equimolar concentration of 37.5% protects against oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced injury and inhibits tissue plasminogen activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Hélène N; Haelewyn, Benoit; Blatteau, Jean-Éric; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Vallée, Nicolas; Abraini, Jacques H

    2017-01-01

    Xenon (Xe) is considered to be the golden standard neuroprotective gas. However, Xe has a higher molecular weight and lower thermal conductivity and specific heat than those of nitrogen, the main diluent of oxygen in air. These physical characteristics could impair or at least reduce the intrinsic neuroprotective action of Xe by increasing the patient's respiratory workload and body temperature. In contrast, helium (He) is a cost-efficient gas with a lower molecular weight and higher thermal conductivity and specific heat than those of nitrogen, but is far less potent than Xe. In this study, we hypothesized that mixing Xe and He could allow obtaining a neuroprotective gas mixture with advantageously reduced molecular weight and increased thermal conductivity. We found that Xe and He at the equimolar concentration of 37.5% reduced oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced increase in lactate dehydrogenase in brain slices, an ex vivo model of acute ischemic stroke. These results together with the effects of Xe-He on the thrombolytic efficiency of tissue plasminogen activator are discussed.

  5. Xenon-helium gas mixture at equimolar concentration of 37.5% protects against oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced injury and inhibits tissue plasminogen activator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène N David

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Xenon (Xe is considered to be the golden standard neuroprotective gas. However, Xe has a higher molecular weight and lower thermal conductivity and specific heat than those of nitrogen, the main diluent of oxygen in air. These physical characteristics could impair or at least reduce the intrinsic neuroprotective action of Xe by increasing the patient's respiratory workload and body temperature. In contrast, helium (He is a cost-efficient gas with a lower molecular weight and higher thermal conductivity and specific heat than those of nitrogen, but is far less potent than Xe. In this study, we hypothesized that mixing Xe and He could allow obtaining a neuroprotective gas mixture with advantageously reduced molecular weight and increased thermal conductivity. We found that Xe and He at the equimolar concentration of 37.5% reduced oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced increase in lactate dehydrogenase in brain slices, an ex vivo model of acute ischemic stroke. These results together with the effects of Xe-He on the thrombolytic efficiency of tissue plasminogen activator are discussed.

  6. HMG CoA reductase inhibitor suppresses the expression of tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 induced by angiotensin II in cultured rat aortic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunieda, Yasufumi; Nakagawa, Katsumi; Nishimura, Hiromi; Kato, Hisato; Ukimura, Naoki; Yano, Shingo; Kawano, Hidehiko; Kimura, Shinzo; Nakagawa, Masao; Tsuji, Hajime

    2003-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (HRIs) reduce the incidence of acute cardiovascular events in patients with hyperlipidemia. Recent reports have shown that the protective effects of these drugs against cardiovascular events are also observed in patients without hyperlipidemia, but the mechanism of this favorable effect still remains unclear. In this study, the effects of HRIs on the endothelial regulation of thrombus formation were elucidated. The mRNA and protein expression of tissue factor (TF) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) were evaluated in cultured rat aortic endothelial cells. Pretreatment with simvastatin (0.03-3 microg/ml) significantly inhibited TF and PAI-1 induction by Ang II in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These inhibitions were significantly attenuated by mevalonic acid or geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. Both Rho inhibitor, C3 exoenzyme, and Rho kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, mimicked the inhibitory effects of simvastatin against TF and PAI-1 induced by Ang II. This result suggested that the Rho/Rho kinase pathway is related to the TF and PAI-1 induction by Ang II. It was indicated that simvastatin maintains endothelial cells to be antithrombotic by inhibiting TF and PAI-1 expression via the Rho/Rho kinase pathways in which AngII induces TF and PAI-1 expression. These observations explain, at least partly, the mechanism of the favorable effects of simvastatin in reducing the thrombotic events.

  7. Reduced carriership of 4G allele of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism in very young survivors of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallidis, Loukianos S; Gialeraki, Argyri; Merkouri, Efrosyni; Liakos, George; Dagres, Nikolaos; Sionis, Dimitrios; Travlou, Anthi; Lekakis, John; Kremastinos, Dimitrios T

    2010-05-01

    There are limited and controversial data regarding the impact of 4G/5G polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene in the pathogenesis of premature myocardial infarction (MI). We explored whether 4G/5G polymorphism of the PAI-1 gene is associated with the development of MI 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 was tested with polymerase chain reaction and reverse hybridization. 4G allele carriers (4G/4G and 4G/5G genotypes) of PAI-1 were less frequent in patients than in controls (69.6 vs. 83.6%, P = 0.007). 4G carriership of the polymorphism of PAI-1 was associated with lower risk for acute MI (odds ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.88, P = 0.02) after adjusting for major cardiovascular risk factors. Patients possessing the 4G allele had higher PAI-1 plasma levels (32.2 +/- 25 vs. 22.2 +/- 11.3 ng/ml, P = 0.006) but lower lipoprotein(a) levels (10.1 [2.1-29.9] vs. 15.3 [8.2-57.1] mg/dl, P = 0.03) compared to 5G/5G homozygotes. Our data indicate that the 4G allele of the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism is less frequent among survivors of MI at very young age compared with matched controls.

  8. Association of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene 4G/5G polymorphism with ST elevation acute myocardial infarction in young patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isordia-Salas, Irma; Leaños-Miranda, Alfredo; Sainz, Irma M; Reyes-Maldonado, Elba; Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the role of the 4G/5G polymorphism in the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) aged 4G/5G polymorphism using the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and their plasma PAI-1 concentrations were measured. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. There was a significant difference in genotype distribution between the two groups (P4G allele occurred more frequently in the patient group (P=.032). In addition, there were significant independent associations between STEMI and the 4G allele (i.e., 4G/4G plus 4G/5G; odds ratio [OR]=2.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-4.68; P=.022), smoking (OR=23.23; 95% CI, 8.92-60.47; P4G allele (P4G allele is an independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction in young patients, as are smoking, hypertension and a family history of inherited cardiovascular disease.

  9. The lost correlation between heat shock protein 70 (HSPA1A) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargesi, Arash Aghajani; Shalchi, Majid; Nargesi, Reihaneh Aghajani; Sadeghpour, Niloofar; Zarifkar, Mitra; Mozaffari, Majid; Imani, Mehrnaz; Esteghamati, Alireza; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to study the relation between plasma levels of stress-induced heat shock protein 70 (HSPA1A) with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A1 (Apo-A1), and HDL-C/Apo-A1 ratio. In a matched case-control study on patients with diabetes (40 patients with albuminuria and 40 without albuminuria matched for age, sex, and body mass index), we observed that plasma levels of HSPA1A and PAI-1 are increased in patients with albuminuria (0.55 ± 0.02 vs. 0.77 ± 0.04 ng/ml, p value albuminuria (r = 0.28; p value = 0.04), but not in those with albuminuria (r = 0.07; p value = 0.63). No association was found between HSPA1A and HDL-C, between HSPA1A and Apo-A1, or between HSPA1A and HDL-C/Apo-A1 ratio. We concluded that there is a direct correlation between plasma HSPA1A and PAI-1 levels in patients with diabetes, which is lost when they develop albuminuria.

  10. A new threshold of apparent diffusion coefficient values in white matter after successful tissue plasminogen activator treatment for acute brain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Atsushi; Shimizu, Yusaku; Koyama, Junichi; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2017-06-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is effective for the treatment of acute brain ischemia, but may trigger fatal brain edema or hemorrhage if the brain ischemia results in a large infarct. Herein, we attempted to predict the extent of infarcts by determining the optimal threshold of ADC values on DWI that predictively distinguishes between infarct and reversible areas, and by reconstructing color-coded images based on this threshold. The study subjects consisted of 36 patients with acute brain ischemia in whom MRA had confirmed reopening of the occluded arteries in a short time (mean: 99min) after tPA treatment. We measured the apparetnt diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in several small regions of interest over the white matter within high-intensity areas on the initial diffusion weighted image (DWI); then, by comparing the findings to the follow-up images, we obtained the optimal threshold of ADC values using receiver-operating characteristic analysis. The threshold obtained (583×10 -6 m 2 /s) was lower than those previously reported; this threshold could distinguish between infarct and reversible areas with considerable accuracy (sensitivity: 0.87, specificity: 0.94). The threshold obtained and the reconstructed images were predictive of the final radiological result of tPA treatment, and this threshold may be helpful in determining the appropriate management of patients with acute brain ischemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. A milk protein gene promoter directs the expression of human tissue plasminogen activator cDNA to the mammary gland in transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittius, C.W.; Hennighausen, L.; Lee, E.; Westphal, H.; Nicols, E.; Vitale, J.; Gordon, K.

    1988-01-01

    Whey acidic protein (WAP) is a major whey protein in mouse milk. Its gene is expressed in the lactating mammary gland and is inducible by steroid and peptide hormones. A series of transgenic mice containing a hybrid gene in which human tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) cDNA is under the control of the murine WAP gene promoter had previously been generated. In this study, 21 tissues from lactating and virgin transgenic female mice containing the WAP-tPA hybrid gene were screened for the distribution of murine WAP and human tPA transcripts. Like the endogenous WAP RNA, WAP-tPA RNA was expressed predominantly in mammary gland tissue and appeared to be inducible by lactation. Whereas WAP transcripts were not detected in 22 tissues of virgin mice, low levels of WAP-tPA RNA, which were not modulated during lactation, were found in tongue, kidney, and sublingual gland. These studies demonstrate that the WAP gene promoter can target the expression of a transgene to the mammary gland and that this expression is inducible during lactation

  12. Interrelations between blood-brain barrier permeability and matrix metalloproteinases are differently affected by tissue plasminogen activator and hyperoxia in a rat model of embolic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In ischemic stroke, blood-brain barrier (BBB regulations, typically involving matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and inhibitors (TIMPs as mediators, became interesting since tissue plasminogen activator (tPA-related BBB breakdown with risk of secondary hemorrhage was considered to involve these mediators too. Despite high clinical relevance, detailed interactions are purely understood. After a pilot study addressing hyperoxia as potential neuroprotective co-treatment to tPA, we analyzed interrelations between BBB permeability (BBB-P, MMPs and TIMPs. Findings Rats underwent embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion (eMCAO and treatment with normobaric (NBO or hyperbaric oxygen (HBO, tPA, tPA+HBO, or no treatment. BBB-P was assessed by intravenously applied FITC-albumin at 4 or 24 hours. MMP-2/-9 and TIMP-1/-2 serum levels were determined at 5 or 25 hours. Time point-corrected partial correlations were used to explore interrelations of BBB-P in ischemic regions (extra-/intravasal FITC-albumin ratio and related serum markers. BBB-P correlated positively with MMP-2 and MMP-9 in controls, whereas hyperoxia led to an inverse association, most pronounced for HBO/MMP-9 (r = -0.606; P Conclusions HBO was found to reverse the positively directed interrelation of BBB-P and MMPs after eMCAO, but this effect failed to sustain in the expected amount when HBO and tPA were given simultaneously.

  13. Renin angiotensin system blockade reduces urinary levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Frederik; Theilade, Simone; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    treatment periods were compared to placebo. Patients (n = 22) were treated for 2-month periods with either placebo, irbesartan 300 mg once daily, aliskiren 300 mg once daily or irbesartan/aliskiren combination in random order. Placebo geometric mean plasma (SEM) levels of suPAR were 3.3 ng/mL (1.1......) and urine levels were 4.0 ng/mL (1.1). None of the treatments had significant effects on plasma levels of suPAR compared to placebo. Compared to placebo, irbesartan and combination treatment decreased urinary levels of suPAR significantly (-1.3 ng/mL), while aliskiren did not. In patients with type 2......Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is associated with faster decline in kidney function and the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. However, little is known about the impact of treatment on plasma and urinary levels of suPAR. We aimed to investigate the impact of renin...

  14. Supplementation with L-arginine favorably influences plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 concentration in obese patients. A randomized, double blind trial.

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    Bogdanski, P; Szulinska, M; Suliburska, J; Pupek-Musialik, D; Jablecka, A; Witmanowski, H

    2013-04-01

    Elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI 1) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of excess blood coagulability in obese patients. L-arginine supplementation has shown to be associated with enhanced cardiovascular and metabolic health. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of L-arginine supplementation on PAI 1 concentration and to evaluate the relation to changes in nitric oxide (NO) plasma level, insulin sensitivity (M value), and total antioxidant status (TAS) in obese patients. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted from March 2010 to June 2011. Eightyeight obese patients were randomly assigned to receive either 9 g of L-arginine or placebo daily for 6 months. At baseline and after 6 months, selected anthropometrical measurements and blood biochemical analyses were performed, and PAI 1, NO, TAS levels were assessed. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique. We found that 6-month L-arginine supplementation resulted in significant decrease of PAI 1. Significant increase of NO, TAS, and insulin sensitivity level were noticed. In a group of patients treated with L-arginine, negative correlation between a change of insulin sensitivity value and a change of PAI 1 concentration was found. The present findings demonstrate favorable influence of L-arginine supplementation on PAI 1 concentration in obese patients. Beneficial influence is related to insulin sensitivity improvement. The potential therapeutic role of L-arginine administration in patients with obesity needs further investigation.

  15. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism and coronary artery disease in the Chinese Han population: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-yan

    2012-01-01

    The polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G gene has been indicated to be correlated with coronary artery disease (CAD) susceptibility, but study results are still debatable. The present meta-analysis was performed to investigate the association between PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism and CAD in the Chinese Han population. A total of 879 CAD patients and 628 controls from eight separate studies were involved. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for the distribution of the 4G allele frequency of PAI-1 4G/5G gene and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was assessed by the random effect model. The distribution of the 4 G allele frequency was 0.61 for the CAD group and 0.51 for the control group. The association between PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism and CAD in the Chinese Han population was significant under an allelic genetic model (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.18 to 2.44, P = 0.004). The heterogeneity test was also significant (P5G gene polymorphism was implied to be associated with increased CAD risk. Carriers of the 4G allele of the PAI-1 4G/5G gene might predispose to CAD.

  16. Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor Level Is an Independent Predictor of the Presence and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease and of Future Adverse Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eapen, Danny J; Manocha, Pankaj; Ghasemzedah, Nima

    2014-01-01

    -statistic for a model based on traditional risk factors was improved from 0.72 to 0.74 (P=0.008) with the addition of suPAR. CONCLUSION: Elevated levels of plasma suPAR are associated with the presence and severity of CAD and are independent predictors of death and MI in patients with suspected or known CAD.......INTRODUCTION: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is an emerging inflammatory and immune biomarker. Whether suPAR level predicts the presence and the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), and of incident death and myocardial infarction (MI) in subjects with suspected CAD......, is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured plasma suPAR levels in 3367 subjects (67% with CAD) recruited in the Emory Cardiovascular Biobank and followed them for adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes of death and MI over a mean 2.1±1.1 years. Presence of angiographic CAD (≥50% stenosis in ≥1 coronary...

  17. Extracellular collagenases and the endocytic receptor, urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein/Endo180, cooperate in fibroblast-mediated collagen degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Daniel H; Engelholm, Lars H; Ingvarsen, Signe

    2007-01-01

    The collagens of the extracellular matrix are the most abundant structural proteins in the mammalian body. In tissue remodeling and in the invasive growth of malignant tumors, collagens constitute an important barrier, and consequently, the turnover of collagen is a rate-limiting process in these......The collagens of the extracellular matrix are the most abundant structural proteins in the mammalian body. In tissue remodeling and in the invasive growth of malignant tumors, collagens constitute an important barrier, and consequently, the turnover of collagen is a rate-limiting process...... in these events. A recently discovered turnover route with importance for tumor growth involves intracellular collagen degradation and is governed by the collagen receptor, urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein (uPARAP or Endo180). The interplay between this mechanism and extracellular...... of large collagen fragments. First, we show that collagen that has been pre-cleaved by a mammalian collagenase is taken up much more efficiently than intact, native collagen by uPARAP/Endo180-positive cells. Second, we demonstrate that this preference is governed by the acquisition of a gelatin...

  18. The association between plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) levels, PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism, and myocardial infarction: a Mendelian randomization meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios K; Bagos, Pantelis G; Tsangaris, Iraklis; Tsiara, Chrissa G; Kopterides, Petros; Vaiopoulos, Aristides; Kapsimali, Violetta; Bonovas, Stefanos; Tsantes, Argirios E

    2014-07-01

    The circulating levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) are increased in individuals carrying the 4G allele at position -675 of the PAI-1 gene. In turn, overexpression of PAI-1 has been found to affect both atheroma and thrombosis. However, the association between PAI-1 levels and the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) is complicated by the potentially confounding effects of well-known cardiovascular risk factors. The current study tried to investigate in parallel the association of PAI-1 activity with the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism, with MI, and some components of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Using meta-analytical Mendelian randomization approaches, genotype-disease and genotype-phenotype associations were modeled simultaneously. According to an additive model of inheritance and the Mendelian randomization approach, the MI-related odd ratio for individuals carrying the 4G allele was 1.088 with 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.007, 1.175. Moreover, the 4G carriers had, on average, higher PAI-1 activity than 5G carriers by 1.136 units (95% CI 0.738, 1.533). The meta-regression analyses showed that the levels of triglycerides (p=0.005), cholesterol (p=0.037) and PAI-1 (p=0.021) in controls were associated with the MI risk conferred by the 4G carriers. The Mendelian randomization meta-analysis confirmed previous knowledge that the PAI-1 4G allele slightly increases the risk for MI. In addition, it supports the notion that PAI-1 activity and established cardiovascular determinants, such as cholesterol and triglyceride levels, could lie in the etiological pathway from PAI-1 4G allele to the occurrence of MI. Further research is warranted to elucidate these interactions.

  19. Hemostatic profile changes in patients with traumatic brain injury with regard to the genotypes of -675 4G/5G polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene

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    O. O. Potapov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a significant problem in modern clinical medicine that has both medical and social importance. Analysis of hemostatic changes is a very important aspect of clinical course of TBI and should be paid special attention on it. This analysis is necessary to make prognosis for the treatment outcomes taking into account associations with genetic factors. The aim of research was to analyze hemostatic profile changes in patients with TBI with regard to the genotype of -675 4G/5G polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene (РАІ-1. Methods and materials. The research was based on the investigation results of 200 patients with isolated TBI, who were undergoing in-patient treatment at the neurosurgery department at Sumy Regional Clinical Hospital in 2011–2013, and 95 apparently healthy individuals of the control group. The following change cycling was confirmed during the study: a tendency to hypercoagulability on the 1st day transforming into a state of being incapable of coagulation on the 3rd day. On the 7 day hypercoagulability signs dominated and by the 14 day the laboratory findings had gradually become normal. Conclusions. According to the analysis of routine hemostatic profile parameters (activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin index, platelet count, plasma tolerance to heparin, activated recalcification time, euglobulin clot lysis assay, plasma fibrinogen level we concluded that there is no association between the studied parameters and the genotypes of the -675 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene in patients with TBI and controls. Our study confirms the necessity of further monitoring of fibrinolytic system, since routine laboratory tests of haemostasis are not always informative as for the fibrinolytic disorders in patients with TBI.

  20. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G genotype and residual venous occlusion following acute unprovoked deep vein thrombosis of the lower limb: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgea, Georgiana-Aura; Brunner-Ziegler, Sophie; Jilma, Bernd; Sunder-Plassmann, Raute; Koppensteiner, Renate; Gremmel, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    A recent study suggested that the plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 4G/5G genotype may play a role in the resolution of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after surgery. In the present study, we investigated the association between PAI-1 4G/5G genotype and the persistence of venous occlusion after acute idiopathic DVT of the lower limb. The PAI-1 4G/5G genotype was determined by real-Time PCR in 43 patients with unprovoked DVT of the lower limb. Residual venous occlusion was assessed by duplex sonography 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24months after the acute event. The PAI-1 Activity was determined by ELISA. Ten patients (23%) were homozygous for 4G (4G/4G), 27 patients (63%) were heterozygous 4G/5G and 6 patients (14%) were homozygous for 5G (5G/5G). Residual venous occlusion (RVO) was found in 77%, 65%, 58%, 56% and 37% of the overall study population, at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24months after acute DVT, respectively. The presence of residual venous occlusion at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24months after acute unprovoked DVT did not differ significantly between genotypes, but age was associated with RVO. Plasma levels of PAI-1 activity correlated with body mass index but was not associated with genotypes in our study. The PAI-1 4G/5G genotype was not a relevant predictor of persistent residual venous occlusion after idiopathic DVT, which however was associated with age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tissue plasminogen activator induces microglial inflammation via a noncatalytic molecular mechanism involving activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and Akt signaling pathways and AnnexinA2 and Galectin-1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, David; Ampurdanés, Coral; Medina, Manel G; Serratosa, Joan; Tusell, Josep Maria; Saura, Josep; Planas, Anna M; Navarro, Pilar

    2012-04-01

    Inflammatory responses mediated by glial cells play a critical role in many pathological situations related to neurodegeneration such as Alzheimer's disease. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease which best-known function is fibrinolysis, but it is also involved in many other physiological and pathological events as microglial activation. Here, we found that tPA is required for Aβ-mediated microglial inflammatory response and tumor necrosis factor-α release. We further investigated the molecular mechanism responsible for tPA-mediated microglial activation. We found that tPA induces a catalytic-independent rapid and sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Akt, and p38 signaling pathways. Inhibition of ERK1/2 and JNK resulted in a strong inhibition of microglial activation, whereas Akt inhibition led to increased inflammatory response, suggesting specific functions for each signaling pathway in the regulation of microglial activation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that AnnexinA2 and Galectin-1 receptors are involved in tPA signaling and inflammatory response in glial cells. This study provides new evidences supporting that tPA plays a cytokine-like role in glial activation by triggering receptor-mediated intracellular signaling circuits and opens new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of neurological disorders in which neuroinflammation plays a pathogenic role. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry reveals specific changes in the local flexibility of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 upon binding to the somatomedin B domain of vitronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trelle, Morten Beck; Hirschberg, Daniel; Jansson, Anna; Ploug, Michael; Roepstorff, Peter; Andreasen, Peter A; Jørgensen, Thomas J D

    2012-10-16

    The native fold of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) represents an active metastable conformation that spontaneously converts to an inactive latent form. Binding of the somatomedin B domain (SMB) of the endogenous cofactor vitronectin to PAI-1 delays the transition to the latent state and increases the thermal stability of the protein dramatically. We have used hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry to assess the inherent structural flexibility of PAI-1 and to monitor the changes induced by SMB binding. Our data show that the PAI-1 core consisting of β-sheet B is rather protected against exchange with the solvent, while the remainder of the molecule is more dynamic. SMB binding causes a pronounced and widespread stabilization of PAI-1 that is not confined to the binding interface with SMB. We further explored the local structural flexibility in a mutationally stabilized PAI-1 variant (14-1B) as well as the effect of stabilizing antibody Mab-1 on wild-type PAI-1. The three modes of stabilizing PAI-1 (SMB, Mab-1, and the mutations in 14-1B) all cause a delayed latency transition, and this effect was accompanied by unique signatures on the flexibility of PAI-1. Reduced flexibility in the region around helices B, C, and I was seen in all three cases, which suggests an involvement of this region in mediating structural flexibility necessary for the latency transition. These data therefore add considerable depth to our current understanding of the local structural flexibility in PAI-1 and provide novel indications of regions that may affect the functional stability of PAI-1.

  3. Early administration of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate extends the therapeutic time window of tissue plasminogen activator in a male rat model of embolic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongxing; Shan, Weiran; Cao, Jiangbei; Wintermark, Max; Huang, Wenqi; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2018-03-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is used in fewer than 4% of patients after ischemic stroke because of its narrow therapeutic time window. We tested whether pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a drug with multiple mechanisms to provide neuroprotection, can be used to extend the therapeutic time window of tPA. Three-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to embolic stroke in the area supplied by the right middle cerebral artery. tPA at 10 mg/kg was given intravenously 4 h after the onset of stroke. PDTC at 50 mg/kg was given via gastric gavage at 30 min or 4 h after the onset of stroke. Two days after the stroke, neurological outcome was evaluated and the right frontal cortex area 1 (Fr1), an ischemic penumbral region, was harvested for analysis. PDTC given at 30 min after the stroke reduced infarct volumes and improved neurological functions no matter whether the rats received tPA. PDTC also reduced tPA-increased hemorrhagic volumes. Consistent with these results, PDTC in the presence or absence of tPA treatment attenuated the increase of proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and matrix metalloprotease 2 activity in the right Fr1. However, PDTC given at 4 h after the onset of stroke did not improve the neurological outcome of rats treated with or without tPA. Our results suggest that PDTC given at an early time point but not in a delayed phase provides neuroprotection against embolic stroke and may be used to extend the therapeutic time window of tPA. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. An Anti-Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor Antibody (ATN-658 Blocks Prostate Cancer Invasion, Migration, Growth, and Experimental Skeletal Metastasis In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafaat A. Rabbani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR is a multidomain protein that plays important roles in the growth, invasion, and metastasis of a number of cancers. In the present study, we examined the effects of administration of a monoclonal anti-uPAR antibody (ATN-658 on prostate cancer progression in vitro and in vivo. We examined the effect of treatment of ATN-658 on human prostate cancer cell invasion, migration, proliferation, and regulation of intracellular signaling pathways. For in vivo studies, PC-3 cells (1 x 106 were inoculated into the right flank of male Balb C nu/nu mice through subcutaneous or through intratibial route (2 x 105 of male Fox Chase severe combined immunodeficient mice to monitor the effect on tumor growth and skeletal metastasis. Treatment with ATN-658 resulted in a significant dose-dependent decrease in PC-3 cell invasion and migration without affecting cell doubling time. Western blot analysis showed that ATN-658 treatment decreased the phosphorylation of serine/threonine protein kinase B (AKT, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK without affecting AKT, MAPK, and FAK total protein expression. In in vivo studies, ATN-658 caused a significant decrease in tumor volume and a marked reduction in skeletal lesions as determined by Faxitron x-ray and micro-computed tomography. Immunohistochemical analysis of subcutaneous and tibial tumors showed a marked decrease in the levels of expression of pAKT, pMAPK, and pFAK, consistent with the in vitro observations. Results from these studies provide compelling evidence for the continued development of ATN-658 as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of prostate and other cancers expressing uPAR.

  5. Inhibition of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Attenuates Transforming Growth Factor-β-Dependent Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition and Differentiation of Fibroblasts to Myofibroblasts.

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    Keitaro Omori

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β is central during the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, in which the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 also has an established role. TGF-β is also known to be the strongest inducer of PAI-1. To investigate the link between PAI-1 and TGF-β in fibrotic processes, we evaluated the effect of SK-216, a PAI-1-specific inhibitor, in TGF-β-dependent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation. In human alveolar epithelial A549 cells, treatment with TGF-β induced EMT, whereas co-treatment with SK-216 attenuated the occurrence of EMT. The inhibition of TGF-β-induced EMT by SK-216 was also confirmed in the experiment using murine epithelial LA-4 cells. Blocking EMT by SK-216 inhibited TGF-β-induced endogenous production of PAI-1 and TGF-β in A549 cells as well. These effects of SK-216 were not likely mediated by suppressing either Smad or ERK pathways. Using human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells, we demonstrated that SK-216 inhibited TGF-β-dependent differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. We also observed this inhibition by SK-216 in human primary lung fibroblasts. Following these in vitro results, we tested oral administration of SK-216 into mice injected intratracheally with bleomycin. We found that SK-216 reduced the degree of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the link between TGF-β and PAI-1 regarding fibrotic process were not determined, PAI-1 seems to act as a potent downstream effector on the pro-fibrotic property of TGF-β. In addition, inhibition of PAI-1 activity by a PAI-1 inhibitor exerts an antifibrotic effect even in vivo. These data suggest that targeting PAI-1 as a downstream effector of TGF-β could be a promising therapeutic strategy for pulmonary fibrosis.

  6. Regulation of DNA methylation in human breast cancer. Effect on the urokinase-type plasminogen activator gene production and tumor invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongjing; Pakneshan, Pouya; Gladu, Julienne; Slack, Andrew; Szyf, Moshe; Rabbani, Shafaat A

    2002-11-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is a member of the serine protease family and can break down various components of the extracellular matrix to promote growth, invasion, and metastasis of several malignancies including breast cancer. In the current study we examined the role that the DNA methylation machinery might be playing in regulating differential uPA gene expression in breast cancer cell lines. uPA mRNA is expressed in the highly invasive, hormone-insensitive human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 but not in hormone-responsive cell line MCF-7. Using methylation-sensitive PCR, we show that 90% of CpG dinucleotides in the uPA promoter are methylated in MCF-7 cells, whereas fully demethylated CpGs were detected in MDA-MB-231 cells. uPA promoter activity, which is directly regulated by the Ets-1 transcription factor, is inhibited by methylation as determined by uPA promoter-luciferase reporter assays. We then tested whether the state of expression and methylation of the uPA promoter correlates with the global level of DNA methyltransferase and demethylase activities in these cell lines. We show that maintenance DNA methyltransferase activity is significantly higher in MCF-7 cells than in MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas demethylase activity is higher in MDA-MB-231 cells. We suggest that the combination of increased DNA methyltransferase activity with reduced demethylase activity contributes to the methylation and silencing of uPA expression in MCF-7 cells. The converse is true in MDA-MB-231 cells, which represents a late stage highly invasive breast cancer. The histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A, induces the expression of the uPA gene in MDA-MB-231 cells but not in MCF-7 cells. This supports the hypothesis that DNA methylation is the dominant mechanism involved in the silencing of uPA gene expression. Taken together, these results provide insight into the mechanism regulating the transcription of the uPA gene in the complex multistep process of

  7. Freeze-dried plasma enhances clot formation and inhibits fibrinolysis in the presence of tissue plasminogen activator similar to pooled liquid plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Benjamin R; Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Hunter B; Sauaia, Angela; Stettler, Gregory; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Hansen, Kirk; Banerjee, Anirban; Silliman, Christopher C

    2017-08-01

    Systemic hyperfibrinolysis is an integral part of trauma-induced coagulopathy associated with uncontrolled bleeding. Recent data suggest that plasma-first resuscitation attenuates hyperfibrinolysis; however, the availability, transport, storage, and administration of plasma in austere environments remain challenging and have limited its use. Freeze-dried plasma (FDP) is a potential alternative due to ease of storage, longer shelf life, and efficient reconstitution. FDP potentially enhances clot formation and resists breakdown better than normal saline (NS) and albumin and similar to liquid plasma. Healthy volunteers underwent citrated blood draw followed by 50% dilution with NS, albumin, pooled plasma (PP), or pooled freeze-dried plasma (pFDP). Citrated native and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)-challenge (75 ng/mL) thrombelastography were done. Proteins in PP, pFDP, and albumin were analyzed by mass spectroscopy. pFDP and PP had superior clot-formation rates (angle) and clot strength (maximum amplitude) compared with NS and albumin in t-PA-challenge thrombelastographies (angle: pFDP, 67.9 degrees; PP, 67.8 degrees; NS, 40.6 degrees; albumin, 35.8 degrees; maximum amplitude: pFDP, 62.4 mm; PP, 63.5 mm; NS, 44.8 mm; albumin, 41.1 mm). NS and albumin dilution increased susceptibility to t-PA-induced hyperfibrinolysis compared with pFDP and PP (NS, 62.4%; albumin, 62.6%; PP, 8.5%; pFDP, 6.7%). pFDP was similar to PP in the attenuation of t-PA-induced fibrinolysis. Most proteins (97%) were conserved during the freeze-dry process, with higher levels in 12% of pFDP proteins compared with PP. pFDP enhances clot formation and attenuates hyperfibrinolysis better than NS and albumin and is a potential alternative to plasma resuscitation in the treatment of hemorrhagic shock. © 2017 AABB.

  8. Comparison of tissue plasminogen activator administration management between Telestroke Network hospitals and academic stroke centers: the Telemedical Pilot Project for Integrative Stroke Care in Bavaria/Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebert, Heinrich J; Kukla, Christian; Vatankhah, Bijan; Gotzler, Berthold; Schenkel, Johannes; Hofer, Stephan; Fürst, Andrea; Haberl, Roman L

    2006-07-01

    Systemic thrombolysis is the only therapy proven to be effective for ischemic stroke. Telemedicine may help to extend its use. However, concerns remain whether management and safety of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration after telemedical consultation are equivalent in less experienced hospitals compared with tPA administration in academic stroke centers. During the second year of the ongoing Telemedical Pilot Project for Integrative Stroke Care, all systemic thrombolyses in stroke patients of the 12 regional clinics and the 2 stroke centers were recorded prospectively. Patients' demographics, stroke severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale), frequency of administration, time management, protocol violations, and safety were included in the analysis. In 2004, 115 of 4727 stroke or transient ischemic attack patients (2.4%) in the community hospitals and 110 of 1889 patients in the stroke centers (5.8%) received systemic thrombolysis. Prehospital latencies were shorter in the regional hospitals despite longer distances. Door to needle times were shorter in the stroke centers. Although blood pressure was controlled more strictly in community hospitals, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage rate (7.8%) was higher (P=0.14) than in stroke centers (2.7%) but still within the range of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke trial. In-hospital mortality rate was low in community hospitals (3.5%) and in stroke centers (4.5%). Although with a lower rate of systemic thrombolysis, there was no evidence of lower treatment quality in the remote hospitals. With increasing numbers of tPA administration and growing training effects, the telestroke concept promises better coverage of systemic thrombolysis in nonurban areas.

  9. Long-Term Impact of Implementation of a Stroke Protocol on Door-to-Needle Time in the Administration of Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Machteld E; He, Wenzhuan; Al-Qudah, Zaid; Wang, Weizhen; Hidalgo, Andrea; Walia, Jessy

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing a stroke protocol (SP) in improving door-to-needle time (DTNT) and door-to-computed tomography (DTCT) time from 2010 to 2014. Published data from the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke (GWTGS) participating hospitals showed that median DTNT = 75 minutes with 26.6% of the patients achieving the recommended DTNT of 60 minutes or less. Implementation of an SP, which specifies the role of nurses, physicians, and technicians during acute stroke evaluation, can improve DTNT. This longitudinal quality assurance study was designed to compare the DTNT and the DTCT time pre- and post implementation of an SP in our hospital. Patients' data before (2009-2010) and after (2010-2014) the implementation of an SP were collected each year during the same 6-month period and compared using statistical software SPSS 20.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Although our DTNT did not significantly improve over the years, the median DTNT (59 minutes) was much less than the reported 75 minutes of GWTGS hospitals. Our DTCT time diminished from 20.6 minutes in 2009 to 15.9 minutes in 2014. The percentage of patients with a DTNT of 1 hour or less did not differ among all years (P = .296) and was 55.8%. Our study suggests that our performance in evaluating acute ischemic stroke patients within the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association suggested time window is reachable for prolonged periods of time. Continuous monitoring and education of all players involved are crucial to ensure best possible outcomes in the timely administration of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 4G/5G variant of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene and severe pregnancy-induced hypertension: subgroup analyses of variants of angiotensinogen and endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Gen; Ohta, Kaori; Yamada, Hideto; Hata, Akira; Minakami, Hisanori; Sakuragi, Noriaki; Tamashiro, Hiko; Fujimoto, Seiichiro

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is a common cause of perinatal mortality. It is believed to result from the interaction of several factors, including those related to the blood coagulation system. We performed genotyping and subgroup analyses to determine if the 4G/5G genotypes of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene (PAI-1) play a role in the pathogenesis of PIH, and to evaluate possible interactions of the PAI-1 polymorphisms with those of the angiotensinogen gene (AGT) and the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3). An association study of PAI-1 polymorphism, and subgroup analyses of common variants of AGT and NOS3, among 128 patients with PIH and 376 healthy pregnant controls. No significant differences were found between the cases and controls in the frequencies of allele 4G or the 4G/4G genotype. In subgroup analyses, after adjustment for multiple comparison, a significant association with the AGT TT genotype was found among women with the PAI-1 4G/4G genotype, and an association with the NOS3 GA+AA genotype was found among women with the 5G/5G or 4G/5G genotypes. Our findings suggest that there are at least 2 pathways in the pathogenesis of severe PIH. However, with respect to early prediction and prevention of severe PIH, although the PAI-1 4G/4G genotype alone was not a risk factor for severe PIH, the fact that PAI-1 genotypes are associated with varying risks for severe PIH suggests that PAI-1 genotyping of pregnant women, in combination with other tests, may be useful in the development of individualized measures that may prevent severe PIH.

  11. Plasma levels of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR and early mortality risk among patients enrolling for antiretroviral treatment in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangani Nonzwakazi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum concentrations of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR have a strong independent association with HIV-1-related mortality. The practical utility of plasma suPAR in assessing short-term all-cause mortality risk was evaluated in patients with advanced immunodeficiency enrolling in an antiretroviral treatment (ART programme in South Africa. Methods An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to measure plasma concentrations of suPAR in patients at the time of enrolment to the ART programme. The association between plasma suPAR concentrations, baseline patient characteristics and cohort outcomes after 4 months of ART were determined. Results Patients (n = 293, 70% female had a median age of 33 years and were followed up for a median of 5 months from enrolment. The median CD4 cell count was 47 cells/μl (IQR = 22–72 and 38% of patients had WHO stage 4 disease. 218 (74% patients remained alive after 4 months of ART; 39 (13% died and 36 (12% were lost to the programme for other reasons. Patients who died had significantly higher plasma suPAR concentrations compared to those who either survived (P 10 suPAR concentrations were significantly associated with lower CD4 cell counts, WHO clinical stage 4 disease and male sex. In multivariate analysis to identify factors associated with death, log10 suPAR concentration was the most strongly associated variable (P Conclusion Plasma suPAR concentration was the strongest independent predictor of short-term mortality risk among patients with advanced immunodeficiency enrolling in this ART programme. However, lack of a discriminatory threshold did not permit this marker to be used to triage patients according to short-term mortality risk.

  12. Rescue localized intra-arterial thrombolysis for hyperacute MCA ischemic stroke patients after early non-responsive intravenous tissue plasminogen activator therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Dong Ik; Kim, Seo Hyun; Lee, Kyung Yeol; Heo, Ji Hoe; Han, Sang Won

    2005-01-01

    The outcome of patients who show no early response to intravenous (i.v.) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) therapy is poor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of rescue localized intra-arterial thrombolysis (LIT) therapy for acute ischemic stroke patients after an early non-responsive i.v. tPA therapy. Patients with proximal MCA occlusions who were treated by LIT (n=10) after failure of early response [no improvement or improvement of National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores of ≤3] to i.v. tPA therapy (0.9 mg/kg - 10% bolus and 90% i.v. infusion over 60 min) were selected. The recanalization rates, incidence of post-thrombolysis hemorrhage and clinical outcomes [baseline and discharge NIHSS scores, mortality, 3 months Barthel index (BI) and modified Rankin score (mRS)] were evaluated. Rescue LIT therapy was performed on ten MCA occlusion patients (male:female=3:7, mean age 71 years). The mean time between the initiation of i.v. tPA therapy and the initiation of intra-arterial urokinase (i.a. UK) was 117±25.0 min [time to i.v. tPA 137±32 min; time to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) 221±42 min; time to i.a. UK 260±46 min]. The baseline NIHSS scores showed significant improvement at discharge (median from 18 to 6). Symptomatic hemorrhage and, consequent, mortality were noted in 2/10 (20%) patients. Three months good outcome was noted in 4/10 (40%, mRS 0-2) and 3/10 (30%, BI ≥95). In conclusion, rescue LIT therapy can be considered as a treatment option for patients not showing early response to full dose i.v. tPA therapy. Larger scale studies for further validation of this protocol may be necessary. (orig.)

  13. Circulating intact and cleaved forms of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor: biological variation, reference intervals and clinical useful cut-points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurison, Tine; Christensen, Ib J; Lund, Ida K; Nielsen, Hans J; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2015-01-15

    High levels of circulating forms of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) are significantly associated to poor prognosis in cancer patients. Our aim was to determine biological variations and reference intervals of the uPAR forms in blood, and in addition, to test the clinical relevance of using these as cut-points in colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis. uPAR forms were measured in citrated and EDTA plasma samples using time-resolved fluorescence immunoassays. Diurnal, intra- and inter-individual variations were assessed in plasma samples from cohorts of healthy individuals. Reference intervals were determined in plasma from healthy individuals randomly selected from a Danish multi-center cross-sectional study. A cohort of CRC patients was selected from the same cross-sectional study. The reference intervals showed a slight increase with age and women had ~20% higher levels. The intra- and inter-individual variations were ~10% and ~20-30%, respectively and the measured levels of the uPAR forms were within the determined 95% reference intervals. No diurnal variation was found. Applying the normal upper limit of the reference intervals as cut-point for dichotomizing CRC patients revealed significantly decreased overall survival of patients with levels above this cut-point of any uPAR form. The reference intervals for the different uPAR forms are valid and the upper normal limits are clinically relevant cut-points for CRC prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Results of phase III clinical trial of 99mTc-labelled recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in the detection of deep venous thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, S.P.; Boyd, S.J.; Parkes, S.L.; Quinn, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of this new technique against the accepted ''gold standard'' of contrast venography in 79 patients suspected of DVT. A kit formulation has been devised in which 99 mTc is labelled to rt- PA where the plasminogen binding site has been permanently inhibited but the fibrin binding site remained active. Kit preparation takes five minutes. Scintigraphic imaging is performed at four hours post-injection (10 min/scan for thighs and calves). The results of scintigraphic imaging were then compared to those of contrast venography. Mean thrombus age was 5.4 days. 58% patients were receiving intravenous heparin. Mean time interval between contrast venography and scanning was 20 hours. For the purpose of analysis, the leg was divided into proximal and distal segments for both the scintigraphic study and the contrast venography. Of the 14 thrombosed proximal segments, 13 had positive scans; in the 53 non-thrombosed proximal segments, 49 had negative scans. Thus in proximal vein thrombosis, scanning had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 92%. Of the 36 thrombosed calf vein segments, 31 had positive scans; in the 30 non-thrombosed calf segments, 28 had negative scans. Thus in calf vein thrombosis, scanning has a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 93%. Scintigraphic scanning with this new radiopharmaceutical permits accurate detection of thrombus in both proximal and calf veins. The technique detects both fresh and aged thrombi and is unaffected by heparin administration. Further work in different patient groups will need to be performed to define its clinical usefulness

  15. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) - Progress in prediction of AP severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, Michal; Rydzewska-Rosolowska, Alicja; Rydzewski, Andrzej; Cicha, Malgorzata; Rydzewska, Grazyna

    Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a glycoprotein secreted during inflammation and infections. Moreover, increased levels of suPAR are observed after hypoxia and ischaemia. The aim of the study was to assess whether suPAR could represent a useful marker of acute pancreatitis (AP) severity. We have observed a cohort of 126 prospectively enrolled patients. Based on the presence of persistent organ failure (more than 48 h) and local complications (diagnosis of moderate AP [MSAP]), patients were classified into three groups: mild AP (MAP), moderate and severe AP (SAP). The blood samples were taken on admission for detecting suPAR concentrations. AP was considered severe in 33 patients (26.2%), MSAP was found in 37 patients (29.4%), and MAP was found in 56 patients (44,4%). The AUC for SAP predicted by suPAR was 0.993. The calculated cut-off point for prognosis SAP is 4.75 ng/mL. The BISAP score of ≥3 for detection of SAP had sensitivity and specificity of 94.6% and 63.6%, respectively. The AUC for severity predicted by BISAP amounted to 0.916. Additionally, suPAR turned out to be a good predictor of fatal AP: for the cut-off point 7.05 ng/mL, the AUC was 0.917. The AUC for death prediction in AP patients based on the BISAP score ≥3 was 0.894. suPAR concentration is a promising new diagnostic and prognostic indicator in SAP obtainable in the early stage of disease. Larger studies are recommended to evaluate this role further. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A high-protein diet during hospitalization is associated with an accelerated decrease in soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels in acutely ill elderly medical patients with SIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavenier, Juliette; Haupt, Thomas H; Andersen, Aino L; Buhl, Sussi F; Langkilde, Anne; Andersen, Jens R; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Pedersen, Mette M; Petersen, Janne; Andersen, Ove

    2017-05-01

    Acute illness and hospitalization in elderly individuals are often accompanied by the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and malnutrition, both associated with wasting and mortality. Nutritional support and resistance training were shown to increase muscle anabolism and reduce inflammation in healthy elderly. We hypothesized that nutritional support and resistance training would accelerate the resolution of inflammation in hospitalized elderly patients with SIRS. Acutely admitted patients aged >65 years with SIRS were randomized to an intervention consisting of a high-protein diet (1.7 g/kg per day) during hospitalization, and daily protein supplement (18.8 g) and 3 weekly resistance training sessions for 12 weeks after discharge (Intervention, n=14), or to standard-care (Control, n=15). Plasma levels of the inflammatory biomarkers soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), interleukin-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and albumin were measured at admission, discharge, and 4 and 13 weeks after discharge. The Intervention group had an earlier decrease in suPAR levels than the Control group: -15.4% vs. +14.5%, P=.007 during hospitalization, and -2.4% vs. -28.6%, P=.007 between discharge and 4 weeks. There were no significant effects of the intervention on the other biomarkers. All biomarkers improved significantly between admission and 13 weeks, although with different kinetics (suPAR: -22%, interleukin-6: -86%, CRP: -89%, albumin: +11%). Nutritional support during hospitalization was associated with an accelerated decrease in suPAR levels, whereas the combined nutrition and resistance training intervention after discharge did not appear to affect the inflammatory state. Our results indicate that improved nutritional care during hospitalization may accelerate recovery in acutely ill elderly medical patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 4G/5G polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene is associated with mortality in intensive care unit patients with severe pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapru, Anil; Hansen, Helen; Ajayi, Temitayo; Brown, Ron; Garcia, Oscar; Zhuo, HanJing; Wiemels, Joseph; Matthay, Michael A; Wiener-Kronish, Jeanine

    2009-05-01

    Higher plasma and pulmonary edema fluid levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) are associated with increased mortality in patients with pneumonia and acute lung injury. The 4G allele of the 4G/5G polymorphism of the PAI-1 gene is associated with higher PAI-1 levels and an increased incidence of hospitalizations for pneumonia. The authors hypothesized that the 4G allele would be associated with worse clinical outcomes (mortality and ventilator-free days) in patients with severe pneumonia. The authors enrolled patients admitted with severe pneumonia in a prospective cohort. Patients were followed until hospital discharge. DNA was isolated from blood samples, and genotyping detection for the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was carried out using Taqman-based allelic discrimination. A total of 111 patients were available for analysis. Distribution of genotypes was 4G/4G 26 of 111 (23%), 4G/5G 59 of 111 (53%), and 5G/5G 26 of 111 (23%). Of 111 patients, 32 (29%) died before hospital discharge and 105 patients (94%) received mechanical ventilation. Patients with the 4G/4G and the 4G/5G genotypes had higher mortality (35% vs. 8%, P = 0.007) and fewer ventilator-free days (median 4 vs. 13, P = 0.04) compared to patients with the 5G/5G genotype. The 4G allele of the 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene is associated with fewer ventilator-free days and increased mortality in hospitalized patients with severe pneumonia. These findings suggest that PAI-1 may have a role in pathogenesis and that the 4G/5G polymorphism may be an important biomarker of risk in patients with severe pneumonia.

  18. Association between the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism and risk of venous thromboembolism: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiarong; Wang, Chengdi; Chen, Nan; Shu, Chi; Guo, Xiaojiang; He, Yazhou; Zhou, Yanhong

    2014-12-01

    The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G polymorphism was considered to be associated with risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), while evidence remains inadequate. To provide a more accurate estimation of this relationship, we performed an updated meta-analysis of all eligible studies. A systematical search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Cqvip databases to identify relevant studies published before March 6(th) 2014. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using the fixed/random-effects model using Review Manager 5.1 and STATA 12.0. A total of 34 studies with 3561 cases and 5693 controls were analyzed. Overall, significant association between the PAI-1 4G/5G variant and VTE risk in total population (dominant model: OR=1.32, 95%CI: 1.13-1.54) was observed. And this variant was also related to the deep vein thrombosis risk (dominant model: OR=1.60, 95%CI: 1.24-2.06, P=0.0003). In the subgroup analyses on ethnicity, significant results were obtained in both Asians (dominant model: OR=2.08, 95%CI: 1.29-3.35, P=0.003) and Caucasians (dominant model: OR=1.31, 95%CI: 1.10-1.56, P=0.003). However, no significant association was found in patients with provoked VTE. In terms of subgroup analyses on co-existence of other thrombotic risk factors, the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was significantly associated with VTE risk in patients with factor V Leiden mutation (dominant model: OR=1.72, 95%CI: 1.17-2.53), but not in patients with cancer or surgery. Our findings demonstrate the role of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism being a risk candidate locus for VTE susceptibility, especially in patients with other genetic thrombophilic disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 serum levels and 4G/5G gene polymorphism in morbidly obese Hispanic patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, Alberto; Villagrán, Andrea; Vollrath, Valeska; Hanckes, Paulina; Salas, Roberto; Farah, Andrea; Solís, Nancy; Pizarro, Margarita; Escalona, Alex; Boza, Camilo; Pérez, Gustavo; Carrasco, Gonzalo; Padilla, Oslando; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Nervi, Flavio; Chavez-Tapia, Norberto C; Arab, Juan Pablo; Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Arrese, Marco; Riquelme, Arnoldo

    2011-01-01

    The plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) has been implicated in the regulation of fibrinolysis and extracellular matrix components. The single base pair guanine insertion/deletion polymorphism (4G/5G) within the promoter region of the PAI-1 gene influences PAI-1 synthesis and may modulate hepatic fibrogenesis. To evaluate the influence of PAI-1 serum levels and 4G/5G polymorphism on the risk of liver fibrosis associated to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in morbidly obese patients. Case-control study of 50 obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery and 71 non-obese subjects matched by age and sex. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were performed, including PAI-1 serum levels. Genomic DNA was obtained to assess the presence of 4G/5G polymorphism. BMI, insulinemia, triglycerides, HOMA-IR, hypertension and diabetes were significantly higher in obese patients compared to control subjects. PAI-1 serum levels observed in obese patients were significantly lower (10.63 ± 4.82) compared to controls (14.26 ± 11.4; p 5G promoter genotypes frequencies (p = 0.12). No differences were observed in PAI-1 plasma levels among obese patients with liver fibrosis (10.64 ± 4.35) compared to patients without liver fibrosis (10.61 ± 5.2; p = 0.985). PAI-1 4G/5G promoter genotypes frequencies were similar in patients with or without liver fibrosis associated to NASH (p = 0.6). Morbidly obese patients had significantly lower PAI-1 serum levels with similar PAI-1 4G/5G genotypes frequencies compared to non-obese subjects. The frequency of 4G/5G genotypes in Chilean Hispanic healthy subjects was similar to that described in other populations. No association was found between PAI-1 serum levels or 4G/5G genotype with liver fibrosis in obese patients.

  20. Influence of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (SERPINE1) 4G/5G polymorphism on circulating SERPINE-1 antigen expression in HCC associated with viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divella, Rosa; Mazzocca, Antonio; Gadaleta, Cosimo; Simone, Giovanni; Paradiso, Angelo; Quaranta, Michele; Daniele, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocarcinogenesis is heavily influenced by chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infection. Elevated levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (SERPINE1/PAI-1) have been reported in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with viral infection. The gene encoding SERPINE1 is highly polymorphic and the frequently associated 4/5 guanosine (4G/5G) polymorphism in the gene promoter may influence its expression. Here, we investigated the distribution of genotypes and the frequency of alleles of the 4G/5G polymorphism in patients with HCC, the influence of the 4G/5G polymorphism on plasma SERPINE1 levels and its association with viral infection. A total of 75 patients with HCC were enrolled: 32 (42.6%) were HBV(+)/HCV(+), 11 (14.6%) were only HCV(+), and 32 (42.6%) were negative for both viruses. A control group of healthy donors was also enrolled (n=50). SERPINE1 plasma concentrations were determined by ELISA and the detection of the promoter 4G/5G polymorphism was performed by an allele-specific PCR analysis. We found that the frequency of both the 4G/4G genotype (p=0.02) and the 4G allele (p=0.006) were significantly higher in patients with HCC compared to the control group, and particularly higher in patients with HCC co-infected with HBV(+)/HCV(+) than in those with no viral infection. We also found that patients with the 4G/4G genotype had significantly higher plasma SERPINE1 protein levels when compared with patients with the 4G/5G or 5G/5G genotype (p5G SERPINE1 polymorphism with a higher level of SERPINE1 protein in patients with HCC with HBV(+)/HCV(+) than those without infection, suggest the presence of two distinct pathogenic mechanisms in hepatocarcinogenesis, depending on the etiology.

  1. 4G/5G Polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene is associated with multiple organ dysfunction in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Muhammad Aminul; Takeyama, Naoshi; Harada, Makoto; Miki, Yasuo; Takeuchi, Akinori; Inoue, Sousuke; Nakagawa, Takashi; Kanou, Hideki; Hirakawa, Akihiko; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Impaired fibrinolysis is associated with a higher incidence of both multiple organ dysfunction and mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU). Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is the chief inhibitor of fibrinolysis. We investigated the influence of the 4G/5G polymorphism (rs1799768) of the PAI-1 gene on the plasma PAI-1 level and the outcome of critically ill patients. In 41 consecutive patients admitted to the ICU, PAI-1 gene polymorphism was assessed, plasma PAI-1 and arterial lactate concentrations were measured and clinical severity scores were recorded. Homozygotes for the 4G allele had higher plasma levels of PAI-1 antigen. The mean ± SD PAI-1 antigen level was 193.31 ± 167.93 ng/ml for the 4G/4G genotype, 100.67 ± 114.16 ng/ml for the 4G/5G genotype and 0.43 ± 0.53 ng/ml for the 5G/5G genotype. There was a significant correlation between plasma PAI-1 and arterial lactate concentrations, as well as between PAI-1 and severity scores. The mortality rate was 63, 33 and 0% for patients with the 4G/4G, 4G/5G and 5G/5G genotypes, respectively. These results demonstrate that the 4G/5G polymorphism of the PAI-1 gene affects the plasma PAI-1 concentration, which could impair fibrinolysis and cause organ failure, and thus the presence of the 4G allele increases the risk of death. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The -675 4G/5G polymorphism in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene is associated with risk of asthma: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Nie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A number of studies assessed the association of -675 4G/5G polymorphism in the promoter region of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1 gene with asthma in different populations. However, most studies reported inconclusive results. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the association between polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene and asthma susceptibility. METHODS: Databases including Pubmed, EMBASE, HuGE Literature Finder, Wanfang Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI and Weipu Database were searched to find relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to assess the strength of association in the dominant model, recessive model, codominant model, and additive model. RESULTS: Eight studies involving 1817 cases and 2327 controls were included. Overall, significant association between 4G/5G polymorphism and asthma susceptibility was observed for 4G4G+4G5G vs. 5G5G (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.12-2.18, P = 0.008, 4G/4G vs. 4G/5G+5G/5G (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.06-1.80, P = 0.02, 4G/4G vs. 5G/5G (OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.17-2.76, P = 0.007, 4G/5G vs. 5G/5G (OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.07-1.84, P = 0.02, and 4G vs. 5G (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.08-1.68, P = 0.008. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggested that the -675 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene was a risk factor of asthma.

  3. The -675 4G/5G polymorphism in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene is associated with risk of asthma: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Wei; Li, Bing; Xiu, Qing-Yu

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies assessed the association of -675 4G/5G polymorphism in the promoter region of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 gene with asthma in different populations. However, most studies reported inconclusive results. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the association between polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene and asthma susceptibility. Databases including Pubmed, EMBASE, HuGE Literature Finder, Wanfang Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Weipu Database were searched to find relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association in the dominant model, recessive model, codominant model, and additive model. Eight studies involving 1817 cases and 2327 controls were included. Overall, significant association between 4G/5G polymorphism and asthma susceptibility was observed for 4G4G+4G5G vs. 5G5G (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.12-2.18, P = 0.008), 4G/4G vs. 4G/5G+5G/5G (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.06-1.80, P = 0.02), 4G/4G vs. 5G/5G (OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.17-2.76, P = 0.007), 4G/5G vs. 5G/5G (OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.07-1.84, P = 0.02), and 4G vs. 5G (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.08-1.68, P = 0.008). This meta-analysis suggested that the -675 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene was a risk factor of asthma.

  4. Polymorphism 4G/5G of the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 gene as a risk factor for the development of allergic rhinitis symptoms in patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampalo, Marina; Jukic, Irena; Bingulac-Popovic, Jasna; Marunica, Ivona; Petlevski, Roberta; Pavlisa, Gordana; Popovic-Grle, Sanja

    2017-06-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a glycoprotein which has a role in tissue remodelling after inflammatory processes. The objective is to investigate the frequency of PAI-1 gene polymorphism (4G/5G) in patients with a lung ventilation dysfunction in asthma and allergic rhinitis. Genomic DNA was isolated and genotypes of polymorphism of PAI-1 4G/5G and ABO were determined using the methods of RT-PCR and PCR-SSP. Study group includes 145 adult patients diagnosed with chronic asthma, with all clinically relevant parameters and the laboratory markers of pO 2 , IgE and eosinophils in sputum and nasal swab. In the processing of data, appropriate statistical tests (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, median, interquartile ranges, χ 2 and Mann-Whitney U tests) were used. Patients with symptoms of allergic rhinitis were significantly younger and had an almost four time higher levels of IgE (P = 0.001), higher pO 2 (P = 0.002) and PEF (P = 0.036), compared to those who do not have these symptoms. Genotype PAI 4G/4G is significantly more common in patients with allergic rhinitis (28.1% vs. 16.1%; P = 0.017) compared to the genotype 5G/5G. Carriers of the genotype 4G/5G also have a borderline statistical significance. There were no statistically significant difference in the incidence of allergic rhinitis in the carriers of any ABO genotypes. The frequency of PAI genotype 4G/4G is significantly more common in patients with allergic rhinitis. The results suggest that the carriers of at least one 4G allele are at a higher risk for developing symptoms of allergic rhinitis in asthma.

  5. The −675 4G/5G Polymorphism in Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Gene Is Associated with Risk of Asthma: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Qing-yu

    2012-01-01

    Background A number of studies assessed the association of −675 4G/5G polymorphism in the promoter region of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 gene with asthma in different populations. However, most studies reported inconclusive results. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the association between polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene and asthma susceptibility. Methods Databases including Pubmed, EMBASE, HuGE Literature Finder, Wanfang Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Weipu Database were searched to find relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association in the dominant model, recessive model, codominant model, and additive model. Results Eight studies involving 1817 cases and 2327 controls were included. Overall, significant association between 4G/5G polymorphism and asthma susceptibility was observed for 4G4G+4G5G vs. 5G5G (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.12–2.18, P = 0.008), 4G/4G vs. 4G/5G+5G/5G (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.06–1.80, P = 0.02), 4G/4G vs. 5G/5G (OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.17–2.76, P = 0.007), 4G/5G vs. 5G/5G (OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.07–1.84, P = 0.02), and 4G vs. 5G (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.08–1.68, P = 0.008). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggested that the −675 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene was a risk factor of asthma. PMID:22479620

  6. Impact of the -675 4G/5G polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene on childhood IgA nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Su-Ryun; Kim, Cheon-Jong; Lee, Byung-Cheol

    2012-04-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is an important regulator of the fibrinolytic pathway and extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover. The -675 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 promoter is associated with altered PAI-1 transcription, suggesting that this polymorphism may be a candidate risk factor for diseases characterized by ECM accumulation, such as immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MesPGN). We genotyped childhood patients with biopsy-confirmed IgAN (n=111) and MesPGN (n=47), and healthy control subjects (n=230) for the -675 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. The distribution of the 4G/4G (27.9%), 4G/5G (45.1%) and 5G/5G (27.0%) genotypes in IgAN patients was significantly different from the healthy controls (32.2, 54.3 and 13.5%, respectively) (p=0.0092). There was no significant difference in the genotype distributions of the 4G/5G polymorphism between MesPGN patients and the healthy controls. Regarding the impact of the polymorphism on IgAN, the 4G/4G genotype was markedly increased in patients with proteinuria (≥1,000 mg/day) and/or hypertension when compared to patients without proteinuria and hypertension (OR=5.23, 95% CI 1.34-20.38, P=0.0183). These findings indicate that the PAI-1 gene polymorphism may affect the susceptibility of childhood IgAN.

  7. Fiber intake and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in type 2 diabetes: Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial findings at baseline and year 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belalcazar, L Maria; Anderson, Andrea M; Lang, Wei; Schwenke, Dawn C; Haffner, Steven M; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Rushing, Julia; Vitolins, Mara Z; Reeves, Rebecca; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Tracy, Russell P; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2014-11-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is elevated in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes and may contribute, independently of traditional factors, to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Fiber intake may decrease PAI-1 levels. We examined the associations of fiber intake and its changes with PAI-1 before and during an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss in 1,701 Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) participants with dietary, fitness, and PAI-1 data at baseline and 1 year. Look AHEAD was a randomized cardiovascular disease trial in 5,145 overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes, comparing ILI (goal of ≥7% reduction in baseline weight) with a control arm of diabetes support and education. ILI participants were encouraged to consume vegetables, fruits, and grain products low in sugar and fat. At baseline, median fiber intake was 17.9 g/day. Each 8.3 g/day higher fiber intake was associated with a 9.2% lower PAI-1 level (P=0.008); this association persisted after weight and fitness adjustments (P=0.03). Higher baseline intake of fruit (P=0.019) and high-fiber grain and cereal (P=0.029) were related to lower PAI-1 levels. Although successful in improving weight and physical fitness at 1 year, the ILI in Look AHEAD resulted in small increases in fiber intake (4.1 g/day, compared with -2.35 g/day with diabetes support and education) that were not related to PAI-1 change (P=0.34). Only 31.3% of ILI participants (39.8% of women, 19.1% of men) met daily fiber intake recommendations. Increasing fiber intake in overweight/obese individuals with diabetes interested in weight loss is challenging. Future studies evaluating changes in fiber consumption during weight loss interventions are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) for prediction of bacteremia in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenigl, Martin; Raggam, Reinhard B; Wagner, Jasmin; Valentin, Thomas; Leitner, Eva; Seeber, Katharina; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Krammer, Werner; Prüller, Florian; Grisold, Andrea J; Krause, Robert

    2013-02-01

    Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) serum concentrations have recently been described to reflect the severity status of systemic inflammation. In this study, the diagnostic accuracy of suPAR, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) to predict bacteremia in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) was compared. A total of 132 patients with SIRS were included. In 55 patients blood cultures had resulted positive (study group 1, Gram positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp., n=15; study group 2, Gram-negative bacteria, n=40) and 77 patients had negative blood culture results (control group, n=77). Simultaneously with blood cultures suPAR, CRP, PCT, IL-6 and white blood count (WBC) were determined. SuPAR values were significantly higher in study group 1 (median 8.11; IQR 5.78-15.53; p=0.006) and study group 2 (median 9.62; IQR 6.52-11.74; p<0.001) when compared with the control group (median 5.65; IQR 4.30-7.83). ROC curve analysis revealed an AUC of 0.726 for suPAR in differentiating SIRS patients with bacteremia from those without. The biomarkers PCT and IL-6 showed comparable results. Regarding combinations of biomarkers multiplying suPAR, PCT and IL-6 was most promising and resulted in an AUC value of 0.804. Initial suPAR serum concentrations were significantly higher (p=0.028) in patients who died within 28 days than in those who survived. No significant difference was seen for PCT, IL-6 and CRP. In conclusion, suPAR, IL-6 and PCT may contribute to predicting bacteremia in SIRS patients. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A flexible multidomain structure drives the function of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertens, Haydyn D.T.; Kjærgaard, Magnus; Mysling, Simon

    2012-01-01

    -deuterium exchange, and surface plasmon resonance to develop a structural model describing the allosteric regulation of uPAR. We show that the flexibility of its N-terminal domain provides the key for understanding this allosteric mechanism. Importantly, our model has direct implications for understanding uPAR-assisted...... cell adhesion and migration as well as for translational research including targeted intervention therapy and non-invasive tumor imaging in vivo....

  10. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) and the risk of coronary events in patients with angina pectoris (AP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooijewaard, G.D.; Maat Mpm, E.; Meijer, P.; Kluft, C.; Binder, B.R.; Jespersen, J.; Keber, D.; Risberg, B.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction. This study addresses the rote of circulatory u-PA in the prevention and precipitation of arterial thrombosis. u-PA occurs in three forms: the inactive zymogen scu-PA, the active enzyme tcu-PA and u-PA#, the inactive complex of tcu-PA with inhibitors. In apparently healthy individuals

  11. Structure-function relationships in the interaction between the urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Degradation of the extracellular matrix plays an important role in a number of normal and pathological conditions involving active tissue remodeling such as postlactational mammary gland involution, wound healing and tumor invasion and metastasis. The expression of a high-affinity, glycolipid...

  12. Plasminogen activation by receptor-bound urokinase. A kinetic study with both cell-associated and isolated receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, V; Behrendt, N; Danø, K

    1991-01-01

    .67 microM, below the physiological Plg concentration of 2 microM. A concomitant 6-fold reduction in kcat resulted in an increase in the overall catalytic efficiency, kcat/Km, of 5.7-fold. This high affinity Plg activation was abolished in the presence of a Plg-binding antagonist. In contrast to intact...

  13. The Biochemistry and Regulation of S100A10: A Multifunctional Plasminogen Receptor Involved in Oncogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Madureira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The plasminogen receptors mediate the production and localization to the cell surface of the broad spectrum proteinase, plasmin. S100A10 is a key regulator of cellular plasmin production and may account for as much as 50% of cellular plasmin generation. In parallel to plasminogen, the plasminogen-binding site on S100A10 is highly conserved from mammals to fish. S100A10 is constitutively expressed in many cells and is also induced by many diverse factors and physiological stimuli including dexamethasone, epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-α, interferon-γ, nerve growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor, retinoic acid, and thrombin. Therefore, S100A10 is utilized by cells to regulate plasmin proteolytic activity in response to a wide diversity of physiological stimuli. The expression of the oncogenes, PML-RARα and KRas, also stimulates the levels of S100A10, suggesting a role for S100A10 in pathophysiological processes such as in the oncogenic-mediated increases in plasmin production. The S100A10-null mouse model system has established the critical role that S100A10 plays as a regulator of fibrinolysis and oncogenesis. S100A10 plays two major roles in oncogenesis, first as a regulator of cancer cell invasion and metastasis and secondly as a regulator of the recruitment of tumor-associated cells, such as macrophages, to the tumor site.

  14. A conserved TATA-less proximal promoter drives basal transcription from the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soravia, E; Grebe, A; De Luca, P

    1995-01-01

    have cloned an uPAR DNA segment containing upstream regulatory sequences from both the human and murine genomes. We report that a proximal promoter, contained within 180 bp from the major transcription start sites of the human uPAR gene, drives basal transcription. This region lacks TATA and CAAT boxes...... and contains relatively GC-rich proximal sequences. A subregion of this sequence, highly conserved between human and murine genes, contains most of the promoter activity and is specifically bound by HeLa nuclear proteins, one of which belongs to the SP1 class....

  15. Platelet derived growth factor-CC isoform is associated with hemorrhagic transformation in ischemic stroke patients treated with tissue plasminogen activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Raquel; Blanco, Miguel; Rodríguez-Yáñez, Manuel; Moldes, Octavio; Castillo, José; Sobrino, Tomás

    2013-01-01

    Platelet derived growth factor-CC (PDGF-CC) isoform is activated by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) regulating blood brain barrier permeability after ischemia. We aimed to study the association of PDGF isoforms serum levels with hemorrhagic transformation (HT) and edema after thrombolytic treatment in ischemic stroke. We studied 129 patients with ischemic stroke treated with tPA within the first 4.5 h (h) from stroke onset. CT was performed on admission and at 24-36 h. On the 2nd CT, HT was classified according to ECASS II criteria, and severe brain edema was diagnosed if extensive swelling causing any shifting of the structures of the midline was detected. PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB, PDGF-BB and PDGF-CC serum levels were analyzed by ELISA on admission (before tPA bolus), at 24 and 72 h. Patients who developed HT showed only higher levels of PDGF-CC isoform on admission and at 24 h (all p < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, PDGF-CC levels on admission (OR, 1.02; CI 95%, 1.00-1.04) and at 24 h (OR, 1.05; CI 95%, 1.02-1.08) were independently associated with HT after adjustment by confounding factors. On the other hand, patients with severe edema showed also higher levels of PDGF-CC on admission and at 24 h (p < 0.0001), but this statistical association was lost in the logistic regression analysis. PDGF-CC levels ≥ 175 ng/mL at 24 h predict the development of PH with a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 88% (area under the curve 0.936; p < 0.0001). Increased PDGF-CC levels after tPA treatment is associated with HT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 Promotes Immunosuppression in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers by Enhancing TGF-Β1 Expression in Macrophage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjun Zhu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 has been regarded as a risk factor for thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Since it has been shown that PAI-1 can activate macrophages through Toll-like receptor-4, we sought to investigate the role of PAI-1 in the tumor microenvironment. Methods: The expression and distribution patterns of PAI-1 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β were measured in 60 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC tumors. A statistical correlation analysis was performed between PAI-1 and TGF-β expression and distribution in each tumor. The distribution of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs was also measured and its correlation to PAI-1 levels was analyzed. Levels of secreted CCL-17, CCL-22, IL-6 and TGF-β were measured in cell cultures of human macrophage cell lines THP-1 and U937 treated with PAI-1. Levels of secreted PAI-1 were monitored in cell cultures of human NSCLCs cell lines 95D and A549 treated with TGF-β. Secreted proteins were measured in cell culture supernatants using ELISA. Changes in downstream signaling pathways were investigated using western blot. Results: PAI-1 and TGF-β were found to be overexpressed in human NSCLCs. PAI-1 expression was tightly correlated to TGF-β expression as well as the percentage of TAMs. PAI-1 treatment increased the expression of TAM-associated cytokines and chemokines, including CCL-17, CCL-22, and IL-6. PAI-1 treatment was also observed to enhance TGF-β expression in macrophage cell lines through an IL-6 autocrine/paracrine manner. The effects on TGF-β expression were blocked by NF-κB and STAT3 inhibition. Interestingly, TGF-β also increased levels of secreted PAI-1 in NSCLC cells through SMAD3-dependent signaling, therefore resulting in a feed-forward loop. However, this loop could be blocked by NF-κB, STAT3 and SMAD3 signaling inhibition, as well as treatment with a high concentration of TGF-β. Conclusion: PAI-1 and TGF-β promote NSCLC tumor cells and TAMs and

  17. Active Particles on Curved Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Fily, Yaouen; Baskaran, Aparna; Hagan, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the sensitivity of active matter to boundaries and their geometries. Here we develop a general theory for the dynamics and statistics of active particles on curved surfaces and illustrate it on two examples. We first show that active particles moving on a surface with no ability to probe its curvature only exhibit steady-state inhomogeneities in the presence of orientational order. We then consider a strongly confined 3D ideal active gas and compute its steady-...

  18. Targeted thrombolysis of tissue plasminogen activator and streptokinase with extracellular biosynthesis nanoparticles using optimized Streptococcus equi supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayon, Ateke; Jamshidi, Reza; Esmaeili, Akbar

    2016-03-30

    Extracellular biosynthesis of nanoparticles have many important advantages such as well dispersed in aqueous solutions, low energy requirements, ecofriendly, non-toxic, low-costs and non-flocculate. This technique have shown significant promise as targeted drug delivery applications. In this investigation, for the first time, we examine the efficacy of targeted therapeutic delivery with t-PA and SK immobilized to biosynthesis of nanoparticles (CuNP) by using Streptococcus equi strains isolated from the horses of Iran and their ability to produce metallic nanoparticles. Also we compared them with their chemical synthesis. The S. equi was screened for its ability to produce MNPs. The minimum size and shapes (23-89 nm) are presented in the formation with good dispersion and high stability. Response Surface methodology was applied for the optimized production of biological CuNPs. The growth factors like pH, temperature and incubation time was changed. The optimum conditions to obtain CuNPs were found with the culture conditions of pH 7.5 in 120 h at 35 °C. To determine some of MNPs structural properties UV-vis absorption spectrophotometer, FTIR, XRD and SEM has characterized. The results provided some parameters may impact on the formation of biological MNPs. Lastly, these MNPs were conjugated with t-PA and SK, as a drug carrier. In addition, effective thrombolysis with magnet-guided SiO2CuNPs-tPA-SK is demonstrated in rat embolism model where 18.6% of the regular t-PA dose and 15.78% of SK dose restored and 15-25 min reductions in blood clot lysis time were observed compared with runs with free t-PA and without magnet-guided and using the same drug dosage. The comparison between CuNPs with MNPs shows that thrombolysis had not been directed to the type of magnetic carrier under the magnetic guide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Two Isoforms of Yersinia pestis Plasminogen Activator Pla: Intraspecies Distribution, Intrinsic Disorder Propensity, and Contribution to Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentovskaya, Svetlana V; Platonov, Mikhail E; Svetoch, Tat'yana E; Kopylov, Pavel Kh; Kombarova, Tat'yana I; Ivanov, Sergey A; Shaikhutdinova, Rima Z; Kolombet, Lyubov' V; Chauhan, Sadhana; Ablamunits, Vitaly G; Motin, Vladimir L; Uversky, Vladimir N; Anisimov, Andrey P

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown previously that several endemic Y. pestis isolates with limited virulence contained the I259 isoform of the outer membrane protease Pla, while the epidemic highly virulent strains possessed only the T259 Pla isoform. Our sequence analysis of the pla gene from 118 Y. pestis subsp. microtus strains revealed that the I259 isoform was present exclusively in the endemic strains providing a convictive evidence of more ancestral origin of this isoform. Analysis of the effects of the I259T polymorphism on the intrinsic disorder propensity of Pla revealed that the I259T mutation slightly increases the intrinsic disorder propensity of the C-terminal tail of Pla and makes this protein slightly more prone for disorder-based protein-protein interactions, suggesting that the T259 Pla could be functionally more active than the I259 Pla. This assumption was proven experimentally by assessing the coagulase and fibrinolytic activities of the two Pla isoforms in human plasma, as well as in a direct fluorometric assay with the Pla peptide substrate. The virulence testing of Pla-negative or expressing the I259 and T259 Pla isoforms Y. pestis subsp. microtus and subsp. pestis strains did not reveal any significant difference in LD50 values and dose-dependent survival assays between them by using a subcutaneous route of challenge of mice and guinea pigs or intradermal challenge of mice. However, a significant decrease in time-to-death was observed in animals infected with the epidemic T259 Pla-producing strains as compared to the parent Pla-negative variants. Survival curves of the endemic I259 Pla+ strains fit between them, but significant difference in mean time to death post infection between the Pla-strains and their I259 Pla+ variants could be seen only in the isogenic set of subsp. pestis strains. These findings suggest an essential role for the outer membrane protease Pla evolution in Y. pestis bubonic infection exacerbation that is necessary for intensification

  20. A combination of desmopressin and docetaxel inhibit cell proliferation and invasion mediated by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in human prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hiroshi; Klotz, Laurence H.; Sugar, Linda M.; Kiss, Alexander; Venkateswaran, Vasundara

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a combination treatment using both desmopressin and docetaxel in prostate cancer treatment. Desmopressin is a well-known synthetic analogue of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin. It has recently been demonstrated to inhibit tumor progression and metastasis in in vivo models. Docetaxel is widely used for the treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. However, durable responses have been uncommon to date. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of desmopressin in combination with docetaxel in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Two prostate cancer cells (PC3, LNCaP) were treated with different concentrations of desmopressin alone, docetaxel alone, and a combination of desmopressin and docetaxel. Cell proliferation was determined by MTS assay. The anti-invasive and anti-migration potential of desmopressin and in combination with docetaxel were examined by wound healing assay, migration chamber assay, and matrigel invasion assay. Results: The combination of desmopressin and docetaxel resulted in a significant inhibition of PC3 and LNCaP cell proliferation (p < 0.01). Additionally, cell migration and invasion were also inhibited by the combination when compared to that of either treatment alone in PC3 cells (p < 0.01). The anti-tumor effect of this combination treatment was associated with down-regulation of both urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in PC3 cells. Conclusions: We are the first to elucidate the anti-tumor and anti-metastatic potential of desmopressin in combination with docetaxel in a prostate cancer model via the uPA-MMP pathway. Our finding could potentially contribute to the therapeutic profile of desmopressin and enhance the efficacy of docetaxel based treatment for CRPC. - Highlights: • Desmopressin inhibits cell proliferation in prostate cancer cells. • The expression of cyclin A and CDK2

  1. Sex-based differences in response to recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in acute ischemic stroke: a pooled analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, David M; Price, Lori Lyn; Ringleb, Peter; Hill, Michael D; Selker, Harry P

    2005-01-01

    Women experience worse outcomes after stroke compared with men. Prior work has suggested sex-based differences in coagulation and fibrinolysis markers in subjects with acute stroke. We explored whether sex might modify the effect of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) on outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Using a combined database including subjects from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), Alteplase Thrombolysis for Acute Noninterventional Therapy in Ischemic Stroke (ATLANTIS) A and B, and the Second European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS II) trials, we examined 90-day outcomes in patients randomized to rtPA versus placebo by sex. We used logistic regression to control for potential confounders. Among 988 women treated between 0 and 6 hours from symptom onset, patients receiving rtPA were significantly more likely than those receiving placebo to have a modified Rankin Score < or =1 (40.5% versus 30.3%, P<0.0008). Among 1190 men, the trend toward benefit in the overall group did not reach statistical significance (38.5% versus 36.7%, P=0.52). An unadjusted analysis showed that women were significantly more likely to benefit from rtPA compared with men (P=0.04). Controlling for age, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, diabetes, symptom onset to treatment time, prior stroke, systolic blood pressure, extent of hypoattenuation on baseline computed tomography scan and several significant interaction terms (including onset to treatment time-by-treatment and systolic blood pressure-by treatment) did not substantially change the strength of the interaction between gender and rtPA treatment (P=0.04). In this pooled analysis of rtPA in acute ischemic stroke, women benefited more than men, and the usual gender difference in outcome favoring men was not observed in the thrombolytic therapy group. For patients presenting at later time intervals, when the risks and benefits of rtPA are more finely

  2. In IgA Nephropathy, Glomerulosclerosis Is Associated with Increased Urinary CD80 Excretion and Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor-Positive Podocyturia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Trimarchi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Podocyturia may determine the evolution to podocytopenia, glomerulosclerosis, and renal failure. According to the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN, the S1 lesion describes glomerulosclerosis. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR participates in podocyte attachment, while CD80 increases in glomerulosclerosis. We measured uPAR-positive urinary podocytes and urinary CD80 (uCD80 in controls and in IgAN subjects with M1E0S0T0 and M1E0S1T0 Oxford scores to assess a potential association between podocyturia, inflammation, and glomerulosclerosis. Methods: The groups were as follows: controls (G1, n = 20 and IgAN group (G2, n = 39, subdivided into M1E0S0T0 (G2A, n = 21 and M1E0S1T0 (G2B, n = 18. Among the included variables, we determined uPAR-positive podocytes/gram of urinary creatinine (gUrCr and uCD80 ng/gUrCr. Biopsies with interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy <10% were included. Results: Groups were not different in age and gender; urinary protein-creatinine (uP/C ratio, Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equation, uPAR-positive podocytes/gUrCr, and uCD80 were significantly increased in G2 versus G1. G2A and G2B were not different in age, gender, hypertension, and follow-up. G2B displayed significantly higher uP/C, uPAR-positive podocytes, uCD80, and lower CKD-EPI versus G2A. Strong significant correlations were encountered between uCD80 and podocyturia in G2A and G2B. However, when G1 was compared to G2A and G2B separately, the differences with respect to uP/C, uPAR-positive podocytes, and podocyturia were significantly stronger versus G2B than versus G2A. Conclusions: IgAN presents elevated uCD80 excretion and uPAR-positive podocyturia, while CD80 correlates with podocyturia. Glomerulosclerosis (S1 at the time of biopsy is associated with higher uP/C, lower renal function, increased uPAR-positive podocyturia, and CD80 excretion, and is independent of M1. In IgAN, uPAR may

  3. The prevalence of 4G/5G polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene in central serous chorioretinopathy and its association with plasma PAI-1 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogutlu Sari, Esin; Yazici, Alper; Eser, Betül; Erol, Muhammet Kazim; Kilic, Adil; Ermis, Sitki Samet; Koytak, Arif; Akşit, Hasan; Yakut, Tahsin

    2014-12-01

    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a poorly understood disease and the choroidal circulation abnormality induced by the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) seems to be associated with the pathogenesis. There are many reports indicating that 4 G/5 G polymorphism of the PAI-1 gene is a risk factor for several diseases related to the elevated serum levels of PAI-1. To evaluate the 4 G/5 G polymorphism of the PAI-1 gene and its association with serum levels of PAI-1 in acute CSCR patients. Sixty CSCR patients and 50 healthy control patients were included. The PAI-1 4 G/5 G was genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction technique. Serum PAI-1 level was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Demographic data consisting of age, sex, body mass index (BMI) as well as genotype disturbances and serum PAI-1 levels were compared between the groups. Statistical significance for differences in the serum PAI-1 levels of each group with different genotypes was also analyzed. The CSCR group consisted of 40 male (66.7%) and 20 female (33.3%) patients with a mean age of 46.7 ± 8.39 years. The control group consisted of 32 male (64%) and 18 female (36%) healthy subjects with a mean age of 45.8 ± 8.39 years. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of age, sex and BMI. In the CSCR group the genotype frequencies were 4 G/4G: 30% (n = 18), 4G/5 G: 50% (n = 30), 5 G/5G: 20% (n = 12) and in the control group genotype frequencies were 34% (n = 17), 42% (n = 21) and 24% (n = 12), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of genotypes among the groups (chi-squared, p = 0.70). The CSCR group had a significantly higher serum PAI-1 concentration than the control group (p = 0.001). In both groups the mean plasma PAI-1 concentration did not vary significantly among the different genotypes (p > 0.05). Although our results demonstrated that the patients with acute CSCR have

  4. Ultrasound-targeted transfection of tissue-type plasminogen activator gene carried by albumin nanoparticles to dog myocardium to prevent thrombosis after heart mechanical valve replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ji Jun, Ji Shang-Yi, Yang Jian-An, He Xia, Yang Xiao-Han, Ling Wen-Ping, Chen Xiao-LingDepartment of Pathology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Shenzhen Sun Yat-Sen Cardiovascular Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: There are more than 300,000 prosthetic heart valve replacements each year worldwide. These patients are faced with a higher risk of thromboembolic events after heart valve surgery and long-term or even life-long anticoagulative and antiplatelet therapies are necessary. Some severe complications such as hemorrhaging or rebound thrombosis can occur when the therapy ceases. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA is a thrombolytic agent. One of the best strategies is gene therapy, which offers a local high expression of t-PA over a prolonged time period to avoid both systemic hemorrhaging and local rebound thrombosis. There are some issues with t-PA that need to be addressed: currently, there is no up-to-date report on how the t-PA gene targets the heart in vivo and the gene vector for t-PA needs to be determined.Aims: To fabricate an albumin nano-t-PA gene ultrasound-targeted agent and investigate its targeting effect on prevention of thrombosis after heart mechanic valve replacement under therapeutic ultrasound.Methods: A dog model of mechanical tricuspid valve replacement was constructed. A highly expressive t-PA gene plasmid was constructed and packaged by nanoparticles prepared with bovine serum albumin. This nanopackaged t-PA gene plasmid was further cross-linked to ultrasonic microbubbles prepared with sucrose and bovine serum albumin to form the ultrasonic-targeted agent for t-PA gene transfection. The agent was given intravenously followed by a therapeutic ultrasound treatment (1 MHz, 1.5 w/cm2, 10 minutes of the heart soon after valve replacement had been performed. The expression of t-PA in myocardium was detected with multiclonal antibodies to t-PA by the indirect immunohistochemical method

  5. A higher body temperature is associated with haemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute stroke untreated with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leira, Rogelio; Sobrino, Tomás; Blanco, Miguel; Campos, Francisco; Rodríguez-Yáñez, Manuel; Castellanos, Mar; Moldes, Octavio; Millán, Mónica; Dávalos, Antoni; Castillo, José

    2012-02-01

    Higher body temperature is a prognostic factor of poor outcome in acute stroke. Our aim was to study the relationship between body temperature, HT (haemorrhagic transformation) and biomarkers of BBB (blood-brain barrier) damage in patients with acute ischaemic stroke untreated with rtPA (recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator). We studied 229 patients with ischaemic stroke <12 h from symptom onset. Body temperature was determined at admission and every 6 h during the first 3 days. HT was evaluated according to ECASS II (second European Co-operative Acute Stroke Study) criteria in a multimodal MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) at 72 h. We found that 55 patients (34.1%) showed HT. HT was associated with cardioembolic stroke (64.2% against 23.0%; P<0.0001), higher body temperature during the first 24 h (36.9°C compared with 36.5°C; P<0.0001), more severe stroke [NIHSS (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale) score, 14 (9-20) against 10 (7-15); P=0.002], and greater DWI (diffusion-weighted imaging) lesion volume at admission (23.2 cc compared with 13.2 cc; P<0.0001). Plasma MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase 9) (187.3 ng/ml compared with 44.2 ng/ml; P<0.0001) and cFn (cellular fibronectin) levels (16.3 μg/ml compared with 7.1 μg/ml; P=0.001) were higher in patients with HT. Body temperature within the first 24 h was independently associated with HT {OR (odds ratio), 7.3 [95% CI (confidence interval), 2.4-22.6]; P<0.0001} after adjustment for cardioembolic stroke subtype, baseline NIHSS score and DWI lesion volume. This effect remained unchanged after controlling for MMP-9 and cFn. In conclusion, high body temperature within the first 24 h after ischaemic stroke is a risk factor for HT in patients untreated with rtPA. This effect is independent of some biological signatures of BBB damage.

  6. Dose De-escalation of Intrapleural Tissue Plasminogen Activator Therapy for Pleural Infection. The Alteplase Dose Assessment for Pleural Infection Therapy Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popowicz, Natalia; Bintcliffe, Oliver; De Fonseka, Duneesha; Blyth, Kevin G; Smith, Nicola A; Piccolo, Francesco; Martin, Geoffrey; Wong, Donny; Edey, Anthony; Maskell, Nick; Lee, Y C Gary

    2017-06-01

    Intrapleural therapy with a combination of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) 10 mg and DNase 5 mg administered twice daily has been shown in randomized and open-label studies to successfully manage over 90% of patients with pleural infection without surgery. Potential bleeding risks associated with intrapleural tPA and its costs remain important concerns. The aim of the ongoing Alteplase Dose Assessment for Pleural infection Therapy (ADAPT) project is to investigate the efficacy and safety of dose de-escalation for intrapleural tPA. The first of several planned studies is presented here. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a reduced starting dose regimen of 5 mg of tPA with 5 mg of DNase administered intrapleurally for pleural infection. Consecutive patients with pleural infection at four participating centers in Australia, the United Kingdom, and New Zealand were included in this observational, open-label study. Treatment was initiated with tPA 5 mg and DNase 5 mg twice daily. Subsequent dose escalation was permitted at the discretion of the attending physician. Data relating to treatment success, radiological and systemic inflammatory changes (blood C-reactive protein), volume of fluid drained, length of hospital stay, and treatment complications were extracted retrospectively from the medical records. We evaluated 61 patients (41 males; age, 57 ± 16 yr). Most patients (n = 58 [93.4%]) were successfully treated without requiring surgery for pleural infection. Treatment success was corroborated by clearance of pleural opacities visualized by chest radiography (from 42% [interquartile range, 22-58] to 16% [8-31] of hemithorax; P < 0.001), increase in pleural fluid drainage (from 175 ml in the 24 h preceding treatment to 2,025 ml [interquartile range, 1,247-2,984] over 72 h of therapy; P <  0.05) and a reduction in blood C-reactive protein (P < 0.05). Seven patients (11.5%) had dose escalation of tPA to 10 mg. Three patients underwent

  7. Additional endovascular therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke who are nonresponsive to intravenous tissue plasminogen activator: usefulness of magnetic resonance angiography-diffusion mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Tomohisa; Deguchi, Ichiro; Fukuoka, Takuya; Nagoya, Harumitsu; Maruyama, Hajime; Kato, Yuji; Horiuchi, Yohsuke; Ohe, Yasuko; Tanahashi, Norio

    2013-10-01

    In patients who are not responsive to intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV t-PA), the present study aimed to report recanalization rates, the incidence of hemorrhagic transformation (HT), and clinical outcomes of additional endovascular therapy (AET), and to investigate the usefulness of magnetic resonance angiography-diffusion mismatch (MDM) in a selection of patients eligible for AET. Fifty-eight patients who received IV t-PA therapy because of intracranial major artery occlusion between April 2007 and November 2010 were divided into 2 groups: 18 patients in the AET group and 21 patients in the IV t-PA nonresponders group. The remaining 19 patients were responders to IV t-PA and therefore not eligible for this study. Recanalization rates, HT incidence, and 3-month outcomes were assessed, and the relationship between MDM and clinical outcome was examined. A 3-month modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0 to 3 was seen more frequently in the AET group (72% in the AET group v 29% in the nonresponder group; P = .01). Serious outcomes (3-month mRS of 5-6) were seen significantly less often in the AET group (17%) than in the nonresponder group (57%; P = .019). There were no differences in the incidence of HT. In the AET group, reappraisal considering MDM revealed a significantly higher rate of a 3-month mRS of 0 to 3 in the MDM-positive group compared to the MDM-negative group (86% v 25%, respectively; P = .044). Serious outcomes were observed significantly less frequently in the MDM-positive group compared to the MDM-negative group (0% v 75%, respectively; P = .005). AET for nonresponders to IV t-PA was safe, improved recanalization rates, and led to better prognoses. MDM was a very good predictor of improved prognosis in a selection of eligible patients for AET after IV t-PA. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploiting subsite S1 of trypsin-like serine proteases for selectivity: potent and selective inhibitors of urokinase-type plasminogen activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackman, R L; Katz, B A; Breitenbucher, J G; Hui, H C; Verner, E; Luong, C; Liu, L; Sprengeler, P A

    2001-11-08

    A nonselective inhibitor of trypsin-like serine proteases, 2-(2-hydroxybiphenyl-3-yl)-1H-indole-5-carboxamidine (1) (Verner, E.; Katz, B. A.; Spencer, J.; Allen, D.; Hataye, J.; Hruzewicz, W.; Hui, H. C.; Kolesnikov, A.; Li, Y.; Luong, C.; Martelli, A.; Radika. K.; Rai, R.; She, M.; Shrader, W.; Sprengeler, P. A.; Trapp, S.; Wang, J.; Young, W. B.; Mackman, R. L. J. Med. Chem. 2001, 44, 2753-2771) has been optimized through minor structural changes on the S1 binding group to afford remarkably selective and potent inhibitors of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). The trypsin-like serine proteases(1) that comprise drug targets can be broadly categorized into two subfamilies, those with Ser190 and those with Ala190. A single-atom modification, for example, replacement of hydrogen for chlorine at the 6-position of the 5-amidinoindole P1 group on 1, generated up to 6700-fold selectivity toward the Ser190 enzymes and against the Ala190 enzymes. The larger chlorine atom displaces a water molecule (H(2)O1(S1)) that binds near residue 190 in all the complexes of 1, and related inhibitors, in uPA, thrombin, and trypsin. The water molecule, H(2)O1(S1), in both the Ser190 or Ala190 enzymes, hydrogen bonds with the amidine N1 nitrogen of the inhibitor. When it is displaced, a reduction in affinity toward the Ala190 enzymes is observed due to the amidine N1 nitrogen of the bound inhibitor being deprived of a key hydrogen-bonding partner. In the Ser190 enzymes the affinity is maintained since the serine hydroxyl oxygen O gamma(Ser190) compensates for the displaced water molecule. High-resolution crystallography provided evidence for the displacement of the water molecule and validated the design rationale. In summation, a novel and powerful method for engineering selectivity toward Ser190 proteases and against Ala190 proteases without substantially increasing molecular weight is described.

  9. Role of functional plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1 4G/5G promoter polymorphism in susceptibility, severity, and outcome of meningococcal disease in Caucasian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralambous, Elene; Hibberd, Martin L; Hermans, Peter W M; Ninis, Nelly; Nadel, Simon; Levin, Michael

    2003-12-01

    Meningococcal sepsis invariably is associated with coagulopathy. We have previously reported an association between mortality rate in meningococcal disease and the functional 4G/5G promoter polymorphism of the plasminogen-activator-inhibitor (PAI)-1 gene in a small patient cohort. In a much larger cohort, we aimed to confirm these results and further investigate the role of the 4G/5G polymorphism in determining susceptibility, outcome, and complications of disease.DESIGN Susceptibility was investigated in two separate studies, a case-control study and a family-based transmission study, each test using a separate patient cohort. Severity was investigated using clinical diagnosis, the presence of vascular complications, Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM)-predicted morality, and actual mortality. University hospital and laboratories. Subjects were 510 UK pediatric patients, 210 parents of patients, and 155 UK Caucasian controls. DNA extraction and 4G/5G PAI-1 genotyping was carried out using published techniques. Predicted mortality distribution differed significantly between genotypes (p =.05) with a significantly higher median PRISM in the 4G/4G (41.1%) than the 4G/5G (23.4%) and 5G/5G (19.0%) genotyped patients combined (p =.02). Actual mortality rate was significantly associated with both genotype (chi-square = 14.8, p =.001) and allele frequencies (chi-square = 14.0, p <.0001), with more deaths in the 4G/4G (28.4%) than the 4G/5G and 5G/5G genotyped patients combined (14.9%; chi-square = 7.9; p =.005; risk ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.0). Logistic regression indicated a 40% and 91% reduction in the odds of dying if a patient was either 4G/5G or 5G/5G, respectively, in comparison to a 4G homozygous patient. When analyzed by clinical diagnosis, the association with death was found only in the sepsis group (chi-square = 18.7, p <.0001; risk ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-4.6). In survivors of disease, a significantly higher proportion of 4G

  10. Association of the 4 g/5 g polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene with sudden sensorineural hearing loss. A case control study

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    Cho Seong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 5 G/5 G genotype of PAI-1 polymorphism is linked to decreased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 levels and it has been suggested that lower PAI-1 levels may provide protective effects on inflammation, local microcirculatory disturbance, and fibrotic changes, which are likely associated with development of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL. Methods The association of the 4 G/5 G PAI-1 polymorphism with the development and clinical outcome of SSNHL is evaluated via a case control study. 103 patients with SSNHL and 113 age and sex-matched controls were enrolled at University of Ferrara, Italy and hearing loss outcome was measured at least 3 months after the onset of hearing loss. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood using the QIAamp kit and the 4 G/5 G polymorphism in the −675 promoter region was genotyped with an allele-specific PCR. Genotype distribution was tested in patients and compared to controls by chi-square and odd-ratio analysis. The codominant and recessive models were used for the multiple logistic regression analyses of the PAI-1 gene allele. Results In this population, 5 G/5 G genotype had a two-time lower frequency in SSNHL patients compared to healthy controls (15.5% vs 30.1% and was associated with decreased odds compared to 4 G/5 G genotype (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.75, p = 0.005. In addition, the patients with 5 G/5 G genotype showed a trend of more than 2 times higher ratio of hearing recovery (> 20 dB after systemic corticosteroid treatment compared to 4 G/5 G genotype (OR 2.3, 95% CI 0.32 - 16.83, p = 0.39, suggesting a better clinical outcome. Conclusions The 5 G/5 G genotype of PAI-1 may be associated with a reduced risk of SSNHL in the Italian population.

  11. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G and the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphisms and susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ho; Song, Gwan Gyu

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C/T polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the association between the PAI-1 4G/5G and MTHFR 677C/T polymorphisms and PCOS using: (1) allele contrast (2) homozygote contrast, (3) recessive, and (4) dominant models. For meta-analysis, nine studies of the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism with 2384 subjects (PCOS, 1615; controls, 769) and eight studies of the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism with 1270 study subjects were included. Meta-analysis of all study subjects showed no association between PCOS and the PAI-1 4G allele (OR=0.949, 95% CI=0.671-1.343, p=0.767). Stratification by ethnicity, however, indicated a significant association between the PAI-1 4G allele and PCOS in Turkish and Asian populations (OR=0.776, 95% CI=0.602-0.999, p=0.049; OR=1.749, 95% CI=1.297-2.359, p=2.5×10(-5) respectively). In addition, meta-analysis indicated an association between PCOS and the PAI-1 4G4G+4G5G genotype in Europeans (OR=1.406, 95% CI=1.025-1.928, p=0.035). However, meta-analysis of all study subjects showed no association between PCOS and the MTHFR 677T allele (OR=0.998, 95% CI=0.762-1.307, p=0.989), including Europeans (OR=0.806, 95% CI=0.610-1.063, p=0.126). Meta-analysis showed no association between PCOS and the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism using homozygote contrast, and recessive and dominant models. In conclusion, meta-analysis suggests the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to PCOS in European, Turkish, and Asian populations, but the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism is not associated with susceptibility to PCOS in Europeans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A combination of desmopressin and docetaxel inhibit cell proliferation and invasion mediated by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in human prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Hiroshi; Klotz, Laurence H. [Division of Urology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON (Canada); Sugar, Linda M. [Department of Pathology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON (Canada); Kiss, Alexander [Department of Research Design and Biostatistics, Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON (Canada); Venkateswaran, Vasundara, E-mail: vasundara.venkateswaran@sunnybrook.ca [Division of Urology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-08-28

    Background: This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a combination treatment using both desmopressin and docetaxel in prostate cancer treatment. Desmopressin is a well-known synthetic analogue of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin. It has recently been demonstrated to inhibit tumor progression and metastasis in in vivo models. Docetaxel is widely used for the treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. However, durable responses have been uncommon to date. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of desmopressin in combination with docetaxel in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Two prostate cancer cells (PC3, LNCaP) were treated with different concentrations of desmopressin alone, docetaxel alone, and a combination of desmopressin and docetaxel. Cell proliferation was determined by MTS assay. The anti-invasive and anti-migration potential of desmopressin and in combination with docetaxel were examined by wound healing assay, migration chamber assay, and matrigel invasion assay. Results: The combination of desmopressin and docetaxel resulted in a significant inhibition of PC3 and LNCaP cell proliferation (p < 0.01). Additionally, cell migration and invasion were also inhibited by the combination when compared to that of either treatment alone in PC3 cells (p < 0.01). The anti-tumor effect of this combination treatment was associated with down-regulation of both urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in PC3 cells. Conclusions: We are the first to elucidate the anti-tumor and anti-metastatic potential of desmopressin in combination with docetaxel in a prostate cancer model via the uPA-MMP pathway. Our finding could potentially contribute to the therapeutic profile of desmopressin and enhance the efficacy of docetaxel based treatment for CRPC. - Highlights: • Desmopressin inhibits cell proliferation in prostate cancer cells. • The expression of cyclin A and CDK2

  13. Evidence for a novel O-linked sialylated trisaccharide on Ser-248 of human plasminogen 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie-Shepherd, S R; Stevens, R D; Andon, N L; Enghild, J J; Pizzo, S V

    1997-03-14

    Human plasminogen, the inactive precursor of plasmin, exists in two major glycoforms. Plasminogen 1 contains an N-linked oligosaccharide at Asn-289 and an O-linked oligosaccharide at Thr-345. Plasminogen 2 is known to contain only an O-linked oligosaccharide at Thr-345. However, plasminogen 2 displays a further well documented microheterogeneity dependent on the N-acetylneuraminic acid content, which has functional consequences with regard to activation of plasminogen. The proposed structure and number of known oligosaccharide linkages in plasminogen 2 is insufficient to account for this microheterogeneity. In the present study, a combination of trypsin digestion, lectin affinity chromatography, Edman degradation amino acid sequence analysis, carbohydrate composition analysis, and mass spectrometry revealed the existence of a novel site for O-linked glycosylation on plasminogen 2 at Ser-248. Direct evidence for the structure of the carbohydrate was obtained from a combination of lectin affinity chromatography, desialylation experiments, and mass spectrometry analysis. These findings provide a structural basis for some of the observed microheterogeneity, and have implications with regard to the known functional consequences of the extent of sialylation of plasminogen.

  14. Plasminogen and angiostatin levels in female benign breast lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tykhomyrov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known that benign breast tissue exhibit relatively low angiogenic capacity. Activation of angiogenesis in mammary pre-malignant lesions could be associated with disease progression and high risk of transformation into the breast cancer. However, insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in angiogenesis regulation in non-cancerous breast pathologies is still poorly defined. The purpose of the present study was to determine levels of plasminogen and its proteolytic fragments (angiostatins in mammary dysplasia (mastopathy and breast cyst and benign neoplasms (fibroadenomas. Plasminogen and angiostatins were analyzed using immunoblotting and quantified by densitometric scanning. The significant increase in plasminogen levels was found in fibrocystic, cysts, and non-proliferatious fibroadenoma masses (4.7-, 3.7-, and 3.5-fold, respectively compared to healthy breast tissues (control. In the same benign lesions, 6.7-, 4-, and 3.7-fold increase in plasminogen 50 kDa fragment (angiostatin levels as compared with control were also observed. Activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9, which was detected using gelatine zymography, could be responsible for plasminogen cleavage and abundance of angiostatin in fibrocystic and cyst masses. In contrast, dramatic decrease of both plasminogen and angiostatin levels (3.8- and 5.3-folds, respectively was shown in tissues of proliferatious form of fibroadenoma in comparison with that of the dormant type of this neoplasm. Based on the obtained results, we concluded that angiostatin, a potent vessel growth inhibitor and anti-inflammatory molecule, can play a crucial role in pathophysiology of non-cancerous breast diseases. Further studies are needed to evaluate potential diagnostic and clinical implications of these proteins for prediction and therapy of benign breast pathologies.

  15. Failure to lyse venous thrombi because of elevated plasminogen activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and 4G polymorphism of its promotor genome (The PAI-1/4G Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Murray M; McCarthy, Nancy

    2010-10-01

    Plasminogen activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) inhibits plasminogen activators leading to decreased fibrinolysis and increased risk of thromboembolic disease (TED). Shifts in PAI-1 promoter genome from normal 5G>5G to 4G>5G or 4G>4G alleles are associated with overexpression of PAI-1. In this study patients with residual venous thrombi were observed to have increased PAI-1 levels and more frequent shifts to 4G alleles. Of the 26, 20 (76.9%) patients with unresolved thrombus had elevated PAI-1 values. 4G genomic shifts were found in 92.9% patients studied. Normal PAI-1 levels were found in 5 patients with 4G polymorphisms. Thus, PAI-1 is often elevated among patients with residual thrombus, with an unexpectedly high prevalence of the 4G polymorphism of the promoter genome. Patients with persistent thrombus should be considered at risk of having constituently increased PAI-1 due to genomic changes in the PAI-1 promoter genome. Hypotheses are proposed to explain those with normal PAI-1, despite having 4G polymorphisms.

  16. Does current oral antiplatelet agent or subtherapeutic anticoagulation use have an effect on tissue-plasminogen-activator-mediated recanalization rate in patients with acute ischemic stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Sebastian, Joseph; Hussain, Muhammad; Al-Hussain, Fawaz; Uchino, Ken; Molina, Carlos; Khan, Khurshid; Demchuk, Andrew M; Alexandrov, Andrei V; Saqqur, Maher

    2010-01-01

    Our goal is to assess if current antiplatelet (AP) use has an effect on recanalization rate and outcome in acute stroke patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of acute stroke patients who received intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and had transcranial Doppler examination within 3 h of symptom onset. The TCD findings were interpreted using the Thrombolysis in Brain Ischemia flow grading system as persistent arterial occlusion, reocclusion or complete recanalization. Complete recanalization was defined as established Thrombolysis in Brain Ischemia 4 or 5 within 2 h of IV rt-PA. The patients were divided based on their current use of AP agents. Comparisons were made between the different groups based on recanalziation rate, reocclusion and good long-term outcome (mRS ≤ 2) using χ(2) test. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify AP use as a predictor for recanalization and outcome including symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage after controlling for age, baseline NIHSS score, time to treatment, previous vascular event, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Two hundred and eighty-four patients were included; 154 (54%) males, 130 (46%) females, with a mean age of 69.5 ± 13 years. The median baseline NIHSS score was 16 ± 5. The median time to TCD examination was 131 ± 38 min from symptom onset. The median time to IV rt-PA was 140 ± 34 min. One hundred eighty patients were not on AP prior to their stroke, 76 were on aspirin, 15 were on clopidogrel, 2 were on aspirin-dipyridamole combination, 2 were on both aspirin and clopidogrel, and 9 patients on subtherapeutic coumadin. In patients who were naïve to AP, 68/178 (38.2%) had complete recanalization, whereas in the AP group, 25/91 (28%) had complete recanalization. Patients on aspirin alone had a lower recanalization rate (16/72) as compared to those not on AP (22 vs. 39%) (p = 0.017), while those on clopidogrel had higher rates of complete recanalization (9/19, 60

  17. Flavonol-enriched fraction from Vaccinium macrocarpon fruit inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression in human prostate cancer cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James MacPhee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer, amongst other cancer types has a genetic and environmental component, which can contribute to prostate cancer development and progression. Vaccinum macrocarpon (American cranberry is a botanical that contains several phytochemicals which have been suggested to play a role in preventing cardiovascular disease, cancer, and urinary tract infections as well as in the maintenance of oral health. Context and purpose of this study: This investigation evaluated the effects of a flavonolenriched fraction (FL from the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon containing quercetin and myricetin glycosides on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA activities and their associated regulatory proteins in DU145 human prostate cancer cells in vitro. Results: A flavonol-enriched fraction (FL was prepared from Vaccinium macrocarpon berries and the effect of this fraction on prostate cancer cell behaviour was assessed using biochemical and molecular approaches including cytotoxicity assays and Western blot analysis to determine protein expression. Cranberry FL decreased cellular viability of DU145 cells at a concentration of 25 ug/ml by 20% after 6 hours of treatment. Further investigations determined that associated with this cytotoxicity, cranberry FL decreases matrix metalloproteinase (MMP ( specifically MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA activity through effects on specific temporal MMP regulators and uPA regulators and by affecting either the phosphorylation status and/or expression of specific MAP kinase, PI-3 kinase, NF-kB and AP-1 pathway associated proteins. Conclusion: This study demonstrates, for the first time, the ability of Vaccinium macrocarpon flavonols to modulate cellular pathways associated with migration, invasion, and proliferation, suggesting that cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon is a viable candidate for further research as a natural product that

  18. The pro-inflammatory biomarker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is associated with incident type 2 diabetes among overweight but not obese individuals with impaired glucose regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heraclides, A; Jensen, T M; Rasmussen, S S

    2013-01-01

    Treatment in People with Screen-Detected Diabetes in Primary Care (ADDITION) and for whom data on suPAR, BMI and smoking were available. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds for incident type 2 diabetes per twofold increase in suPAR levels. Interactions between both smoking and body......Recent evidence links the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), a stable biomarker of systemic immune activation, to several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes. suPAR is also associated with adiposity and smoking. We hypothesised that this biomarker would be linked...... to incident type 2 diabetes in individuals with impaired glucose regulation and that this association would be modified by smoking and body weight status. The study included 1,933 participants with impaired glucose regulation, who were drawn from the Danish arm of the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive...

  19. Active Free Surface Density Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelen, S.

    2016-10-01

    Percolation problems were occupied to many physical problems after their establishment in 1957 by Broadbent and Hammersley. They can be used to solve complex systems such as bone remodeling. Volume fraction method was adopted to set some algorithms in the literature. However, different rate of osteoporosis could be observed for different microstructures which have the same mass density, mechanical stimuli, hormonal stimuli and nutrition. Thus it was emphasized that the bone might have identical porosity with different specific surfaces. Active free surface density of bone refers the used total area for its effective free surface. The purpose of this manuscript is to consolidate a mathematical approach which can be called as “active free surface density maps” for different surface patterns and derive their formulations. Active free surface density ratios were calculated for different Archimedean lattice models according to Helmholtz free energy and they were compared with their site and bond percolation thresholds from the background studies to derive their potential probability for bone remodeling.

  20. Endogenously generated plasmin at the vascular wall injury site amplifies lysine binding site-dependent plasminogen accumulation in microthrombi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Brzoska

    Full Text Available The fibrinolytic system plays a pivotal role in the regulation of hemostasis; however, it remains unclear how and when the system is triggered to induce thrombolysis. Using intra-vital confocal fluorescence microscopy, we investigated the process of plasminogen binding to laser-induced platelet-rich microthrombi generated in the mesenteric vein of transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP. The accumulation of GFP-expressing platelets as well as exogenously infused Alexa Fluor 568-labeled Glu-plasminogen (Glu-plg on the injured vessel wall was assessed by measuring the increase in the corresponding fluorescence intensities. Glu-plg accumulated in a time-dependent manner in the center of the microthrombus, where phosphatidylserine is exposed on platelet surfaces and fibrin formation takes place. The rates of binding of Glu-plg in the presence of ε-aminocaproic acid and carboxypeptidase B, as well as the rates of binding of mini-plasminogen lacking kringle domains 1-4 and lysine binding sites, were significantly lower than that of Glu-plg alone, suggesting that the binding was dependent on lysine binding sites. Furthermore, aprotinin significantly suppressed the accumulation of Glu-plg, suggesting that endogenously generated plasmin activity is a prerequisite for the accumulation. In spite of the endogenous generation of plasmin and accumulation of Glu-plg in the center of microthrombi, the microthrombi did not change in size during the 2-hour observation period. When human tissue plasminogen activator was administered intravenously, Glu-plg further accumulated and the microthrombi were lysed. Glu-plg appeared to accumulate in the center of microthrombi in the early phase of microthrombus formation, and plasmin activity and lysine binding sites were required for this accumulation.

  1. Plasminogen Deficiency Delays the Onset and Protects from Demyelination and Paralysis in Autoimmune Neuroinflammatory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Maureen A; Gao, Zhen; McElhinney, Kathryn E; Thornton, Sherry; Flick, Matthew J; Lane, Adam; Degen, Jay L; Ryu, Jae Kyu; Akassoglou, Katerina; Mullins, Eric S

    2017-04-05

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory, demyelinating disease of the CNS. Fibrinogen deposition at sites of blood-brain barrier breakdown is a prominent feature of neuroinflammatory disease and contributes to disease severity. Plasminogen, the primary fibrinolytic enzyme, also modifies inflammatory processes. We used a murine model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), to evaluate the hypothesis that the loss of plasminogen would exacerbate neuroinflammatory disease. However, contrary to initial expectations, EAE-challenged plasminogen-deficient (Plg - ) mice developed significantly delayed disease onset and reduced disease severity compared with wild-type (Plg + ) mice. Similarly, pharmacologic inhibition of plasmin activation with tranexamic acid also delayed disease onset. The T-cell response to immunization was similar between genotypes, suggesting that the contribution of plasminogen was downstream of the T-cell response. Spinal cords from EAE-challenged Plg - mice demonstrated significantly decreased demyelination and microglial/macrophage accumulation compared with Plg + mice. Although fibrinogen-deficient mice or mice with combined deficiencies of plasminogen and fibrinogen had decreased EAE severity, they did not exhibit the delay in EAE disease onset, as seen in mice with plasminogen deficiency alone. Together, these data suggest that plasminogen and plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis is a key modifier of the onset of neuroinflammatory demyelination. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Multiple sclerosis is a severe, chronic, demyelinating disease. Understanding the pathobiology related to the autoreactive T-cell and microglial/macrophage demyelinating response is critical to effectively target therapeutics. We describe for the first time that deficiency of plasminogen, the key fibrinolytic enzyme, delays disease onset and protects from the development of the paralysis associated with a murine model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune

  2. The sGC activator inhibits the proliferation and migration, promotes the apoptosis of human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells via the up regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuai [Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Chao-yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, 8 Gongti South Rd, Beijing (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Respiratory and Pulmonary Circulation Disorders, 8 Gongti South Rd, Beijing (China); Zou, Lihui [Institute of Geriatrics, Beijing Hospital, 1 Dahua Rd, Beijing (China); National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, 1 Dahua Rd, Beijing (China); Yang, Ting; Yang, Yuanhua; Zhai, Zhenguo [Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Chao-yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, 8 Gongti South Rd, Beijing (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Respiratory and Pulmonary Circulation Disorders, 8 Gongti South Rd, Beijing (China); Xiao, Fei [Institute of Geriatrics, Beijing Hospital, 1 Dahua Rd, Beijing (China); National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, 1 Dahua Rd, Beijing (China); Wang, Chen, E-mail: chenwangcjfh@163.com [Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Chao-yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, 8 Gongti South Rd, Beijing (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Respiratory and Pulmonary Circulation Disorders, 8 Gongti South Rd, Beijing (China); National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, 1 Dahua Rd, Beijing (China)

    2015-03-15

    Background: Different types of pulmonary hypertension (PH) share the same process of pulmonary vascular remodeling, the molecular mechanism of which is not entirely clarified by far. The abnormal biological behaviors of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) play an important role in this process. Objectives: We investigated the regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) by the sGC activator, and explored the effect of PAI-2 on PASMCs proliferation, apoptosis and migration. Methods: After the transfection with PAI-2 overexpression vector and specific siRNAs or treatment with BAY 41-2272 (an activator of sGC), the mRNA and protein levels of PAI-2 in cultured human PASMCs were detected, and the proliferation, apoptosis and migration of PASMCs were investigated. Results: BAY 41-2272 up regulated the endogenous PAI-2 in PASMCs, on the mRNA and protein level. In PAI-2 overexpression group, the proliferation and migration of PASMCs were inhibited significantly, and the apoptosis of PASMCs was increased. In contrast, PAI-2 knockdown with siRNA increased PASMCs proliferation and migration, inhibited the apoptosis. Conclusions: PAI-2 overexpression inhibits the proliferation and migration and promotes the apoptosis of human PASMCs. Therefore, sGC activator might alleviate or reverse vascular remodeling in PH through the up-regulation of PAI-2. - Highlights: • sGC activator BAY41-2272 up regulated PAI-2 in PASMCs, on the mRNA and protein level. • PAI-2 overexpression inhibits the proliferation and migration of human PASMCs. • PAI-2 overexpression promotes the apoptosis of human PASMCs. • sGC activator might alleviate the vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension.

  3. The sGC activator inhibits the proliferation and migration, promotes the apoptosis of human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells via the up regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shuai; Zou, Lihui; Yang, Ting; Yang, Yuanhua; Zhai, Zhenguo; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different types of pulmonary hypertension (PH) share the same process of pulmonary vascular remodeling, the molecular mechanism of which is not entirely clarified by far. The abnormal biological behaviors of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) play an important role in this process. Objectives: We investigated the regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) by the sGC activator, and explored the effect of PAI-2 on PASMCs proliferation, apoptosis and migration. Methods: After the transfection with PAI-2 overexpression vector and specific siRNAs or treatment with BAY 41-2272 (an activator of sGC), the mRNA and protein levels of PAI-2 in cultured human PASMCs were detected, and the proliferation, apoptosis and migration of PASMCs were investigated. Results: BAY 41-2272 up regulated the endogenous PAI-2 in PASMCs, on the mRNA and protein level. In PAI-2 overexpression group, the proliferation and migration of PASMCs were inhibited significantly, and the apoptosis of PASMCs was increased. In contrast, PAI-2 knockdown with siRNA increased PASMCs proliferation and migration, inhibited the apoptosis. Conclusions: PAI-2 overexpression inhibits the proliferation and migration and promotes the apoptosis of human PASMCs. Therefore, sGC activator might alleviate or reverse vascular remodeling in PH through the up-regulation of PAI-2. - Highlights: • sGC activator BAY41-2272 up regulated PAI-2 in PASMCs, on the mRNA and protein level. • PAI-2 overexpression inhibits the proliferation and migration of human PASMCs. • PAI-2 overexpression promotes the apoptosis of human PASMCs. • sGC activator might alleviate the vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension

  4. Association of PAI-1 4G/5G and -844G/A gene polymorphisms and changes in PAI-1/tissue plasminogen activator levels in myocardial infarction: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Nesrine; Ghazouani, Lakhdar; Saidi, Sarra; Ben-Hadj-Khalifa, Sonia; Addad, Fawzi; Almawi, Wassim Y; Mahjoub, Touhami

    2010-02-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is induced by acquired and inherited risk factors, including the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) -844G/A and -675G/A (4G/5G) gene variants. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between PAI-1-844G/A and 4G/5G polymorphisms and changes in PAI-1 and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) levels in MI in a Tunisian population. This was a case-control study involving 305 patients with MI and 328 unrelated healthy controls. PAI-1 genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) (-844G/A) or by polymerase chain reaction-allele specific amplification. PAI-1 and tPA levels were assayed by serological assays. In contrast to tPA levels, mean plasma PAI-1 antigen levels were higher in cases than in control subjects. The elevation in PAI-1 levels was more pronounced in -844A and 4G allele carriers. Significantly higher frequencies of (mutant) 4G and -844A alleles and 4G/4G and -844A/-844A genotypes, and corresponding lower frequencies of (wild-type) 5G and -844G alleles and 5G/5G and -844G/-844G genotypes were seen in patients than in controls. Increased prevalence of 4G/-844A and decreased prevalence of 5G/-844G haplotypes were seen in patients than in controls, thereby conferring a susceptibility and protective nature to these haplotypes, respectively. Regression analysis confirmed the independent association of 4G/4G and -844A/A with MI, after controlling for a number of covariates. This study indicated that the risk of MI was notably high in 4G and -844A carriers with elevated plasma PAI-1 and were associated with reduced tPA levels.

  5. Hydroxamic acid surface active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sawy, A. A.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available p-Hydroxy phenyloctadecanol and p-hydroxy phenyloctadecanoic acid were used as new precursors for the preparation of surface active hydroxamic acid including different moles of propylene oxide. The hydroxamic acid was prepared by the reaction of propenoxylated products with sodium chloroacetate, followed by methyl esterification and the resultant product reacted with hydroxyl amine hydrochloride to give the hydroxamic acid. The structures of prepared hydroxamic acid were confirmed by spectroscopic study. The surface activity of prepared hydroxamic acid was studied; the results revealed that, the prepared hydroxamic acid has pronounced surface activity, the alcohol substrate shows a surface activity superior than the acid substrate.Se han utilizado el p-hidroxifeniloctadecanol y el ácido p-hidroxifeniloctadecanoico como nuevos precursores para la preparación de tensioactivos derivados del ácido hidroxámico, que incluyen diferentes moles de óxido de propileno. El ácido hidroxámico se preparó por reacción de los productos propenoxilados con cloroacetato sódico, seguido de la formación de ésteres metílicos, y los productos resultantes se hicieron reaccionar con clorhidrato de hidroxilamina para dar los derivados del ácido hidroxámico. Las estructuras de los derivados preparados del ácido hidroxámico, se confirmaron por técnicas espectroscópicas, estudiándose su actividad superficial cuyos resultados mostraron que dichos compuestos tenían un alto valor. La actividad superficial del sustrato alcohólico fue mayor que la del sustrato ácido.

  6. Ginkgo biloba Extract (EGb 761®) Inhibits Glutamate-induced Up-regulation of Tissue Plasminogen Activator Through Inhibition of c-Fos Translocation in Rat Primary Cortical Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu Suk; Lee, Ian Myungwon; Sim, Seobo; Lee, Eun Joo; Gonzales, Edson Luck; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young; Kwon, Kyoung Ja; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    EGb 761(®) , a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves, has antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties in experimental models of neurodegenerative disorders such as stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) acts a neuromodulator and plays a crucial role in the manifestation of neurotoxicity leading to exaggerated neuronal cell death in neurological insult conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of EGb 761 on the basal and glutamate-induced activity and expression of tPA in rat primary cortical neurons. Under basal condition, EGb 761 inhibited both secreted and cellular tPA activities, without altering tPA mRNA level, as modulated by the activation of p38. Compared with basal condition, EGb 761 inhibited the glutamate-induced up-regulation of tPA mRNA resulting in the normalization of overt tPA activity and expression. c-Fos is a component of AP-1, which plays a critical role in the modulation of tPA expression. Interestingly, EGb 761 inhibited c-Fos nuclear translocation without affecting c-Fos expression in glutamate-induced rat primary cortical neurons. These results demonstrated that EGb 761 can modulate tPA activity under basal and glutamate-stimulated conditions by both translational and transcriptional mechanisms. Thus, EGb 761 could be a potential and effective therapeutic strategy in tPA-excessive neurotoxic conditions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC and its impact on angiogenesis, progression and patient survival after radical nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidal Tomas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the expression of type 1 plasminogen inhibitor (PAI-1 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC, and its possible association with microvessel density (MVD, the expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1, nuclear grade, tumour stage, continuously coded tumour size (CCTS and to assess the value of PAI as a prognostic marker in 162 patients with CCRCC treated with radical nephrectomy. Methods A total of 172 consecutive patients with CCRCC treated with radical nephrectomy were enrolled in the study. The expression of PAI-1, TSP-1 and factor VIII were analysed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues without knowledge of the clinical outcome. Ten cases, where PAI-1 immunohistochemistry was not possible due to technical problems and lack of material, were excluded. Sixty-nine patients (43% died of RCC, while 47 patients (29% died of other diseases. Median follow-up was 13.8 years for the surviving 46 patients (28%. Results Nine percent of the tumours showed PAI-1 positivity. High expression of PAI-1 was significantly inversely correlated with TSP-1 (p = 0.046 and directly with advanced stage (p = 0.008, high NG (3+4 (p = 0.002, tumour size (p = 0.011, microvessel density (p = 0.049 and disease progression (p = 0.002. In univariate analysis PAI-1 was a significant prognosticator of cancer-specific survival (CSS (p Conclusions PAI-1 was found to be an independently significant prognosticator of CSS and a promoter of tumour angiogenesis, aggressiveness and progression in CCRCC.

  8. Surface active monomers synthesis, properties, and application

    CERN Document Server

    Borzenkov, Mykola

    2014-01-01

    This brief includes information on the background?of and development of synthesis of various types of surface active monomers. The authors explain the importance of utilization of surface active monomers for creation of surface active polymers? and the various biomedical applications of such compounds . This brief introduces techniques for the synthesis of novel types of surface active monomers, their colloidal and polymerizable properties and application for needs of medicine and biology.

  9. Recanalization rate and clinical outcome of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator at 0.6 mg/kg and intra-arterial urokinase in acute ischemic stroke with large vessel occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Kazuya; Ohnishi, Hideyuki; Taomoto, Katsushi

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the recanalization rate and clinical outcome of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and intra-arterial urokinase (PTA) in acute ischemic stroke with large vessel occlusion. The recanalization of the occlusion site and the ischemic change were evaluated with pre-and post-treated MRI and MR angiography (MRA). Total recanalization rates after the intravenous (IV) t-PA and the PTA therapy were 35.6 and 21.9%, respectively. These rates were 50.0 and 16.7% in the distal middle cerebral artery (MCA), 52.6 and 25.0% in the proximal MCA, 6.3 and 5.3% in the internal carotid artery (ICA), 25.0 and 26.3% in the basilar artery (BA), respectively. The rates of the symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage after IV t-PA and PTA were 0 and 5.2%, respectively. The proportion of modified Rankin Scale (mRS) of 0 to 1 at 3 months after treatments were 17.4% in IV t-PA and 12.5% in PTA. Our results indicated better recanalization rate and outcome of MCA with t-PA than that of PTA. However, the recanalization rate of ICA and BA were very poor in both t-PA and PTA as yet. It is necessary to investigate newly strategies and/or modality for ICA and BA occlusion. (author)

  10. Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein (VASP) depletion from breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells inhibits tumor spheroid invasion through downregulation of Migfilin, β-catenin and urokinase-plasminogen activator (uPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkretsi, Vasiliki; Stylianou, Andreas; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2017-03-15

    A hallmark of cancer cells is their ability to invade surrounding tissues and form metastases. Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM)-adhesion proteins are crucial in metastasis, connecting tumor ECM with actin cytoskeleton thus enabling cells to respond to mechanical cues. Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) is an actin-polymerization regulator which interacts with cell-ECM adhesion protein Migfilin, and regulates cell migration. We compared VASP expression in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer (BC) cells and found that more invasive MDA-MB-231 cells overexpress VASP. We then utilized a 3-dimensional (3D) approach to study metastasis in MDA-MB-231 cells using a system that considers mechanical forces exerted by the ECM. We prepared 3D collagen I gels of increasing concentration, imaged them by atomic force microscopy, and used them to either embed cells or tumor spheroids, in the presence or absence of VASP. We show, for the first time, that VASP silencing downregulated Migfilin, β-catenin and urokinase plasminogen activator both in 2D and 3D, suggesting a matrix-independent mechanism. Tumor spheroids lacking VASP demonstrated impaired invasion, indicating VASP's involvement in metastasis, which was corroborated by Kaplan-Meier plotter showing high VASP expression to be associated with poor remission-free survival in lymph node-positive BC patients. Hence, VASP may be a novel BC metastasis biomarker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) Gene -675 4G/5G and -844 A/G promoter polymorphism with risk of keloid in a Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjie; Long, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Sun, Yang

    2014-10-28

    A keloid is pathological scar caused by aberrant response to skin injuries, characterized by excessive accumulation of histological extracellular matrix, and occurs in genetically susceptible individuals. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of keloid. We investigated the association between PAI-1 polymorphisms and plasma PAI-1 level with keloid risk. A total of 242 Chinese keloid patients and 207 controls were enrolled in this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction technique was used to determine PAI-1 promoter polymorphism (-675 4G/5G and -844 A/G) distribution. Plasma PAI-1 levels were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism between keloid patients and healthy controls. 4G/4G carriers were more likely to develop keloid. In contrast, the -844 A/G polymorphism distribution did not vary significantly between keloid patients and controls. The keloid patients group had a significantly higher plasma PAI-1 level than the control group. In the -675 4G/4G carrier population, the plasma PAI-1 levels were significant highe