WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface piercing naca

  1. Effect of Moving Surface on NACA 63218 Aerodynamic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahiaoui Tayeb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main subject of this work is the numerical study control of flow separation on a NACA 63218 airfoil by using moving surface. Different numerical cases are considered: the first one is the numerical simulation of non-modified airfoil NACA 63218 according at different angle of attack and the second one a set of moving cylinder is placed on leading edge of the airfoil. The rotational velocity of the cylinder is varied to establish the effect of momentum injection on modified airfoil aerodynamic performances. The turbulence is modeled by two equations k-epsilon model.

  2. An efficient domain decomposition strategy for wave loads on surface piercing circular cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Bo Terp; Bredmose, Henrik; Bingham, Harry B.

    2014-01-01

    A fully nonlinear domain decomposed solver is proposed for efficient computations of wave loads on surface piercing structures in the time domain. A fully nonlinear potential flow solver was combined with a fully nonlinear Navier–Stokes/VOF solver via generalized coupling zones of arbitrary shape....... Sensitivity tests of the extent of the inner Navier–Stokes/VOF domain were carried out. Numerical computations of wave loads on surface piercing circular cylinders at intermediate water depths are presented. Four different test cases of increasing complexity were considered; 1) weakly nonlinear regular waves...

  3. Ventilation Inception and Washout, Scaling, and Effects on Hydrodynamic Performance of a Surface Piercing Strut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Casey; Young, Yin Lu; Ceccio, Steven

    2014-11-01

    High-lift devices that operate at or near a fluid free surface (such as surface-piercing or shallowly-submerged propellers and hydrofoils) are prone to a multiphase flow phenomenon called ventilation, wherein non-condensable gas is entrained in the low-pressure flow, forming a cavity around the body and dramatically altering the global hydrodynamic forces. Experiments are being conducted at the University of Michigan's towing tank using a canonical surface-piercing strut to investigate atmospheric ventilation. The goals of the work are (i) to gain an understanding of the dominant physics in fully wetted, partially ventilated, and fully ventilated flow regimes, (ii) to quantify the effects of governing dimensionless parameters on the transition between flow regimes, and (iii) to develop scaling relations for the transition between flow regimes. Using theoretical arguments and flow visualization techniques, new criteria are developed for classifying flow regimes and transition mechanisms. Unsteady transition mechanisms are described and mapped as functions of the governing non-dimensional parameters. A theoretical scaling relationship is developed for ventilation washout, which is shown to adequately capture the experimentally-observed washout boundary. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Student Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE 1256260. Support also comes from the Naval Engineering Education Center (Award No. N65540-10-C-003).

  4. Body Piercing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... another metal. You should shop around and check prices at different piercing salons before you decide on ... Rinse tongue or lip piercings after every meal, snack and before bed (4-5 times a day) ...

  5. Analysis of Ventilation Regimes of the Oblique Wedge-Shaped Surface Piercing Hydrofoil During Initial Water Entry Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadimi Parviz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The suction side of a surface piercing hydrofoil, as a section of a Surface Piercing Propeller (SPP, is usually exposed to three phases of flow consisting air, water, and vapour. Hence, ventilation and cavitation pattern of such section during the initial phase of water entry plays an essential role for the propeller’s operational curves. Accordingly, in the current paper a numerical simulation of a simple surface piercing hydrofoil in the form of an oblique wedge is conducted in three-phase environment by using the coupled URANS and VOF equations. The obtained results are validated against water entry experiments and super-cavitation tunnel test data. The resulting pressure curves and free surface profiles of the wedge water entry are presented for different velocity ratios ranging from 0.12 to 0.64. Non-dimensional forces and efficiency relations are defined in order to present the wedge water entry characteristics. Congruent patterns are observed between the performance curves of the propeller and the wedge in different fully ventilated or partially cavitated operation modes. The transition trend from fully ventilated to partially cavitated operation of the surface piercing section of a SPP is studied and analyzed through wedge’s performance during the transitional period.

  6. Towed underwater PIV measurement for free-surface effects on turbulent wake of a surface-piercing body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Myung Seol

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a towed underwater particle image velocimetry (PIV system was validated in uniform flow and used to investigate the free-surface effects on the turbulent wake of a simple surface-piercing body. The selected test model was a cylindrical geometry formed by extruding the Wigley hull's waterplane shape in the vertical direction. Due to the constraints of the two-dimensional (2D PIV system used for the present study, the velocity field measurements were done separately for the vertical and horizontal planes. Using the measured data at several different locations, it was possible to identify the free-surface effects on the turbulent wake in terms of the mean velocity components and turbulence quantities. In order to provide an accuracy level of the data, uncertainty assessment was done following the International Towing Tank Conference standard procedure.

  7. Influence of aluminium sheet surface modification on the self-piercing riveting process and the joint static lap shear strength

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dezhi

    2017-01-01

    Self-piercing riveting (SPR) has been widely used in automotive as one of the major joining technologies for aluminium structures due to its advantages over some of the more traditional joining technologies. Research has shown that friction is a very important factor that influences both the riveting process and the joint strength for SPR, but these influences have not been fully understood. In this paper, AA5754 sheets with different surface textures, such as original with solid wax, hot wat...

  8. Recent Results from Analysis of Flow Structures and Energy Modes Induced by Viscous Wave around a Surface-Piercing Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Alfonsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its relevance in ocean engineering, the subject of the flow field generated by water waves around a vertical circular cylinder piercing the free surface has recently started to be considered by several research groups. In particular, we studied this problem starting from the velocity-potential framework, then the implementation of the numerical solution of the Euler equations in their velocity-pressure formulation, and finally the performance of the integration of the Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables. We also developed and applied methods of extraction of the flow coherent structures and most energetic modes. In this work, we present some new results of our research directed, in particular, toward the clarification of the main nonintuitive character of the phenomenon of interaction between a wave and a surface-piercing cylinder, namely, the fact that the wave exerts its maximum force and exhibits its maximum run-up on the cylindrical obstacle at different instants. The understanding of this phenomenon becomes of crucial importance in the perspective of governing the entity of the wave run-up on the obstacle by means of wave-flow-control techniques.

  9. Tattoos and Piercing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Looking and feeling your best Tattoos and piercing Tattoos and piercing Some people think piercings and tattoos ... surgery if you want to close the hole. Tattoos top How about henna? You may have seen ...

  10. Effects of surface roughness and vortex generators on the NACA 4415 airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuss, R.L.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Wind turbines in the field can be subjected to many and varying wind conditions, including high winds with rotor locked or with yaw excursions. In some cases the rotor blades may be subjected to unusually large angles of attack that possibly result in unexpected loads and deflections. To better understand loadings at unusual angles of attack, a wind tunnel test was performed. An 18-inch constant chord model of the NACA 4415 airfoil section was tested under two dimensional steady state conditions in the Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 7 x 10 Subsonic Wind Tunnel (7 x 10). The objective of these tests was to document section lift and moment characteristics under various model and air flow conditions. These included a normal angle of attack range of {minus}20{degree} to +40{degree}, an extended angle of attack range of {minus}60{degree} to +230{degree}, applications of leading edge grit roughness (LEGR), and use of vortex generators (VGs), all at chord Reynolds numbers as high as possible for the particular model configuration. To realistically satisfy these conditions the 7 x 10 offered a tunnel-height-to-model-chord ratio of 6.7, suggesting low interference effects even at the relatively high lift and drag conditions expected during the test. Significantly, it also provided chord Reynolds numbers up to 2.0 million. 167 figs., 13 tabs.

  11. Piercing and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercings and tattoos are body decorations that go back to ancient times. Body piercing involves making a hole in the skin ... can be in other parts of the body. Tattoos are designs on the skin made with needles ...

  12. Piercing the water surface with a blade: Singularities of the contact line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alimov, Mars M. [Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Kornev, Konstantin G. [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    An external meniscus on a narrow blade with a slit-like cross section is studied using the hodograph formulation of the Laplace nonlinear equation of capillarity. On narrow blades, the menisci are mostly shaped by the wetting and capillary forces; gravity plays a secondary role. To describe a meniscus in this asymptotic case, the model of Alimov and Kornev [“Meniscus on a shaped fibre: Singularities and hodograph formulation,” Proc. R. Soc. A 470, 20140113 (2014)] has been employed. It is shown that at the sharp edges of the blade, the contact line makes a jump. In the wetting case, the contact line sitting at each side of the blade is lifted above the points where the meniscus first meets the blade edges. In the non-wetting case, the contact line is lowered below these points. The contours of the constant height emanating from the blade edges generate unusual singularities with infinite curvatures at some points at the blade edges. The meniscus forms a unique surface made of two mirror-symmetric sheets fused together. Each sheet is supported by the contact line sitting at each side of the blade.

  13. Piercing the water surface with a blade: Singularities of the contact line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimov, Mars M.; Kornev, Konstantin G.

    2016-01-01

    An external meniscus on a narrow blade with a slit-like cross section is studied using the hodograph formulation of the Laplace nonlinear equation of capillarity. On narrow blades, the menisci are mostly shaped by the wetting and capillary forces; gravity plays a secondary role. To describe a meniscus in this asymptotic case, the model of Alimov and Kornev [“Meniscus on a shaped fibre: Singularities and hodograph formulation,” Proc. R. Soc. A 470, 20140113 (2014)] has been employed. It is shown that at the sharp edges of the blade, the contact line makes a jump. In the wetting case, the contact line sitting at each side of the blade is lifted above the points where the meniscus first meets the blade edges. In the non-wetting case, the contact line is lowered below these points. The contours of the constant height emanating from the blade edges generate unusual singularities with infinite curvatures at some points at the blade edges. The meniscus forms a unique surface made of two mirror-symmetric sheets fused together. Each sheet is supported by the contact line sitting at each side of the blade

  14. Pierce Patriarch "Prince of Quacks"

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This article provides brief biographies for Dr. Valentine Mott Pierce and his father, Dr. Ray Vaughn Pierce. Dr. R.V. Pierce has been described as the “uberquack,”...

  15. What Is an Oral Piercing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your desktop! more... What Is an Oral Piercing? Article Chapters What Is an Oral Piercing? print full article print this chapter email this article Oral piercing can cause pain, swelling, infection, drooling, taste loss, ...

  16. With Nipple Piercing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Pearlman

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast abscesses are typically seen in the setting of complicated mastitis in lactating women. Abscesses resulting from foreign bodies are not commonly seen in the breast. Over the past few decades, body piercing has become increasingly common, yet the infectious morbidity resulting from it is not well recognized. A breast abscess associated with nipple piercing is described in this report.

  17. Genital male piercings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Tampa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Body piercing has been practiced for thousands of years all over the world for beautification, religion, initiation rites or status reasons. Genital piercings also have a significant background and have been practiced for enhancing sexual pleasure, chastity, shocking or as a protest against a conservative society. As the popularity of genital piercings increased in the last years, the number of complications is also on the rise. It is therefore important for the medical professionals to have at least basic knowledge regarding this practice, as it might be required in the management of unpredictable complications.

  18. Pierce Lumber, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Pierce Lumber, Inc. (“Respondent”), located at 1629 13th Street, Belle Plaine, IA for alleged violations of its National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit (perm

  19. Tatuajes y "piercing" Tattoos and piercing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L E Valle

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de estar en el siglo XXI se ha retomado el lenguaje con códigos de comunicación arcaicos. Los jóvenes forman su identidad mediante la interacción con sus pares y los tatuajes y "piercing" tienen sus propios códigos, que son interpretados por el grupo que los lleva. Actualmente los tatuajes y los "piercing" encuentran su lugar predominante en la población adolescente, donde se han reinstalado por ser "moda" y generalmente se aceptan por estar generalizados. Asimismo los observamos en poblaciones marginales: de drogadictos y carcelarias. Realizarse un tatuaje y/o "piercing" implica ciertos riesgos, entre los que podemos mencionar la transmisión de infecciones que pueden ser localizadas en las zonas del tatuaje y/o "piercing"; y/o generalizadas como las virósicas algunas de las cuales conllevan riesgos de salud como el virus del HIV, de las hepatitis A,B,C. Pueden observarse también reacciones alérgicas, de hipersensibilidad, liquenoides, granulomatosas y varias como cicatrices hipertróficas y queloides; asimismo desencadenar un primer episodio de psoriasis, lupus, etc. Dentro de las recomendaciones para informar a la población deberíamos incluir: que las regiones del cuerpo más riesgosas para la realización de los mismos (que debieran evitarse son aquellas que asientan en cabeza (incluyendo boca, nariz, cuello y órganos genitales. También es importante tener la vacunación antitetánica actualizada, considerar las condiciones de higiene del local donde se va a asistir y el tipo de material a utilizar, debiendo ser en lo posible material descartable. Los cuidados durante los primeros días post práctica son: mantener la zona limpia y seca, baños cortos, secarse sin frotado y no exponerse al sol por tres o cuatro meses. Asimismo es aconsejable ante cualquier reacción concurrir a la consulta profesional.In spite of being in the XXI century, several archaic codes of communication language have been restablished. Young

  20. Wind tunnel tests of the NACA 63-415 and a modified NACA 63-415 airfoil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, C.; Fuglsang, P.; Johansen, J.

    2000-01-01

    This report contains 2D measurements of the NACA 63-415 and a NACA 63-415 airfoil with modified leading edge called NACA 63-415-Risø-D. The aerodynamic properties were derived from pressure measurements on the airfoil surface and in the wake. The VELUXopen jet wind tunnel was used having a backgr......This report contains 2D measurements of the NACA 63-415 and a NACA 63-415 airfoil with modified leading edge called NACA 63-415-Risø-D. The aerodynamic properties were derived from pressure measurements on the airfoil surface and in the wake. The VELUXopen jet wind tunnel was used having...... a background turbulence intensity of 1%, an inlet flow velocity of 40 m/s which resulted in a Reynolds number of 1.6×106. The airfoil sections had a chord of 0.600 m and 0.606 m for NACA 63-415 and NACA 63-415-Risø-D,respectively. The span was 1.9 m and end plates were used to minimise 3D flow effects...

  1. Orofacial piercings: perceptions of dental practitioners and piercing parlours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Barbara L; Groves, Gemma; Dransfield, Kathryn

    2005-07-01

    To identify the advice given by piercing parlours prior to orofacial piercing and to determine how many dental practitioners see complications from orofacial piercings. Administered questionnaire to 19 piercing parlours and postal questionnaire to 400 dental practitioners in south-east Wales. Ninety-nine per cent of 227 dental practitioners in south-east Wales had treated patients with orofacial piercings, over three-quarters had seen a patient for a complication caused by the piercing, and over half (N=120) had treated a patient for a complication of piercing. Tongue (N=225) and lip (N=209) piercings were most frequently seen and the most commonly occurring complication was fractured or cracked teeth (N=176). Almost all practitioners wanted more information on orofacial piercing and its sequelae. All 19 piercing parlours in south-east Wales warned clients about pain following piercing and 18 mentioned swelling; only four discussed possible damage to teeth and none discussed the risk of airway obstruction. Despite the concerns of dental and medical professionals orofacial piercing remains popular and the complications it causes are frequently seen by dental practitioners. There is a need for literature to assist both dental practitioners and piercers in advising and safeguarding patients.

  2. Piercing and Tattoos - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Piercing and Tattoos URL of this page: https://medlineplus. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Piercing and Tattoos - Multiple Languages To use the sharing ...

  3. Piercing the corporate veil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    This article addresses the potential problems an economically troubled subsidiary can cause a parent company and offers strategies for insulating the trouble through good business practices and careful planning. The topics of the article include corporations and limited liability, piercing the corporate veil, environmental cleanup liabilities, and avoiding trouble

  4. Radiofrequency-assisted body piercing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethitha Babu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The art of body piercing is ancient; however, nowadays it has evolved into a fashion statement. In the Indian subcontinent, ear and nose piercing hold religious and cultural significance in addition to being done for aesthetic reasons. Body piercing is routinely performed by railroading technique or by piercing guns; many modifications of the technique have emerged. Irrespective of the technique used, the main complications associated are intraoperative bleeding and postoperative infection. To overcome these problems, we describe a novel and simple technique of ear and nose piercing using the radio frequency cautery.

  5. Body piercing with fatal consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranga, N; Jeffery, A J

    2011-01-01

    Body modifications such as piercings, tattoos and surgery have increased in popularity in recent times and have become more socially acceptable. The common complications of piercing different parts of the human anatomy are well-documented, including sepsis, allergic reactions and, more rarely, endocarditis and ischaemia. Deaths related to piercing complications are primarily septic in origin. In this case, a man in his 50s died due to complications of his multiple umbilical piercings. The cause of death was unusually linked to body modification; the umbilical piercings had ultimately led to a mesenteric infarction. Cases such as these are forensically important due to potential manslaughter charges that could be brought against a piercing establishment. More importantly, this case highlights another extreme complication of body modification. Fashion statements are always changing and impact upon many lives. It is important to highlight to people the potentially life-threatening complications of common piercing practices. PMID:22715261

  6. Body piercing with fatal consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranga, N; Jeffery, A J

    2011-01-25

    Body modifications such as piercings, tattoos and surgery have increased in popularity in recent times and have become more socially acceptable. The common complications of piercing different parts of the human anatomy are well-documented, including sepsis, allergic reactions and, more rarely, endocarditis and ischaemia. Deaths related to piercing complications are primarily septic in origin. In this case, a man in his 50s died due to complications of his multiple umbilical piercings. The cause of death was unusually linked to body modification; the umbilical piercings had ultimately led to a mesenteric infarction. Cases such as these are forensically important due to potential manslaughter charges that could be brought against a piercing establishment. More importantly, this case highlights another extreme complication of body modification. Fashion statements are always changing and impact upon many lives. It is important to highlight to people the potentially life-threatening complications of common piercing practices.

  7. Should physicians have facial piercings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Alison W; Wright, Seth W; Wrenn, Keith D; Bernard, Aline

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess attitudes of patrons and medical school faculty about physicians with nontraditional facial piercings. We also examined whether a piercing affected the perceived competency and trustworthiness of physicians. Survey. Teaching hospital in the southeastern United States. Emergency department patrons and medical school faculty physicians. First, patrons were shown photographs of models with a nontraditional piercing and asked about the appropriateness for a physician or medical student. In the second phase, patrons blinded to the purpose of the study were shown identical photographs of physician models with or without piercings and asked about competency and trustworthiness. The third phase was an assessment of attitudes of faculty regarding piercings. Nose and lip piercings were felt to be appropriate for a physician by 24% and 22% of patrons, respectively. Perceived competency and trustworthiness of models with these types of piercings were also negatively affected. An earring in a male was felt to be appropriate by 35% of patrons, but an earring on male models did not negatively affect perceived competency or trustworthiness. Nose and eyebrow piercings were felt to be appropriate by only 7% and 5% of faculty physicians and working with a physician or student with a nose or eyebrow piercing would bother 58% and 59% of faculty, respectively. An ear piercing in a male was felt to be appropriate by 20% of faculty, and 25% stated it would bother them to work with a male physician or student with an ear piercing. Many patrons and physicians feel that some types of nontraditional piercings are inappropriate attire for physicians, and some piercings negatively affect perceived competency and trustworthiness. Health care providers should understand that attire may affect a patient's opinion about their abilities and possibly erode confidence in them as a clinician.

  8. Post-piercing perichondritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, André de Paula; Castro Neto, Ivan de; Anias, Christiane Ribeiro; Pinto, Patrícia Ciminelli Linhares; Castro, Jair de Carvalho E; Carpes, Arturo Frick

    2008-01-01

    Piercing has become more and more popular among adolescents. The procedure is generally performed by unqualified professionals and carries its risk. Non-sterilized material or inappropiate hygiene increases the possibility of perichondritis and celulitis. The disease is characterized by erythema of the auricula pinna, unbearable pain and fever. Left untreated, the condition progresses with edema along the auricula and abscess formation that may result in ischemic necrosis and a cauliflower anesthetic deformation. The most common bacteria is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In cases with abscesses, drainage is necessary along with antibiotic therapy guided by cultures and antibiogram. The aim of this case report was to review the past 10 years of published papers dealing with anatomical aspects of the auricular pinna, the history of piercing and its most common complications. A case report of perichondritis after 'high' ear piercing that required surgical treatment and that progressed with no esthetic loss. Theoretical and practical experience based on a review and a report of a case that progressed satisfactorily. The increased incidence of perichondritis in adolescents should require more elaborated primary prevention measures.

  9. Different Densities of Na-Ca Exchange Current in T-Tubular and Surface Membranes and Their Impact on Cellular Activity in a Model of Rat Ventricular Cardiomyocyte

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pásek, Michal; Šimurda, J.; Christé, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 2017 (2017), č. článku 6343821. ISSN 2314-6133 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : rat ventricular cell * mathematical model * Na-Ca current * t-tubules Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 2.476, year: 2016

  10. In Vitro Study on the Adhesion and Colonization of Candida Albicans on Metal and Acrylic Piercings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenov N.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral/perioral piercing may provide an ideal environment for adhesion and colonization of microorganisms. The aim of this study is to perform an “in vitro” research on the capabilities of adhesion of Candida albicans on oral piercings made of plastic and metal. Acrylic and metal piercings were incubated with Candida albicans and then were observed using scanning electron microscopy under different magnifications. A lot of irregularities and roughness were observed on the surface of the plastic piercing unlike the surface of the metal one, which is not so rough. Nevertheless, the number of Candida albicans colonies was considerably larger on the scanned metal surface in comparison to the plastic surface. In vitro the metal surface of the piercing creates better environment for the adhesion and colonization of microorganisms than the acrylic. This could be attributed to the electrostatic forces that most likely attract Candida albicans to the metal piercing in the early stages of biofilm formation.

  11. Intimate body piercings in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, G T; Schultz, W C M Weijmar; Nijman, J M

    2008-12-01

    The popularity of (intimate) body piercing has increased as well as the chances of being confronted with (the complications) of it. This article provides information about the various types of intimate body piercings in women, the complications and concerns regarding the treatment of patients with intimate bodypiercings.

  12. Intimate body piercings in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, G. T.; Schultz, W. C. M. Weijmar; Nijman, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The popularity of (intimate) body piercing has increased as well as the chances of being confronted with (the complications) of it. This article provides information about the various types of intimate body piercings in women, the complications and concerns regarding the treatment of patients with

  13. Body adornment: piercings and tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Lesley

    Body adornment through tattoos and piercings is on the increase, making adverse side effects more common. Practitioners should be prepared to give advice, either before the event, or post-procedure in written and oral forms. The aim of this article is to inform practitioners of the sites and types of piercings, likely adverse side effects and estimated healing times.

  14. Diagrammer hos Pierce og Deleuze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Malene

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler to forskellige begreber om diagrammet, nemlig Pierces og Deleuzes. De definerer udfra to meget forskellige udgangspukter begge diagrammet som kreativt redskab......Artiklen omhandler to forskellige begreber om diagrammet, nemlig Pierces og Deleuzes. De definerer udfra to meget forskellige udgangspukter begge diagrammet som kreativt redskab...

  15. Tattoos, piercings, and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have found a link between body tattoos or piercings and risky behavior. However, these studies only examined survey data but not real behavior. Young men (mean = 20.6 years) and women (mean = 20.2 years) leaving a bar were asked whether they wore tattoos and piercings or not and were requested to breathe into a breathalyzer in order to evaluate their alcohol consumption. It was found that participants with piercings and/or tattoos as well as combined piercings and tattoos revealed higher levels of alcohol consumption. Piercings and tattoos could serve as signs of alcohol consumption for educators, parents, and physicians. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Study on corrosion products from ear piercing studs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogero, Sizue O.; Costa, Isolda; Saiki, Mitiko

    2000-01-01

    In this work instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to analyse elemental composition of commercial gold coated ear piercing substrate and metals present in their corrosion products. The cytotoxic effect was also verified in these corrosion product extracts, probably, due to the lixiviation of Ni present in high quantity in their substrates. The analysis of gold coated ear piercing surfaces by scanning electron microscopy before and after the corrosion test showed coating defects and the occurrence of corrosion process. (author)

  17. Influence of local surface texture by tool impression on the self piercing\\ud riveting process and the static lap shear strength

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dezhi

    2017-01-01

    To increase fuel efficiency and reduce emission, aluminium alloys have been increasingly used in automotive body-in-white structures for lightweighting. Due to its advantages over some of the more traditional joining technologies, self-piercing riveting (SPR) has been widely used for these lightweight structures. Research has showed that friction is a very important factor that influences both the riveting process and joint strength for SPR, but these influences have not been fully understood...

  18. Perceptions of visible piercings: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Sara; Lester, David

    2011-12-01

    49 undergraduates were shown pictures of a man and a woman with piercings and with no piercings. The pierced model was judged to be less attractive and less normal than the nonpierced model. The pierced model was perceived as less intelligent, caring, generous, honest, and religious but more artistic and mysterious.

  19. How Dr. Pierce Promoted Himself

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This article is about Dr. Raymond V Pierce who owned St. Vincent Island before it became a refuge. The doctor painted advertisements for his famous “Woman’s Tonic”...

  20. Piercing by composite electrode tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukarimov, Eh.T.; Krakov, B.G.; Saidinov, S.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    The construction of the electrode consisting of a dielectric shell, where a working liquid enters, and a metal rod is designed for precision super-deep piercing by the electroerosion treatment method. Technological parameters of piercing with small diameter (0.5-1.9 mm) for 12Kh18N10T steel, copper and tungsten are presented. A possibility to use a new tool for treating components of any form and sizes is marked

  1. In Vitro Adherence of Oral Bacteria to Different Types of Tongue Piercings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Pereira Borges

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to verify in vitro adherence of E. corrodens and S. oralis to the surface of tongue piercings made of surgical steel, titanium, Bioplast, and Teflon. For this, 160 piercings were used for the count of Colony Forming Units (CFU and 32 piercings for analysis under scanning electron microscopy. Of these, 96 (24 of each type were individually incubated in 5 mL of BHI broth and 50 μL of inoculum at 37°C/24 h. The other 96 piercings formed the control group and were individually incubated in 5 mL of BHI broth at 37°C/24 h. Plates were incubated at 37°C/48 h for counting of CFU/mL and data were submitted to statistical analysis (p value <0.05. For E. corrodens, difference among types of material was observed (p<0.001 and titanium and surgical steel showed lower bacterial adherence. The adherence of S. oralis differed among piercings, showing lower colonization (p<0.007 in titanium and surgical steel piercings. The four types of piercings were susceptible to colonization by E. corrodens and S. oralis, and bacterial adhesion was more significant in those made of Bioplast and Teflon. The piercings presented bacterial colonies on their surface, being higher in plastic piercings probably due to their uneven and rough surface.

  2. In Vitro Adherence of Oral Bacteria to Different Types of Tongue Piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Lucas Pereira; Ferreira-Filho, Julio Cesar Campos; Martins, Julia Medeiros; Alves, Caroline Vieira; Santiago, Bianca Marques; Valença, Ana Maria Gondim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to verify in vitro adherence of E. corrodens and S. oralis to the surface of tongue piercings made of surgical steel, titanium, Bioplast, and Teflon. For this, 160 piercings were used for the count of Colony Forming Units (CFU) and 32 piercings for analysis under scanning electron microscopy. Of these, 96 (24 of each type) were individually incubated in 5 mL of BHI broth and 50  μ L of inoculum at 37°C/24 h. The other 96 piercings formed the control group and were individually incubated in 5 mL of BHI broth at 37°C/24 h. Plates were incubated at 37°C/48 h for counting of CFU/mL and data were submitted to statistical analysis ( p value piercings, showing lower colonization ( p piercings. The four types of piercings were susceptible to colonization by E. corrodens and S. oralis , and bacterial adhesion was more significant in those made of Bioplast and Teflon. The piercings presented bacterial colonies on their surface, being higher in plastic piercings probably due to their uneven and rough surface.

  3. Investigating the removal of body piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Myrna L; Roberts, Alden E; Koch, Jerome R; Saunders, Jana C; Owen, Donna C

    2007-05-01

    Although body piercing procurement continues to increase, 13% to 18% of them are removed. Reasons for piercing removal in college students were examined with three groups: (a) those who kept all their piercings, (b) those who removed some, or (c) those who removed all of their body piercings. Of the sample, 41% were still pierced; 50% in their lifetime. Their major purpose for the body piercing was "helped them feel unique." Females obtained more (in high school) and then removed more, usually as upperclassmen. Males and females reported themselves as risk takers at procedure time and currently; however, only 10% cited deviancy as a reason for the body piercing(s). Only removal elements of "I just got tired of it" and "I just decided to remove it" were present, especially with the Some Removed Group. Further examination of body piercing building personal distinctiveness and self-identity to promote their need of uniqueness is suggested.

  4. In Vitro Adherence of Oral Bacteria to Different Types of Tongue Piercings

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Lucas Pereira; Ferreira-Filho, Julio Cesar Campos; Martins, Julia Medeiros; Alves, Caroline Vieira; Santiago, Bianca Marques; Valen?a, Ana Maria Gondim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to verify in vitro adherence of E. corrodens and S. oralis to the surface of tongue piercings made of surgical steel, titanium, Bioplast, and Teflon. For this, 160 piercings were used for the count of Colony Forming Units (CFU) and 32 piercings for analysis under scanning electron microscopy. Of these, 96 (24 of each type) were individually incubated in 5?mL of BHI broth and 50??L of inoculum at 37?C/24?h. The other 96 piercings formed the control group and were i...

  5. Pressure distribution over an NACA 23012 airfoil with an NACA 23012 external-airfoil flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzinger, Carl J

    1938-01-01

    Report presents the results of pressure-distribution tests of an NACA 23012 airfoil with an NACA 23012 external airfoil flap made in the 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel. The pressures were measured on the upper and lower surfaces at one chord section on both the main airfoil and on the flap for several different flap deflections and at several angles of attack. A test installation was used in which the airfoil was mounted horizontally in the wind tunnel between vertical end planes so that two-dimensional flow was approximated. The data are presented in the form of pressure-distribution diagrams and as graphs of calculated coefficients for the airfoil-and-flap combination and for the flap alone.

  6. Pierce instability and bifurcating equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, B.B.

    1981-01-01

    The report investigates the connection between equilibrium bifurcations and occurrence of the Pierce instability. Electrons flowing from one ground plane to a second through an ion background possess a countable infinity of static equilibria, of which only one is uniform and force-free. Degeneracy of the uniform and simplest non-uniform equilibria at a certain ground plan separation marks the onset of the Pierce instability, based on a newly derived dispersion relation appropriate to all the equilibria. For large ground plane separations the uniform equilibrium is unstable and the non-uniform equilibrium is stable, the reverse of their stability properties at small separations. Onset of the Pierce instability at the first bifurcation of equilibria persists in more complicated geometries, providing a general criterion for marginal stability. It seems probable that bifurcation analysis can be a useful tool in the overall study of stable beam generation in diodes and transport in finite cavities

  7. Tattoos and piercings: bodily expressions of uniqueness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Hopkins, Louise A

    2011-06-01

    The study aimed to investigate the motivations underlying the body modification practices of tattooing and piercing. There were 80 participants recruited from an Australian music store, who provided descriptions of their tattoos and piercings and completed measures of need for uniqueness, appearance investment and distinctive appearance investment. It was found that tattooed individuals scored significantly higher on need for uniqueness than non-tattooed individuals. Further, individuals with conventional ear piercings scored significantly lower on need for uniqueness than individuals with no piercings or with facial and body piercings. Neither appearance investment nor distinctive appearance investment differed significantly among tattoo or piercing status groups. Strength of identification with music was significantly correlated with number of tattoos, but not number of piercings. It was concluded that tattooing, but not body piercing, represents a bodily expression of uniqueness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pierced Lasso Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Patricia

    Entanglement and knots are naturally occurring, where, in the microscopic world, knots in DNA and homopolymers are well characterized. The most complex knots are observed in proteins which are harder to investigate, as proteins are heteropolymers composed of a combination of 20 different amino acids with different individual biophysical properties. As new-knotted topologies and new proteins containing knots continue to be discovered and characterized, the investigation of knots in proteins has gained intense interest. Thus far, the principle focus has been on the evolutionary origin of tying a knot, with questions of how a protein chain `self-ties' into a knot, what the mechanism(s) are that contribute to threading, and the biological relevance and functional implication of a knotted topology in vivo gaining the most insight. Efforts to study the fully untied and unfolded chain indicate that the knot is highly stable, remaining intact in the unfolded state orders of magnitude longer than first anticipated. The persistence of ``stable'' knots in the unfolded state, together with the challenge of defining an unfolded and untied chain from an unfolded and knotted chain, complicates the study of fully untied protein in vitro. Our discovery of a new class of knotted proteins, the Pierced Lassos (PL) loop topology, simplifies the knotting approach. While PLs are not easily recognizable by the naked eye, they have now been identified in many proteins in the PDB through the use of computation tools. PL topologies are diverse proteins found in all kingdoms of life, performing a large variety of biological responses such as cell signaling, immune responses, transporters and inhibitors (http://lassoprot.cent.uw.edu.pl/). Many of these PL topologies are secreted proteins, extracellular proteins, as well as, redox sensors, enzymes and metal and co-factor binding proteins; all of which provide a favorable environment for the formation of the disulphide bridge. In the PL

  9. Tattoos, piercings, and skin adornments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T A

    2001-10-01

    Tattoos, body piercings, and other skin adornments have a long and fascinating history, and continue to be prominent today. It is important for dermatology nurses to understand and to educate their patients regarding the dermatologic implications of tattooing, body piecing, and scarification.

  10. [Genital piercings: epidemiology, sociocultural aspects, sexuality and complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Body piercing has gained tremendous popularity since the mid nineties. Genital piercings constitute a peculiar variant of piercing due to its sensitive localization. Health care providers are often very little informed about those piercings. Besides, negative stereotypes are often attributed to the bearers of such piercings. This review focuses not only on the medical aspects of genital piercings but also on the social, cultural and psychological background that surround those piercings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Tattoo, piercing, and adolescent tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the study was to evaluate the link between tattoos and/or piercings and young people's tobacco consumption. A total of 2587 students (1168 females and 1419 males) were asked about tattoos, piercings, and tobacco consumption. Young men and young girls who had tattoos and/or wore piercings were more likely to report smoking behavior, earlier smoking behavior, and higher cigarette consumption per day. It was also found that both with men and women, the combined effects of piercings and tattoos were associated with an increase in smoking behavior. Piercings and/or tattoos as well as combined piercings and tattoos appeared as markers of tobacco consumption. Such marks could serve as signs for educators, parents, and physicians.

  12. Pericondrite pós-piercing Post-piercing perichondritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Paula Fernandez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso de piercing tem se tornado uma prática muito freqüente entre os jovens. O procedimento na maioria vezes realizado por profissionais não-qualificados não é isento de riscos. O manuseio de material contaminado ou a higiene imprópria predispõem à pericondrite e à celulite. A pericondrite caracteriza-se pelo eritema do pavilhão auricular, dor intensa e febre. Sem tratamento, desenvolve-se um edema generalizado do pavilhão com formação de abscesso subpericondrial, podendo evoluir para necrose isquêmica da cartilagem e a temível deformidade estética conhecida como "orelha em couve flor". O agente responsável mais encontrado é o Pseudomonas aeruginosa. No estágio inicial da doença o tratamento pode ser feito com antibióticos de amplo espectro. Nos casos em que o abscesso está presente, a incisão e drenagem cirúrgica são obrigatórios acompanhado de antibioticoterapia guiado pela cultura e antibiograma. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste relato de caso é realizar uma revisão bibliográfica dos últimos 10 anos abordando os aspectos anatômicos do pavilhão auricular, a história do uso de piercing e suas mais conhecidas complicações. MÉTODO: Relato de um caso de pericondrite pós-piercing transcartilaginoso onde houve a necessidade de tratamento cirúrgico com praticamente nenhuma deformidade estética. RESULTADO: Aquisição de experiência teórico-prática através de revisão bibliográfica e relato de um caso de evolução favorável para a paciente. CONCLUSÃO: Incidência crescente das complicações de pericondrites na população jovem deve levar à prevenção primária mais elaborada.Piercing has become more and more popular among adolescents. The procedure is generally performed by unqualified professionals and carries its risk. Non-sterilized material or inappropiate hygiene increases the possibility of perichondritis and celulitis. The disease is characterized by erythema of the auricula pinna, unbearable pain

  13. Is chronic nipple piercing associated with hyperprolactinemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Grace E Ching; Pantalone, Kevin M; Gupta, Manjula; Kennedy, Laurence; Nasr, Christian; Constantiner, Marigel; Hamrahian, Amir H; Hatipoglu, Betul

    2013-09-01

    Literature on hyperprolactinemia in the setting of a nipple piercing is limited to individuals with concomitant breast/chest wall infection. It is unclear if chronic nipple stimulation from a piercing alone can cause sustained elevations of serum prolactin. Nipple piercing is emerging as a more mainstream societal form of body art, and the answer to this clinical question would potentially alter patient management. Our aim was to assess serum prolactin levels in subjects with nipple piercing. Inclusion criteria were as follows: men and women ≥ 18 years old with nipple piercing(s) present > 6 months. Exclusion criteria included: women who are pregnant, lactating or men and eight women were enrolled. Median (range) ages for men and women were 33 (24-42) and 27 years (23-42), respectively. All except one subject had bilateral piercings. The median interval from nipple piercing to blood draw was 4.0 (2.0-12.0) years. None of the subjects had hyperprolactinemia. Median (range) prolactin levels for men and women were 5.6 ng/mL (3.8-7.4) and 8.0 ng/mL (2.8-10.9), respectively. Our results suggest that in the absence of any concomitant infection, chronic nipple piercing is not associated with hyperprolactinemia.

  14. Adverse consequences of tattoos and body piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzo, Melissa R; Poe, Susannah Grimm

    2006-03-01

    Body piercings and tattoos are becoming more common in the adolescent population today. Despite their movement into mainstream society, literature to aid in counseling of teens about these issues is scant. The practitioner dealing with this population of patients must be armed with the information necessary that will help adolescents make informed decisions about tattoos and piercings.

  15. Oral and perioral piercings in Tshwane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, R; Naidoo, S

    2008-06-01

    Oral and perioral piercings have recently become very popular and many patients present at dental clinics and practices with jewellery inserted into the oral and perioral tissues. It is imperative that oral health care professionals become familiar with this practice, become aware of its sequelae, and are able to provide oral health education regarding oral hygiene and care of the piercing. The present study investigated the sites of oral piercings, complications associated with piercings, plaque control procedures practised by piercees, and the attitude and behaviour of piercers towards infection control and prevention of complications after a piercing. A convenience sample was used and 126 piercees and 10 piercers completed a self-administered questionnaire. Of the 126 participants (107 females and 19 males), 88.10% had a tongue piercing, 19.84% had a lip piercing and 7.94% had both. The most common immediate post-procedure sequelae were pain (69.05%), swelling (52.38%) and difficulty eating, speaking and swallowing (70.63%). Long-term complications were reported by 17.56% of the sample, and included chipping of teeth, gingival recession, lesions on the tongue and palate, painful gums, and sensitivity of teeth. Oral health professionals need to be aware of the risk of damage to soft and hard tissue, and their role in informing patients about the potential risks, if consulted before a piercing.

  16. Caring for Surgical Patients With Piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Francis Duval

    2016-06-01

    Body piercing, a type of body modification that is practiced in many cultures, creates an unnatural tract through tissue that is then held open by artificial means. Today, professional body piercing is often performed in piercing establishments that are subject to dissimilar forms of regulation. The most frequently reported medical complication of body piercing and similar body modifications, such as dermal implantation, is infection. Patients with piercings who undergo surgery may have additional risks for infection, electrical burns, trauma, or airway obstruction. The published research literature on piercing prevalence, complications, regulations, education, and nursing care is outdated. The purpose of this article is to educate nurses on topics related to nursing care for patients with piercings and similar body modifications, including the history, prevalence, motivations for, and perceptions of body piercings as well as possible complications, devices used, locations, healing times, regulations, patient education, and other health concerns. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pierce electrodes for a multigap accelerating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydenko, V.I.; Ivanov, A.A.; Kotelnikov, I.A.; Tiunov, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    A well-known Pierce's solution that allows to focus a beam of charged particles using properly shaped electrodes outside the beam is generalized to the case of multigap accelerating system. Simple parametric formulae for Pierce electrodes are derived for an accelerating system with current density, limited either by space charge or by emitting property of the cathode. As an example of general approach, Pierce electrodes shape is analyzed for a system with two accelerating gaps. It is shown that precise Pierce's solution exists if acceleration rate within second gap is lower than within first gap. In the opposite case quasi-Pierce solution can be implemented using non-equipotential electrode between the gaps, and guidelines, based on numerical simulations, for the design of equipotential focusing electrodes are given

  18. Instantaneous mechanical fastening of quasi-isotropic CFRP laminates by a self-piercing rivet

    OpenAIRE

    上田, 政人; 三宅, 崇太郎; 長谷川, 寛幸; 平野, 義鎭; Ueda, Masahito; Miyake, Sotaro; Hasegawa, Hiroyuki; Hirano, Yoshiyasu

    2012-01-01

    A modified self-piercing rivet (SPR) has been proposed to mechanically fasten CFRP laminates. The modified SPR consists of a rivet body and two flat washers. The two flat washers were used to suppress delamination in the CFRP laminates at the point of piercing. The advantages of the modified SPR for fastening CFRP laminates are instantaneous process time and low cost. Any pretreatments such as surface treatments or hole drilling are not required. In this study, the viability of the modified S...

  19. Time-Domain Method for Computing Forces and Moments Acting on Three Dimensional Surface-Piercing Ship Hulls with Forward Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    where 4BD represents the instantaneous effect of the body, while OFS represents the free surface disturbance generated by the body over all previous...acceleration boundary condition. This deter- mines the time-derivative of the body-induced component of the flow, 4BD (as well as OBD through integration...panel with uniform density ei acting over a surface of area Ai is replaced by a single point source with strength s i(t) - A i(a i(t n ) + (t-t n ) G( td

  20. The effects of NACA 0012 airfoil modification on aerodynamic performance improvement and obtaining high lift coefficient and post-stall airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogukpinar, Haci

    2018-02-01

    In this study, aerodynamic performances of NACA 0012 airfoils with distinct modification are numerically investigated to obtain high lift coefficient and post-stall airfoils. NACA 0012 airfoil is divided into two part thought chord line then suction sides kept fixed and by changing the thickness of the pressure side new types of airfoil are created. Numerical experiments are then conducted by varying thickness of NACA 0012 from lower surface and different relative thicknesses asymmetrical airfoils are modified and NACA 0012-10, 0012-08, 0012-07, 0012-06, 0012-04, 0012-03, 0012-02, 0012-01 are created and simulated by using COMSOL software.

  1. Underwater piercing of a tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvik, O.

    1984-11-01

    Norwegian consultants and contractors have been confronted with the task of blasting a final penetrating passage that will open the way for the water in a reservoir to flow through the hydropower turbines. Norway has almost certainly led in this area because of its special topographical and geological conditions. The glacial activities have created a number of natural and very deep lakes forming cheap reservoirs. Piercings at depths up to about 100 m have been performed. Problems tend to increase with depth, but unsuccessful penetration can occur at any depth. Secondary effects to consider include the danger of slides when the water level is lowered, wave erosion along the lowered new shoreline, erosion at all streams and rivers flowing into the lake and groundwater erosion in the newly exposed dry shoreline. Methods of penetration can be roughly divided into two categories: penetration against the open tunnel shaft (open system); and penetration against the closed tunnel shaft (closed system). 6 figures.

  2. Oral piercings: immediate and late complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Elma P; Ribeiro, Andre Luis Ribeiro; Pinheiro, João de Jesus V; Alves, Sérgio de M

    2011-12-01

    Oral piercings have a long history as part of religious, cultural, or sexual symbolism in many traditional tribes; currently, these ornaments have wide acceptance among young people. Several oral and systemic complications may be associated with this practice; however, limited data related to these complications can be obtained in the literature. This study includes 42 cases of oral piercings in 39 young adults, who were using or had used oral piercings, and the complications associated with their use. Immediate complications occurred in 29 cases, including excessive bleeding (69%) and pain (52.3%) as the most representative. Two cases of syncope were found. Late complications related to the piercing insertion site were observed in 97.6% of cases, with pain and swelling being present in 92.9% and 61.9% of cases, respectively. Dental pain and lacerations on the tongue represented the most prevalent complications associated with the surrounding tissues, accounting for 33.3% and 31% of cases. The use of oral piercings is related to a series of mainly local complications, and individuals who decide to use piercings should be aware of such complications. Individuals wishing to get a part of their body pierced should do so with qualified professionals and should regularly visit the dentist so that a regular control is achieved, thus ensuring the early detection of the adverse effects associated with this practice. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Piercings. A new demand for nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastra Félix, Marcos

    2004-03-01

    The new legal regulations and agreements dealing with the type of locales and personnel authorized to implant body rings through pierced holes known popularly as piercings brings with it the need for nurses to learn about this practice and to adapt our habitual sanitary techniques, in an urgent manner, in order to cover the increasing aesthetic demand. The nursing profession needs to amplify its range of treatments for this piercing practice so it is not limited to merely inserting rings or studs in holes.

  4. Intraurethral condylomata acuminata associated with genital piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, S; Hirano, Y; Kawamura, T; Homma, Y

    2013-01-01

    A 33-year-old man was referred to our institution with papillary masses at the urethral meatus and difficulty urinating. Genital examination showed two piercings on the frenulum, which were penetrating the external urethra. Endoscopic examination revealed papillary tumours over the entire circumference of the penile urethra and the piercing site. The tumours were resected transurethrally. Microscopic examination revealed condylomata acuminata. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 66 were detected in the lesions. Retrograde urethral viral infection is rare because of the protection provided by the mucosal immune system. Genital piercing may have facilitated spread of the human papillomavirus into the urethra.

  5. [Cutaneous adverse reactions to tattoos and piercings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataix, J; Silvestre, J F

    2009-10-01

    Piercings and tattoos have become very popular in western society in recent decades, particularly among younger generations. Reports of medical complications associated with these decorative techniques have increased in parallel with the rise in their popularity. Due to their high frequency, adverse cutaneous reactions are particularly important among these potential complications. Tattoo-related complications include a number of cutaneous and systemic infections secondary to breach of the epidermal barrier, acute and delayed inflammatory reactions with different histopathological patterns, the appearance of benign and malignant tumors on tattooed areas of skin, and certain dermatoses triggered by isomorphic phenomena. Piercing-related complications are similar, though some, such as pyogenic skin infections, are much more common due to the delayed wound healing after piercing in certain sites. We must differentiate between complications that are independent of the site of piercing, and specific complications, which are closely related to the body area pierced. The rate of complications after performing piercings or tattoos depends on the experience of the artist, the hygiene techniques applied, and the postprocedural care by the customer. However, some of these complications are unpredictable and depend on factors intrinsic to the patient. In this article, we review the most common decorative techniques of body art, with particular focus on the potential cutaneous complications and their management.

  6. Bimodal SLD Ice Accretion on a NACA 0012 Airfoil Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapczuk, Mark; Tsao, Jen-Ching; King-Steen, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the results of ice accretion measurements on a NACA 0012 airfoil model, from the NASA Icing Research Tunnel, using an icing cloud composed of a bimodal distribution of Supercooled Large Droplets. The data consists of photographs, laser scans of the ice surface, and measurements of the mass of ice for each icing condition. The results of ice shapes accumulated as a result of exposure to an icing cloud with a bimodal droplet distribution were compared to the ice shapes resulting from an equivalent cloud composed of a droplet distribution with a standard bell curve shape.

  7. [Piercings--what the physician needs to know?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Nicolas; Koljonen, Virve

    2012-01-01

    Body piercing (BP) is defined as penetration of jewellery through the skin. Along with tattooing BPs are the most common body modifications. Complications related to piercing are numerous. They can be acute or chronic, infectious or non infectious and local or systemic complications. Acute infections constitute the most important complications and occur independently of the piercing site. Special attention should be brought on oral piercings, as they are frequent and responsible for numerous complications. A non-judgmental approach is recommended, when a pierced patient seeks medical help for a piercing complication or any other health issue.

  8. People with Multiple Tattoos and/or Piercings Are Not at Increased Risk for HBV or HCV in The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanus, Anouk T.; van den Hoek, Anneke; Boonstra, Albert; van Houdt, Robin; de Bruijn, Lotte J.; Heijman, Titia; Coutinho, Roel A.; Prins, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background Although published results are inconsistent, it has been suggested that tattooing and piercing are risk factors for HBV and HCV infections. To examine whether tattooing and piercing do indeed increase the risk of infection, we conducted a study among people with multiple tattoos and/or piercings in the Netherlands who acquired their tattoos and piercings in the Netherlands and/or abroad. Methods Tattoo artists, piercers, and people with multiple tattoos and/or piercings were recruited at tattoo conventions, shops (N = 182), and a biannual survey at our STI-outpatient clinic (N = 252) in Amsterdam. Participants were interviewed and tested for anti-HBc and anti-HCV. Determinants of HBV and HCV infections were analysed using logistic regression analysis. Results The median number of tattoos and piercings was 5 (IQR 2–10) and 2 (IQR 2–4), respectively. Almost 40% acquired their tattoo of piercing abroad. In total, 18/434 (4.2%, 95%CI: 2.64%–6.46%) participants were anti-HBc positive and 1 was anti-HCV positive (0.2%, 95%CI: 0.01%–1.29%). Being anti-HBc positive was independently associated with older age (OR 1.68, 95%CI: 1.03–2.75 per 10 years older) and being born in an HBV-endemic country (OR 7.39, 95%CI: 2.77–19.7). Tattoo- and/or piercing-related variables, like having a tattoo or piercing in an HBV endemic country, surface percentage tattooed, number of tattoos and piercings etc., were not associated with either HBV or HCV. Conclusions We found no evidence for an increased HBV/HCV seroprevalence among persons with multiple tattoos and/or piercings, which might be due to the introduction of hygiene guidelines for tattoo and piercing shops in combination with the low observed prevalence of HBV/HCV in the general population. Tattoos and/or piercings, therefore, should not be considered risk factors for HBV/HCV in the Dutch population. These findings imply the importance of implementation of hygiene guidelines in other countries. PMID

  9. People with multiple tattoos and/or piercings are not at increased risk for HBV or HCV in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanus, Anouk T; van den Hoek, Anneke; Boonstra, Albert; van Houdt, Robin; de Bruijn, Lotte J; Heijman, Titia; Coutinho, Roel A; Prins, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Although published results are inconsistent, it has been suggested that tattooing and piercing are risk factors for HBV and HCV infections. To examine whether tattooing and piercing do indeed increase the risk of infection, we conducted a study among people with multiple tattoos and/or piercings in The Netherlands who acquired their tattoos and piercings in The Netherlands and/or abroad. Tattoo artists, piercers, and people with multiple tattoos and/or piercings were recruited at tattoo conventions, shops (N = 182), and a biannual survey at our STI-outpatient clinic (N = 252) in Amsterdam. Participants were interviewed and tested for anti-HBc and anti-HCV. Determinants of HBV and HCV infections were analysed using logistic regression analysis. The median number of tattoos and piercings was 5 (IQR 2-10) and 2 (IQR 2-4), respectively. Almost 40% acquired their tattoo of piercing abroad. In total, 18/434 (4.2%, 95%CI: 2.64%-6.46%) participants were anti-HBc positive and 1 was anti-HCV positive (0.2%, 95%CI: 0.01%-1.29%). Being anti-HBc positive was independently associated with older age (OR 1.68, 95%CI: 1.03-2.75 per 10 years older) and being born in an HBV-endemic country (OR 7.39, 95%CI: 2.77-19.7). Tattoo- and/or piercing-related variables, like having a tattoo or piercing in an HBV endemic country, surface percentage tattooed, number of tattoos and piercings etc., were not associated with either HBV or HCV. We found no evidence for an increased HBV/HCV seroprevalence among persons with multiple tattoos and/or piercings, which might be due to the introduction of hygiene guidelines for tattoo and piercing shops in combination with the low observed prevalence of HBV/HCV in the general population. Tattoos and/or piercings, therefore, should not be considered risk factors for HBV/HCV in the Dutch population. These findings imply the importance of implementation of hygiene guidelines in other countries.

  10. People with multiple tattoos and/or piercings are not at increased risk for HBV or HCV in The Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk T Urbanus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although published results are inconsistent, it has been suggested that tattooing and piercing are risk factors for HBV and HCV infections. To examine whether tattooing and piercing do indeed increase the risk of infection, we conducted a study among people with multiple tattoos and/or piercings in The Netherlands who acquired their tattoos and piercings in The Netherlands and/or abroad. METHODS: Tattoo artists, piercers, and people with multiple tattoos and/or piercings were recruited at tattoo conventions, shops (N = 182, and a biannual survey at our STI-outpatient clinic (N = 252 in Amsterdam. Participants were interviewed and tested for anti-HBc and anti-HCV. Determinants of HBV and HCV infections were analysed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The median number of tattoos and piercings was 5 (IQR 2-10 and 2 (IQR 2-4, respectively. Almost 40% acquired their tattoo of piercing abroad. In total, 18/434 (4.2%, 95%CI: 2.64%-6.46% participants were anti-HBc positive and 1 was anti-HCV positive (0.2%, 95%CI: 0.01%-1.29%. Being anti-HBc positive was independently associated with older age (OR 1.68, 95%CI: 1.03-2.75 per 10 years older and being born in an HBV-endemic country (OR 7.39, 95%CI: 2.77-19.7. Tattoo- and/or piercing-related variables, like having a tattoo or piercing in an HBV endemic country, surface percentage tattooed, number of tattoos and piercings etc., were not associated with either HBV or HCV. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence for an increased HBV/HCV seroprevalence among persons with multiple tattoos and/or piercings, which might be due to the introduction of hygiene guidelines for tattoo and piercing shops in combination with the low observed prevalence of HBV/HCV in the general population. Tattoos and/or piercings, therefore, should not be considered risk factors for HBV/HCV in the Dutch population. These findings imply the importance of implementation of hygiene guidelines in other countries.

  11. Electromagnetic theory of the radiative Pierce instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klochkov, D.N.; Rukhadze, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    A study is made of the radiative Pierce instability of a relativistic electron beam propagating in a waveguide in the presence of an infinitely strong magnetic field. The perturbation theory is used to find the growth rates and conditions of instability over a broad range of the beam current. It is shown that, under the Pierce boundary conditions, the instability is Raman in nature, and there is no current threshold for the instability. This allows the instability saturation level to be accurately determined from the condition for the violation of the Cherenkov resonance and the radiation efficiency to be estimated

  12. Equilibrium double layers in extended Pierce diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciubotariu-Jassy, C.I.

    1992-01-01

    The extended Pierce diode is similar to the standard (or classical) Pierce diode, but has passive circuit elements in place of the short circuit between the electrodes. This device is important as an approximation to real bounded plasma systems. It consists of two parallel plane electrodes (an emitter located at x=0 and a collector located at x=l) and a collisionless cold electron beam travelling between them. The electrons are neutralized by a background of comoving massive ions. This situation is analysed in this paper and new equilibrium double layer (DL) plasma structures are obtained. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs

  13. Electromagnetic theory of the radiative Pierce instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klochkov, D.N.; Rukhadze, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    The radiative Pierce instability of a relativistic electron beam in a waveguide stabilized by an infinite strong magnetic field is considered. the increment and conditions for instability development in a wide interval of the beam currents are determined on the basis of the perturbation theory. It is shown that the instability has always the Raman character and is threshold less in current for the Pierce boundary conditions. It permits sufficiently strictly to define the instability saturation level from breaking the resonance condition and to estimate the radiation efficiency

  14. Self-piercing riveting - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dezhi; Chrysanthou, Andreas; Patel, Imran; Williams, Geraint J.

    2017-01-01

    Self-piercing riveting (SPR) is a cold mechanical joining process used to join two or more sheets of materials by driving a rivet piercing through the top sheet or the top and middle sheets and subsequently lock into the bottom sheet under the guidance of a suitable die. SPR is currently the main joining method for aluminium and mixed-material lightweight automotive structures. SPR was originated half century ago, but it only had significant progress in the last 25 years due to the requiremen...

  15. Algunas consideraciones acerca de los piercings orales Some considerations about oral piercings

    OpenAIRE

    I De Urbiola Alís; H Viñals Iglesias

    2005-01-01

    Desde la antigüedad se han venido realizando piercings intraorales con motivaciones muy diversas a lo largo de la historia. Actualmente es una moda que se ha generalizado en el mundo occidental. En este artículo se explican los distintos tipos de piercings intra y periorales, sus posibles localizaciones y las complicaciones derivadas de su uso. También se dan unas recomendaciones y unas pautas de tratamiento para los profesionales que deban atender a los pacientes portadores de piercings.Intr...

  16. Genital piercings: what is known and what people with genital piercings tell us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Myrna L; Caliendo, Carol; Roberts, Alden E

    2006-06-01

    General and subjective information about those who chose to obtain genital piercings was presented. Particularly, the assumptions made from the literature are refuted by objective and subjective data collected from intimately pierced individuals themselves. Professional nurses must not base practice decisions on assumptions but on the "best evidence with clinical experience, research, (as well as) associated patient values" (Sackett, Strauss, Richardson, Rosenberg, & Haynes, 2001, p. 10). Thus, providing clinically competent care is driven by the latest knowledge and evidence from research and patient sources. Data found here provide further empirical evidence that may help to improve client outcomes by advancing evidence-based nursing practice in relation to people with genital piercings.

  17. Proximity to citrus influences Pierce's disease in Temecula Valley vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Perring, Thomas M.; Farrar, Charles A.; Blua, Matthew

    2001-01-01

    Pierce's disease has caused extensive losses to grapes in the Temecula Valley. The primary vector of Pierce's disease in the region is the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), which has been found in large numbers in citrus trees. We examined the role of citrus in the Temecula Valley Pierce's disease epidemic and found that citrus groves have influenced the incidence and severity of Pierce's disease in grapes. Because GWSS inhabit citrus in large numbers, California grape growers should take ad...

  18. Do long-term tongue piercings affect speech quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Esther; Birkholz, Peter; Willmes, Klaus; Neuschaefer-Rube, Christiane

    2017-10-01

    To explore possible effects of tongue piercing on perceived speech quality. Using a quasi-experimental design, we analyzed the effect of tongue piercing on speech in a perception experiment. Samples of spontaneous speech and read speech were recorded from 20 long-term pierced and 20 non-pierced individuals (10 males, 10 females each). The individuals having a tongue piercing were recorded with attached and removed piercing. The audio samples were blindly rated by 26 female and 20 male laypersons and by 5 female speech-language pathologists with regard to perceived speech quality along 5 dimensions: speech clarity, speech rate, prosody, rhythm and fluency. We found no statistically significant differences for any of the speech quality dimensions between the pierced and non-pierced individuals, neither for the read nor for the spontaneous speech. In addition, neither length nor position of piercing had a significant effect on speech quality. The removal of tongue piercings had no effects on speech performance either. Rating differences between laypersons and speech-language pathologists were not dependent on the presence of a tongue piercing. People are able to perfectly adapt their articulation to long-term tongue piercings such that their speech quality is not perceptually affected.

  19. Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS) at Fort Pierce

    Science.gov (United States)

    share current Smithsonian research on the plants and animals of the Indian River Lagoon and marine Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce Website Search Box Search Field: SMS Website Search Twitter SMS Home › Welcome to the Smithsonian Marine Station Homepage slideshow Who We Are... The

  20. Circuit effects on Pierce instabilities revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, S.; Hoerhager, M.; Crystal, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of external circuit effects on Pierce diode instability studied by Raadu and Silevitch is reconsidered. The characteristic equation and the ensuing eigenfrequencies are found to disagree with those given by the authors above, which discrepancy is attributed to the fact that one of their boundary conditions is inconsistent with the model chosen. (author)

  1. Body piercing: more than skin deep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, L; Armstrong, M L

    2009-09-01

    Young adult populations (18-25 years of age) throughout the world have latched onto the mainstream trend of body piercing. Best health care practices for these individuals involves the knowledge of proper procedural techniques, postsite care, common complications, and treatment modalities.

  2. A Dermal Piercing Complicated by Mycobacterium fortuitum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroggins-Markle, Leslie; Kelly, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Background. Dermal piercings have recently become a fashion symbol. Common complications include hypertrophic scarring, rejection, local infection, contact allergy, and traumatic tearing. We report a rare case of Mycobacterium fortuitum following a dermal piercing and discuss its medical implications and treatments. Case. A previously healthy 19-year-old woman presented complaining of erythema and edema at the site of a dermal piercing on the right fourth dorsal finger. She was treated with a 10-day course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and one course of cephalexin by her primary care physician with incomplete resolution. The patient stated that she had been swimming at a local water park daily. A punch biopsy around the dermal stud was performed, and cultures with sensitivities revealed Mycobacterium fortuitum. The patient was treated with clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin for two months receiving full resolution. Discussion. Mycobacterium fortuitum is an infrequent human pathogen. This organism is a Runyon group IV, rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria, often found in water,soil, and dust. Treatment options vary due to the size of the lesion. Small lesions are typically excised, while larger lesions require treatment for 2–6 months with antibiotics. We recommend a high level of suspicion for atypical mycobacterial infections in a piercing resistant to other therapies. PMID:24073343

  3. A Dermal Piercing Complicated by Mycobacterium fortuitum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisha Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dermal piercings have recently become a fashion symbol. Common complications include hypertrophic scarring, rejection, local infection, contact allergy, and traumatic tearing. We report a rare case of Mycobacterium fortuitum following a dermal piercing and discuss its medical implications and treatments. Case. A previously healthy 19-year-old woman presented complaining of erythema and edema at the site of a dermal piercing on the right fourth dorsal finger. She was treated with a 10-day course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and one course of cephalexin by her primary care physician with incomplete resolution. The patient stated that she had been swimming at a local water park daily. A punch biopsy around the dermal stud was performed, and cultures with sensitivities revealed Mycobacterium fortuitum. The patient was treated with clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin for two months receiving full resolution. Discussion. Mycobacterium fortuitum is an infrequent human pathogen. This organism is a Runyon group IV, rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria, often found in water,soil, and dust. Treatment options vary due to the size of the lesion. Small lesions are typically excised, while larger lesions require treatment for 2–6 months with antibiotics. We recommend a high level of suspicion for atypical mycobacterial infections in a piercing resistant to other therapies.

  4. Dental and oral complications of lip and tongue piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moor, R J G; De Witte, A M J C; Delmé, K I M; De Bruyne, M A A; Hommez, G M G; Goyvaerts, D

    2005-10-22

    Piercing of the tongue and perioral regions is an increasingly popular expression of body art, with more patients coming in for a routine check-up with tongue and/or lip piercings. Several complications of oral piercing have been reported, some of which are life-threatening. In the present clinical survey the prevalence of both tongue and lip piercing complications in oral health was assessed in a group of 50 patients. The most common dental problem registered was chipping of the teeth, especially in association with tongue piercing. Gingival recession was seen as a result of lip piercing with studs. Post-procedural complications included oedema, haemorrhage and infection. Therefore, dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons should be given more authority to advise patients with oral and facial piercings or those who plan to acquire this type of body art.

  5. Body piercing: complications and prevention of health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jaimee; Minocha, Julia; Laumann, Anne

    2012-02-01

    Body and earlobe piercing are common practices in the USA today. Minor complications including infection and bleeding occur frequently and, although rare, major complications have been reported. Healthcare professionals should be cognizant of the medical consequences of body piercing. Complications vary depending on the body-piercing site, materials used, experience of the practitioner, hygiene regimens, and aftercare by the recipient. Localized infections are common. Systemic infections such as viral hepatitis and toxic shock syndrome and distant infections such as endocarditis and brain abscesses have been reported. Other general complications include allergic contact dermatitis (e.g. from nickel or latex), bleeding, scarring and keloid formation, nerve damage, and interference with medical procedures such as intubation and blood/organ donation. Site-specific complications have been reported. Oral piercings may lead to difficulty speaking and eating, excessive salivation, and dental problems. Oral and nasal piercings may be aspirated or become embedded, requiring surgical removal. Piercing tracts in the ear, nipple, and navel are prone to tearing. Galactorrhea may be caused by stimulation from a nipple piercing. Genital piercings may lead to infertility secondary to infection, and obstruction of the urethra secondary to scar formation. In men, priapism and fistula formation may occur. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding and have a piercing or are considering obtaining one need to be aware of the rare complications that may affect them or their child. Though not a 'complication' per se, many studies have reported body piercing as a marker for high-risk behavior, psychopathologic symptoms, and anti-social personality traits. When it comes to piercing complications, prevention is the key. Body piercers should take a complete medical and social history to identify conditions that may predispose an individual to complications, and candidates should choose a

  6. Experimental investigation of piercing of high-strength steels within a critical range of slant angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, S.; Liewald, M.

    2017-09-01

    Deep drawn parts often do have complex designs and, therefore, must be trimmed or punched subsequently in a second stage. Due to the complex part geometry, most punching areas do reveal critical slant angle (angle between part surface and ram movement direction) different to perpendicular direction. Piercing within a critical range of slant angle may lead to severe damage of the cutting tool. Consequently, expensive cam units are required to transform the ram moving direction in order to perform the piercing process perpendicularly to the local part surface. For modern sheet metals, however, the described critical angle of attack has not been investigated adequately until now. Therefore, cam units are used in cases in which regular piercing with high slant angle wouldn’t be possible. Purpose of this study is to investigate influencing factors and their effect on punch damage during piercing of high strength steels with slant angles. Therefore, a modular shearing tool was designed, which allows to simply switch die parts to vary cutting clearance and cutting angle. The target size of the study is to measure the lateral deviation of the punch which is monitored by an eddy current sensor. The sensor is located in the downholder and measures the lateral punch deviation in-line during manufacturing. The deviation is mainly influenced by slant angle of workpiece surface. In relation to slang angle and sheet thickness the clearance has a small influence on the measured punch deflection.

  7. [Tattoos and piercings in adolescents: family conflicts and temperament].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosello, Romina; Favaro, Angela; Zanetti, Tatiana; Soave, Manuela; Vidotto, Giulio; Huon, Gail; Santonastaso, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of body art, such as tattoos and piercings, has ancient roots, rediscovered in Western society during the '70s. The aim of this research is to investigate the prevalence and the characteristics of tattoos and piercings among Italian adolescents of high school in Padua, with particular attention to family context and temperament. Some questionnaires about the presence or the wish of tattoos/piercings, smoke and alcohol use, familiar conflicts, and some temperamental features, such as novelty seeking, harm avoidance and reward dependence, have been administered to a sample of 829 students. Tattoo and piercing's prevalence among adolescents was respectively 4% and 24%; 2.5% of the sample had both. Respectively 62% and 35% of the subjects expressed the desire of having a tattoo or piercing. A significant association has been found between tattoo/piercing's presence and smoke and alcohol use (p tattoos and piercings, are more likely to have familiar conflicts and minor perceived support and they have higher scores on the novelty seeking scale. Those who wish a tattoo/piercing showed higher reward dependence. This study confirms that tattoos/piercings are common among young people and it stresses the relevance of familiar and temperamental features, and the association between tattoos/piercings and some maladaptive behaviors, like smoke and alcohol use.

  8. Separation control of NACA0015 airfoil using plasma actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Daisuke; Sakakibara, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Separation control of NACA0015 airfoil by means of plasma actuators was investigated. Plasma actuators in spanwise intermittent layout on the suction surface of the airfoil were activated with spanwise phase difference φ = 0 or φ = π in the case of dimensionless burst frequencyF+ = 6 and F+ = 0.5 at Re = 6.3 ×104 . The lift and drag of the airfoil were measured using a two component force balance. The flow around the airfoil was measured by PIV analysis. In the condition of F+ = 6 and φ = π at around stall angle, which is 10 degrees, the lift-to-drag ratio was higher than that ofF+ = 6 and φ = 0 . Therefore, it was confirmed that aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil improved by disturbances with temporal and spatial phase difference.

  9. Linear Strength Vortex Panel Method for NACA 4412 Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this article is to formulate numerical models for two-dimensional potential flow over the NACA 4412 Airfoil using linear vortex panel methods. By satisfying the no penetration boundary condition and Kutta condition, the circulation density on each boundary points (end point of every panel) are obtained and according to which, surface pressure distribution and lift coefficients of the airfoil are predicted and validated by Xfoil, an interactive program for the design and analysis of airfoil. The sensitivity of results to the number of panels is also investigated in the end, which shows that the results are sensitive to the number of panels when panel number ranges from 10 to 160. With the increasing panel number (N>160), the results become relatively insensitive to it.

  10. Revised theory of Pierce-type electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sar-El, H.Z.

    1982-01-01

    Attempts to date to obtain the shape of the beam forming electrodes of various Pierce-type electron guns are briefly discussed with emphasis on the many discrepansis in the results of previous works. A revised theory of Pierce-type electron guns is proposed. The shapes of the beam-forming electrodes for all known configurations of Pierce guns were computed on the basis of the proposed theory. (orig.)

  11. Overview of complications secondary to tongue and lip piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheu-Robert, Léo-François; Andrian, Elisoa; Grenier, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, intraoral and perioral piercings have grown in popularity among teenagers and young adults. This is of concern to dental and medical professionals because of the risks and complications for oral, dental and general health. The risks and complications associated with tongue and lip piercings range from abnormal tooth wear and cracked tooth syndrome to gingival recession and systemic infections. In this report, we provide an overview of possible problems associated with oral piercings that may be encountered by dentists.

  12. Self-piercing riveting properties, processes and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chrysanthou, A

    2014-01-01

    Due to its speed, low energy requirements, and the fact that it does not require a pre-drilled hole, the technique of self-piercing riveting (SPR) has been increasingly adopted by many industries as a high-speed mechanical fastening technique for the joining of sheet material components. Self-piercing riveting comprehensively reviews the process, equipment, and corrosion behaviour of self-piercing riveting, and also describes the process of evaluation and modelling of strength of self-piercing riveted joints, quality control methods and non-destructive testing.Part one provides an exte

  13. Obituary: A. Keith Pierce, 1918 - 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, William Charles

    2006-12-01

    A. Keith Pierce was a solar astronomer who will be remembered for bringing the physics lab to the telescope and for his design of the world's largest solar telescope, the 1.5-meter McMath Telescope on Kitt Peak in Arizona. Born in Lincoln, Nebraska, he died of cancer in Tucson on 11 March 2005. He was eighty-six. His father, Tracy Pierce, had gone to graduate school in Berkeley, California, with a major in mathematics and a minor in astronomy. Fellow students of his class included Seth Nicholson and Donald Shane, people who were later to influence young Keith's life. Tracy Pierce received an appointment as an instructor, later Professor, of mathematics at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln. In his spare time dad Tracy became something of a telescope nut, following "the bible" —Albert Ingall's A.T.M (Amateur Telescope Making). His enthusiasm rubbed off on his son. Seth Nicholson, who became a famous Mt. Wilson Observatory astronomer, and Donald Shane from Berkeley, both stayed at the Pierce home while on their Sigma Xi lecture tours. After two years at Lincoln, followed by two more at Berkeley, Keith had earned his bachelor's degree in astronomy. During World War II, Dr. Shane became personnel director at the E.O. Lawrence Radiation Lab and arranged for Keith to work there at the cyclotron. A crash program to produce U235 from U238 was under way. At a crucial point in 1942 the cyclotron turned out the sought-after material. Much celebration ensued among the Rad Lab leaders. During this gala, Keith was on the night-shift and pretty much on his own. It was then that he turned a valve to the right, when left was called for, and the entire system went down. Shortly thereafter he was sent to Oak Ridge for the duration of the war. He cannot have been thought of badly, however, because he was invited to the Trinity test in New Mexico. (He didn't go because of the pending birth of his first son, John.) The year 1945 found Keith back in Berkeley working on his Ph

  14. Julianne Pierce VNS Matrix / Julianne Pierce ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pierce, Julianne

    2006-01-01

    Intervjuu austraalia kunstniku Julianne Pierce'iga, kes koos Josephine Starrsi, Francesca da Rimini ja Virginia Barretiga lõi 1991. a. Sydney's naiskunstirühmituse VNS Matrix ning kirjutas "21. sajandi küberfeministliku manifesti". Rühmituse töödest

  15. Trends and complications of ear piercing among selected Nigerian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajide Toye Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The reported health and socioeconomic consequences of ear piercing, especially in modern day society, underscore the need to further research into this subject. In this study, we determine the trends and complications of ear piercing among selected Nigerian population. Aim and Objectives: The aim and objective of this study was to draw attention to the trends and complications of ear piercing with a view to prevent its associated complications. Methodology: It is a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out between February and May 2015 among selected Nigerian population from two of its six geo-political zones. A self-administered semi-structured questionnaire which had been pretested was used to collect data from 458 respondents who consented using multistage sampling technique. Results: Of 480 respondents enumerated, 458 completed the questionnaires and gave their biodata. The male:female ratio was 1:6.2. Their ages ranged from 18 to 75 years with a mean of 35.56 ± 10.16. About 35.4% of the respondents were within the age group of 31–40 years. Majority of the respondents, i.e.,79.3% practiced ear piercing on their children. Most of them (86.8% preferred single piercing. Ear piercing was performed within the 1st week of birth in 37.2% of the respondents. Large percentage (93.2% of the respondents will not encourage ear piercing in male children. Nearly 20.5% of the respondents observed complications. Conclusion: Ear piercing remained a common practice in Nigeria, with respondents preferring it on females. Majority of the piercings are done in childhood and by untrained personnel. Keloid formation was the notable complication observed by the respondents. There is a need to increase awareness about the hazards of ear piercings and to enact laws that regulate ear piercings particularly in children which is hereby stretched.

  16. Remoção do piercing no perioperatório Remoción del piercing en el perioperatorio Perioperative removal of body piercing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Diccini

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A permanência do piercing no intra-operatório pode ocasionar intercorrências. Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar as intervenções de enfermagem no pré-operatório e avaliar as complicações do piercing no intra-operatório. Durante a revisão da literatura, foram incluídos 16 artigos publicados de 1994 a 2006. Nove artigos (56,2% de intervenções de enfermagem no pré-operatório, quatro (25,0% de complicações do piercing no intra-operatório e três (18,8% sobre o uso do piercing no intra-operatório, não apresentando complicações. Concluímos que a presença de piercing oral durante o intra-operatório aumenta o risco de lesões e aspiração. No corpo, a presença do piercing pode causar lesões na pele, decorrentes da mobilização do paciente e queimaduras eletrocirúrgicas. Portanto, é necessária a retirada do piercing no pré-operatório.La permanencia del piercing en el intraoperatorio puede causar algún perjuicio. Pretendemos, determinar las intervenciones de enfermería en el preoperatorio y evaluar las complicaciones del piercing en el intraoperatorio. La revisión de la literatura mostró 16 artículos publicados de 1994 a 2006. Nueve (56,2% fueron de intervenciones de enfermería en el preoperatorio, cuatro (25,0% de complicaciones del piercing en intraoperatorio, tres (18,8% no mostraron complicaciones. Concluimos, la presencia del piercing oral, durante el intraoperatório aumenta el riesgo de aspiración y daño. En el cuerpo, puede causar heridas en la piel, provocadas por la movilización del enfermo y las quemaduras, debido al uso de bisturí eléctrico durante el acto intraoperatorio. Por consiguiente, es necesario retirar el piercing en el preoperatorio.The remaining of piercing in intraoperative can cause damages. This paper had as purpose defining the nursing interventions in the intraoperative and evaluates the complications caused by piercing in the intraoperative. This literature review had 16

  17. Awareness of health risks associated with body piercing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, there has been a widespread practice of tattooing and body piercing among youths despite the increased number of potential complications associated to the practice. This study aims to assess the awareness of health risk associated with body piercing and tattooing in Federal Polytechnic Auchi, Edo state.

  18. Unstable oscillatory Pierce modes of neutralized electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, J.R.; Lemons, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    Oscillatory modes of the Pierce system have been calculated. These modes are found to have growth rates comparable to the previously investigated purely growing modes. When these modes are included, it is found that the Pierce system is unstable for most values of ω/sub p/ L/V 0 >π

  19. Management of Retained Genital Piercings: A Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Moulton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood.

  20. Management of Retained Genital Piercings: A Case Report and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Laura J; Jernigan, Amelia M

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood.

  1. First glimpse of the functional benefits of clitoral hood piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, Vaughn S; Eichold, Bernard H; Sharpe, Thomasina H; Lynn, Sherwood C

    2005-09-01

    In this exploratory study, we identify a positive relationship between vertical clitoral hood piercing and desire, frequency of intercourse and arousal. There were no dramatic differences in orgasmic functioning. Clinicians can play key roles in educating patients about potential outcomes and risks of genital piercing.

  2. The design of gridded pierce guns for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    True, R.

    1985-01-01

    It is vital to employ ultra-laminar beams in electron linacs to maximize charge transport to the target. This paper presents numerical and experimental design techniques which have led to significant improvements in gridded Pierce guns used in microwave tubes and electron linacs. The paper concludes with two gun/injector concepts which have demonstrated enhanced performance over standard triode Pierce guns

  3. Tattoos and Piercings: Attitudes, Behaviors, and Interpretations of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Jenn; Knox, David; Zusman, Jane; Zusman, Marty E.

    2007-01-01

    Previously, in those segments of America where "proper" behavior was valued, tattoos and body piercings were examples of what Goffman identified as "stigma"--they spoiled one's identity. Today, tattoos and piercings have become more mainstream. This study reports the survey of 400 undergraduates at a large southeastern university. Regarding…

  4. Oral piercings among first-year university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventä, Irja; Lakoma, Ani; Haahtela, Sauli; Peltola, Jaakko; Ylipaavalniemi, Pekka; Turtola, Lauri

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the study was to examine oral piercings among first-year university students. First-year university students in 2002 were invited to a dental examination (n = 234; 49 men and 185 women). Students with piercings formed the study group and the rest served as controls. The methods included decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMF) index, stimulated salivary flow rates, panoramic tomograms, and questionnaires including the Depression Inventory of Beck. Fisher's 2-sided exact test was used for statistical analysis. The prevalence of oral piercings was 3.4%. In the DMF indices, no statistically significant differences existed between the groups. Increased salivary flow rates were noted among students with piercings (63% vs 26%, P piercings is essential.

  5. Control of Pierce's Disease by Phage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayukh Das

    Full Text Available Pierce's Disease (PD of grapevines, caused by Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (Xf, is a limiting factor in the cultivation of grapevines in the US. There are presently no effective control methods to prevent or treat PD. The therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy of a phage cocktail composed of four virulent (lytic phages was evaluated for control of PD. Xf levels in grapevines were significantly reduced in therapeutically or prophylactically treated grapevines. PD symptoms ceased to progress one week post-therapeutic treatment and symptoms were not observed in prophylactically treated grapevines. Cocktail phage levels increased in grapevines in the presence of the host. No in planta phage-resistant Xf isolates were obtained. Moreover, Xf mutants selected for phage resistance in vitro did not cause PD symptoms. Our results indicate that phages have great potential for biocontrol of PD and other economically important diseases caused by Xylella.

  6. Piercings in medical students and their effects on the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purim, Kátia Sheylla Malta; Rosario, Bernardo Augusto; Rosario, Cristine Secco; Guimarães, Ana Tereza Bittencourt

    2014-01-01

    Piercings are body embellishments commonly seen in young people, however their inherent risk of infection and scarring disorders are less divulged. To evaluate the prevalence of body piercings among medical students and their possible dermatologic consequences. Cross-sectional study with 58 medical students, by means of a structured questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics, technical issues related to the piercing and characteristics of the dermatologic complications. The sample was predominantly female (86.2%), with mean age 24 ± 3 years. The placement of the first piercing occurred during adolescence (median age 15), without medical supervision (91.4%) or knowledge of parents/guardians (74%). Most piercings were made of metal alloy/stainless steel, in a dumbbell model (51.7%), inserted in the umbilical area (53.5%) or ear (41.4%), with frequent cutaneous reactions in the first six months post-piercing. Hypertrophic scarring, pain, swelling and infection (ppiercings. Piercing insertion occurred during adolescence. Local inflammatory and infectious reactions were common. Scarring disorders and dermatitis appeared in the long term. There is need for preventive and educational activities, starting with those in the academic environment.

  7. Piercings in medical students and their effects on the skin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purim, Kátia Sheylla Malta; Rosario, Bernardo Augusto; Rosario, Cristine Secco; Guimarães, Ana Tereza Bittencourt

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Piercings are body embellishments commonly seen in young people, however their inherent risk of infection and scarring disorders are less divulged. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of body piercings among medical students and their possible dermatologic consequences. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 58 medical students, by means of a structured questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics, technical issues related to the piercing and characteristics of the dermatologic complications. RESULTS The sample was predominantly female (86.2%), with mean age 24 ± 3 years. The placement of the first piercing occurred during adolescence (median age 15), without medical supervision (91.4%) or knowledge of parents/guardians (74%). Most piercings were made of metal alloy/stainless steel, in a dumbbell model (51.7%), inserted in the umbilical area (53.5%) or ear (41.4%), with frequent cutaneous reactions in the first six months post-piercing. Hypertrophic scarring, pain, swelling and infection (ppiercings. CONCLUSION Piercing insertion occurred during adolescence. Local inflammatory and infectious reactions were common. Scarring disorders and dermatitis appeared in the long term. There is need for preventive and educational activities, starting with those in the academic environment. PMID:25387495

  8. Perceptions of a photograph of a woman with visible piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Sara

    2008-08-01

    To examine perceptions of people with visible piercings 105 undergraduate students from four different courses on campus (85 women, 20 men; M age=20.0 yr., SD=3.4) were randomly assigned to rate a photograph of a women with or without piercings on her eyebrow, ear, lip, and nose on 13 characteristics. Analysis indicated the model with visible piercings was rated less religious and more creative, artistic, and mysterious. These findings differ from previous findings on perception of tattoos. Implications and directions for research with different age groups are discussed.

  9. Application of hard coatings for blanking and piercing tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podgornik, B.; Zajec, B.; Bay, Niels

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to examine the possibility of reducing lubrication and replacing expensive tungsten carbide material in blanking/piercing through introduction of hard tool coatings. Results show that hard PVD coatings can be successfully used in blanking/piercing...... critical value under dry friction conditions and leads to tool failure. Therefore, at present oxidation and temperature resistant hard coatings can give improved wear resistance of stamping tools, but elimination of lubricants in blanking and piercing processes is still not feasible....

  10. The NACA Exceptional Service Medal presented at the NACA High Speed Flight Station. L-R: Hugh Dryden

    Science.gov (United States)

    1956-01-01

    The NASA exceptional Service Medal presented at the NACA High Speed Flight Station. L-R: Hugh Dryden, Joe Walker (X-1A research pilot), Stan Butchart (pilot of the B-29 mothership), Richard Payne (X-1A crew chief).

  11. Awareness of complications and maintenance mode of oral piercing in a group of adolescents and young Italian adults with intraoral piercing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Francesca; Corridore, Denise; Ottolenghi, Livia

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to focus the awareness of complications of oral piercing among a group of adolescents and young Italian adults with intraoral piercings. Material and Methods A total of 225 teenagers were asked to complete a questionnaire on the awareness of complications of oral piercing. An additional questionnaire was administered in case of oral piercing worn, based on site piercing, knowledge about piercer license, oral and systemic risks due to oral piercing, disinfection and sterilization of the material pierced, information by the piercer about piercing hygiene maintenance and post-piercing dentist check-up. After questionnaire all partecipants received a brochure with some information about risks and maintenance mode of piercing. Results Data revealed that more than 50% of teens surveyed was found to wear a piercing. Only 25.3% was aware of the risk of HCV cross-infection and only 17.3% reported of knowledge about risk of endocarditis. Only 17% checked the piercer license and only 18% sterilization and disinfection of the materials used. 53.7% did not received explanations about the risks associated with piercing. With regard to the maintenance mode of the piercing, it has been suggested to brush the piercing bar in 17% of cases. The post piercing specialist visits have been suggested only in 7% of cases. Conclusions The general lack of awareness of complications and maintenance mode related to oral piercing needs to be addressed by some education programs performed at school and by dentists. Key words: Oral piercing, oral health, oral complications. PMID:25858082

  12. Breast abscess after nipple piercing: sonographic findings with clinical correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibman, A Jill; Misra, Monika; Castaldi, Maria

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this series was to review the spectrum of clinical and sonographic features associated with infection after nipple piercing. Between 2002 and 2010, 6 patients presented to our breast center with a breast abscess after nipple piercing. A retrospective analysis of the imaging findings was performed with clinical and pathologic correlation. Patients with breast infections after nipple piercing tend to be young, and the timing since piercing varies from 2 weeks to 17 months. Sonography showed a complex or hypoechoic mass in 5 of 6 patients. Treatment of breast abscesses included surgical incision and drainage, percutaneous drainage, and antibiotic therapy. Surgical evacuation is commonly performed; however, sonographically guided aspiration may be an appropriate management strategy.

  13. Pierce Lumber, Inc. - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Pierce Lumber, Inc. (“Respondent”), located at 1629 13th Street, Belle Plaine, IA for alleged violations of its National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit (perm

  14. Body piercings and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Eric; Rodgers, Rachel; Simon, Naomi M; Jehel, Louis; Metcalf, Christina A; Birmes, Philippe; Schmitt, Laurent

    2013-02-01

    Body piercing, which is prevalent in young adults, has been suggested to be associated with features usually related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) such as high-risk behaviours and psychopathological symptoms and might be motivated by a wish to deal with prior traumatic experiences. However, to date, no research has investigated the relationship between this practice and PTSD symptoms. The present research aims to investigate the possible relationship between body piercing and PTSD symptoms in French-speaking young adults. According to our results, having two or more body piercings was associated with a twofold increased risk for scoring above the cut-off score for PTSD on the PTSD checklist. Our findings suggest that two or more body piercings might serve as an identifiable marker for PTSD symptoms and may have important implications for clinical screening. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The Consequences of Tongue Piercing on Oral and Periodontal Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellari, Dimitra

    2014-01-01

    This paper is discussing the potential consequences that may arise by the implementation of piercing in the oral cavity and is also categorizing the consequences according to their extent and severity. Furthermore, this paper is reviewing some possible oral hygiene methods that can prove to be auxiliary in decreasing the potential complications arising from oral piercing. This literature review is based on articles published from 1985 to 2012. PMID:24616814

  16. Buneman instability and Pierce instability in a collisionless bounded plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Satoru; Saeki, Koichi; Sato, Noriyoshi; Hatta, Yoshisuke

    1983-01-01

    A systematic experiment is performed on the Buneman instability and the Pierce instability in a bounded plasma consisting of beam electrons and stationary ions. Current fluctuations are confirmed to be induced by the Buneman instability. On the other hand, the Pierce instability gives rise to a current limitation. The phenomena are well explained by Mikhailovskii's theory taking account of ion motion in a bounded plasma. (author)

  17. Experimental Characterization of Supercavitating Finds Piercing a Ventilated Supercavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    01-2011 --31-07-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Experimental Characterization of Supercavitating Finds Piercing a Ventilated...presents the results from water tunnel experiments on supercavitating fins performed at the Garfield Thomas Water Tunnel of the Pennsylvania State...SUBJECT TERMS supercavitation , fins, cavity-piercing 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT u a. REPORT I~· ABSTRACT I~· THIS

  18. CFD Study of NACA 0018 Airfoil with Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Christopher A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2017-01-01

    The abilities of two different Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes codes to predict the effects of an active flow control device are evaluated. The flow control device consists of a blowing slot located on the upper surface of an NACA 0018 airfoil, near the leading edge. A second blowing slot present on the airfoil near mid-chord is not evaluated here. Experimental results from a wind tunnel test show that a slot blowing with high momentum coefficient will increase the lift of the airfoil (compared to no blowing) and delay flow separation. A slot with low momentum coefficient will decrease the lift and induce separation even at low angles of attack. Two codes, CFL3D and FUN3D, are used in two-dimensional computations along with several different turbulence models. Two of these produced reasonable results for this flow, when run fully turbulent. A more advanced transition model failed to predict reasonable results, but warrants further study using different inputs. Including inviscid upper and lower tunnel walls in the simulations was found to be important in obtaining pressure distributions and lift coefficients that best matched experimental data. A limited number of three-dimensional computations were also performed.

  19. Drawing Euler Diagrams with Circles: The Theory of Piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Gem; Leishi Zhang; Howse, John; Rodgers, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Euler diagrams are effective tools for visualizing set intersections. They have a large number of application areas ranging from statistical data analysis to software engineering. However, the automated generation of Euler diagrams has never been easy: given an abstract description of a required Euler diagram, it is computationally expensive to generate the diagram. Moreover, the generated diagrams represent sets by polygons, sometimes with quite irregular shapes that make the diagrams less comprehensible. In this paper, we address these two issues by developing the theory of piercings, where we define single piercing curves and double piercing curves. We prove that if a diagram can be built inductively by successively adding piercing curves under certain constraints, then it can be drawn with circles, which are more esthetically pleasing than arbitrary polygons. The theory of piercings is developed at the abstract level. In addition, we present a Java implementation that, given an inductively pierced abstract description, generates an Euler diagram consisting only of circles within polynomial time.

  20. The Pierce-diode approximation to the single-emitter plasma diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ender, A. Ya.; Kuhn, S.; Kuznetsov, V. I.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of modeling fast processes in the collisionless single-emitter plasma diode (Knudsen diode with surface ionization, KDSI) by means of the Pierce-diode is studied. The KDSI is of practical importance in that it is an almost exact model of thermionic energy converters (TICs) in the collisionless regime and can also be used to model low-density Q-machines. At high temperatures, the Knudsen TIC comes close to the efficiency of the Carnot cycle and hence is the most promising converter of thermal to electric energy. TICs can be applied as component parts in high-temperature electronics. It is shown that normalizations must be chosen appropriately in order to compare the plasma characteristics of the two models: the KDSI and the Pierce-diode. A linear eigenmode theory of the KDSI is developed. For both nonlinear time-independent states and linear eigenmodes without electron reflection, excellent agreement is found between the analytical potential distributions for the Pierce-diode and the corresponding numerical ones for the KDSI. For the states with electron reflection, the agreement is satisfactory in a qualitative sense. A full classification of states of both diodes for the regimes with and without electron reflection is presented. The effect of the thermal spread in electron velocities on the potential distributions and the (ε,η) diagrams is analyzed. Generally speaking, the methodology developed is usefully applicable to a variety of systems in which the electrons have beam-like distributions

  1. Behaviour and Modelling of Self-piercing Screw and Self-piercing Rivet Connections: An Experimental and Numerical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Sønstabø, Johan Kolstø; Holmstrøm, Petter Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and reliable models of connections are essential for the design of aluminium parts in cars. Today, there exist a few models customized for self-piercing rivets (SPR), but none for self-piercing screws (SPS). This thesis presents an experimental and numerical study on the behaviour of SPR and SPS connections for different loading situations. For the rolled base material, AA6016 in the T4 condition, uniaxial tension, plane strain tension and in-plane single shear tests were performe...

  2. Stochastic estimation of flow near the trailing edge of a NACA0012 airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sagrado, Ana [University of Cambridge, Whittle Laboratory, Department of Engineering, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Applied Modelling and Computation Group, Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Royal School of Mines, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Hynes, Tom [University of Cambridge, Whittle Laboratory, Department of Engineering, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    A stochastic estimation technique has been applied to simultaneously acquired data of velocity and surface pressure as a tool to identify the sources of wall-pressure fluctuations. The measurements have been done on a NACA0012 airfoil at a Reynolds number of Re{sub c} = 2 x 10 {sup 5}, based on the chord of the airfoil, where a separated laminar boundary layer was present. By performing simultaneous measurements of the surface pressure fluctuations and of the velocity field in the boundary layer and wake of the airfoil, the wall-pressure sources near the trailing edge (TE) have been studied. The mechanisms and flow structures associated with the generation of the surface pressure have been investigated. The ''quasi-instantaneous'' velocity field resulting from the application of the technique has led to a picture of the evolution in time of the convecting surface pressure generating flow structures and revealed information about the sources of the wall-pressure fluctuations, their nature and variability. These sources are closely related to those of the radiated noise from the TE of an airfoil and to the vibration issues encountered in ship hulls for example. The NACA0012 airfoil had a 30 cm chord and aspect ratio of 1. (orig.)

  3. [Association between tattoos, piercings and risk behaviors in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossio, María Laura T; Giesen, Laura F; Araya, Gabriela; Pérez-Cotapos, María Luisa S

    2012-02-01

    The use of tattoos and piercings has increased, especially among adolescents in the last decades. To evaluate the prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents and their association with risk behaviors such as alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use and sexual promiscuity. An anonymous and confidential survey about tattooing and piercings was applied to randomly selected high school teenagers, attending municipal, private-subsidized and private schools, in four sectors of Santiago (north-east, south-east, north-west, south-west). The surveys were answered by 1329 participants with a mean age of 15 years (62% women) from 9 schools in Santiago. The prevalence of tattoos was 1.7% (confidence intervals (CI) 1.1% to 2.5%). The figure for piercings was 30.6% (CI 28.2 to 33.1%). A higher prevalence of tattooing and piercings was observed in groups with a history of psychiatric disorders, criminal records, alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug consumption and initiation of sexual activity (p < 0,001). This study confirms that tattoos and piercings are indicators of adolescent risk behaviors.

  4. Oral piercings and their dental implications: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amrinder; Tuli, Avantika

    2012-05-01

    Oral piercing has become common in young adults in recent years. Adolescents are characterized by a compulsive tendency to distinguish themselves from the rest; differences in clothes, hairstyle, or "decorative" details are used to this effect, based on highly-diverse criteria. Dental health-care professionals need to be aware of the procedures and risks involved with oral piercings and the social and psychological reasons that lead people to engage in this practice, regardless of the risks. The present article addresses oral mutilation practices, specifically from the oral health perspective, as it is of concern to dental professionals due to the health risks and oral complications associated with such practices. The various oral ornaments, piercing sites, and their implications, orally, as well as systemically, have been discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Joule-Thomson effect in a Pierce electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batalin, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    A model which can be investigated both by means of the system of Vlasov equations and by means of ideal gas state equation is proposed for evaluation of emittance growth in the Pierce electron gun of electron beam with the limiting small distribution rate and intended for electron cooling facilities. The assumption has been made that transverse emittance growth is different from the zero. Thermodynamical approach to the problem of electron beam propagation permits to evaluate the increase of its emittance. It is shown that the increase of the electron beam emittance in the Pierce electron gun is similar to Joule-Thompson effect for gases. The effect increases with the decrease of the beam initial temperature. The increase of the emittance can become essential even in hte perfect (without aberration) Pierce optics at beam transverse temperature of the order of 0.1 eV

  6. Preliminary design for a pierce wiggler beamstick and addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirkle, D.

    1988-05-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing a fast tunable microwave source for operation at 250 GHz and 10kW peak output power. This report presents the preliminary design of a Pierce gun and solenoid magnet that will be compatible with a Pierce-wiggler electron beam formation system (beamstick). The beamstick will be an appropriate power source for a tunable gyro-BWO at 250 GHz. Figure 1 presents the major components of the Pierce-wiggler beamstick: the electron gun, solenoid, beam tunnel, wiggler, and vacuum valve. Figure 2 shows an artistic conception of how the beamstick will interface with the interaction magnet, modulator and gyro-BWO circuit at MIT. 15 figs

  7. Tattoos, piercing, and sexual behaviors in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosielski, Krzysztof; Sipiński, Adam; Kuczerawy, Ilona; Kozłowska-Rup, Danuta; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2012-09-01

    Body piercing and tattooing are accepted by a growing number of teenagers and young adults as a way of self-expressing. Some authors suggest association between body piercings/tattoos and early sexual initiation, higher number of sexual partners, or risky sexual behaviors. The aim of the study was to evaluate sexual behaviors among young adults with body modifications (BMs)--tattoos and piercings. One hundred twenty young healthy adults, ages between 20 and 35, were included in the population study. The study group was divided into three subgroups: controls (N = 60), adults with tattoos (N = 28), and adults with piercings (N = 32). The research instrument was a self-prepared questionnaire containing 59 questions assessing socioepidemiological parameters, sexual behaviors, incidents of sexual harassment in the past, and self-attractiveness evaluation, as well as questions concerning tattoos and piercings. Socioepidemiological variables and sexual behaviors were compared between subgroups. To assess and describe the correlation between having BM--tattoos and piercing--and sexual behaviors in the population of young adults by using the logistic regression model. Adults with BMs have had their first intercourse statistically earlier and were more sexually active compared with controls. There were no statically significant differences in sexual orientation, sexual preferences, engaging in risky sexual behaviors, frequency of masturbation, and history of sexual abuse between the groups. In contrast, the frequency of sexual intercourses was statistically higher and oral sex was more likely to be a dominant sexual activity in adults with BM compared with controls. The multivariate logistic model revealed that adults with BM were four times less likely to participate in religious practices and twice more likely to have early sexual initiation. Having BM is associated with early sexual initiation and more liberal attitudes toward sexual behaviors but not with engaging in

  8. Compositions and Methods for the Treatment of Pierce's Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Goutam (Santa Fe, NM)

    2008-10-07

    Chimeric anti-microbial proteins, compositions, and methods for the therapeutic and prophylactic treatment of plant diseases caused by the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa are provided. The anti-microbial proteins of the invention generally comprise a surface recognition domain polypeptide, capable of binding to a bacterial membrane component, fused to a bacterial lysis domain polypeptide, capable of affecting lysis or rupture of the bacterial membrane, typically via a fused polypeptide linker. In particular, methods and compositions for the treatment or prevention of Pierce's disease of grapevines are provided. Methods for the generation of transgenic Vitus vinefera plants expressing xylem-secreted anti-microbial chimeras are also provided.

  9. Self-piercing riveting - a review\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dezhi; Chrysanthou, Andreas; Patel, Imran; Williams, Geraint J.

    2016-01-01

    Self-Piercing Riveting (SPR) is a cold mechanical joining process used to join two or more sheets of materials by driving a semitubular rivet piercing through the top sheet or the top and middle sheets and subsequently lock into the bottom sheet under the guidance of a suitable die. SPR was originated half century ago, but it only had significant progress in the last 25 years due to the requirement of joining lightweight materials, such as aluminium alloy structures, aluminium-steel structure...

  10. Circuit effects on pierce instabilities, and double-layer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.; Silevitch, M.B.

    1982-11-01

    The role of the Pierce instability in the formation of double layers is considered and compared with that of the Buneman instability. Pierce instabilities have been identified in a double-layer experiment, where they lead to ion trapping. Here the effects of external circuit elements are considered. In the case of immobile ions the onset criteria are unaffected, but in the unstable range the growth rate is reduced by the external impedance. Required experimental values of the circuit elements are estimated. The possible relevance to computer simulations is noted. (Authors)

  11. Genital piercings in the context of acute sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Amy P

    2017-11-01

    After an acute sexual assault, children and adolescents often present for medical evaluation and treatment. Physicians have an important role in both the medical and legal components of these cases. Careful physical examination and questioning are important in determining the origin of the trauma. In the presented case report, genital trauma after an acute sexual assault was noted and attributed to the alleged offender's penis piercing. The genital trauma caused by the piercing provided physical evidence linking offender to victim and may have implications for the victim's risk of HIV infection and other blood borne pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Armor piercing ammunition... AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.148 Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor piercing...

  13. 78 FR 4804 - Revision to the Washington State Implementation Plan; Tacoma-Pierce County Nonattainment Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... Washington State Implementation Plan; Tacoma- Pierce County Nonattainment Area AGENCY: Environmental... Tacoma-Pierce County nonattainment area for the 2006 fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient... Rules.'' The updated PSCAA rules help implement the recommendations of the Tacoma-Pierce County Clean...

  14. 75 FR 14467 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Pierce College District, Lakewood, WA, and Thomas Burke Memorial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Pierce College... completion of an inventory of human remains in the control of the Pierce College District, Lakewood, WA, and...), University of Washington, Seattle, WA. The human remains were most likely removed from Gig Harbor, Pierce...

  15. 76 FR 23708 - Safety Zone; Pierce County Department of Emergency Management Regional Water Exercise, East...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Pierce County Department of Emergency Management Regional Water Exercise, East... the Regional Water Rescue Exercise. Basis and Purpose The Pierce County, Washington, Department of... to read as follows: Sec. 165.T13-0251 Safety Zone; Pierce County Department of Emergency Management...

  16. 78 FR 78808 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Pierce County, Washington, and Incorporated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ...-2013-0002; Internal Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-7748] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Pierce... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Pierce County, Washington, and... sources in Pierce County, Washington. On April 16, 2012, FEMA published a proposed rulemaking at 77 FR...

  17. 75 FR 32855 - Safety Zone; Pierce County, WA, Department of Emergency Management, Regional Water Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Pierce County, WA, Department of Emergency Management, Regional Water Exercise AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Pierce County, Washington, Department of... immediate action is necessary to ensure safety of participants in the Pierce County Regional Water Rescue...

  18. Characteristics of typical Pierce guns for PPM focused TWTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, R.; Puri, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of typical moderate perveance Pierce type electron guns which are used in periodic permanent magnet focused traveling wave tubes are described with regard to adaptation for use in electron beam ion sources. The results of detailed electron trajectory computations for one particular gun design are presented

  19. Prevention of gingival trauma : Oral hygiene devices and oral piercings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenderdos, N.L.

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining healthy teeth and soft oral tissues for life is important. Oral hygiene devices and oral piercings can damage the soft oral tissues. This thesis investigates the safety of manual toothbrushes, interdental brushes and rubber bristles interdental cleaners by analysing the gingival abrasion

  20. Genital piercings: diagnostic and therapeutic implications for urologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelius, Thomas; Armstrong, Myrna L; Rinard, Katherine; Young, Cathy; Hogan, LaMicha; Angel, Elayne

    2011-11-01

    To provide quantitative and qualitative data that will assist evidence-based decision making for men and women with genital piercings (GP) when they present to urologists in ambulatory clinics or office settings. Currently many persons with GP seek nonmedical advice. A comprehensive 35-year (1975-2010) longitudinal electronic literature search (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, OVID) was conducted for all relevant articles discussing GP. Authors of general body art literature tended to project many GP complications with potential statements of concern, drawing in overall piercings problems; then the information was further replicated. Few studies regarding GP clinical implications were located and more GP assumptions were noted. Only 17 cases, over 17 years, describe specific complications in the peer-reviewed literature, mainly from international sources (75%), and mostly with "Prince Albert" piercings (65%). Three cross-sectional studies provided further self-reported data. Persons with GP still remain a hidden variable so no baseline figures assess the overall GP picture, but this review did gather more evidence about GP wearers and should stimulate further research, rather than collectively projecting general body piercing information onto those with GP. With an increase in GP, urologists need to know the specific differences, medical implications, significant short- and long-term health risks, and patients concerns to treat and counsel patients in a culturally sensitive manner. Targeted educational strategies should be developed. Considering the amount of body modification, including GP, better legislation for public safety is overdue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pierce - University of Georgia | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principal Investigator: J. Michael Pierce, PhDInstitution: University of Georgia, Athens, GA Our project, Discovery and Development of Cancer Glycomarkers, is a joint collaboration between our laboratories at the CCRC, which include Karen Abbott, Lance Wells, Kevin Dobbin, and Mike Tiemeyer, those at TGen, in Phoenix, AZ, Daniel Von Hoff, Haiyong Han, and Mike Demeure, and

  2. Dynamics of Pierce instability of hot electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A.M.; Novikov, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    On the base of a new method of numerical solution of the Vlasov equation evolution of complete function of electron distribution at the injection of hot electron beams into plasma bounded with electrodes is investigated. It is shown that despite the development of electrostatic instabilities in the system the currents can run substantially exceeding the Pierce critical current

  3. A New Keyboard for the Bohlen-Pierce Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Nassar, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The study of harmonic scales of musical instruments is discussed in all introductory physics texts devoted to the science of sound. In this paper, we present a new piano keyboard to make the so-called Bohlen-Pierce scale more functional and pleasing for composition and performance.

  4. Psychosocial Adjustment of College Students with Tattoos and Piercings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, Jonathan W.; Storch, Eric A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between body modification practices and psychosocial adjustment. Participants were 198 undergraduate college students, 129 of whom had I or more piercings (other than in earlobe) or tattoos. Findings showed that individuals with body modifications reported more symptoms of depression and…

  5. Simulation of cylindrical Pierce diodes with radial flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, M.V.; Gnavi, G.; Gratton, F.T.; Buenos Aires Univ.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we study the electron instability and the non linear behaviour of cylindrical Pierce's diodes by particle simulation. We ignore here the ion contribution (ions are fixed at a 1/r density and given a very large mass) to give perspicuity to the electron dynamics, and to facilitate comparison with existing theory. (author). 8 refs., 10 figs

  6. Self-reported characteristics of women and men with intimate body piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Carol; Armstrong, Myrna L; Roberts, Alden E

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the findings of a study exploring factors associated with female and male intimate body piercing, with particular emphasis on health issues. Nipple and genital piercings (intimate piercings) have become common types of body art. Scant medical and nursing literature is available, leading to little understanding of these body modifications by health care providers. A convenience sample of intimately pierced individuals (63 women and 83 men) from 29 states in the United States of America was surveyed via an author-developed questionnaire. Questions focused on demographic characteristics, decision factors and health problems related to intimate piercings. Self-reported characteristics were compared between female and male participants, and participants were compared demographically to United States general population. Participants reported wearing nipple piercings (43%), genital piercings (25%) and both types (32%). Respondents were significantly younger, less ethnically diverse, better educated, less likely to be married, more often homosexual or bisexual and they initiated sexual activity at a younger age than the US population. Deliberate, individual decisions for procurement of the intimate piercings were made. Average purchase consideration was at age 25 (nipple) and 27 (genital); average age to obtain the piercing was 27 (nipple) and 28 (genital) years. Purposes for obtaining the piercings included uniqueness, self-expression and sexual expression. Most participants still liked their piercing (73-90%). Health concerns related to intimate piercings were described by both those with nipple piercings (66%) and with genital piercings (52%) and included site sensitivity, skin irritation, infection and change in urinary flow (male genital). Few STDs (3%) were reported and no HIV or hepatitis. Usually non-medical advice was sought for problems -- often from the body piercer. Understanding client rationale is not a necessary

  7. NACA0015 measurements in LM wind tunnel and turbulence generated noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    2008-11-15

    A NACA0015 airfoil section was instrumented with an array of highfrequency microphones mounted on its surface and measured in the wind tunnel at LM Glasfiber at various inflow speeds, angles of attack, and with different turbulent inflow conditions. The aim of this work is to analyze these measurement data, including the turbulent inflow characteristics. The airfoil surface pressure data are considered in the perspective of turbulent inflow noise in order to identify the potential for using these data to validate and possibly improve associated noise models from the literature. In addition, these data are further analyzed in the context of trailing edge noise modeling which is directly related to the surface pressure fluctuations in the vicinity of the trailing edge. (au)

  8. Measurement of tonal-noise characteristics and periodic flow structure around NACA0018 airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, T.; Fujisawa, N. [Niigata University, Department Mechanical Engineering, Niigata (Japan); Lee, S. [Inha University, Department Mechanical Engineering, Incheon (Korea)

    2006-03-15

    The characteristics of tonal noise and the variations of flow structure around NACA0018 airfoil in a uniform flow are studied by means of simultaneous measurement of noise and velocity field by particle-image velocimetry to understand the generation mechanism of tonal noise. Measurements are made on the noise characteristics, the phase-averaged velocity field with respect to the noise signal, and the cross-correlation contour of velocity fluctuations and noise signal. These experimental results indicate that the tonal noise is generated from the periodic vortex structure on the pressure surface of the airfoil near the trailing edge of the airfoil. It is found that the vortex structure is highly correlated with the noise signal, which indicates the presence of noise-source distribution on the pressure surface. The vorticity distribution on the pressure surface breaks down near the trailing edge of the airfoil and forms a staggered vortex street in the wake of the airfoil. (orig.)

  9. Religious belief and practice in attitudes toward individuals with body piercing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jerome R; Roberts, Alden E; Armstrong, Myrna L; Owen, Donna C

    2004-10-01

    Some research suggests adorning the body with tattoos or piercing jewelry is normative. Survey data were gathered from 450 undergraduates (72% female; 80% Euro-American; 63% freshmen and sophomores). Correlations between an index of respondents' religious belief and practice and their attitudes toward individuals who had more body piercings were weak if piercings were 7 or more, including piercings of the nipples and genitals. As religiosity is a carrier of normative behavior, individuals who have body piercings may be viewed as behaving within cultural norms.

  10. Patients' perceptions of patient care providers with tattoos and/or body piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerfield, Heather V; Stafford, Amy B; Speroni, Karen Gabel; Daniel, Marlon G

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated patients' perceptions of patient care providers with visible tattoos and/or body piercings. As tattooing and body piercing are increasingly popular, research that informs nursing administrators regarding policies on patient care providers having visible tattoos and body piercings is warranted. A total of 150 hospitalized adult patients compared pictures of male and female patient care providers in uniform with and without tattoos and/or nonearlobe body piercings. Patient care providers with visible tattoos and/or body piercings were not perceived by patients in this study as more caring, confident, reliable, attentive, cooperative, professional, efficient, or approachable than nontattooed or nonpierced providers. Tattooed female providers were perceived as less professional than male providers with similar tattoos. Female providers with piercings were perceived as less confident, professional, efficient, and approachable than nonpierced female providers. Nursing administrators should develop and/or evaluate policies regarding patient care providers with visible tattoos and/or body piercings.

  11. The corrosion resistance of materials used for the manufacture of ear piercing studs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, O. V.; Saiki, M.; Rogero, S. O.; Costa, I.

    2003-01-01

    Nickel containing alloy shave been widely used as substrates for the manufacture of studs used for ear piercing. Unfortunately, nickel has also been related to the development of allergic contact dermatitis caused by skin sensitization due to Ni''2+ ions. Nickel ions can be leached out into the body fluids due to corrosion reactions. Defect free coatings are very difficult to produce, and therefore nickel free materials should be used as substrates of ear piercing studs, although the commercial alloys used usually contain this element. In this study, the corrosion resistance of two kinds of commercial studs prepared with nickel containing substrates and a titanium laboratory made stud was determined in a culture medium. The corrosion resistance of the studs was investigated by means of potentiodynamic polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as a function of immersion time in the culture medium. The elements that leached out into the medium due to corrosion reactions were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The surfaces of the commercial gold-coated studs were examined by scanning electron microscopy and analyzed by energy dispersive spectroscopy, both before and after exposure to the culture medium. The cytotoxicity of the tested studs was also determined in the culture medium. (Author) 10 refs

  12. The Development of Piezo-Driven Tools for Cellular Piercing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhai Ru

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI in the mouse is conducted with piezo-drills that use a droplet of mercury for damping. The use of mercury causes concerns of toxicity and contamination. Although Fluorinert can be used as a substitute for mercury to reduce piezo-drill’s lateral vibration, the damping effect is not as satisfactory as mercury. In this work, a modified piezo-drill without using mercury was developed for the cellular piercing of mouse oocytes. Experimentally, appropriate parameters of driving voltage and frequency were obtained for the penetration of the zona pellucida of mouse oocytes. Furthermore, the lateral vibration of the injection pipette is lower than 1 μm in deionized water, which is not observable at 400 magnificence. With the piezo-drill without using mercury, the system performs the cellular piercing of mouse oocytes with a maximum cleavage rate of 94.7% (n = 117.

  13. Blanking and piercing theory, applications and recent experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A. I. O.

    2013-01-01

    Blanking and piercing are manufacturing processes by which certain geometrical shapes are sheared off a sheet metal. If the sheared off part is the one required, the processes referred to as blanking and if the remaining part in the sheet is the one required, the process is referred to as piercing. In this paper, the theory and practice of these processes are reviewed and discussed The main parameters affecting these processes are presented and discussed. These include: the radial clearance percentage, punch and die geometrical parameters, for example punch and die profile radii. The above mentioned parameters on the force and energy required to effect blanking together with their effect on the quality of the products are also presented and discussed. Recent experimental results together with photomacrographs and photomicrographs are also included and discussed. Finally, the effect of punch and die wear on the quality of the blanks is also given and discussed. (author)

  14. Blanking and piercing theory, applications and recent experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, Adnan l O

    2014-01-01

    Blanking and piercing are manufacturing processes by which certain geometrical shapes are sheared off a sheet metal. If the sheared off part is the one required, the processes referred to as blanking and if the remaining part in the sheet is the one required, the process is referred to as piercing. In this paper, the theory and practice of these processes are reviewed and discussed The main parameters affecting these processes are presented and discussed. These include: the radial clearance percentage, punch and die geometrical parameters, for example punch and die profile radii. The abovementioned parameters on the force and energy required to effect blanking together with their effect on the quality of the products are also presented and discussed. Recent experimental results together with photomacrographs and photomicrographs are also included and discussed. Finally, the effect of punch and die wear on the quality of the blanks is alsogiven and discussed

  15. Triple inverter pierce oscillator circuit suitable for CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessendorf,; Kurt, O [Albuquerque, NM

    2007-02-27

    An oscillator circuit is disclosed which can be formed using discrete field-effect transistors (FETs), or as a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit. The oscillator circuit utilizes a Pierce oscillator design with three inverter stages connected in series. A feedback resistor provided in a feedback loop about a second inverter stage provides an almost ideal inverting transconductance thereby allowing high-Q operation at the resonator-controlled frequency while suppressing a parasitic oscillation frequency that is inherent in a Pierce configuration using a "standard" triple inverter for the sustaining amplifier. The oscillator circuit, which operates in a range of 10 50 MHz, has applications for use as a clock in a microprocessor and can also be used for sensor applications.

  16. Tattoos and body piercings as indicators of adolescent risk-taking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Sean T; Riffenburgh, Robert H; Roberts, Timothy A; Myhre, Elizabeth B

    2002-06-01

    This study assessed tattoos and body piercings as markers of risk-taking behaviors in adolescents. A 58-question survey, based on the 1997 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey, was offered to all adolescent beneficiaries that came to the Adolescent Clinic. The survey contained standard Youth Risk Behavior Survey questions that inquire about eating behavior, violence, drug abuse, sexual behavior, and suicide. Questions about tattoos and body piercings were added for the purposes of this study. Participants with tattoos and/or body piercings were more likely to have engaged in risk-taking behaviors and at greater degrees of involvement than those without either. These included disordered eating behavior, gateway drug use, hard drug use, sexual activity, and suicide. Violence was associated with males having tattoos and with females having body piercings. Gateway drug use was associated with younger age of both tattooing and body piercing. Hard drug use was associated with number of body piercings. Suicide was associated with females having tattoos and younger age of both tattooing and body piercing. Tattoos and body piercings were found to be more common in females than males. Tattoos and/or body piercings can alert practitioners to the possibility of other risk-taking behaviors in adolescents, leading to preventive measures, including counseling. Tattoo and body piercing discovery should be an important part of a health maintenance visit to best direct adolescent medical care.

  17. Comprehensive performance comparison of airfoil fin PCHEs with NACA 00XX series airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Fei, E-mail: chenfei@iet.cn [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Heating Technology Research and Development Center, Beijing District Heating Group, Beijing 100028 (China); Zhang, Lishen, E-mail: lishenzhang@sina.com [Heating Technology Research and Development Center, Beijing District Heating Group, Beijing 100028 (China); Huai, Xiulan, E-mail: hxl@iet.cn [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Jufeng, E-mail: lijufeng.net@163.com [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100082 (China); Zhang, Hang, E-mail: zhanghang@iet.cn [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Zhigang, E-mail: zgliu9322@163.com [Energy Research Institute of Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, Shandong 250014 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Pressure drop of NACA 0020 airfoil fin PCHE reduces strikingly in comparison with the zigzag PCHE. • Pressure drop of NACA 00XX airfoil fin PCHE decreases as airfoil thickness increases. • Heat transfer performance of NACA 00XX airfoil fin PCHE increases as airfoil thickness rises. • Comprehensive performance of NACA 00XX airfoil fin PCHE degrades as airfoil thickness increases. - Abstract: Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) can be used in supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle. The present study compares NACA 0020 airfoil fin PCHE with conventional zigzag PCHE by numerical analysis. Pressure drop of the former has a striking reduction while maintaining excellent heat transfer performance. Comparison on four NACA 00XX series airfoil fin PCHEs is performed to investigate the influence of airfoil profile on flow and heat transfer performance. With a fixed vertical pitch, heat transfer performance of NACA series airfoil fin PCHE increases as airfoil thickness increases. However, comprehensive performance, in which both flow and heat transfer are taken into account, degrades with increasing airfoil thickness. Among four NACA airfoil fin PCHEs presented in this paper, NACA 0010 airfoil fin PCHE demonstrates the best comprehensive performance.

  18. Comprehensive performance comparison of airfoil fin PCHEs with NACA 00XX series airfoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Fei; Zhang, Lishen; Huai, Xiulan; Li, Jufeng; Zhang, Hang; Liu, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Pressure drop of NACA 0020 airfoil fin PCHE reduces strikingly in comparison with the zigzag PCHE. • Pressure drop of NACA 00XX airfoil fin PCHE decreases as airfoil thickness increases. • Heat transfer performance of NACA 00XX airfoil fin PCHE increases as airfoil thickness rises. • Comprehensive performance of NACA 00XX airfoil fin PCHE degrades as airfoil thickness increases. - Abstract: Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) can be used in supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO_2) Brayton cycle. The present study compares NACA 0020 airfoil fin PCHE with conventional zigzag PCHE by numerical analysis. Pressure drop of the former has a striking reduction while maintaining excellent heat transfer performance. Comparison on four NACA 00XX series airfoil fin PCHEs is performed to investigate the influence of airfoil profile on flow and heat transfer performance. With a fixed vertical pitch, heat transfer performance of NACA series airfoil fin PCHE increases as airfoil thickness increases. However, comprehensive performance, in which both flow and heat transfer are taken into account, degrades with increasing airfoil thickness. Among four NACA airfoil fin PCHEs presented in this paper, NACA 0010 airfoil fin PCHE demonstrates the best comprehensive performance.

  19. The incidence of complications associated with lip and/or tongue piercings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennequin-Hoenderdos, N L; Slot, D E; Van der Weijden, G A

    2016-02-01

    This review determines the incidence of complications associated with lip and/or tongue piercings based on a systematic evaluation of the available literature. MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were comprehensively searched through June 2014 to identify appropriate studies. The incidence of complications, as established by a dental professional associated with oral and peri-oral piercings, was evaluated in populations with lip and/or tongue piercings. The quality of the case-control studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. For case series studies, the risk of bias was assessed using the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence scale. An independent screening of 1580 unique titles and abstracts revealed 15 publications that met the eligibility criteria. The incidence of gingival recessions appeared to be 50% in subjects with lip piercings and 44% in subjects with a tongue piercing. Tooth injuries were observed in 26% individuals with lip piercings and in up to 37% of individuals with tongue piercings. Subjects with a lip piercing were 4.14 times (P = 0.005) more likely to develop gingival recession than those without a lip piercing. Subjects with a tongue piercing were more likely than non-pierced subjects to experience gingival recession (relative risk (RR) 2.77; P = 0.00001) and tooth injuries (RR 2.44; P = 0.003). Both lip and tongue piercings are highly associated with the risk of gingival recession, and tongue piercings are also associated with tooth injuries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Konsep Dasar Semiotika Dalam Komunikasi Massa Menurut Charles Sanders Pierce

    OpenAIRE

    Suherdiana, Dadan

    2008-01-01

    Sign or symbol in mass communication is not something with without makna. Nevertheless, it is not easy for anyone to can comprehend that sign. Minimally, that is a method for it, is named semiotic. Charles Sanders Pierce introduce pragmatism for this method. For him, semiotics have three researches area: syntactic semiotic, semantic semiotic and pragmatic semiotic. Sintaktic semiotic, teach the relation between sign with others sign; semantic semiotic, teach the relation and consequence in in...

  1. Tattoos and piercings: a review for the emergency physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdang, Michael; Mallek, Jennifer T; Mallon, William K

    2011-11-01

    Tattoos and piercings are increasingly part of everyday life for large sections of the population, and more emergency physicians are seeing these body modifications (BM) adorn their patients. In this review we elucidate the most common forms of these BMs, we describe how they may affect both the physical and psychological health of the patient undergoing treatment, and also try to educate around any potential pitfalls in treating associated complications.

  2. Tattoos and Piercings: A Review for the Emergency Physician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdang, Michael; Mallek, Jennifer T; Mallon, William K

    2011-01-01

    Tattoos and piercings are increasingly part of everyday life for large sections of the population, and more emergency physicians are seeing these body modifications (BM) adorn their patients. In this review we elucidate the most common forms of these BMs, we describe how they may affect both the physical and psychological health of the patient undergoing treatment, and also try to educate around any potential pitfalls in treating associated complications. PMID:22224126

  3. Occupational accidents with piercing and cutting instruments in hospital nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Helena Palucci Marziale; Maria Lúcia Carmo Cruz Robazzi

    2004-01-01

    Goals: To identify factors associated with occupational accidents caused by piercing and cutting instruments and to identify the consequences of these accidents.Methods: Descriptive field research. Data were obtained through semi-structured interviews with nurses who suffered accidents during one year in four hospitals at São Paulo State - Brazil. Results: factors associated with accidents were: work overload, poor quality material, inadequate disposal materials, professional negligence, clie...

  4. Breast abscess following nipple piercing: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsimalakou, Smaragda; Grande-Nagel, Isabell; Simon, Martin; Fischer, Dorothea; Thill, Marc; Stöckelhuber, Beate M

    2010-12-01

    Nipple piercing gains popularity and social acceptance within the last years, especially among young people. The medical literature reports an increase of complications in the post-piercing period. We report a case of a young woman, who presented with a light enlargement of the right breast and tenderness in the retroareolar region following nipple piercing 5 months ago. On ultrasound, a poorly marginated hypoechoic lesion was seen which was suspicious of an inflammation. After 1 week of antibiotic therapy, the mass had enlarged. As carcinoma could not be excluded, open biopsy was performed. Histology showed signs of chronic mastitis. To date, only a few reports of breast abscess after nipple piercing have been published. With the increasing prevalence of body piercing, it is important to document and report infections which may be discovered many months following piercing. Carcinoma can mimic breast abscess and should be included in the differential diagnosis.

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa necrotizing chondritis complicating high helical ear piercing case report: clinical and public health perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Amonpreet; Gross, Melissa; Wylie, John; Van Caeseele, Paul; Plourde, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Auricular or high helical ear piercing is an increasingly widespread fashion trend that is associated with an increased risk of potentially serious post-piercing complications such as auricular perichondritis. An 11-year-old girl developed severe auricular perichondritis following piercing of the upper helical cartilage of her ear at a hairdressing salon. Four days post piercing, she returned to the same salon for a haircut during which the pierced site was manipulated. She presented to her family physician and was treated unsuccessfully with oral cephalexin. She was then referred to an infectious diseases consultant and received antipseudomonal intravenous antibiotics with subsequent resolution. She also required debridement and removal of necrotic cartilage. Public health investigation evaluated potential sources of infection including the piercing gun, disinfectant solutions, and hair cutting spray water bottles. Final culture results of the ear helical aspirate grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also cultured from one of the water bottles used to wet her hair during the haircut. Although the pseudomonal strains from the water bottle were different than the infecting one, this contamination presents a potential source of wound infection. Damage to the helical cartilage caused by the piercing gun may also have contributed to this infection. Initial empiric antibiotic therapy for these kinds of infection must include anti-pseudomonal coverage. Auricular or high helical ear piercing using a piercing gun is not recommended.

  6. Numerical Solution of Compressible Steady Flows around the NACA 0012 Airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozel K

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of a numerical solution of subsonic and transonic flows described by the system of Navier-Stokes equations in 2D laminar compressible flows around the NACA 0012 airfoil. Authors used Runge-Kutta method to numerically solve the flows around the NACA 0012 airfoil.

  7. El uso del piercing en la cavidad bucal de adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Haces Acosta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el uso del piercing intraoral en los adolescentes constituye una amenaza para la salud bucal. Objetivo: caracterizar el uso del piercing en la cavidad bucal de los adolescentes desde el punto de vista clínico y epidemiológico. Material y método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal en el policlínico Dr. "Modesto Gómez Rubio" del municipio San Juan y Martínez, Pinar del Río, en el período comprendido de septiembre del 2011 a enero del 2013. El universo estuvo conformado por 400 adolescentes que acudieron al servicio del policlínico de los cuales 250 constituyeron la muestra, seleccionada a través del método aleatorio simple. Se les realizó el examen bucal, como medida de resumen se utilizaron el número absoluto y el porcentaje. Resultados: se pudo constatar que de 250 adolescentes examinados 34 presentaban perforaciones intraorales para un 13,6%, de ellos 24 son masculinos para un 70,59% y 10 femeninas representando el 29,41%, la edad de mayor uso de 15 y 18 años con 31 para un 21,85, los efectos nocivos de mayor frecuencia la gingivitis crónica con el 52,94% , seguidas por las fracturas dentarias con el 47,06%, el 97% respondieron que su motivación era la moda. Conclusiones: el uso del piercing en la cavidad bucal de los adolescentes estudiados se caracteriza por manifestarse con mayor frecuencia en las edades entre 15 y 18 años, con predominio del sexo masculino y el efecto nocivo más frecuente la enfermedad gingivitis crónica, seguidas por las fracturas dentarias, motivación la moda.

  8. Active Control of Flow around NACA 0015 Airfoil by Using DBD Plasma Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şanlısoy A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effect of plasma actuator on a flat plate and manipulation of flow separation on NACA0015 airfoil with plasma actuator at low Reynolds numbers were experimentally investigated. In the first section of the study, plasma actuator which consists of positive and grounded electrode couple and dielectric layer, located on a flat plate was actuated at different frequencies and peak to peak voltages in range of 3-5 kHz and 6-12 kV respectively. Theinduced air flow velocity on the surface of flat plate was measured by pitot tube at different locations behind the actuator. The influence of dielectricthickness and unsteady actuation with duty cycle was also examined. In the second section, the effect of plasma actuator on NACA0015 airfoil was studied atReynolds number 15000 and 30000. Four plasma actuators were placed at x/C = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.9, and different electrode combinations were activated by sinusoidal signal. Flow visualizations were done when the attack angles were 0°, 5°, 10°, 15° and 20°. The results indicate that up to the 15° attack angle, the separated flow was reattached by plasma actuator at 12kV peak to peak voltage and 4 kHz frequency. However, 12 kVpp voltage was insufficient to reattach the flow at 20° angle of attack. The separated flow could be reattached by increasing the voltage up to 13 kV. Lift coefficient was also increased by the manipulated flow over the airfoil. Results showed that even high attack angles, the actuators can control the flow separation and prevent the airfoil from stall at low Reynolds numbers.

  9. Tattoos and Piercing: A Review for the Emergency Department Physician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William K. Mallon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tattoos and piercings are increasingly part of everyday life for large sections of the population, and more emergency physicians are seeing these body modifications (BM adorn their patients. In this review we elucidate the most common forms of these BMs, we describe how they may affect both the physical and psychological health of the patient undergoing treatment, and also try to educate around any potential pitfalls in treating associated complications. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:393–398.

  10. Design and development of a pierce electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, D.; Tiwari, R.; Nayak, B.; Tillu, A.R.; Jayaprakash, D.; Mishra, R.L.; Mittal, K.C.; Chakravarthy, D.P.; Gantayet, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    An electron gun is designed and developed using the Pierce configuration for the focusing electrode. Simulations were carried out using CST Particle Studio. The Gun is a thermionic type electron gun with indirect heating of the LaB6 cathode. The gun is capable of delivering a beam current of 500 mA at 50 kV with a beam size of less than 3.5 mm. It was tested on the gun test bench. This paper presents the gun design, particle simulations study, testing of the gun on test bench and integration with the ECIL 9 MeV linac. (author)

  11. Body art in adolescents: paint, piercings, and perils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Neerav A; Smith, Michael L

    2011-04-01

    Tattoos and body piercings are becoming increasingly popular, particularly in adolescents and young adults. As the frequency of body art increases, so does the potential for adverse outcomes. Reasons for obtaining body art include need for individual expression and peer support. Techniques for tattooing are advancing, along with development of newer inks that may be less reactive. When patients become tired of their body art, or develop complications from the art itself, removal needs to be considered. Newer laser modalities may provide tattoo removal options with less scarring potential.

  12. Gingival recession is likely associated with tongue piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Mark A

    2012-09-01

    A convenience sample of 60 subjects (27 male; 33 female) with tongue piercings (case group) and 120 subjects (43 male; 77 female) without tongue piercings (control group), ranging in age from 13 to 28 years, were identified from a mix of races living in a geographic area of low socioeconomic status in Brazil. Subjects were recruited from school groups and university centers between January 2008 and March 2009. For each case, 2 controls were selected on a consecutive basis from the same school according to criteria that included age, gender, smoking, and previous orthodontic treatment. Exclusion criteria included individuals with systemic diseases that might compromise the immune system, as well as antibiotics within 3 months or other medications that could affect the gingival tissues. The key study factor was the use or nonuse of tongue piercings (jewelry). The analysis compared periodontal parameters, such as the occurrence, location, and severity of gingival recession, in subjects with and without tongue jewelry. Gingival recession in the anterior lingual mandibular region was assessed as the primary outcome measure. The study sample was divided according to the presence or absence of gingival recession as well as the severity (1-2, 3, and ≥ 4 mm) of gingival recession. The average age of subjects was similar in the case and control groups (18.9 versus 17.7 years, respectively). Fractures of the anterior teeth were present significantly more frequently in cases than controls (26.7% versus 11.7%, respectively; P piercings (OR = 11.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.02-24.09, P <.001). The severity of recession in this region was also significantly higher (calculated using an ordinal scale) in cases than in controls (P < .001). The final multivariate logistic regression model for occurrence of gingival recession included the variables tongue jewelry (yes/no), age, male gender, and the presence of bleeding on probing in the anterior region. Subjects with tongue

  13. Tungsten versus depleted uranium for armour-piercing penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    Tungsten alloys have been widely used in the production of armour-piercing (AP) penetrators for defense purposes for the past 40 years. In recent years, however, depleted uranium (DU) has also been utilised for this application. Both materials exhibit high density and strength, two properties necessary for kinetic-energy projectiles to penetrate armour on tanks and other vehicles. The facts, however, support the view that tungsten can and should be utilised as the primary material for most armour-defeating ordnance applications. (author)

  14. RANS Simulations of Aerodynamic Performance of NACA 0015 Flapped Airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohaib Obeid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of 2D subsonic flow over an NACA 0015 airfoil with a 30% trailing edge flap at a constant Reynolds number of 106 for various incidence angles and a range of flap deflections is presented. The steady-state governing equations of continuity and momentum conservation are solved combined with the realizable k-ε turbulence model using the ANSYS-Fluent code (Version 13.7, ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA. The primary objective of the study is to provide a comprehensive understanding of flow characteristics around the NACA 0015 airfoil as a function of the angle of attack and flap deflection at Re = 106 using the realizable k-ε turbulence model. The results are validated through comparison of the predictions with the free field experimental measurements. Consistent with the experimental observations, the numerical results show that increased flap deflections increase the maximum lift coefficient, move the zero-lift angle of attack (AoA to a more negative value, decrease the stall AoA, while the slope of the lift curve remains unchanged and the curve just shifts upwards. In addition, the numerical simulations provide limits for lift increment Δ C l and Cl, max values to be 1.1 and 2.2, respectively, obtained at a flap deflection of 50°. This investigation demonstrates that the realizable k-ε turbulence model is capable of predicting flow features over an airfoil with and without flap deflections with reasonable accuracy.

  15. Virtual Shaping of a Two-dimensional NACA 0015 Airfoil Using Synthetic Jet Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang-Jenq; Beeler, George B.

    2002-01-01

    The Aircraft Morphing Program at NASA Langley envisions an aircraft without conventional control surfaces. Instead of moving control surfaces, the vehicle control systems may be implemented with a combination of propulsive forces, micro surface effectors, and fluidic devices dynamically operated by an intelligent flight control system to provide aircraft maneuverability over each mission segment. As a part of this program, a two-dimensional NACA 0015 airfoil model was designed to test mild maneuvering capability of synthetic jets in a subsonic wind tunnel. The objective of the experiments is to assess the applicability of using unsteady suction and blowing to alter the aerodynamic shape of an airfoil with a purpose to enhance lift and/or to reduce drag. Synthetic jet actuation at different chordwise locations, different forcing frequencies and amplitudes, under different freestream velocities are investigated. The effect of virtual shape change is indicated by a localized increase of surface pressure in the neighborhood of synthetic jet actuation. That causes a negative lift to the airfoil with an upper surface actuation. When actuation is applied near the airfoil leading edge, it appears that the stagnation line is shifted inducing an effect similar to that caused by a small angle of attack to produce an overall lift change.

  16. Application of Hard Coatings for Improved Tribological Performance of Blanking and Piercing Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podgornik, B.; Zajec, B.; Bay, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to examine the possibility of reducing lubrication and replacing expensive tungsten carbide material in blanking/piercing through introduction of hard tool coatings. Results show that hard PVD coatings can be successfully used in blanking/piercing applicat...

  17. REGULAR AND SPECIFIC FEATURES OF STRESSED AND DEFORMED STATE OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL WITH PIERCED OPENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Vasilevich

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical model describing a dependence between deformations and stresses in the zone of prepreg piercing zone is given in the paper. Boundary conditions in the piercing zone in number of four functional dependences for prepregs can express either the given stresses or displacements, or describe boundary form, or express relations between stresses and displacements etc.

  18. Educational intervention about oral piercing knowledge among dental students and adolescents at schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junco, Pilar; Barrios, Rocío; Ruiz, María José; Bravo, Manuel

    2017-10-01

    Oral piercing can lead to complications and dentists are in a unique position to detect such complications. The purpose of this study was: (i) to assess the immediate and the long-term effects, on dental students, of a training programme about oral piercing knowledge; and (ii) to assess the immediate effect, on adolescents, of a single educational intervention session about oral piercing. A training programme for dental students (n = 66) was carried out in three phases. The last phase consisted of preparing and giving talks about oral piercing at schools, which was delivered by a random selection of dental students involved in the training programme. Dental students answered a questionnaire about oral piercing knowledge, before, immediately after (only the dental students included in the last phase) and 12 months after the training programme. Adolescents (n = 347) answered a survey about oral piercing knowledge before and after the talks. There were statistically significant differences in all comparison groups, except for the results in the 'before intervention' and in the '12 months after intervention' groups among dental students who had not prepared and given the talks to adolescents. Knowledge about oral piercing significantly improved among adolescents when comparing results before (mean questionnaire score = 3.0) and after (mean questionnaire score = 6.2) the talks. Oral piercing educational intervention had a favourable impact on adolescents and dental students, particularly among those who were more involved in the learning process. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.

  19. Complications of oral and peri-oral piercings: a summary of case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennequin-Hoenderdos, N L; Slot, D E; Van der Weijden, G A

    2011-05-01

    To systemically search the literature for case reports concerning adverse effects associated with oral and peri-oral piercings on oral health and/or general health.   MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched up through 1 April 2010 to identify appropriate studies. Independent screening of the titles and abstracts identified 1169 papers from MEDLINE and 73 papers from CENTRAL. Subsequently, 67 papers describing 83 cases were processed for data extraction. The case reports described complications in oral and general health. In this review, 96 complications were described for 83 cases. Of the 96 reported complications, 81% (n=84) occurred in cases of tongue piercings, 20% (n=21) in cases of lip piercings and 1% (n=1) in cases of other oral piercings. In eight cases, subjects had two oral and/or peri-oral piercings. Gingival recession was the most frequently described complication. Periodontitis and gingival recession were seen at the central mandibular incisors. Tooth fracture is mostly reported in subjects with tongue piercings. Among the case reports, there were complications like normal post-operative swelling and localized inflammation but also more serious complication that may even have been life threatening. Also in the long term, piercing may be associated with gingival recession and tooth fracture. Therefore, oral and/or peri-oral piercings are not without risks. Patients considering a piercing should be made aware of this. Those patients wearing a piercing should be screened by a dental professional for possible complications on a regular basis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. 27 CFR 478.149 - Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Armor piercing ammunition... Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation. The provisions of §§ 478.37 and 478.99(d) with respect to the manufacture or importation of armor piercing...

  1. People with multiple tattoos and/or piercings are not at increased risk for HBV or HCV in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, Anouk T.; van den Hoek, Anneke; Boonstra, Albert; van Houdt, Robin; de Bruijn, Lotte J.; Heijman, Titia; Coutinho, Roel A.; Prins, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Although published results are inconsistent, it has been suggested that tattooing and piercing are risk factors for HBV and HCV infections. To examine whether tattooing and piercing do indeed increase the risk of infection, we conducted a study among people with multiple tattoos and/or piercings in

  2. Re-Computation of Numerical Results Contained in NACA Report No. 496

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Boyd, III

    2015-01-01

    An extensive examination of NACA Report No. 496 (NACA 496), "General Theory of Aerodynamic Instability and the Mechanism of Flutter," by Theodore Theodorsen, is described. The examination included checking equations and solution methods and re-computing interim quantities and all numerical examples in NACA 496. The checks revealed that NACA 496 contains computational shortcuts (time- and effort-saving devices for engineers of the time) and clever artifices (employed in its solution methods), but, unfortunately, also contains numerous tripping points (aspects of NACA 496 that have the potential to cause confusion) and some errors. The re-computations were performed employing the methods and procedures described in NACA 496, but using modern computational tools. With some exceptions, the magnitudes and trends of the original results were in fair-to-very-good agreement with the re-computed results. The exceptions included what are speculated to be computational errors in the original in some instances and transcription errors in the original in others. Independent flutter calculations were performed and, in all cases, including those where the original and re-computed results differed significantly, were in excellent agreement with the re-computed results. Appendix A contains NACA 496; Appendix B contains a Matlab(Reistered) program that performs the re-computation of results; Appendix C presents three alternate solution methods, with examples, for the two-degree-of-freedom solution method of NACA 496; Appendix D contains the three-degree-of-freedom solution method (outlined in NACA 496 but never implemented), with examples.

  3. Direct numerical simulation of a NACA0012 in full stall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez, I.; Lehmkuhl, O.; Borrell, R.; Oliva, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Coherent structures at transitional and supercritical wake modes are presented. • Vortex shedding is detected in both wake modes. • KH instabilities and vortex shedding frequencies are identified. • Low-frequency flapping of the shear-layer is also detected after stall. • Local pressure distribution at both AOA is coherent with experimental observations. -- Abstract: This work aims at investigating the mechanisms of separation and the transition to turbulence in the separated shear-layer of aerodynamic profiles, while at the same time to gain insight into coherent structures formed in the separated zone at low-to-moderate Reynolds numbers. To do this, direct numerical simulations of the flow past a NACA0012 airfoil at Reynolds numbers Re = 50,000 (based on the free-stream velocity and the airfoil chord) and angles of attack AOA = 9.25° and AOA = 12° have been carried out. At low-to-moderate Reynolds numbers, NACA0012 exhibits a combination of leading-edge/trailing-edge stall which causes the massive separation of the flow on the suction side of the airfoil. The initially laminar shear layer undergoes transition to turbulence and vortices formed are shed forming a von Kármán like vortex street in the airfoil wake. The main characteristics of this flow together with its main features, including power spectra of a set of selected monitoring probes at different positions on the suction side and in the wake of the airfoil are provided and discussed in detail

  4. A comparative pressure analysis of air flow between horizontal and V-Tail of UAV MALE of NACA0012H with speed variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Rahmat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available NACA0012H is an airfoil type that could be used for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Medium Altitude Long Endurance. This experiment was used to analyze stress in the surface of Tail of UAV MALE that was caused by air flow. The experiment was conducted using Computational Fluid Dynamics Software. Two designs of tail, horizontal and V-tail, were considered to simulate pressure occurred on the surface of leading edge, chamber and trailing edge. The simulation was developed varying the speed of the UAV MALE. The results showed that pressure occurred on the surface of horizontal tail higher than pressure on the V-tail.

  5. Signal amplification and Pierce's instability in convergent particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnavi, G.; Gratton, F.T.

    1988-01-01

    Relativistic electron beams flowing between cylindrical and spherical electrodes (or solid angles sections of electrodes with these geometries) are studied. The beams are focused through the axis in the cylindrical case or through the center when spherical electrodes are considered. It is assumed that the external electrode is part of a device which accelerates the particles, the inner electrode is passive and removes the beams from the system. Electrons move by inertia in the interelectrode space, neutralized by an ion background. Properties of radial, small amplitude, perturbations are analyzed theoretically. Previous analyses of counterstreaming beams indicated that convergence modifies considerably the oscillations spectrum. Here, results on the amplification of signals when a beam is modulated at the external electrode are reported. Then, conditions for the instability of a beam when it flows through grounded electrodes (Pierce's instability of only one beam) are examined

  6. Mycobacterium fortuitum and anaerobic breast abscess following nipple piercing: case presentation and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengualid, Victoria; Singh, Veera; Singh, Herpreet; Berger, Judith

    2008-05-01

    Body piercing has become increasingly prevalent. We describe a case of breast infection with combined mycobacteria and anaerobe following nipple piercing, and review the literature. A 17-year-old female developed a breast abscess 4 months after nipple piercing. Cultures grew Prevotalla melangenica and Mycobacterium fortuitum. She required drainage and antibiotic treatment. Three months into her treatment she stopped her medications, relapsed, and required drainage. Two months later, on antimycobacteria therapy, her wound is healing. Review of the infectious complications of nipple piercing yielded 12 cases, 5 of which had a foreign body. The pathogens isolated (coagulase negative staphylococcus, mycobacteria, streptococcus, anaerobe, and gordonia) are not the usual organisms to be isolated from a breast abscess. This could result from reporting bias or the presence of a foreign body, the nipple ring. The three cases of mycobacteria, in addition to ours, are reviewed. The average age is 22 years. Three to 9 months elapsed between piercing and infection. All cases required drainage. Antimycobacteria therapy was used in three of the four cases for 10 days to 6 months. With the increasing prevalence of body piercing, it is important to document and report infections. We describe a breast abscess following nipple piercing with combined anaerobic and a mycobacterial pathogens. This underscores the need for obtaining cultures including anaerobes and mycobacteria.

  7. Periodontal health and lateral lower lip piercings: a split-mouth cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchez-Perez, Miguel Angel; Fuster-Torres, Ma Angeles; Figueiredo, Rui; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2009-07-01

    To assess periodontal health of individuals with a lateral lower lip piercing and describe associated periodontal, dental and mucosal complications. A split-mouth study was performed in a sample of 50 patients with a lateral lower lip piercing who attended the Periodontal Pathology and Surgery Unit of the Dental School of the University of Barcelona. The patients underwent periodontal, dental and mucosal examination on both the piercing and the control sides. Piercing users were predominantly women (78%), with a mean age of 21.3 years (SD=4.4). The amounts of keratinized and attached gingiva were significantly lower on the piercing side, and the prevalence of gingival recession was higher (p=0.012). The canine and first bicuspid teeth were the most affected. Tooth fractures and cracks were more frequent on the piercing side (20%) when compared with the control (4%). Mucosal alterations were found in seven patients. The use of lateral lower lip piercings enhances gingival recession and reduces the amounts of keratinized and attached gingiva. These ornaments are also associated with tooth fractures and cracks.

  8. Tattoos and body piercings in the United States: a national data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumann, Anne E; Derick, Amy J

    2006-09-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and consequences of body art application. Our aim was to provide US tattooing and body piercing prevalence, societal distribution, and medical and social consequence data. Random digit dialing technology was used to obtain a national probability sample of 253 women and 247 men who were 18 to 50 years of age. Of our respondents, 24% had tattoos and 14% had body piercings. Tattooing was equally common in both sexes, but body piercing was more common among women. Other associations were a lack of religious affiliation, extended jail time, previous drinking, and recreational drug use. Local medical complications, including broken teeth, were present in one third of those with body piercings. The prevalence of jewelry allergy increased with the number of piercings. Of those with tattoos, 17% were considering removal but none had had a tattoo removed. This was a self-reported data set with a 33% response rate. Tattooing and body piercing are associated with risk-taking activities. Body piercing has a high incidence of medical complications.

  9. Comparison of NACA 6-series and 4-digit airfoils for Darrieus wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliore, P. G.

    1983-08-01

    The aerodynamic efficiency of Darrieus wind turbines as effected by blade airfoil geometry was investigated. Analysis was limited to curved-bladed machines having rotor solidities of 7-21 percent and operating at a Reynolds number of 3 x 10 to the 6th. Ten different airfoils, having thickness-to-chord ratios of 12, 15, and 18 percent, were studied. Performance estimates were made using a blade element/momentum theory approach. Results indicated that NACA 6-series airfoils yield peak power coefficients as great as NACA 4-digit airfoils and have broader and flatter power coefficient-tip speed ratio curves. Sample calculations for an NACA 63(2)-015 airfoil showed an annual energy output increase of 17-27 percent, depending on rotor solidity, compared to an NACA 0015 airfoil.

  10. Influence of Thickness Variation on the Flapping Performance of Symmetric NACA Airfoils in Plunging Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangyu Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the impact of airfoil thickness on flapping performance, the unsteady flow fields of a family of airfoils from an NACA0002 airfoil to an NACA0020 airfoil in a pure plunging motion and a series of altered NACA0012 airfoils in a pure plunging motion were simulated using computational fluid dynamics techniques. The “class function/shape function transformation“ parametric method was employed to decide the coordinates of these altered NACA0012 airfoils. Under specified plunging kinematics, it is observed that the increase of an airfoil thickness can reduce the leading edge vortex (LEV in strength and delay the LEV shedding. The increase of the maximum thickness can enhance the time-averaged thrust coefficient and the propulsive efficiency without lift reduction. As the maximum thickness location moves towards the leading edge, the airfoil obtains a larger time-averaged thrust coefficient and a higher propulsive efficiency without changing the lift coefficient.

  11. Septic shock after posterior spinal arthrodesis on a patient with Scheuermann kyphosis and multiple body piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirikos, Athanasios I; Subramanian, Ashok Sridhara

    2011-10-15

    A case report. We report septic shock as postoperative complication following an instrumented posterior spinal arthrodesis on a patient with multiple body piercings. The management of this potentially catastrophic complication and outcome of treatment is been discussed. Body piercing has become increasingly more common because of change in culture or as a fashion statement. This has been associated with local or generalized ill effects including tissue injury, skin and systemic infections, and septic shock. There is no clear guideline pathway regarding removal and reinsertion of body piercings in patients who undergo major surgery. Complications following orthopedic or spinal procedures associated with body piercing have not been reported. We reviewed the medical notes and radiographs of an adolescent patient with Scheuermann kyphosis and multiple body piercings who underwent a posterior spinal arthrodesis and developed septic shock. Septic shock developed on postoperative day 2 after reinsertion of all piercings following the patient's request. The patient became systemically very unwell and required intensive medical management, as well as a total course of antibiotics of 3 months. The piercings remained in situ. She did not develop a wound infection despite the presence of bacteremia and spinal instrumentation. The patient had no new piercings subsequent to her deformity procedure. Two and a half years after spinal surgery she reported no medical problems, had a balanced spine with no loss of kyphosis correction and no evidence of nonunion or recurrence of deformity. The development of septic shock as a result of piercing reinsertion in the postoperative period has not been previously reported. This is an important consideration to prevent potentially life-threatening complications following major spinal surgery.

  12. Reaksi Radang pada Lidah dengan Tongue Piercing (Kajian in vivo pada Lidah Tikus Jantan Sprague dawley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feby Aryani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Today tongue piercing has become increasingly popular in the society. Several case reports associated with tongue piercing have presented various complications, such as tooth fracture, viral infection (HIV, Hepatitis B and C, herpes simplex, Epstein Barr, fungal infection (Candida spp, pain altered taste, edema, paresthesis, gingival recession, prolonged bleeding, contact dermatitis. However, there is no scientific evidence to reveal hispathological change in tongue piercing. The aim of this study is to investigate the inflammation response to tongue piercing in Spraque Dawley rats. Eighteen Sprague Dawley rats were divided into one control group of 3 untreated rats and three experimental groups of 5 rats each, according to the duration of tongue piercing until the end of 1st week (A, 6th week (B and 12th week (C. At the end of treatments, the rats were anesthetized and sacrifices. Paraffin embedded tongue specimens were prepared for histological examination with H&E stainig. The number of inflammatory cells (PMN leukocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages was counted under light microscope. All experimental procedures were carried out under approval of study protocol by the Health and Medical Research Ethics Committee, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. The results of this study indicated that the number of PMN leukocytes, lymphocytes, and macrophages was increasing to the 1st week after tongue piercing. The number of lymphocytes and macrohpages was still increasing after 6th and 12th weeks of piercing, but the bumber of PMN leukocytes, lymphocytes, and macrophages between the groups of 1st, 6th, and 12th weeks after piercing. It was concluded that tongue piercing induce inflammatory response for 12 weeks in Sprague Dawley rats.

  13. Simulation of the Groundwater-Flow System in Pierce, Polk, and St. Croix Counties, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater is the sole source of residential water supply in Pierce, Polk, and St. Croix Counties, Wisconsin. A regional three-dimensional groundwater-flow model and three associated demonstration inset models were developed to simulate the groundwater-flow systems in the three-county area. The models were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the three county governments. The objectives of the regional model of Pierce, Polk, and St. Croix Counties were to improve understanding of the groundwaterflow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential water-management programs. The regional groundwater-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, groundwater/surface-water interactions, and groundwater withdrawals from high-capacity wells. Results from the regional model indicate that about 82 percent of groundwater in the three counties is from recharge within the counties; 15 percent is from surface-water sources, consisting primarily of recirculated groundwater seepage in areas with abrupt surface-water-level changes, such as near waterfalls, dams, and the downgradient side of reservoirs and lakes; and 4 percent is from inflow across the county boundaries. Groundwater flow out of the counties is to streams (85 percent), outflow across county boundaries (14 percent), and pumping wells (1 percent). These results demonstrate that the primary source of groundwater withdrawn by pumping wells is water that recharges within the counties and would otherwise discharge to local streams and lakes. Under current conditions, the St. Croix and Mississippi Rivers are groundwater discharge locations (gaining reaches) and appear to function as 'fully penetrating' hydraulic boundaries such that groundwater does not cross between Wisconsin and Minnesota beneath them. Being hydraulic boundaries, however, they can change in response to

  14. Preliminary Tests in the NACA Tank to Investigate the Fundamental Characteristics of Hydrofoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kenneth E.; Land, Norman S.

    1940-01-01

    This preliminary investigation was made to study the hydrodynamic properties and general behavior of simple hydrofoils. Six 5- by 30-inch plain, rectangular hydrofoils were tested in the NACA tank at various speeds, angles of attack and depths below the water surface. Two of the hydrofoils had sections representing the sections of commonly used airfoils, one had a section similar to one developed Guidoni for use with hydrofoil-equipped seaplane floats, and three had sections designed to have constant chordwise pressure distributions at given values of the lift coefficient for the purpose of delaying the speed at which cavitation begins. The experimental results are presented as curves of the lift and drag coefficients plotted against speed for the various angles of attack and depths for which the hydrofoils were tested. A number of derived curves are included for the purpose of better comparing the characteristics of the hydrofoils and to show the effects of depth. Several representative photographs show the development of cavitation on the the upper surface of the hydrofoils. The results indicate that properly designed hydrofoil sections will have excellent characteristics and that the speed at which cavitation occurs may be delayed to an appreciable extent by the use of suitable sections.

  15. Boundary layer measurements of the NACA0015 and implications for noise modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertagnolio, F.

    2011-01-15

    A NACA0015 airfoil section instrumented with an array of high frequency microphones flush-mounted beneath its surface was measured in the wind tunnel at LM Wind Power in Lunderskov. Various inflow speeds and angles of attack were investigated. In addition, a hot-wire device system was used to measure the velocity profiles and turbulence characteristics in the boundary layer near the trailing edge of the airfoil. The measured boundary layer data are presented in this report and compared with CFD results. A relative good agreement is observed, though a few discrepancies also appear. Comparisons of surface pressure fluctuations spectra are used to analyze and improve trailing edge noise modeling by the so-called TNO model. Finally, a pair of hot-wires were placed on each side of the trailing edge in order to measure the radiated trailing edge noise. However, there is no strong evidence that such noise could be measured in the higher frequency range. Nevertheless, low-frequency noise could be measured and related to the presence of the airfoil but its origin is unclear. (Author)

  16. Active flow control on a NACA 23012 airfoil model by means of magnetohydrodynamic plasma actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanskiy, P N; Moralev, I A; Bityurin, V A; Efimov, A V

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of high speed flow control around the airfoil by means of the Lorentz force. The latter is formed by creating the pulsed arc filament, moving in the magnetic field along the upper airfoil surface. The research was performed for the NACA23012 airfoil model at flow velocities up to 60 m/s (134 mph). The dynamic measurement of the aerodynamic forces on the airfoil was made. Changes up to 5% in an average value of lift and pitching moment were obtained at pulse repetition frequency up to 13 Hz and average discharge power less than 200 W. The amplitude of lift force oscillation was obtained as high as 10%, with the integration time of the balance 30 ms. The dynamic flow visualization of an airfoil model after a single discharge ignition was performed. It is shown that interaction of the main flow with the arc-induced disturbance leads to the dramatic changes in the flow structure. It was shown that the upstream movement of the arc channel (I = 40-700 A) leads to the local flow separation and simultaneously to the formation of a high pressure region above the model surface. Current paper presents investigation of previous work. (paper)

  17. Ice Roughness and Thickness Evolution on a Swept NACA 0012 Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Stephen T.; Vargas, Mario; Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Several recent studies have been performed in the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at NASA Glenn Research Center focusing on the evolution, spatial variations, and proper scaling of ice roughness on airfoils without sweep exposed to icing conditions employed in classical roughness studies. For this study, experiments were performed in the IRT to investigate the ice roughness and thickness evolution on a 91.44-cm (36-in.) chord NACA 0012 airfoil, swept at 30-deg with 0deg angle of attack, and exposed to both Appendix C and Appendix O (SLD) icing conditions. The ice accretion event times used in the study were less than the time required to form substantially three-dimensional structures, such as scallops, on the airfoil surface. Following each ice accretion event, the iced airfoils were scanned using a ROMER Absolute Arm laser-scanning system. The resulting point clouds were then analyzed using the self-organizing map approach of McClain and Kreeger to determine the spatial roughness variations along the surfaces of the iced airfoils. The resulting measurements demonstrate linearly increasing roughness and thickness parameters with ice accretion time. Further, when compared to dimensionless or scaled results from unswept airfoil investigations, the results of this investigation indicate that the mechanisms for early stage roughness and thickness formation on swept wings are similar to those for unswept wings.

  18. Face piercing (body art: choosing pleasure vs. possible pain and posture instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eMatheron

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Piercings (body art, i.e. with jewelry are more and more widespread. They can induce various complications such as infections, allergies, headaches, and various skin, cartilage, or dental problems which will lead to economic effects on health-care systems. We draw attention to other possible side effects resulting from face piercing complications such as eye misalignment, decreased postural control efficiency, and nonspecific chronic back pain. We found that the origin was pierced jewelry on the face. Removing the jewelry restored eye alignment, improved postural control, and alleviated back pain in a lasting way. This observation is important for health; further investigations would be of interest.

  19. The Pierce diode with an external circuit: II, Non-uniform equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    The non-uniform (non-linear) equilibria of the classical (short circuit) Pierce diode and the extended (series RLC external circuit) Pierce diode are described theoretically, and explored via computer simulation. It is found that most equilibria are correctly predicted by theory, but that the continuous set of equilibria of the classical Pierce diode at α = 2π are not observed. The stability characteristics of the non-uniform equilibria are also worked out, and are consistent with the simulations. 8 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs

  20. The hole picture: risks, decision making, purpose, regulations, and the future of body piercing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Myrna L; Koch, Jerome R; Saunders, Jana C; Roberts, Alden E; Owen, Donna C

    2007-01-01

    Can it be said that body piercing is ubiquitous, found across all socioeconomic groups? The major concentration is among adolescents and young adults 15 to 30 years old, in some studies, 50% of the population. Commonly identified physical risks are bleeding, tissue trauma, and bacterial infections; psychosocial risks are unhappiness, low self-esteem, and disappointment. The Health Belief Model is used to explain decision making; purposes for body piercing consistently center on personal expression (self-identity) and uniqueness. The international and US body piercing regulations are discussed, leading to the need for tracking complications globally and standardization of regulations. Proactive health education for clients and health providers remains a priority.

  1. A comparative pressure analysis of air flow between horizontal and V-Tail of UAV MALE of NACA0012H with speed variation

    OpenAIRE

    Riza Rahmat; Kurniawan Dicky; Wicaksono Arif Budi

    2018-01-01

    NACA0012H is an airfoil type that could be used for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Medium Altitude Long Endurance. This experiment was used to analyze stress in the surface of Tail of UAV MALE that was caused by air flow. The experiment was conducted using Computational Fluid Dynamics Software. Two designs of tail, horizontal and V-tail, were considered to simulate pressure occurred on the surface of leading edge, chamber and trailing edge. The simulation was developed varying the speed of the UAV M...

  2. Oral and facial piercings: a case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jornet, Pía; Navarro-Guardiola, Cristina; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Vicente-Ortega, Vicente; Yánez-Gascon, Josefa

    2006-07-01

    Piercing is popular among young people, who view this practice as a sign of marginality, beauty, or group identity. This study is performed on healthy individuals with oral and facial piercings. Seventy oral and facial piercings were evaluated (17 in the tongue, 13 in the lower lip, 18 in the nostril, 7 in the eyebrow, and 15 in the ear). A specifically designed protocol was used to assess possible complications (inflammatory reactions, pain, dental alterations). Nonparametric tests were used for the statistical analysis of the results. The general complications recorded comprised pain (60% of cases), inflammatory reactions (34.3%), bleeding (24%), dental fractures or fissures (20%), and gingival damage (26.7%). Tongue piercing is associated with pain, inflammatory reactions, and dental problems.

  3. The Pierce diode with an external circuit. I. Oscillations about nonuniform equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.S.

    1989-01-01

    The nonuniform (nonlinear) equilibria of the classical (short circuit) Pierce diode and the extended (series RLC external circuit) Pierce diode are described, and the spectrum of oscillations (stable and unstable) about these equilibria are worked out. It is found that only the external capacitance alters the equilibria, though all elements alter the spectrum. In particular, the introduction of an external capacitor destabilizes some equilibria that are marginally stable without the capacitor. Computer simulations are performed to test the theoretical predictions for the case of an external capacitor only. It is found that most equilibria are correctly predicted by theory, but that the continuous set of equilibria of the classical Pierce diode at Pierce parameters (α=ω/sub pL//v 0 ) that are multiples of 2π are not observed. This appears to be a failure of the simulation method under the rather singular conditions rather than a failure of the theory

  4. Nipple piercing may be contraindicated in male patients with chest implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kleer, N; Cohen, M; Semple, J; Simor, A; Antonyshyn, O

    2001-08-01

    The authors present a man who underwent chest augmentation and nipple piercing. The patient developed chronic nipple infection, which led to unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures, serious implant infection, and eventually urgent explantation. This unfavorable scenario illustrates the distinct features of the procedure in men, which includes close proximity of the nipple to the implant and reduced awareness by health care providers. Based on this case the authors recommend avoiding nipple piercing in men with chest implants.

  5. Control electron beam oscillation regimes in Pierce diode with overcritical current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempen, I.S.; Khramov, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the delayed feedback on the complex oscillation regimes in the electron flux with the overcritical current in the Pierce diode is studied. The possibility of controlling the oscillation regimes through changing the feedback parameters is shown. The finite-dimensional model, describing the behavior of the electron flux in the Pierce diode hydrodynamic model, is constructed. Its behavior under the effect of the delayed feedback is studied [ru

  6. The prevalence of oral and peri-oral piercings in young adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennequin-Hoenderdos, N L; Slot, D E; Van der Weijden, G A

    2012-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of oral and/or peri-oral piercings in young adults based on a systematic review of the available literature. The MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were comprehensively searched through April 2012 to identify appropriate studies. The prevalence of oral and/or peri-oral piercings was evaluated in the general population, as well as by gender and by anatomical site. An independent screening of 1711 unique titles and abstracts resulted in 13 publications that met the eligibility criteria. In total, 11 249 participants (mean age, 20.6 years) were questioned and/or examined for oral and/or peri-oral piercings. In the studies that provided information concerning the presence of oral and/or peri-oral piercings, the prevalence varied from 0.8% to 12%, resulting in a mean prevalence of 5.2%. When examined based on anatomical site, the most common sites were the tongue (a prevalence of 5.6%), followed by the lip (1.5%). Oral piercings were more prevalent in women (5.6%) than men (1.6%). Among the populations that were studied, oral and/or peri-oral piercings were observed in a relatively small percentage (5.2%) of young adults. The prevalence was approximately four times higher among females when compared with males. On the basis of the literature, the tongue was the most common oral site for a piercing. Dental care professionals are in an ideal position to offer information regarding safe piercings and to provide advice regarding oral hygiene, aftercare and possible complications. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Numerical simulations of semi-armor-piercing warhead penetrating aircraft carrier target

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Sangqaing; Cai Xinghui; Wang Guoliang; Gao Yunliang; Lu Jiangren

    2015-01-01

    FEM models of semi-armor-piercing warhead penetrating aircraft carrier deck are established, which are validated by related experimental data. Base on the models, the process of semi-armor-piercing warhead penetrating aircraft carrier deck with different incidence angles and attack angles are carried out. The results show that incidence angles have no remarkable influence on penetration capability of the projectile under the circumstance of zero attack angle. Ductility reaming damage mode and...

  8. Experimental study of ice accretion effects on aerodynamic performance of an NACA 23012 airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Gholamhosein Pouryoussefi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of icing on an NACA 23012 airfoil have been studied. Experiments were applied on the clean airfoil, runback ice, horn ice, and spanwise ridge ice at a Reynolds number of 0.6 × 106 over angles of attack from −8° to 20°, and then results are compared. Generally, it is found that ice accretion on the airfoil can contribute to formation of a flow separation bubble on the upper surface downstream from the leading edge. In addition, it is made clear that spanwise ridge ice provides the greatest negative effect on the aerodynamic performance of the airfoil. In this case, the stall angle drops about 10° and the maximum lift coefficient reduces about 50% which is hazardous for an airplane. While horn ice leads to a stall angle drop of about 4° and a maximum lift coefficient reduction to 21%, runback ice has the least effect on the flow pattern around the airfoil and the aerodynamic coefficients so as the stall angle decreases 2° and the maximum lift reduces about 8%.

  9. Steady Aerodynamic Characteristics of Two-Dimensional NACA0012 Airfoil for One Revolution Angle of Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byung Ho; Han, Yong Oun

    2018-04-01

    Steady variations in aerodynamic forces and flow behaviors of two-dimensional NACA0012 airfoil were investigated using a numerical method for One Revolution Angle of Attack (AOA) at Reynolds number of 105 . The profiles of lift coefficients, drag coefficients, and pressure coefficients were compared with those of the experimental data. The AERODAS model was used to analyze the profiles of lift and drag coefficients. Wake characteristics were given along with the deficit profiles of incoming velocity components. Both the characteristics of normal and reverse airfoil models were compared with the basic aerodynamic data for the same range of AOA. The results show that two peaks of the lift coefficients appeared at 11.5{°} and 42{°} and are in good agreement with the pre-stall and post-stall models, respectively. Counter-rotating vortex flows originated from the leading and trailing edges at a high AOA, which formed an impermeable zone over the suction surface and made reattachments in the wake. Moreover, the acceleration of inflow along the boundary of the vortex wrap appeared in the profile of the wake velocity. The drag profile was found to be independent of the airfoil mode, but the lift profile was quite sensitive to the airfoil mode.

  10. Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Through Tattooing and Piercing: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohme, Rania A.; Holmberg, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Tattoos and piercings are increasing, especially among youths, but the risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection from these practices has not been adequately assessed and there are conflicting findings in the literature. We evaluated the risk of HCV infection from tattooing and piercing using the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Studies that specified the venue of tattooing and/or piercing showed no definitive evidence for an increased risk of HCV infection when tattoos and piercings were received in professional parlors. However, the risk of HCV infection is significant, especially among high-risk groups (adjusted odds ratio, 2.0–3.6), when tattoos are applied in prison settings or by friends. Prevention interventions are needed to avoid the transmission of hepatitis C from tattooing and piercing in prisons, homes, and other potentially nonsterile settings. Youths also should be educated on the need to have tattoos and piercings performed under sterile conditions to avoid HCV infection. PMID:22291098

  11. Profile of oral piercing users and implications resulting from its use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson da Costa Marchiori

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the profile of oral piercing users and the possible implications resulting from its use, as well as explaining to dentists about the possible consequences to their patients as a result of wearing this type of jewelry in the oral region.Methods: Fifty-one oral piercing users were interviewed. They were aged between 18 and 42 year, from different social classes, and resident in the city of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.Results: Based on the questionnaires analyzed, the majority of users had tongue or lip piercing as a way to express identity, and 45% reported the occurrence of some type of oral and/or general alteration associated with the use of piercings. Conclusion: The majority of alterations are harmful to the piercing user’s health, therefore, professionals in the Dentistry area must be warnedto explain to their patients, who use oral piercings, about the consequences that may occur and the need for special care to ameliorate these problems.

  12. A Simulation for the Punchless Piercing Process using Lemaitre Damage Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Wook; Pourboghrat, Farhang

    2005-01-01

    The punchless piercing is a process that uses highly pressurized fluid instead of the conventional punch to make holes into the sheet metal. This process has many advantages over the conventional method for piercing various shaped holes into very thin strips of metal, composite, etc. An important cost advantage comes from not having to use a punch. Another important advantage comes from the top quality of pierced holes produced by punchless piercing, as no secondary finishing process will be needed for removing burrs typically found in conventional cutting processes. The ABAQUS/Explicit FEM code coupled with Lemaitre damage model has been used to more precisely characterize the punchless piercing process. The formulation adopted for this purpose focuses on the development of an efficient stress integration algorithm and development of a user material subroutine (VUMAT). For verification, the computed results have been compared with those of the experimental results in the literature and shown to be in good agreement with each other. The results obtained from this work are expected to be of significant interest to automotive and aerospace industries interested in using the punchless piercing process

  13. Average Skin-Friction Drag Coefficients from Tank Tests of a Parabolic Body of Revolution (NACA RM-10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottard, Elmo J; Loposer, J Dan

    1954-01-01

    Average skin-friction drag coefficients were obtained from boundary-layer total-pressure measurements on a parabolic body of revolution (NACA rm-10, basic fineness ratio 15) in water at Reynolds numbers from 4.4 x 10(6) to 70 x 10(6). The tests were made in the Langley tank no. 1 with the body sting-mounted at a depth of two maximum body diameters. The arithmetic mean of three drag measurements taken around the body was in good agreement with flat-plate results, but, apparently because of the slight surface wave caused by the body, the distribution of the boundary layer around the body was not uniform over part of the Reynolds number range.

  14. Flow control over a NACA 0012 airfoil using dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma actuator with a Gurney flap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Li-Hao [Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Fluid Mechanics Key Laboratory of Education Ministry, Beijing (China); University of Nottingham, University Park, Faculty of Engineering, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Jukes, Timothy N. [University of Nottingham, University Park, Faculty of Engineering, Nottingham (United Kingdom); AIST, Research Centre for New Fuels and Vehicle Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Choi, Kwing-So [University of Nottingham, University Park, Faculty of Engineering, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Wang, Jin-Jun [Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Fluid Mechanics Key Laboratory of Education Ministry, Beijing (China)

    2012-06-15

    Flow control study of a NACA 0012 airfoil with a Gurney flap was carried out in a wind tunnel, where it was demonstrated that a dielectric-barrier-discharge (DBD) plasma actuator attached to the flap could increase the lift further, but with a small drag penalty. Time-resolved PIV measurements of the near-wake region indicated that the plasma forcing shifted the wake downwards, reducing its recirculation length. Analysis of wake vortex dynamics suggested that the plasma actuator initially amplified the lower wake shear layer by adding momentum along the downstream surface of the Gurney flap. This enhanced mutual entrainment between the upper and lower wake vortices, leading to an increase in lift on the airfoil. (orig.)

  15. Experimental study on combined cold forging process of backward cup extrusion and piercing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Robinson; Liewald, Mathias

    2018-05-01

    A reduction in material usage of cold forged components while maintaining the functional requirements can be achieved using hollow or tubular preforms. These preforms are used to meet lightweight requirements and to decrease production costs of cold formed components. To increase production efficiency in common multi-stage cold forming processes, manufacturing of hollow preforms by combining the processes backward cup extrusion and piercing was established and will be discussed in this paper. Corresponding investigations and experimental studies are reported in this article. The objectives of the experimental investigations have been the detection of significant process parameters, determination of process limits for the combined processes and validation of the numerical investigations. In addition, the general influence concerning surface quality and diameter tolerance of hollow performs are discussed in this paper. The final goal is to summarize a guideline for industrial application, moreover, to transfer the knowledge to industry, as regards what are required part geometries to reduce the number of forming stages as well as tool cost.

  16. [Tattooing and body piercing--experiences from public health infection surveillance by a public health office].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heudorf, U; Kutzke, G; Seng, U

    2000-04-01

    Tattooing and piercing have become increasingly popular in recent years. Both methods involve several medical risks, including transmission of infectious diseases. There are many reports on wound infections as well as transmission of hepatitis and human immunodeficiency viruses etc. According to these facts special hygiene regulations for tattooing and piercing have been published in Germany. Based on these regulations the public health department of the city of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, carried out special hygiene controls in such studios, one a year. Special tattoo or piercing exhibitions were also controlled. Results are reported here. Studios for tattoos or piercing were informed about hygiene rules and annually controlled from 1995-1999, using a special check list on cleanliness in the studios, disinfection and sterilisation procedures etc. For permission of tattoo and piercing exhibitions special hygiene orders were made mandatory. During 1995-1997 the absolute number of complaints decreased from 20 to 9, in spite of the increasing number of tattoo studios in Frankfurt am Main (from 6 to 10). This was true also of the tattoo and piercing exhibitions. After 1 year without control visits however, an increase of complaints was to be seen in 1999. According to our experience tattooists and piercers are interested in good hygiene practice. But our data showing the worsening hygiene data in one year without control visits also demonstrate the necessity of regular controls by the authorities. According to the reports on infectious complications of tattooing and piercing and according to the data reported here hygienic advice and control is an important task of Public Health services.

  17. An overview of NACA 6-digit airfoil series characteristics with reference to airfoils for large wind turbine blades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the NACA 63 and 64 6-digit series of airfoils tested in the NACA LTPT in view to verify the RFOIL calculated airfoil characteristics for high Reynolds numbers. Some anomalies in the zero-lift angles of 15% and 18% thick airfoils from these series are identified, both in the

  18. Modification of the NACA 632-415 leading edge for better aerodynamic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, C.; Fuglsang, P.

    2002-01-01

    Double stall causes more than one power level when stall-regulated wind turbines operate in stall. This involves significant uncertainty on power production and loads. To avoid double stall, a new leading edge was designed for the NACA 632-415 airfoil, an airfoil that is often used in the tip...... region of wind turbines. A numerical optimization tool incorporating XFOIL was used with a special formulation for the airfoil leading edge shape. The EllipSys2D CFD code was used to analyze the modified airfoil. In theory and in wind tunnel tests, the modified airfoil showed smooth and stable stall...... stall and aerodynamic damping characteristics for the modified airfoil and the NACA 632-415 airfoil were the same. The modified airfoil with leading edge roughness in general had better characteristics compared with the NACA 632-415 airfoil. ©2002 ASME...

  19. Oral parafunctions, piercing and signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejersjö, Christina; Ovesson, Daniel; Mossberg, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    The use of chewing-gum and piercing has become common among adolescents and might result in increased oral muscle activity and overloading. Aim To investigate the frequency of oral piercing and parafunctions in relation to symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) among adolescents. One hundred and twenty-four third level high school students, living either in a city or in a small town, enrolled in either science or media programmes, were included. The students completed a questionnaire regarding different parafunctions and symptoms of TMD. A clinical examination of the temporomandibular system and estimation of the tooth wear was performed in 116 students. Chewing-gum was used by 86% of the students (25% with a daily use) and 14% had an oral piercing. The science students used more chewing gum than the media students (p = 0.008), while the media students had more piercings (p headache, 18% for clicking, 7% for facial pain and 6% for difficulty to open wide. Girls reported more headaches (p = 0.007) and more severe symptoms (p = 0.003), had more medical consultations and used more analgesics (both p headache (p temporomandibular joints and muscles (both p headache and muscle tenderness (both p headache (p < 0.05) and tooth wear (p = 0.004). There is an association between use of chewing gum, nail biting, oral piercing, and symptoms of TMD.

  20. Body art: attitudes and practices regarding body piercing among urban undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorzman, Cindy M; Gold, Melanie A; Downs, Julie S; Murray, Pamela J

    2007-10-01

    To describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of young adults toward body piercing. An anonymous 30-item survey was given to 103 undergraduate students at the campus health service of a large urban university. The questionnaire collected data on students' perceptions regarding the social acceptability of body piercing, their experiences with and attitudes toward this form of body art, and their knowledge of associated health risks. One hundred (97%) out of the 103 surveys distributed had sufficient data for analysis. Fifty-six percent of participants (age range, 17 to 25 years) reported having a body piercing at one time. Participants with a piercing were more likely to have a tattoo (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.10-15.56; P=.04). The majority of participants (65 [78%]) reported "liking" body piercing on others, though a smaller percentage (45 [52%]) reported "liking" it on themselves (z=3.58, Part is acceptable on others, they feel it is less acceptable on themselves. Study participants displayed a high level of awareness regarding the potential health risks of body art, and, in fact, overestimate those risks. Implications for patient education are addressed.

  1. Face Piercing (Body Art): Choosing Pleasure vs. Possible Pain and Posture Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheron, Eric; Kapoula, Zoï

    2011-01-01

    Piercings (body art, i.e., with jewelry) are more and more widespread. They can induce various complications such as infections, allergies, headaches, and various skin, cartilage, or dental problems, and represent a public health problem. We draw attention to possible side effects resulting from face piercing complications observed on four young adults such as eye misalignment, decreased postural control efficiency, and non-specific chronic back pain with associated comorbidity. We found that the origin was pierced jewelry on the face. Removing the jewelry restored eye alignment, improved postural control, and alleviated back pain in a lasting way. We suggest that pierced facial jewelry can disturb somaesthetic signals driven by the trigeminal nerve, and thus interfere with central integration processes, notably in the cerebellum and the vestibular nucleus involved in postural control and eye alignment. Facial piercings could induce sensory–motor conflict, exacerbate, or precipitate a pre-existing undetermined conflict, which leads pain and complaints. These findings are significant for health; further investigations would be of interest. PMID:21960975

  2. [A PhD completed. Trauma to the gingiva by oral hygiene aids and oral piercings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennequin-Hoenderdos, N L; Slot, D E; van der Weijden, G A

    2017-12-01

    Maintaining healthy teeth and soft oral tissue is important. Clinical research has shown manual toothbrushes with end-rounded filaments to cause significantly less gingival abrasions than those without end-rounding. Tapered filaments are an alternative to end-rounded filaments, but there is no solid evidence for their effectiveness. For the interdental spaces that the toothbrush doesn't reach, the use of special oral hygiene aids is advised. Clinical studies of gingivitis patients have shown that both interdental brushes and plastic-rubber bristles reduce gingivitis after 4 weeks of use. Plastic-rubber bristles result in a significant improvement in the tendency for interdental bleeding compared with interdental brushes, and they cause less abrasion of the gingiva. Other factors that can potentially traumatise soft and hard oral tissue are oral piercings. Wearing oral piercings is not without risk. Tongue and lip piercings are associated with the risk of gingival recession, and tongue piercings are associated with tooth fractures. To prevent the risk of complications, patients should be discouraged from wearing oral piercings.

  3. Regulation of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in rat pancreatic ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankorina-Stark, I; Amstrup, J; Novak, I

    2002-01-01

    by hormones/agonists affecting pancreatic secretion. Whole pancreas, pure pancreatic acini and ducts were obtained from rats and used for RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and intracellular Ca2+ measurements using Fura-2. RT-PCR analysis indicated Na+/Ca2+-exchanger isoforms NCX1.......3 and NCX1.7 in acini and pancreas. Western blot with NCX1 antibody identified bands of 70, 120 and 150 kDa in isolated ducts, acini and pancreas. Immunofluorescence experiments showed the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger on the basolateral membrane of acini and small intercalated/intralobular ducts, but in larger...

  4. Computer investigations of the turbulent flow around a NACA2415 airfoil wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driss, Zied; Chelbi, Tarek; Abid, Mohamed Salah

    2015-12-01

    In this work, computer investigations are carried out to study the flow field developing around a NACA2415 airfoil wind turbine. The Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with the standard k-ɛ turbulence model are considered. These equations are solved numerically to determine the local characteristics of the flow. The models tested are implemented in the software "SolidWorks Flow Simulation" which uses a finite volume scheme. The numerical results are compared with experiments conducted on an open wind tunnel to validate the numerical results. This will help improving the aerodynamic efficiency in the design of packaged installations of the NACA2415 airfoil type wind turbine.

  5. Aspects of the influence of an oscillating mini-flap upon the near wake of an airfoil NACA 4412

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delnero, J S; Di Leo, J Maranon; Colman, J; Garcia Sainz, M; Munoz, F; Herouard, N; Camocardi, M E, E-mail: delnero@ing.unlp.edu.ar [LaCLyFA, Departamento Aeronautica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, calle 116 entre 47 y 48, CP 1900, La Plata (Argentina)

    2011-05-01

    A NACA 4412 airfoil was tested, in a boundary layer wind tunnel, with the aim to study the effect of a Gurney mini-flap, as an active and passive flow control device submitted to a turbulent flow field. The main objective was the experimental determination of flow pattern characteristics downstream the airfoil in the near wake. The untwisted wing model used for the experiments had 80 cm wingspan and 50 cm chord, with airfoil NACA 4412. The mini-flap was located on the lower surface at a distance, from the trailing edge, of 8%c (c airfoil chord). The Reynolds number, based upon the wing chord and the mean free stream velocity was 326,000 and 489,000. The turbulence intensity was 1.8%. The model was located into the wind tunnel between two panels, in order to assure a close approximation to two-dimensional flow over the model. As an active control device a rotating mini-flaps, geared by an electromechanical system (which rotate to a 30{sup 0}) was constructed. The wake pattern and pressure values near the trailing edge were measured. The results obtained, for this mechanism, show us that the oscillating mini-flap change the wake flow pattern, alleviating the near wake turbulence and enhancing the vortex pair near the trailing edge at the mini-flap level and below that level, magnifying the effect described first by Liebeck. That effect grows with the oscillating frequency. Additionally, the wake alleviation probably affects also the far wake. All of these facts suggest us to continue with the experiments, trying to measure the pressure distribution around the airfoil in all the cases, obtaining the lift and drag characteristics.

  6. Body piercing, tattooing, self-esteem, and body investment in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Lynne; Anderson, Roxanne

    2002-01-01

    Postmodern perspectives of body piercing and tattooing interpret these as signifiers of the self and attempts to attain mastery and control over the body in an age of increasing alienation. In this exploratory study, 79 adolescent females, ages 15 to 18 (M = 16.08, SD = 1.36), completed the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI; Coopersmith, 1981), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck, 1978), the Body Investment Scale (BIS; Orbach & Mikulincer, 1998), and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI-2; Spielberger, 1996). Analyses revealed that body piercings and tattoos were significantly correlated with trait anger (Angry Reaction subscale scores). A multiple regression analysis indicated that three of the dependent variables (Trait Anger-Reaction, BDI, and Feeling subscale of the BIS) were predictors of the total number of body piercings and tattoos.

  7. Accuracy of thick-walled hollows during piercing on three-high mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potapov, I.N.; Romantsev, B.A.; Shamanaev, V.I.; Popov, V.A.; Kharitonov, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The results of investigations are presented concerning the accuracy of geometrical dimensions of thick-walled sleeves produced by piercing on a 100-ton trio screw rolling mill MISiS with three schemes of fixing and centering the rod. The use of a spherical thrust journal for the rod and of a long centering bushing makes it possible to diminish the non-uniformity of the wall thickness of the sleeves by 30-50%. It is established that thick-walled sleeves with accurate geometrical dimensions (nonuniformity of the wall thickness being less than 10%) can be produced if the system sleeve - mandrel - rod is highly rigid and the rod has a two- or three-fold stability margin over the length equal to that of the sleeve being pierced. The process of piercing is expedient to be carried out with increased angles of feed (14-16 deg). Blanks have been made from steel 12Kh1MF

  8. Finite ion velocity effects on the stability of Pierce-like diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolinsky, H.; Schamel, H.

    1994-01-01

    The stability of Pierce-like plasma diodes is investigated for arbitrary ion injection velocities. A recently developed integral formalism that accounts for ion dynamical effects is applied to derive a generalized dispersion relation for electrostatic perturbations. Its evaluation exhibits several new features, such as the appearance of growing oscillatory modes, which become Pierce--Buneman modes in the limit of initially resting ions, and of weakly damped oscillatory modes, which become undamped ion plasma oscillations in this limit. The stability of this bounded plasma system is shown to be controlled by the new control parameter at signga=α(1+at signgm) 1/2 , where α is the Pierce parameter and at signgm≡m ev 2 e0 /m iv 2 i0 the ratio of electron and ion kinetic energy at the emitter

  9. Ice Accretions and Full-Scale Iced Aerodynamic Performance Data for a Two-Dimensional NACA 23012 Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Broeren, Andy P.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Lee, Sam; Guffond, Didier; Montreuil, Emmanuel; Moens, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the data collected during the large wind tunnel campaigns conducted as part of the SUNSET project (StUdies oN Scaling EffecTs due to ice) also known as the Ice-Accretion Aerodynamics Simulation study: a joint effort by NASA, the Office National d'Etudes et Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA), and the University of Illinois. These data form a benchmark database of full-scale ice accretions and corresponding ice-contaminated aerodynamic performance data for a two-dimensional (2D) NACA 23012 airfoil. The wider research effort also included an analysis of ice-contaminated aerodynamics that categorized ice accretions by aerodynamic effects and an investigation of subscale, low- Reynolds-number ice-contaminated aerodynamics for the NACA 23012 airfoil. The low-Reynolds-number investigation included an analysis of the geometric fidelity needed to reliably assess aerodynamic effects of airfoil icing using artificial ice shapes. Included herein are records of the ice accreted during campaigns in NASA Glenn Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). Two different 2D NACA 23012 airfoil models were used during these campaigns; an 18-in. (45.7-cm) chord (subscale) model and a 72-in. (182.9-cm) chord (full-scale) model. The aircraft icing conditions used during these campaigns were selected from the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 25 Appendix C icing envelopes. The records include the test conditions, photographs of the ice accreted, tracings of the ice, and ice depth measurements. Model coordinates and pressure tap locations are also presented. Also included herein are the data recorded during a wind tunnel campaign conducted in the F1 Subsonic Pressurized Wind Tunnel of ONERA. The F1 tunnel is a pressured, high- Reynolds-number facility that could accommodate the full-scale (72-in. (182.9-cm) chord) 2D NACA 23012 model. Molds were made of the ice accreted during selected test runs of the full-scale model

  10. Self-esteem, propensity for sensation seeking, and risk behaviour among adults with tattoos and piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bo-Kyung; Lee, Hyo Young

    2017-12-13

    Background: In recent years, increasing numbers of adults and adolescents have opted to undergo tattoo and piercing procedures. Studies among adolescents with tattoo and piercing have usually explored the relationship between one factor and the decision to have tattoos and/or piercings. The aim of this study was to determine relationships between body cosmetic procedures and selfesteem, propensity for sensation seeking, and risk behaviours among adults. Materials and Methods: The subjects were divided into two groups, i.e. , those with (n=429) and those without tattoos/piercings (n=237), and self-esteem, propensity for sensation seeking, and risk behaviour were compared between the two groups using self-report questionnaires. To analyse differences in self-esteem and the propensity for sensation seeking, general characteristics were statistically adjusted. In addition, general characteristics, self-esteem, and propensity for sensation seeking were statistically adjusted to determine differences in the propensity for risk behaviour between the two groups. Results: Significant differences were observed in age, marital status, income level, occupation, values or sensitivity to fashion, and educational level between the group with and that without tattoos/ piercings. There was no significant difference in self-esteem, whereas there were significant differences in the propensity for sensation seeking and risk behaviour between the two groups. Conclusions: Continuous attention to, and interest in, the increased incidence of tattooing and piercing are necessary, especially in terms of public interventions for health education and health promotion, as these forms of self-adornment are associated with behaviours that pose a risk to health.

  11. Self-esteem, propensity for sensation seeking, and risk behaviour among adults with tattoos and piercings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Kyung Hong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, increasing numbers of adults and adolescents have opted to undergo tattoo and piercing procedures. Studies among adolescents with tattoo and piercing have usually explored the relationship between one factor and the decision to have tattoos and/or piercings. The aim of this study was to determine relationships between body cosmetic procedures and selfesteem, propensity for sensation seeking, and risk behaviours among adults. Materials and Methods: The subjects were divided into two groups, i.e., those with (n=429 and those without tattoos/piercings (n=237, and self-esteem, propensity for sensation seeking, and risk behaviour were compared between the two groups using self-report questionnaires. To analyse differences in self-esteem and the propensity for sensation seeking, general characteristics were statistically adjusted. In addition, general characteristics, self-esteem, and propensity for sensation seeking were statistically adjusted to determine differences in the propensity for risk behaviour between the two groups. Results: Significant differences were observed in age, marital status, income level, occupation, values or sensitivity to fashion, and educational level between the group with and that without tattoos/ piercings. There was no significant difference in self-esteem, whereas there were significant differences in the propensity for sensation seeking and risk behaviour between the two groups. Conclusions: Continuous attention to, and interest in, the increased incidence of tattooing and piercing are necessary, especially in terms of public interventions for health education and health promotion, as these forms of self-adornment are associated with behaviours that pose a risk to health.

  12. Teaching Business Law from Literature: Lessons to Be Learned from the Novel "Mildred Pierce" and the Road to Entrepreneurial Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labatt, Joseph; Forrest, Michael

    2016-01-01

    James M. Cain used his literary skills to incorporate business and business law concepts into a best-selling novel, "Mildred Pierce." Set in the Great Depression era, "Mildred Pierce" tells the story of a divorced woman who raises two daughters on her own, while building a restaurant and bakery business. Even in today's popular…

  13. Online visual inspection of self-piercing riveting to determine the quality of the mechanical interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P; Cullen, J D; Al-Shamma'a, A I; Shaw, A

    2007-01-01

    Self-piercing riveting (SPR) has become a significant joining technique for the automotive applications of aluminium sheets. Quality control in this locale has progressed at an altogether more leisurely rate than other areas of mechanical joining (e.g. spotweld) and is underdeveloped. Testing the quality mechanical interlock is often achieved by destructive testing, which results in material and time wastage. The solution is online monitoring of the self-piercing riveting process to provide non-destructive testing of the mechanical interlock. Introducing sensors into the process facilitates real time data acquisition, which can be used to determine the quality of the joint

  14. Steady and Unsteady Analysis of NACA 0018 Airfoil in Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowski, Krzysztof; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Maronski, Ryszard

    2018-01-01

    Numerical results are presented for aerodynamic unsteady and steady airfoil characteristtcs of the NACA 0018 airfoil of a two-dimensional vertical-axis wind turbine. A geometrical model of the Darrieus-type wind turbine and the rotor operating parameters used for nurnerieal simulation are taken...

  15. The driving force of the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger during metabolic inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baartscheer, Antonius; Schumacher, Cees A.; Coronel, Ruben; Fiolet, Jan W. T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Metabolic inhibition causes a decline in mechanical performance and, if prolonged, myocardial contracture and cell death. The decline in mechanical performance is mainly due to altered intracellular calcium handling, which is under control of the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger (NCX) The driving force

  16. Management process invaded Ames as the Center shifted from NACA to NASA oversight. Ames constructed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Management process invaded Ames as the Center shifted from NACA to NASA oversight. Ames constructed a review room in its headquarters building where, in the graphical style that prevailed in the 1960's, Ames leadership could review progress against schedule, budget and performance measures. Shown, in October 1965 is Merrill Mead chief of Ames' program and resources office. (for H Julian Allen Retirement album)

  17. Stoichiometry of Na/Ca antiport obtained by magnesium inhibition in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.B.; Higgins, B.L.; Smith, L.

    1987-01-01

    Cultured smooth muscle cells from rat aorta were loaded with Na, and Na/Ca antiport was assayed by measuring the initial rates of 45 Ca influx and 22 Na efflux. The replacement of extracellular Na with other monovalent ions, usually N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMG), was essential for obtaining significant antiport activity. Mg competitively inhibited 45 Ca influx via the antiporter (Ki = 100 uM). External Ca stimulated 22 Na efflux as expected for antiport activity. Mg did not stimulate 22 Na efflux indicating that Mg is not transported by the antiporter. Mg inhibited Ca-stimulated 22 Na efflux as expected from the 45 Ca influx data. The stoichiometry of the antiporter was calculated from the changes in the rates of 45 Ca influx and 22 Na efflux at 3 Mg concentrations: 2.87 +/- 0.25 (mean +/- SE, n=5). The replacement of external NMG with potassium, but not other monovalent ions (choline, Li), decreased the potency of Mg as an inhibitor of Na/Ca antiport by about 6 fold. Other divalent cations (Co, Mn, Cd, Ba) inhibited Na/Ca antiport and high external potassium decreased the potency of each by about 6 fold. The order of effectiveness of the divalent cations as inhibitors of Na/Ca antiport (Cd>Mn>Co>Ba>Mg) correlated with the crystal ionic radius of the cation

  18. Drag coefficient accuracy improvement by means of particle image velocimetry for a transonic NACA0012 airfoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragni, D; Van Oudheusden, B W; Scarano, F

    2011-01-01

    A method to improve the reliability of the drag coefficient computation by means of particle image velocimetry measurements is made using experimental data acquired on a NACA0012 airfoil tested in the transonic regime, using the combination of a variable pulse separation with a new high-order Poisson spectral pressure reconstruction algorithm. (technical design note)

  19. Application of neutron activation analysis to the corrosion study of gold coated studs used for piercing ears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Rogero, S.O.; Costa, I.; Correa, O.V.; Higa, O.Z.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Gold is known as a metal having little or no toxicity and it has been widely used for coating studs for ear piercing. However, for some people gold coated studs have caused serious allergy and inflammation problems. After piercing, the studs are usually kept in the ear lobes for at least one week, and during this period the stud surfaces in contact with the body fluids have caused swelling, pain and redness of the skin. Consequently, it is of great interest to evaluate if elements from the metallic substrate underneath the gold coatings migrate to the body fluids due to the corrosion and the presence of defects in gold coatings. The solutions for corrosion test were obtained by placing the gold coated studs in contact with the solutions of NaCl and of culture medium. Elemental analyses of these solutions by radioanalytical method of neutron activation analysis indicated the occurrence of substrate corrosion since the elements Cr, Fe, Ni and Zn were found in these solutions. These elements are substrate material components of alloys used to make the studs and they were quantified by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The defects of the coatings were also detected by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis of the gold coated studs before and after the corrosion tests. Cytotoxicity studies indicated that after corrosion test the solution used was toxic in the culture cell assay. Among the elements quantified in the test solutions, Ni is considered responsible for most of allergic reactions. Results obtained in this work indicated the necessity to improve quality control of the coating process of studs and in the appropriate choice of material used as substrate

  20. Medical tongue piercing – development and evaluation of a surgical protocol and the perception of procedural discomfort of the participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A system providing disabled persons with control of various assistive devices with the tongue has been developed at Aalborg University in Denmark. The system requires an activation unit attached to the tongue with a small piercing. The aim of this study was to establish and evaluate a safe and tolerable procedure for medical tongue piercing and to evaluate the expected and perceived procedural discomfort. Methods Four tetraplegic subjects volunteered for the study. A surgical protocol for a safe insertion of a tongue barbell piercing was presented using sterilized instruments and piercing parts. Moreover, post-procedural observations of participant complications such as bleeding, edema, and infection were recorded. Finally, procedural discomforts were monitored by VAS scores of pain, changes in taste and speech as well as problems related to hitting the teeth. Results The piercings were all successfully inserted in less than 5 min and the pain level was moderate compared with oral injections. No bleeding, infection, embedding of the piercing, or tooth/gingival injuries were encountered; a moderate edema was found in one case without affecting the speech. In two cases the piercing rod later had to be replaced by a shorter rod, because participants complained that the rod hit their teeth. The replacements prevented further problems. Moreover, loosening of balls was encountered, which could be prevented with the addition of dental glue. No cases of swallowing or aspiration of the piercing parts were recorded. Conclusions The procedure proved simple, fast, and safe for insertion of tongue piercings for tetraplegic subjects in a clinical setting. The procedure represented several precautions in order to avoid risks in these susceptible participants with possible co-morbidity. No serious complications were encountered, and the procedure was found tolerable to the participants. The procedure may be used in future studies with tongue piercings being a

  1. Improved piercing of microneedle arrays in dermatomed human skin by an impact insertion method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbaan, F.J.; Bal, S.M.; van den Berg, D.J.; Dijksman, J.A.; van Hecke, M.; Verpoorten, H.; van den Berg, Albert; Lüttge, Regina; Bouwstra, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    An electrical applicator was designed, which can pierce short microneedles into the skin with a predefined velocity. Three different shapes of microneedles were used, namely 300 mu m assembled hollow metal microneedle arrays, 300 mu m solid metal microneedle arrays and 245 mu m hollow silicon

  2. Improved piercing of microneedle arrays in dermatomed human skin by an impact insertion method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbaan, F.J.; Bal, S.M.; Berg, van den D.J.; Dijksman, J.A.; Hecke, van M.; Verpoorten, H.; Berg, van den A.; Luttge, R.; Bouwstra, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    An electrical applicator was designed, which can pierce short microneedles into the skin with a predefined velocity. Three different shapes of microneedles were used, namely 300 µm assembled hollow metal microneedle arrays, 300 µm solid metal microneedle arrays and 245 µm hollow silicon microneedle

  3. Tattooing, permanent makeup and piercing in Amsterdam; guidelines, legislation and monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worp, J.; Boonstra, A.; Coutinho, R. A.; van den Hoek, J. A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Tattooing, body piercing and permanent makeup are increasing in popularity. Here, we describe the procedures involved in these practices, their risks, the content of guidelines developed by the Municipal Health Service in Amsterdam (the Netherlands) to reduce infection risks, the legislation in the

  4. The doctrine of piercing the corporate veil: Its legal and judicial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , it is found that Ethiopian company law, though not sufficient, provides some clear grounds of piercing the corporate veil and certain possible grounds which may call for the application of the doctrine. It is also argued that Ethiopian courts ...

  5. Process Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis for Piercing Production of Seamless Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of modernization, the application of seamless tube becomes widespread. As the first process of seamless tube, piercing is vital for the quality of the tube. The solid round billet will be transformed into a hollow shell after the piercing process. The defects of hollow shell cannot be cleared in the following process, so a monitoring model for the quality of the hollow shell is important. But the piercing process is very complicated, and a mechanism model is difficult to build between the qualities of the hollow shell and measurement variables. Furthermore, an intelligent model is needed. We established two piercing process monitoring and fault diagnosis models based on the multiway principal component analysis (MPCA model and the multistage MPCA model, respectively, and furthermore we made a comparison between these two concepts. We took three ways to divide the period based on process, K-means, and GA, respectively. Simulation experiments have shown that the multistate MPCA method has advantage over the MPCA method and the model based on the genetic algorithm (GA can monitor the process effectively and detect the faults.

  6. When Paradigms Clash: Comments on Cameron and Pierce's Claim That Rewards Do Not Undermine Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L.

    1996-01-01

    The conclusion of J. Cameron and W. D. Pierce that rewards do not pose a threat to intrinsic motivation (1994) is a misrepresentation of the literature based on a flawed meta-analysis. Their analysis is more an attempt to defend behaviorist turf rather than meaningful consideration of relevant data and issues. (Author/SLD)

  7. Cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid stimulates rice defense response to a piercing-sucking insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui-Min; Li, Hai-Chao; Zhou, Shi-Rong; Xue, Hong-Wei; Miao, Xue-Xia

    2014-11-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) is a destructive, monophagous, piercing-sucking insect pest of rice. Previous studies indicated that jasmonic acid (JA) positively regulates rice defense against chewing insect pests but negatively regulates it against the piercing-sucking insect of BPH. We here demonstrated that overexpression of allene oxide cyclase (AOC) but not OPR3 (cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) reductase 3, an enzyme adjacent to AOC in the JA synthetic pathway) significantly increased rice resistance to BPH, mainly by reducing the feeding activity and survival rate. Further analysis revealed that plant response to BPH under AOC overexpression was independent of the JA pathway and that significantly higher OPDA levels stimulated rice resistance to BPH. Microarray analysis identified multiple candidate resistance-related genes under AOC overexpression. OPDA treatment stimulated the resistance of radish seedlings to green peach aphid Myzus persicae, another piercing-sucking insect. These results imply that rice resistance to chewing insects and to sucking insects can be enhanced simultaneously through AOC-mediated increases of JA and OPDA and provide direct evidence of the potential application of OPDA in stimulating plant defense responses to piercing-sucking insect pests in agriculture. © The Author 2014. Published by the Molecular Plant Shanghai Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of CSPB and IPPE, SIBS, CAS.

  8. The prevalence of oral and peri-oral piercings in young adults: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennequin-Hoenderdos, N.L.; Slot, D.E.; van der Weijden, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of oral and/or peri-oral piercings in young adults based on a systematic review of the available literature. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were comprehensively searched through April 2012 to identify appropriate

  9. Speckle Interferometry with the McMath-Pierce East Auxiliary Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard; Ray, Jimmy; Douglass, David; Prause, Lori; Genet, Russell

    2015-09-01

    Engineering runs and tests on the McMath-Pierce 0.8 meter East Auxiliary telescope successfully configured the telescope for speckle interferometry observations of close visual double stars. This paper reports the procedure and results of the speckle analysis of four double stars.

  10. Complications of oral and peri-oral piercings: a summary of case reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennequin-Hoenderdos, N.L.; Slot, D.E.; van der Weijden, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To systemically search the literature for case reports concerning adverse effects associated with oral and peri-oral piercings on oral health and/or general health. Material and methods: MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched up through 1

  11. To the theory of the Pierce instability of neutralized electron flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A.M.; Rukhadze, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Pierce instability of a nonrelativistic electron beam in an exernal fi inite magnetic field is investigated. Analytical expressions for a critical electron density in limiting cases of strong or weak magnetic field have been fo ound. The critical electron density is shown to increase with a decrease in the magnetic field strength

  12. Pierce-type electron gun with a large concave LaB6 cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintake, Tumoru; Ohba, Kunio; Matoba, Masaru; Katase, Akira

    1981-01-01

    A Pierce-type electron gun with a concave cathode of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB 6 ) 30 mm in diameter is described. At an accelerating voltage of 3 kV and a cathode temperature of 1340 0 C, a focussed electron beam of DC 300 mA was obtained. (author)

  13. The incidence of complications associated with lip and/or tongue piercings: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennequin-Hoenderdos, N.L.; Slot, D.E.; Van der Weijden, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This review determines the incidence of complications associated with lip and/or tongue piercings based on a systematic evaluation of the available literature. Material and Methods: MEDLINE–PubMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were comprehensively searched through June 2014 to

  14. Effect of the thermal spread in a beam on the radiative Pierce instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klochkov, D.N.; Pekar, M.Yu.; Rukhadze, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    The linear dynamics of the radiative Pierce instability in a single plane in the case of the relativistic electron beam with T temperature stabilized through a strong magnetic field, is considered. It is shown that the instability increment decreases with the thermal spread growth [ru

  15. Piercing and tattoos in adolescents: legal and medico-legal implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conti Adelaide

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-therapeutic body modification interventions are permitted within the limits of the use of one’s own body that can be specified in the legal system. The authors take into consideration Italian regulation on tattooing and piercing, in particular in relation to adolescents.

  16. Piercing of the containment shell of a reactor building in case of airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, M.

    1978-01-01

    The author presents a simple calculation model for a realistic check of the piercing safety of containments of reactor buildings in case of airplane crash. Its application is illustrated by a numerical example (Starfighter crash on the Unterweser nuclear power plant). (orig.) [de

  17. Improving Immunization Coverage in a Rural School District in Pierce County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin M.; Cook, Carolyn; Yerxa, Mary E.; Marshall, James H.; Pulos, Elizabeth; Rollosson, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Washington State has some of the highest percentages of school immunization exemptions in the country. We compared school immunization records in a rural school district in Pierce County, Washington, to immunization records in the state immunization information system (IIS) and parent-held records. Correcting school immunization records resulted…

  18. 27 CFR 478.37 - Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture, importation... COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.37 Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition. No person shall manufacture or import, and no manufacturer...

  19. Need for improved public health protection of young people wanting body piercing: evidence from a look-back exercise at a piercing and tattooing premises with poor hygiene practices, Wales (UK) 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M; Lewis, H; Thomas, D Rh; Mason, B; Richardson, G

    2018-04-30

    Following a cluster of serious pseudomonas skin infections linked to a body piercing and tattooing premises, a look-back exercise was carried out to offer clients a screen for blood-borne viruses. Of those attending for screening 72% (581/809) had a piercing procedure in the premises of interest: 94 (16%) were under 16 years of age at the time of screening. The most common site of piercing was ear (34%), followed by nose (27%), nipple (21%) and navel (21%). A small number (<5) tested positive for hepatitis B and C, with no evidence this was linked to the premises. However, 36% (211/581) of clients reported a skin infection associated with their piercing. Using data from client forms, 36% provided a false age. Those aged under 16 years (OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.7-7.7) and those receiving a piercing at an intimate site (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.6) were more likely to provide a false age. The findings from this exercise were used to support the drafting of the Public Health (Wales) Bill which proposed better regulation of piercing premises and the need to provide proof of being 18 years of age or over before having a piercing of an intimate site.

  20. The corrosion resistance of materials used for the manufacture of ear piercing studs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa, O. V.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nickel containing alloys have been widely used as substrates for the manufacture of studs used for ear piercing. Unfortunately, nickel has also been related to the development of allergic contact dermatitis caused by skin sensitization due to Ni2+ ions. Nickel ions can be leached out into the body fluids due to corrosion reactions. Defect free coatings are very difficult to produce, and therefore nickel free materials should be used as substrates of ear piercing studs, although the commercial alloys used usually contain this element. In this study, the corrosion resistance of two kinds of commercial studs prepared with nickel containing substrates and a titanium laboratory made stud was determined in a culture medium. The corrosion resistance of the studs was investigated by means of potentiodynamic polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as a function of immersion time in the culture medium. The elements that leached out into the medium due to corrosion reactions were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The surfaces of the commercial gold-coated studs were examined by scanning electron microscopy and analyzed by energy dispersive spectroscopy, both before and after exposure to the culture medium. The cytotoxicity of the tested studs was also determined in the culture medium.

    Aleaciones conteniendo níquel se han utilizado como substratos para la fabricación de aretes perforantes para orejas. Desafortunadamente, el níquel ha sido relacionado con el desarrollo de una reacción alérgica conocida como dermatitis de contacto, causada por la sensibilización debido a los iones de Ni2+. Estos iones pueden ser liberados hacia los fluidos corporales debido a las reacciones de corrosión. Los aretes, habitualmente, se revisten con películas de oro. Sin embargo, es muy difícil hacer los revestimientos libres de defectos superficiales. Por lo tanto, materiales sin níquel deber

  1. Daith Piercing in a Case of Chronic Migraine: A Possible Vagal Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Cascio Rizzo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Daith piercing is an ear piercing located at the crus of the helix, bilaterally. It is getting great consent on social media as alternative treatment in chronic migraine. No data about its efficacy and action are available in scientific literature so far. We present the case of a 54-year-old male patient suffering from refractory chronic migraine with medication-overuse, who substantially improved after bilateral ear daith piercing. His migraine was refractory to symptomatic as well as prophylactic therapies. He used to treat headaches with up to five symptomatic drugs per attack and had attempted several pharmacological preventive therapies, including Onabotulinumtoxin A. He also underwent detoxification treatments with intravenous steroids and diazepam, without durable benefit. At the time of daith piercing, the headache-related disability measures showed a HIT-6 score of 64, a MIDAS-score of 70, and a 11-point Box scale of 5. On his own free will, he decided to get a “daith piercing.” After that, he experienced a reduction of migraine attacks, which became very rare, and infrequent, less disabling episodes of tension-type headache (HIT-6 score of 56; MIDAS score of 27, 11-point Box scale of 3. Painkiller assumption has much decreased: he takes only one tablet of indomethacin 50 mg to treat tensive headaches, about four times per month. Beyond a placebo effect, we can speculate a vagal modulation as the action mechanism of daith piercing: a nociceptive sensory stimulus applied to trigeminal and vagal areas of the ear can activate ear vagal afferents, which can modulate pain pathways by means of projections to the caudal trigeminal nucleus, to the locus coeruleus and to the nucleus raphe magnus. Currently, daith piercing cannot be recommended as migraine treatment because of the lack of scientific evidence, the unquantified rate of failure and the associated risks with insertion. However, given the increasing but anecdotal evidence, we

  2. Prediction of broadband trailing edge noise from a NACA0012 airfoil using wall-modeled large-eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Bodony, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    In modern high-bypass ratio turbofan engines, the reduction of jet exhaust noise through engine design has increased the acoustic importance of the main fan to the point where it can be the primary source of noise in the fight direction of an airplane. While fan noise has been reduced by improved fan designs, its broadband component, originating from the interaction of turbulent flow with a solid surface, still remains an issue. Broadband fan noise is generated by several mechanisms, usually involving a turbulent boundary layer interacting with a solid surface. To prepare for a wall modeled large eddy simulation (WMLES) of the NASA/GE source diagnostic test fan, we study the broadband noise due to the turbulent flow on a NACA0012 airfoil at zero degree angle-of-attack, a chord-based Reynolds number of 408,000, and a Mach number of 0.115 using WMLES. We investigate the prediction of transition-to-turbulence and sound generation from the WMLES and examine its predictability compared with available experimental and DNS datasets for the same flow conditions. Verification of WMLES for such a canonical problem is crucial since it provides useful insight about the WMLES approach before using it for broadband fan noise prediction. AeroAcoustics Research Consortium.

  3. Evidence for a Na+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism in frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K H; Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, R

    1999-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the possible existence of a Na+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism in the basolateral membrane of the frog skin epithelium and whether such a mechanism plays a role in the regulation of transepithelial Na+ transport. Cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) was measured with the probe...... in serosal Na+ were followed by stepwise changes in [Ca2+]i. These observations indicate the existence of a Na+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism in the basolateral membrane of the frog skin epithelium. The transepithelial Na+ transport decreased from 13.2+/-1.8 to 9.2+/-1.5 microA cm-2 (n=8, P=0.049) when Na...

  4. CFD study on NACA 4415 airfoil implementing spherical and sinusoidal Tubercle Leading Edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, S M A; Ahmad, K A

    2017-01-01

    The Humpback whale tubercles have been studied for more than a decade. Tubercle Leading Edge (TLE) effectively reduces the separation bubble size and helps in delaying stall. They are very effective in case of low Reynolds number flows. The current Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study is on NACA 4415 airfoil, at a Reynolds number 120,000. Two TLE shapes are tested on NACA 4415 airfoil. The tubercle designs implemented on the airfoil are sinusoidal and spherical. A parametric study is also carried out considering three amplitudes (0.025c, 0.05c and 0.075c), the wavelength (0.25c) is fixed. Structured mesh is utilized to generate grid and Transition SST turbulence model is used to capture the flow physics. Results clearly show spherical tubercles outperform sinusoidal tubercles. Furthermore experimental study considering spherical TLE is carried out at Reynolds number 200,000. The experimental results show that spherical TLE improve performance compared to clean airfoil.

  5. Interaction between Na+/K+-pump and Na+/Ca2+-exchanger modulates intercellular communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchkov, Vladimir V; Gustafsson, Helena; Rahman, Awahan; Briggs Boedtkjer, Donna M; Gorintin, Sarah; Hansen, Anne Kirstine; Bouzinova, Elena V; Praetorius, Helle A; Aalkjaer, Christian; Nilsson, Holger

    2007-04-13

    Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of the Na(+)/K(+)-pump, has previously been shown to interfere with intercellular communication. Here we test the hypothesis that the communication between vascular smooth muscle cells is regulated through an interaction between the Na(+)/K(+)-pump and the Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger leading to an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in discrete areas near the plasma membrane. [Ca(2+)](i) in smooth muscle cells was imaged in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cell pairs (A7r5) and in rat mesenteric small artery segments simultaneously with force. In A7r5 coupling between cells was estimated by measuring membrane capacitance. Smooth muscle cells were uncoupled when the Na(+)/K(+)-pump was inhibited either by a low concentration of ouabain, which also caused a localized increase of [Ca(2+)](i) near the membrane, or by ATP depletion. Reduction of Na(+)/K(+)-pump activity by removal of extracellular potassium ([K(+)](o)) also uncoupled cells, but only after inhibition of K(ATP) channels. Inhibition of the Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchange activity by SEA0400 or by a reduction of the equilibrium potential (making it more negative) also uncoupled the cells. Depletion of intracellular Na(+) and clamping of [Ca(2+)](i) at low concentrations prevented the uncoupling. The experiments suggest that the Na(+)/K(+)-pump may affect gap junction conductivity via localized changes in [Ca(2+)](i) through modulation of Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger activity.

  6. Design of Helical Self-Piercing Rivet for Joining Aluminum Alloy and High-Strength Steel Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, W. Y.; Kim, D. B.; Park, J. G; Kim, D. H.; Kim, K. H.; Lee, I. H.; Cho, H. Y. [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    A self-piercing rivet (SPR) is a mechanical component for joining dissimilar material sheets such as those of aluminum alloy and steel. Unlike conventional rivets, the SPR directly pierces sheets without the need for drilling them beforehand. However, the regular SPR can undergo buckling when it pierces a high-strength steel sheet, warranting the design of a helical SPR. In this study, the joining and forging processes using the helical SPR were simulated using the commercial FEM code, DEFORM-3D. High-tensile-strength steel sheets of different strengths were joined with aluminum alloy sheets using the designed helical SPR. The simulation results were found to agree with the experimental results, validating the optimal design of a helical SPR that can pierce high-strength steel sheets.

  7. Aerial Survey of Vessel Usage and Marine Animal Occurrence between Ft. Pierce and Key West Florida, 1992-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An aerial survey between Ft Pierce and Key West Florida was performed aboard US Coast Guard helicopters and fixed wing aircraft from September 1992 through March...

  8. Design of Helical Self-Piercing Rivet for Joining Aluminum Alloy and High-Strength Steel Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. Y.; Kim, D. B.; Park, J. G; Kim, D. H.; Kim, K. H.; Lee, I. H.; Cho, H. Y.

    2014-01-01

    A self-piercing rivet (SPR) is a mechanical component for joining dissimilar material sheets such as those of aluminum alloy and steel. Unlike conventional rivets, the SPR directly pierces sheets without the need for drilling them beforehand. However, the regular SPR can undergo buckling when it pierces a high-strength steel sheet, warranting the design of a helical SPR. In this study, the joining and forging processes using the helical SPR were simulated using the commercial FEM code, DEFORM-3D. High-tensile-strength steel sheets of different strengths were joined with aluminum alloy sheets using the designed helical SPR. The simulation results were found to agree with the experimental results, validating the optimal design of a helical SPR that can pierce high-strength steel sheets

  9. Influence of rivet to sheet edge distance on fatigue strength of self-piercing riveted aluminium joints

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dezhi; Han, Li; Thornton, Martin; Shergold, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Self-piercing riveting (SPR) is one of the main joining methods for lightweight aluminium automotive body structures due to its advantages. In order to further optimise the structure design and reduce the weight but without compromising strength, reduction of redundant materials in the joint flange area can be considered. For this reason, the influence of rivet to sheet edge distance on the fatigue strengths of self-piercing riveted joints was studied. Five edge distances, 5 mm, 6 mm, 8 mm, 1...

  10. Characterization of Coatings on Steel Self-Piercing Rivets for Use with Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Robert C.; Forsmark, Joy H.; Upadhyay, Vinod; Battocchi, Dante

    Incorporation of magnesium alloys in self-pierce rivet (SPR) joints poses several unique challenges among which are the creation of spurious galvanic cells and aggravated corrosion of adjacent magnesium when coated steel rivets are employed. This work firstly reviews efforts on development of coatings to steel fasteners for the diminution of galvanic corrosion when used with magnesium alloys. Secondly, approaches, based on several electrochemical methods, for the measurement of the galvanic-limiting effect of a number of commercially-available coatings to hardened 10B37 steel self-piercing rivets inserted into alloy couples incorporating several grades of magnesium are reported. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), zero-resistance ammeter (ZRA), corrosion potential and potential-mapping visualization methods (e.g. scanning vibrating electrode technique — SVET) are illustrated for the several rivet coatings considered.

  11. Theory and Examples of Mathematical Modeling for Fine Weave Pierced Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Yu-bo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical abstraction and three-dimensional modeling method of three-dimensional woven fabric structure was developed for the fine weave pierced fabric, taking parametric continuity splines as the track function of tow. Based on the significant parameters of fine weave pierced fabric measured by MicroCT, eight kinds of the three-dimensional digital models of the fabric structure were established with two kinds of tow sections and four kinds of tow trajectory characteristic functions. There is a good agreement between the three-dimensional digital models and real fabric by comparing their structures and porosities. This mathematical abstraction and three-dimensional modeling method can be applied in micro models for sub unit cell and macro models for macroscopic scale fabrics, with high adaptability.

  12. MANAGING NEWLY ESTABLISHED PESTS: Cooperative efforts contained spread of Pierce's disease and found genetic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Bruening

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of Pierce's disease of grapevine in the Temecula Valley in the late 1990s was one in a decades-long series of sporadic appearances of this infection in California. However, the new outbreak was qualitatively different because of the rapidity with which it spread in the vineyard and its appearance almost simultaneously at distant locations. The causative agent of Pierce's disease is the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, and the distinct characteristics of the Temecula Valley outbreak were traced to the establishment of a new insect vector in California, the glassy-winged sharpshooter. Intensive and collaborative efforts among government agencies, industry and research institutions over 15 years have successfully contained the disease, and given scientists time to discover promising long-term potential solutions through genetic resistance.

  13. Pierce gain analysis for a sheet beam in a rippled waveguide traveling-wave tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, Bruce E.

    2001-01-01

    A Pierce-type mode analysis is presented for a planar electron beam in a rippled planar waveguide. This analysis describes the gain of a traveling-wave tube consisting of that geometry. The dispersion relation is given by the determinant of a matrix based on the coupling of different free-space modes through the boundary conditions. For the case of high-frequency, low-power amplifiers, the dispersion relation reduces to a simple cubic expression for the Compton regime, leading to three roots analogous to the Pierce solution of a standard traveling-wave tube. The analysis shows that this type of traveling-wave tube is capable of very high gain at extremely high frequencies

  14. ["My body belongs to me"--cultural history and psychology of piercings and tattoos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirn, A

    2007-02-01

    At present tattoos and piercings can no longer be regarded as destructive acts of self mutilation practized by fringe groups. Body modifications (BMs) are found in virtually all preindustrial cultures and have their roots in ancient myths and magical rituals. The prevalence of tattoos and piercings in the German population is 8.5% and 6.8%, respectively. Unemployed young men and young women who do not live in a firm partnership show particularly high prevalences. The incidence of BMs correlates positively with the personality trait "sensation seeking", particularly in young women. BMs often serve to express individuality and identity, and they also reflect changed attitude towards the human body and body art as well as following fashion trends. However, BMs can also provide valuable diagnostic indications for identity search and risk taking behaviour.

  15. Piercing and Tattoos in Adolescents: Legal and Medico-legal Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Adelaide; Bin, Paola; Casella, Claudia; Capasso, Emanuele; Fedeli, Piergiorgio; Salzano, Francesco Antonio; Terracciano, Lucia; Piras, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    Non-therapeutic body modification interventions are permitted within the limits of the use of one's own body that can be specified in the legal system. The authors take into consideration Italian regulation on tattooing and piercing, in particular in relation to adolescents. In Italy, several regions have therefore issued acts aimed at regulating the activities of tattoo and piercing also in reference to minors. Discussion. With regard to minors, the rules taken into account set precise limits in relation to the age criterion and subordinate the implementation of such practices to the provision of consent by legal representatives. If such practices are of an aesthetic nature, we cannot avoid considering the implications they have on health protection, and then adopt appropriate measures to protect the person who intends to undergo them, particularly in the case of minors.

  16. [Development of public health regulations for tattooing and piercing and their realization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolondek, U; Stelling, R; Hohmann, H

    1998-03-01

    In the course of prevention of infectious diseases the Public Health office of the city of Bremen has made increase efforts to improve hygienic conditions in tattoo and piercing studios. Defined and practicable hygienic standards have been developed and formulated for and in cooperation with the studios. Supported by intense personal counselling of the studios the hygienic standards are now--after 6-9 months--widely accepted and increasingly observed in practice. This programme has been--as a crucial point--supplemented by intense information for the general public and the customers of the studios in order to support (and control) the practice of hygienic standards in tattooing and piercing also from this point of view.

  17. Piercing and Tattoos in Adolescents: Legal and Medico-legal Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Adelaide; Bin, Paola; Casella, Claudia; Capasso, Emanuele; Fedeli, Piergiorgio; Salzano, Francesco Antonio; Terracciano, Lucia; Piras, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Non-therapeutic body modification interventions are permitted within the limits of the use of one’s own body that can be specified in the legal system. The authors take into consideration Italian regulation on tattooing and piercing, in particular in relation to adolescents. Results In Italy, several regions have therefore issued acts aimed at regulating the activities of tattoo and piercing also in reference to minors. Discussion. With regard to minors, the rules taken into account set precise limits in relation to the age criterion and subordinate the implementation of such practices to the provision of consent by legal representatives. Conclusion If such practices are of an aesthetic nature, we cannot avoid considering the implications they have on health protection, and then adopt appropriate measures to protect the person who intends to undergo them, particularly in the case of minors. PMID:29675481

  18. The Influence of Sweep on the Aerodynamic Loading of an Oscillating NACA0012 Airfoil. Volume 2: Data Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.hilaire, A. O.; Carta, F. O.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of sweep on the dynamic response of the NACA 0012 airfoil was investigated. Unsteady chordwise distributed pressure data were obtained from a tunnel spanning wing equipped with 21 single surface transducers (13 on the suction side and 8 on the pressure side of the airfoil). The pressure data were obtained at pitching amplitudes of 8 and 10 degrees over a tunnel Mach number range of 0.10 to 0.46 and a pitching frequency range of 2.5 to 10.6 cycles per second. The wing was oscillated in the unswept and swept positions about the quarter-chord pivot axis relative to mean incidence angle settings of 0, 9, 12, and 15 degrees. A compilation of all the response data obtained during the test program is presented. These data are in the form of normal force, chord force, lift force, pressure drag, and moment hysteresis loops derived from chordwise integrations of the unsteady pressure distributions. The hysteresis loops are organized in two main sections. In the first section, the loop data are arranged to show the effect of sweep (lambda = 0 and 30 deg) for all available combinations of mean incidence angle, pitching amplitude, reduced frequency, and chordwise Mach number. The second section shows the effect of chordwise Mach number (MC = 0.30 and MC = 0.40) on the swept wing response for all available combinations of mean incidence angle, pitching amplitude, and reduced frequency.

  19. Is piercing the veil contrary to high authority? A footnote to the "never-ending story"

    OpenAIRE

    Breakey, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Reviews the Supreme Court ruling in VTB Capital Plc v Nutritek International Corp, and reflects on Lord Neuberger's argument that piercing the corporate veil is "contrary to high authority". Examines the background to the decision, details the court's treatment of the earlier House of Lords ruling in Woolfson v Strathclyde RC, and analyses the ratio of Woolfson and that of the House of Lords judgment in Salomon v Salomon. Considers the opportunity for the Supreme Court to provide further clar...

  20. Potential of the McMath-Pierce 1.6-Meter Solar Telescope for Speckle Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard; Jones, Gregory; Wiley, Edward; Boyce, Patrick; Branston, Detrick; Rowe, David; Genet, Russell

    2015-09-01

    We explored the aiming and tracking accuracy of the McMath-Pierce 1.6 m solar telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory as part of an investigation of using this telescope for speckle interferometry of close visual double stars. Several slews of various lengths looked for hysteresis in the positioning system (we found none of significance) and concluded that the 1.6 m telescope would make a useful telescope for speckle interferometry.

  1. The influence of beam boundaries and velocity reduction on Pierce instability in laboratory plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, D.

    1982-01-01

    The influences of the beam-plasma boundary and of weak nonlinearities on the Pierce instability are investigated. It is shown that the finite width of the beam has negligible influence on both the stability of the system and growth rate. In the nonlinear regime the wavelength decreases and enhancement of the wave potential close to the beam inlet boundary is observed. The relationship between this effect and the formation of double layers is discussed. (Auth.)

  2. Measurements of wall-shear-stress distribution on an NACA0018 airfoil by liquid-crystal coating and near-wall particle image velocimetry (PIV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, N; Oguma, Y; Nakano, T

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of wall-shear-stress distributions along curved surfaces are carried out using non-intrusive experimental methods, such as liquid-crystal coating and near-wall particle image velocimetry (PIV). The former method relies on the color change of the liquid-crystal coating sensitive to the wall shear stress, while the latter is based on the direct evaluation of shear stresses through the near-wall PIV measurement in combination with the image deformation technique. These experimental methods are applied to the measurement of wall-shear-stress distributions of air flow at a free-stream velocity of 15 m s −1 on a flat plate and an NACA0018 airfoil. The experiments are carried out at zero angle of attack for the flat plate and at 0° and ±6° angles of attack for the airfoil, and then the variations of shear-stress distribution along these surfaces are studied. These measurements in wall shear stresses agree with each other within their experimental uncertainties, suggesting the validity of experimental methods for non-intrusive shear-stress measurements. It is found that the wall-shear-stress distribution shows a small negative value upstream of the reattachment point on the NACA0018 airfoil, which is followed by an increase in shear stresses downstream due to laminar–turbulent transition of boundary layers. Such behavior of wall-shear-stress distribution is well correlated with the mean flow and turbulence characteristics along the airfoil surfaces, which are measured by PIV

  3. The classical Pierce diode: Using particle simulations on linear and nonlinear behavior and final states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal, T.L.; Kuhn, S.; Birdsall, C.K.

    1984-01-01

    The classical Pierce diode is a simple 1-d system of two shorted metal plates, a cold beam of electrons injected from one side and a neutralizing background of rigid ions. While the plasma medium is technically stable, the finiteness of the Pierce system allows stable and unstable operation. It is usefully studied as an archetypical bounded plasma system, related e.g., to Q-machines, particle accelerators, thermionic converters. New particle simulations of the Pierce diode have successfully recovered many novel linear phenomena including the dominant linear eigenmodes (seen in the internal electrostatic fields), and the dominant and subdominant eigenfrequencies, (seen both in the internal electrostatics and in the external circuit current, J/sub ext/(t)). These simulation results conform very well to detailed predictions of a new linear analysis. The final (nonlinear) state recovered can show critical dependence on initial (linear perturbation) conditions, and can be made steady-state (d.c.) or periodic-oscillatory by simply changing the initial conditions by a factor of 10/sup -4/ or less. A third class of final state is also possible which has oscillations which seem to be nonperiodic

  4. The NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP) at Pierce College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Carolyn R.; Feig, M.; Mahmud, N.; Silic, T.; Rebull, L.; Hoette, V.; Johnson, C.; McCarron, K.

    2011-01-01

    Our team from Pierce Community College, Woodland Hills, CA, participated in the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP) this past year (2010). (NITARP is described in another poster, Rebull et al.) Our team worked with archival Spitzer, 2MASS, and optical data to look for young stars in CG4, part of the Gum Nebula; our scientific results are described in a companion poster, Johnson et al. In this poster, we describe more about what we learned and how we incorporated our NITARP experiences into the Pierce College environment. Students developed critical thinking skills and an ability to organize their data analysis and develop a mental "big picture" of what is going on in the CG4 region. The NITARP program is one of several "Active Learning" programs going on at Pierce, and the other programs are briefly summarized in this poster as well. This program was made possible through the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Project (NITARP) and was funded by NASA Astrophysics Data Program and Archive Outreach funds.

  5. Radicinin from Cochliobolus sp. inhibits Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's Disease of grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Thomas J; Rolshausen, Philippe E; Roper, M Caroline; Reader, Jordan M; Steinhaus, Matthew J; Rapicavoli, Jeannette; Vosburg, David A; Maloney, Katherine N

    2015-08-01

    The fastidious phytopathogenic bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa, poses a substantial threat to many economically important crops, causing devastating diseases including Pierce's Disease of grapevine. Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) planted in an area under Pierce's Disease pressure often display differences in disease severity and symptom expression, with apparently healthy vines growing alongside the dying ones, despite the fact that all the vines are genetic clones of one another. Under the hypothesis that endophytic microbes might be responsible for this non-genetic resistance to X. fastidiosa, endophytic fungi were isolated from vineyard cvs. 'Chardonnay' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grown under high Pierce's Disease pressure. A Cochliobolus sp. isolated from a Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine inhibited the growth of X. fastidiosa in vitro. Bioassay-guided isolation of an organic extract of Cochliobolus sp. yielded the natural product radicinin as the major active compound. Radicinin also inhibited proteases isolated from the culture supernatant of X. fastidiosa. In order to assess structure-activity relationships, three semi-synthetic derivatives of radicinin were prepared and tested for activity against X. fastidiosa in vitro. Assay results of these derivatives are consistent with enzyme inactivation by conjugate addition to carbon-10 of radicinin, as proposed previously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Failure of aluminium self-piercing rivets: An experimental and numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, N.-H.; Hopperstad, O.S.; Langseth, M.; Westermann, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated the fracture mechanism of AA7278-T6 aluminium self-piercing rivets. ► Fracture of AA 7278-T6 rivets during the riveting process is a complex phenomenon. ► Microstructure of AA7278-T6 has significant influence on the fracture mechanism. ► Increasing friction will change the deformation mode of the rivet. - Abstract: The present paper investigates the fracture mechanisms of AA7278-T6 aluminium self-piercing rivets under compression during the riveting process. First, a microstructure investigation was conducted to disclose the grain structure and the particle distribution of the extruded aluminium alloy. Transmission electron micrographs revealed precipitate free zones along grain boundaries. Uniaxial tensile tests in three different directions with respect to the extrusion direction revealed anisotropy of the alloy in strength and ductility and a change in fracture mode with tensile direction. The behaviour of the alloy under compression was studied experimentally using upsetting tests and self-piercing riveting tests. Micrographs of the deformed specimens provided insight into the influence of the microstructure on the deformation and fracture of the alloy under compression. Second, numerical analyses were carried out using a 2-D axisymmetric model in LS–DYNA in an attempt to investigate the role of different physical variables on the final failure of the rivet. The numerical results revealed that constituent particles, precipitate free zones, and friction between the rivet and plates are important for strain localisation and fracture in the rivet

  7. College students with tattoos and piercings: motives, family experiences, personality factors, and perception by others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, G B

    2001-12-01

    The motives, family experiences, and personality characteristics of 341 college students with and without tattoos or piercings were studied. Participants completed Lippa's 1991 measures of the Big Five personality factors, a shortened version of the Body Cathexis Scale, a series of questions about their childhood experiences, and questions about risk-taking behaviors. In addition, reasons to have or not have body modifications and the perceptions of people with body modifications were investigated. Of the 116 men and 186 women, 25% and 33%, respectively, had at least one tattoo or body piercing. There were very few differences in the childhood experiences or personality characteristics of people with or without body modifications. Although people with body modifications did not differ from people without modifications on the Big Five personality measures, people without modifications perceived people with modifications as much different from themselves on these measures. These results indicate that tattoos and piercings in college students are associated with significantly more risk-taking behavior, greater use of alcohol and marijuana, and less social conformity. However, the traditional stereotype that body modifications are indicators of social or personal pathology does not describe contemporary college students.

  8. Prevalence and acceptance of tattoos and piercings: a survey of young adults from the southern German-speaking area of Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan; Pietschnig, Jakob; Kastner, Cornelia K; Voracek, Martin; Swami, Viren

    2010-06-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and acceptance of body piercings and tattoos among a community sample from the southern German-speaking area of Central Europe. A total of 440 respondents completed information about their own body piercings and tattoos and reported whether they would be likely never to have piercings and tattoos in the future. Analyses indicated that 19.8 and 15.2% of respondents had piercings (excluding the earlobe) and tattoos, respectively. Women were more likely to have body piercings than men, but there were no sex differences in tattooing. There were also few sociodemographic differences in piercings and tattoos, and most participants reported being likely to consider body art in the future. These results are considered in relation to prevalence estimates of body art in other Western countries and the associated health risks.

  9. Active Flow Control and Global Stability Analysis of Separated Flow Over a NACA 0012 Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Phillip M.

    The objective of this computational study is to examine and quantify the influence of fundamental flow control inputs in suppressing flow separation over a canonical airfoil. Most flow control studies to this date have relied on the development of actuator technology, and described the control input based on specific actuators. Taking advantage of a computational framework, we generalize the inputs to fundamental perturbations without restricting inputs to a particular actuator. Utilizing this viewpoint, generalized control inputs aim to aid in the quantification and support the design of separation control techniques. This study in particular independently introduces wall-normal momentum and angular momentum to the separated flow using swirling jets through model boundary conditions. The response of the flow field and the surface vorticity fluxes to various combinations of actuation inputs are examined in detail. By closely studying different variables, the influence of the wall-normal and angular momentum injections on separated flow is identified. As an example, open-loop control of fully separated, incompressible flow over a NACA 0012 airfoil at alpha = 6° and 9° with Re = 23,000 is examined with large-eddy simulations. For the shallow angle of attack alpha = 6°, the small recirculation region is primarily affected by wall-normal momentum injection. For a larger separation region at alpha = 9°, it is observed that the addition of angular momentum input to wall-normal momentum injection enhances the suppression of flow separation. Reducing the size of the separated flow region significantly impacts the forces, and in particular reduces drag and increases lift on the airfoil. It was found that the influence of flow control on the small recirculation region (alpha = 6°) can be sufficiently quantified with the traditional coefficient of momentum. At alpha = 9°, the effects of wall-normal and angular momentum inputs are captured by modifying the standard

  10. Multilocus sequence typing of Xylella fastidiosa causing Pierce's disease and oleander leaf scorch in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoli; Morano, Lisa; Bromley, Robin; Spring-Pearson, Senanu; Stouthamer, Richard; Nunney, Leonard

    2010-06-01

    Using a modified multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for the bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa based on the same seven housekeeping genes employed in a previously published MLST, we studied the genetic diversity of two subspecies, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa and X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi, which cause Pierce's disease and oleander leaf scorch, respectively. Typing of 85 U.S. isolates (plus one from northern Mexico) of X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa from 15 different plant hosts and 21 isolates of X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi from 4 different hosts in California and Texas supported their subspecific status. Analysis using the MLST genes plus one cell-surface gene showed no significant genetic differentiation based on geography or host plant within either subspecies. Two cases of homologous recombination (with X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex, the third U.S. subspecies) were detected in X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa. Excluding recombination, MLST site polymorphism in X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (0.048%) and X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi (0.000%) was substantially lower than in X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (0.240%), consistent with the hypothesis that X. fastidiosa subspp. fastidiosa and sandyi were introduced into the United States (probably just prior to 1880 and 1980, respectively). Using whole-genome analysis, we showed that MLST is more effective at genetic discrimination at the specific and subspecific level than other typing methods applied to X. fastidiosa. Moreover, MLST is the only technique effective in detecting recombination.

  11. Na+/Ca2+ exchange and Na+/K+-ATPase in the heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattock, Michael J; Ottolia, Michela; Bers, Donald M; Blaustein, Mordecai P; Boguslavskyi, Andrii; Bossuyt, Julie; Bridge, John H B; Chen-Izu, Ye; Clancy, Colleen E; Edwards, Andrew; Goldhaber, Joshua; Kaplan, Jack; Lingrel, Jerry B; Pavlovic, Davor; Philipson, Kenneth; Sipido, Karin R; Xie, Zi-Jian

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the third in a series of reviews published in this issue resulting from the University of California Davis Cardiovascular Symposium 2014: Systems approach to understanding cardiac excitation–contraction coupling and arrhythmias: Na+ channel and Na+ transport. The goal of the symposium was to bring together experts in the field to discuss points of consensus and controversy on the topic of sodium in the heart. The present review focuses on cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchange (NCX) and Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA). While the relevance of Ca2+ homeostasis in cardiac function has been extensively investigated, the role of Na+ regulation in shaping heart function is often overlooked. Small changes in the cytoplasmic Na+ content have multiple effects on the heart by influencing intracellular Ca2+ and pH levels thereby modulating heart contractility. Therefore it is essential for heart cells to maintain Na+ homeostasis. Among the proteins that accomplish this task are the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) and the Na+/K+ pump (NKA). By transporting three Na+ ions into the cytoplasm in exchange for one Ca2+ moved out, NCX is one of the main Na+ influx mechanisms in cardiomyocytes. Acting in the opposite direction, NKA moves Na+ ions from the cytoplasm to the extracellular space against their gradient by utilizing the energy released from ATP hydrolysis. A fine balance between these two processes controls the net amount of intracellular Na+ and aberrations in either of these two systems can have a large impact on cardiac contractility. Due to the relevant role of these two proteins in Na+ homeostasis, the emphasis of this review is on recent developments regarding the cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) and Na+/K+ pump and the controversies that still persist in the field. PMID:25772291

  12. A fast Na+/Ca2+-based action potential in a marine diatom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison R Taylor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Electrical impulses in animals play essential roles in co-ordinating an array of physiological functions including movement, secretion, environmental sensing and development. Underpinning many of these electrical signals is a fast Na+-based action potential that has been fully characterised only in cells associated with the neuromuscular systems of multicellular animals. Such rapid action potentials are thought to have evolved with the first metazoans, with cnidarians being the earliest representatives. The present study demonstrates that a unicellular protist, the marine diatom Odontella sinensis, can also generate a fast Na+/Ca2+ based action potential that has remarkably similar biophysical and pharmacological properties to invertebrates and vertebrate cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The kinetic, ionic and pharmacological properties of the rapid diatom action potential were examined using single electrode current and voltage clamp techniques. Overall, the characteristics of the fast diatom currents most closely resemble those of vertebrate and invertebrate muscle Na+/Ca2+ currents. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first demonstration of voltage-activated Na+ channels and the capacity to generate fast Na+-based action potentials in a unicellular photosynthetic organism. The biophysical and pharmacological characteristics together with the presence of a voltage activated Na+/Ca2+ channel homologue in the recently sequenced genome of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, provides direct evidence supporting the hypothesis that this rapid signalling mechanism arose in ancestral unicellular eukaryotes and has been retained in at least two phylogenetically distant lineages of eukaryotes; opisthokonts and the stramenopiles. The functional role of the fast animal-like action potential in diatoms remains to be elucidated but is likely involved in rapid environmental sensing of these widespread and

  13. From Engineering Science to Big Science: The NACA and NASA Collier Trophy Research Project Winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Pamela E. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The chapters of this book discuss a series of case studies of notable technological projects carried out at least in part by the NACA and NASA. The case studies chosen are those projects that won the National Aeronautic Association's (NAA) Collier Trophy for "the greatest achievement in aviation in America, the value of which has been thoroughly demonstrated by use during the preceding year." Looking back on the whole series of projects we can examine both what successes were seen as important at various times, and how the goals and organization of these notable projects changed over time.

  14. Design of a High Speed Planing Hull with a Cambered Step and Surface Piercing Hydrofoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Impact Acceleration (Hoggard and Jones) - 1/10 highest eta_110_CG = 7.0*( H13 /Bpx)*(1+Tau/2...hulls with a higher deadrise angle perform better, with improved ride quality as the impact of wave is reduced. However, there is a disadvantage...the previous studies of Blount, Codega and Savitsky, a planing hull’s running trim angle and associated lift coefficient has a large impact on dynamic

  15. Satisfaction with life, self-esteem and evaluation of mental health in people with tattoos or piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajor, Anna J; Broniarczyk-Dyła, Grażyna; Świtalska, Julita

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the level of life satisfaction and the various dimensions of self-esteem of pierced or tattooed people, and evaluate their mental health, compared to those without similar body modifications. The study was conducted on a sample of 449 people aged 16-58 years (mean age 26.7 ± 6.35), of whom 308 had body modifications: tattoo (n = 90), body piercings in places other than the ear lobe (n = 53), or both tattoos and piercings (n = 165). The control group consisted of 141 people without such modifications. The participants completed a questionnaire concerning their socio-demographic status, as well as the following psychological tests: The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory (MSEI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Our findings show no significant differences in terms of life satisfaction between the group with tattoos or piercings and the control group. People with body modifications were characterized by higher self-esteem, with regard to their competence and leadership abilities. They also display fewer symptoms of social impairment and sleep disorders than the control group. Tattoos and piercings should not be considered as indicators of psychopathology.

  16. Pierced Lasso Bundles are a new class of knot-like motifs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellinor Haglund

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A four-helix bundle is a well-characterized motif often used as a target for designed pharmaceutical therapeutics and nutritional supplements. Recently, we discovered a new structural complexity within this motif created by a disulphide bridge in the long-chain helical bundle cytokine leptin. When oxidized, leptin contains a disulphide bridge creating a covalent-loop through which part of the polypeptide chain is threaded (as seen in knotted proteins. We explored whether other proteins contain a similar intriguing knot-like structure as in leptin and discovered 11 structurally homologous proteins in the PDB. We call this new helical family class the Pierced Lasso Bundle (PLB and the knot-like threaded structural motif a Pierced Lasso (PL. In the current study, we use structure-based simulation to investigate the threading/folding mechanisms for all the PLBs along with three unthreaded homologs as the covalent loop (or lasso in leptin is important in folding dynamics and activity. We find that the presence of a small covalent loop leads to a mechanism where structural elements slipknot to thread through the covalent loop. Larger loops use a piercing mechanism where the free terminal plugs through the covalent loop. Remarkably, the position of the loop as well as its size influences the native state dynamics, which can impact receptor binding and biological activity. This previously unrecognized complexity of knot-like proteins within the helical bundle family comprises a completely new class within the knot family, and the hidden complexity we unraveled in the PLBs is expected to be found in other protein structures outside the four-helix bundles. The insights gained here provide critical new elements for future investigation of this emerging class of proteins, where function and the energetic landscape can be controlled by hidden topology, and should be take into account in ab initio predictions of newly identified protein targets.

  17. Can superconducting cosmic strings piercing seed black holes generate supermassive black holes in the early universe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, Matthew J. [The Institute for Fundamental Study, ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Naresuan University, Phitsanulok (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand); Harko, Tiberiu [Department of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Department of Mathematics, University College London (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-15

    The discovery of a large number of supermassive black holes (SMBH) at redshifts z > 6, when the Universe was only 900 million years old, raises the question of how such massive compact objects could form in a cosmologically short time interval. Each of the standard scenarios proposed, involving rapid accretion of seed black holes or black hole mergers, faces severe theoretical difficulties in explaining the short-time formation of supermassive objects. In this work we propose an alternative scenario for the formation of SMBH in the early Universe, in which energy transfer from superconducting cosmic strings piercing small seed black holes is the main physical process leading to rapid mass increase. As a toy model, the accretion rate of a seed black hole pierced by two antipodal strings carrying constant current is considered. Using an effective action approach, which phenomenologically incorporates a large class of superconducting string models, we estimate the minimum current required to form SMBH with masses of order M = 2 x 10{sup 9} M {sub CircleDot} by z = 7.085. This corresponds to the mass of the central black hole powering the quasar ULAS J112001.48+064124.3 and is taken as a test case scenario for early-epoch SMBH formation. For GUT scale strings, the required fractional increase in the string energy density, due to the presence of the current, is of order 10{sup -7}, so that their existence remains consistent with current observational bounds on the string tension. In addition, we consider an ''exotic'' scenario, in which an SMBH is generated when a small seed black hole is pierced by a higher-dimensional F-string, predicted by string theory. We find that both topological defect strings and fundamental strings are able to carry currents large enough to generate early-epoch SMBH via our proposed mechanism. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Design of convergent pierce electron gun of accelerator for radiation sterilization by the method of synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Xiaoxiao; Li Quanfeng

    2003-01-01

    A synthesis technique for the preliminary design of convergent Pierce electron guns is introduced briefly which has a series of advantages over the traditional methods. A thermal cathode electron gun used in the accelerator for radiation sterilization with the synthesis method is redesigned, and the validity of this method is proved. Based on the preliminary design parameters given by the synthesis method, a simulating calculation program, EGUN, was used in the numerical figure design of the focusing electrode and the anode. The final results can meet the engineering requirement as the current being 1A, the normalized emittance being less than 4 mm·mrad, and the final current density showing uniformity

  19. CFD study on NACA 4415 airfoil implementing spherical and sinusoidal Tubercle Leading Edge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M A Aftab

    Full Text Available The Humpback whale tubercles have been studied for more than a decade. Tubercle Leading Edge (TLE effectively reduces the separation bubble size and helps in delaying stall. They are very effective in case of low Reynolds number flows. The current Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD study is on NACA 4415 airfoil, at a Reynolds number 120,000. Two TLE shapes are tested on NACA 4415 airfoil. The tubercle designs implemented on the airfoil are sinusoidal and spherical. A parametric study is also carried out considering three amplitudes (0.025c, 0.05c and 0.075c, the wavelength (0.25c is fixed. Structured mesh is utilized to generate grid and Transition SST turbulence model is used to capture the flow physics. Results clearly show spherical tubercles outperform sinusoidal tubercles. Furthermore experimental study considering spherical TLE is carried out at Reynolds number 200,000. The experimental results show that spherical TLE improve performance compared to clean airfoil.

  20. Tatuagem, body piercing e a experiência da dor: emoção, ritualização e medicalização Tattoo, body piercing and the experience of pain: emotion, ritualization and medicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Sérgio Ferreira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Configurando uma experiência física que desafia tabus físicos e sociais, a marcação do corpo através da tatuagem e body piercing tem sido bastante explorada no espaço público mediatizado em função das questões da dor voluntária e dos riscos de saúde individual e pública implicados. Ao pânico moral que já envolvia estas práticas, associadas a comportamentos tidos como socialmente desviantes, psico-patológicos ou criminosos, junta-se-lhes outra espécie de pânico social, o «pânico higienista», associado ao receio de contrair doenças infecto-contagiosas, ou de reagir aos materiais ou tintas encarnados. No sentido de ir além destes discursos, este artigo pretende analisar: por um lado, como os consumidores actuais de tatuagem e body piercing lidam com a dor que lhe está associada, que emoções enquadram essa sensação e que estratégias convocam no seu controlo; por outro lado, como é que os produtores de tatuagem e body piercing, perante novas e mais alargadas clientelas, lidam com exigência de disciplinas sanitárias na sua prática profissional. Em termos metodológicos, a informação empírica apresentada no artigo foi obtida em situação de entrevista em profundidade, de natureza biográfica, semi-estruturada na sua preparação e semi-diretiva na sua aplicação, a portadores de corpos multitatuados e multiperfurados, profissionais ou apenas consumidores de tatuagem e body piercing. Quinze entrevistados com diferentes perfis sociais foram recrutados em estúdios de tatuagem e body piercing de Lisboa e arredores, depois de intenso trabalho etnográfico nesses mesmos espaços.Being a physical experience that challenges sensitive and social taboos, body marking with tattoos and body piercing has been fairly explored in the public sphere regarding the issues of voluntary pain and the risks of individual and public health that are involved. Associated with the moral panic that is already linked to these practices

  1. Pierce-type dispersion relation for an intense relativistic electron beam interacting with a slow-wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.

    1994-01-01

    A Pierce-type dispersion relation is derived for the interaction of an intense relativistic electron beam with a cylindrical slow-wave structure of arbitrary corrugation depth. It is shown that near a resonance, the Pierce parameter can be expressed in terms of the vacuum dispersion function and the beam current. The dispersion relation is valid in both the low-current (Compton) regime and the high-current (Raman) regime. The dispersion characteristics of the interaction, such as the linear instability growth rate and bandwidth, are analyzed for both regimes

  2. Piercing the corporate veil in swedish law : points of view de lege lata and de lege ferenda

    OpenAIRE

    Sundby, Anna

    2000-01-01

    The basic principle for limited companies is that the owners are not liable for the debts of the company. To protect the creditors of the company, however, a theory of personal liability for the owners has evolved, the so called piercing the corporate veil theory. For decades there have been disagreements wether or not it would be motivated to legislate the theory of piercing the corporate veil, and what this legislation might look like. The basic problems in my essay are: Is there a need to ...

  3. A 120kV IGBT modulator for driving a Pierce electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earley, Lawrence M.; Brown, Richard W.; Carlson, Randolph L.; Ferguson, Patrick; Haynes, William B.; Kirbie, Hugh C.; Russell, Steven J.; Sigler, Floyd E.; Smirnova, Evgenya I.; Wheat, Robert M. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    An IGBT modulator has been developed to drive a 120 kV, 23 A Pierce electron gun. The modulator is capable of producing pulses up to 10 μs in width at repetition rates up to 10Hz with no active reset. The pulse rise time on the electron gun will be approximately 2 μs and the remaining 8 μs of flattop is tuned to have a ripple of less than 1 percent rms. The modulator technology was developed from a previous 50 kV prototype. The modulator consists of six boards, each with one EUPEC IGBT that drives a single common step-up transformer wound on METGLAS 2605SC cores. The six transformer cores share a common bi-filar output secondary winding. The modulator uses a fiber optic trigger system and has a high voltage cable output with an epoxy receptacle on the oil end and a ceramic receptacle on the vacuum end. The 120 kV electron gun was manufactured by MDS Co. and will be used to generate sheet electron beams from the standard pencil beam produced by the Pierce electron gun.

  4. Measurement of electron beams profile of pierce type electron source using sensor of used Tv tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darsono; Suhartono; Suprapto; Elin Nuraini

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of an electron beam profile has been performed using electron beam monitor based on method of phosphorescent materials. The main components of the electron beam monitor consists of a fluorescent sensor using a used Tv tube, CCTV camera to record images on a Tv screen, video adapter as interface between CCTV and laptop, and the laptop as a viewer and data processing. Two Pierce-type electron sources diode and triode was measured the shape of electron beam profile in real time. Results of the experiments showed that the triode electron source of Pierce type gave the shape of electron beam profiles better than that of the diode electron source .The anode voltage is not so influential on the beam profile shape. The focused voltage in the triode electron source is so influence to the shape of the electron beam profile, but above 5 kV no great effect. It can be concluded that the electron beam monitor can provide real time observations and drawings shape of the electron beam profile displayed on the used Tv tube glass screen which is the real picture of the shape of the electron beam profile. Triode electron source produces a better electron beam profile than that of the diode electron source. (author)

  5. A triad of evidence for care of women with genital piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Cathy; Armstrong, Myrna L; Roberts, Alden E; Mello, Inola; Angel, Elayne

    2010-02-01

    To add three further dimensions of evidence for the care of women with genital piercings (GPs). Following a literature review, a cross-sectional study replicated previous work, using a web-based survey. This triad of evidence provides (a) descriptive quantitative data (N = 240) about women with GPs, (b) qualitative data about women with GPs, as well as (c) clinical observations from 60 healthcare providers (HCPs) who have cared for women with GPs. Three important findings about women with GPs were validated: (a) GPs were deliberate actions, sought for personal and sexual expression; (b) women with GPs treat piercings as a normal, meaningful part of their lives which produce sexual enhancement and expression; and (c) they continue to seek information about GP care from nonhealth providers. New data indicate that they have experienced depression (47%), abuse (physical 18%; emotional, 27%; sexual, 14%), and forced sexual activity (35%) in their lives. Several unsubstantiated assumptions about women with GPs are challenged with these data. GPs should not delay important health care. Health-protective, as well as health promotion, behaviors are important to reduce risks. Nurse practitioners (NPs) can become effective and resourceful advocates in three specific areas of care: (a) responsiveness to women with GPs, (b) collaborative decision making for the removal of jewelry, and (c) promotion of applicable patient education.

  6. Appearance and culture: oral pathology associated with certain "fashions" (tattoos, piercings, etc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo; Batlle-Travé, Inés; Velásquez-Rengijo, Sandra; García-Carabaño, Tauca; Viñals-Iglesias, Helena; Roselló-Llabrés, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Humans are characterized by a compulsive tendency to distinguish themselves from the rest: differences in clothes, hairstyle or "decorative" details are used to this effect, based on highly diverse criteria. Such differentiating practices may be aimed at identification with a certain ideological group, for example, or with a concrete "fashion", and involve the use of jewelry, clothes, unusual attire, hairstyles, mutilations, etc. In this context, the present review addresses certain aspects of mutilation practices from both the general and specifically dental perspectives. Mutations imply permanent or lasting sectioning or lesions of a part of the body, and comprise skeletal deforming, dental mutilations, circumcision, ablation of the clitoris, scarification, tattoos, and perforations (particularly of the soft tissues). In this sense, tattoos and perforations or piercings are popular -- particularly among adolescents. This trend may be interpreted as a form of communication, identity expression, or as a type of body cult (i.e., so-called "body art"). Such mutilating practices reflect different motivations including fashion, rebelliousness, differentiation, sexual motives, the remembering of events, physical sensations, and ethnic or tribal influences. However, these practices can cause complications such as infections, laceration and soft and hard tissue damage, hypersensitivity reactions and other alterations of variable severity. Under these premises, questions are raised concerning the competence of those who perform these mutilations, the preventive measures adopted, and the legal conditions under which tattoos and piercings are made in our society.

  7. Piercing the sovereign ceiling: Issues in oil and gas project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    In the oil and gas sector, corporations and governments face huge capital spending requirements in order to transform large resource discoveries into producing, cash-generating assets. A significant portion of this funding is expected to be done on a project finance basis, where bank lenders or bond investors take a secured position in financing a discrete project, with the expectation of being paid back by the cash flows from that project after completion. This trend is increasing demand for crediting rating services to provide credit ratings for these project financings. A key challenge is to analyze and rate credit-worthy projects in countries that have relatively low foreign currency sovereign ceilings due to economic, political, and financial risks. In most cases, the credit ratings for projects financed in currencies outside the host country are capped at the country''s foreign currency ceiling. However, in a few instances, mainly in the oil and gas sector, Moody''s has pierced the foreign currency ceiling or rated certain projects above the sovereign ratings of the countries where they are domiciled. The purpose of this article is to briefly explain some of the qualitative factors and considerations that have allowed Moody''s to pierce the ceiling in the oil and gas sector, with a focus on two recent and noteworthy projects: Ras Laffan Liquefied Natural Gas in Qatar and Petrozuata in Venezuela

  8. Aeroacoustic analysis of a NACA 0015 airfoil with Gurney flap based on time-resolved PIV measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Xueqing; Sciacchitano, A.; Pröbsting, S.; von Estorff, O.; Kropp, W.; Schulte-Fortkamp, B.

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the feasibility of high-lift devices noise prediction based on measurements of time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV). The model under investigation is a NACA 0015 airfoil with Gurney flap with height of 6% chord length. The velocity fields around and

  9. Differential regulation of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger 3 (NCX3) by protein kinase PKC and PKA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, L.Y.M.; Verkaart, S.A.; Latta, F.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Isoform 3 of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (NCX3) participates in the Ca2+ fluxes across the plasma membrane. Among the NCX family, NCX3 carries out a peculiar role due to its specific functions in skeletal muscle and the immune system and to its neuroprotective effect under stress exposure. In this

  10. Desktop Access to Full-Text NACA and NASA Reports: Systems Developed by NASA Langley Technical Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambur, Manjula Y.; Adams, David L.; Trinidad, P. Paul

    1997-01-01

    NASA Langley Technical Library has been involved in developing systems for full-text information delivery of NACA/NASA technical reports since 1991. This paper will describe the two prototypes it has developed and the present production system configuration. The prototype systems are a NACA CD-ROM of thirty-three classic paper NACA reports and a network-based Full-text Electronic Reports Documents System (FEDS) constructed from both paper and electronic formats of NACA and NASA reports. The production system is the DigiDoc System (DIGItal Documents) presently being developed based on the experiences gained from the two prototypes. DigiDoc configuration integrates the on-line catalog database World Wide Web interface and PDF technology to provide a powerful and flexible search and retrieval system. It describes in detail significant achievements and lessons learned in terms of data conversion, storage technologies, full-text searching and retrieval, and image databases. The conclusions from the experiences of digitization and full- text access and future plans for DigiDoc system implementation are discussed.

  11. Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Contributes to Tone Generation in Porcine Lower Esophageal Sphincter Via Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Bai

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Endogenous H2S regulates the LES myogenic tone by maintaining the basal [Ca2+]i via Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. H2S-generating enzymes may be a potential therapeutic target for esophageal motility disorders, such as achalasia.

  12. Body Piercing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site and jewelry carefully. Avoid jewelry made of nickel or brass. These metals can cause allergic reactions. ... KnowRead Article >>Genetic Testing: What You Should KnowOccupational Exposure to LeadRead Article >>Occupational Exposure to Lead Visit ...

  13. Some lessons from NACA/NASA aerodynamic studies following World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    An historical account is presented of the new departures in aerodynamic research conducted by NACA, and subsequently NASA, as a result of novel aircraft technologies and operational regimes encountered in the course of the Second World War. The invention and initial development of the turbojet engine furnished the basis for a new speed/altitude regime in which numerous aerodynamic design problems arose. These included compressibility effects near the speed of sound, with attendant lift/drag efficiency reductions and longitudinal stability enhancements that were accompanied by a directional stability reduction. Major research initiatives were mounted in the investigation of swept, delta, trapezoidal and variable sweep wing configurations, sometimes conducted through flight testing of the 'X-series' aircraft. Attention is also given to the development of the first generation of supersonic fighter aircraft.

  14. Aspectos del control de flujo con un flap Gurney rotante sobre un perfil NACA 4412

    OpenAIRE

    García Sainz, Mariano O.; Muñoz, Federico; Colman Lerner, Jorge León; Marañón Di Leo, Julio; Delnero, Juan Sebastián; Camocardi, Mauricio E.

    2011-01-01

    En el Laboratorio de Capa Límite y Fluidodinámica Ambiental, Dto. de Aeronáutica, Facultad de Ingeniería (UNLP), se realizaron ensayos con un modelo de ala con perfil NACA 4412, provisto de un miniflap Gurney móvil en el intradós, ubicado al 8%c desde el borde de fuga (c: cuerda del perfil). El modelo de ala, sin torsión, tiene 50cm de cuerda y 80cm de envergadura. El miniflap, de longitud 79.5cm y altura 2%c, posee movimiento de rotación alrededor de su eje, a través de un sistema electromec...

  15. Numerical investigation of unsteady cavitation around a NACA 66 hydrofoil using OpenFOAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, V H; Luo, X W; Ji, J; Escaler, X; Aguinaga, A

    2014-01-01

    The prediction and control of cavitation damage in pumps, propellers, hydro turbines and fluid machinery in general is necessary during the design stage. The present paper deals with a numerical investigation of unsteady cloud cavitation around a NACA 66 hydrofoil. The current study is focused on understanding the dynamic pressures generated during the cavity collapses as a fundamental characteristic in cavitation erosion. A 2D and 3D unsteady flow simulation has been carried out using OpenFOAM. Then, Paraview and Python programming language have been used to characterize dynamic pressure field. Adapted Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Zwart cavitation model have been implemented to improve the analysis of cloud motion and to visualize the bubble expansions. Additional results also confirm the correlation between cavity formation and generated pressures

  16. Parallel numerical simulation of oscillating airfoil NACA0015 in the channel due to flutter instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Řidký Václav

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to 3D and 2D parallel numerical computation of pressure and velocity fields around an elastically supported airfoil self-oscillating due to interaction with the airflow. Numerical solution is computed in the OpenFOAM package, an open-source software package based on finite volume method. Movement of airfoil is described by translation and rotation, identified from experimental data. A new boundary condition for the 2DOF motion of the airfoil was implemented. The results of numerical simulations (velocity are compared with data measured in a wind tunnel, where a physical model of NACA0015 airfoil was mounted and tuned to exhibit the flutter instability. The experimental results were obtained previously in the Institute of Thermomechanics by interferographic measurements in a subsonic wind tunnel in Nový Knín.

  17. Computation of unsteady flow and aerodynamic noise of NACA0018 airfoil using large-eddy simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.-J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: sbaelee@inha.ac.kr; Fujisawa, N. [Department of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi-2, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2006-04-15

    The flow field around a symmetrical NACA airfoil in the uniform flow under generation of noise was numerically studied. The numerical simulation was carried out by a large-eddy simulation that employs a deductive dynamic model as the subgrid-scale model. The results at small angle of attack {alpha} = 3-6{sup o} indicate that the discrete frequency noise is generated when the separated laminar flow reattaches near the trailing edge of pressure side and the strong instability thereafter affects positive vortices shed near the trailing edge. The quasi-periodic behavior of negative vortex formation on the suction side is affected by the strength and the periodicity of positive vortices near the trailing edge. The computation using aero-acoustic analogy indicates the primary discrete peak at the Strouhal frequency (=2f . {delta}/U ) of 0.15 by the vortex shedding from the trailing edge, which is in a close agreement with the experiment.

  18. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the NACA 4415 airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, M.J.; Reuss Ramsay, R.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-07-01

    A NACA 4415 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory 3 x 5 subsonic wind tunnel under steady state and unsteady conditions. The test defined baseline conditions for steady state angles of attack from {minus}10{degree} to +40{degree} and examined unsteady behavior by oscillating the model about its pitch axis for three mean angles, three frequencies, and two amplitudes. For all cases, Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million were used. In addition, these were repeated after the application of leading edge grit roughness (LEGR) to determine contamination effects on the airfoil performance. Steady state results of the NACA 4415 testing at Reynolds number of 1.25 million showed a baseline maximum lift coefficient of 1.30 at 12.3{degree} angle of attack. The application of LEGR reduced the maximum lift coefficient by 20% and increased the 0.0090 minimum drag coefficient value by 62%. The zero lift pitching moment of {minus}0.0967 showed a 13% reduction in magnitude to {minus}0.0842 with LEGR applied. Data were also obtained for two pitch oscillation amplitudes: {+-}5.5{degree} and {+-}10{degree}. The larger amplitude consistently gave a higher maximum lift coefficient than the smaller amplitude, and both unsteady maximum lift coefficients were greater than the steady state values. Stall is delayed on the airfoil while the angle of attack is increasing, thereby causing an increase in maximum lift coefficient. A hysteresis behavior was exhibited for all the unsteady test cases. The hysteresis loops were larger for the higher reduced frequencies and for the larger amplitude oscillations. As in the steady case, the effect of LEGR in the unsteady case was to reduce the lift coefficient at high angles of attack. In addition, with LEGR, the hysteresis behavior persisted into lower angles of attack than for the clean case.

  19. Sodium recognition by the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in the outward-facing conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Fabrizio; Almagor, Lior; Hiller, Reuben; Giladi, Moshe; Khananshvili, Daniel; Faraldo-Gómez, José D

    2014-12-16

    Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers (NCXs) are ubiquitous membrane transporters with a key role in Ca(2+) homeostasis and signaling. NCXs mediate the bidirectional translocation of either Na(+) or Ca(2+), and thus can catalyze uphill Ca(2+) transport driven by a Na(+) gradient, or vice versa. In a major breakthrough, a prokaryotic NCX homolog (NCX_Mj) was recently isolated and its crystal structure determined at atomic resolution. The structure revealed an intriguing architecture consisting of two inverted-topology repeats, each comprising five transmembrane helices. These repeats adopt asymmetric conformations, yielding an outward-facing occluded state. The crystal structure also revealed four putative ion-binding sites, but the occupancy and specificity thereof could not be conclusively established. Here, we use molecular-dynamics simulations and free-energy calculations to identify the ion configuration that best corresponds to the crystallographic data and that is also thermodynamically optimal. In this most probable configuration, three Na(+) ions occupy the so-called Sext, SCa, and Sint sites, whereas the Smid site is occupied by one water molecule and one H(+), which protonates an adjacent aspartate side chain (D240). Experimental measurements of Na(+)/Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)/Ca(2+) exchange by wild-type and mutagenized NCX_Mj confirm that transport of both Na(+) and Ca(2+) requires protonation of D240, and that this side chain does not coordinate either ion at Smid. These results imply that the ion exchange stoichiometry of NCX_Mj is 3:1 and that translocation of Na(+) across the membrane is electrogenic, whereas transport of Ca(2+) is not. Altogether, these findings provide the basis for further experimental and computational studies of the conformational mechanism of this exchanger.

  20. MEN ARE INNOCENT UNTIL PROVEN GUILTY - A COMMENT ON THE EXAMINATION OF SEX-DIFFERENCES BY PIERCE AND KIRKPATRICK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PICKERSGILL, MJ; ARRINDELL, WA

    1992-01-01

    Pierce and Kirkpatrick (1992, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 30, 415-418) addressed the finding that men reported lower levels of fear than women in response to specific fear items and concluded on the basis of their experiment that this was because the men were lying. Their conclusion is

  1. Chaos control in an electron beam with the supercritical current in the hydrodynamic model of the Pierce diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koronovskij, A.A.; Rempen, I.S.; Khramov, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of controlling the chaos in the electron beam with the supercritical current in the hydrodynamic model of the Pierce diode through the continuous feedback; the methodology of controlling the chaotic dynamics through stabilization of the unstable equilibrium state in the distributed active medium is proposed [ru

  2. [Are nail polish, artificial nails and piercings allowed outside the surgical area?Recommendations for the perioperative policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucx, M.J.L.; Krijtenburg, P.; Scheffer, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    - An increasing number of patients wear nail polish, artificial nails or have piercings.- There is uncertainty about the perioperative management of these items, especially when located outside the surgical area.- In the majority of hospitals, patients are urged to remove these items preoperatively,

  3. Comparative analysis of the tardigrade feeding apparatus: adaptive convergence and evolutionary pattern of the piercing stylet system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Guidetti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A thorough analysis of the cuticular parts of tardigrade feeding apparatuses was performed in order to provide a more complete understanding of their evolution and their potential homologies with other animal phyla (e.g. Cycloneuralia and Arthropoda. The buccal- pharyngeal apparatuses of eight species belonging to both Eutardigrada and Heterotardigrada were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. This study supports and completes a previous study on the relationships between form and function in the buccalpharyngeal apparatus of eutardigrades. The common sclerified structures of the tardigrade buccal-pharyngeal apparatus are: a buccal ring connected to a straight buccal tube, a buccal crown, longitudinal thickenings within the pharynx, and a stylet system composed of piercing stylets within stylet coats, and stylet supports. Specifically, heterotardigrades (Echiniscoidea have a narrow buccal tube; long piercing stylets, each with a longitudinal groove, that cross one another before exiting the mouth; pharyngeal bars and secondary longitudinal thickenings within the pharynx. In contrast, eutardigrades have stylets which are shorter than the buccal tube; Parachela have pharyngeal apophyses and placoids within the pharynx, while Apochela lack a buccal crown and cuticular thickenings within the pharynx, the buccal tube is very wide, and the short stylets are associated with triangular-shaped stylet supports. In both classes, when the piercing stylet tips emerge from the mouth to pierce food, the buccal tube opening is almost completely obstructed, which may hinder food uptake. In heterotardigrades, the crossing of the piercing stylets may further decrease food uptake, however this disadvantage may have been reduced in echiniscids by the evolution of a long buccal tube and long stylets able to run more parallel to the buccal tube. In contrast, eutardigrades evolved different strategies. In the order Apochela and in several

  4. Laser assisted self-pierce riveting of AZ31 magnesium alloy strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durandet, Y.; Deam, R.; Beer, A.; Song, W.; Blacket, S.

    2010-01-01

    Laser assisted self-piercing riveting (LSPR) is a new solid state process that enables low ductility materials to be mechanically joined without cracking. A simple but effective thermal analysis of LSPR is presented that enabled both the absorption of the laser radiation and heat transfer between plies to be determined. The approach was applied to experimental data for LSPR joining of AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy sheets. It is shown that by using this analytical approach, the temperature at the onset of joining could be estimated and related to observations of joint quality. It was found that crack-free joints were produced at strip temperatures above 200 o C at the time of rivet insertion.

  5. Pierce-Wiggler electron beam system for 250 GHz GYRO-BWO: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirkle, D.R.; Alford, C.W.; Anderson, M.H.; Garcia, R.F.; Legarra, J.R.; Nordquist, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    This final report summarizes the design and performance of the VUW-8028 Pierce-Wiggler electron beam systems, which can be used to power high frequency gyro-BWO's. The operator's manual for this gyro-BWO beamstick is included as appendix A. Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are developing a gyro-BWO with a center frequency of 250 GHz, 6% bandwidth, and 10 kV peak output power. The gyro-BWO will be used to drive a free electron laser amplifier at LLNL. The electron beam requirements of the gyro-BWO application are: Small beam size, .100 inch at 2500 gauss axial magnetic field; a large fraction of the electron energy in rotational velocity; ability to vary the electrons' axial velocity easily, for electronic tuning; and low velocity spread i.e. little variation in the axial velocities of the electrons in the interaction region. 1 ref., 13 figs

  6. Self pierce riveting in the car body construction; Stanznieten im Karosserieleichtbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers-Hestermann, G. [Boellhoff GmbH, Bielefeld (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    As an alterantive to spotwelding, self pierce riveting becomes more and more important in light weight automotive body constructions. The difficulties or impossibility of spotwelding Aluminium and High Tensile Strength Steel or material mixtures accelerated this development. Even plastic material can be joined to metal. Important mechanical properties such as fatigue and crash behaviour are improved. Costs are at the same level. Two examples of body parts in aluminium (Audi A6 bonnet and BMW 3 series front end) are described. (orig.) [German] Als Alternative zum Punktschweissen setzt sich das Stanznieten mit Halbhohlniet im Karosserieleichtbau mehr und mehr durch. Mit diesem Verfahren koennen verschiedene Materialen mit bis zu vier Lagen sicher verbunden werden. Dieser Beitrag der Boellhoff GmbH stellt das Verfahren vor und berichtet ueber zwei Beispiele aus der Praxis. (orig.)

  7. Numerical simulation of self-piercing riveting process (SRP using continuum damage mechanics modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Bonora

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The extended Bonora damage model was used to investigate joinability of materials in self-piercing riveting process. This updated model formulation accounts for void nucleation and growth process and shear-controlled damage which is critical for shear fracture sensitive materials. Potential joint configurations with dissimilar materials have been investigated computationally. In particular the possible combination of DP600 steel, which is widely used in the automotive industry, with AL2024-T351, which is known to show shear fracture sensitivity, and oxygen-free pure copper, which is known to fail by void nucleation and growth, have been investigated. Preliminary numerical simulation results indicate that the damage modelling is capable to discriminate potential criticalities occurring in the SPR joining process opening the possibility for process parameters optimization and screening of candidate materials for optimum joint

  8. Labrets: Piercing and Stretching on the Northwest Coast and in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Reddish

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the practice of piercing and stretching the lip in order to accommodate a labret in two regions: the North American Northwest Coast (with historical examples from Tlingit and Haida groups and lowland South America (utilizing ethnographic writings on Suya and Kayapo communities. Drawing on the recent ‘sensorial turn’ within anthropology, I suggest an approach which goes beyond considerations of the symbolism of body ornaments and analyses how the infliction of pain they involve can be manipulated to serve social ends at a local level. Also discussed is the use of labrets within global ‘mediascapes’ (Appadurai 1996 by Kayapo and Northwest Coast groups in the context of self-representation and the politicization of ‘culture’ (Wright 1998.

  9. [Tattoos and piercings: motives for body modification in women suffering from borderline symptomatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhner, Gesche; Teismann, Tobias; Willutzki, Ulrike

    2014-02-01

    Do women suffering from borderline symptomatology differ from women without these symptoms regarding their motives for body modifications?A sample of 289 women with body modifications were questioned about their tattoos, piercings and motives for body modifications as well as about symptoms of borderline personality disorder. Women with borderline symptomatology were compared to women without borderline symptomatology concerning the extent of and motives for body modification.The 2 groups showed no differences in regard to amount and extent of body modifications. The "borderline"-group considered individuality, coping and management of negative life-events to be more crucial reasons for body modification than the non-borderline females.The degree of a person's body modification is not a feasible indicator for psychopathological strain. Though, for people with borderline tendency body modification may serve as a coping strategy similar to self-injury. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Systematic study of a simple formation of pierce-electron-gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, Hussein Mahmoud; Abd Elhamed, H.

    1985-01-01

    In this work the design and construction of a simple form of Pierce Gun are discussed. As the vacuum system used in the experiment was frequently exposed to open air, a solenoid filamentary-cathode was used. Hence, an effective magnetic field has been induced as the filament was heated, whereupon the electrons altered their paths. We, therefore investigated the change in beam intensity as influenced by the focusing electrode material, anode position, and extraction hole width. The focusing electrode effect was examined by comparing the measured emission current density with the corresponding calculated value. The studies showed that electrons follow a saddle-like shape in the gun inter-space. It was modified by the stainless steel focusing electrode

  11. From body piercing to acute kidney injury – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Wikiera-Magott

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury is an abrupt decline of renal function interfering with the body’s homeostasis. It most commonly occurs in neonates and children treated in intensive care units and undergoing extensive surgical procedures, especially cardiac surgery. Its aetiology is frequently complex, with infectious factors, toxic chemical activity and hydration and electrolyte imbalance occurring simultaneously and aggravating kidney injury. This study reports a case of a 17-year-old female patient in whom acute kidney injury was caused by a combination of factors, including sepsis, adverse effects of analgesic drugs and dehydration. Staphylococcus aureus infection caused by multiple-site piercings performed in a home setting resulted in the development of multiple skin abscesses, myometrial abscesses and a generalised infection. The patient’s condition warranted intensive antibiotic therapy and drainage of the myometrial abscesses. The therapy facilitated eradication of the infection foci and normalising renal function.

  12. Report of the FAO/NACA Consultation on Aquaculture for Sustainable Rural Development: Chiang Rai, Thailand, 29-31 March 1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    This is the report of the consultation on Aquaculture for Sustainable Rural Development jointly organised by FAO and NACA in Chiang Rai, Thailand on 29-31 March 1999 to develop the detailed structure...

  13. Riscos e complicações do uso de piercing oral: uma revisão sistemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wittor de Macêdo Santos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O uso de piercing oral tem despertado o interesse dos profissionais da Odontologia devido à associação com diversas complicações locais e sistêmicas. Objetivo: Este trabalho objetivou realizar uma revisão sistemática da literatura sobre riscos e complicações associadas ao uso de piercings orais e periorais. Métodos: Foi realizada uma pesquisa nas bases de dados MEDLINE, Google acadêmico e LILACS utilizando-se os seguintes critérios: artigos publicados na íntegra, no período de 2000 a 2016, em inglês, português e espanhol, case report, classical articles e reviews sobre o tema utilizando os seguintes descritores: body piercing, risks management, complications, risk e seus mesh terms. Resultados: Foram incluídos um total de 39 artigos relevantes que cumpriam com todos os critérios. Foi observado que os locais mais frequentemente utilizados para a colocação de piercing oral são os lábios e a língua. As complicações incluem inflamação, infecções locais e sistêmicas, lesões mucocutâneas, lesões vasculares, trauma dental, problemas periodontais, reações de hipersensibilidade, disfonia, deglutição e aspiração do piercing, e até morte etc. Conclusão: Conclui-se que o cirurgião dentista deve exercer um papel importante na orientação da população em geral sobre os riscos e as complicações associadas ao uso de piercing oral, visando evitar tal prática ou minimizar ao máximo os riscos e as complicações naqueles indivíduos que os possuem.

  14. Body piercing and tattoos: a survey on young adults' knowledge of the risks and practices in body art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caggiano Giuseppina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of tattooing and piercing has expanded in western society. In order to verify young adults' knowledge of the risk and practices related to body art, an investigation was conducted among freshmen of the University of Bari in the region of Apulia, Italy. Methods The study was carried out in the Academic Year 2009-2010 through an anonymous self-administered written questionnaire distributed to 1.656 freshmen enrolled in 17 Degree Courses. Results Of the 1.598 students included in the analysis, 78.3% believe it is risky to undergo piercing/tattoo practices. AIDS was indicated as a possible infection by 60.3% of freshmen, hepatitis C by 38.2%, tetanus by 34.3% and hepatitis B by 33.7% of the sample. 28.1% of freshmen were not aware that there are also non-infectious complications. 29% of the sample had at least one piercing or tattoo (this percentage does not include earlobe piercing in women. Of those with body art, the decision to undergo body art was made autonomously in 57.9% of the participants. 56.3% of freshmen undergoing body art had taken less than a month to decide. With regard to the reasons that led the sample to undergo body art, 28.4% were unable to explain it, 23.8% answered to improve their aesthetic aspect, 18.4% to distinguish themselves from others, 12.3% for fashion; 17.1% for other reasons. 25.4% of the sample declared that they had a piercing (79.8% female vs 20.2% male; ratio M/F 1:4.0. The average age for a first piercing was 15.3 years (range 10-27; SD ± 2.9. 9.6% of the sample declared that they have a tattoo (69.9% female vs 30.1% male; ratio M/F 1:2.3. The average age for a first tattoo was 17.5 years (range 10-26, SD ± 2.4. Conclusions Most of the freshmen knew about AIDS-related risks but not other potential risks. Body art is fairly common among young adults (especially women. The decision is often not shared with the family and is undertaken mostly without a specific reason or for the

  15. Cavitation Characteristics of a NACA 63-424 Hydrofoil and Performance Comparison with a Bidirectional Version of the Foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedyalkov, Ivaylo; Wosnik, Martin

    2012-11-01

    A NACA 63-424 hydrofoil with a 75 mm chord and a 152 mm span was tested in the recently renovated 6-inch high-speed water tunnel at the University of New Hampshire. The NACA 63-424 foil is being considered for use on rotors of marine hydrokinetic turbines, including the US Department of Energy Reference Horizontal Axis Turbine (RHAT) for tidal and ocean current applications. For various angles of attack, the foil was tested at speeds ranging from 2 m/s to 12 m/s. Pressure in the test section was varied independently. For each angle, speed and pressure setting, high speed videos were recorded (at 3600 frames per second and above). Cavitation inception and desinance were obtained. Lift and drag were measured using a new 2-component force balance. In tidal turbines applications, bidirectional foils do not require pitch control, hence the experiments were repeated for a bidirectional version of the NACA 63-424 foil and the characteristics of the two foils were compared. The results can be used to predict cavitation inception and performance of marine hydrokinetic turbines, for a given site, deployment depth and and tip speed ratio.

  16. [Are nail polish, artificial nails and piercings allowed outside the surgical area?Recommendations for the perioperative policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucx, M J L; Krijtenburg, P; Scheffer, G J

    2017-01-01

    - An increasing number of patients wear nail polish, artificial nails or have piercings.- There is uncertainty about the perioperative management of these items, especially when located outside the surgical area.- In the majority of hospitals, patients are urged to remove these items preoperatively, under the assumption that they might cause problems.- Frequently, however, these items cannot be removed straightforwardly.- Nail polish and artificial nails only very rarely cause perioperative problems and therefore do not need to be removed pre-operatively.- The same applies to most piercings, except when located in or near the respiratory tract, if they have sharp endings or if they might cause problems as a result of the perioperative positioning of the patient.- Providing adequate information to the patient, knowledge about removal of these items and documentation of agreed arrangements are all important.- A national guideline concerning perioperative policy is urgently required.

  17. Tatuagens, Piercings e Diversidade Cultural: o que gestores dizem sobre esse tema?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Lorenne Sampaio Barbosa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A diversidade cultural, representada pela utilização de tatuagens e piercings, possui variados impactos nos fenômenos sociais. No âmbito organizacional, sua gestão propicia potencialidades, especialmente como oportunidade para harmonizar ambientes corporativos e agregar valor competitivo. A pesquisa investiga a percepção sobre a empregabilidade de pessoas adeptas à tatuagens e piercings no contexto da gestão da diversidade cultural. Realizou-se pesquisa de campo com 8 empresários de uma cidade do interior do estado do Piauí, por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas, analisadas com suporte na análise de conteúdo, especificamente, análise relacional. Com auxílio do software Atlas ti, categorizou-se as entrevistas em torno da gestão da diversidade cultural e duas subcategorias: cultura organizacional, formada pela dimensão valores sobre a diversidade e relações interpessoais; e resultados, formada pelas dimensões imagem e objetivos organizacionais. Constata-se que nas empresas do estudo não há gestão da diversidade, haja vista que os valores pessoais e organizacionais ainda não incorporaram valores culturais da diversidade. Em relação à empregabilidade, os objetivos institucionais refletidos nas políticas de gestão de pessoas, condicionam as competências, habilidades e atitudes profissionais ao atendimento de normas prescritas, reduzindo as possibilidades de gestão do potencial da diversidade na organização, em função do recrutamento e seleção de um perfil ideal. Acredita-se que pesquisas em outras contextos, inclusive de natureza comparativa, pode agregar novos pontos de vista e ampliar a discussão da gestão da diversidade no âmbito de sua afirmação como prática capaz de transformar organizações em espaços de maior acolhimento e mais competitivos

  18. PENGEMBANGAN FOIL NACA SERI 2412 SEBAGAI SISTEM PENYELAMAN MODEL KAPAL SELAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Munazid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bentuk  foil menghasilkan gaya angkat (lift force ketika foil dilewati oleh aliran fluida  karena adanya pengaruh interaksi antara aliran fluida dengan permukaan foil yang mengakibatkan tekanan permukaan atas lebih kecil dari permukaan bawah. Bagaimana mengaplikasikan teori foil pada hydroplane kapal selam sebagai  system penyelaman, dengan membalik foil maka lift force tersebut menjadi gaya ke bawah, dengan demikian memungkinkan kapal selam dapat menyelam, melayang dan bermanouver di bawah air, seperti halnya gerak pesawat terbang yang terbang dan melayang dengan menggunakan sayap. Dilakukan penelitian dan pengamatan terhadap kemampuan penyelaman (diving plan dari foil NACA seri 2412 pada model kapal selam, dengan mencari nilai Cl (coefisien lift di Laboratorium, serta mendesain bentuk badan kapal selam dan analisa gaya-gaya yang bekerja pada model kapal selam, jumlah gaya-gaya yang bekerja keatas lebih rendah dari gaya-gaya ke bawah maka kapal selam mampu menyelam. Penerapan Hydroplane sebagai diving plane dapat diterapkan, kemampuan penyelaman dipengaruhi oleh sudut flip  Hydroplane dan kecepatan model, semakin besar kecepatan dan sudut flip maka semakin besar kedalaman penyelaman yang dapat dilakukan.

  19. Direct Numerical Simulation of Flows over an NACA-0012 Airfoil at Low and Moderate Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, P.

    2017-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of flow over an NACA-0012 airfoil are performed at a low and a moderate Reynolds numbers of Re(sub c)=50 times10(exp 3) and 1times 10(exp 6). The angles of attack are 5 and 15 degrees at the low and the moderate Reynolds number cases respectively. The three-dimensional unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using higher order compact schemes. The flow field in the low Reynolds number case consists of a long separation bubble near the leading-edge region and an attached boundary layer on the aft part of the airfoil. The shear layer that formed in the separated region persisted up to the end of the airfoil. The roles of the turbulent diffusion, advection, and dissipation terms in the turbulent kinetic-energy balance equation change as the boundary layer evolves over the airfoil. In the higher Reynolds number case, the leading-edge separation bubble is very small in length and in height. A fully developed turbulent boundary layer is observed in a short distance downstream of the reattachment point. The boundary layer velocity near the wall gradually decreases along the airfoil. Eventually, the boundary layer separates near the trailing edge. The Reynolds stresses peak in the outer part of the boundary layer and the maximum amplitude also gradually increases along the chord.

  20. Numerical and experimental research on unsteady cavitating flow around NACA 2412 hydrofoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlář, M; Komárek, M; Rudolf, P; Kozák, J; Huzlík, R

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with the numerical and experimental investigation of unsteady cavitating flow around a prismatic NACA 2412 hydrofoil. The main attention is focussed on the dependence of cavitation dynamics on the cavitation number at high incidence angles. The experimental research is carried out in the cavitation water tunnel the rectangular test section of which has inner dimensions 150×150×500 mm. Currently tested hydrofoils have a chord length of 120 mm and are equipped with pressure transducers at the leading edge and on the suction side. The PVDF hydrophone enables to measure high-frequency pressure pulses behind the hydrofoil trailing edge. The visualizations are based on two simultaneous high-speed cameras, recording the hydrofoil from the top and from one side. A comprehensive CFD analysis has been done with the ANSYS CFX package for a wide range of flow regimes. Different turbulence models including SAS-SST and Reynolds-stress models have been tested to capture highly unsteady phenomena on the hydrofoil. The numerical simulations show, that the dominant frequency of the cavity oscillation depends on the cavitation number and that there is a certain range of this number in which the 'resonance' effect can be reached. In such regime the amplitudes of the pressure pulses on the suction side of the hydrofoil dramatically increase. The calculated results have been verified by both the visualizations and the pressure measurements carried out at the hydrofoil incidence angle of 8 degrees

  1. Experimental Studies of Flow Separation of the NACA 2412 Airfoil at Low Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetharam, H. C.; Rodgers, E. J.; Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests have been conducted on an NACA 2412 airfoil section at Reynolds number of 2.2 x 10(exp 6) and Mach number of 0.13. Detailed measurements of flow fields associated with turbulent boundary layers have been obtained at angles of attack of 12.4 degrees, 14.4 degrees, and 16.4 degrees. Pre- and post-separated velocity and pressure survey results over the airfoil and in the associated wake are presented. Extensive force, pressure, tuft survey, hot-film survey, local skin friction, and boundary layer data are also included. Pressure distributions and separation point locations show good agreement with theory for the two layer angles of attack. Boundary layer displacement thickness, momentum thickness, and shape factor agree well with theory up to the point of separation. There is considerable disparity between extent of flow reversal in the wake as measured by pressure and hot-film probes. The difference is attributed to the intermittent nature of the flow reversal.

  2. Transient dynamics of the flow around a NACA 0015 airfoil using fluidic vortex generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siauw, W.L. [Institut Pprime, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, Departement Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, ENSMA - Teleport 2, 1 Avenue Clement Ader, BP 40109, F-86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France); Bonnet, J.-P., E-mail: Jean-Paul.Bonnet@univ-poitiers.f [Institut Pprime, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, Departement Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, CEAT, 43 rue de l' Aerodrome, F-86036 Poitiers Cedex (France); Tensi, J., E-mail: Jean.Tensi@lea.univ-poitiers.f [Institut Pprime, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, Departement Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, ENSMA - Teleport 2, 1 Avenue Clement Ader, BP 40109, F-86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France); Cordier, L., E-mail: Laurent.Cordier@univ-poitiers.f [Institut Pprime, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, Departement Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, CEAT, 43 rue de l' Aerodrome, F-86036 Poitiers Cedex (France); Noack, B.R., E-mail: Bernd.Noack@univ-poitiers.f [Institut Pprime, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, Departement Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, CEAT, 43 rue de l' Aerodrome, F-86036 Poitiers Cedex (France); Cattafesta, L., E-mail: cattafes@ufl.ed [Florida Center for Advanced Aero-Propulsion (FCAAP), Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, 231 MAE-A, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The unsteady activation or deactivation of fluidic vortex generators on a NACA 0015 airfoil is studied to understand the transient dynamics of flow separation control. The Reynolds number is high enough and the boundary layer is tripped, so the boundary layer is fully turbulent prior to separation. Conditional PIV of the airfoil wake is obtained phase-locked to the actuator trigger signal, allowing reconstruction of the transient processes. When the actuators are impulsively turned on, the velocity field in the near wake exhibit a complex transient behavior associated with the formation and shedding of a starting vortex. When actuation is stopped, a more gradual process of the separation dynamics is found. These results are in agreement with those found in the literature in comparable configurations. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition of phase-locked velocity fields reveals low-dimensional transient dynamics for the attachment and separation processes, with 98% of the fluctuation energy captured by the first four modes. The behavior is quantitatively well captured by a four-dimensional dynamical system with the corresponding mode amplitudes. Analysis of the first temporal POD modes accurately determines typical time scales for attachment and separation processes to be respectively t{sup +}=10 and 20 in conventional non-dimensional values. This study adds to experimental investigations of this scale with essential insight for the targeted closed-loop control.

  3. The effect of electrohydrodynamic force on the lift coefficient of a NACA 0015 airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Y.; Hossain, A.; Abdullah, A. H.; Nasir, Rizal M. E.; Hamid, A.; Muthmainnah, N.; N, M.

    2017-11-01

    Lift, the force component that is perpendicular to the line of flight, is generated when a small aircraft moves through the air. With the help of the sets of flaps and slats on its wing, the pilot controls his aircraft manoeuvring in the air. In this study, we preferred to cut the drawbacks of the flaps system by introducing the electrohydrodynamic actuator. Widely known as plasma actuator, it is able to improve the induced lift force as well as the efficiency of a small aircraft system. A dielectric-barrier-discharge actuator using a 6 kV AC power supply was developed and tested on a NACA 0015 airfoil using copper as the electrodes and kapton as its dielectric component. The experimental results showed that it was successful in presenting a positive effect of the plasma actuator on the lift coefficient of the airfoil at smaller angle of attack, where enhancements ranged between 0.7% and 1.8%. However, at a higher angle, the results were not as swayed as it was desired since the energy exerted by the plasma actuator on the lift performance of the airfoil was inadequate. Further tests are needed using higher rated voltage supply and other equipment to improve the capability of the actuator in refining the aerodynamic performance of the airfoil.

  4. Using resolvent analysis for the design of separation control on a NACA 0012 airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chi-An; Taira, Kunihiko

    2017-11-01

    A combined effort based on large-eddy simulation and resolvent analysis on the separated flow over a NACA 0012 airfoil is conducted to design active flow control for suppression of separation. This study considers the the airfoil at 6 deg. angle-of-attack and Reynolds number of 23000. The response mode obtained from the resolvent analysis about the baseline turbulent mean flow reveals modal structures that can be categorized into three families when sweeping through the resonant frequency: (1) von Karman wake structure for low frequency; (2) Kelvin-Helmholtz structure in the separation bubble for high frequency; (3) blended structure of (1) and (2) for the intermediate frequency. Leveraging the insights from resolvent analysis, unsteady thermal actuation is introduced to the flow near the leading-edge to examine the use of the frequencies from three families for separation control in LES. As indicated by the resolvent response modes, we find that the use of intermediate frequencies are most effective in suppressing the flow separation, since the shear layer over the separation bubble and the wake are both receptive to the perturbation at the these frequencies. The resolvent-analysis-based control strategy achieves 35% drag reduction and 9% lift increase with effective frequency. This work was supported by Office of Naval Research (N00014-15-R-FO13) and Army Research Office (W911NF-14-1-0224).

  5. Aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 4412 airfoil section with flap in extreme ground effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex E. Ockfen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Wing-in-Ground vehicles and aerodynamically assisted boats take advantage of increased lift and reduced drag of wing sections in the ground proximity. At relatively low speeds or heavy payloads of these craft, a flap at the wing trailing-edge can be applied to boost the aerodynamic lift. The influence of a flap on the two-dimensional NACA 4412 airfoil in viscous ground-effect flow is numerically investigated in this study. The computational method consists of a steady-state, incompressible, finite volume method utilizing the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Grid generation and solution of the Navier-Stokes equations are completed using computer program Fluent. The code is validated against published experimental and numerical results of unbounded flow with a flap, as well as ground-effect motion without a flap. Aerodynamic forces are calculated, and the effects of angle of attack, Reynolds number, ground height, and flap deflection are presented for a split and plain flap. Changes in the flow introduced with the flap addition are also discussed. Overall, the use of a flap on wings with small attack angles is found to be beneficial for small flap deflections up to 5% of the chord, where the contribution of lift augmentation exceeds the drag increase, yielding an augmented lift-to-drag ratio.

  6. Comparing Ns-DBD vs Ac-DBD plasma actuation mechanisms on a NACA 0012 airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashish; Durasiewicz, Claudia; Little, Jesse

    2017-11-01

    A NACA 0012 airfoil is used to study ns-DBD and ac-DBD plasma actuators at a Reynolds number of 740,000 (U∞=40 m/s). Ns-DBD plasma actuators are hypothesized to work on the principle of joule heating whereas ac-DBD actuators add momentum to the flow. Short duration forcing at a time scale much smaller than the convective time based on model chord is employed to study the control mechanism and flow field response. 2-D PIV carried out over a convective time range of 0-10 is used to study the flow structure. The results show the breakup of shear layer vorticity at the point of actuation followed by reattachment to the suction side of the airfoil and finally stall again. These events are very similar between the two actuators and indicate a similar flow response to different perturbation types. The pulse energies are varied and the response shows little change. The results are compared to other transitory separation control studies using more conventional actuators. The detailed study of these two control mechanisms with the separated flow over an airfoil helps to shed light on the evolution of the flow control process. Additional results on a simplified model problem (low speed mixing layer) are included to provide context. Supported by U.S. Army Research Office (W911NF-14-1-0662).

  7. Radiative charge-transfer lifetime of the excited state of (NaCa)+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, Oleg P.; Cote, R.; Michels, H.; Smith, W.W.

    2003-01-01

    New experiments were proposed recently to investigate the regime of cold atomic and molecular ion-atom collision processes in a special hybrid neutral-atom-ion trap under high-vacuum conditions. We study the collisional cooling of laser precooled Ca + ions by ultracold Na atoms. Modeling this process requires knowledge of the radiative lifetime of the excited singlet A 1 Σ + state of the (NaCa) + molecular system. We calculate the rate coefficient for radiative charge transfer using a semiclassical approach. The dipole radial matrix elements between the ground and the excited states, and the potential curves were calculated using complete active space self-consistent field and Moeller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory with an extended Gaussian basis, 6-311+G (3df). The semiclassical charge-transfer rate coefficient was averaged over a thermal Maxwellian distribution. In addition, we also present elastic collision cross sections and the spin-exchange cross section. The rate coefficient for charge transfer was found to be 2.3x10 -16 cm 3 /sec, while those for the elastic and spin-exchange cross sections were found to be several orders of magnitude higher (1.1x10 -8 cm 3 /sec and 2.3x10 -9 cm 3 /sec, respectively). This confirms our assumption that the milli-Kelvin regime of collisional cooling of calcium ions by sodium atoms is favorable with the respect to low loss of calcium ions due to the charge transfer

  8. Dr Jerome Pierce Webster (1888-1974): Surgeon, historian, campaigner, and 'the father of plastic surgery education'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigley, Catrin H

    2016-09-28

    Dr Jerome Pierce Webster is best remembered as the 'founder of plastic surgery education in the United States' on the basis of developing his nation's first plastic surgery residency programme, his role in the founding of the American Board of Plastic Surgery, and, more generally, his influence in professionalising this subspecialty. He also deserves to be remembered for his extensive missionary work in China, his publications as a successful bibliographer, and as an accomplished historian. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Influence of heat treatment on fatigue performances for self-piercing riveting similar and dissimilar titanium, aluminium and copper alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xianlian; He, Xiaocong; Xing, Baoying; Zhao, Lun; Lu, Yi; Gu, Fengshou; Ball, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The fatigue performances of self-piercing riveting (SPR) joints connecting similar and dissimilar sheets of TA1 titanium alloy (TA1), Al5052 aluminium alloy (Al5052) and H62 copper alloy (H62) were studied in this paper. The specimens of similar TA1 sheets treated with stress relief annealing were prepared to investigate the influence of relief annealing on the mechanical properties of SPR joints. Fatigue tests were conducted to characterize the fatigue lives and failure modes of the joints. ...

  10. Hydrographs showing groundwater levels for selected wells in the Puyallup River watershed and vicinity, Pierce and King Counties, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R.C.; Julich, R.J.; Justin, G.B.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrographs of groundwater levels for selected wells in and adjacent to the Puyallup River watershed in Pierce and King Counties, Washington, are presented using an interactive Web-based map of the study area to illustrate changes in groundwater levels on a monthly and seasonal basis. The interactive map displays well locations that link to the hydrographs, which in turn link to the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System, Groundwater Site Inventory System.

  11. Close Binary Star Speckle Interferometry on the McMath-Pierce 0.8-Meter Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Edward; Harshaw, Richard; Jones, Gregory; Branston, Detrick; Boyce, Patrick; Rowe, David; Ridgely, John; Estrada, Reed; Genet, Russell

    2015-09-01

    Observations were made in April 2014 to assess the utility of the 0.8-meter solar telescope at the McMath-Pierce Solar Observatory at Kitt Peak National Observatory for performing speckle interferometry observations of close binary stars. Several configurations using science cameras, acquisition cameras, eyepieces, and flip mirrors were evaluated. Speckle images were obtained and recommendations for further improvement of the acquisition system are presented.

  12. Testing of the McMath-Pierce 0.8-Meter East Auxiliary Telescope's Acquisition and Slewing Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard; Ray, Jimmy; Prause, Lori; Douglass, David; Branston, Detrick; Genet, Russell M.

    2015-09-01

    Following mediocre results with pointing tests of the McMath-Pierce 0.8-meter East Auxiliary Telescope in April 2014, a team of astronomers/engineers met again in May 2014 to test other pointing models and assess the telescope's ability to point with enough accuracy to permit the efficient use of speckle interferometry. Results show that accurate collimation is a pre-requisite for such accuracy. Once attained, the telescope performs extremely well.

  13. Undersøgelse af pulsformers indflydelse på piercing og skæring i rummet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Birgitte D.; Juhl, Thomas Winther

    1999-01-01

    Der er gennem en række laboratorieforsøg gennemført piercing og hjørneskæring i rummet (3D) i AISI 316 stål. Det er blevet konstateret at der kan opnås piercingtider på ned til ca. 1 sekund i det anvendte 5 mm pladestål. Tre forskellige pulsformer, Gated puls, Hyper puls og Super puls er blevet...

  14. Lidar-revised geologic map of the Poverty Bay 7.5' quadrangle, King and Pierce Counties, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Rowland W.; Booth, Derek B.; Troost, Kathy Goetz

    2014-01-01

    For this map, we interpreted a 6-ft-resolution lidar digital elevation model combined with the geology depicted on the Geologic Map of the Poverty Bay 7.5' Quadrangle, King and Pierce Counties, Washington (Booth and others, 2004b). The authors of the 2004 map described, interpreted, and located the geology on the 1:24,000-scale topographic map of the Poverty Bay 7.5' quadrangle.

  15. Determination and analysis of neutron flux distribution on radial Piercing beam port for utilization of Kartini research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widarto

    2002-01-01

    Determination and analysis of neutron flux measurements on radial piercing beam port have been done as completion experimental data document and progressing on utilization of the Kartini research reactor purposes. The analysis and determination of the neutron flux have been carried out by using Au foils detector neutron activation analysis method which put on the radius of cross section (19 cm) and a long of radial piercing beam port (310 cm) Based on the calculation, distribution of the thermal neutron flux is around (8.3 ± 0.9) x 10 5 ncm -2 s -1 to (6.8 ± 0.5) x 10 7 ncm -2 s -1 and fast neutron is (5.0 ± 0.2) x 10 5 ncm -2 s -1 to (1.43 ± 0.6) x 10 7 ncm -2 s -1 . Analyzing by means of curve fitting method could be concluded that the neutron flux distribution on radial piercing beam port has profiled as a polynomial curve. (author)

  16. Motivations for body piercings and tattoos - the role of sexual abuse and the frequency of body modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirn, Aglaja; Oddo, Silvia; Peregrinova, Ludmila; Philipp, Swetlana; Hinz, Andreas

    2011-12-30

    Though the popularity of body modification increases, psychosocial data about practitioners of body piercing and tattooing are few and controversial. Most studies used semi-structured interviews and relatively small sample sizes. The aim of this study was to explore psychosocial background information (motivation, sexual abuse) for body modification practises based on a sufficiently large sample. A core group of 432 subjects with body piercings and/or tattoos (readers of a specialised magazine on body modification; mean age: 28 years) was investigated in this study using a 55-item questionnaire. The mean number of body modifications (piercings and tattoos) was nine. Participants with a history of sexual abuse and high users with more than 10 body modifications differed from those without these features with respect to several motivations and consequences of body modification. Participants with sexual abuse often stated that they wanted to overcome certain experiences, and high users were characterised by the feeling of an addiction to continue body modification. Clinicians should include questions on body modifications and their motives in anamnestic schedules. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Proteomics approach to identify unique xylem sap proteins in Pierce's disease-tolerant Vitis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Sheikh M; Mazhar, Hifza; Vasanthaiah, Hemanth K N

    2010-03-01

    Pierce's disease (PD) is a destructive bacterial disease of grapes caused by Xylella fastidiosa which is xylem-confined. The tolerance level to this disease varies among Vitis species. Our research was aimed at identifying unique xylem sap proteins present in PD-tolerant Vitis species. The results showed wide variation in the xylem sap protein composition, where a set of polypeptides with pI between 4.5 and 4.7 and M(r) of 31 kDa were present in abundant amount in muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia, PD-tolerant), in reduced levels in Florida hybrid bunch (Vitis spp., PD-tolerant) and absent in bunch grapes (Vitis vinifera, PD-susceptible). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis of these proteins revealed their similarity to beta-1, 3-glucanase, peroxidase, and a subunit of oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1, which are known to play role in defense and oxygen generation. In addition, the amount of free amino acids and soluble sugars was found to be significantly lower in xylem sap of muscadine genotypes compared to V. vinifera genotypes, indicating that the higher nutritional value of bunch grape sap may be more suitable for Xylella growth. These data suggest that the presence of these unique proteins in xylem sap is vital for PD tolerance in muscadine and Florida hybrid bunch grapes.

  18. A new approach using the Pierce two-node model for different body parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Ehab; Sirén, Kai

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a new approach, in applying the Pierce two-node model, to predict local skin temperatures of individual body parts with good accuracy. In this study, local skin temperature measurements at 24 sites on the bodies of 11 human subjects were carried out in a controlled environment under three different indoor conditions (i.e. neutral, warm and cold). The neutral condition measurements were used to adjust the local skin set-points in the model for each body part. Additional modifications to the calculation algorithm were introduced corresponding to different body parts. The local core set-points were then calculated, using a line search method, as the input values that allow the model to predict the skin temperatures with maximum deviation of ±0.1°C for the neutral condition. The model predictability was verified for the other two indoor conditions, and the results show that the modified model predicts local skin temperatures with average deviation of ±0.3°C.

  19. Fatigue Life Prediction of Self-Piercing Rivet Joints Between Magnesium and Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Hong-Tae

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Various light materials including aluminum alloys and magnesium alloys are being used to reduce the weight of vehicle structures. Joining of dissimilar materials is always a challenging task to construct a solid structure. Self-piercing rivet (SPR joint is one of various joining methods for dissimilar materials. Front shock tower structures were constructed with magnesium alloy (AM60 joined to aluminum alloy (Al6082 by SPR joints. To evaluate the durability performance of the SPR joints in the structures, fatigue tests of the front shock tower structures were conducted with constant amplitude loadings. Furthermore, this study investigated fatigue life prediction method of SPR joints and compared the fatigue life prediction results with that of experimental results. For fatigue life prediction of the SPR joints in the front shock tower structures, lap-shear and cross-tension specimens of SPR joint were constructed and tested to characterize the fatigue properties of the SPR joint. Then, the SPR joint was represented with area contact method (ACM in finite element (FE models. The load-life curves of the lap-shear and cross-tension specimens were converted to a structural stress-life (S-N curve of the SPR joints. The S-N curve was used to predict fatigue life of SPR joints in the front shock tower structures. The test results and the prediction results were well correlated.

  20. Suppression of Astronomical Sources Using Starshades and the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novicki, Megan; Warwick, Steve; Smith, Daniel; Richards, Michael; Harness, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The external starshade is a method for the direct detection and spectral characterization of terrestrial planets around other stars, a key goal identified in ASTRO2010. Tests of this approach have been and continue to be conducted in the lab and in the field (Samuele et al., 2010, Glassman et al., 2014) using non-collimated light sources with a spherical wavefront. We extend the current approach to performing night-time observations of astronomical objects using small-scale (approximately 1/300th) starshades and the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. We placed a starshade directly in the path of the beam from an astronomical object in front of the main heliostat. Using only flat mirrors, we then directed the light through the observatory path and reflected it off the West heliostat to an external telescope located approximately 270m away, for an effective baseline of 420m.This configuration allowed us to make measurements of flat wavefront sources with a Fresnel number close to those expected in proposed full-scale space configurations. We present the results of our engineering runs conducted in 2015.

  1. Tattoos, piercings and re-configuration of the body. A path between bioethical and educational profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Bianco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tattoos and piercings can become a mask to hide behind? Everything can become a mask if we use it for masquerading. The tattoo is the anthropological roots of ancient and modern makeup that refers to the mask understood as that which creates the face, which gives it its social being. The tattoo is also an artistic decoration that should be born by the deep desire to communicate yourself to others. Tattoos must be able to "tell" the people who wear them, but if the latter decorate their body with a message or image that does not belong, it can cause the destruction of individuality. The tattoo is immortal. It can be a permanent dress, a way to resist the unwanted transformations using a piece of subjective identity, non-imitable, from which one cannot be excluded. Along with careful identification of psycho-sociological motivations that drive a young man to want a tattoo, you need to traverse an education that not only form a personality, teaches the knowledge of his own body. Getting a tattoo means not only change the morphology of the body but the risk of jeopardizing their health. Responsibility for their own health also means being aware that a tattoo can procure mild side effects or more severe depending on the initial state of health of the subject. Then a tattoo only after a careful history following the favorable opinion of the doctor and after a personal assessment aware. These initial objectives of a path bioethical-pedagogical significant.

  2. Sealing of transmitted-heat lines at wall piercings; Abdichtung von Fernwaermeleitungen in Mauerdurchfuehrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, A.; Ney, K. [Doyma GmbH und Co., Oyten (Germany)

    1998-04-01

    Flexible sealing systems are necessary to provide permanent protection of transmitted-heat pipe wall penetrations against the ingress of water. Unlike the rigid sealing methods in widespread use, flexible sealing systems are capable of absorbing thermally induced pipe movements and thus of preventing leaks around such piercings. The following article provides an introduction to the subject and offers practical suggestions for the ideal design of transmitted-heat pipe wall penetrations. Sealing system variants with a range of degrees of flexibility are discussed, in addition to measures which need to be taken into account as early as the installation of the pipe itself. Prime attention is devoted not to methods already practised, but to recent, potentially marketable developments. (orig.) [Deutsch] Um Mauerdurchfuehrungen von Fernwaermeleitungen dauerhaft gegen das Eindringen von Wasser zu schuetzen, sind flexible Abdichtsysteme notwendig. Im Gegensatz zu den verbreiteten starren Abdichtungsmethoden koennen flexible Systeme die thermisch bedingten Rohrbewegungen aufnehmen und damit Undichtigkeiten im Bereich der Durchfuehrungen verhindern. Der folgende Beitrag fuehrt in die Thematik ein und gibt praktische Hinweise, wie eine Mauerdurchfuehrung von Fernwaermeleitungen idealerweise gestaltet werden sollte. Neben Massnahmen, die bereits bei der Rohrverlegung zu beachten sind, werden Abdichtvarianten mit unterschiedlichem Flexibilitaetsgrad skizziert. Schwerpunkt der Untersuchung liegt hier nicht nur auf bereits bekannten Verfahren sondern auch auf marktfaehigen Neuentwicklungen. (orig.)

  3. Evidence of deepwater spawning of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): spawning near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2000-01-01

    Fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, thought to originate from Bonneville Hatchery, were first noted to be spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam by Washington Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (WDFW) biologists in 1993 (Hymer 1997). Known spawning areas include gravel beds on the Washington side of the river near Hamilton Creek and Ives island. Limited spawning ground surveys were conducted in the area around Ives and Pierce Islands during 1994-1997 and based on these surveys it was believed that fall chinook salmon successfully spawned in this area. The size of this population from 1994 to 1996 was estimated at 1,800 to 5,200 fish (Hymer 1997). Recently, chum salmon were also documented spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam. Chum salmon O. kisutch were listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March, 1999. There are several ongoing investigations to define the physical habitat characteristics associated with fall chinook and chum salmon spawning areas downstream of Bonneville Dam. A major concern is to determine what flows (i.e. surface elevations) are necessary to ensure their long-term survival. Our objective was to locate deepwater spawning locations in the main Columbia River channel and to collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at the site. This objective is consistent with the high priority that the Northwest Power Planning Council's Independent Advisory Board and the salmon managers have placed on determining the importance of mainstem habitats to the production of salmon in the Columbia River Basin

  4. Frequency characteristics of liquid hydrogen cavitating flow over a NACA0015 hydrofoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiakai; Wang, Shunhao; Qiu, Limin; Zhi, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Xiaobin

    2018-03-01

    Large eddy simulation on unsteady cavitating flow of liquid hydrogen over a three-dimensional NACA0015 hydrofoil with the attack angle (α) of 6° are carried out to investigate the dynamic features of cavity with the existence of thermal effects. The numerical model considers the compressibility of both liquid and vapor phase, and is validated by comparing the results with the available experimental data. Special emphasis is put on analyzing the frequency characteristics of cavitation cloud. Strouhal number (St) is plotted against σ/2α (σ is cavitation number), and the water cavitation data reported by Andrt et al. are also used as a reference. It is found that the St number for LH2 cavitation is much smaller than the water, in which the thermal effects are generally not considered, at the same σ/2α value when it is greater than about 2.0, while it returns to the same level as water when σ/2α decreases to below 2.0. The reason is primarily ascribed to the thermal effects, and the detailed explanations are given based on the recognitions that the shedding mechanism of cavitation clouds is predominated by the combined action of the vortex flow and thermal effects. While, when σ/2α decreases to a critical value, the relative effect of the thermal effects on the cavitation dynamics is greatly weakened compared with the mechanism due to the vortex flow, like those in isothermal cavitation flow in traditional fluids. The results provide a deeper understanding of the cryogenic fluid cavitation flow.

  5. CFD study of a NACA 63-415 aerofoil fitted with stall strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahle, F.; Soerensen, N.N.; Johansen, J.

    2002-09-01

    The present work describes a thorough investigation of 2D computations of the flow around a NACA 63-415 aerofoil fitted with stall strips (SS). A mesh study as well as a time step study is carried out and all computations are compared with experiments. Two different SS, 5mm and 7mm are investigated at several positions. Furthermore the influence of laminar to turbulent transition and the effect of a rounded SS were tested. There is not sufficient agreement between the experimental results and the simulations to draw any conclusions of optimum position and geometry of the SS. The 7mm SS's placed at P00 and P-02 has the greatest effect on the max lift followed by SS P02. The 5mm SS's does, as in the experiment, not change the lift curve noticeably. Even though this investigation does not conclusively succeed in verifying the experimental results with CFD, many useful conclusions can be drawn from the results. It is observed in the experiment that the vertical force fluctuates at higher angles of attack. This indicates that small bubbles are being shed off the profile causing the force to vary. This property is observed when transition is included in the model and also when the tip of the SS is rounded. From this result it could be concluded that the level of turbulence produced on the tip of the SS is very important for the development of the flow downstream. In the sharp tip calculations using fully turbulent computations, this is most likely too high, which resulted in the fine structures being damped out, with only one bubble appearing. (au)

  6. Clinical research of the obstructive interface morphology of the inferior vena cava and the method of choice for taking the 'pierce membrane'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Ning; Zu Maoheng; Xu Hao; Gu Yuming; Li Guojun; Zhang Qingqiao; Xu Wei; Liu Hongtao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relation between the morphology of the obstructive interface of the inferior vena cava (IVC)and the method of choice for taking the 'pierce membrane'. Methods: Interventional therapy was performed in 155 patients with obstruction of inferior vena cave during 2003-2005. The types of proximal part and distal end of obstruction were classified on the base of inferior vane cavography and divid[d into two groups accordingly. The principle of taking 'pierce membrane' whether as accending or descending route was decided by the morphology of the obstructive interface. The complication rates of taking 'pierce membrane' were compared between the two groups including one of 2003-2005 and another of 1990 -1997 as the control. Results: 155 cases were classified to 7 types according to morphology of inferior vena cava obstruction of the distal interface, the type of membrane with hole (32 cases), the dome type (50 cases), the taper type (17 cases), the horizontal type (13 cases), the inclination type (10 cases), the irregular type (19 eases)and the type of obstruction with communicating branches (14 cases). The morphologies of the proximal part of the obstruction were mainly divided into the type of membrane with hole, dome type, taper type and horizontal type. All the cases were successfully taken 'pierce membrane', without complication of pericardial effusion and abdominal bleeding. In control group of 150 Budd-Chiari syndrome cases with obstruction of inferior vena cava, the complications of taking 'pierce membrane' included mis puncture into pericardium (16 cases) and abdominal hemorrhage because of rupturing the inferior vena cava in 2 cases. Comparing the two groups, there was statistical significance with severe complications. Conclusions: 'Pierce membrane' interventional technique for the obstruction of inferior vena eava by coinciding the morphology of the obstructive interface with suitable piercing direction can not only raise successful

  7. Comparison of the effectiveness of seven amiloride congeners as inhibitors of Na/H and Na/Ca antiport in cultured smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.; Higgins, B.L.; Cragoe, E.J. Jr.; Smith, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The authors cultured smooth muscle cells from rat aorta and assayed Na/Ca antiport by measuring the initial rate of 45 Ca influx in Na-loaded cells. Na/H antiport was assayed by measuring the initial rate of 22 Na influx in acid-loaded cells. The external medium was the same for both assays except Na was 10 mM for Na/H antiport and O for the Na/Ca antiport assay. The dose of each congener that caused 50% inhibition (I 50 ) was calculated using a log-log median effect plot. The linear regression coefficients ranged from 0.916 to 0.998. Of all the compounds tested only dimethylbenzamil is more potent as an inhibitor of Na/Ca compared to Na/H antiport

  8. Three New Pierce's Disease Pathogenicity Effectors Identified Using Xylella fastidiosa Biocontrol Strain EB92-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujian; Chakrabarty, Pranjib K; Fleites, Laura A; Rayside, Patricia A; Hopkins, Donald L; Gabriel, Dean W

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa (X. fastidiosa) infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes economically serious diseases, including Pierce's Disease (PD) of grapevines. X. fastidiosa biocontrol strain EB92-1 was isolated from elderberry and is infectious and persistent in grapevines but causes only very slight symptoms under ideal conditions. The draft genome of EB92-1 revealed that it appeared to be missing genes encoding 10 potential PD pathogenicity effectors found in Temecula1. Subsequent PCR and sequencing analyses confirmed that EB92-1 was missing the following predicted effectors found in Temecula1: two type II secreted enzymes, including a lipase (LipA; PD1703) and a serine protease (PD0956); two identical genes encoding proteins similar to Zonula occludens toxins (Zot; PD0915 and PD0928), and at least one relatively short, hemagglutinin-like protein (PD0986). Leaves of tobacco and citrus inoculated with cell-free, crude protein extracts of E. coli BL21(DE3) overexpressing PD1703 exhibited a hypersensitive response (HR) in less than 24 hours. When cloned into shuttle vector pBBR1MCS-5, PD1703 conferred strong secreted lipase activity to Xanthomonas citri, E. coli and X. fastidiosa EB92-1 in plate assays. EB92-1/PD1703 transformants also showed significantly increased disease symptoms on grapevines, characteristic of PD. Genes predicted to encode PD0928 (Zot) and a PD0986 (hemagglutinin) were also cloned into pBBR1MCS-5 and moved into EB92-1; both transformants also showed significantly increased symptoms on V. vinifera vines, characteristic of PD. Together, these results reveal that PD effectors include at least a lipase, two Zot-like toxins and a possibly redundant hemagglutinin, none of which are necessary for parasitic survival of X. fastidiosa populations in grapevines or elderberry.

  9. Three New Pierce's Disease Pathogenicity Effectors Identified Using Xylella fastidiosa Biocontrol Strain EB92-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujian Zhang

    Full Text Available Xylella fastidiosa (X. fastidiosa infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes economically serious diseases, including Pierce's Disease (PD of grapevines. X. fastidiosa biocontrol strain EB92-1 was isolated from elderberry and is infectious and persistent in grapevines but causes only very slight symptoms under ideal conditions. The draft genome of EB92-1 revealed that it appeared to be missing genes encoding 10 potential PD pathogenicity effectors found in Temecula1. Subsequent PCR and sequencing analyses confirmed that EB92-1 was missing the following predicted effectors found in Temecula1: two type II secreted enzymes, including a lipase (LipA; PD1703 and a serine protease (PD0956; two identical genes encoding proteins similar to Zonula occludens toxins (Zot; PD0915 and PD0928, and at least one relatively short, hemagglutinin-like protein (PD0986. Leaves of tobacco and citrus inoculated with cell-free, crude protein extracts of E. coli BL21(DE3 overexpressing PD1703 exhibited a hypersensitive response (HR in less than 24 hours. When cloned into shuttle vector pBBR1MCS-5, PD1703 conferred strong secreted lipase activity to Xanthomonas citri, E. coli and X. fastidiosa EB92-1 in plate assays. EB92-1/PD1703 transformants also showed significantly increased disease symptoms on grapevines, characteristic of PD. Genes predicted to encode PD0928 (Zot and a PD0986 (hemagglutinin were also cloned into pBBR1MCS-5 and moved into EB92-1; both transformants also showed significantly increased symptoms on V. vinifera vines, characteristic of PD. Together, these results reveal that PD effectors include at least a lipase, two Zot-like toxins and a possibly redundant hemagglutinin, none of which are necessary for parasitic survival of X. fastidiosa populations in grapevines or elderberry.

  10. SPR Characteristics Curve and Distribution of Residual Stress in Self-Piercing Riveted Joints of Steel Sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Rezwanul; Wong, Yat C.; Paradowska, Anna; Blacket, Stuart; Durandet, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Neutron diffraction was used to describe the residual stress distributions in self-piercing riveted (SPR) joints. The sheet material displayed a compressive residual stress near the joint, and the stress gradually became tensile in the sheet material far away from the joint. The stress in the rivet leg was lower in the thick joint of the softer steel sheet than in the thin joint of the harder steel sheet. This lower magnitude was attributed to the lower force gradient during the rivet flaring...

  11. [Tatoos, piercing: body art? Body damage? Debasement of the body or return to a primitive way of life?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grognard, C

    2006-01-01

    Tatoos and piercing, though they might appear as something like a trend, if not a craze, remain for a majority minority and even fringe practices. For the adolescent, questing for his identity (no more a child, not yet an adult), the tegmental sign is a way of engraving in the flesh dramatic events of his existence. The body mark is a search for independence, a symbolic attainment of self-reliance, a way of severing the umbilical cord and of asserting oneself. In face of a life no longer under control, the body is an object at hand, on which self-will is almost unbridled... These body modifications testify to change.

  12. Modification of the pierce instability of the electron flow in a diode with an external electromagnetic action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melezhik, O.G.; Pashchenko, A.V.; Romanov, S.S.; Shapoval, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    The stability of electron flow passage through the diode with a neutralized space charge has been investigated on the basis of the first-order approximation for hydrodynamic and Maxwell equations. Classification of solutions to the equations was developed in accordance with the magnitude and nature (potential or eddy) of the electric field arising at the diode cathode. The stability regions for these states have been found. It is shown that the presence of external electromagnetic action makes the stability region narrower than that predicted by Pierce.

  13. [Body modifications and sexual health : Impact of tattoos, body piercing and esthetic genital plastic surgery on the sexual health of women and men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirn, Aglaja Valentina; Zannoni, Ronja

    2017-09-01

    The present paper addresses the psychological impact of body modifications (e.g. tattoos, body piercing and esthetic genital plastic surgery) on the sexual health of individuals and refers to past and present research insights. Body modifications are understood as invasive interventions on the human body, especially interventions on the human skin which result in (semi-)permanent changes. Tattoos and body piercing (in particular genital piercing) positively affect the sexual satisfaction and the sexual appeal of men and women but there is a controversial association with high risk sexual behavior. Moreover, this article focuses on esthetic genital plastic surgery based on the increasing interest and insights of the impact on female genital self-perception and sexual behavior.

  14. Tatuajes y piercing: consideraciones sobre el alcance de una ordenanza municipal en la ciudad de Córdoba Tattoos and piercing: considerations about the scope of a municipal statue in Cordoba city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J M Verduzco

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Las ordenanzas municipales son herramientas legales, a través de las cuales los municipios o comunas ejercen un control sobre diversas actividades, algunas de las cuales como el caso de la práctica de tatuajes y piercing, pueden ser nocivas para la salud. La Municipalidad de Córdoba a través de la Ordenanza Nº 10962, sancionada el 6 de Octubre de 2005, intenta controlar esta ancestral práctica realizada sobre la piel humana. El presente trabajo tiene como finalidad analizar el articulado de esta Ordenanza y hacer algunas consideraciones sobre su utilidad en la prevención de enfermedades.Municipal statues are legal tools ratified by the municipal legislative power, stablishing rules in the corresponding scope. This rules have the aim of regulating different activities, over which the Municipality police power is excercised. Many of this activities are related to public health, because they can cause diseases in the population exposed to them. The practice of tattoing and piercing is one of this activities able to cause diseases. Due to this fact, the Municipality of Córdoba has sanctioned statue 10962 in order to control this ancestral practice.

  15. Piercing to the Pith of the Body: The Evolution of Body Mandala and Tantric Corporeality in Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rae Erin Dachille

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Buddhist tantric practitioners embrace the liminal status of the human body to manifest divine identity. In piercing to the pith of human embodiment, the tantric practitioner reconfigures the shape and contours of his/her reality. This article investigates the evolution of one particular technique for piercing to the pith of the body on Tibetan soil, a ritual practice known as body mandala [lus dkyil Skt. deha-maṇḍala]. In particular, it uncovers a significant shift of emphasis in the application of the Guhyasamāja body mandala practice initiated by champions of the emerging Gandenpa [Dga’ ldan pa] or Gelukpa [Dge lugs pa] tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, Tsongkhapa (1357–1419 and Mkhas grub rje (1385–1438. This article reveals some of the radical implications of ritual exegesis, ranging from the socioreligious aspects of securing prestige for a tradition to the ultimate soteriological goals of modifying the boundaries between life and death and ordinary and enlightened embodiment.

  16. Purinergic receptors stimulate Na+/Ca2+ exchange in pancreatic duct cells: possible role of proteins handling and transporting Ca2+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette R; Krabbe, Simon; Ankorina-Stark, Ieva

    2009-01-01

    ). Since NCX can also be connected with epithelial Ca(2+) transport, we also investigated expression of some Ca(2+)-handling/transporting proteins. Expression analysis revealed that pancreatic ducts of rat and human duct cell line CFPAC-1 (also PANC-1 and Capan-1) express the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (splice...

  17. Intracellular [Ca2+] and Vo2 after manipulation of the free-energy of the Na+/Ca(2+)-exchanger in isolated rat ventricular myocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiolet, J. W.; Baartscheer, A.; Schumacher, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated whether the Na+/Ca(2+)-exchanger has a functional regulatory role in the control of oxidative metabolism in suspensions of isolated rat ventricular myocytes. Therefore we simultaneously measured intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) with Indo-1 and respiratory rate (Vo2) after abrupt

  18. Tests of Nacelle-Propeller Combinations in Various Positions with Reference to Wings V : Clark Y Biplane Cellule - NACA Cowled Nacelle - Tractor Propeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, E Floyd

    1935-01-01

    This report is the fifth of a series giving the results obtained from wind tunnel tests on the interference drag and propulsive efficiency of nacelle-propeller-wing combinations. This report gives results of tests of an NACA cowled air-cooled engine nacelle with tractor propeller located in 12 positions with reference to a Clark Y biplane cellule.

  19. Potentiation of lead-induced cell death in PC12 cells by glutamate: Protection by N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), a novel thiol antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penugonda, Suman; Mare, Suneetha; Lutz, P.; Banks, William A.; Ercal, Nuran

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated as an important factor in many neurological diseases. Oxidative toxicity in a number of these conditions is induced by excessive glutamate release and subsequent glutamatergic neuronal stimulation. This, in turn, causes increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and neuronal damage. Recent studies indicate that the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system is involved in lead-induced neurotoxicity. Therefore, this study aimed to (1) investigate the potential effects of glutamate on lead-induced PC12 cell death and (2) elucidate whether the novel thiol antioxidant N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) had any protective abilities against such cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that glutamate (1 mM) potentiates lead-induced cytotoxicity by increased generation of ROS, decreased proliferation (MTS), decreased glutathione (GSH) levels, and depletion of cellular adenosine-triphosphate (ATP). Consistent with its ability to decrease ATP levels and induce cell death, lead also increased caspase-3 activity, an effect potentiated by glutamate. Exposure to glutamate and lead elevated the cellular malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and phospholipase-A 2 (PLA 2 ) activity and diminished the glutamine synthetase (GS) activity. NACA protected PC12 cells from the cytotoxic effects of glutamate plus lead, as evaluated by MTS assay. NACA reduced the decrease in the cellular ATP levels and restored the intracellular GSH levels. The increased levels of ROS and MDA in glutamate-lead treated cells were significantly decreased by NACA. In conclusion, our data showed that glutamate potentiated the effects of lead-induced PC12 cell death by a mechanism involving mitochondrial dysfunction (ATP depletion) and oxidative stress. NACA had a protective role against the combined toxic effects of glutamate and lead by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and scavenging ROS, thus preserving intracellular GSH

  20. Global Pressure and Temperature Surface Measurements on a NACA 0012 Airfoil in Oscillatory Compressible Flow at Low Reduced Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    clc close all clear all% tic %% for looping for dateN= 1:2 %% pick a date if dateN==1 date=󈧏.21.11’ runS=2; runE =28...else date=󈧏.23.11’ runS=1; runE =32; end %% for looping for run=runS:runE %% Number of images per run ImageE...date=󈧏.21.11’ runS=2; runE =28; ImageE=[0 100 59 59 59 59 100 59 59 59 59 59 100 59 59 59 59 100 59 59 59 59 100 59 59 59 59 100 0 0 0 0

  1. Lyapunov spectrum of the separated flow around the NACA 0012 airfoil and its dependence on numerical discretization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, P.; Wang, Q.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the impact of numerical discretization on the Lyapunov spectrum of separated flow simulations. The two-dimensional chaotic flow around the NACA 0012 airfoil at a low Reynolds number and large angle of attack is considered to that end. Time, space and accuracy-order refinement studies are performed to examine each of these effects separately. Numerical results show that the time discretization has a small impact on the dynamics of the system, whereas the spatial discretization can dramatically change them. Also, the finite-time Lyapunov exponents associated to unstable modes are shown to be positively skewed, and quasi-homoclinic tangencies are observed in the attractor of the system. The implications of these results on flow physics and sensitivity analysis of chaotic flows are discussed.

  2. Lyapunov spectrum of the separated flow around the NACA 0012 airfoil and its dependence on numerical discretization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, P.; Wang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the impact of numerical discretization on the Lyapunov spectrum of separated flow simulations. The two-dimensional chaotic flow around the NACA 0012 airfoil at a low Reynolds number and large angle of attack is considered to that end. Time, space and accuracy-order refinement studies are performed to examine each of these effects separately. Numerical results show that the time discretization has a small impact on the dynamics of the system, whereas the spatial discretization can dramatically change them. Also, the finite-time Lyapunov exponents associated to unstable modes are shown to be positively skewed, and quasi-homoclinic tangencies are observed in the attractor of the system. The implications of these results on flow physics and sensitivity analysis of chaotic flows are discussed.

  3. Modulation of contraction by intracellular Na+ via Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange in single shark (Squalus acanthias) ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näbauer, M; Morad, M

    1992-01-01

    1. The effect of direct alteration of intracellular Na+ concentration on contractile properties of whole-cell clamped shark ventricular myocytes was studied using an array of 256 photodiodes to monitor the length of the isolated myocytes. 2. In myocytes dialysed with Na(+)-free solution, the voltage dependence of Ca2+ current (ICa) and contraction were similar and bell shaped. Contractions activated at all voltages were completely suppressed by nifedipine (5 microM), and failed to show significant tonic components, suggesting dependence of the contraction on Ca2+ influx through the L-type Ca2+ channel. 3. In myocytes dialysed with 60 mM Na+, a ICa-dependent and a ICa-independent component of contraction could be identified. The Ca2+ current-dependent component was prominent in voltages between -30 to +10 mV. The ICa-independent contractions were maintained for the duration of depolarization, increased with increasing depolarization between +10 to +100 mV, and were insensitive to nifedipine. 4. In such myocytes, repolarization produced slowly decaying inward tail currents closely related to the time course of relaxation and the degree of shortening prior to repolarization. 5. With 60 mM Na+ in the pipette solution, positive clamp potentials activated decaying outward currents which correlated to the size of contraction. These outward currents appeared to be generated by the Na(+)-Ca(2+)-exchanger since they depended on the presence of intracellular Na+, and were neither suppressed by nifedipine nor by K+ channel blockers. 6. The results suggest that in shark (Squalus acanthias) ventricular myocytes, which lack functionally relevant Ca2+ release pools, both Ca2+ channel and the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger deliver sufficient Ca2+ to activate contraction, though the effectiveness of the latter mechanism was highly dependent on the [Na+]i. PMID:1338467

  4. Educational Objectives and the Learning Domains: A New Formulation [And] Summary: Pierce-Gray Classification Model for the Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Charles E.; Pierce, Walter D.

    This paper examines and summarizes the "Pierce-Gray Classification Model for the Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Domains," a model developed for the classification of educational objectives. The classification system was developed to provide a framework that teachers could use as a guide when developing specific instructional objectives for…

  5. A Reassessment of George Pierce Baker's "The Principles of Argumentation": Minimizing the Use of Formal Logic in Favor of Practical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordelon, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author demonstrated how recent histories relied primarily on previous accounts and one textbook to characterize George Pierce Baker's work. This narrow assessment of "The Principles of Argumentation" limits one's understanding of his contribution to argumentation theory and pedagogy. Similarly, one has seen the need for care…

  6. A systematic review of animal predation creating pierced shells: implications for the archaeological record of the Old World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicka, Anna Maria; Rosin, Zuzanna M; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Nelson, Emma

    2017-01-01

    The shells of molluscs survive well in many sedimentary contexts and yield information about the diet of prehistoric humans. They also yield evidence of symbolic behaviours through their use as beads for body adornments. Researchers often analyse the location of perforations in shells to make judgements about their use as symbolic objects (e.g., beads), the assumption being that holes attributable to deliberate human behaviour are more likely to exhibit low variability in their anatomical locations, while holes attributable to natural processes yield more random perforations. However, there are non-anthropogenic factors that can cause perforations in shells and these may not be random. The aim of the study is compare the variation in holes in shells from archaeological sites from the Old World with the variation of holes in shells pierced by mollusc predators. Three hundred and sixteen scientific papers were retrieved from online databases by using keywords, (e.g., 'shell beads'; 'pierced shells'; 'drilling predators'); 79 of these publications enabled us to conduct a systematic review to qualitatively assess the location of the holes in the shells described in the published articles. In turn, 54 publications were used to assess the location of the holes in the shells made by non-human predators. Almost all archaeological sites described shells with holes in a variety of anatomical locations. High variation of hole-placement was found within the same species from the same site, as well as among sites. These results contrast with research on predatory molluscs, which tend to be more specific in where they attacked their prey. Gastropod and bivalve predators choose similar hole locations to humans. Based on figures in the analysed articles, variation in hole-location on pierced shells from archaeological sites was similar to variation in the placement of holes created by non-human animals. Importantly, we found that some predators choose similar hole locations to

  7. SPR Characteristics Curve and Distribution of Residual Stress in Self-Piercing Riveted Joints of Steel Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezwanul Haque

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron diffraction was used to describe the residual stress distributions in self-piercing riveted (SPR joints. The sheet material displayed a compressive residual stress near the joint, and the stress gradually became tensile in the sheet material far away from the joint. The stress in the rivet leg was lower in the thick joint of the softer steel sheet than in the thin joint of the harder steel sheet. This lower magnitude was attributed to the lower force gradient during the rivet flaring stage of the SPR process curve. This study shows how the residual stress results may be related to the physical occurrences that happened during joining, using the characteristics curve. The study also shows that neutron diffraction technique enabled a crack in the rivet tip to be detected which was not apparent from a cross-section.

  8. Belly button piercings: a saving grace? A patent urachus presenting in a 17-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Aidan; Black, Patrick; Turner, Joanna; Gray, Sam; Kirk, Stephen

    2014-06-10

    We report the case of a 17-year-old girl who presented to the accident and emergency department with dysuria and foul smelling, bloody discharge from her umbilicus. The definitive diagnosis was that of a patent urachus, which is a fistulous communication between the bladder and the umbilicus, usually diagnosed in early infancy. The incidence of a patent urachus is approximately 1 in 70,000 in the general population. It is highly likely that removal of a recent belly button piercing resulted in the acute presentation by completing the fistulous tract to the skin. This case is of clinical relevance as the diagnosis was missed 18 months prior with a milder presentation. The recommended treatment option is surgical excision due to the potential risk of malignant change, with urachal adenocarcinoma accounting for 0.3% of all bladder cancers. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Na+/Ca2+ exchanger inhibition exerts a positive inotropic effect in the rat heart, but fails to influence the contractility of the rabbit heart

    OpenAIRE

    Farkas, A S; Acsai, K; Nagy, N; Tóth, A; Fülöp, F; Seprényi, G; Birinyi, P; Nánási, P P; Forster, T; Csanády, M; Papp, J G; Varró, A; Farkas, A

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: The Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) may play a key role in myocardial contractility. The operation of the NCX is affected by the action potential (AP) configuration and the intracellular Na+ concentration. This study examined the effect of selective NCX inhibition by 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 μM SEA0400 on the myocardial contractility in the setting of different AP configurations and different intracellular Na+ concentrations in rabbit and rat hearts.

  10. Airfoil Trailing Edge Noise Generation and Its Surface Pressure Fluctuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of turbulent flows over a NACA 0015 airfoil is performed. The purpose of such numerical study is to relate the aerodynamic surface pressure with the noise generation. The results from LES are validated against detailed surface pressure measurements...... where the time history pressure data are recorded by the surface pressure microphones. After the flow-field is stabilized, the generated noise from the airfoil Trailing Edge (TE) is predicted using the acoustic analogy solver, where the results from LES are the input. It is found that there is a strong...

  11. Bacteria, taxonomic code, and other data collected from G.W. PIERCE in North Atlantic Ocean from sediment sampler; 20 February 1976 to 23 March 1976 (NODC Accession 7601642)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacteria, taxonomic code, and other data were collected using sediment sampler and other instruments in the North Atlantic Ocean from G.W. PIERCE. Data were...

  12. PERANCANGAN TURBIN ARUS LAUT UNTUK DAERAH PESISIR PANTAI TIPE KOBOLD DENGAN BILAH HLIFT DAN NACA 0018 YANG DIMODIFIKASI DENGAN COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMIC (CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Trimulyono

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sebagai negara dengan wilayah lautan yang cukup besar membuat Indonesia memiliki potensi untuk mengembangkan energi alternatif yang meliputi antara lain energi panas laut, energi arus akibat pasang surut, energi gelombang laut dan energi arus laut. Selain ramah lingkungan, energi yang dibangkitkan dari arus laut membutuhkan alat konversi yang kecil, tidak bising, memiliki densitas yang tinggi dibandingkan angin. Menurut sistem pembangkitan energi laut yang ada terbagi menjadi dua yaitu sistem turbin dan non turbin (Khan et al,2008.Turbin  Darrieus adalah salah satu tipe turbin penggerak vertikal axis sedangkan bilah yang digunakan adalah NACA simetris(0012 dan 0018. Turbin tipe ini memiliki permasalahan tersendiri dalam start awal/self starting( Brian,2008,  dibandingkan Turbin Kobold yang menggunakan bilah tipe HLIFT  yang dikembangkan untuk penggunaan dalam air(Coiro et al,2005 memiliki kinerja yang lebih baik. Modifikasi dengan cara memberi flap pada tralling edgenya memiliki pengaruh yang singnifikan terhadap torsi statik berkisar 35% kenaikan yang terjadi dibandingkan dengan tanpa flap (Tabassum,1987. Untuk mendapatkan performansi tersebut maka penelitian ini bermaksud memodifikasi bilah HLIFT dan NACA dengan cara memvariasi ketebalan,kelengkungan camber serta panjang bilah diharapkan hasil dari memodifikasi bilah ini dapat menghasilkan varian baru dari untuk turbin arus tipe vertical axis. Penelitian ini bermaksud mengetahui performansi modifikasi bilah HLIFT  maupun NACA berdasarkan variasi ketebalan,camber dan panjang bilah tersebut dengan menggunakan metode numerik yaitu Computational Fluid Dynamics( CFD . Hasil simulasi numerik menunjukkan performansi terbaik untuk satu foil HLIFT ditunjukkan pada modifikasi kelengkungan camber ke empat nilai CL,CD serta rasio CL/CD dan untuk NACA 0018 ditunjukkan oleh tunggal ditunjukkan pada modifikasi penambahan panjang chord ketiga yaitu panjang chord + 15%. Setelah modifikasi Torsi poros

  13. Na/Ca Intermixing around Silicate and Phosphate Groups in Bioactive Phosphosilicate Glasses Revealed by Heteronuclear Solid-State NMR and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Renny; Stevensson, Baltzar; Edén, Mattias

    2015-04-30

    We characterize the intermixing of network-modifying Na(+)/Ca(2+) ions around the silicate (QSi(n)) and phosphate (QP(n)) tetrahedra in a series of 16 Na2O–CaO–SiO2–P2O5 glasses, whose P content and silicate network connectivity were varied independently. The set includes both bioactive and bioinactive compositions and also encompasses two soda-lime-silicate members devoid of P, as well as two CaO–SiO2 glasses and one Na2O–SiO2–P2O5 glass. The various Si/P↔Na/Ca contacts were probed by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations together with heteronuclear magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experimentation utilizing (23)Na{(31)P} and (23)Na{(29)Si} REDOR, as well as (31)P{ (23)Na} and (29)Si{(23)Na} REAPDOR. We introduce an approach for quantifying the extent of Na(+)/Ca(2+) ordering around a given QP(n) or QSi(n) group, encoded by the preference factor 0⩽ PM ⩽ 1 conveying the relative weights of a random cation intermixing (PM = 0) and complete preference/ordering (PM = 1) for one of the species M, which represents either Na(+) or Ca(2+). The MD-derived preference factors reveal phosphate and silicate species surrounded by Na(+)/Ca(2+) ions intermixed nearly randomly (PM ≲ 0.15), except for the QSi(4) and QSi(1) groups, which manifest more significant cation ordering with preference for Na+ and Ca2+, respectively. The overall weak preferences are essentially independent of the Si and P contents of the glass, whereas PM primarily correlates with the total amount of network modifiers: as the latter is increased, the Na/Ca distribution around the {QP(0), QSi(1), QSi(2)} groups with preference for Ca2(+ )tend to randomize (i.e., PCa decreases), while the PNa-values grow slightly for the {QP(1), QSi(3), QSi(4)} species already preferring coordination of Na. The set of experimental preference factors {PCa} for the orthophosphate (QP(0)) groups extracted from (31)P{(23)Na} REAPDOR NMR-derived M2(P–Na) dipolar second moments agrees

  14. Body piercing and tattoo: awareness of health related risks among 4,277 Italian secondary school adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The awareness of health risks associated with body art among secondary school pupils has never previously been studied in depth. A large sample of secondary school adolescents from the Veneto Region (North East Italy) were investigated in order to inform health education programs. Methods 6 public secondary schools from each of the 7 Provinces of the Veneto Region were selected. All students attending the 1st, 3rd, and 5th school years were surveyed by an anonymous self administered questionnaire on their perception of health risks related to body art and other explanatory variables. Logistic regression analysis was employed, reporting adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Results Among 4,277 available students (aged 14-22 years), boys were consistently: less knowledgeable of infectious diseases related to body art (OR = 0.78; CI: 0.66, 0.94), less likely to be aware of the hygienic norms to be observed in a body art parlour (OR = 0.54; 0.44, 0.65), less likely to refer to a certified body art parlour (OR = 0.56; 0.48, 0.66), less likely to refer to a professional health care provider for complications related to body art (OR = 0.71; 0.59, 0.86). Students attending the first school year (baseline) had a lesser knowledge of body art related infectious diseases, were less likely to refer to a certified body art parlour, and to know the mandatory hygienic rules to be observed when performing body modifications. Interviewees from the provinces of Rovigo and Vicenza were less likely to be conscious of the health risks associated with body modifications, and those with tattoos were less knowledgeable about the infection risk (OR = 0.60; 0.42, 0.86) and less likely to refer to a professional health care provider in case of medical complication (OR = 0.68;0.48, 0.95). Students with piercings were less likely to refer to a certified practitioner for receiving body art (OR = 0.62; 0.50, 0.77) or therapy for medical complications (OR = 0

  15. Body piercing and tattoo: awareness of health related risks among 4,277 Italian secondary school adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzoleni Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The awareness of health risks associated with body art among secondary school pupils has never previously been studied in depth. A large sample of secondary school adolescents from the Veneto Region (North East Italy were investigated in order to inform health education programs. Methods 6 public secondary schools from each of the 7 Provinces of the Veneto Region were selected. All students attending the 1st, 3rd, and 5th school years were surveyed by an anonymous self administered questionnaire on their perception of health risks related to body art and other explanatory variables. Logistic regression analysis was employed, reporting adjusted Odds Ratios (OR with 95% Confidence Interval (CI. Results Among 4,277 available students (aged 14-22 years, boys were consistently: less knowledgeable of infectious diseases related to body art (OR = 0.78; CI: 0.66, 0.94, less likely to be aware of the hygienic norms to be observed in a body art parlour (OR = 0.54; 0.44, 0.65, less likely to refer to a certified body art parlour (OR = 0.56; 0.48, 0.66, less likely to refer to a professional health care provider for complications related to body art (OR = 0.71; 0.59, 0.86. Students attending the first school year (baseline had a lesser knowledge of body art related infectious diseases, were less likely to refer to a certified body art parlour, and to know the mandatory hygienic rules to be observed when performing body modifications. Interviewees from the provinces of Rovigo and Vicenza were less likely to be conscious of the health risks associated with body modifications, and those with tattoos were less knowledgeable about the infection risk (OR = 0.60; 0.42, 0.86 and less likely to refer to a professional health care provider in case of medical complication (OR = 0.68;0.48, 0.95. Students with piercings were less likely to refer to a certified practitioner for receiving body art (OR = 0.62; 0.50, 0.77 or therapy for medical

  16. Predicted Aerodynamic Characteristics of a NACA 0015 Airfoil Having a 25% Integral-Type Trailing Edge Flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ahmed

    1999-01-01

    Using the two-dimensional ARC2D Navier-Stokes flow solver analyses were conducted to predict the sectional aerodynamic characteristics of the flapped NACA-0015 airfoil section. To facilitate the analyses and the generation of the computational grids, the airfoil with the deflected trailing edge flap was treated as a single element airfoil with no allowance for a gap between the flap's leading edge and the base of the forward portion of the airfoil. Generation of the O-type computational grids was accomplished using the HYGRID hyperbolic grid generation program. Results were obtained for a wide range of Mach numbers, angles of attack and flap deflections. The predicted sectional lift, drag and pitching moment values for the airfoil were then cast in tabular format (C81) to be used in lifting-line helicopter rotor aerodynamic performance calculations. Similar were also generated for the flap. Mathematical expressions providing the variation of the sectional lift and pitching moment coefficients for the airfoil and for the flap as a function of flap chord length and flap deflection angle were derived within the context of thin airfoil theory. The airfoil's sectional drag coefficient were derived using the ARC2D drag predictions for equivalent two dimensional flow conditions.

  17. The potential of hybrid micro-vortex generators to control flow separation of NACA 4415 airfoil in subsonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumahadi, Muhammad Taufiq; Saad, Mohd Rashdan; Idris, Azam Che; Sujipto, Suriyadi; Rahman, Mohd Rosdzimin Abdul

    2018-02-01

    Boundary layer separation is detrimental to the lift and drag of most aeronautical applications. Many vortex generators (VG), both passive and active have been designed to reduce these drawbacks. This study targets to investigate the effectiveness of hybrid micro-VGs, which combine both active and passive micro-VGs in controlling separation under subsonic conditions. NACA 4415 airfoils installed with passive, active and hybrid micro-VGs each are designed, 3D printed, and tested in a wind tunnel at 26.19 m/s under Re = 2.5x105. The lift and drag measurements from a 3-component force balance prove that hybrid micro-VGs increase lift by up to 21.2%, increase drag by more than 11.3% and improve lift-to-drag ratio by at least 8.6% until up to 33.7%. From this research, it is believed that hybrid micro-VGs are competitive to the performance of active VGs and a better configuration is to be considered to reduce parasitic drag and outstand active VGs.

  18. Ballistic Limit of High-Strength Steel and Al7075-T6 Multi-Layered Plates Under 7.62-mm Armour Piercing Projectile Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, N. A.; Abdullah, S.; Zamri, W. F. H.; Abdullah, M. F.; Omar, M. Z.; Sajuri, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the computational-based ballistic limit of laminated metal panels comprised of high strength steel and aluminium alloy Al7075-T6 plate at different thickness combinations to necessitate the weight reduction of existing armour steel plate. The numerical models of monolithic configuration, double-layered configuration and triple-layered configuration were developed using a commercial explicit finite element code and were impacted by 7.62 mm armour piercing projectil...

  19. High frequency microphone measurements for transition detection on airfoils. NACA-0015 appendix report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Mads

    Time series of pressure fluctuations has been obtained using high frequency microphones distributed over the surface of airfoils undergoing wind tunnel tests in the LM Windtunnel, owned by ’LM Glasfiber’, Denmark. The present report describes the dataanalysis, with special attention given to tran...

  20. Seed Treatment Combined with a Spot Application of Clothianidin Granules Prolongs the Efficacy of Controlling Piercing-Sucking Insect Pests in Cotton Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengqun; Zhao, Yunhe; Wang, Yao; Li, Beixing; Lin, Jin; Zhang, Xuefeng; Mu, Wei

    2017-09-13

    Seed treatments can directly protect cotton from early season piercing-sucking insect Aphis gossypii Glover but hardly provide long-term protection against Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür). Therefore, the efficacy of clothianidin seed treatments combined with spot applications of clothianidin granules at the bud stage of cotton was evaluated to control piercing-sucking pests during the entire cotton growing season. Clothianidin seed treatments (at the rate of 4 g ai/kg seed) combined with a clothianidin granular treatment (even at low rate of 0.9 kg ai/ha) at the bud stage can effectively suppress A. gossypii and A. lucorum infestations throughout the seedling and blooming stages after planting and can improve cotton yield. The spot application of clothianidin granules also reduced the population densities of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). The dynamic changes of clothianidin residues demonstrated that the control efficacy of clothianidin against A. gossypii and A. lucorum might be related to the residues of this neonicotinoid in cotton leaves. This pest management practice provided long-term protection against cotton piercing-sucking pests for the entire growing season of cotton plants and could supplement the short-term control efficiency of clothianidin used as a seed treatment.

  1. Cross-Calibrating Sunspot Magnetic Field Strength Measurements from the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Dunn Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Fraser T.; Beck, Christian; Penn, Matthew J.; Tritschler, Alexandra; Pillet, Valentín Martinez; Livingston, William C.

    2015-11-01

    In this article we describe a recent effort to cross-calibrate data from an infrared detector at the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Facility InfraRed Spectropolarimeter (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope. A synoptic observation program at the McMath-Pierce has measured umbral magnetic field strengths since 1998, and this data set has recently been compared with umbral magnetic field observations from SOHO/MDI and SDO/HMI. To further improve on the data from McMath-Pierce, we compared the data with measurements taken at the Dunn Solar Telescope with far greater spectral resolution than has been possible with space instrumentation. To minimise potential disruption to the study, concurrent umbral measurements were made so that the relationship between the two datasets can be most accurately characterised. We find that there is a strong agreement between the umbral magnetic field strengths recorded by each instrument, and we reduced the FIRS data in two different ways to successfully test this correlation further.

  2. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingyun; Zaini, Paulo A; Hoch, Harvey C; Burr, Thomas J; Mowery, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.). In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D) structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility.

  3. Men are innocent until proven guilty: a comment on the examination of sex differences by Pierce and Kirkpatrick (1992).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickersgill, M J; Arrindell, W A

    1994-01-01

    Pierce and Kirkpatrick (1992, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 30, 415-418) addressed the finding that men reported lower levels of fear than women in response to specific fear items and concluded on the basis of their experiment that this was because the men were lying. Their conclusion is questioned on various grounds, including inappropriate statistical analyses, inadequate treatment of physiological data, failure to address the possibility of sample selection bias (signalled by the high drop-out rate) and the inadequacy of self-assessed fear measures based on a small number of single items. An alternative interpretation of their data is offered, based on the inverse correlation between initial response level and size of increment, demonstrable in their study in males but not in females. It is argued here that the increments may have been due to anticipatory arousal, a mediating factor that would also account for the facilitation of generalization between certain specific items. It is further suggested that, if this explanation is correct, the men were acting with more rather than less honesty, and it may on the other hand be the reports of the females that were affected by their sex-role stereotype. Another possible explanation of the findings is discussed. If men relatively high in masculinity had a greater tendency to drop out, the experimental sample at the second testing would be biased towards men relatively low in masculinity and reporting higher fear levels.

  4. Hibiscus latent Fort Pierce virus in Brazil and synthesis of its biologically active full-length cDNA clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruimin; Niu, Shengniao; Dai, Weifang; Kitajima, Elliot; Wong, Sek-Man

    2016-10-01

    A Brazilian isolate of Hibiscus latent Fort Pierce virus (HLFPV-BR) was firstly found in a hibiscus plant in Limeira, SP, Brazil. RACE PCR was carried out to obtain the full-length sequences of HLFPV-BR which is 6453 nucleotides and has more than 99.15 % of complete genomic RNA nucleotide sequence identity with that of HLFPV Japanese isolate. The genomic structure of HLFPV-BR is similar to other tobamoviruses. It includes a 5' untranslated region (UTR), followed by open reading frames encoding for a 128-kDa protein and a 188-kDa readthrough protein, a 38-kDa movement protein, 18-kDa coat protein, and a 3' UTR. Interestingly, the unique feature of poly(A) tract is also found within its 3'-UTR. Furthermore, from the total RNA extracted from the local lesions of HLFPV-BR-infected Chenopodium quinoa leaves, a biologically active, full-length cDNA clone encompassing the genome of HLFPV-BR was amplified and placed adjacent to a T7 RNA polymerase promoter. The capped in vitro transcripts from the cloned cDNA were infectious when mechanically inoculated into C. quinoa and Nicotiana benthamiana plants. This is the first report of the presence of an isolate of HLFPV in Brazil and the successful synthesis of a biologically active HLFPV-BR full-length cDNA clone.

  5. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Hao

    Full Text Available Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce's disease (PD of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.. In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility.

  6. Na+/Ca2+ exchange inhibitor, KB-R7943, attenuates contrast-induced acute 
kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dingwei; Yang, Dingping; Jia, Ruhan; Tan, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular Ca2+ overload is considered to be a key factor in contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). The Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) system is one of the main pathways of intracellular Ca2+ overload. We investigated the effects of KB-R7943, an inhibitor of the reverse mode of NCX, on CI-AKI in a rat model. Rats were divided into control group, CI-AKI group and pretreatment groups (with KB-R7943 dose of 5 or 10 mg/kg). CI-AKI was induced by diatrizoate administration in rats with cholesterol-supplemented diet for 8 weeks. Renal function and renal hemodynamics were determined 1 day following contrast medium administration. Renal histopathology was observed by light microscope. Renal tubular apoptosis was examined by TUNEL. Renal endothelin-1 (ET-1) was measured by radioimmunoassay. Renal malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase (CAT) were measured as oxidative markers. Levels of serum creatinine (Scr), renal ET-1, MDA and CAT, and resistance index (RI) of renal blood vessels increased significantly in CI-AKI rats. The 
increases in Scr and RI of renal blood vessels induced by diatrizoate were suppressed significantly and 
dose-dependently by pretreatment with KB-R7943. Histopathological and TUNEL results showed that 
the contrast medium-induced severe renal tubular 
necrosis and apoptosis were significantly and dose-dependently attenuated by KB-R7943. KB-R7943 significantly suppressed the increment of renal ET-1 content and MDA and CAT level induced by contrast medium administration. Activation of the reverse mode of NCX, followed by ET-1 overproduction and increased oxidative stress, seems to play an important role in the pathogenesis of CI-AKI. The inhibitor of the reverse mode of NCX, KB-R7943, has renoprotective effects on CI-AKI.

  7. Tests of three tapered airfoils based on the N.A.C.A. 2200, the N.A.C.A.-M6, and the Clark Y sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Raymond F

    1934-01-01

    Three tapered airfoils based on the N.A.C.A. 2200, the N.A.C.A.-M6, and the Clark Y sections were tested in the variable-density wind tunnel at a Reynolds Number of approximately 3,100,000. The models, which were of aspect ratio 6, had constant core center sections and rounded tips, and tapered in thickness from 18 percent at the roots to 9 percent at the tips. The aerodynamic characteristics are given by the usual dimensionless coefficients plotted for both positive and negative angles of attack and by effective profile-drag coefficients plotted against lift coefficients.

  8. Análisis CFD sobre la influencia de la solidez en aerogeneradores H-Darrieus con perfiles asimétricos NACA 7425

    OpenAIRE

    Rivero Sánchez, Alonso

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo de fin de grado es un estudio CFD de un aerogenerador de eje vertical tipo H-Darrieus de pequeñas dimensiones, compuesto por tres álabes con perfiles asimétricos NACA 7425. El objetivo principal es analizar la influencia de la solidez en un aerogenerador con estas características, para ello se estudiaran diferentes modelos posibles, rotor completo y perfiles estáticos. En la práctica se han realizado diversas simulaciones para llegar a obtener las curvas características de...

  9. Relationship Between Piercing-Sucking Insect Control and Internal Lint and Seed Rot in Southeastern Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Enrique G; Bell, Alois A; Greene, Jeremy K; Roberts, Phillip M; Bacheler, Jack S; Marois, James J; Wright, David L; Esquivel, Jesus F; Nichols, Robert L; Duke, Sara

    2015-08-01

    In 1999, crop consultants scouting for stink bugs (Hemiptera spp.) in South Carolina discovered a formerly unobserved seed rot of cotton that caused yield losses ranging from 10 to 15% in certain fields. The disease has subsequently been reported in fields throughout the southeastern Cotton Belt. Externally, diseased bolls appeared undamaged; internally, green fruit contain pink to dark brown, damp, deformed lint, and necrotic seeds. In greenhouse experiments, we demonstrated transmission of the opportunistic bacterium Pantoea agglomerans by the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.). Here, green bolls were sampled from stink bug management plots (insecticide protected or nontreated) from four South Atlantic coast states (North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida) to determine disease incidence in the field and its association with piercing-sucking insects feeding. A logistic regression analysis of the boll damage data revealed that disease was 24 times more likely to occur (P = 0.004) in bolls collected from plots in Florida, where evidence of pest pressure was highest, than in bolls harvested in NC with the lowest detected insect pressure. Fruit from plots treated with insecticide, a treatment which reduced transmission agent numbers, were 4 times less likely to be diseased than bolls from unprotected sites (P = 0.002). Overall, punctured bolls were 125 times more likely to also have disease symptoms than nonpunctured bolls, irrespective of whether or not plots were protected with insecticides (P = 0.0001). Much of the damage to cotton bolls that is commonly attributed to stink bug feeding is likely the resulting effect of vectored pathogens. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Characterization of the Xylella fastidiosa PD1311 gene mutant and its suppression of Pierce's disease on grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingyun; Johnson, Kameka; Cursino, Luciana; Mowery, Patricia; Burr, Thomas J

    2017-06-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes Pierce's disease (PD) on grapevines, leading to significant economic losses in grape and wine production. To further our understanding of X. fastidiosa virulence on grapevines, we examined the PD1311 gene, which encodes a putative acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) synthetase, and is highly conserved across Xylella species. It was determined that PD1311 is required for virulence, as the deletion mutant, ΔPD1311, was unable to cause disease on grapevines. The ΔPD1311 strain was impaired in behaviours known to be associated with PD development, including motility, aggregation and biofilm formation. ΔPD1311 also expressed enhanced sensitivity to H 2 O 2 and polymyxin B, and showed reduced survival in grapevine sap, when compared with wild-type X. fastidiosa Temecula 1 (TM1). Following inoculation, ΔPD1311 could not be detected in grape shoots, which may be related to its altered growth and sensitivity phenotypes. Inoculation with ΔPD1311 2 weeks prior to TM1 prevented the development of PD in a significant fraction of vines and eliminated detectable levels of TM1. In contrast, vines inoculated simultaneously with TM1 and ΔPD1311 developed disease at the same level as TM1 alone. In these vines, TM1 populations were distributed similarly to populations in TM1-only inoculated plants. These findings suggest that, through an indirect mechanism, pretreatment of vines with ΔPD1311 suppresses pathogen population and disease. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  11. Contrasting effects of ethylene biosynthesis on induced plant resistance against a chewing and a piercing-sucking herbivore in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Li, Jiancai; Ju, Hongping; Liu, Xiaoli; Erb, Matthias; Wang, Xia; Lou, Yonggen

    2014-11-01

    Ethylene is a stress hormone with contrasting effects on herbivore resistance. However, it remains unknown whether these differences are plant- or herbivore-specific. We cloned a rice 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase gene, OsACS2, whose transcripts were rapidly up-regulated in response to mechanical wounding and infestation by two important pests: the striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis and the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens. Antisense expression of OsACS2 (as-acs) reduced elicited ethylene emission, SSB-elicited trypsin protease inhibitor (TrypPI) activity, SSB-induced volatile release, and SSB resistance. Exogenous application of ACC restored TrypPI activity and SSB resistance. In contrast to SSB, BPH infestation increased volatile emission in as-acs lines. Accordingly, BPH preferred to feed and oviposit on wild-type (WT) plants--an effect that could be attributed to two repellent volatiles, 2-heptanone and 2-heptanol, that were emitted in higher amounts by as-acs plants. BPH honeydew excretion was reduced and natural enemy attraction was enhanced in as-acs lines, resulting in higher overall resistance to BPH. These results demonstrate that ethylene signaling has contrasting, herbivore-specific effects on rice defense responses and resistance against a chewing and a piercing-sucking insect, and may mediate resistance trade-offs between herbivores of different feeding guilds in rice. © The Author 2014. Published by the Molecular Plant Shanghai Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of CSPB and IPPE, SIBS, CAS.

  12. Joining of polymer-metal lightweight structures using self-piercing riveting (SPR) technique: Numerical approach and simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amro, Elias; Kouadri-Henni, Afia

    2018-05-01

    Restrictions in pollutant emissions dictated at the European Commission level in the past few years have urged mass production car manufacturers to engage rapidly several strategies in order to reduce significantly the energy consumption of their vehicles. One of the most relevant taken action is light-weighting of body in white (BIW) structures, concretely visible with the increased introduction of polymer-based composite materials reinforced by carbon/glass fibers. However, the design and manufacturing of such "hybrid" structures is limiting the use of conventional assembly techniques like resistance spot welding (RSW) which are not transferable as they are for polymer-metal joining. This research aims at developing a joining technique that would eventually enable the assembly of a sheet molding compound (SMC) polyester thermoset-made component on a structure composed of several high strength steel grades. The state of the art of polymer-metal joining techniques highlighted the few ones potentially able to respond to the industrial challenge, which are: structural bonding, self-piercing riveting (SPR), direct laser joining and friction spot welding (FSpW). In this study, the promising SPR technique is investigated. Modelling of SPR process in the case of polymer-metal joining was performed through the building of a 2D axisymmetric FE model using the commercial code Abaqus CAE 6.10-1. Details of the numerical approach are presented with a particular attention to the composite sheet for which Mori-Tanaka's homogenization method is used in order to estimate overall mechanical properties. Large deformations induced by the riveting process are enabled with the use of a mixed finite element formulation ALE (arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian). FE model predictions are compared with experimental data followed by a discussion.

  13. Effect of Various Modifications on Drag and Longitudinal Stability and Control Characteristics at Transonic Speeds of a Model of the XF7U-1 Tailless Airplane: NACA Wing-FLow Method, TED No. NACA DE 307

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Richard H.; Trant, James P., Jr.

    1950-01-01

    An investigation was made by the NACA wing-flow method to determine the drag, pitching-moment, lift, and angle-of-attack characteristics at transonic speeds of various configurations of a semispan model of an early configuration of the XF7U-1 tailless airplane. The results of the tests indicated that for the basic configuration with undeflected ailavator, the zero-lift drag rise occurred at a Mach number of about 0.85 and that about a five-fold increase in drag occurred through the transonic speed range. The results of the tests also indicated that the drag increment produced by -8.0 degrees deflection of the ailavator increased with increase in normal-force coefficient and was smaller at speeds above than at speeds below the drag rise. The drag increment produced by 35 degree deflection of the speed brakes varied from 0.040 to 0.074 depending on the normal-force coefficient and Mach number. These values correspond to drag coefficients of about 0.40 and 0.75 based on speed-brake frontal area. Removal of the fin produced a small positive drag increment at a given normal-force coefficient at speeds during the drag rise. A large forward shift of the neutral-point location occurred at Mach numbers above about 0.90 upon removal of the fin, and also a considerable forward shift throughout the Mach number range occurred upon deflection of the speed brakes. Ailavator ineffectiveness or reversal at low deflections, similar to that determined in previous tests of the basic configuration of the model in the Mach number range from about 0.93 to 1.0, was found for the fin-off configuration and for the model equipped with skewed (more highly sweptback) hinge-line ailavators. With the speed brakes deflected, little or no loss in the incremental pitching moment produced by deflection of the ailavator from O degrees to -8.00 degrees occurred in the Mach number range from 0.85 to 1.0 in contrast to a considerable loss found in previous tests with the speed brakes off.

  14. Prevalence of contact allergy to metals in the European general population with a focus on nickel sulfate and piercings: The EDEN Fragrance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuttelaar, Marie L A; Ofenloch, Robert F; Bruze, Magnus; Cazzaniga, Simone; Elsner, Peter; Gonçalo, Margarida; Naldi, Luigi; Svensson, Åke; Diepgen, Thomas L

    2018-04-10

    Studies on sensitization to metals in the general population are scarce. To determine the prevalence of sensitization to metals in the general population, and factors associated with nickel sensitization. In 5 European countries (The Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Sweden), a random sample (N = 3119) from the general population (aged 18-74 years) was patch tested and interviewed by use of a questionnaire on exposure to metals, piercing, and jewellery. Overall, the age-standardized prevalences of sensitization to nickel, cobalt and chromium were, respectively, 14.5%, 2.1%, and 0.8%. The highest prevalence of nickel sensitization was seen in Portugal (18.5%) and the lowest (8.3%) in Sweden. The prevalence of cobalt sensitization varied between 3.8% (The Netherlands) and 0.9% (Italy), and the prevalence of chromium sensitization varied between 1.3% (Portugal) and 0.2% (Sweden). Significant associations were observed between nickel allergy and female sex (odds ratio [OR] 5.19; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 3.99-6.74), past piercing use (OR 3.86; 95%CI: 2.85-5.24), and currently having ≥3 piercings (OR 5.58; 95%CI: 4.02-7.76). The prevalence of sensitization to metals in the European general population was high, mostly because of nickel. The lowest prevalence of contact allergy to nickel and chromium observed in Sweden supports the effectiveness of long-standing regulation. © 2018 The Authors. Contact Dermatitis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Design of experiment existing parameter physics for supporting of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) method a t the piercing radial beam port of Kartini research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indry Septiana Novitasari; Yosaphat Sumardi; Widarto

    2014-01-01

    The experiment existing parameters physics for supporting of in vivo and in vitro test facility of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) preliminary study at the piercing radial beam port has been done. The existing experiments is needed for determining that the parameter physics is fulfill the BNCT method requirement. To realize the existing experiment have been done by design analysis, methodology, calculation method and some procedure related with radiation safety analysis and environment. Preparation for existing experiment physics such as foil detector of Gold (Au) should be irradiated for 30 minute, irradiation instrument and procedure related with the experiment for radiation safety. (author)

  16. Flight Measurements of Average Skin-Friction Coefficients on a Parabolic Body of Revolution (NACA RM-10) at Mach Numbers from 1.0 to 3.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loposer, J. Dan; Rumsey, Charles B.

    1954-01-01

    Measurement of average skin-friction coefficients have been made on six rocket-powered free-flight models by using the boundary-layer rake technique. The model configuration was the NACA RM-10, a 12.2-fineness-ratio parabolic body of revolution with a flat base. Measurements were made over a Mach number range from 1 to 3.7, a Reynolds number range 40 x 10(exp 6) to 170 x 10(exp 6) based on length to the measurement station, and with aerodynamic heating conditions varying from strong skin heating to strong skin cooling. The measurements show the same trends over the test ranges as Van Driest's theory for turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate. The measured values are approximately 7 percent higher than the values of the flat-plate theory. A comparison which takes into account the differences in Reynolds number is made between the present results and skin-friction measurements obtained on NACA RM-10 scale models in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel, the Lewis 8- by 6-foot supersonic tunnel, and the Langley 9-inch supersonic tunnel. Good agreement is shown at all but the lowest tunnel Reynolds number conditions. A simple empirical equation is developed which represents the measurements over the range of the tests.

  17. Ankyrin-B coordinates the Na/K ATPase, Na/Ca exchanger, and InsP3 receptor in a cardiac T-tubule/SR microdomain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We report identification of an ankyrin-B-based macromolecular complex of Na/K ATPase (alpha 1 and alpha 2 isoforms, Na/Ca exchanger 1, and InsP3 receptor that is localized in cardiomyocyte T-tubules in discrete microdomains distinct from classic dihydropyridine receptor/ryanodine receptor "dyads." E1425G mutation of ankyrin-B, which causes human cardiac arrhythmia, also blocks binding of ankyrin-B to all three components of the complex. The ankyrin-B complex is markedly reduced in adult ankyrin-B(+/- cardiomyocytes, which may explain elevated [Ca2+]i transients in these cells. Thus, loss of the ankyrin-B complex provides a molecular basis for cardiac arrhythmia in humans and mice. T-tubule-associated ankyrin-B, Na/Ca exchanger, and Na/K ATPase are not present in skeletal muscle, where ankyrin-B is expressed at 10-fold lower levels than in heart. Ankyrin-B also is not abundantly expressed in smooth muscle. We propose that the ankyrin-B-based complex is a specialized adaptation of cardiomyocytes with a role for cytosolic Ca2+ modulation.

  18. E-tutoring programs' integration in Greek School Education. Pierce e-tutoring online program. An Appraisal of Its Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Δουκάκης, Σπυρίδων; Μιχαλοπούλου, Γεωργία

    2016-01-01

    Τα προγράμματα/υπηρεσίες e-tutoring που υλοποιούνται σε πραγματικό χρόνο, προσφέρουν ευκαιρίες εκπαίδευσης και ανάπτυξης των μαθητών και μαθητριών δευτεροβάθμιας εκπαίδευσης. Στην παρούσα εργασία, αρχικά θα επιχειρηθεί μία επισκόπηση της διεθνούς βιβλιογραφίας σχετικά με την υλοποίηση προγραμμάτων etutoring. Στη συνέχεια θα παρουσιαστεί το Pierce e-tutoring online program, το οποίο ξεκίνησε την πιλοτική του λειτουργία το σχολικό έτος 2012-2013 και από το σχολικό έτος 2013-2014 μέχρι και σήμερ...

  19. A variation of Musculocutaneous nerve without piercing the coracobrachialis muscle while communicating to the median nerve: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tayefi Nasrabadi

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anatomical variations of the peripheral nervous system may have not any clinical signs and symptoms. One of these variations belongs to the Musculocutaneous nerve. However, a good knowledge of nerve pathways and their variations is very important for surgeons in post-traumatic evaluations, exploratory interventions, and/or administration of neuromuscular blocks in axillary region in order to surgical therapies. Presentation of case: This report describes a case of variation of the musculocutaneous nerve which was observed in an old Iranian male cadaver during routine educational dissection (Fig. 1. Discussion and Conclusion: Anatomically, in the axilla region, the Musculocutaneous nerve is originated of the lateral cord of brachial plexus, then, by piercing the coracobrachialis muscle arrives enters to anterior compartment of the arm. But, in the present report, we observed that the Musculocutaneous nerve without piercing the coracobrachialis muscle has arrived in the left arm, then communicated to the Median nerve. To exploratory interventions of the arms for peripheral nerve repair and surgical therapies, a good knowledge of nerve pathways helps to surgeons for preventing possible mistakes during surgery. Keywords: Brachial plexus, Musculocutaneous nerve, Median nerve, Variation, Anatomy, Dissection

  20. Caring for Pierced Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  1. TERRAIN, PIERCE, COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  2. TERRAIN, Pierce County, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  3. Systematic Review of Human and Animal Studies Examining the Efficacy and Safety of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) and N-Acetylcysteine Amide (NACA) in Traumatic Brain Injury: Impact on Neurofunctional Outcome and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Junaid; Nascimento, Barto; Akhtar, Umbreen; Rhind, Shawn G; Tien, Homer; Nathens, Avery; da Luz, Luis Teodoro

    2017-01-01

    No new therapies for traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been officially translated into current practice. At the tissue and cellular level, both inflammatory and oxidative processes may be exacerbated post-injury and contribute to further brain damage. N- acetylcysteine (NAC) has the potential to downregulate both processes. This review focuses on the potential neuroprotective utility of NAC and N -acetylcysteine amide (NACA) post-TBI. Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched up to July 2017. Studies that examined clinical and laboratory effects of NAC and NACA post-TBI in human and animal studies were included. Risk of bias was assessed in human and animal studies according to the design of each study (randomized or not). The primary outcome assessed was the effect of NAC/NACA treatment on functional outcome, while secondary outcomes included the impact on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidation. Due to the clinical and methodological heterogeneity observed across studies, no meta-analyses were conducted. Our analyses revealed only three human trials, including two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 20 animal studies conducted using standardized animal models of brain injury. The two RCTs reported improvement in the functional outcome post-NAC/NACA administration. Overall, the evidence from animal studies is more robust and demonstrated substantial improvement of cognition and psychomotor performance following NAC/NACA use. Animal studies also reported significantly more cortical sparing, reduced apoptosis, and lower levels of biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. No safety concerns were reported in any of the studies included in this analysis. Evidence from the animal literature demonstrates a robust association for the prophylactic application of NAC and NACA post-TBI with improved neurofunctional outcomes and downregulation of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers at the tissue level. While a growing body of

  4. Systematic Review of Human and Animal Studies Examining the Efficacy and Safety of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC and N-Acetylcysteine Amide (NACA in Traumatic Brain Injury: Impact on Neurofunctional Outcome and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Bhatti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNo new therapies for traumatic brain injury (TBI have been officially translated into current practice. At the tissue and cellular level, both inflammatory and oxidative processes may be exacerbated post-injury and contribute to further brain damage. N-acetylcysteine (NAC has the potential to downregulate both processes. This review focuses on the potential neuroprotective utility of NAC and N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA post-TBI.MethodsMedline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched up to July 2017. Studies that examined clinical and laboratory effects of NAC and NACA post-TBI in human and animal studies were included. Risk of bias was assessed in human and animal studies according to the design of each study (randomized or not. The primary outcome assessed was the effect of NAC/NACA treatment on functional outcome, while secondary outcomes included the impact on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidation. Due to the clinical and methodological heterogeneity observed across studies, no meta-analyses were conducted.ResultsOur analyses revealed only three human trials, including two randomized controlled trials (RCTs and 20 animal studies conducted using standardized animal models of brain injury. The two RCTs reported improvement in the functional outcome post-NAC/NACA administration. Overall, the evidence from animal studies is more robust and demonstrated substantial improvement of cognition and psychomotor performance following NAC/NACA use. Animal studies also reported significantly more cortical sparing, reduced apoptosis, and lower levels of biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. No safety concerns were reported in any of the studies included in this analysis.ConclusionEvidence from the animal literature demonstrates a robust association for the prophylactic application of NAC and NACA post-TBI with improved neurofunctional outcomes and downregulation of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers at

  5. Reverse mode Na+/Ca2+ exchange mediated by STIM1 contributes to Ca2+ influx in airway smooth muscle following agonist stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Jane

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agonist stimulation of airway smooth muscle (ASM results in IP3 mediated Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum followed by the activation of store operated and receptor operated non-selective cation channels. Activation of these non-selective channels also results in a Na+ influx. This localised increase in Na+ levels can potentially switch the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger into reverse mode and so result in a further influx of Ca2+. The aim of this study was to characterise the expression and physiological function of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in cultured human bronchial smooth muscle cells and determine its contribution to agonist induced Ca2+ influx into these cells. Methods The expression profile of NCX (which encodes the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger homologues in cultured human bronchial smooth muscle cells was determined by reverse transcriptase PCR. The functional activity of reverse mode NCX was investigated using a combination of whole cell patch clamp, intracellular Ca2+ measurements and porcine airway contractile analyses. KB-R7943 (an antagonist for reverse mode NCX and target specific siRNA were utilised as tools to inhibit NCX function. Results NCX1 protein was detected in cultured human bronchial smooth muscle cells (HBSMC cells and NCX1.3 was the only mRNA transcript variant detected. A combination of intracellular Na+ loading and addition of extracellular Ca2+ induced an outwardly rectifying current which was augmented following stimulation with histamine. This outwardly rectifying current was inhibited by 10 μM KB-R7943 (an antagonist of reverse mode NCX1 and was reduced in cells incubated with siRNA against NCX1. Interestingly, this outwardly rectifying current was also inhibited following knockdown of STIM1, suggesting for the first time a link between store operated cation entry and NCX1 activation. In addition, 10 μM KB-R7943 inhibited agonist induced changes in cytosolic Ca2+ and induced relaxation of porcine

  6. Free-Spinning-Tunnel Investigation of a 1/28-Scale Model of the North American FJ-4 Airplane with External Fuel Tanks, TED No. NACA AD 3112

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Frederick M.

    1958-01-01

    A supplementary investigation to determine the effect of external fuel tanks on the spin and recovery characteristics of a l/28-scale model of the North American FJ-4 airplane has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel. The model had been extensively tested previously (NACA Research Memorandum SL38A29) and therefore only brief tests were made to evaluate the effect of tank installation. Erect spin tests of the model indicate that flat-type spins-are more prevalent with 200-gallon external fuel tanks than with tanks not installed. The recovery technique determined for spins without tanks, rudder reversal to full against the spin accompanied by simultaneous movement of ailerons to full with the spin, is recommended for spins encountered with external tanks installed. If inverted spins are encountered with external tanks installed, the tanks should be jettisoned and recovery attempted by rudder reversal to full against the spin with ailerons maintained at neutral.

  7. An essential role for the K+-dependent Na+/Ca2+-exchanger, NCKX4, in melanocortin-4-receptor-dependent satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Fang; Lytton, Jonathan

    2014-09-12

    K(+)-dependent Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchangers are broadly expressed in various tissues, and particularly enriched in neurons of the brain. The distinct physiological roles for the different members of this Ca(2+) transporter family are, however, not well described. Here we show that gene-targeted mice lacking the K(+)-dependent Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger, NCKX4 (gene slc24a4 or Nckx4), display a remarkable anorexia with severe hypophagia and weight loss. Feeding and satiety are coordinated centrally by melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4R) in neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The hypophagic response of Nckx4 knock-out mice is accompanied by hyperactivation of neurons in the PVN, evidenced by high levels of c-Fos expression. The activation of PVN neurons in both fasted Nckx4 knock-out and glucose-injected wild-type animals is blocked by Ca(2+) removal and MC4R antagonists. In cultured hypothalamic neurons, melanocyte stimulating hormone induces an MC4R-dependent and sustained Ca(2+) signal, which requires phospholipase C activity and plasma membrane Ca(2+) entry. The Ca(2+) signal is enhanced in hypothalamic neurons from Nckx4 knock-out animals, and is depressed in cells in which NCKX4 is overexpressed. Finally, MC4R-dependent oxytocin expression in the PVN, a key essential step in satiety, is prevented by blocking phospholipase C activation or Ca(2+) entry. These findings highlight an essential, and to our knowledge previously unknown, role for Ca(2+) signaling in the MC4R pathway that leads to satiety, and a novel non-redundant role for NCKX4-mediated Ca(2+) extrusion in controlling MC4R signaling and feeding behavior. Together, these findings highlight a novel pathway that potentially could be exploited to develop much needed new therapeutics to tackle eating disorders and obesity. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Adenovirally delivered shRNA strongly inhibits Na+-Ca2+ exchanger expression but does not prevent contraction of neonatal cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Cecilia; Ander, Bradley P; Maddaford, Thane G; Lukas, Anton; Hryshko, Larry V; Pierce, Grant N

    2005-04-01

    The cardiac Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX1) is the main mechanism for Ca(2+) efflux in the heart and is thought to serve an essential role in cardiac excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling. The demonstration that an NCX1 gene knock-out is embryonic lethal provides further support for this essential role. However, a recent report employing the Cre/loxP technique for cardiac specific knock-out of NCX1 has revealed that cardiac function is remarkably preserved in these mice, which survived to adulthood. This controversy highlights the necessity for further investigation of NCX1 function in the heart. In this study, we report on a novel approach for depletion of NCX1 in postnatal rat myocytes that utilizes RNA interference (RNAi), administered with high efficiency via adenoviral transfection. Depletion of NCX1 was confirmed by immunocytochemical detection, Western blots and radioisotopic assays of Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchange activity. Exchanger expression was inhibited by up to approximately 94%. Surprisingly, spontaneous beating of these cardiomyocytes was still maintained, although at a lower frequency. Electrical stimulation could elicit a normal beating rhythm, although NCX depleted cells exhibited a depressed Ca(2+) transient amplitude, a depressed rate of Ca(2+) rise and decline, elevated diastolic [Ca(2+)], and shorter action potentials. We also observed a compensatory increase in sarcolemmal Ca(2+) pump expression. Our data support an important, though non-essential, role for the NCX1 in E-C coupling in these neonatal heart cells. Furthermore, this approach provides a valuable means for assessing the role of NCX1 and could be utilized to examine other cardiac proteins in physiological and pathological studies.

  9. Circuit Design of Surface Acoustic Wave Based Micro Force Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure sensors are commonly used in industrial production and mechanical system. However, resistance strain, piezoresistive sensor, and ceramic capacitive pressure sensors possess limitations, especially in micro force measurement. A surface acoustic wave (SAW based micro force sensor is designed in this paper, which is based on the theories of wavelet transform, SAW detection, and pierce oscillator circuits. Using lithium niobate as the basal material, a mathematical model is established to analyze the frequency, and a peripheral circuit is designed to measure the micro force. The SAW based micro force sensor is tested to show the reasonable design of detection circuit and the stability of frequency and amplitude.

  10. Wind Tunnel Tests of Ailerons at Various Speeds I : Ailerons of 0.20 Airfoil Chord and True Contour with 0.35 Aileron-chord Extreme Blunt Nose Balance on the NACA 66,2-216 Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letko, W; Denaci, H. G.; Freed, C

    1943-01-01

    Hinge-moment, lift, and pressure-distribution measurements were made in the two-dimensional test section of the NACA stability tunnel on a blunt-nose balance-type aileron on an NACA 66,2-216 airfoil at speeds up to 360 miles per hour corresponding to a Mach number of 0.475. The tests were made primarily to determine the effect of speed on the action of this type of aileron. The balance-nose radii of the aileron were varied from 0 to 0.02 of the airfoil chord and the gap width was varied from 0.0005 to 0.0107 of the airfoil chord. Tests were also made with the gap sealed.

  11. Analysis of the Surface of Deposited Copper After Electroerosion Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablyaz, T. R.; Simonov, M. Yu.; Shlykov, E. S.

    2018-03-01

    An electron microscope analysis of the surface of deposited copper is performed after a profiling-piercing electroerosion treatment. The deposited copper is treated with steel, duralumin, and copper electrode tools at different pulse energies. The treatment with the duralumin electrode produces on the treated surface a web-like structure and cubic-morphology polyhedral dimples about 10 μm in size. The main components of the surface treated with the steel electrode are developed polyhedral dimples with a size of 10 - 50 μm. After the treatment with the copper electrode the main components of the treated surface are large polyhedral dimples about 30 - 80 μm in size.

  12. Air Entrainment and Surface Ripples in a Turbulent Ship Hull Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnadi, Naeem; Erinin, Martin; Duncan, James H.

    2017-11-01

    The air entrainment and free-surface fluctuations caused by the interaction of a free surface and the turbulent boundary layer of a vertical surface-piercing plate is studied experimentally. In this experiment, a meter-wide stainless steel belt travels horizontally in a loop around two rollers with vertically oriented axes. This belt device is mounted inside a large water tank with the water level set just below the top edge of the belt. The belt, rollers, and supporting frame are contained within a sheet metal box to keep the device dry except for one 6-meter-long straight test section. The belt is accelerated suddenly from rest until reaching constant speed in order to create a temporally evolving boundary layer analogous to the spatially evolving boundary layer that would exist along a surface-piercing towed flat plate. Surface ripples are measured using a cinematic laser-induced fluorescence technique with the laser sheet oriented parallel or normal to the belt surface. Air entrainment events and bubble motions are recorded from underneath the water surface using a stereo imaging system. Measurements of small bubbles, that tend to stay submerged for a longer time, are planned via a high-speed digital in-line holographic system. The support of the Office of Naval Research is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Water physical and chemical data from current meter and bottle casts from the G.W. PIERCE as part of the Ocean Continental Shelf - Mid Atlantic (OCS - Mid Atlantic) project, 1975-10-22 to 1975-10-31 (NODC Accession 8200067)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physical and chemical data were collected using current meter and bottle casts from the G.W. PIERCE from October 22, 1975 to October 31, 1975. Data were...

  14. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and the G. W. PIERCE in the Gulf of Mexico in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1979-09-12 to 1979-10-02 (NODC Accession 7900341)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and the G. W. PIERCE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the...

  15. Chemical, physical, phytoplankton weight, and other data collected using meteorological sensors, plankton net, secchi disk, CTD, and bottle casts from the G.W. PIERCE as part of the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, from 19 June 1971 to 14 September 1980 (NODC Accession 8300037)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, phytoplankton weight, and other data were collected from the G.W. PIERCE from June 19, 1971 to September 14, 1980. Data were collected using...

  16. Is the HP-UHP Hong'an-Dabie-Sulu orogen a piercing point for offset on the Tan-Lu fault?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Mary L.; Webb, Laura E.

    2013-02-01

    The Tan-Lu fault is a major strike-slip fault in eastern China that appears to offset the high-grade rocks of the Hong'an-Dabie-Sulu orogen left-laterally ˜540 km. We evaluate models for the collision between the South and North China blocks, published radiometric dates recording HP-UHP metamorphism and exhumation in the Hong'an-Dabie and Sulu terranes, and the timing of sinistral motion on the Tan-Lu fault to evaluate whether UHP rocks provide a piercing point for offset on the Tan-Lu fault. UHP metamorphism in Hong'an-Dabie was concurrent with Sulu based on U-Pb dating of coesite-bearing domains of zircon at 244 ± 5-226 ± 2 Ma for Hong'an-Dabie and 243 ± 4-225 ± 2 Ma for Sulu. Retrograde metamorphism began c. 220 Ma for both Hong'an-Dabie and Sulu, but retrograde zircon growth ended c. 214 Ma in Hong'an-Dabie and continued until c. 202 Ma in Sulu based on U-Pb dating of zircon domains external to coesite-bearing domains. Structures in Sulu are rotated 25° counter-clockwise from, but are broadly similar to, Hong'an-Dabie suggesting the two areas have a common Triassic orogenic history that pre-dates motion on the Tan-Lu fault, and that is consistent with paleomagnetic studies. We constructed a pre-Cretaceous restoration of the Hong'an-Dabie-Sulu belt that moves the Sulu terrane south, aligning the suture and the eclogite-facies isograd, and rotates Sulu c. 25° clockwise to re-align structures with Hong'an-Dabie. Our restoration is supported by published data and shows that the Hong'an-Dabie-Sulu orogen is a piercing point for post-collisional offset on the Tan-Lu fault and that these regions shared a common subduction-exhumation history. The Tan-Lu fault did not play a significant role in the Hong'an-Dabie-Sulu collision and likely developed later, in the Early Cretaceous.

  17. Comet C2012 S1 (ISON): Observations of the Dust Grains From SOFIA and of the Atomic Gas From NSO Dunn and Mcmath-Pierce Solar Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Woodward, Charles E.; Harker, David E.; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Sitko, Michael; Reach, William T.; De Pater, Imke; Gehrz, Robert D.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Cochran, Anita L.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) is unique in that it is a dynamically new comet derived from the Oort cloud reservoir of comets with a sun-grazing orbit. Infrared (IR) and visible wavelength observing campaigns were planned on NASA's Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and on National Solar Observatory Dunn (DST) and McMath-Pierce Solar Telescopes, respectively. We highlight our SOFIA (+FORCAST) mid- to far-IR images and spectroscopy (approx. 5-35 microns) of the dust in the coma of ISON are to be obtained by the ISON-SOFIA Team during a flight window 2013 Oct 21-23 UT (r_h approx. = 1.18 AU). Dust characteristics, identified through the 10 micron silicate emission feature and its strength, as well as spectral features from cometary crystalline silicates (Forsterite) at 11.05-11.2 microns, and near 16, 19, 23.5, 27.5, and 33 microns are compared with other Oort cloud comets that span the range of small and/or highly porous grains (e.g., C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) to large and/or compact grains (e.g., C/2007 N4 (Lulin) and C/2006 P1 (McNaught)). Measurement of the crystalline peaks in contrast to the broad 10 and 20 micron amorphous silicate features yields the cometary silicate crystalline mass fraction, which is a benchmark for radial transport in our protoplanetary disk. The central wavelength positions, relative intensities, and feature asymmetries for the crystalline peaks may constrain the shapes of the crystals. Only SOFIA can look for cometary organics in the 5-8 micron region. Spatially resolved measurements of atoms and simple molecules from when comet ISON is near the Sun (r_hmeasures 4 settings: Na I, K, C2 to sample cometary organics (along with Mg I), and [OI] as a proxy for activity from water (along with Si I and Fe I). State-of-the-art instruments that will also be employed include IBIS, which is a Fabry-Perot spectral imaging system that concurrently measures lines of Na, K, Ca II, or Fe, and ROSA (CSUN/QUB), which is a

  18. Diamond surface: atomic and electronic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental studies of the diamond surface (with primary emphasis on the (111) surface) are presented. Aspects of the diamond surface which are addressed include (1) the electronic structure, (2) the atomic structure, and (3) the effect of termination of the lattice by foreign atoms. Limited studies of graphite are discussed for comparison with the diamond results. Experimental results from valence band and core level photoemission spectroscopy (PES), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), and carbon 1s near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy (both the total electron yield (TEY) and Auger electron yield (AEY) techniques) are used to study and characterize both the clean and hydrogenated surface. In addition, the interaction of hydrogen with the diamond surface is examined using results from vibrational high resolution low energy electron loss spectroscopy (in collaboration with Waclawski, Pierce, Swanson, and Celotta at the National Bureau of Standards) and photon stimulated ion desorption (PSID) yield at photon energies near the carbon k-edge (hv greater than or equal to 280 eV). Both EELS and PSID verify that the mechanically polished 1 x 1 surface is hydrogen terminated and also that the reconstructed surface is hydrogen free. The (111) 2 x 2/2 x 1 reconstructed surface is obtained from the hydrogenated (111) 1 x 1:H surface by annealing to approx. = 1000 0 C. We observe occupied intrinsic surface states and a surface chemical shift (0.95 +- 0.1 eV) to lower binding energy of the carbon 1s level on the hydrogen-free reconstructed surface. Atomic hydrogen is found to be reactive with the reconstructed surface, while molecular hydrogen is relatively inert. Exposure of the reconstructed surface to atomic hydrogen results in chemisorption of hydrogen and removal of the intrinsic surface state emission in and near the band gap region

  19. Serca2a and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger are involved in left ventricular function following cardiac remodelling of female rats treated with anabolic androgenic steroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Andrews Marques do; Lima, Ewelyne Miranda de; Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Caliman, Izabela Facco; Silva, Josiane Fernandes da; Lemos, Virgínia Soares; Andrade, Tadeu Uggere de; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2016-06-15

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are misused, including by women, but little is known about the cardiovascular effects of these drugs on women. To evaluated the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND) and resistive physical exercise on cardiac contractility in young female rats. Female Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups: C (untrained animals); E (animals were submitted to resistance exercise by jumping in water 5 times per week); ND (animals were treated with ND, 20mg/kg/week for 4weeks); and NDE (trained and treated). The haemodynamic parameters (+dP/dtmax, -dP/dtmin and Tau) were assessed in the left ventricle. The heart was collected for histological analyses and collagen deposition. The gastrocnemius muscle was weighed, and hypertrophy was assessed by the ratio of their weights to gastrocnemius/tibia length. The expression of calcium handling proteins was measured by western blot analysis. ND treatment and physical exercise increased cardiac contractility and relaxation. In addition, ND promoted increases in phospholamban phosphorylated (p-PLB) and isoforms of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2a) expression, while resistance exercise increased the phosphorylation of PLB and expression of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers (NCX). Cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition were observed after ND treatment. Regulatory components of cytosolic calcium, such as SERCA2a and p-PLB, play important roles in modulating the contractility and relaxation effects of ND in females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Protective effect of Na(+)/Ca (2+) exchange blocker KB-R7943 on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yan; Ren, Yongkui; Sun, Lufan; Wang, Shaojun; Wei, Minjie; Jia, Dalin

    2013-06-01

    Reverse-mode activation of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) during reperfusion following ischemia contributes to Ca(2+) overload and cardiomyocyte injury. KB-R7943, a selective reverse-mode NCX inhibitor, reduces lethal reperfusion injury under non-ischemic conditions. However, the effectiveness of this compound under ischemic conditions is unclear. In the present study, we studied the effects of KB-R7943 in an animal model of hyperlipidemia. We further assessed whether the K ATP (+) channels are involved in potential protective mechanisms of KB-R7943. Twelve rats were fed normal chow, while 48 animals were fed a high cholesterol diet. The hearts from the control and hypercholesterolemic rats were subjected to 25 min of global ischemia followed by a 120-min reperfusion. Before this, hearts from hypercholesterolemic rats either received no intervention (cholesterol control group) or were pre-treated with 1 μM KB-R7943 and 0.3 μM of K ATP (+) blocker glibenclamide or glibenclamide alone. The infarction sizes (triphenyltetrazolium assay) were 35 ± 5.0 % in the control group, 46 ± 8.7 % in the cholesterol control group (p KB-R7943 group (p KB-R7943 and glibenclamide group, and 47 ± 8.5 % in the glibenclamide group (p KB-R7943 attenuated the magnitude of cell apoptosis (p KB-R7943 reduces the infarction size and apoptosis in hyperlipidemic animals through the activation of K ATP (+) channels.

  1. Tělesné modifikace - fenomén dnešní doby? : Motivy pro piercing, tetování a další tělesné modifikace v historii a dnes

    OpenAIRE

    Fučíková, Tereza

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor's work deals with the theme of body modifications, especially with two which are the most common in our society: tattoo and piercing. In the theoretical part, there are emphasized roots of these modifications in the past, their changes and development till the present. This is done by compilation and comparison of books and professional works dealing with this topic. The second part is practical. It encompasses quantitative research completed with parts of interviews from pre-re...

  2. Aerodynamic Characteristics of NACA 0012 Airfoil Section at Angles of Attack From 0 deg to 180 deg

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Critzos, Chris

    1955-01-01

    .... Data were obtained at a Reynolds number of 1.8 x 10(exp 6) with the airfoil surfaces smooth and with roughness applied at the leading and trailing edges and at a Reynolds number of 0.5 x 10(exp 6...

  3. Computational methods for investigation of surface curvature effects on airfoil boundary layer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Shen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents computational algorithms for the design, analysis, and optimization of airfoil aerodynamic performance. The prescribed surface curvature distribution blade design (CIRCLE method is applied to a symmetrical airfoil NACA0012 and a non-symmetrical airfoil E387 to remove their surface curvature and slope-of-curvature discontinuities. Computational fluid dynamics analysis is used to investigate the effects of curvature distribution on aerodynamic performance of the original and modified airfoils. An inviscid–viscid interaction scheme is introduced to predict the positions of laminar separation bubbles. The results are compared with experimental data obtained from tests on the original airfoil geometry. The computed aerodynamic advantages of the modified airfoils are analyzed in different operating conditions. The leading edge singularity of NACA0012 is removed and it is shown that the surface curvature discontinuity affects aerodynamic performance near the stalling angle of attack. The discontinuous slope-of-curvature distribution of E387 results in a larger laminar separation bubble at lower angles of attack and lower Reynolds numbers. It also affects the inherent performance of the airfoil at higher Reynolds numbers. It is shown that at relatively high angles of attack, a continuous slope-of-curvature distribution reduces the skin friction by suppressing both laminar and turbulent separation, and by delaying laminar-turbulent transition. It is concluded that the surface curvature distribution has significant effects on the boundary layer behavior and consequently an improved curvature distribution will lead to higher aerodynamic efficiency.

  4. Ballistic Limit of High-Strength Steel and Al7075-T6 Multi-Layered Plates Under 7.62-mm Armour Piercing Projectile Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Rahman

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents the computational-based ballistic limit of laminated metal panels comprised of high strength steel and aluminium alloy Al7075-T6 plate at different thickness combinations to necessitate the weight reduction of existing armour steel plate. The numerical models of monolithic configuration, double-layered configuration and triple-layered configuration were developed using a commercial explicit finite element code and were impacted by 7.62 mm armour piercing projectile at velocity range of 900 to 950 m/s. The ballistic performance of each configuration plate in terms of ballistic limit velocity, penetration process and permanent deformation was quantified and considered. It was found that the monolithic panel of high-strength steel has the best ballistic performance among all panels, yet it has not caused any weight reduction in existing armour plate. As the weight reduction was increased from 20-30%, the double-layered configuration panels became less resistance to ballistic impact where only at 20% and 23.2% of weight reduction panel could stop the 950m/s projectile. The triple-layered configuration panels with similar areal density performed much better where all panels subjected to 20-30% weight reductions successfully stopped the 950 m/s projectile. Thus, triple-layered configurations are interesting option in designing a protective structure without sacrificing the performance in achieving weight reduction.

  5. Apoptotic effect of a novel kefir product, PFT, on multidrug-resistant myeloid leukemia cells via a hole-piercing mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    GHONEUM, MAMDOOH; GIMZEWSKI, JAMES

    2014-01-01

    We examined the apoptotic effect of a novel Probiotics Fermentation Technology (PFT) kefir grain product; PFT is a natural mixture composed primarily of Lactobacillus kefiri P-IF, a specific strain of L. kefiri with unique growth characteristics. The aim of this study was to examine the apoptotic effect of PFT on human multidrug-resistant (MDR) myeloid leukemia (HL60/AR) cells in vitro and explore the mechanistic approach underlying its effect. HL60/AR cells were cultured with PFT (0.6–5.0 mg/ml) for 3 days. The apoptotic effect of PFT was assessed through examination of percent apoptosis, caspase 3 activation, Bcl-2 expression levels and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). PFT induced apoptosis in HL60/AR cells in a dose-dependent manner which was maximal at 67.5% for 5 mg/ml. Induction of apoptosis was associated with activation of caspase 3, decreased expression of Bcl-2 and decreased polarization of MMP. In addition, PFT showed a unique characteristic of piercing holes in HL60/AR cells, as indicated by AFM studies. This hole induction may be responsible for the apoptotic effect on cancer cells. These results suggest that PFT may act as a potential therapy for the treatment of MDR leukemia. PMID:24430613

  6. PERCEPÇÕES SOBRE O USO DE PIERCINGS E/OU TATUAGENS POR FUNCIONÁRIOS DE EMPREENDIMENTOS HOTELEIROS DE FOZ DO IGUAÇU/PR (BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Andrieli do Carmo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A hotelaria apresenta-se como setor padronizado no que diz respeito ao estereótipo de seus funcionários da linha de frente. O setor não apresenta uma aceitação visível ao diferente quando se trata dos recursos humanos da empresa. Para melhor compreender este fenômeno, foi realizada uma pesquisa tomando como referencial temas de hotelaria e turismo, assim como da antropologia tais como estereótipos e mudanças culturais. Foi também aplicado um questionário nos empreendimentos hoteleiros de Foz do Iguaçu/PR, com amostra probabilística, para analisar o nível de aceitação com relação aos funcionários que possuem piercing e/ou tatuagem. Um outro questionário foi aplicado aos turistas nacionais e internacionais que estavam na mesma localidade, com o intuito de analisar a percepção dos mesmos para com a atuação destes profissionais, sendo uma amostra não probabilística. Esta pesquisa quali-quantitativa permitiu que os dados coletados demonstrassem a existência de discriminação nos processos seletivos na hotelaria.

  7. Design a software real-time operation platform for wave piercing catamarans motion control using linear quadratic regulator based genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lihua; Yuan, Jia; Zhang, Songtao; Zhao, Peng

    2018-01-01

    This work presents optimal linear quadratic regulator (LQR) based on genetic algorithm (GA) to solve the two degrees of freedom (2 DoF) motion control problem in head seas for wave piercing catamarans (WPC). The proposed LQR based GA control strategy is to select optimal weighting matrices (Q and R). The seakeeping performance of WPC based on proposed algorithm is challenged because of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system of uncertain coefficient problems. Besides the kinematical constraint problems of WPC, the external conditions must be considered, like the sea disturbance and the actuators (a T-foil and two flaps) control. Moreover, this paper describes the MATLAB and LabVIEW software plats to simulate the reduction effects of WPC. Finally, the real-time (RT) NI CompactRIO embedded controller is selected to test the effectiveness of the actuators based on proposed techniques. In conclusion, simulation and experimental results prove the correctness of the proposed algorithm. The percentage of heave and pitch reductions are more than 18% in different high speeds and bad sea conditions. And the results also verify the feasibility of NI CompactRIO embedded controller.

  8. Characterization of the Xylella fastidiosa PD1671 gene encoding degenerate c-di-GMP GGDEF/EAL domains, and its role in the development of Pierce's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cursino, Luciana; Athinuwat, Dusit; Patel, Kelly R; Galvani, Cheryl D; Zaini, Paulo A; Li, Yaxin; De La Fuente, Leonardo; Hoch, Harvey C; Burr, Thomas J; Mowery, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is an important phytopathogenic bacterium that causes many serious plant diseases including Pierce's disease of grapevines. X. fastidiosa is thought to induce disease by colonizing and clogging xylem vessels through the formation of cell aggregates and bacterial biofilms. Here we examine the role in X. fastidiosa virulence of an uncharacterized gene, PD1671, annotated as a two-component response regulator with potential GGDEF and EAL domains. GGDEF domains are found in c-di-GMP diguanylate cyclases while EAL domains are found in phosphodiesterases, and these domains are for c-di-GMP production and turnover, respectively. Functional analysis of the PD1671 gene revealed that it affected multiple X. fastidiosa virulence-related phenotypes. A Tn5 PD1671 mutant had a hypervirulent phenotype in grapevines presumably due to enhanced expression of gum genes leading to increased exopolysaccharide levels that resulted in elevated biofilm formation. Interestingly, the PD1671 mutant also had decreased motility in vitro but did not show a reduced distribution in grapevines following inoculation. Given these responses, the putative PD1671 protein may be a negative regulator of X. fastidiosa virulence.

  9. Characterization of the Xylella fastidiosa PD1671 gene encoding degenerate c-di-GMP GGDEF/EAL domains, and its role in the development of Pierce's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cursino

    Full Text Available Xylella fastidiosa is an important phytopathogenic bacterium that causes many serious plant diseases including Pierce's disease of grapevines. X. fastidiosa is thought to induce disease by colonizing and clogging xylem vessels through the formation of cell aggregates and bacterial biofilms. Here we examine the role in X. fastidiosa virulence of an uncharacterized gene, PD1671, annotated as a two-component response regulator with potential GGDEF and EAL domains. GGDEF domains are found in c-di-GMP diguanylate cyclases while EAL domains are found in phosphodiesterases, and these domains are for c-di-GMP production and turnover, respectively. Functional analysis of the PD1671 gene revealed that it affected multiple X. fastidiosa virulence-related phenotypes. A Tn5 PD1671 mutant had a hypervirulent phenotype in grapevines presumably due to enhanced expression of gum genes leading to increased exopolysaccharide levels that resulted in elevated biofilm formation. Interestingly, the PD1671 mutant also had decreased motility in vitro but did not show a reduced distribution in grapevines following inoculation. Given these responses, the putative PD1671 protein may be a negative regulator of X. fastidiosa virulence.

  10. Tattoos, body piercings, and self-injury: is there a connection? Investigations on a core group of participants practicing body modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirn, Aglaja; Hinz, Andreas

    2008-05-01

    Reliable psychosocial data about practitioners of body piercing and tattooing are few and controversial. The goal of this study was to reinvestigate the issue by studying a large sample of individuals with body modifications (BMs), focusing on the motives and relations to biographical events. A 55-item anonymous self-report questionnaire was distributed among volunteers of what is considered to be a core group of individuals wearing BMs (N=432). Results show that BMs changed the participants' attitude toward their body considerably, and 34% of all participants reported BM practices in conjunction with decisive biographical events. Twenty-seven percent of the participants admitted self-cutting during childhood. This group differed from the group without self-cutting with respect to several features before, during, and after BM. The rate of medical complications of BM was 16% in the total sample, with a remarkably higher rate (26%) among participants with a history of self-cutting. The data suggest that the significance of BMs ranges from simple peer group imitations to highly informative symptoms of possibly severe psychopathological conditions. In the latter case, BMs sometimes serve as therapeutic substitutes.

  11. Delivery of dsRNA through topical feeding for RNA interference in the citrus sap piercing-sucking hemipteran, Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killiny, Nabil; Kishk, Abdelaziz

    2017-06-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful means to study functional genomics in insects. The delivery of dsRNA is a challenging step in the development of RNAi assay. Here, we describe a new delivery method to increase the effectiveness of RNAi in the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. Bromophenol blue droplets were topically applied to fifth instar nymphs and adults on the ventral side of the thorax between the three pairs of legs. In addition to video recordings that showed sucking of the bromophenol blue by the stylets, dissected guts turned blue indicating that the uptake was through feeding. Thus, we called the method topical feeding. We targeted the abnormal wing disc gene (awd), also called nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK), as a reporter gene to prove the uptake of dsRNA via this method of delivery. Our results showed that dsRNA-awd caused reduction of awd expression and nymph mortality. Survival and lifespan of adults emerged from treated nymphs and treated adults were affected. Silencing awd caused wing malformation in the adults emerged from treated nymphs. Topical feeding as a delivery of dsRNA is highly efficient for both nymphs and adults. The described method could be used to increase the efficiency of RNAi in D. citri and other sap piercing-sucking hemipterans. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Wavefront modulation of water surface wave by a metasurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hai-Tao; Cheng Ying; Liu Xiao-Jun; Wang Jing-Shi

    2015-01-01

    We design a planar metasurface to modulate the wavefront of a water surface wave (WSW) on a deep sub-wavelength scale. The metasurface is composed of an array of coiling-up-space units with specially designed parameters, and can take on the work of steering the wavefront when it is pierced into water. Like their acoustic counterparts, the modulation of WSW is ascribed to the gradient phase shift of the coiling-up-space units, which can be perfectly tuned by changing the coiling plate length and channel number inside the units. According to the generalized Snell’s law, negative refraction and ‘driven’ surface mode of WSW are also demonstrated at certain incidences. Specially, the transmitted WSW could be efficiently guided out by linking a symmetrically-corrugated channel in ‘driven’ surface mode. This work may have potential applications in water wave energy extraction and coastal protection. (paper)

  13. Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger inhibition exerts a positive inotropic effect in the rat heart, but fails to influence the contractility of the rabbit heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, A S; Acsai, K; Nagy, N; Tóth, A; Fülöp, F; Seprényi, G; Birinyi, P; Nánási, P P; Forster, T; Csanády, M; Papp, J G; Varró, A; Farkas, A

    2008-05-01

    The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) may play a key role in myocardial contractility. The operation of the NCX is affected by the action potential (AP) configuration and the intracellular Na(+) concentration. This study examined the effect of selective NCX inhibition by 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 microM SEA0400 on the myocardial contractility in the setting of different AP configurations and different intracellular Na(+) concentrations in rabbit and rat hearts. The concentration-dependent effects of SEA0400 on I(Na/Ca) were studied in rat and rabbit ventricular cardiomyocytes using a patch clamp technique. Starling curves were constructed for isolated, Langendorff-perfused rat and rabbit hearts. The cardiac sarcolemmal NCX protein densities of both species were compared by immunohistochemistry. SEA0400 inhibited I(Na/Ca) with similar efficacy in the two species; there was no difference between the inhibitions of the forward or reverse mode of the NCX in either species. SEA0400 increased the systolic and the developed pressure in the rat heart in a concentration-dependent manner, for example, 1.0 microM SEA0400 increased the maximum systolic pressures by 12% relative to the control, whereas it failed to alter the contractility in the rabbit heart. No interspecies difference was found in the cardiac sarcolemmal NCX protein densities. NCX inhibition exerted a positive inotropic effect in the rat heart, but it did not influence the contractility of the rabbit heart. This implies that the AP configuration and the intracellular Na(+) concentration may play an important role in the contractility response to NCX inhibition.

  14. Manufacturing tungsten monocrystal tubes by electro-spark machining and study of machined surface structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukarimov, Eh.T.; Ismailov, L.R.; Krakhmalev, V.A.; Fershtat, L.N.

    1981-01-01

    A technique to manufacture tubes from tungsten monocrystals with low consumption of electrodes has been developed. Regimes of obtaining deep and through holes of different diameters with the productivity of 1 mm/min and with the minimum deviation from cylindrical shape are worked out using a specially designed electric pulse installation. X-ray and metallographical analyses have shown that as a result of electrospark machining a cold hardened layer is formed up to hundreds micrometers thick, pierced by the network of microcracks. Simultaneous use of electrospark and electrochemical machining permitted to manufacture tubes from tungsten monocrystals with non-distorted monocrystal surface and without a network of microcracks

  15. Population genomic analysis of a bacterial plant pathogen: novel insight into the origin of Pierce's disease of grapevine in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Nunney

    Full Text Available Invasive diseases present an increasing problem worldwide; however, genomic techniques are now available to investigate the timing and geographical origin of such introductions. We employed genomic techniques to demonstrate that the bacterial pathogen causing Pierce's disease of grapevine (PD is not native to the US as previously assumed, but descended from a single genotype introduced from Central America. PD has posed a serious threat to the US wine industry ever since its first outbreak in Anaheim, California in the 1880s and continues to inhibit grape cultivation in a large area of the country. It is caused by infection of xylem vessels by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa, a genetically distinct subspecies at least 15,000 years old. We present five independent kinds of evidence that strongly support our invasion hypothesis: 1 a genome-wide lack of genetic variability in X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa found in the US, consistent with a recent common ancestor; 2 evidence for historical allopatry of the North American subspecies X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex and X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa; 3 evidence that X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa evolved in a more tropical climate than X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex; 4 much greater genetic variability in the proposed source population in Central America, variation within which the US genotypes are phylogenetically nested; and 5 the circumstantial evidence of importation of known hosts (coffee plants from Central America directly into southern California just prior to the first known outbreak of the disease. The lack of genetic variation in X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa in the US suggests that preventing additional introductions is important since new genetic variation may undermine PD control measures, or may lead to infection of other crop plants through the creation of novel genotypes via inter-subspecific recombination. In general, geographically mixing of previously

  16. Analysis of unswept and swept wing chordwise pressure data from an oscillating NACA 0012 airfoil experiment. Volume 1: Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.hilaire, A. O.; Carta, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    The unsteady chordwise force response on the airfoil surface was investigated and its sensitivity to the various system parameters was examined. A further examination of unsteady aerodynamic data on a tunnel spanning wing (both swept and unswept), obtained in a wind tunnel, was performed. The main body of this data analysis was carried out by analyzing the propagation speed of pressure disturbances along the chord and by studying the behavior of the unsteady part of the chordwise pressure distribution at various points of the airfoil pitching cycle. It was found that Mach number effects dominate the approach to and the inception of both static and dynamic stall. The stall angle decreases as the Mach number increases. However, sweep dominates the load behavior within the stall regime. Large phase differences between unswept and swept responses, that do not exist at low lift coefficient, appear once the stall boundary is penetrated. It was also found that reduced frequency is not a reliable indicator of the unsteady aerodynamic response in the high angle of attack regime.

  17. Política do corpo e política de vida: a tatuagem e o body piercing como expressão corporal de uma ética da dissidência Politics of the body, politics of life: tattoos and body piercing as a corporal expression of an ethics of dissidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Sérgio Ferreira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A estética da divergência, que caracteriza a corporeidade extensivamente marcada com recurso à tatuagem e ao body piercing, configura uma forma de demarcação estilística através da qual alguns jovens constroem e dão a (reconhecer não só a sua identidade pessoal, mas também o modo como percebem e se relacionam com o mundo. Implica uma performance estética que excorpora uma homóloga atitude ética, consubstanciando um sentido de desafiliação perante a ordem cultural e social estabelecida. Trata-se de uma ética de dissidência que reclama uma remoralização da vida quotidiana no sentido de conquistar um espaço social de existência no mundo, onde seja possível viver o compromisso com um corpo, uma identidade e um estilo de vida que se pretende «alternativo» aos disponibilizados pelo actual «supermercado de estilos», em condições de autenticidade, respeito e liberdade individual.The aesthetic of divergence that characterises extensively tattooed and body pierced bodies, represents a way of stylistic demarcation through which some young people build and reveal not only their personal identity, but also the way they perceive and relate to the world. It implies an aesthetic performance that embodies a homologous ethical attitude, consubstantiated in a sense of disaffiliation towards the established social and cultural order. It is an ethic of dissidence that reclaims a remoralisation of day-to-day life, so as to conquer a social space of existence in the world, where it is possible to live a commitment with a body, an identity, and a life style that aims to be "alternative" to the current "supermarket of styles" on offer, under conditions of authenticity, respect and personal freedom.

  18. Surface Water & Surface Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  19. Investigation of the NACA 4-(3)(8)-045 Two-blade Propellers at Forward Mach Numbers to 0.725 to Determine the Effects of Compressibility and Solidity on Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, John; Draley, Eugene C; Delano, James B; Feldman, Lewis

    1950-01-01

    As part of a general investigation of propellers at high forward speeds, tests of two 2-blade propellers having the NACA 4-(3)(8)-03 and NACA 4-(3)(8)-45 blade designs have been made in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel through a range of blade angle from 20 degrees to 60 degrees for forward Mach numbers from 0.165 to 0.725 to establish in detail the changes in propeller characteristics due to compressibility effects. These propellers differed primarily only in blade solidity, one propeller having 50 percent and more solidity than the other. Serious losses in propeller efficiency were found as the propeller tip Mach number exceeded 0.91, irrespective of forward speed or blade angle. The magnitude of the efficiency losses varied from 9 percent to 22 percent per 0.1 increase in tip Mach number above the critical value. The range of advance ratio for peak efficiency decreased markedly with increase of forward speed. The general form of the changes in thrust and power coefficients was found to be similar to the changes in airfoil lift coefficient with changes in Mach number. Efficiency losses due to compressibility effects decreased with increase of blade width. The results indicated that the high level of propeller efficiency obtained at low speeds could be maintained to forward sea-level speeds exceeding 500 miles per hour.

  20. Synthetic jet flow control of two-dimensional NACA 65(1)-412 airfoil flow with finite-time lyapunov exponent analysis of Lagrangian coherent structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Peter Inuk

    Synthetic jet (SJ) control of a low-Reynolds number, unsteady, compressible, viscous flow over a NACA 65-(1)412 airfoil, typical for unmanned air vehicles and gas turbines, has been investigated computationally. A particular focus was placed in the development and control of Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) and the associated Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) fields. The FTLE fields quantitatively measure of the repulsion rate in forward-time and the attraction rate in backward-time, and provide a unique perspective on effective flow control. A Discontinuous-Galerkin (DG) methods, high-fidelity Navier-Stokes solver performs direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the airfoil flow. Three SJ control strategies have been investigated: immediately downstream of flow separation, normal to the separated shear layer; near the leading edge, normal to the airfoil suction side; near the trailing edge, normal to the airfoil pressure side. A finite difference algorithm computes the FTLE from DNS velocity data. A baseline flow without SJ control is compared to SJ actuated flows. The baseline flow forms a regular, time-periodic, asymmetric von Karman vortex street in the wake. The SJ downstream of flow separation increases recirculation region vorticity and reduces the effective angle of attack. This decreases the time-averaged lift by 2:98% and increases the time-averaged drag by 5:21%. The leading edge SJ produces small vortices that deflect the shear layer downwards, and decreases the effective angle of attack. This reduces the time-averaged lift by 1:80%, and the time-averaged drag by 1:84%. The trailing edge SJ produces perturbations that add to pressure side vortices without affecting global flow characteristics. The time-averaged lift decreases by 0:47%, and the time-averaged drag increases by 0:20%. For all SJ cases, the aerodynamic performance is much more dependent on changes to the pressure distribution than changes to the skin friction distribution. No proposed

  1. Electrophysiological properties of myocytes isolated from the mouse atrioventricular node: L-type ICa, IKr, If, and Na-Ca exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choisy, Stéphanie C; Cheng, Hongwei; Orchard, Clive H; James, Andrew F; Hancox, Jules C

    2015-11-01

    The atrioventricular node (AVN) is a key component of the cardiac pacemaker-conduction system. This study investigated the electrophysiology of cells isolated from the AVN region of adult mouse hearts, and compared murine ionic current magnitude with that of cells from the more extensively studied rabbit AVN. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of ionic currents, and perforated-patch recordings of action potentials (APs), were made at 35-37°C. Hyperpolarizing voltage commands from -40 mV elicited a Ba(2+)-sensitive inward rectifier current that was small at diastolic potentials. Some cells (Type 1; 33.4 ± 2.2 pF; n = 19) lacked the pacemaker current, If, whilst others (Type 2; 34.2 ± 1.5 pF; n = 21) exhibited a clear If, which was larger than in rabbit AVN cells. On depolarization from -40 mV L-type Ca(2+) current, IC a,L, was elicited with a half maximal activation voltage (V0.5) of -7.6 ± 1.2 mV (n = 24). IC a,L density was smaller than in rabbit AVN cells. Rapid delayed rectifier (IK r) tail currents sensitive to E-4031 (5 μmol/L) were observed on repolarization to -40 mV, with an activation V0.5 of -10.7 ± 4.7 mV (n = 8). The IK r magnitude was similar in mouse and rabbit AVN. Under Na-Ca exchange selective conditions, mouse AVN cells exhibited 5 mmol/L Ni-sensitive exchange current that was inwardly directed negative to the holding potential (-40 mV). Spontaneous APs (5.2 ± 0.5 sec(-1); n = 6) exhibited an upstroke velocity of 37.7 ± 16.2 V/s and ceased following inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release by 1 μmol/L ryanodine, implicating intracellular Ca(2+) cycling in murine AVN cell electrogenesis. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  2. KB-R7943, an inhibitor of the reverse Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, blocks N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and inhibits mitochondrial complex I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustovetsky, Tatiana; Brittain, Matthew K; Sheets, Patrick L; Cummins, Theodore R; Pinelis, Vsevolod; Brustovetsky, Nickolay

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE An isothiourea derivative (2-[2-[4-(4-nitrobenzyloxy)phenyl]ethyl]isothiourea methane sulfonate (KB-R7943), a widely used inhibitor of the reverse Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCXrev), was instrumental in establishing the role of NCXrev in glutamate-induced Ca2+ deregulation in neurons. Here, the effects of KB-R7943 on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and mitochondrial complex I were tested. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Fluorescence microscopy, electrophysiological patch-clamp techniques and cellular respirometry with Seahorse XF24 analyzer were used with cultured hippocampal neurons; membrane potential imaging, respirometry and Ca2+ flux measurements were made in isolated rat brain mitochondria. KEY RESULTS KB-R7943 inhibited NCXrev with IC50= 5.7 ± 2.1 µM, blocked NMDAR-mediated ion currents, and inhibited NMDA-induced increase in cytosolic Ca2+ with IC50= 13.4 ± 3.6 µM but accelerated calcium deregulation and mitochondrial depolarization in glutamate-treated neurons. KB-R7943 depolarized mitochondria in a Ca2+-independent manner. Stimulation of NMDA receptors caused NAD(P)H oxidation that was coupled or uncoupled from ATP synthesis depending on the presence of Ca2+ in the bath solution. KB-R7943, or rotenone, increased NAD(P)H autofluorescence under resting conditions and suppressed NAD(P)H oxidation following glutamate application. KB-R7943 inhibited 2,4-dinitrophenol-stimulated respiration of cultured neurons with IC50= 11.4 ± 2.4 µM. With isolated brain mitochondria, KB-R7943 inhibited respiration, depolarized organelles and suppressed Ca2+ uptake when mitochondria oxidized complex I substrates but was ineffective when mitochondria were supplied with succinate, a complex II substrate. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS KB-R7943, in addition to NCXrev, blocked NMDA receptors in cultured hippocampal neurons and inhibited complex I in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. These findings are critical for the correct interpretation of experimental

  3. The Actuator Surface Model: A New Navier-Stokes Based Model for Rotor Computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhang, J.H.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new numerical technique for simulating two-dimensional wind turbine flow. The method, denoted as the 2D actuator surface technique, consists of a two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver in which the pressure distribution is represented by body forces that are distributed along ....... In the last part, the actuator surface technique is applied to compute the flow past a two-bladed vertical axis wind turbine equipped with NACA 0012 airfoils. Comparisons with experimental data show an encouraging performance of the method.......This paper presents a new numerical technique for simulating two-dimensional wind turbine flow. The method, denoted as the 2D actuator surface technique, consists of a two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver in which the pressure distribution is represented by body forces that are distributed along...

  4. Influences of surface temperature on a low camber airfoil aerodynamic performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu DRAGAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current note refers to the comparison between a NACA 2510 airfoil with adiabatic walls and the same airfoil with heated patches. Both suction and pressure sides were divided into two regions covering the leading edge (L.E. and trailing edge (T.E.. A RANS method sensitivity test has been performed in the preliminary stage while for the extended 3D cases a DES-SST approach was used. Results indicate that surface temperature distribution influences the aerodynamics of the airfoil, in particular the viscous drag component but also the lift of the airfoil. Moreover, the influence depends not only on the surface temperature but also on the positioning of the heated surfaces, particularly in the case of pressure lift and drag. Further work will be needed to optimize the temperature distribution for airfoil with higher camber.

  5. How Piercings and Tattooing Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  6. 27 June 2012 - Ambassador K. Pierce, Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Department Head P. Collier and CMS control room with Former Collaboration Spokesperson J. Virdee.

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Egli

    2012-01-01

    27 June 2012 - Ambassador K. Pierce, Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Department Head P. Collier and CMS control room with Former Collaboration Spokesperson J. Virdee.

  7. Effect of surface roughness on the aerodynamic characteristics of a symmetrical airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakroun, W.; Al-Mesri, I.; Al-Fahad, S.

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of surface roughness by varying the roughness size and location on the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil. Test were conducted on the symmetrical airfoil models NACA 0012 in which the nature of the surface was varied from smooth to very rough and at a chord Reynolds number of 1.5*10{sup 5}. Different airfoil models with various roughness sizes and roughness locations were tested for different angles of attack. Lift, drag and pressure coefficients were measured and velocity profiles were determined for the smooth and grit 36 roughened models. It is shown that as the surface roughness increases, the minimum drag also increases due to the increase of the skin friction and the lift decreases. Surface roughness is seen to delay the stall angle and also increase the lift in the stall region. The airfoil model with the roughness located at the trailing edge shows minimum drag and maximum lift up to the stall angle compared to the other cases of different roughness locations. It is confirmed that, for the rough surface, a turbulent boundary layer exists where the laminar boundary layer is encountered for the smooth surface at the same Reynolds number. The measured skin friction for the rough surface is larger than that for the smooth surface. (author)

  8. Flow Observations with Tufts and Lampblack of the Stalling of Four Typical Airfoil Sections in the NACA Variable-density Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Ira H; Sherman, Albert

    1938-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the stalling processes of four typical airfoil sections was made over the critical range of the Reynolds Number. Motion pictures were taken of the movements of small silk tufts on the airfoil surface as the angle of attack increased through a range of angles including the stall. The boundary-layer flow also at certain angles of attack was indicated by the patterns formed by a suspension of lampblack in oil brushed onto the airfoil surface. These observations were analyzed together with corresponding force-test measurements to derive a picture of the stalling processes of airfoils.

  9. Surface peptide mapping of protein I and protein III of four strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Whole cells and isolated outer membranes (OMs) of four strains of gonococci were surface radioiodinated with either lactoperoxidase or Iodogen (Pierce Chemical Co., Rockford, Ill.). These preparations were solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate and subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Surface-radioiodinated protein I (PI) and PIII bands were excised from the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels and digested with alpha-chymotrypsin, and the resultant 125 I-peptide fragments were resolved by high-voltage electrophoresis and thin-layer chromatography (i.e., surface peptide mapping). Radioemitting peptidic fragments were visualized by autoradiography. Results demonstrated that the PI molecule of each gonococcal strain studied had unique iodinatable peptides exposed on the surface of whole cells and OMs, whereas PIIIs appeared to have the same portion of the molecule exposed on the surface of bacteria or OMs, regardless of the gonococcal strain from which they were isolated. Many more radiolabeled peptides were seen in surface peptide maps of PIs from radiolabeled OMs than in those from radioiodinated whole cells, whereas different peptidic fragments were seen in the surface peptide maps of PIIIs from radiolabeled OMs than were seen in those from radiolabeled whole cells. These data suggest that PI may contribute strain-specific antigenic determinants and PIII may contribute cross-reactive determinants and that the surface exposure of PI and PIII is different in isolated OMs than in the OM of intact gonococci

  10. Numerical investigation on the influence of surface tension and viscous force on the bubble dynamics with a CLSVOF method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhiying; Li, Yikai; Huang, Biao; Gao, Deming [Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing (China)

    2016-06-15

    We numerically investigated the rising of bubbles in a quiescent liquid layer. The numerical simulation is performed by solving the incompressible, multiphase Navier-Stokes equations via computational code in axisymmetric coordinates using a Coupled level-set and volume-of-fluid (CLSVOF) method. The numerical results show that the CLSVOF method with a novel algebraic relation between F and f for axisymmetric two-phase flows not only can predict the bubble surface accurately, but also overcome the deficiency in preserving volume conservation. The effects of the Reynolds number Re and the Bond number Bo on the bubble deformation and its motion are investigated. The results show that with the increasing of Re (10 < Re < 150), the bubble shape transfers from oblate ellipsoidal cap to toroidal when Bo = 116. With the increasing of Bo (10 < Bo < 700), the bubble shape transfers from oblate ellipsoidal to toroidal when Re = 30. Although the toroidal bubble shapes are reached in these two cases, the transition modes are different. For the case Bo = 116, the bubble front is pierced by an upward jet from the rear of the bubble. While for the case Re = 30, the rear of the bubble is pierced by a downward jet from the front part.

  11. Minimal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Sauvigny, Friedrich; Jakob, Ruben; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    Minimal Surfaces is the first volume of a three volume treatise on minimal surfaces (Grundlehren Nr. 339-341). Each volume can be read and studied independently of the others. The central theme is boundary value problems for minimal surfaces. The treatise is a substantially revised and extended version of the monograph Minimal Surfaces I, II (Grundlehren Nr. 295 & 296). The first volume begins with an exposition of basic ideas of the theory of surfaces in three-dimensional Euclidean space, followed by an introduction of minimal surfaces as stationary points of area, or equivalently

  12. Rumble surfaces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    National Institute for Transport and Road

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumble surfaces are intermittent short lengths of coarse-textured road surfacings on which vehicle tyres produce a rumbling sound. used in conjunction with appropriate roadsigns and markings, they can reduce accidents on rural roads by alerting...

  13. Surface thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Moliner, F.

    1975-01-01

    Basic thermodynamics of a system consisting of two bulk phases with an interface. Solid surfaces: general. Discussion of experimental data on surface tension and related concepts. Adsorption thermodynamics in the Gibbsian scheme. Adsorption on inert solid adsorbents. Systems with electrical charges: chemistry and thermodynamics of imperfect crystals. Thermodynamics of charged surfaces. Simple models of charge transfer chemisorption. Adsorption heat and related concepts. Surface phase transitions

  14. Solid state cesium ion guns for surface studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souzis, A.E.; Carr, W.E.; Kim, S.I.; Seidl, M.

    1990-01-01

    Three cesium ion guns covering the energy range of 5--5000 V are described. These guns use a novel source of cesium ions that combine the advantages of porous metal ionizers with those of aluminosilicate emitters. Cesium ions are chemically stored in a solid electrolyte pellet and are thermionically emitted from a porous thin film of tungsten at the surface. Cesium supply to the emitting surface is controlled by applying a bias across the pellet. A total charge of 10.0 C can be extracted, corresponding to greater than 2000 h of lifetime with an extraction current of 1.0 μA. This source is compact, stable, and easy to use, and produces a beam with >99.5% purity. It requires none of the differential pumping or associated hardware necessary in designs using cesium vapor and porous tungsten ionizers. It has been used in ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) experiments at pressures of -10 Torr with no significant gas load. Three different types of extraction optics are used depending on the energy range desired. For low-energy deposition, a simple space-charge-limited planar diode with a perveance of 1x10 -7 A/V 3/2 is used. Current densities of 10.0 μA/cm 2 at the exit aperture for energies ≤20 V are typical. This type of source provides an alternative to vapor deposition with the advantage of precise flux calibration by integration of the ion current. For energies from 50 to 500 V and typical beam radii of 0.5 to 0.2 mm, a high perveance Pierce-type ion gun is used. This gun was designed with a perveance of 1x10 -9 A/V 3/2 and produces a beam with an effective temperature of 0.35 eV. For the energy range of 0.5 to 5 keV, the Pierce gun is used in conjunction with two Einzel lenses, enabling a large range of imaging ratios to be obtained. Beam radii of 60 to 300 μm are typical for beam currents of 50 nA to 1.0 μA

  15. Tunable-color luminescence via energy transfer in NaCa13/18Mg5/18PO4:A (A = Eu2+/Tb3+/Mn2+, Dy3+) phosphors for solid state lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Fan, Jian; Mi, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yang; Lian, Hongzhou; Shang, Mengmeng; Lin, Jun

    2014-11-17

    A series of NaCa13/18Mg5/18PO4(NCMPO):A (A = Eu(2+)/Tb(3+)/Mn(2+), Dy(3+)) phosphors have been prepared by the high-temperature solid-state reaction method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld refinement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), photoluminescence (PL), cathodoluminescence (CL), decay lifetimes, and PL quantum yields (QYs) were utilized to characterize the phosphors. The pure crystalline phase of as-prepared samples has been demonstrated via XRD measurement and Rietveld refinements. XPS reveals that the Eu(2+)/Tb(3+)/Mn(2+) can be efficiently doped into the crystal lattice. NCMPO:Eu(2+)/Tb(3+)/Mn(2+) phosphors can be effectively excited under UV radiation, which show tunable color from purple-blue to red including white emission based on energy transfer from Eu(2+) to Tb(3+)/Mn(2+) ions. Under low-voltage electron beam bombardment, the NCMPO:A (A = Eu(2+)/Tb(3+)/Mn(2+), Dy(3+)) display their, respectively, characteristic emissions with different colors, and the CL spectrum of NCMPO:0.04Tb(3+) has the comparable intensity to the ZnO:Zn commercial product. In addition, the calculated CIE coordinate of NCMPO:0.04Tb(3+) (0.252, 0.432) is more saturated than it (0.195, 0.417). These results reveal that NCMPO:A (A = Eu(2+)/Tb(3+)/Mn(2+), Dy(3+)) may be potential candidate phosphors for WLEDs and FEDs.

  16. Complete nucleotide sequence and genome structure of a Japanese isolate of hibiscus latent Fort Pierce virus, a unique tobamovirus that contains an internal poly(A) region in its 3' end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tetsuya; Kitazawa, Yugo; Komatsu, Ken; Neriya, Yutaro; Ishikawa, Kazuya; Fujita, Naoko; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Maejima, Kensaku; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we detected a Japanese isolate of hibiscus latent Fort Pierce virus (HLFPV-J), a member of the genus Tobamovirus, in a hibiscus plant in Japan and determined the complete sequence and organization of its genome. HLFPV-J has four open reading frames (ORFs), each of which shares more than 98 % nucleotide sequence identity with those of other HLFPV isolates. Moreover, HLFPV-J contains a unique internal poly(A) region of variable length, ranging from 44 to 78 nucleotides, in its 3'-untranslated region (UTR), as is the case with hibiscus latent Singapore virus (HLSV), another hibiscus-infecting tobamovirus. The length of the HLFPV-J genome was 6431 nucleotides, including the shortest internal poly(A) region. The sequence identities of ORFs 1, 2, 3 and 4 of HLFPV-J to other tobamoviruses were 46.6-68.7, 49.9-70.8, 31.0-70.8 and 39.4-70.1 %, respectively, at the nucleotide level and 39.8-75.0, 43.6-77.8, 19.2-70.4 and 31.2-74.2 %, respectively, at the amino acid level. The 5'- and 3'-UTRs of HLFPV-J showed 24.3-58.6 and 13.0-79.8 % identity, respectively, to other tobamoviruses. In particular, when compared to other tobamoviruses, each ORF and UTR of HLFPV-J showed the highest sequence identity to those of HLSV. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HLFPV-J, other HLFPV isolates and HLSV constitute a malvaceous-plant-infecting tobamovirus cluster. These results indicate that the genomic structure of HLFPV-J has unique features similar to those of HLSV. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the complete genome sequence of HLFPV.

  17. Surface mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Leopold; Bruce Rowland; Reed Stalder

    1979-01-01

    The surface mining process consists of four phases: (1) exploration; (2) development; (3) production; and (4) reclamation. A variety of surface mining methods has been developed, including strip mining, auger, area strip, open pit, dredging, and hydraulic. Sound planning and design techniques are essential to implement alternatives to meet the myriad of laws,...

  18. Superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Evelyn N; McCarthy, Matthew; Enright, Ryan; Culver, James N; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Ghodssi, Reza

    2015-03-24

    Surfaces having a hierarchical structure--having features of both microscale and nanoscale dimensions--can exhibit superhydrophobic properties and advantageous condensation and heat transfer properties. The hierarchical surfaces can be fabricated using biological nanostructures, such as viruses as a self-assembled nanoscale template.

  19. Surface characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2005-01-01

    Surface properties of wood play an important role when wood is used or processed into different commodities such as siding, joinery, textiles, paper, sorption media or wood composites. Thus, for example, the quality and durability of a wood coating are determined by the surface properties of the wood and the coating. The same is true for wood composites, as the...

  20. Convex surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Busemann, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    This exploration of convex surfaces focuses on extrinsic geometry and applications of the Brunn-Minkowski theory. It also examines intrinsic geometry and the realization of intrinsic metrics. 1958 edition.

  1. Surface boxplots

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-22

    In this paper, we introduce a surface boxplot as a tool for visualization and exploratory analysis of samples of images. First, we use the notion of volume depth to order the images viewed as surfaces. In particular, we define the median image. We use an exact and fast algorithm for the ranking of the images. This allows us to detect potential outlying images that often contain interesting features not present in most of the images. Second, we build a graphical tool to visualize the surface boxplot and its various characteristics. A graph and histogram of the volume depth values allow us to identify images of interest. The code is available in the supporting information of this paper. We apply our surface boxplot to a sample of brain images and to a sample of climate model outputs.

  2. Surface boxplots

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.; Johnson, Christopher; Potter, Kristin; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Sun, Ying

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a surface boxplot as a tool for visualization and exploratory analysis of samples of images. First, we use the notion of volume depth to order the images viewed as surfaces. In particular, we define the median image. We use an exact and fast algorithm for the ranking of the images. This allows us to detect potential outlying images that often contain interesting features not present in most of the images. Second, we build a graphical tool to visualize the surface boxplot and its various characteristics. A graph and histogram of the volume depth values allow us to identify images of interest. The code is available in the supporting information of this paper. We apply our surface boxplot to a sample of brain images and to a sample of climate model outputs.

  3. Surface channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizmann, R.; Varelas, C.

    1976-01-01

    There is experimental evidence that swift light ions incident at small angles towards single crystalline surfaces can lose an appreciable fraction of their kinetic energy during reflection. It is shown that these projectiles penetrate into the bulk surface region of the crystal. They can travel as channeled particles along long paths through the solid (surface channeling). The angular distribution and the depth history of the re-emerged projectiles are investigated by computer simulations. A considerable fraction of the penetrating projectiles re-emerges from the crystal with constant transverse energy if the angle of incidence is smaller than the critical angle for axial channeling. Analytical formulae are derived based on a diffusion model for surface channeling. A comparison with experimental data exhibits the relevance of the analytical solutions. (Auth.)

  4. Martian surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    The surface of Mars is characterized on the basis of reformatted Viking remote-sensing data, summarizing results published during the period 1983-1986. Topics examined include impact craters, ridges and faults, volcanic studies (modeling of surface effects on volcanic activity, description and interpretation of volcanic features, and calculations on lava-ice interactions), the role of liquid water on Mars, evidence for abundant ground ice at high latitudes, water-cycle modeling, and the composition and dynamics of Martian dust

  5. Surface decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S. da; Teixeira, M.V.

    1986-06-01

    The general methods of surface decontamination used in laboratory and others nuclear installations areas, as well as the procedures for handling radioactive materials and surfaces of work are presented. Some methods for decontamination of body external parts are mentioned. The medical supervision and assistance are required for internal or external contamination involving or not lesion in persons. From this medical radiation protection decontamination procedures are determined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  6. Surface phonons

    CERN Document Server

    Wette, Frederik

    1991-01-01

    In recent years substantial progress has been made in the detection of surface phonons owing to considerable improvements in inelastic rare gas scattering tech­ niques and electron energy loss spectroscopy. With these methods it has become possible to measure surface vibrations in a wide energy range for all wave vectors in the two-dimensional Brillouin zone and thus to deduce the complete surface phonon dispersion curves. Inelastic atomic beam scattering and electron energy loss spectroscopy have started to play a role in the study of surface phonons similar to the one played by inelastic neutron scattering in the investigation of bulk phonons in the last thirty years. Detailed comparison between experimen­ tal results and theoretical studies of inelastic surface scattering and of surface phonons has now become feasible. It is therefore possible to test and to improve the details of interaction models which have been worked out theoretically in the last few decades. At this point we felt that a concise, co...

  7. Numerical investigation of aerodynamic flow actuation produced by surface plasma actuator on 2D oscillating airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Khang Phan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation of unsteady flow control over an oscillating NACA0012 airfoil is investigated. Flow actuation of a turbulent flow over the airfoil is provided by low current DC surface glow discharge plasma actuator which is analytically modeled as an ion pressure force produced in the cathode sheath region. The modeled plasma actuator has an induced pressure force of about 2 kPa under a typical experiment condition and is placed on the airfoil surface at 0% chord length and/or at 10% chord length. The plasma actuator at deep-stall angles (from 5° to 25° is able to slightly delay a dynamic stall and to weaken a pressure fluctuation in down-stroke motion. As a result, the wake region is reduced. The actuation effect varies with different plasma pulse frequencies, actuator locations and reduced frequencies. A lift coefficient can increase up to 70% by a selective operation of the plasma actuator with various plasma frequencies and locations as the angle of attack changes. Active flow control which is a key advantageous feature of the plasma actuator reveals that a dynamic stall phenomenon can be controlled by the surface plasma actuator with less power consumption if a careful control scheme of the plasma actuator is employed with the optimized plasma pulse frequency and actuator location corresponding to a dynamic change in reduced frequency.

  8. Measurement of HbA1c and HbA2 by Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing HbA1c programme for simultaneous management of diabetes and screening for thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Peifeng; Liu, Jiawei; Chao, Yan; Wu, Xiaobin; Xiong, Yujuan; Lin, Li; Wan, Zemin; Wu, Xinzhong; Xu, Jianhua; Zhuang, Junhua; Huang, Xianzhang

    2017-10-01

    Thalassemia could interfere with some assays for haemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) measurement, therefore, it is useful to be able to screen for thalassemia while measuring HbA 1c . We used Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing (Capillarys 2FP) HbA 1c programme to simultaneously measure HbA 1c and screen for thalassemia. Samples from 498 normal controls and 175 thalassemia patients were analysed by Capillarys 2FP HbA 1c programme (Sebia, France). For method comparison, HbA 1c was quantified by Premier Hb9210 (Trinity Biotech, Ireland) in 98 thalassaemia patients samples. For verification, HbA 1c from eight thalassaemia patients was confirmed by IFCC reference method. Among 98 thalassaemia samples, Capillarys 2FP did not provide an HbA 1c result in three samples with HbH due to the overlapping of HbBart's with HbA 1c fraction; for the remaining 95 thalassaemia samples, Bland-Altman plot showed 0.00 ± 0.35% absolute bias between two systems, and a significant positive bias above 7% was observed only in two HbH samples. The HbA 1c values obtained by Capillarys 2FP were consistent with the IFCC targets (relative bias below ± 6%) in all of the eight samples tested by both methods. For screening samples with alpha (α-) thalassaemia silent/trait or beta (β-) thalassemia trait, the optimal HbA 2 cut-off values were ≤ 2.2% and > 2.8%, respectively. Our results demonstrated the Capillarys 2FP HbA 1c system could report an accurate HbA 1c value in thalassemia silent/trait, and HbA 2 value (≤ 2.2% for α-thalassaemia silent/trait and > 2.8% for β-thalassemia trait) and abnormal bands (HbH and/or HbBart's for HbH disease, HbF for β-thalassemia) may provide valuable information for screening.

  9. Mostly surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Richard Evan

    2011-01-01

    This book presents a number of topics related to surfaces, such as Euclidean, spherical and hyperbolic geometry, the fundamental group, universal covering surfaces, Riemannian manifolds, the Gauss-Bonnet Theorem, and the Riemann mapping theorem. The main idea is to get to some interesting mathematics without too much formality. The book also includes some material only tangentially related to surfaces, such as the Cauchy Rigidity Theorem, the Dehn Dissection Theorem, and the Banach-Tarski Theorem. The goal of the book is to present a tapestry of ideas from various areas of mathematics in a clear and rigorous yet informal and friendly way. Prerequisites include undergraduate courses in real analysis and in linear algebra, and some knowledge of complex analysis.

  10. Surface rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Corrêa Landim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In many cities of Brazil, social inequality is illustrated by violence, poverty, and unemployment located next to luxurious residential towers and armored passenger cars. In the face of this situation, the National Movement of Urban Reform encouraged the inclusion of the social function of property in Brazil's new constitution of 1988. Surface rights represent an urbanistic instrument in the city statute that is best aligned to the constitutional principles and urban policies. The current article compares two laws that govern the principle of surface rights and provides a brief history of the evolution of the state based on illuminism and the consequent change in paradigm affecting individual rights, including property and civil rights, and their interpretation under the Constitution. The article concludes by suggesting the use of land surface rights in a joint operation, matching the ownership of the property with urban planning policies and social interest.

  11. Attack surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko

    2010-01-01

    The new paradigm of cloud computing poses severe security risks to its adopters. In order to cope with these risks, appropriate taxonomies and classification criteria for attacks on cloud computing are required. In this work-in-progress paper we present one such taxonomy based on the notion...... of attack surfaces of the cloud computing scenario participants....

  12. Possible Problems: Inverted, Flat, or Pierced Nipples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations ...

  13. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap; Kim, Sangsub; Knauer, Christian; Schlipf, Lena; Shin, Chansu; Vigneron, Antoine E.

    2013-01-01

    We give exact and approximation algorithms for two-center problems when the input is a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in D intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Notch Signaling: Piercing a Harness of Simplicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbig, Christina; Amsen, Derk

    2015-01-01

    The Notch pathway is an attractive therapeutic target for treatment of cancer and T cell-mediated pathology, but Notch inhibition leads to many side effects. Pinnell et al. (2015) demonstrate that oncogenic functions can be separated biochemically from other functions of Notch, opening new options

  15. FLOODPLAIN, PIERCE COUNTY, WISCONSIN, AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  16. Coastal Analysis Submission for Pierce County, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Final Draft Guidelines for Coastal Flood Hazard Analysis and Mapping for the Pacific...

  17. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap

    2013-04-01

    We give exact and approximation algorithms for two-center problems when the input is a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in D intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Piercing of corporate veil of nuclear companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenz, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The Federal Ministry of Economics plans that the nuclear companies with all their assets to cover disposal costs can be used where a power plant operator is governed by its parent company, hence the latter Capital or voting majority of the operators holding or these passes; To date, the parent company is liable only limited and not more than five years after the end of the domination of one Subsidiary, oparating a power plant. In this way, prevents ultimately the public sector and thus the Taxpayers have to pay for the long-term consequences of the use of nuclear energy. Until now ensured paragraph 303 AktG a group law Secondary liability the parent companies of the operating company in the case of of termination of the control and profit transfer agreements is very limited for the nuclear liabilities, namely in two ways: The claim is only focused on the backup performance and not at the expense of acquisition and Moreover, according to the case law limited of five years after its foundation; for the area of transformation law comparable rules are valid. thereby the dismantling of a nuclear power station takes just already for 20 years and a final repository is expected before 2050 not be available. [de

  19. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap; Kim, Sangsub; Knauer, Christian; Schlipf, Lena; Shin, Chansu; Vigneron, Antoine E.

    2011-01-01

    We consider new versions of the two-center problem where the input consists of a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. We give exact and approximation algorithms for these versions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  20. the doctrine of piercing the corporate veil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    below (as stated in Stephen Griffin, Company law: fundamental principles).4 ..... opportunities, the nation's economic and financial growth, stability and ..... shareholders, common officers, centralized accounting, payment of wages by one.