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Sample records for surface photographs standardized

  1. New ISO standard - personnel photographic film dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabec, D.

    1980-01-01

    The ISO Standard 1757 ''Personnel Photographic Film Dosemeters'', issued in June 1980, is briefly described. UVVVR's own dosemeter developed for use in the national film dosimetry service in Czechoslovakia is evaluated in relation to this ISO Standard. (author)

  2. SMEX02 Land Surface Information: Geolocation, Surface Roughness, and Photographs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set combines various ancillary data (geolocation, surface roughness, and photographs) collected for the Iowa Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02) study...

  3. Standards for illumination of digital prints and photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Standards for illuminating digital prints and photographs have a number of quite different applications. In the graphic arts industry, the main applications are defined as appraisal and critical comparison, for which 500lux and 2000lux are specified in ISO 3664. In the museum world much lower levels of illumination are imposed when artefacts are considered to be prone to damage from such exposure. For display and storage of photographic prints, BS 5454:2000 is applicable and specifies maximum levels of 50 lux and 200 lux respectively. While these standards provide recommendations for exposure to radiant energy with the goal of limiting damage to materials and maximising visual discrimination, there is a need for more data on the radiative damage spectrum for the materials used in digital prints and photographs and other artefacts, and on the viewing conditions which can maximise visual performance for specific tasks. It is recommended that radiative exposure is measured in watts per square metre instead of lux to give a better indication of the propensity for radiative damage of a given illumination source.

  4. Standardized food images: A photographing protocol and image database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Lisette; van Meer, Floor; van der Laan, Laura N; Viergever, Max A; Smeets, Paul A M

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of food intake has gained much research interest because of the current obesity epidemic. For research purposes, food images are a good and convenient alternative for real food because many dietary decisions are made based on the sight of foods. Food pictures are assumed to elicit anticipatory responses similar to real foods because of learned associations between visual food characteristics and post-ingestive consequences. In contemporary food science, a wide variety of images are used which introduces between-study variability and hampers comparison and meta-analysis of results. Therefore, we created an easy-to-use photographing protocol which enables researchers to generate high resolution food images appropriate for their study objective and population. In addition, we provide a high quality standardized picture set which was characterized in seven European countries. With the use of this photographing protocol a large number of food images were created. Of these images, 80 were selected based on their recognizability in Scotland, Greece and The Netherlands. We collected image characteristics such as liking, perceived calories and/or perceived healthiness ratings from 449 adults and 191 children. The majority of the foods were recognized and liked at all sites. The differences in liking ratings, perceived calories and perceived healthiness between sites were minimal. Furthermore, perceived caloric content and healthiness ratings correlated strongly (r ≥ 0.8) with actual caloric content in both adults and children. The photographing protocol as well as the images and the data are freely available for research use on http://nutritionalneuroscience.eu/. By providing the research community with standardized images and the tools to create their own, comparability between studies will be improved and a head-start is made for a world-wide standardized food image database. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Photographic surface photometry of NGC 2855 and NGC 6771 galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, M. de F.S.

    1984-01-01

    Photographic surface photometry in the BV system was carried out two Southern SO's galaxies, NGC 2855 and NGC 6771. B and V isophote maps were obtained as well as geometric and integrated parameters as position angles, inclination, diameters, magnitudes and integrated colors. Each luminosity profile was decomposed into bulge and disk contributions, each component being fitted to convenient laws. For NGC 2855 de Vaucouleurs law described well the bulge whereas the disk showed an exponential distribution. For NGC 6771 the barred nuclear bulge as well as the disk was best fitted by exponential laws. Additional luminosity components due to an inner fragmented ring were identified in NGC 2855 and due to both a quite prominent lens and well defined ring in NGC 6771. In this galaxy the minor axis, oriented almost edge-on, present clues of another luminosity component besides the bulge and the thin disk. For both galaxies the disk central surface brightness was found to be fainter than the standard value observed by Freeman. The fitting parameters were used to determine the bulge-to-disk luminosity ratios as well as their contribution to total luminosity. The domination by the bulge light over the disk light was clear in both galaxies. From the B and V luminosity profile the color gradients were estimated. For both objects the local color indices decreased from inner to outer regions, this effect being relatively smooth in NGC 2855 and more prominent in NGC 6771 [pt

  6. Liminal transformations: folding the surface of the photograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Dados

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available At once a material object and a multitude of paths, the photograph is a useful place to begin thinking about the threshold. In the photograph we might dwell on the nuances of the threshold, its ability to be an ‘inbetween’ and a gateway to a ‘beyond’ simultaneously. Indeed, the photograph offers both possibilities. The work of Bhabha, Benjamin and Sontag elucidates this slippage. In this uncertainty, ‘inbetween’ and ‘beyond’ signal another productive intersection.  The liminality of the threshold marks this terrain as a spatial transgression that ushers in a temporal disjuncture. The threshold is a shadow zone, as ordinary as a stairwell and as transformative as a breakthrough. In attempting to map the threshold, the paper borrows from Deleuze and Marks on enfolding and unfolding as a means through which knowledge becomes accessible, or remains concealed. To some extent, mapping the threshold is a process that begins unfolding from the discussion of surface, gaze and perception. Yet despite these markers, mapping the threshold of photographs proves difficult and elusive. In this respect, Wittgenstein’s notion of ‘seeing aspects’ helps explain the way that the threshold always exceeds our attempts at mapping and defies perception. The paper examines this impasse through the ‘fold of the surface’, an action which transgresses the flatness of the image without altering it. Perhaps this is the closest we can be to the threshold without holding it.À la fois objet matériel et multitude de chemins, la photographie est un lieu privilégié pour commencer à réfléchir sur le seuil. Dans la photo, nous pouvons nous attarder sur les nuances du seuil, son caractère simultané d’« entre-deux » et de portail vers un « au-delà » en même temps. En effet, la photo offre en effet ces deux possibilités. Les travaux de Bhabha, Benjamin et Sontag éclaircissent ce glissement. Dans cet incertain, l’« entre-deux » et

  7. Comparative analysis of photograph-based clinical goniometry to standard techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crasto, Jared A; Sayari, Arash J; Gray, Robert R-L; Askari, Morad

    2015-06-01

    Assessment of joint range of motion (ROM) is an accepted evaluation of disability as well as an indicator of recovery from musculoskeletal injuries. Many goniometric techniques have been described to measure ROM, with variable validity due to inter-rater reliability. In this report, we assessed the validity of photograph-based goniometry in measurement of ROM and its inter-rater reliability and compared it to two other commonly used techniques. We examined three methods for measuring ROM in the upper extremity: manual goniometry (MG), visual estimations (VE), and photograph-based goniometry (PBG). Eight motions of the upper extremity were measured in 69 participants at an academic medical center. We found visual estimations and photograph-based goniometry to be clinically valid when tested against manual goniometry (r avg. 0.58, range 0.28 to 0.87). Photograph-based measurements afforded a satisfactory degree of inter-rater reliability (ICC avg. 0.77, range 0.28 to 0.96). Our study supports photograph-based goniometry as the new standard goniometric technique, as it has been clinically validated, is performed with greater consistency and better inter-rater reliability when compared with manual goniometry. It also allows for better documentation of measurements and potential incorporation into medical records in direct contrast to visual estimation.

  8. Surface materials as reference standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, V.P.; Siqueira, N.V.M. de

    1982-01-01

    Studies about standardization of geological samples have been the main goal of analytical research works and have thus contributed to supply data concerning the contents of major, minor and trace elements in samples. As reference standards, silicates and surface materials have been used, the latter being less abundant and the most employed are: bauxite standards NBS-69-a, NBS-69-b and NBS-697 (USA) and BxN(France); soil standards SO-1, SO-2, SO-3, SO-4 (Canada) and Soil-5 (international). Additional contributions to analytical geochemistry will be obtained from works aiming the standardization of samples of weathering materials. Contents of major components (SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 and volatile materials), minor (TiO 2 , P 2 O 5 )and trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Mn, Y, Zr, Nb, V and Mo) are being determined in two samples of altered basalt, three samples of bauxite and two samples of soils. Among the analytical methods employed in this preliminary phase of the work are the classical methods (gravimetric and titrimetric), colorimetry and X-ray fluorescence analysis. (Author) [pt

  9. Dust Plate, Retina, Photograph: Imaging on Experimental Surfaces in Early Nineteenth-Century Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Chitra

    2015-09-01

    This article explores the entangled histories of three imaging techniques in early nineteenth-century British physical science, techniques in which a dynamic event (such as a sound vibration or an electric spark) was made to leave behind a fixed trace on a sensitive surface. Three categories of "sensitive surface" are examined in turn: first, a metal plate covered in fine dust; second, the retina of the human eye; and finally, a surface covered with a light-sensitive chemical emulsion (a photographic plate). For physicists Michael Faraday and Charles Wheatstone, and photographic pioneer William Henry Fox Talbot, transient phenomena could be studied through careful observation and manipulation of the patterns wrought on these different surfaces, and through an understanding of how the imaging process unfolded through time. This exposes the often-ignored materiality and temporality of epistemic practices around nineteenth-century scientific images said to be "drawn by nature."

  10. Photographic-Based Optical Evaluation of Tissues and Biomaterials Used for Corneal Surface Repair: A New Easy-Applied Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gonzalez-Andrades

    Full Text Available Tissues and biomaterials used for corneal surface repair require fulfilling specific optical standards prior to implantation in the patient. However, there is not a feasible evaluation method to be applied in clinical or Good Manufacturing Practice settings. In this study, we describe and assess an innovative easy-applied photographic-based method (PBM for measuring functional optical blurring and transparency in corneal surface grafts.Plastic compressed collagen scaffolds (PCCS and multilayered amniotic membranes (AM samples were optically and histologically evaluated. Transparency and image blurring measures were obtained by PBM, analyzing photographic images of a standardized band pattern taken through the samples. These measures were compared and correlated to those obtained applying the Inverse Adding-Doubling (IAD technique, which is the gold standard method.All the samples used for optical evaluation by PBM or IAD were histological suitable. PCCS samples presented transmittance values higher than 60%, values that increased with increasing wavelength as determined by IAD. The PBM indicated that PCCS had a transparency ratio (TR value of 80.3 ± 2.8%, with a blurring index (BI of 50.6 ± 4.2%. TR and BI obtained from the PBM showed a high correlation (ρ>|0.6| with the diffuse transmittance and the diffuse reflectance, both determined using the IAD (p<0.005. The AM optical properties showed that there was a largely linear relationship between the blurring and the number of amnion layers, with more layers producing greater blurring.This innovative proposed method represents an easy-applied technique for evaluating transparency and blurriness of tissues and biomaterials used for corneal surface repair.

  11. Photographic Standards for Patients With Facial Palsy and Recommendations by Members of the Sir Charles Bell Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Katherine B; Fattah, Adel; Gavilán, Javier; Hadlock, Tessa A; Snyder-Warwick, Alison K

    2017-07-01

    There is no widely accepted assessment tool or common language used by clinicians caring for patients with facial palsy, making exchange of information challenging. Standardized photography may represent such a language and is imperative for precise exchange of information and comparison of outcomes in this special patient population. To review the literature to evaluate the use of facial photography in the management of patients with facial palsy and to examine the use of photography in documenting facial nerve function among members of the Sir Charles Bell Society-a group of medical professionals dedicated to care of patients with facial palsy. A literature search was performed to review photographic standards in patients with facial palsy. In addition, a cross-sectional survey of members of the Sir Charles Bell Society was conducted to examine use of medical photography in documenting facial nerve function. The literature search and analysis was performed in August and September 2015, and the survey was conducted in August and September 2013. The literature review searched EMBASE, CINAHL, and MEDLINE databases from inception of each database through September 2015. Additional studies were identified by scanning references from relevant studies. Only English-language articles were eligible for inclusion. Articles that discussed patients with facial palsy and outlined photographic guidelines for this patient population were included in the study. The survey was disseminated to the Sir Charles Bell Society members in electronic form. It consisted of 10 questions related to facial grading scales, patient-reported outcome measures, other psychological assessment tools, and photographic and videographic recordings. In total, 393 articles were identified in the literature search, 7 of which fit the inclusion criteria. Six of the 7 articles discussed or proposed views specific to patients with facial palsy. However, none of the articles specifically focused on

  12. Photographing Injuries in the Acute Care Setting: Development and Evaluation of a Standardized Protocol for Research, Forensics, and Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemen, Elizabeth M; Rosen, Tony; Cline Schiroo, Justina A; Clark, Sunday; Mulcare, Mary R; Stern, Michael E; Mysliwiec, Regina; Flomenbaum, Neal E; Lachs, Mark S; Hargarten, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    Photographing injuries in the acute setting allows for improved documentation as well as assessment by clinicians and others who have not personally examined a patient. This tool is important, particularly for telemedicine, tracking of wound healing, the evaluation of potential abuse, and injury research. Despite this, protocols to ensure standardization of photography in clinical practice, forensics, or research have not been published. In preparation for a study of injury patterns in elder abuse and geriatric falls, our goal was to develop and evaluate a protocol for standardized photography of injuries that may be broadly applied. We conducted a literature review for techniques and standards in medical, forensic, and legal photography. We developed a novel protocol describing types of photographs and body positioning for eight body regions, including instructional diagrams. We revised it iteratively in consultation with experts in medical photography; forensics; and elder, child, and domestic abuse. The resulting protocol requires a minimum of four photos of each injury at multiple distances with and without a ruler/color guide. To evaluate the protocol's efficacy, multiple research assistants without previous photography experience photographed injuries from a convenience sample of elderly patients presenting to a single large, urban, academic emergency department. A selection of these patients' images were then evaluated in a blinded fashion by four nontreating emergency medicine physicians and the inter-rater reliability between these physicians was calculated. Among the 131 injuries, from 53 patients, photographed by 18 photographers using this protocol, photographs of 25 injuries (10 bruises, seven lacerations, and eight abrasions) were used to assess characterization of the injury. Physicians' characterizations of the injuries were reliable for the size of the injury (κ = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.77 to 1.00), side of the body (κ = 0.97, 95

  13. Comparison of anthropometry with photogrammetry based on a standardized clinical photographic technique using a cephalostat and chair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kihwan; Kwon, Hyuk Joon; Choi, Tae Hyun; Kim, Jun Hyung; Son, Daegu

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to standardize clinical photogrammetric techniques, and to compare anthropometry with photogrammetry. To standardize clinical photography, we have developed a photographic cephalostat and chair. We investigated the repeatability of the standardized clinical photogrammetric technique. Then, with 40 landmarks, a total of 96 anthropometric measurement items was obtained from 100 Koreans. Ninety six photogrammetric measurements from the same subjects were also obtained from standardized clinical photographs using Adobe Photoshop version 7.0 (Adobe Systems Corporation, San Jose, CA, USA). The photogrammetric and anthropometric measurement data (mm, degree) were then compared. A coefficient was obtained by dividing the anthropometric measurements by the photogrammetric measurements. The repeatability of the standardized photography was statistically significantly high (p=0.463). Among the 96 measurement items, 44 items were reliable; for these items the photogrammetric measurements were not different to the anthropometric measurements. The remaining 52 items must be classified as unreliable. By developing a photographic cephalostat and chair, we have standardized clinical photogrammetric techniques. The reliable set of measurement items can be used as anthropometric measurements. For unreliable measurement items, applying a suitable coefficient to the photogrammetric measurement allows the anthropometric measurement to be obtained indirectly.

  14. Standardizing the protocol for hemispherical photographs: accuracy assessment of binarization algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatthorn, Jonas; Beckschäfer, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Hemispherical photography is a well-established method to optically assess ecological parameters related to plant canopies; e.g. ground-level light regimes and the distribution of foliage within the crown space. Interpreting hemispherical photographs involves classifying pixels as either sky or vegetation. A wide range of automatic thresholding or binarization algorithms exists to classify the photographs. The variety in methodology hampers ability to compare results across studies. To identify an optimal threshold selection method, this study assessed the accuracy of seven binarization methods implemented in software currently available for the processing of hemispherical photographs. Therefore, binarizations obtained by the algorithms were compared to reference data generated through a manual binarization of a stratified random selection of pixels. This approach was adopted from the accuracy assessment of map classifications known from remote sensing studies. Percentage correct (Pc) and kappa-statistics (K) were calculated. The accuracy of the algorithms was assessed for photographs taken with automatic exposure settings (auto-exposure) and photographs taken with settings which avoid overexposure (histogram-exposure). In addition, gap fraction values derived from hemispherical photographs were compared with estimates derived from the manually classified reference pixels. All tested algorithms were shown to be sensitive to overexposure. Three of the algorithms showed an accuracy which was high enough to be recommended for the processing of histogram-exposed hemispherical photographs: "Minimum" (Pc 98.8%; K 0.952), "Edge Detection" (Pc 98.1%; K 0.950), and "Minimum Histogram" (Pc 98.1%; K 0.947). The Minimum algorithm overestimated gap fraction least of all (11%). The overestimation by the algorithms Edge Detection (63%) and Minimum Histogram (67%) were considerably larger. For the remaining four evaluated algorithms (IsoData, Maximum Entropy, MinError, and Otsu

  15. Use of a variable exposure photographic pyrometer to measure surface temperatures on a hemispherical-face model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsios, A. G.; Henley, W. C., Jr.; Snow, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a photographic pyrometer for nonintrusive measurement of high temperature surfaces in a wind tunnel test is described. The advantages of the pyrometer for measuring surfaces whose unique shape makes use of thermocouples difficult are pointed out. The use of computer operated densitometers or optical processors for the data reduction is recommended.

  16. CRC standard curves and surfaces with Mathematica

    CERN Document Server

    von Seggern, David H

    2006-01-01

    Since the publication of the first edition, Mathematica® has matured considerably and the computing power of desktop computers has increased greatly. This enables the presentation of more complex curves and surfaces as well as the efficient computation of formerly prohibitive graphical plots. Incorporating both of these aspects, CRC Standard Curves and Surfaces with Mathematica®, Second Edition is a virtual encyclopedia of curves and functions that depicts nearly all of the standard mathematical functions rendered using Mathematica. While the easy-to-use format remains unchanged from the previ

  17. Pressure RElieving Support SUrfaces: a Randomised Evaluation 2 (PRESSURE 2) photographic validation sub-study: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Elizabeth; Brown, Sarah; Collier, Howard; Faulks, Phil; Gilberts, Rachael; Greenwood, Clare; Henderson, Valerie; Muir, Delia; Nelson, Andrea; Nixon, Jane; Smith, Isabelle; Stubbs, Nikki; Walker, Kay; Wilson, Lyn; Coleman, Susanne

    2017-03-20

    PRESSURE 2 is a randomised evaluation of the clinical and cost effectiveness of two types of pressure relieving mattress for the prevention of pressure ulcers. The primary endpoint is the time to development of a Category ≥2 pressure ulcer. The current 'gold standard' for the identification of a Category ≥2 pressure ulcer is expert clinical assessment. Due to the appearance of the bed, it is not possible to achieve blinding of the endpoint. This therefore poses a risk to the internal validity of the study. A possible approach is to use photographs of skin sites, with central blinded review. However, there are practical and scientific concerns including whether patients would agree to photographs; the burden of data collection; the quality of photographs; the completeness of data; and how the use of photographs compares with the current 'gold standard'. This validation sub-study aims to assess and quantify potential bias in the reporting of the trial endpoint. Patients will be specifically asked to consent to photographs being taken of their skin sites. Photographs will be taken at first observation or when patients develop a new Category ≥2 pressure ulcer (to assess over-reporting). A 10% random sample of patients will be identified for additional photographs of two skin sites (one torso and one limb) with and without a pressure ulcer (if present) by an independent assessor (to assess the potential for under-reporting). Staff will be trained to take photographs using a standardised camera and photographic technique. A 'grey scale' will be included in the photo to correct white balance. Photographs will be securely transferred for central review. Photographs will have white balance corrected, and the computer monitor will be calibrated prior to review. Analysis will include assessment of under- and over-reporting, acceptability of photography to patients, secure transfer of data, quality of and confidence in blinded photograph review and sensitivity analysis

  18. Standard test method for determination of surface lubrication on flexible webs

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This test method has been used since 1988 as an ANSI/ISO standard test for determination of lubrication on processed photographic films. Its purpose was to determine the presence of process-surviving lubricants on photographic films. It is the purpose of this test method to expand the applicability of this test method to other flexible webs that may need lubrication for suitable performance. This test measures the breakaway (static) coefficient of friction of a metal rider on the web by the inclined plane method. The objectives of the test is to determine if a web surface has a lubricant present or not. It is not intended to assign a friction coefficient to a material. It is not intended to rank lubricants. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish ...

  19. Comparison between ASME and ISO standards on surface texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai; Jiang, Xiangqian; Liu, Xiaojun; Xu, Zhengao

    2006-11-01

    Surface texture is generally a significant technique requirement of high-tech products. Surface quality information can usually play an increasing role in achieving interoperability among existing products, create order in markets, simplify production and ensure safety. As the most authoritative standard organizations, ASME and ISO services are used throughout the world, their codes and standards influence global manufacturers and consumers. ASME B46.1 is one of many vital tools to promote surface measurement techniques, while ISO has a set standard system for surface measurement, analysis and evaluation. This paper compares the ASME B46.1 (2002) standard (Surface texture: surface roughness, waviness, and lay) with ISO 3274 (1997) standard on methods of surface profiles filtering. It preformed the present research in order to show the latest developments of the ASME B46.1 (2002) in the regime of contact profiling techniques where the degree of measurement control is highly advanced, and a large range of other techniques that present valid and useful descriptions of surface texture. Also, this paper shows the differences of terms, definitions and surface texture parameters between ASME B46.1 (2002) and ISO 4287 (1998). The different evaluation results have been calculated based on above two standards for the same surface data. Obviously, it is necessary to consider the divergence above to develop China's standards (GB) on surface texture.

  20. Environmental waste site characterization utilizing aerial photographs, remote sensing, and surface geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, P.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Rofer, C.; Baldridge, S.; Ferguson, J.; Jiracek, G.; Balick, L.; Josten, N.; Carpenter, M.

    1996-01-01

    Six different techniques were used to delineate 40 year old trench boundary at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Data from historical aerial photographs, a magnetic gradient survey, airborne multispectral and thermal infra-red imagery, seismic refraction, DC resistivity, and total field magnetometry were utilized in this process. Each data set indicated a southern and northern edge for the trench. Average locations and 95% confidence limits for each edge were determined along a survey line perpendicular to the trench. Trench edge locations were fairly consistent among all six techniques. Results from a modeling effort performed with the total magnetic field data was the least consistent. However, each method provided unique and complementary information, and the integration of all this information led to a more complete characterization of the trench boundaries and contents

  1. A trial fabrication of activity standard surface sources and positional standard surface sources for an imaging plate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yasushi; Hino, Yoshio; Yamada, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Mikio

    2003-01-01

    An imaging plate system can detect low level activity, but quantitative analysis is difficult because there are no adequate standard surface sources. A new fabrication method was developed for standard surface sources by printing on a sheet of paper using an ink-jet printer with inks in which a radioactive material was mixed. The fabricated standard surface sources had high uniformity, high positional resolution arbitrary shapes and a broad intensity range. The standard sources were used for measurement of surface activity as an application. (H. Yokoo)

  2. Standardized surface engineering design of shale gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangchuan Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the special physical properties of shale gas reservoirs, it is necessary to adopt unconventional and standardized technologies for its surface engineering construction. In addition, the surface engineering design of shale gas reservoirs in China faces many difficulties, such as high uncertainty of the gathering and transportation scale, poor adaptability of pipe network and station layout, difficult matching of the process equipments, and boosting production at the late stage. In view of these problems, the surface engineering construction of shale gas reservoirs should follow the principles of “standardized design, modularized construction and skid mounted equipment”. In this paper, standardized surface engineering design technologies for shale gas reservoirs were developed with the “standardized well station layout, universal process, modular function zoning, skid mounted equipment selection, intensive site design, digitized production management” as the core, after literature analysis and technology exploration were carried out. Then its application background and surface technology route were discussed with a typical shale gas field in Sichuan–Chongqing area as an example. Its surface gathering system was designed in a standardized way, including standardized process, the modularized gathering and transportation station, serialized dehydration unit and intensive layout, and remarkable effects were achieved. A flexible, practical and reliable ground production system was built, and a series of standardized technology and modularized design were completed, including cluster well platform, set station, supporting projects. In this way, a system applicable to domestic shale gas surface engineering construction is developed.

  3. Standard Care vs Corticosteroid for Retinal Vein Occlusion (SCORE) Study system for evaluation of stereoscopic color fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms: SCORE Study Report 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodi, Barbara A; Domalpally, Amitha; Scott, Ingrid U; Ip, Michael S; Oden, Neal L; Elledge, Julee; Warren, Kelly; Altaweel, Michael M; Kim, Judy E; Van Veldhuisen, Paul C

    2010-09-01

    To describe the procedures and reproducibility for grading stereoscopic color fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms of participants in the SCORE Study. Standardized stereoscopic fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms taken at 84 clinical centers were evaluated by graders at a central reading center. Type of retinal vein occlusion (RVO), area of retinal thickening, and area of retinal hemorrhage are evaluated from fundus photographs; area of fluorescein leakage and area of capillary nonperfusion are measured on fluorescein angiography. Temporal reproducibility consisted of annual regrading of a randomly selected dedicated subset of fundus photographs (60 subjects) and fluorescein angiograms (40 subjects) for 3 successive years. Contemporaneous reproducibility involved monthly regrading of a 5% random selection of recently evaluated fundus photographs (n = 73). The intergrader agreement for RVO type and presence of retinal thickening was greater than 90% in the 3 annual regrades. The intraclass correlation (ICC) for area of retinal thickening in the 3 years ranged from 0.39 to 0.64 and for area of retinal hemorrhage, 0.87 to 0.96. The ICC for area of fluorescein leakage ranged from 0.66 to 0.75 and for capillary nonperfusion, 0.94 to 0.97. The contemporaneous reproducibility results were similar to those of temporal reproducibility for all variables except area of retinal thickening (ICC, 0.84). The fundus photography and fluorescein angiography grading procedures for the SCORE Study are reproducible and can be used for multicenter longitudinal studies of RVO. A systematic temporal drift occurred in evaluating area of retinal thickening.

  4. Precision of a photogrammetric method to perform 3D wound measurements compared to standard 2D photographic techniques in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labens, R; Blikslager, A

    2013-01-01

    Methods of 3D wound imaging in man play an important role in monitoring of healing and determination of the prognosis. Standard photographic assessments in equine wound management consist of 2D analyses, which provide little quantitative information on the wound bed. 3D imaging of equine wounds is feasible using principles of stereophotogrammetry. 3D measurements differ significantly and are more precise than results with standard 2D assessments. Repeated specialised photographic imaging of 4 clinical wounds left to heal by second intention was performed. The intraoperator variability in measurements due to imaging and 3D processing was compared to that of a standard 2D technique using descriptive statistics and multivariate repeated measures ANOVA. Using a custom made imaging system, 3D analyses were successfully performed. Area and circumference measurements were significantly different between imaging modalities. The intraoperator variability of 3D measurements was up to 2.8 times less than that of 2D results. On average, the maximum discrepancy between repeated measurements was 5.8% of the mean for 3D and 17.3% of the mean for 2D assessments. The intraoperator repeatability of 3D wound measurements based on principles of stereophotogrammetry is significantly increased compared to that of a standard 2D photographic technique indicating it may be a useful diagnostic and monitoring tool. The equine granulation bed plays an important role in equine wound healing. When compared to 2D analyses 3D monitoring of the equine wound bed allows superior quantitative characterisation, contributing to clinical and experimental investigations by offering potential new parameters. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Standard Practice for Effects of Cleaners on Unpainted Aircraft Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes the procedure used to determine the effect of cleaners on unpainted aircraft surfaces. Visual observation is used for determining streaking or permanent stains which require polishing to remove. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. Vertical Photographs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes of photographs of marine mammals and sea turtles taken with high resolution cameras mounted in airplanes, unmanned platforms or the bow of...

  7. Three-dimensional surface scanners compared with standard anthropometric measurements for head shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaumont, C.A.A. (Caroline A.A.); Knoops, P.G.M. (Paul G.M.); Borghi, A. (Alessandro); Jeelani, N.U.O. (N.U. Owase); M.J. Koudstaal (Maarten); S. Schievano (Silvia); D.J. Dunaway (David); Rodriguez-Florez, N. (Naiara)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThree-dimensional (3D) surface imaging devices designed to capture and quantify craniofacial surface morphology are becoming more common in clinical environments. Such scanners overcome the limitations of two-dimensional photographs while avoiding the ionizing radiation of computed

  8. Three-dimensional surface scanners compared with standard anthropometric measurements for head shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaumont, C.A.A. (Caroline A.A.); Knoops, P.G.M. (Paul G.M.); Borghi, A. (Alessandro); Jeelani, N.U.O. (N.U. Owase); M.J. Koudstaal (Maarten); S. Schievano (Silvia); D.J. Dunaway (David); Rodriguez-Florez, N. (Naiara)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThree-dimensional (3D) surface imaging devices designed to capture and quantify craniofacial surface morphology are becoming more common in clinical environments. Such scanners overcome the limitations of two-dimensional photographs while avoiding the ionizing radiation of computed

  9. Surface Coating of Plastic Parts for Business Machines (Industrial Surface Coating): New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about the new source performance standards (NSPS) for surface coating of plastic parts for business machines by reading the rule summary and history and finding the code of federal regulations as well as related rules.

  10. Achieving revegetation standards on surface mined lands. [Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, B. W.

    1980-01-01

    Standards for revegetation success on surface mined lands have been developed by federal and state regulatory authorities. Because reclamation science is young, its potential for meeting revegetation standards is untested. This paper reviews the Montana revegetation standards which require establishment of a diverse, effective, and permanent vegetational cover. In addition, productivity, cover, and diversity must be comparable to that of reference areas. Fifty-one percent of the cover must be of native species. A plant succession study at Colstrip, MT, has been directed toward documenting establishment, succession, and stability of vegetation on surface mined land. Data from the study were used to discuss success of reclamation seedings since 1969. Major problem areas identified include achieving: comparable life form composition, cover of perennial vegetation, species diversity, and seasonality of forage and browse. Achieving erosion control, comparable production, and native species dominance did not appear to be major problems. Achieving revegetation standards on mined lands in the future will require very specialized reclamation procedures and continued research. Naturally revegetated mined lands at Colstrip indicate good potential for reclamation success.

  11. Computer aided photographic engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, Jeffrey A.; Rieckhoff, Tom

    1988-01-01

    High speed photography is an excellent source of engineering data but only provides a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional event. Multiple cameras can be used to provide data for the third dimension but camera locations are not always available. A solution to this problem is to overlay three-dimensional CAD/CAM models of the hardware being tested onto a film or photographic image, allowing the engineer to measure surface distances, relative motions between components, and surface variations.

  12. Standardization of surface electromyography utilized to evaluate patients with dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaiman Michael

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgorund Patients suspected of having swallowing disorders, could highly benefit from simple diagnostic screening before being referred to specialist evaluations. We introduce surface electromyography (sEMG to carry out rapid assessment of such patients and propose suggestions for standardizing sEMGs in order to identify abnormal deglutition. Methods Specifics steps for establishing standards for applying the technique for screening purposes (e.g., evaluation of specific muscles, the requirements for diagnostic sEMG equipment, the sEMG technique itself, and defining the tests suitable for assessing deglutition (e.g., saliva, normal, and excessive swallows and uninterrupted drinking of water are presented in detail. A previously described normative database for single swallowing and drinking and standard approach to analysis was compared to data on the duration and electric activity of muscles involved in deglutition and with sEMG recordings in order to estimate stages of a swallow. Conclusion SEMG of swallowing is a simple and reliable method for screening and preliminary differentiation among dysphagia and odynophagia of various origins. This noninvasive radiation-free examination has a low level of discomfort, and is simple, timesaving and inexpensive to perform. With standardization of the technique and an established normative database, sEMG can serve as a reliable screening method for optimal patient management.

  13. Evaluation of the surface free energy of plant surfaces: toward standardizing the procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Victoria; Khayet, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Plant surfaces have been found to have a major chemical and physical heterogeneity and play a key protecting role against multiple stress factors. During the last decade, there is a raising interest in examining plant surface properties for the development of biomimetic materials. Contact angle measurement of different liquids is a common tool for characterizing synthetic materials, which is just beginning to be applied to plant surfaces. However, some studies performed with polymers and other materials showed that for the same surface, different surface free energy values may be obtained depending on the number and nature of the test liquids analyzed, materials' properties, and surface free energy calculation methods employed. For 3 rough and 3 rather smooth plant materials, we calculated their surface free energy using 2 or 3 test liquids and 3 different calculation methods. Regardless of the degree of surface roughness, the methods based on 2 test liquids often led to the under- or over-estimation of surface free energies as compared to the results derived from the 3-Liquids method. Given the major chemical and structural diversity of plant surfaces, it is concluded that 3 different liquids must be considered for characterizing materials of unknown physico-chemical properties, which may significantly differ in terms of polar and dispersive interactions. Since there are just few surface free energy data of plant surfaces with the aim of standardizing the calculation procedure and interpretation of the results among for instance, different species, organs, or phenological states, we suggest the use of 3 liquids and the mean surface tension values provided in this study.

  14. Photographic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Radiographic films based on silver halides are normally handled under red or orange safelights to prevent fogging due to their sensitivity to white light. The present invention relates to ultraviolet radiation sensitive material which can be handled under virtually white light without significant fogging. A photographic, chemically sensitised silver halide emulsion is described, containing 50-100 mole % of silver chloride, the higher the silver chloride content, the lower the visible light sensitivity. The remaining silver halide, if any, is silver bromide and/or silver iodide. The silver halide grains are grown in the presence of ammonia, an excess of chloride ions and tetraazaindene growth controller. Examples illustrating the invention are given. (U.K.)

  15. Photographic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    Radiographic films based on silver halides are normally handled under red or orange safelights to prevent fogging due to their sensitivity to white light. The present invention relates to ultraviolet radiation sensitive material which can be handled under virtually white light without significant fogging. The film material is comprised of a base having at least one layer of a photographic silver halide emulsion and a yellow filter dye screening the emulsion from visible radiation. The silver halide emulsion contains 50-100 mole % of silver chloride, the higher the silver chloride content, the lower the visible light sensitivity. The nature and properties of the yellow filter dye are described. When recording an X-ray image, the film is loaded into the camera under white safelight conditions from which light of wavelength shorter than 400 nm is excluded. The film is in contact with one or more phosphor screens capable when struck by X-rays of emitting ultraviolet radiation, the screens having a peak ultraviolet emission within the wavelength range of 250-380 nm. After X-ray exposure, the film is removed and developed. Two examples illustrating the invention are given. (U.K.)

  16. Surface soil contamination standards for Rockwell Hanford Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, G.F.

    1981-01-01

    The 200 Areas of the Hanford site contain soils contaminated with levels of radioactivity ranging from fallout concentrations to levels requiring radiological controls. Some contamination is more or less uniformly distributed, and some occurs as discrete specks or spots of activity. Because of the acute need for standards, the Rockwell Environmental Protection (EP) Group proceeded to develop standards; these were approved by Rockwell in October 1979. It must be emphasized that these standards are only applicable to the 200 Areas of the Hanford site or other areas under Rockwell's jurisdiction. It is assumed that access to these areas will always be restricted and that land-use restrictions will be maintained. Contamination limits for areas used by the general public would normally be lower than the limits derived in this case. It appears that the Rockwell standards divided by a factor of 5 to 10 may be reasonable contamination guidelines for the general environment

  17. Glacier Photograph Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Glacier Photograph Collection is a database of photographs of glaciers from around the world, some dating back to the mid-1850's, that provide an historical...

  18. Estandarización fotográfica en Cirugía Plástica y Estética Photographic standardization in Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Solesio Pilarte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Una de las herramientas más útiles con las que cuenta el cirujano plástico y estético de hoy en día es la fotografía. Cirugía Estética y fotografía son inseparables. El registro fotográfico de pacientes para crear un archivo permanente es esencial para especialidades como la nuestra por varios motivos: ayudar al diagnóstico, facilitar la relación médico-paciente, dejar constancia documental, para protección legal y como herramienta de marketing, entre otros. Por consiguiente son importantes la estandarización y las recomendaciones referentes a fotografía clínica, que deben ser bien conocidas por los profesionales. A pesar de que son numerosos los artículos referentes a esta materia, todavía es frecuente encontrar en publicaciones y presentaciones en congresos imágenes que no satisfacen unos estándares mínimos de calidad fotográfica. Es importante que nuestro archivo fotográfico sea consistente, comparable y esté bien organizado para que pueda ser usado fácilmente y con eficacia.Photography is one of the most useful tools today plastic surgeons rely on. Aesthetic Surgery and photography are inseparable. To build up a permanent archive, patients' photographic records are essential in specialities such as Aesthetic Surgery for several reasons: help in diagnosis, ease patient-doctor relationship, leave documentary record, legal protection and marketing tool among others. For these reasons standardization and clinical photography recommendations are important and should be well known by professionals. Published articles about this topic are numerous, however is common to find photographs in medical publications and congresses in which minimal photographic standards are not reached. Having a consistent, comparable and well organized photographs archive is important in order to be used easily and efficiently.

  19. Surface Coating of Wood Building Products National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Applicability Flowchart

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a January 2005 document that has a flow chart to help you determine if this National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) rule for Surface Coating of Wood Building Products applies to your facility.

  20. Development of measurement standards for verifying functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, A [Life and Industrial Product Development Department Olympus Corporation, 2951 Ishikawa-machi, Hachiouji-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, H [Industrial Marketing and Planning Department Olympus Corporation, Shinjyuku Monolith, 3-1 Nishi-Shinjyuku 2-chome, Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, K, E-mail: a_fujii@ot.olympus.co.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    A new measurement standard is proposed for verifying overall functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments. Its surface is composed of sinusoidal surface waveforms of chirp signals along horizontal cross sections of the material measure. One of the notable features is that the amplitude of each cycle in the chirp signal form is geometrically modulated so that the maximum slope is kept constant. The maximum slope of the chirp-like signal is gradually decreased according to movement in the lateral direction. We fabricated the measurement standard by FIB processing, and it was calibrated by AFM. We tried to evaluate the functional performance of Laser Scanning Microscope by this standard in terms of amplitude response with varying slope angles. As a result, it was concluded that the proposed standard can easily evaluate the performance of surface texture measuring instruments.

  1. Looking for an old aerial photograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Attempts to photograph the surface of the Earth date from the 1800's, when photographers attached cameras to balloons, kites, and even pigeons. Today, aerial photographs and satellite images are commonplace. The rate of acquiring aerial photographs and satellite images has increased rapidly in recent years. Views of the Earth obtained from aircraft or satellites have become valuable tools to Government resource planners and managers, land-use experts, environmentalists, engineers, scientists, and a wide variety of other users. Many people want historical aerial photographs for business or personal reasons. They may want to locate the boundaries of an old farm or a piece of family property. Or they may want a photograph as a record of changes in their neighborhood, or as a gift. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains the Earth Science Information Centers (ESIC?s) to sell aerial photographs, remotely sensed images from satellites, a wide array of digital geographic and cartographic data, as well as the Bureau?s wellknown maps. Declassified photographs from early spy satellites were recently added to the ESIC offerings of historical images. Using the Aerial Photography Summary Record System database, ESIC researchers can help customers find imagery in the collections of other Federal agencies and, in some cases, those of private companies that specialize in esoteric products.

  2. Calibration Standards for Surface Topography Measuring Systems down to Nanometric Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trumpold, H.; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    Background For the precise and accurate measurement of surface topography a whole range of surface detection systems is available. With their application in research and production problems arise due to the lack of traceable standard artefacts for the instrument calibration in X, Y and Z directions...... to be replicated during all stages of the replication processes. Procedures for cleaning glass, PVC, PC, PMM and Ni-surfaces have been developed and tested. Calibration procedures for calibration standards and for calibrating instruments in X-, Y- and Z-direction have been developed and tested. Proposals...... in industries ranging from automotive manufacture to ultraprecision manufacture of data storage systems and compact discs. Objectives The project is concerned with developing calibration standards including their production methods and calibration procedures as a consistent means of calibrating different types...

  3. Cryptography Would Reveal Alterations In Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Gary L.

    1995-01-01

    Public-key decryption method proposed to guarantee authenticity of photographic images represented in form of digital files. In method, digital camera generates original data from image in standard public format; also produces coded signature to verify standard-format image data. Scheme also helps protect against other forms of lying, such as attaching false captions.

  4. Using of standard marine radar for determination of a water surface and an atmosphere near-surface layer parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatov, Nikolay A.; Bakhanov, Victor V.; Ermoshkin, Aleksei V.; Kazakov, Vasily I.; Kemarskaya, Olga N.; Titov, Victor I.; Troitskaya, Yulia I.

    2014-10-01

    At present time radar methods of the seas and oceans diagnostics are actively developing. Using of the radar stations based on satellites and planes allows to receive information on a sea surface and a atmosphere near-surface layer with coverage of big water surface areas independently of day time. The developed methods of satellite radio images processing can be applied to marine radar stations. In Institute of Applied Physics RAS works on sea surface diagnostics systems development on the basis of standard marine radar are actively conducted. Despite smaller coverage of the territory in comparison with satellite data, marine radar have possibility to record spatially temporary radar images and to receive information on a surrounding situation quickly. This work deals with results of the researches which were conducted within the international expedition in the Atlantic Ocean in the autumn of 2012 on a route Rotterdam (Netherlands) - Ushuaya (Argentina) - Antarctica — Ushuaya. During this expedition a complex measurements of a sea surface, a atmosphere near-surface layer parameters and subsurface currents in the wide range of hydroweather conditions, including the storm were carried out. The system developed in IAP RAS on the basis of a marine radar ICOM MR-1200RII and the ADC (Analog Digital Converter) block for data recording on the personal computer was used. Display of a non-uniform near-surface current on sea surface radar images in storm conditions is shown. By means of the high-speed anemometer and meteorological station the measurements of the atmosphere parameters were carried out. Comparison of the anemometer data with calculated from radar images is carried out. Dependence of radar cross section from wind speed in the wide range of wind speeds, including storm conditions is investigated. Possibility of marine radar using for surface waves intensity and ice situation estimates also as icebergs detection is shown.

  5. D Photographs in Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kiel, St.

    2013-07-01

    . Though 3D photographs are a well established basic photographic and photogrammetric tool, they are still a matter of research and practical improvement: - For example, multistage concepts for 3D heritage photographs, e.g., combining before and aft images and images showing different focus, daytime etc., as well as combining 3D imagery of different sensors and comparing 3D imagery with drawings etc. and even standards for exposing and processing 3D heritage photographs are only some topics for recent research. - To advise on state-of-the-art 3D visualisation methodology for Cultural heritage purposes an updated synoptically overview, even claiming completeness, also will be dealt with. - 3D photographs increasingly should replace old fashioned subjective interpreted manual 2D drawings (in 2D only) of heritage monuments. - Currently we are witnesses of early developments, showing Cultural Heritage objects in 3D crystal as well as in 3D printings.

  6. Standard fire behavior fuel models: a comprehensive set for use with Rothermel's surface fire spread model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe H. Scott; Robert E. Burgan

    2005-01-01

    This report describes a new set of standard fire behavior fuel models for use with Rothermel's surface fire spread model and the relationship of the new set to the original set of 13 fire behavior fuel models. To assist with transition to using the new fuel models, a fuel model selection guide, fuel model crosswalk, and set of fuel model photos are provided.

  7. Standard reference data for the air-liquid and vapor-liquid surface tension of benzene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Součková, Monika; Klomfar, Jaroslav; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 356, October (2013), s. 329-337 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/0010 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : benzene * surface tension * experimental data * standard reference data Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.241, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378381213004196

  8. Standard Test Method for Hydrophobic Surface Films by the Water-Break Test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the detection of the presence of hydrophobic (nonwetting) films on surfaces and the presence of hydrophobic organic materials in processing ambients. When properly conducted, the test will enable detection of molecular layers of hydrophobic organic contaminants. On very rough or porous surfaces, the sensitivity of the test may be significantly decreased. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. Standard Test Method for Hydrophobic Surface Films by the Atomizer Test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1965-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the detection of the presence of hydrophobic (nonwetting) films on surfaces and the presence of hydrophobic organic materials in processing ambients. When properly conducted, the test will enable detection of fractional molecular layers of hydrophobic organic contaminants. On very rough or porous surfaces the sensitivity of the test may be significantly decreased. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  10. 40 CFR 63.5743 - What standards must I meet for aluminum recreational boat surface coating operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recreational boat surface coating operations? 63.5743 Section 63.5743 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Manufacturing Standards for Aluminum Recreational Boat Surface Coating Operations § 63.5743 What standards must I meet for aluminum recreational boat surface coating operations? (a) For aluminum wipedown solvent...

  11. Standard test method for calibration of surface/stress measuring devices

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    Return to Contents page 1.1 This test method covers calibration or verification of calibration, or both, of surface-stress measuring devices used to measure stress in annealed and heat-strengthened or tempered glass using polariscopic or refractometry based principles. 1.2 This test method is nondestructive. 1.3 This test method uses transmitted light, and therefore, is applicable to light-transmitting glasses. 1.4 This test method is not applicable to chemically tempered glass. 1.5 Using the procedure described, surface stresses can be measured only on the “tin” side of float glass. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Effect of implantoplasty on fracture resistance and surface roughness of standard diameter dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Berenguer, Xavier; García-García, Marta; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Sanz-Alonso, Mariano; Figueiredo, Rui; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard

    2018-01-01

    To assess the effect of implantoplasty on the fracture resistance, surface roughness, and macroscopic morphology of standard diameter (4.1 mm) external connection dental implants. An in vitro study was conducted in 20 screw-shaped titanium dental implants with an external connection. In 10 implants, the threads and surface were removed and polished with high-speed burs (implantoplasty), while the remaining 10 implants were used as controls. The final implant dimensions were recorded. The newly polished surface quality was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by 3D surface roughness analysis using a confocal laser microscope. Finally, all the implants were subjected to a mechanical pressure resistance test. A descriptive analysis of the data was made. Also, Student's t tests were employed to detect differences regarding the compression tests. Implantoplasty was carried out for a mean time of 10 min and 48 s (standard deviation (SD) of 1 min 22 s). Macroscopically, the resulting surface had a smooth appearance, although small titanium shavings and silicon debris were present. The final surface roughness (S a values 0.1 ± 0.02 μm) was significantly lower than that of the original (0.75 ± 0.08 μm S a ) (p = .005). There was minimal reduction in the implant's inner body diameter (0.19 ± 0.03 mm), and no statistically significant differences were found between the test and control implants regarding the maximum resistance force (896 vs 880 N, respectively). Implantoplasty, although technically demanding and time-consuming, does not seem to significantly alter fracture resistance of standard diameter external connection implants. A smooth surface with S a values below 0.1 μm can be obtained through the use of silicon polishers. A larger sample is required to confirm that implantoplasty does not significantly affect the maximum resistance force of standard diameter external connection implants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published

  13. Light scattering by sinusoidal surfaces: illumination windows and harmonics in standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, E; Lettieri, T R; Vorburger, T V

    1995-03-01

    Sinusoidal surfaces can be used as material standards to help calibrate instruments that measure the angular distribution of the intensity of light scattered by arbitrary surfaces, because the power in the diffraction peaks varies over several orders of magnitude. The calculated power in the higher-order diffraction peaks from sinusoidal surfaces expressed in terms of Bessel functions is much smaller than the values determined from angular distributions that are measured or computed from measured profiles, both of which are determined mainly by the harmonic contents of the profile. The finite size of the illuminated area, represented by an illumination window, gives rise to a background that is much larger than the calculated power in the higher-order peaks. For a rectangular window of a size equal to an even number of periods of the sinusoid, a computation of the power distribution produces minima at or near the location of the diffraction angles for higher-order diffraction angles.

  14. Uses of ANSI/HPS N13.12-1999, "Surface and Volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance" and Comparison with Existing Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stansbury, Paul S.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2001-04-30

    In August of 1999, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) approved a standard for clearance of materials contaminated with residual levels of radioactivity. "Clearance," as used in the standard, means the movement of material from the control of a regulatory agency to a use or disposition that has no further regulatory controls of any kind. The standard gives derived screening levels (DSLs) in Bq/g and Bq/cm2 for 50 radionuclides. Items or materials with residual surface and volume radioactivity levels below the DSLs can be cleared, that is, managed without regard to their residual radioactivity. Since federal agencies are to use voluntary, industry standards developed by the private sector whenever possible, the standard should play an important role in DOE's regulatory process. The thrust of this report is to explain the standard, make simple observations on its usefulness to DOE, and to explore uses of the standard within DOE facilities beyond the clearance of radioactive materials.

  15. Does Taking Photographs Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Since many people tend to use photographs as memory anchors, this author decided she wanted to know whether the process of capturing and manipulating an image taken during a learning activity would act as a memory anchor for children's visual, auditory and kinaesthetic memories linked to their cognitive learning at the time. In plain English,…

  16. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Flux Using Surface-Mounted One-Dimensional Flat Gages

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the measurement of the net heat flux normal to a surface using flat gages mounted onto the surface. Conduction heat flux is not the focus of this standard. Conduction applications related to insulation materials are covered by Test Method C 518 and Practices C 1041 and C 1046. The sensors covered by this test method all use a measurement of the temperature difference between two parallel planes normal to the surface to determine the heat that is exchanged to or from the surface in keeping with Fourier’s Law. The gages operate by the same principles for heat transfer in either direction. 1.2 This test method is quite broad in its field of application, size and construction. Different sensor types are described in detail in later sections as examples of the general method for measuring heat flux from the temperature gradient normal to a surface (1). Applications include both radiation and convection heat transfer. The gages have broad application from aerospace to biomedical en...

  17. Standard practice for exposing and evaluating metals and alloys in surface seawater

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers conditions for the exposure of metals, alloys, and other materials in natural surface seawater such as those typically found in bays, harbors, channels, and so forth, as contrasted with deep ocean testing. This practice covers full immersion, tidal zone and related splash, and spray zone exposures. 1.2 This practice sets forth general procedures that should be followed in conducting seawater exposure tests so that meaningful comparisons may be made from one location to another. 1.3 This practice identifies recommended procedures for evaluating the effects of natural surface seawater on the materials exposed. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regula...

  18. SMEX03 Site Photographs, Alabama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SMEX03 Site Photographs data set includes photographs of the regional study areas of Alabama, Georgia, and Oklahoma, USA as part of the 2003 Soil Moisture...

  19. The Mystery of Photographic Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvin, Robert

    1975-01-01

    Do your beginning photographic students ever wonder why photographic paper reacts the way it does? One way that this question can be answered is by making a photogram. Article explained the steps necessary for making a photogram. (Author/RK)

  20. Software measurement standards for areal surface texture parameters: part 2—comparison of software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, P M; Smith, I M; Giusca, C; Leach, R K; Wang, C

    2012-01-01

    A companion paper in this issue describes reference software for the evaluation of areal surface texture parameters, focusing on the definitions of the parameters and giving details of the numerical algorithms employed in the software to implement those definitions. The reference software is used as a benchmark against which software in a measuring instrument can be compared. A data set is used as input to both the software under test and the reference software, and the results delivered by the software under test are compared with those provided by the reference software. This paper presents a comparison of the results returned by the reference software with those reported by proprietary software for surface texture measurement. Differences between the results can be used to identify where algorithms and software for evaluating the parameters differ. They might also be helpful in identifying where parameters are not sufficiently well-defined in standards. (paper)

  1. Photograph of the month

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Sigmoid (σ-type) structure in mylonite exposed along the wall of the Blue Nile Canyon in Bure, Ethiopian Plateau, Ethiopia. The Blue Nile River carved a 1.6 km deep and extensive canyon on the Ethiopian Plateau and exposed Neoproterozoic to Quaternary rocks. The lenticular-shaped sigmoid is a deformed feldspar aggregate with elongated wings at both ends. The wings of the clast step up in the direction of movement of the upper part of shear zone, thus showing a dextral (right-lateral) sense of shear. This Neoproteozoic-Early Paleozoic shear zone might have formed by dynamic metamorphism during the East African Orogeny, which is related to the collision between East and West Gondwanaland. The horizontal scale bar in the photograph is 5 cm. Outcrop location Bure region (10° 20.326' N, 037°1.305 E, 1580 m altitude). Photograph © Nahid D. Gani, WKU, Bowling Green, USA (nahid.gani@wku.edu).

  2. Standard test method for damage to contacting solid surfaces under fretting conditions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the studying or ranking the susceptibility of candidate materials to fretting corrosion or fretting wear for the purposes of material selection for applications where fretting corrosion or fretting wear can limit serviceability. 1.2 This test method uses a tribological bench test apparatus with a mechanism or device that will produce the necessary relative motion between a contacting hemispherical rider and a flat counterface. The rider is pressed against the flat counterface with a loading mass. The test method is intended for use in room temperature air, but future editions could include fretting in the presence of lubricants or other environments. 1.3 The purpose of this test method is to rub two solid surfaces together under controlled fretting conditions and to quantify the damage to both surfaces in units of volume loss for the test method. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5...

  3. 11 August 2008 - Member of the House of Councillors M. Naito (The National Diet of Japan, The Democratic Party of Japan) visiting the ATLAS experiment control room with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and ATLAS Muon Project Leader G. Mikenberg. Family photograph with CERN Japanese scientists in front of the ATLAS surface building.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    11 August 2008 - Member of the House of Councillors M. Naito (The National Diet of Japan, The Democratic Party of Japan) visiting the ATLAS experiment control room with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and ATLAS Muon Project Leader G. Mikenberg. Family photograph with CERN Japanese scientists in front of the ATLAS surface building.

  4. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development, Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Isaacs, James; Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen. Steve

    2010-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." The proposed future C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface communication system, referred to as the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS), is anticipated to increase overall air-to-ground data communications systems capacity by using a new spectrum (i.e., not very high frequency (VHF)). Although some critical services could be supported, AeroMACS will also target noncritical services, such as weather advisory and aeronautical information services as part of an airborne System Wide Information Management (SWIM) program. AeroMACS is to be designed and implemented in a manner that will not disrupt other services operating in the C-band. This report defines the AeroMACS concepts of use, high-level system requirements, and architecture; the performance of supporting system analyses; the development of AeroMACS test and demonstration plans; and the establishment of an operational AeroMACS capability in support of C-band aeronautical data communications standards to be advanced in both international (International Civil Aviation Organization, ICAO) and national (RTCA) forums. This includes the development of system parameter profile recommendations for AeroMACS based on existing Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IEEE) 802.16e- 2009 standards

  5. Standard Test Method for Effects of Cleaning and Chemical Maintenance Materials on Painted Aircraft Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers determination of the effects of cleaning solutions and liquid cleaner concentrates on painted aircraft surfaces (Note 1). Streaking, discoloration, and blistering may be determined visually. Softening is determined with a series of specially prepared pencils wherein determination of the softest pencil to rupture the paint film is made. Note 1—This test method is applicable to any paint film that is exposed to cleaning materials. MIL-PRF-85285 has been selected as a basic example. When other paint finishes are used, refer to the applicable material specification for panel preparation and system curing prior to testing. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user ...

  6. Assessing the cleanliness of surfaces: Innovative molecular approaches vs. standard spore assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.; Duc, M.T. La; Probst, A.; Vaishampayan, P.; Stam, C.; Benardini, J.N.; Piceno, Y.M.; Andersen, G.L.; Venkateswaran, K.

    2011-04-01

    A bacterial spore assay and a molecular DNA microarray method were compared for their ability to assess relative cleanliness in the context of bacterial abundance and diversity on spacecraft surfaces. Colony counts derived from the NASA standard spore assay were extremely low for spacecraft surfaces. However, the PhyloChip generation 3 (G3) DNA microarray resolved the genetic signatures of a highly diverse suite of microorganisms in the very same sample set. Samples completely devoid of cultivable spores were shown to harbor the DNA of more than 100 distinct microbial phylotypes. Furthermore, samples with higher numbers of cultivable spores did not necessarily give rise to a greater microbial diversity upon analysis with the DNA microarray. The findings of this study clearly demonstrated that there is not a statistically significant correlation between the cultivable spore counts obtained from a sample and the degree of bacterial diversity present. Based on these results, it can be stated that validated state-of-the-art molecular techniques, such as DNA microarrays, can be utilized in parallel with classical culture-based methods to further describe the cleanliness of spacecraft surfaces.

  7. Calibration of Modulation Transfer Function of Surface Profilometers with 1D and 2D Binary Pseudo-random Array Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.

    2008-01-01

    We suggest and describe the use of a binary pseudo-random grating as a standard test surface for calibration of the modulation transfer function of microscopes. Results from calibration of a MicromapTM-570 interferometric microscope are presented.

  8. The Photograph as Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    2017-01-01

    tool for reading the net-work of images. The case is two visitor snapshots at the photographic exhibition, ‘The Story of Soweto’, in the famous Regina Mundi Church in Soweto, South Africa. I demonstrate that, when slightly adjusted for research engaging with visual materials, Latourian concepts......Inspired by actor-network theory (ANT), this article develops a theoretical framework to grasp the dynamic visual work of memory. It introduces three sensitizing concepts of actor-network methodology, namely entanglement, relationality and traceability, and operationalizes them in a methodological...

  9. The Photograph as Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by actor-network theory (ANT), this article develops a theoretical framework to grasp the dynamic visual work of memory. It introduces three sensitizing concepts of actor-network methodology, namely entanglement, relationality and traceability, and operationalizes them in a methodological...... tool for reading the net-work of images. The case is two visitor snapshots at the photographic exhibition, ‘The Story of Soweto’, in the famous Regina Mundi Church in Soweto, South Africa. I demonstrate that, when slightly adjusted for research engaging with visual materials, Latourian concepts...... are indeed productive for analyzing visual material and visual practices of memorial sites....

  10. 40 CFR 63.7905 - What emissions limitations or work practice standards must I meet for surface impoundments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What emissions limitations or work practice standards must I meet for surface impoundments? 63.7905 Section 63.7905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  11. Standard Test Methods for Total Normal Emittance of Surfaces Using Inspection-Meter Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1971-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover determination of the total normal emittance (Note) of surfaces by means of portable, inspection-meter instruments. Note 1—Total normal emittance (εN) is defined as the ratio of the normal radiance of a specimen to that of a blackbody radiator at the same temperature. The equation relating εN to wavelength and spectral normal emittance [εN (λ)] is where: L b(λ, T) = Planck's blackbody radiation function = c1π −1λ−5(ec2/λT − 1)−1, c1 = 3.7415 × 10−16 W·m 2, c2 = 1.4388 × 10−2 m·K, T = absolute temperature, K, λ = wavelength, m, Lb(λ, T)dλ = Δπ −1T4, and Δ = Stefan-Boltzmann constant = 5.66961 × 10 −8 W·m2·K−4 1.2 These test methods are intended for measurements on large surfaces when rapid measurements must be made and where a nondestructive test is desired. They are particularly useful for production control tests. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measu...

  12. Photographic Tourism Research: Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Virdee, Inderpal

    2017-01-01

    This study reviews the current photographic tourism literature to identify what fields within tourism have been studied by researchers, the contexts, the samples used, the sampling methods employed, the photographic methods and supporting methods used, the data analysis techniques applied and the countries studied. A set of 115 relevant academic articles were selected and assessed using content analysis. The findings showed that overall publications in the field of photographic tourism increa...

  13. Study of the interaction of liquid with the surface of mass standards of high accuracy stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Varas, Lautaro; Castro, Claudio S.C.; Cacais, Fabio L.; Pires, Manoel J. M.; Loayza Mendoza, Victor M.

    2011-01-01

    The long term stability of mass standards depends on the interaction between the surface and environment molecules. From this point of view, a study was investigated of the effect on stainless steel surfaces by liquids frequently used in hydrostatic weighing (FC40) and in cleaning procedures of mass standards (isopropyl alcohol). Firstly, mass weighing difference was measured as function of time with a gravimetric method. Additionally, stainless steel samples were analyzed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The standard used for the gravimetric mass difference determination was immersed in FC40. The samples analyzed by XPS were previously immersed in both FC40 and isopropyl alcohol. Mass differences were obtained with an uncertainty of 1 μg when FC40 was used. Preliminary results have suggested that FC40 is not chemically bound to stainless steel surfaces and the mass gain was due to physisorbed molecules on the surface. (author) [es

  14. Step-height standards based on the rapid formation of monolayer steps on the surface of layered crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komonov, A.I. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISP SBRAS), pr. Lavrentieva 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Prinz, V.Ya., E-mail: prinz@isp.nsc.ru [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISP SBRAS), pr. Lavrentieva 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Seleznev, V.A. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISP SBRAS), pr. Lavrentieva 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kokh, K.A. [Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IGM SB RAS), pr. Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Shlegel, V.N. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (NIIC SB RAS), pr. Lavrentieva 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Easily reproducible step-height standard for SPM calibrations was proposed. • Step-height standard is monolayer steps on the surface of layered single crystal. • Long-term change in surface morphology of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and ZnWO{sub 4} was investigated. • Conducting surface of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystals appropriate for calibrating STM. • Ability of robust SPM calibrations under ambient conditions were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metrology is essential for nanotechnology, especially for structures and devices with feature sizes going down to nm. Scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) permits measurement of nanometer- and subnanometer-scale objects. Accuracy of size measurements performed using SPMs is largely defined by the accuracy of used calibration measures. In the present publication, we demonstrate that height standards of monolayer step (∼1 and ∼0.6 nm) can be easily prepared by cleaving Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and ZnWO{sub 4} layered single crystals. It was shown that the conducting surface of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystals offers height standard appropriate for calibrating STMs and for testing conductive SPM probes. Our AFM study of the morphology of freshly cleaved (0001) Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} surfaces proved that such surfaces remained atomically smooth during a period of at least half a year. The (010) surfaces of ZnWO{sub 4} crystals remained atomically smooth during one day, but already two days later an additional nanorelief of amplitude ∼0.3 nm appeared on those surfaces. This relief, however, did not further grow in height, and it did not hamper the calibration. Simplicity and the possibility of rapid fabrication of the step-height standards, as well as their high stability, make these standards available for a great, permanently growing number of users involved in 3D printing activities.

  15. Photograph Usage in History Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbaba, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the effect of photograph usage in history education to the students' achievement was tried to be identified. In the study which was done with a pre-test post-test control group design, a frame was tried to be established between the experimental group and the analytical usage of the photograph, the control group's courses were done…

  16. The German Photographic Annual; 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strache, Wolf, Ed.; Steinert, Otto, Ed.

    Designed as a forum for the creative photographer who can produce work of an outstanding character, this 18th edition of the annual presents over 160 photographs whose themes range from advertising and industrial pictures, through unusual pictorial solutions in fashion photography, to experimental work, novel nude studies, and dramatic landscapes.…

  17. Synchronous Surface Pressure and Velocity Measurements of standard model in hypersonic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments in the Hypersonic Wind tunnel of NUAA(NHW present synchronous measurements of bow shockwave and surface pressure of a standard blunt rotary model (AGARD HB-2, which was carried out in order to measure the Mach-5-flow above a blunt body by PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry as well as unsteady pressure around the rotary body. Titanium dioxide (Al2O3 Nano particles were seeded into the flow by a tailor-made container. With meticulous care designed optical path, the laser was guided into the vacuum experimental section. The transient pressure was obtained around model by using fast-responding pressure-sensitive paint (PSPsprayed on the model. All the experimental facilities were controlled by Series Pulse Generator to ensure that the data was time related. The PIV measurements of velocities in front of the detached bow shock agreed very well with the calculated value, with less than 3% difference compared to Pitot-pressure recordings. The velocity gradient contour described in accord with the detached bow shock that showed on schlieren. The PSP results presented good agreement with the reference data from previous studies. Our work involving studies of synchronous shock-wave and pressure measurements proved to be encouraging.

  18. Pursuing Automated Classification of Historic Photographic Papers from Raking Light Photomicrographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, C Richard Jr; Messier, Paul; Sethares, William A.; Klein, Andrew G; Brown, Christopher; Do, Anh Hoang; Klausmeter, Philip; Abry, Patrice; Jaffard, Stéphane; Wendt, Herwig; Roux, Stephane; Pustelnik, Nelly; van Noord, Nanne; van der Maaten, L.J.P.; Postma, E.O.; Coddington, James; Daffner, Lee Ann; Murata, Hanako; Wilhelm, Henry; Wood, Sally; Messier, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Surface texture is a critical feature in the manufacture, marketing, and use of photographic paper. Raking light reveals texture through a stark rendering of highlights and shadows. Though close-up raking light images effectively document surface features of photographic paper, the sheer number and

  19. Eddy heat flux across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current estimated from sea surface height standard deviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppert, Annie; Donohue, Kathleen A.; Watts, D. Randolph; Tracey, Karen L.

    2017-08-01

    Eddy heat flux (EHF) is a predominant mechanism for heat transport across the zonally unbounded mean flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Observations of dynamically relevant, divergent, 4 year mean EHF in Drake Passage from the cDrake project, as well as previous studies of atmospheric and oceanic storm tracks, motivates the use of sea surface height (SSH) standard deviation, H*, as a proxy for depth-integrated, downgradient, time-mean EHF (>[EHF>¯>]) in the ACC. Statistics from the Southern Ocean State Estimate corroborate this choice and validate throughout the ACC the spatial agreement between H* and >[EHF>¯>] seen locally in Drake Passage. Eight regions of elevated >[EHF>¯>] are identified from nearly 23.5 years of satellite altimetry data. Elevated cross-front exchange usually does not span the full latitudinal width of the ACC in each region, implying a hand-off of heat between ACC fronts and frontal zones as they encounter the different >[EHF>¯>] hot spots along their circumpolar path. Integrated along circumpolar streamlines, defined by mean SSH contours, there is a convergence of ∮>[EHF>¯>] in the ACC: 1.06 PW enters from the north and 0.02 PW exits to the south. Temporal trends in low-frequency [EHF] are calculated in a running-mean sense using H* from overlapping 4 year subsets of SSH. Significant increases in downgradient [EHF] magnitude have occurred since 1993 at Kerguelen Plateau, Southeast Indian Ridge, and the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence, whereas the other five >[EHF>¯>] hot spots have insignificant trends of varying sign.

  20. Agreement in the diagnosis of dental fluorosis in central incisors performed by a standardized photographic method and clinical examination Concordância no diagnóstico da fluorose dentária em incisivos centrais realizado por um método fotográfico padronizado e pelo exame clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Castro Martins

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess agreement in the diagnosis of dental fluorosis performed by a standardized digital photographic method and a clinical examination (gold standard. 49 children (aged 7-9 years were clinically evaluated by a trained examiner for the assessment of dental fluorosis. Central incisors were evaluated for the presence or absence of dental fluorosis and were photographed with a digital camera. Photographs were presented to three pediatric dentists, who examined the images. Data were analyzed using Cohen's kappa and validity values. Agreement in the diagnosis performed by the photographic method and clinical examination was good (0.67 and accuracy was 83.7%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was reported to be higher in the clinical examination (49% compared with the photographic method (36.7%. The photographic method presented higher specificity (96% than sensitivity (70.8%, a positive predictive value (PPV of 94.4% and a negative predictive value (NPV of 77.4%. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis performed using the photographic method presented high specificity and PPV, which indicates that the method is reproducible and reliable for recording dental fluorosis.O objetivo do estudo foi comparar o diagnóstico de fluorose dentária realizado por um método fotográfico com o exame clínico (padrão ouro. Quarenta e nove crianças, de 7 e 9 anos, foram clinicamente examinadas por um examinador calibrado para fluorose dentária. Os incisivos foram fotografados com câmera digital e as fotografias foram apresentadas a três odontopediatras, que examinaram as imagens. A concordância por kappa entre o método fotográfico e o padrão ouro foi boa (0,67 e a acurácia foi de 83,67%. A prevalência de fluorose dentária foi levemente maior pelo método clínico (49% do que pelo fotográfico (36,7%. O método fotográfico apresentou maior especificidade (96% que sensibilidade (70,83%, valor de predição positivo (VPP de 94

  1. 3D PHOTOGRAPHS IN CULTURAL HERITAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Schuhr

    2013-07-01

    color differences. Though 3D photographs are a well established basic photographic and photogrammetric tool, they are still a matter of research and practical improvement: – For example, multistage concepts for 3D heritage photographs, e.g., combining before and aft images and images showing different focus, daytime etc., as well as combining 3D imagery of different sensors and comparing 3D imagery with drawings etc. and even standards for exposing and processing 3D heritage photographs are only some topics for recent research. – To advise on state-of-the-art 3D visualisation methodology for Cultural heritage purposes an updated synoptically overview, even claiming completeness, also will be dealt with. – 3D photographs increasingly should replace old fashioned subjective interpreted manual 2D drawings (in 2D only of heritage monuments. – Currently we are witnesses of early developments, showing Cultural Heritage objects in 3D crystal as well as in 3D printings.

  2. Lewis M. Rutherfurd and the First Photograph of Solar Granulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J. W.; Briggs, John W.; Prosser, Sian

    2017-08-01

    A major astronomical controversy of the mid-19th century was discordant descriptions of the small scale structure of the solar surface. Visual observers contradicted each other by describing the surface as consisting of “corrugations”, “willow leaves”, “rice grains”, “cumuli”, “thatch”, “granules”, etc. Early photographs of the solar surface were not good enough to settle the controversy. The French astronomer Jules Janssen is credited with the first 1876 photographs that clearly showed what we now call solar granulation (1876, CRAS 82, 1363). Upon seeing these images, New Yorker Lewis M. Rutherfurd (1878, MNRAS 38, 410) praised the high quality of Janssen’s images but asserted that he had also photographed granulation as early as 1871 using collodion wet plates. He sent copies of his best photograph to the Royal Astronomical Society to support his assertion. Curious about his claim, Briggs and Harvey set up Rutherfurd’s 13-inch achromatic refractor on Kitt Peak and found that it easily showed well-resolved solar granulation, so his claim might well have been justified. But without his plates we could not confirm the claim. For 140 years the copies of Rutherfurd’s best solar photograph remained in the archives of the Royal Astronomical Society and were recently discovered by Prosser (RAS Photographs A3/001B and A3/002). By coincidence a few days later, Briggs found the original August 11, 1871 plate. Despite poor condition these photographs show solar granulation. There are at least two other possible early claimants (Reade; Vogel) but their plates are almost certainly lost. Rutherfurd was a master of astronomical instrumentation and photography. He was reticent about his work, letting results speak for themselves, so it is satisfying to find that he was justified in making his claim of priority.

  3. Method of reproducing images using fission fragments and/or alpha ray etch tracks from toned photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackray, M.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for producing a photographic image on a normally non-photo-receptive surface comprising the steps of 1) toning the photograph with substances which combine with or replace the silver grains so that the photograph emits either spontaneously or indirectly fission fragments or alpha particles in amounts related to the distribution of the silver grains in the photograph, 2) placing the toned photograph contiguous with the surface on which the image is to be reproduced, for sufficient time for the emissions from the photograph to reproduce the image as a radiation-damage image on the surface, the damage areas having a close positional relationship to the silver grains in the original photograph. (author)

  4. 40 CFR 63.942 - Standards-Surface impoundment floating membrane cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operations, and form a continuous barrier over the entire surface area of the liquid. (2) The cover shall be... closure device in the closed position, as applicable. (ii) To remove accumulated sludge or other residues from the bottom of surface impoundment. (2) Opening of a spring-loaded pressure-vacuum relief valve...

  5. Verification of surface contamination density standard using clearance automatic laser inspection system for objects from a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Michiya; Ogino, Haruyuki; Ichiji, Takeshi; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2008-01-01

    In the clearance level inspection in Japan, it is necessary to indicate that the activity level of the target object must be less than not only the clearance levels, but also the surface contamination density standards. The classification measurements for these two standards have been performed separately, and the GM survey meters based on beta-ray measurement have mainly been used for surface contamination density measurement so far. Recently the Clearance Automatic Laser Inspection System, named CLALIS, has been developed to estimate the low-level activity concentration. This system consists of 3-dimensional laser scanner for shape measurement and eight large NE102A plastic scintillation detectors for gamma-ray measurement, and it has been clarified that the CLALIS has adequate detection ability for clearance measurement of both metal scraps and concrete debris. In this study, we compared the surface contamination densities for a number of actual contaminated and non-contaminated objects generated inside from the radiation controlled area at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station by using the CLALIS and the GM survey meter. As a result, since CLALIS could detect the surface contamination as well as the GM survey meter for all measurement targets, it was revealed that CLALIS can rationally achieve clearance level inspection in a single radiation measurement. The practicality of CLALIS in view of the detection limit and processing time was discussed by comparison with the usual radiation monitors for surface contamination measurement. (author)

  6. NODC Standard Product: Atlas of surface marine data 1994 (9 disc set) (NCEI Accession 0101474)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A set of 9 CD-ROMs were produced to accompany the analog publication Atlas of Surface Marine Data, 1994. Each CD-ROM contains monthly mean objectively analyzed...

  7. 40 CFR 63.943 - Standards-Surface impoundment vented to control device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... applicable, to the surface impoundment. (ii) To remove accumulated sludge or other residues from the bottom... the following requirements: (1) The cover and its closure devices shall be designed to form a...

  8. Examiner Reliability of Fluorosis Scoring: A Comparison of Photographic and Clinical Examination Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Orcutt, Noemi; Warren, John J.; Broffitt, Barbara; Levy, Steven M.; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess and compare examiner reliability of clinical and photographic fluorosis examinations using the Fluorosis Risk Index (FRI) among children in the Iowa Fluoride Study (IFS). Methods The IFS examined 538 children for fluorosis and dental caries at age 13 and obtained intra-oral photographs from nearly all of them. To assess examiner reliability, duplicate clinical examinations were conducted for 40 of the subjects. In addition, 200 of the photographs were scored independently for fluorosis by two examiners in a standardized manner. Fluorosis data were compared between examiners for the clinical exams and separately for the photographic exams, and a comparison was made between clinical and photographic exams. For all 3 comparisons, examiner reliability was assessed using kappa statistics at the tooth level. Results Inter-examiner reliability for the duplicate clinical exams on the sample of 40 subjects as measured by kappa was 0.59, while the repeat exams of the 200 photographs yielded a kappa of 0.64. For the comparison of photographic and clinical exams, inter-examiner reliability, as measured by weighted kappa, was 0.46. FRI scores obtained using the photographs were higher on average than those obtained from the clinical exams. Fluorosis prevalence was higher for photographs (33%) than found for clinical exam (18%). Conclusion Results suggest inter-examiner reliability is greater and fluorosis scores higher when using photographic compared to clinical examinations. PMID:22316120

  9. The Life of Digital Photographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jonas

    )mobilities of things, practice approaches to photography and multi sited ethnography, this talk discusses and empirically track the life (the conception, birth, transformative years, ageing and death) travel, detours, makeovers and destinations of (analogue and digital) photographs in our present network societies. So......The Life of Digital Photographs: The Case of Tourist Photography PhD, Jonas Larsen, Lecturer in Social and Cultural Geography, ENSPAC, Roskilde University, Denmark Inspired by ideas that things have lives, the mobilities paradigm's (Hannam et al. 2006) attentiveness to the spatiotemporal (im...... this talk ‘tracks' photographs spatialities and temporalities, their physical and digital materialities and (im)mobilities and ‘placing' within and beyond ‘networked households'. This is done in a historical perspective, seeing the new in the light of the old, so both breaks and coexistences between older...

  10. Standard practice for measurement of time-of-wetness on surfaces exposed to wetting conditions as in atmospheric corrosion testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1989-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a technique for monitoring time-of-wetness (TOW) on surfaces exposed to cyclic atmospheric conditions which produce depositions of moisture. 1.2 The practice is also applicable for detecting and monitoring condensation within a wall or roof assembly and in test apparatus. 1.3 Exposure site calibration or characterization can be significantly enhanced if TOW is measured for comparison with other sites, particularly if this data is used in conjunction with other site-specific instrumentation techniques. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. Surfacing safety hazards using standardized operating room briefings and debriefings at a large regional medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandari, Jathin; Schumacher, Kathy; Simon, Michelle; Cameron, Danielle; Goeschel, Christine A; Holzmueller, Christine G; Makary, Martin A; Welsh, Robert J; Berenholtz, Sean M

    2012-04-01

    Briefings and debriefings, previously shown to be a practical and feasible strategy to improve interdisciplinary communication and teamwork in the operating room (OR), was then assessed as a strategy to prospectively surface clinical and operational defects in surgical care--and thereby prevent patient harm. A one-page, double-sided briefing and debriefing tool was used by surgical teams during cases at the William Beaumont Hospital Royal Oak (Royal Oak, Michigan) campus to surface clinical and operational defects during the study period (October 2006-May 2010). Defects were coded into six categories (with each category stratified by briefing or debriefing period) during the first six months, and refinement of coding resulted in expansion to 16 defect categories and no further stratification. A provider survey was used in January 2008 to interview a sample of 40 caregivers regarding the perceived effectiveness of the tool in surfacing defects. The teams identified a total of 6,202 defects--an average of 141 defects per month--during the entire study period. Of 2,760 defects identified during the six-defect coding period, 1,265 (46%) surfaced during briefings, and the remaining 1,495 (54%) during debriefings. Equipment (48%) and communication (31%) issues were most prominent. Of 3,442 defects identified during the 16-defect coding period, the most common were Central Processing Department (CPD) instrumentation (22%) and Communication/Safety (15%). Overall, 70 (87%) of the 80 responses were in agreement that briefings were effective for surfacing defects, as were 59 (76%) of the 78 responses for debriefings. Briefings and debriefings were a practical and effective strategy to surface potential surgical defects in the operating rooms of a large medical center.

  12. Adobe Photoshop CC for photographers

    CERN Document Server

    Evening, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Adobe Photoshop for Photographers 2014 Release by Photoshop hall-of-famer and acclaimed digital imaging professional Martin Evening has been fully updated to include detailed instruction for all of the updates to Photoshop CC 2014 on Adobe's Creative Cloud, including significant new features, such as Focus Area selections, enhanced Content-Aware filling, and new Spin and Path blur gallery effects. This guide covers all the tools and techniques photographers and professional image editors need to know when using Photoshop, from workflow guidance to core skills to advanced techniques for profess

  13. Extinction in the Galaxy from surface brightnesses of ESO-LV galaxies : Testing "standard" extinction maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choloniewski, J.; Valentijn, E. A.

    A new method for the determination of the extinction in the Galaxy is proposed. The method uses surface brightnesses of external galaxies in the B and R-bands. The observational data have been taken from the ESO-LV galaxy catalog. As a first application of our model we derive the ratio of R-band to

  14. Inexpensive Strobe-Like Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Emil L.; Tavares, Odilon A. P.; Duarte, Sergio B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a technique the authors have developed to produce and analyze, at very low cost, good quality strobe-like photographs. While the concept is similar to the one described by Graney and DiNoto, the strategy described here benefits from recent advances in the fields of digital photography and related software to significantly…

  15. Globes, Maps, Photographs: Geographic Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Paul D.; And Others

    This compilation of reprinted articles that originally appeared in the Journal of Geography from September 1969 through the May 1970 issues, is intended to help teachers use globes, maps, and photographs with skill and understanding. The articles were designed with several objectives in mind: 1) to provide information regarding the design,…

  16. A note on photographing otoliths

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sagiu..al otoliths of rlShes have in recent years become importanttuonomic aids. Forthis purpose high quality photographs have become essential to illustrate such fine: structures as the crislae and the colliculi which art often useful in distinguishing between closely related species. The method described bdow proved ...

  17. Toy Cameras and Color Photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, Jerry

    1979-01-01

    The technique of using toy cameras for both black-and-white and color photography in the art class is described. The author suggests that expensive equipment can limit the growth of a beginning photographer by emphasizing technique and equipment instead of in-depth experience with composition fundamentals and ideas. (KC)

  18. Influence of standard RF coil materials on surface and buildup dose from a 6 MV photon beam in magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghila, A; Fallone, B G; Rathee, S

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic resonance guided teletherapy systems aspire to image the patient concurrently with the radiation delivery. Thus, the radiofrequency (RF) coils used for magnetic resonance imaging, placed on or close to patient skin and in close proximity to the treatment volume, would be irradiated leading to modifications of radiation dose to the skin and in the buildup region. The purpose of this work is to measure and assess these dose modifications due to standard off-the-shelf RF coil materials. A typical surface coil was approximated as layered sheets of polycarbonate, copper tape, and Teflon to emulate the base, conductor, and cover, respectively. A separate investigation used additional coil materials, such as copper pipe, plastic coil housing, a typical coil padding material, and a thin copper conductor. The materials were placed in the path of a 6 MV photon beam at various distances from polystyrene phantoms in which the surface and buildup doses were measured. The experiments were performed on a clinical Varian linac with no magnetic field and with a 0.21 T electromagnet producing a magnetic field parallel to the beam central axis. The authors repeated similar experiments in the presence of a 0.22 T magnetic field oriented perpendicular to the beam central axis using an earlier linac-MR prototype, with a biplanar permanent magnet. The radiation detectors used for the measurements were two different parallel plate ion chambers and GAFChromic films. A typical open beam surface dose of 20% (relative to open beam D max ) was increased to 63% by the coil padding material and to >74% by all other materials when placed in direct contact with the phantom, irrespective of magnetic field presence or orientation. Without a magnetic field, the surface dose decreased as the test materials were moved away from the phantom surface toward the radiation source, reaching between 30% and 40% at 10 cm gap between the phantom and the test materials. In the presence of the transverse

  19. DISP Yearly Satellite Photographic Mosaics of Greenland 1962-1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photographs (DISP) Yearly Satellite Photographic Mosaics of Greenland are composites of black-and-white photographs of...

  20. Cultural influences on Facebook photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Mao; Park, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Prior research in social psychology indicates that East Asians from collectivistic and interdependent sociocultural systems are more sensitive to contextual information than Westerners, whereas Westerners with individualistic and independent representation have a tendency to process focal and discrete attributes of the environment. Here we have demonstrated that such systematic cultural variations can also be observed in cyberspace, focusing on self-presentation of photographs on Facebook, the most popular worldwide online social network site. We examined cultural differences in face/frame ratios for Facebook profile photographs in two studies. For Study 1, 200 digital profile face photographs of active Facebook users were randomly selected from native and immigrant Taiwanese and Americans. For Study 2, 312 Facebook profiles of undergraduate students of six public universities in East Asia (Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan) and the United States (California and Texas) were randomly selected. Overall, the two studies clearly showed that East Asian Facebook users are more likely to deemphasize their faces compared to Americans. Specifically, East Asians living in Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan exhibited a predilection for context inclusiveness in their profile photographs, whereas Americans tended to prioritize their focal face at the expense of the background. Moreover, East Asian Facebook users had lower intensity of facial expression than Americans on their photographs. These results demonstrate marked cultural differences in context-inclusive styles versus object-focused styles between East Asian and American Facebook users. Our findings extend previous findings from the real world to cyberspace, and provide a novel approach to investigate cognition and behaviors across cultures by using Facebook as a data collection platform. PMID:22468606

  1. Overview of groundwater and surface water standards pertinent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundahl, A.L.; Williams, S.; Grizzle, B.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document presents an overview of groundwater- and surface water-related laws, regulations, agreements, guidance documents, Executive Orders, and DOE orders pertinent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This document is a summary and is intended to help readers understand which regulatory requirements may apply to their particular circumstances. However, the document is not intended to be used in lieu of applicable regulations. Unless otherwise noted, the information in this report reflects a summary and evaluation completed July 1, 1995. This document is considered a Living Document, and updates on changing laws and regulations will be provided.

  2. Response Surface Modeling Tolerance and Inference Error Risk Specifications: Proposed Industry Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the derivation of an equation for scaling response surface modeling experiments. The equation represents the smallest number of data points required to fit a linear regression polynomial so as to achieve certain specified model adequacy criteria. Specific criteria are proposed which simplify an otherwise rather complex equation, generating a practical rule of thumb for the minimum volume of data required to adequately fit a polynomial with a specified number of terms in the model. This equation and the simplified rule of thumb it produces can be applied to minimize the cost of wind tunnel testing.

  3. Stock Photographs Do Not Comply With Infant Safe Sleep Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodstein, Michael H; Lagon, Elena; Bell, Theodore; Joyner, Brandi L; Moon, Rachel Y

    2018-04-01

    We evaluated images in popular stock photography websites for adherence with American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines for safe infant sleep practices. Three top stock photo websites were used to collect photographs generated from key phrases. All images depicting an infant sleep environment were analyzed for consistency with AAP guidelines. Descriptive statistics, chi-square and z test of proportions, were conducted. A total of 1233 of 1947 stock photographs showed sleeping infants on a flat surface. In all, 627 (50.8%) photographs showed the infant in the supine position and 79 (5%) of all infant sleep environments were adherent with AAP recommendations. Bedding inconsistent with safe sleep recommendations was identified in 1133 images (71.3%), with blankets noted in 49.5%. Images depicting sleeping infants on stock photography sites do not routinely adhere to AAP recommendations. Media messages inconsistent with health care messages create confusion and misinformation about infant sleep safety and may lead inadvertently to unsafe practices.

  4. Standard practice for fracture testing with surface-crack tension specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the design, preparation, and testing of surface-crack tension (SCT) specimens. It relates specifically to testing under continuously increasing force and excludes cyclic and sustained loadings. The quantity determined is the residual strength of a specimen having a semielliptical or circular-segment fatigue crack in one surface. This value depends on the crack dimensions and the specimen thickness as well as the characteristics of the material. 1.2 Metallic materials that can be tested are not limited by strength, thickness, or toughness. However, tests of thick specimens of tough materials may require a tension test machine of extremely high capacity. The applicability of this practice to nonmetallic materials has not been determined. 1.3 This practice is limited to specimens having a uniform rectangular cross section in the test section. The test section width and length must be large with respect to the crack length. Crack depth and length should be chosen to suit the ultimate pu...

  5. The Expansion of the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive at PARI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, J. Donald; Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A diverse set of photometric, astrometric, spectral and surface brightness data exist on decades of photographic glass plates. The Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) was established in November 2007 and is dedicated to the task of collecting, restoring, preserving and storing astronomical photographic data and PARI continues to accept collections. APDA is also tasked with scanning each image and establishing a database of images that can be accessed via the Internet by the global community of scientists, researchers and students. APDA is a new type of astronomical observatory - one that harnesses analog data of the night sky taken for more than a century and making that data available in a digital format.In 2016, APDA expanded from 50 collections with about 220,000 plates to more than 55 collections and more than 340,000 plates and films. These account for more than 30% of all astronomical photographic data in the United States. The largest of the new acquisitions are the astronomical photographic plates in the Yale University collection. We present details of the newly added collections and review of other collections in APDA.

  6. Heavenly bodies the photographer's guide to astrophotography

    CERN Document Server

    Krages, Esq, Bert P

    2003-01-01

    Detailing the photographic equipment and astronomical instruments needed to capture celestial images, this guide shows how astrophotography can be accessible to all photographers. Included is a detailed introduction to basic astronomy with information on mapping the sky, locating celestial bodies, and planning an expedition to photograph astronomical phenomena. Photographers learn how to determine the color sensitivity of various films and achieve the best possible exposure, how to ensure a captivating composition, and how commercially processed prints can support their artistic vision. Whethe

  7. The political economy of regulation: Investigation of the relationship between design and performance standards in surface coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    Research concerning political and economic regulatory policy was conducted on 15 randomly selected surface coal mines in Tennessee. Data on violations were collected over a 6-year period from 1979 through 1984. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the approaches of the Carter and Reagan administrations concerning the implementation of design and performance regulations of Public Law 95-87. The study concluded that: (1) A change in political administration affects regulatory policy concerning enforcement practices. (2) Regulatory policy is altered in the direction of economic activity believed by an administration to be desirable to society and its constituents. (3) Elaborate rule making activity constrains market activity. (4) The coupling of design and performance standards should be retained. No difference was found in the number of violations for design and associated performance standards. Findings support the theory that it is the administration that affects change in regulatory policy, and not the regulatory construct for compliance with a mandate

  8. A Standardized Method for Measuring Internal Lung Surface Area via Mouse Pneumonectomy and Prosthesis Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Fu, Siling; Tang, Nan

    2017-07-26

    Pulmonary morphology, physiology, and respiratory functions change in both physiological and pathological conditions. Internal lung surface area (ISA), representing the gas-exchange capacity of the lung, is a critical criterion to assess respiratory function. However, observer bias can significantly influence measured values for lung morphological parameters. The protocol that we describe here minimizes variations during measurements of two morphological parameters used for ISA calculation: internal lung volume (ILV) and mean linear intercept (MLI). Using ISA as a morphometric and functional parameter to determine the outcome of alveolar regeneration in both pneumonectomy (PNX) and prosthesis implantation mouse models, we found that the increased ISA following PNX treatment was significantly blocked by implantation of a prosthesis into the thoracic cavity 1 . The ability to accurately quantify ISA is not only expected to improve the reliability and reproducibility of lung function studies in injured-induced alveolar regeneration models, but also to promote mechanistic discoveries of multiple pulmonary diseases.

  9. In-Situ XRF Measurements in Lunar Surface Exploration Using Apollo Samples as a Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kelsey E.; Evans, C.; Allen, C.; Mosie, A.; Hodges, K. V.

    2011-01-01

    Samples collected during the Apollo lunar surface missions were sampled and returned to Earth by astronauts with varying degrees of geological experience. The technology used in these EVAs, or extravehicular activities, included nothing more advanced than traditional terrestrial field instruments: rock hammer, scoop, claw tool, and sample bags. 40 years after Apollo, technology is being developed that will allow for a high-resolution geochemical map to be created in the field real-time. Handheld x-ray fluorescence (XRF) technology is one such technology. We use handheld XRF to enable a broad in-situ characterization of a geologic site of interest based on fairly rapid techniques that can be implemented by either an astronaut or a robotic explorer. The handheld XRF instrument we used for this study was the Innov-X Systems Delta XRF spectrometer.

  10. 36 CFR 702.4 - Photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... interior of Library buildings and may set the conditions under which the photographing may take place. Such... 702.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.4 Photographs. (a) The policy set out herein applies to all individuals who are photographing Library of...

  11. Negative emotional photographs are identified more slowly than positive photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Mark W

    2012-08-01

    In three experiments, we investigated whether the emotional valence of a photograph influenced the amount of time required to initially identify the contents of the image. In Experiment 1, participants saw a slideshow consisting of positive, neutral, and negative photographs that were balanced for arousal. During the slideshow, presentation time was substantially limited (60 ms), and the images were followed by masks. Immediately following the slideshows, participants were given a recognition memory test. Memory performance was best for positive images and worst for negative images (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, two simultaneous photographs were briefly presented and masked. On a trial-by-trial basis, participants indicated whether the two images were identical or not, thus removing the need for memory storage and retrieval. Again, performance was worst for negative images. The results of Experiment 3 suggested that these valence-based differences were not related attentional effects (Experiment 3). We argue that the valence of an image is detected rapidly and, in the case of negative images, interferes with processing the identity of the scene.

  12. Standard Methods of Analysis of Sulfochromate Etch Solution Used in Surface Preparation of Aluminum

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2012-01-01

    1.1 These methods offer a means for controlling the effectiveness of the etchant which is normally used for preparing the surface of aluminum alloys for subsequent adhesive bonding. As the etchant reacts with the aluminum, hexavalent chromium is converted to trivalent chromium; a measure of the two and the difference can be used to determine the amount of dichromate used. 1.2 The sulfochromate solution can be replenished by restoring the sodium dichromate and the sulfuric acid to the original formulation levels. The lower limit of usefulness will vary depending upon solution storage, adhesives used, critical nature of bond capability, variety of metals processed, etc. and should be determined. Replenishment will be limited to the number of times the chemical ingredients can be restored and maintained to the required levels and should be determined by the user. Sludge collecting in the bottom of a tank should be minimized by periodic removal of sludge. For some applications, the hexavalent chromium should not ...

  13. Apollo Surface Panoramas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Apollo Surface Panoramas is a digital library of photographic panoramas that the Apollo astronauts took while exploring the Moon's surface. These images provide a...

  14. Internal calibration of astronomical photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunclark, P. S.

    Photographic plates have enormous advantages over other two-dimensional detectors in that they have largely uniform sensitivity over a large area. Unfortunately they are dogged by lack of dynamic range and complex response functions. This paper describes a successful method of internal calibration (ie. using only information contained in the images on the plate) which for stars gives a dynamic range of fourteen magnitudes and allows correct photometry of those extended objects which are not saturated.

  15. Rugoscopy: Human identification by computer-assisted photographic superimposition technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Rezwana Begum; Patil, Rajendra G; Pammi, V R; Sandya, M Pavana; Kalyan, Siva V; Anitha, A

    2013-07-01

    Human identification has been studied since fourteenth century and it has gradually advanced for forensic purposes. Traditional methods such as dental, fingerprint, and DNA comparisons are probably the most common techniques used in this context, allowing fast and secure identification processes. But, in circumstances where identification of an individual by fingerprint or dental record comparison is difficult, palatal rugae may be considered as an alternative source of material. The present study was done to evaluate the individualistic nature and use of palatal rugae patterns for personal identification and also to test the efficiency of computerized software for forensic identification by photographic superimposition of palatal photographs obtained from casts. Two sets of Alginate impressions were made from the upper arches of 100 individuals (50 males and 50 females) with one month interval in between and the casts were poured. All the teeth except the incisors were removed to ensure that only the palate could be used in identification process. In one set of the casts, the palatal rugae were highlighted with a graphite pencil. All the 200 casts were randomly numbered, and then, they were photographed with a 10.1 Mega Pixel Kodak digital camera using standardized method. Using computerized software, the digital photographs of the models without highlighting the palatal rugae were overlapped over the images (transparent) of the palatal rugae with highlighted palatal rugae, in order to identify the pairs by superimposition technique. Incisors were remained and used as landmarks to determine the magnification required to bring the two set of photographs to the same size, in order to make perfect superimposition of images. The result of the overlapping of the digital photographs of highlighted palatal rugae over normal set of models without highlighted palatal rugae resulted in 100% positive identification. This study showed that utilization of palatal photographs

  16. A critical analysis of one standard and five methods to monitor surface wetness and time-of-wetness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camuffo, Dario; della Valle, Antonio; Becherini, Francesca

    2018-05-01

    Surface wetness is a synergistic factor to determine atmospheric corrosion, monument weathering, mould growth, sick buildings, etc. However, its detection and monitoring are neither easy nor homogeneous, for a number of factors that may affect readings. Various types of methods and sensors, either commercial or prototypes built in the lab, have been investigated and compared, i.e. the international standard ISO 9223 to evaluate corrosivity after wetness and time-of-wetness; indirect evaluation of wetness, based on the dew point calculated after the output of temperature and relative humidity sensors and direct measurements by means of capacitive wetness sensors, safety sensors, rain sensors (also known as leaf wetness sensors), infrared reflection sensors and fibre optic sensors. A comparison between the different methods is presented, specifying physical principles, forms of wetting to which they are respondent (i.e. condensation, ice melting, splashing drops, percolation and capillary rise), critical factors, use and cost.

  17. Use of MODIS Terra Imagery to Estimate Surface Water Quality Standards, Using Lake Thonotosassa, Florida, as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Rickman, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    Lake Thonotosassa is a highly eutrophied lake located in an area with rapidly growing population in the Tampa Bay watershed, Florida. The Florida Administrative Code has designated its use for "recreation, propagation and maintenance of a healthy, well-balanced population of fish and wildlife." Although this lake has been the subject of efforts to improve water quality since 1970, overall water quality has remained below the acceptable state standards, and has a high concentration of nutrients. This condition is of great concern to public health since it has favored episodic blooms of Cyanobacteria. Some Cyanobacterial species release toxins that can reach humans through drinking water, fish consumption, and direct contact with contaminated water. The lake has been historically popular for fishing and water sports, and its overflow water drains into the Hillsborough River, the main supply of municipal water for the City of Tampa, this explains why it has being constantly monitored in situ for water quality by the Environmental Protection Commission of Hillsborough County (EPC). Advances in remote sensing technology, however, open the possibility of facilitating similar types of monitoring in this and similar lakes, further contributing to the implementation of surveillance systems that would benefit not just public health, but also tourism and ecosystems. Although traditional application of this technology to water quality has been focused on much larger coastal water bodies like bays and estuaries, this study evaluates the feasibility of its application on a 46.6 km2 freshwater lake. Using surface reflectance products from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra, this study evaluates associations between remotely sensed data and in situ data from the EPC. The parameters analyzed are the surface water quality standards used by the State of Florida and general indicators of trophic status.

  18. Minimizing the Standard Deviation of Spatially Averaged Surface Cross-Sectional Data from the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, Robert; Kim, Hyokyung

    2016-01-01

    For an airborne or spaceborne radar, the precipitation-induced path attenuation can be estimated from the measurements of the normalized surface cross section, sigma 0, in the presence and absence of precipitation. In one implementation, the mean rain-free estimate and its variability are found from a lookup table (LUT) derived from previously measured data. For the dual-frequency precipitation radar aboard the global precipitation measurement satellite, the nominal table consists of the statistics of the rain-free 0 over a 0.5 deg x 0.5 deg latitude-longitude grid using a three-month set of input data. However, a problem with the LUT is an insufficient number of samples in many cells. An alternative table is constructed by a stepwise procedure that begins with the statistics over a 0.25 deg x 0.25 deg grid. If the number of samples at a cell is too few, the area is expanded, cell by cell, choosing at each step that cell that minimizes the variance of the data. The question arises, however, as to whether the selected region corresponds to the smallest variance. To address this question, a second type of variable-averaging grid is constructed using all possible spatial configurations and computing the variance of the data within each region. Comparisons of the standard deviations for the fixed and variable-averaged grids are given as a function of incidence angle and surface type using a three-month set of data. The advantage of variable spatial averaging is that the average standard deviation can be reduced relative to the fixed grid while satisfying the minimum sample requirement.

  19. Damage Atlas for Photographic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristel Van Camp

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La conservation des documents photographiques peut nécessiter des interventions préventives ou curatives. Ce choix est guidé par leur état de conservation. Une meilleure connaissance des détériorations est donc cruciale. Le répertoire présenté ici essaie de les classifier selon des caractéristiques spécifiques et leur niveau de gravité. Les différents types de dégradation sont illustrés et décrits avec une terminologie précise. L’auteur propose en regard de ceux-ci l’intervention qui semble la plus appropriée. Ce répertoire s’adresse à toutes les personnes concernées par la photographie, qu’ils soient dans le milieu de la conservation ou dans le domaine artistique, dans les musées ou dans les archives. In order to rescue a damaged photographic object, preventive or conservative actions are needed. Knowing the specific characteristics of different types of damage is crucial. A damage atlas can provide these characteristics. With this atlas the damage can be recognised and appropriate actions can be taken. This damage atlas offers a first attempt to such a characterisation in the field of photography. The damage atlas contains images and the necessary information about damage on photographic material. The atlas with special annotations about the terminology and the grade of the damage is meant for everybody who works with photographic material, as well in museums as in archives.

  20. Assessment of signs of foot infection in diabetes patients using photographic foot imaging and infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, Constantijn E V B; van Netten, Jaap J; van Baal, Sjef G; Bus, Sicco A

    2014-06-01

    Patients with diabetic foot disease require frequent screening to prevent complications and may be helped through telemedical home monitoring. Within this context, the goal was to determine the validity and reliability of assessing diabetic foot infection using photographic foot imaging and infrared thermography. For 38 patients with diabetes who presented with a foot infection or were admitted to the hospital with a foot-related complication, photographs of the plantar foot surface using a photographic imaging device and temperature data from six plantar regions using an infrared thermometer were obtained. A temperature difference between feet of >2.2 °C defined a "hotspot." Two independent observers assessed each foot for presence of foot infection, both live (using the Perfusion-Extent-Depth-Infection-Sensation classification) and from photographs 2 and 4 weeks later (for presence of erythema and ulcers). Agreement in diagnosis between live assessment and (the combination of ) photographic assessment and temperature recordings was calculated. Diagnosis of infection from photographs was specific (>85%) but not very sensitive (90%) but not very specific (60%) and specific (>79%). Intra-observer agreement between photographic assessments was good (Cohen's κ=0.77 and 0.52 for both observers). Diagnosis of foot infection in patients with diabetes seems valid and reliable using photographic imaging in combination with infrared thermography. This supports the intended use of these modalities for the home monitoring of high-risk patients with diabetes to facilitate early diagnosis of signs of foot infection.

  1. A Photographer From Ankara: Osman Darcan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülseren Mungan Yavuztürk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces Osman Darcan, an important name in the history of Ankara photography studios. Darcan followed in the footsteps of famous Austrian photographer Othmar Pferschy, whom he met in Istanbul, to go on to create his own valuable work. On leaving the Public Press Authority Photo Film Center, where he worked as a newsreel photographer and film operator, in 1943 he began taking photographs at the Tatbikat Theater at the Ankara State Conservatoire, where he continued as the photographer for the State Theater until the end of his life. At the same time, this master photographer took the pictures of a select coterie of Ankara’s leading individuals and well-known performers at a studio he opened on Anafartalar Caddesi. In both these roles, his photographs evoke admiration thanks to Darcan’s professional abilities and level of artistry.

  2. Mariner 9 photographs of small volcanic structures on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.

    1973-01-01

    Surface features on the flanks of martian shield volcanoes photographed by Mariner 9 are identified as lava flow channels, rift zones, and partly collapsed lava tubes by comparisons with similar structures on the flanks of Mauna Loa shield volcano, Hawaii. From these identification, the composition of the martian lava flows in interpreted to be basaltic, with viscosities ranging from those of fluid pahoehoe to more viscous aa.

  3. Cobble cam: Grain-size measurements of sand to boulder from digital photographs and autocorrelation analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, J.A.; Rubin, D.M.; Ruggiero, P.; Harney, J.N.; Draut, A.E.; Buscombe, D.

    2009-01-01

    A new application of the autocorrelation grain size analysis technique for mixed to coarse sediment settings has been investigated. Photographs of sand- to boulder-sized sediment along the Elwha River delta beach were taken from approximately 1??2 m above the ground surface, and detailed grain size measurements were made from 32 of these sites for calibration and validation. Digital photographs were found to provide accurate estimates of the long and intermediate axes of the surface sediment (r2 > 0??98), but poor estimates of the short axes (r2 = 0??68), suggesting that these short axes were naturally oriented in the vertical dimension. The autocorrelation method was successfully applied resulting in total irreducible error of 14% over a range of mean grain sizes of 1 to 200 mm. Compared with reported edge and object-detection results, it is noted that the autocorrelation method presented here has lower error and can be applied to a much broader range of mean grain sizes without altering the physical set-up of the camera (~200-fold versus ~6-fold). The approach is considerably less sensitive to lighting conditions than object-detection methods, although autocorrelation estimates do improve when measures are taken to shade sediments from direct sunlight. The effects of wet and dry conditions are also evaluated and discussed. The technique provides an estimate of grain size sorting from the easily calculated autocorrelation standard error, which is correlated with the graphical standard deviation at an r2 of 0??69. The technique is transferable to other sites when calibrated with linear corrections based on photo-based measurements, as shown by excellent grain-size analysis results (r2 = 0??97, irreducible error = 16%) from samples from the mixed grain size beaches of Kachemak Bay, Alaska. Thus, a method has been developed to measure mean grain size and sorting properties of coarse sediments. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Standard criteria for disposal of liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants into surface waters (river systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarev, V.V.; Tsybizov, I.S.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive products discharge into natural water streams results in the necessity to regulate nuclear power plant discharges to ensure radiation safety (RS) for population using a river and surrounding river territory. To ensure RS it is necessary to set scientific-founded standards of permissible discharge level of liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) from nuclear power plant assuring observance of hygienic requirements for surface water puring. Volume of permissible LRW discharge into river systems must be set both with provision for concrete physical-geographycal conditions, specficity of utilizing the river and river valley and social-economical peculiarities of crtical population groups. The value of permissible LRW discharge into river systems is determined by three criterion groups: radiological, ecological and hydrological ones. By means of radiological group the internal and external irradiation doses for the whole body and its separate organs are set and RS of population is determined. Ecological criteria include a number of parameters (coefficients of accumulation, distribution and transition) determining quantitative ratios between radioactive element contents in water and separate links of biological chains: soil/water, fish/water, vegetables/water and others. Hydrological criteria determine the degree of waste dilution in rivers, control radioactive contamination of flood-lands areas and in common with ecological criteria determine radionuclide contents in soil and food products. A method of determining average annual values of LRW dilution in river waters is presented [ru

  5. Standardized food images: A photographing protocol and image database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charbonnier, L.; Meer, van der F.; Laan, van der L.N.; Viergever, M.A.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of food intake has gained much research interest because of the current obesity epidemic. For research purposes, food images are a good and convenient alternative for real food because many dietary decisions are made based on the sight of foods. Food pictures are assumed to elicit

  6. Standardized food images : A photographing protocol and image database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charbonnier, Lisette; van Meer, Floor; van der Laan, Laura N.; Viergever, Max A.; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of food intake has gained much research interest because of the current obesity epidemic. For research purposes, food images are a good and convenient alternative for real food because many dietary decisions are made based on the sight of foods. Food pictures are assumed to elicit

  7. Automated galaxy surface photometry: Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, M.J.; Davies, J.I.; Disney, M.J.; Phillipps, S.

    1990-01-01

    We show that APM measurement of a standard deep UKSTU plate is equally as successful as photographic amplification in the detection of very low surface brightness galaxies. This method has the advantage of allowing us to detect and quantitatively measure images at the same time (i.e. without recourse to further observations). Suitable median filtering techniques allow us to detect galaxies with scale sizes of a few arcseconds and central surface brightnesses as low as 26.5 B mag arcsec -2 . (author)

  8. The development of the American national standard, ''control of radioactive surface contamination on materials, equipment and facilities to be released for uncontrolled use''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, J.

    1980-01-01

    The American National Standard, Control of Radioactive Surface Contamination on Materials, Equipment and Facilities to be Released for Uncontrolled Use, was developed under the procedures of ANSI for ANSI Main Committee N13 (Radiation Protection) by a working group of the Health Physics Society Standards Committee. This standard provides criteria for the control of materials, equipment and facilities contaminated with radioactivity proposed to be released for uncontrolled use. Permissible contamination limits are specified as well as methods assessing the levels of contamination. This paper reviews the proceedings of the Subcommittee on Radioactive Surface Contamination, the comments received by reviewers of the standard, the resolution of the committee, and the bases for reaching the final limits, recommendations, and measurement procedures. (H.K.)

  9. X-radiography using photographic papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitiyaporn, W.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study the possibility of using photographic paper, available on the market, for x-ray radiography instead of x-ray film which is more expensive and more complicate to develop. This research concerned about (1) the method and the limitation of x-ray radiography by using 3 types of photographic paper, namely, F2, F3 and F4 distributed by the Kodak Company, as the screen with 3 different kinds of intensifying screens produced by the Phillips Company, Toshiba Company and Picker Company to increase photographic efficiency; (2) correction factor between these 3 types of photographic paper and intensifying screens; (3) the most suitable combination of photographic paper and intensifying screens used; (4) the result of using photographic paper and x-ray film in x-ray radiography regarding quality, cost and film developing. From the research, it was found that (1) the combination of intensifying screen from Picker Company and Kodak photographic paper No. F4 coating with silver bromide with a little mixture of silver iodide resulted in higher sensitivity and more contrast than other combination; (2) photographic papers had more limitation than x-ray film in the sense that it could be used with the iron test piece no thicker than 3 cm.with the x-ray energy of 220 k Vp; (3) photographic papers would give almost the same degree of contrast and sensitivity as x-ray film when used with thin test specimens. For instance the smallest wire No.12 of DIN 62 FE could be seen in the photographic paper at 220 k Vp while it could be seen in the x-ray film at 200 k Vp while it could be seen in the x-ray film at 200 k Vp. The exposure of photographic paper would be in vicinity of x-ray film when it was used with thin test specimens. Photographic paper would produce sharpness definition, density and contrast picture and also details of the picture closely to what given by x-ray film. It is concluded that if the test specimens are thin, photographic papers

  10. Fusion of cone-beam CT and 3D photographic images for soft tissue simulation in maxillofacial surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soyoung; Kim, Joojin; Hong, Helen

    2016-03-01

    During maxillofacial surgery, prediction of the facial outcome after surgery is main concern for both surgeons and patients. However, registration of the facial CBCT images and 3D photographic images has some difficulties that regions around the eyes and mouth are affected by facial expressions or the registration speed is low due to their dense clouds of points on surfaces. Therefore, we propose a framework for the fusion of facial CBCT images and 3D photos with skin segmentation and two-stage surface registration. Our method is composed of three major steps. First, to obtain a CBCT skin surface for the registration with 3D photographic surface, skin is automatically segmented from CBCT images and the skin surface is generated by surface modeling. Second, to roughly align the scale and the orientation of the CBCT skin surface and 3D photographic surface, point-based registration with four corresponding landmarks which are located around the mouth is performed. Finally, to merge the CBCT skin surface and 3D photographic surface, Gaussian-weight-based surface registration is performed within narrow-band of 3D photographic surface.

  11. Photographic Records Showing the Variations of the Virtual Height of Reflection as a Function of the Radio Frequency

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standard (analog) ionosonde produces photographic records known as ionograms, which show the variations of the virtual height of reflection as a function of the...

  12. When pictures lie: children's misunderstanding of photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Katherine E; Gjersoe, Nathalia L; Hood, Bruce

    2013-10-01

    In three experiments we examined duality of representation for photographs in young children. Three- to four-year-olds were shown a target item which was then hidden. A sticker was placed on a photograph of this target and children, asked to retrieve the referent, were faced with a choice between a stickered and un-stickered version. Children brought back a stickered distracter object, as if the action to the photograph had modified the object. Control conditions demonstrated that these errors could not be attributed to memory failure or bias towards stickered objects. Experiment 2 indicated that children's errors depended on the sticker being placed directly on the image on the photograph and were not due to signalling which object to choose. A final experiment demonstrated that this effect could be observed under circumstances involving more substantial changes to objects: Here, children acted as if wetting a photograph of an object would cause the object itself to become wet. We interpret these results as evidence that an immature comprehension of photographs fails to take into account the episodic and symbolic referential nature of photographs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Psycholinguistic norms and face naming times for photographs of celebrities in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Perret, Cyril; Méot, Alain; Ferrand, Ludovic; Mermillod, Martial

    2008-02-01

    A set of 105 photographs of celebrities has been standardized in French on distinctiveness, proper name agreement, face agreement, age of acquisition (AoA), and subjective frequency. Statistics on the collected variables for photographs are provided. The relationships between these variables have been analyzed. Face naming latencies have also been collected for the photographs of celebrities, and several multiple regression analyses have been carried out on naming latencies and percentages of tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomena. Themain determinants of naming speed included AoA, face agreement, and name agreement. In addition, AoA, together with distinctiveness and face agreement, reliably predicted the percentages of TOTs. The norms, photographs of the celebrities, and spoken naming latencies corresponding to the celebrities are available on the Internet at norms.celebrities.googlepages.com and should be of great use to researchers interested in the processing of famous people.

  14. Evaluation of dental restorations: a comparative study between clinical and digital photographic assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, G; Silva, F; Angel, P; Oliveira, O B; Fresno, M C; Cisternas, P; Fernandez, E; Estay, J; Martin, J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a direct clinical evaluation method with an indirect digital photographic method in assessing the quality of dental restorations. Seven parameters (color, occlusal marginal adaptation, anatomy form, roughness, occlusal marginal stain, luster, and secondary caries) were assessed in 89 Class I and Class II restorations from 36 adults using the modified US Public Health Service/Ryge criteria. Standardized photographs of the same restorations were digitally processed by Adobe Photoshop software, separated into the following four groups and assessed by two calibrated examiners: Group A: The original photograph displayed at 100%, without modifications (IMG100); Group B: Formed by images enlarged at 150% (IMG150); Group C: Formed by digital photographs displayed at 100% (mIMG100), with digital modifications (levels adjustment, shadow and highlight correction, color balance, unsharp Mask); and Group D: Formed by enlarged photographs displayed at 150% with modifications (mIMG150), with the same adjustments made to Group C. Photographs were assessed on a calibrated screen (Macbook) by two calibrated clinicians, and the results were statistically analyzed using Wilcoxon tests (SSPS 11.5) at 95% CI. The photographic method produced higher reliability levels than the direct clinical method in all parameters. The evaluation of digital images is more consistent with clinical assessment when restorations present some moderate defect (Bravo) and less consistent when restorations are clinically classified as either satisfactory (Alpha) or in cases of severe defects (Charlie). The digital photographic method is a useful tool for assessing the quality of dental restorations, providing information that goes unnoticed with the visual-tactile clinical examination method. Additionally, when analyzing restorations using the Ryge modified criteria, the digital photographic method reveals a significant increase of defects compared to those

  15. Rose Island, American Samoa, 2006 Sea Surface Temperature and Meterological Standard Mooring - CRED CREWS Near Real Time and Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site - Rose Island, American Samoa, -14.5514, -168.16018 ARGOS ID 27267 Time series data from this mooring provide high resolution sea surface temperature, surface...

  16. An Investigation into Japine Platinum Photographs: William Willis´s Proprietary Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vila, Anna; Clark, Matthew L; McCabe, Constance

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of two samples of the commercial platinum photographic paper “Japine” revealed that this trade-name product was sold with a range of surface properties from matte to glossy. An in-depth examination of an unprocessed glossy Japine sample showed a chemically modified surface resulting from...

  17. The development of the American National Standard 'control of radioactive surface contamination on materials equipment and facilities to be released for uncontrolled use'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, J.

    1980-01-01

    A new standard submitted by the Health Physics Society Standards Committee to the American National Standards Institute concerning radioactive surface contamination of materials and equipment is discussed. The chronological events in the development of this standard are given. The standard provides criteria for the release for uncontrolled use of materials, equipment and facilities contaminated or potentially contaminated with radioactivity. Permissible contamination limits are specified for: 1) long lived alpha emitters except natural uranium and thorium, 2) more hazardous beta-gamma emitters, 3) less hazardous beta-gamma emitters and 4) natural uranium and thorium. A contamination reference level of 1000 dpm/100 cm 2 for 90 Sr was set as the basis for assigning limits to radionuclides presenting an ingestion hazard and other radionuclides were grouped based on the values of their maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in water relative to 90 Sr. The contamination limit for 239 Pu was chosen as the basis for assigning limits based on MPC in air to radionuclides presenting an inhalation hazard; a value of 100 dpm/100 cm 2 was adopted in the standard. An upper limit of 5000 dpm/100 cm 2 for surface contamination was selected for the standard. (UK)

  18. The Photoshop CS4 Companion for Photographers

    CERN Document Server

    Story, Derrick

    2009-01-01

    "Derrick shows that Photoshop can be friendly as well as powerful. In part, he does that by focusing photographers on the essential steps of an efficient workflow. With this guide in hand, you'll quickly learn how to leverage Photoshop CS4's features to organize and improve your pictures."-- John Nack, Principal Product Manager, Adobe Photoshop & BridgeMany photographers -- even the pros -- feel overwhelmed by all the editing options Photoshop provides. The Photoshop CS4 Companion for Photographers pares it down to only the tools you'll need most often, and shows you how to use those tools as

  19. The meaning of desert color in earth orbital photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baz, F.

    1978-01-01

    The color of desert surfaces as seen in earth orbital photographs is indicative of soil composition. Apollo-Soyuz photographs of the Sturt and Simpson Deserts of Australia confirm that sand grains become redder as the distance from the source increases. Reddening is caused by a thin iron-oxide coating on individual sand grains and can be used, in some cases, to map relative-age zones. Photographs of the Western (Libyan) Desert of Egypt indicate three distinct and nearly parallel color zones that have been correlated in the field with: (1) arable soil composed of quartz, clay, and calcium carbonate particles; (2) relatively active sand with or without sparse vegetation; and (3) relatively inactive sand mixed with dark (desert-varnished) pebbles. The youngest sands are in the form of longitudinal dunes, which are migrating to the south-southeast along the prevailing wind direction. Some of the young dune fields are encroaching on the western boundary of the fertile Nile Valley.

  20. Special photographic emulsions for high LET dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.

    1978-12-01

    The purpose of these investigations into photographic emulsion dosimetry is to attempt to use the photographic emulsion to mimic the response of human tissues to high LET radiations. The program therefore requires that a systematic understanding of the response of mammalian cells to ionizing radiations be achieved. We have been concerned with differences in RBE and in radiation response to both high and LET radiations, and in the interrelationship between observations with these different radiations

  1. Comparison of surface abrasion produced on the enamel surface by a standard dentifrice using three different toothbrush bristle designs: A profilometric in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kumari, Minal; Acharya, Shashidhar; Prasad, Ram

    2014-07-01

    The aim was to assess, in vitro, the effect on surface abrasivity of enamel surface caused by three different types (flat trim, zig-zag, bi-level) of toothbrush bristle design. Twenty-four freshly extracted, sound, human incisor teeth were collected for this study. The enamel slab was prepared, which were mounted, on separate acrylic bases followed by subjected to profilometric analysis. The surface roughness was measured using the profilometer. The specimen were divided into three groups, each group containing eight mounted specimens, wherein, Group 1 specimens were brushed with flat trim toothbrush; Group 2 brushed with zig-zag and Group 3 with bi-level bristle design. A commercially available dentifrice was used throughout the study. A single specimen was brushed for 2 times daily for 2 min period for 1 week using a customized brushing apparatus. The pre- and post-roughness value change were analyzed and recorded. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test. The results showed that surface abrasion was produced on each specimen, in all the three groups, which were subjected to brushing cycle. However, the bi-level bristle design (350% increase in roughness, P = 0.021) and zig-zag bristle design (160% increase in roughness, P = 0.050) showed significantly higher surface abrasion when compared with flat trim bristle design toothbrush. Flat trim toothbrush bristle produces least surface abrasion and is relatively safe for use.

  2. Evaluating photographic scales of facial pores and diagnostic agreement of tests using latent class models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yao; Qing, Zeng; Qing, Wang; Li, Li

    2017-02-01

    Ordinal severity scales illustrated by photographs have been widely developed to help dermatologists in evaluating skin problems or improvements. Numerous scales have been published, and none of them were used for assessing facial pores. A five-point photographic scale of facial pores was formulated, and photographs of pores on nasal ala from 128 female volunteers were acquired. Five dermatologists with similar experiences rated the 128 photographs independently using the reference photographs. Latent Class Models (LCM) were used to analyze the data. Firstly, we hypothesized that the conditional probabilities of the five dermatologists were identical to build the first LCM and without the restriction to formulate the second LCM. Conditional probability and posterior probability were also calculated. The five-point scales were ambiguous as the raters actually had difficulties in distinguishing between some adjacent categories. Adjacent categories were pooled for reanalyzing, and the model fitted well. The newly developed photographic scale of Chinese facial pores should be redefined to improve their quality and reproducibility in future studies. Standardized scales for the measurement of aging and response to cosmetic therapy were essential for assessing diagnostic experiment. The LCM can effectively deal with diagnostic test of agreement and reproducibility.

  3. Trestima – Digital Photographs for Forest Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rouvinen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Higher efficiency of forest survey is a corner stone of forest inventory and forest planning. Mobile technologies create a unique opportunity to solve the problem as well as measurement accuracy improvement, higher data objectiveness and independent control of the results. Trestima technology bases on extraction of forest attributes such as basal area, tree stem diameter, tree height and species distribution from photographs captured by a mobile phone. Image processing is performed automatically in a cloud service using machine vision, which is aided by a human operator when necessary. That allows automating all further calculations. Functions of electronic compass and geopositioning implemented on modern smart-phones allows registering the direction as well as sufficiently accurate geographic coordinates, which enables unambiguously association of a measurement and its location. The service produces reports about timber stock, basal area, average diameter, average height, number of tree trunks and diameter distribution. The report prepared for each tree stand includes standard error, as well as confidence interval for the measurements results and the assessment, with a 95 % probability level. Using thecross-section area, the average diameter and average height, the timber stock and the number of stems in the specific area may be calculated. The report generated by Trestima can be easily supplemented by a derived parameters, as well as any of the applicable formulas can be easily modified or altered in accordance with the needs, for example, dependingon the particularforest inventory area. One of the key features of the Trestima technology is the fact that each measurement contains geographic coordinates’ data. It means that, the location of eachmeasurementcan be displayedon the map, and the route, and the area cover under consideration can be analyzed.

  4. Kure Atoll, NWHI, 2004 Sea Surface Temperature and Meterological Standard Mooring - CRED CREWS Near Real Time and Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site - Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands (28.41858, -178.34333 ) ARGOS ID 21392 Time series data from this mooring provide high resolution sea surface temperature,...

  5. Maro Reef, NWHI 2004 Sea Surface Temperature and Meterological Standard Mooring - CRED CREWS Near Real Time and Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site - Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands (25.44643, -170.63366 ) ARGOS ID 21531 Time series data from this mooring provide high resolution sea surface temperature,...

  6. Lunar orbiter photographic atlas of the near side of the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Charles

    2005-01-01

    In 1967, Lunar Orbiter Mission 4 sent back to Earth a superb series of photographs of the surface of the Moon. Using 21st century computer techniques, Charles Byrne - previously System Engineer of the Apollo Program for Lunar Orbiter Photography - has removed the scanning artifacts and transmission imperfections to produce a most comprehensive and beautifully detailed set of images of the lunar surface. To help practical astronomers, all the photographs are systematically related to an Earth-based view. The book has been organized to make it easy for astronomers to use, enabling ground-based images and views to be compared with the Orbiter photographs. Every astronomer - amateur and professional - who is interested in the Moon will want this book in his library!.

  7. Lamp of adjustable spectrum for photographic usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazikowski, Adam; Feldzensztajn, Mateusz

    2017-08-01

    Photography is a unique rapidly growing interdisciplinary field encompassing aspects of science, art and technology. Expectations of photographers are steadily increasing with the development of technology. One of the areas playing a crucial role in photography is lighting. Consequently, several types of light sources for photographic use have been developed. The ongoing research in this field concentrates on lamps with tunable CCT (Correlated Color Temperature). In this paper, we present a lamp, which emission spectrum can be tailored without affecting the output luminous ux. Intended for photographic uses, the lamp is based on an integrating sphere and a selection of LEDs. As the LED drivers, DC-DC converters controlled by a Raspberry PI were applied. Design process, including the selection of LED wavelengths, is presented. Output characteristics of the lamp were measured using the setup containing the spectrometer. The results of these experiments show good agreement with the spectrum set on the microcomputer.

  8. A Relational Ecology of Photographic Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqui Knight

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a relational history of media artifacts, which decentralizes the dominance of the photographer or filmmaker as the absolute author of the work. It adds an alternative account to understanding the creative process and the subsequent study of media forms by discussing film and photographic practices as the reciprocal affective relationship between the maker, their intentions, materials, technologies, non-human agents and the environment. By reorganizing the anthropocentrism of art historical narratives, which typically exclude corporeality and materiality as drivers of human history, we are able to discuss the complex dynamic meshwork of determinants that bring photographic artifacts into existence: the lived, animate, vital materialism at once emergent and mixing of different causalities and temporalities.

  9. Nobels Nobels laureates photographed by Peter Badge

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    A unique photographic record of all living Nobel laureates. In this handsome coffee-table book, photographer Peter Badge captures the likeness of every living Nobel laureate in a lasting black-and-white image -- more than 300 striking portraits in all. Brief biographical sketches accompanying the large-scale photographs pay homage to each laureate's singular contribution to science, literature or world peace. Bringing readers face-to-face with Nelson Mandela, Jimmy Carter, the Dalai Lama, James Watson, Gabriel García Márquez, Toni Morrison, Rita Levi-Montalcini, Linda Buck, and Paul Samuelson among many others, NOBELS offers an intimate and compelling look at well-known honorees as well as lesser-known recipients. A fascinating word/image tableau.

  10. Standard techniques for presentation and analysis of crater size-frequency data. [on moon and planetary surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R.; Boyce, J.; Chapman, C.; Cintala, M.; Fulchignoni, M.; Moore, H.; Soderblom, L.; Neukum, G.; Schultz, P.; Strom, R.

    1979-01-01

    In September 1977 a crater studies workshop was held for the purpose of developing standardized data analysis and presentation techniques. The present report contains the unanimous recommendations of the participants. Recommendations are devoted primarily to crater size-frequency data and refer to cumulative and relative size-frequency distribution plots and to morphological analysis.

  11. Probing viscoelastic surfaces with bimodal tapping-mode atomic force microscopy: Underlying physics and observables for a standard linear solid model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solares, Santiago D

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents computational simulations of single-mode and bimodal atomic force microscopy (AFM) with particular focus on the viscoelastic interactions occurring during tip-sample impact. The surface is modeled by using a standard linear solid model, which is the simplest system that can reproduce creep compliance and stress relaxation, which are fundamental behaviors exhibited by viscoelastic surfaces. The relaxation of the surface in combination with the complexities of bimodal tip-sample impacts gives rise to unique dynamic behaviors that have important consequences with regards to the acquisition of quantitative relationships between the sample properties and the AFM observables. The physics of the tip-sample interactions and its effect on the observables are illustrated and discussed, and a brief research outlook on viscoelasticity measurement with intermittent-contact AFM is provided.

  12. SSMS near surface analysis of B in irradiated Zircaloy-2: ion implantation standards as a calibration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, W.H.; Carter, J.A.; Eby, R.E.; Landau, L.; Musick, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to determine the amount of 10 B contamination on the surface of Zircaloy-2 clad irradiated fuel elements that had been stored in an aqueous solution containing 5000 wt. ppM enriched B. SMSS indicated that the contamination was less than 0.06 μg/cm 2

  13. Cloud chamber photographs of the cosmic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Rochester, George Dixon

    1952-01-01

    Cloud Chamber Photographs of the Cosmic Radiation focuses on cloud chamber and photographic emulsion wherein the tracks of individual subatomic particles of high energy are studied. The publication first offers information on the technical features of operation and electrons and cascade showers. Discussions focus on the relationship in time and space of counter-controlled tracks; techniques of internal control of the cloud chamber; cascade processes with artificially-produced electrons and photons; and nuclear interaction associated with an extensive shower. The manuscript then elaborates on

  14. Development of Curriculum of Learning through Photograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keiko; Aoki, Naokazu; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki

    A curriculum of an integrated learning using power of photography in the junior highschool was constructed, and was experimented in the class "Seminar for Photographic Expression" of the integrated learning at a junior high school. The center of the curriculum is viewing photographs and self-expression using photography. By comparing the results of questionnaires investigation between before and after the class it is suggested that the curriculum brings about increase in self-esteem, empathy, and motivation for learning. This educational effect is really to foster ability to live self-sufficient lives. On the basis of these results curriculums which can be conducted by anyone at every junior highschool were proposed.

  15. PREFACE: Workshop Photograph and Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Workshop photograph Workshop Program Sunday 28 March 201019:00-21:00 Reception at Okura Frontier Hotel Tsukuba(Buffet style dinner with drink) Monday 29 March 2010Introduction (Chair: André Rubbia (ETH Zurich))09:00 Welcome address (05') Atsuto Suzuki (KEK)09:05 Message from CERN on neutrino physics (10') Sergio Bertolucci (CERN)09:15 Message from FNAL on neutrino physics (10') Young Kee Kim (FNAL)09:25 Message from KEK on neutrino physics (10') Koichiro Nishikawa (KEK)09:35 Introductory remark on GLA2010 (10') Takuya Hasegawa (KEK) Special session (Chair: Koichiro Nishikawa (KEK))09:45 The ICARUS Liquid Argon TPC (45') Carlo Rubbia (CERN)10:30-11:00 Coffee break Main goals of Giant Liquid Argon Charge Imaging Experiments I (Chair: Takashi Kobayashi (KEK))11:00 Results from massive underground detectors (non accelerator) (30') Takaaki Kajita (ICRR, U. of Tokyo)11:30 Present long baseline neutrino experiments (30') Chang Kee Jung (SUNY Stony Brook)12:00-12:10 Workshop picture12:10-14:00 Lunch break Main goals of Giant Liquid Argon Charge Imaging Experiments II (Chair: Takashi Kobayashi (KEK))14:00 Physics goals of the next generation massive underground experiments (30') David Wark (Imperial College London)14:30 Near detectors for long baseline neutrino experiments (20') Tsuyoshi Nakaya (Kyoto U.) Lessons on Liquid Argon Charge Imaging technology from ongoing developments (Chair: Chang Kee Jung (SUNY Stony Brook))14:50 WARP (30') Claudio Montanari (U. of Pavia)15:20 ArDM (30') Alberto Marchionni (ETH Zurich)15:50 From ArgoNeuT to MicroBooNE (30') Bonnie Fleming (Yale U.)16:20 250L (30') Takasumi Maruyama (KEK)16:50 The DEAP/CLEAN project (20') Mark Boulay (Queen's U.)17:10-17:40 Coffee break Lessons from Xe based Liquids Imaging detectors (Chair: Flavio Cavanna (U. of L'Aquilla))17:30 MEG (20') Satoshi Mihara (KEK)17:50 The XENON project (20') Elena Aprile (Columbia U.)18:10 XMASS (20') Hiroyuki Sekiya (ICRR, U. of Tokyo) Studies on physics performance (Chair

  16. On the reverse. Some notes on photographic images from the Warburg Institute Photographic Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Mazzucco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available How can the visual and textual data about an image – the image of a work of art – on recto and verso of a picture be interpreted? An analogical-art-documentary photograph represents a palimpsest to be considered layer by layer. The examples discussed in this article, which refer to both Aby Warburg himself and the first nucleus of the Warburg Institute Photographic Collection, contribute to effectively outline elements of the debate around the question of the photographic reproduction of the work of art as well as of the position of photography in relation to the perception of the work of art.

  17. Surface Area Analysis Using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) Method: Standard Operating Procedure Series: SOP-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Brun- nauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface adsorption method. This protocol has been developed to describe the theory , application, limitations and...provide a foundational understanding of the steps involved, how to per- form them in a repeatable and reliable manner, and to provide the theory behind...property of their respective owners . The findings of this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so

  18. Standardized clinical photography: the role of flash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariello, Angelino; Viana, Giovanni André; Osaki, Midori; Pamplona, André Luis; Höfling-Lima, Ana Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Medical photographic documentation is important for professional, research, and ethical concerns. This study analyzed the possible interference that the flash could cause on evaluation of lower eyelid cosmetic results. Standardized photographs with and without flash were taken of 10 patients with dermatochalasis. The photographs were evaluated by 3 independent observers, as before (without flash) and after (with flash) an alternative esthetic treatment of the lower eyelid. The observers rated the overall cosmetic improvement of the lower eyelid photographs on a visual analog scale. The 3 surgeons believed that there was improvement in cosmetic outcome from the first (without flash) to the second (with flash) picture. The results indicate that a simple flash addition in one of 2 consecutive photographs, taken seconds apart, could influence the impression of experienced surgeons on the final outcome of oculoplastic surgeries and may constitute a bias in observer-dependent studies.

  19. Photographic art in exam rooms may reduce white coat hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Michael B; Kanayama-Trivedi, Stacy; Caldito, Gloria; Montgomery, David; Mayeaux, E J; DelRosso, Lourdes M

    2015-12-01

    Blood pressure (BP) elevation in medical office settings in patients who are normotensive in nonmedical settings is an effect known as 'white coat hypertension'. This phenomenon is thought to be due to situational anxiety caused by the experience of visiting a doctor and the anxiety-inducing nature of the medical office. Our study was designed to determine if carefully selected photographic art could counter the anxiety that causes white coat hypertension and lead to lower BP recordings in some patients. 117 adults, non-pregnant patients from the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Family Medicine Resident Clinic participated in this study. After the triage nurse measured the BP, the patients were randomly placed in either an exam room with standard medical posters (control room) or in an exam room with photographic art (photo room). The BP was measured in the exam room. After the medical visit, the patients switched rooms and the BP was measured a third time. The patients were asked to fill out a questionnaire to identify room preference. On average, the BP obtained in the control rooms was higher than that obtained in the photo rooms. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean arterial pressure, systolic BP and diastolic BP between the control room and the photo room. Landscape photographic art may have the beneficial effect of reducing BP in medical office examination rooms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. THE REPRESENTATION OF EGYPTIAN PEOPLE’S VOICE IN THE JAKARTA GLOBE NEWS PHOTOGRAPHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fini Fitriani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: As a product of mass media, news photograph is an image which provides the viewers with a valuable source of information and news story. All events captured in photographs turn into a news photo. Besides covering the news with fact, news photographs do not only have surface meanings, but also deeper meanings to be interpreted by each viewer. The phenomenon of demonstration, particularly the massive demonstration in Egypt in 2011, offers a good chance to discover how visual messages have been presented to guide interpretation of foreign news events. Principally, demonstration is an expression of the people’s voices, and thus, their voices are related closely with their demands, grievances and wishes related to the new government. Here, the photographs are able to portray and reflect the people’s voices through the compositions and contents (meanings involved in the photos. This study is aimed at discovering the portrayal of the voice of the people (the protesters in the news photographs of the Indonesian online newspaper, The Jakarta Globe. The data consist of 15 news photographs taken from The Jakarta Globe online newspaper published in January – October 2011. The study employs qualitative method framed with semiotic analysis using Roland Barthes’ theory of orders of signification and photographic message. The results of the study show that The Jakarta Globe visually constructs this event (demonstration by focusing on the human action (the protesters. Thus, the voice of the people is portrayed in the photo subjects (the protesters and the included objects of the photo. Meanwhile, the technical aspects of the photos play a meaningful role in emerging the portrayal of the people’s voice. There are four voices revealed by the people in the 15 photographs, namely the voice of freedom, the voice of peace, the voice of justice and the voice of human rights. The photo text including headlines and captions also interact with

  1. Determination of the Annual Shading Potential of Salix Purpurea Coppice using Hemispherical Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, G.; Weihs, P.; Stockreiter, L.; Hoffmann, E.

    2012-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to achieve a good ecological potential and good surface water chemical status for all surface waters. Widely constant shading with riparian vegetation is the potential natural plant cover condition and plays a key role by the implementation of the WFD. The shading effect of vegetation is considered to be particularly relevant for small and medium sized rivers with slow flow velocity. Soil Bioengineering measures effect technical (e.g. soil protection), ecological and socio-economical issues on river systems. Positive ecological effects are based on the development of the used plants and result among others in shading of the water body. Natural bank vegetation provides very important niches for terrestrial and aquatic stages and reduces the incident solar radiation up to 95%. Consequently large riparian wooded areas form a microclimate that leads to a decrease of water temperature or prevent an increase. They even reduce evaporation and increase the relative air humidity which contributes to reducing water temperature and enlarges the oxygen uptake capacity. Accordingly the daily variations of temperature and those of oxygen content are definitely lower in vegetated areas. This issue is especially important considering climate change scenarios with increasing water temperatures. From an ecological point of view it is essential to quantify the processes. There are different ways to characterize densities of vegetation. Most of them - such as the method by Braun-Blanquet and Londo - rely on estimations of the dominance of species. Applying this kind of procedures on riparian vegetation result in uncertainties due to the strong variations in height and densities. Hemispherical photographs are a standardized method in forest ecology under more or less uniform forest stand conditions. However it is now hardly used for riparian vegetation stands. Questions that will be addressed are the determination of annual stand

  2. A Photographic View of Cumulative Distribution Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    This article shows a concrete and easy recognizable view of a cumulative distribution function(cdf). Photograph views of the search tabs on dictionaries are used to increase students' understanding and facility with the concept of a cumulative distribution function. Projects for student investigations are also given. This motivation and view helps…

  3. The Social Effects of War Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan DEMİREL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world, knowledge is increasingly impacted via visual representation. The messages sent through various sources, such as newspaper, television and the internet, lead people to form opinions about various topics. In this context, photography is one of the most powerful source of information. Moreover, the visual power and the ability to show nonverbal communication makes it a perfect tool for propaganda. These days, photographs showing war themes are used more often than the past. It can be said that war photographs serve as a tool for showing the world the realities of war to those, even to those who turn their back to massacres. After all, a dead body creates a shocking effect in the seer. In this study, the context of the photographs of the war, examined in sample of photograph of Aylan Kurdi, which became the “icon” of immigration due to Syrian civil war and war it relates to and it is studied to understand how it is assessed and understood considering the environment and conditions on the date the photo was taken, existing values, beliefs and things happened in the world in that time, from a critical point of view.

  4. Are clinical photographs appropriate to determine the maximal range of motion of the knee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Filip; Ganseman, Yannick; Arnout, Nele; Vandenneucker, Hilde; Bellemans, Johan

    2010-12-01

    Goniometry is a commonly used method for the clinical assessment of range of motion (ROM) of the knee. A digital photograph of the knee in maximal flexion and extension could provide a more objective way to assess the ROM. The aim of our study was to investigate the reliability of the use of digital photographs as a method for measuring the ROM of the knee. Four observers examined 49 patients. Digital photographs of the knee in maximal flexion and extension were compared with standard clinical goniometric measurements in the same position. We observed higher intra-observer reliability for the digital method in flexion (p goniometry. The extension results were numerically lower when using goniometry compared to the digital method (p reliability for extension was lower compared to flexion. The intraobserver standard error of measurement (SEM) of the digital method was smaller than the goniometric SEM; the digital method thus appeared more reliable. Measuring maximal flexion and extension on digital photographs is more reliable for both extension and flexion compared to standard goniometric measurements.

  5. Photographic and drafting techniques simplify method of producing engineering drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provisor, H.

    1968-01-01

    Combination of photographic and drafting techniques has been developed to simplify the preparation of three dimensional and dimetric engineering drawings. Conventional photographs can be converted to line drawings by making copy negatives on high contrast film.

  6. Digital Lunar Orbiter Photographic Atlas of the Moon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Orbiter Photographic Atlas of the Moon is considered the definitive reference manual to the global photographic coverage of the Moon. The images contained...

  7. A standardized nomenclature for craniofacial and facial anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caple, Jodi; Stephan, Carl N

    2016-05-01

    Standardized terms and methods have long been recognized as crucial to reduce measurement error and increase reliability in anthropometry. The successful prior use of craniometric landmarks makes extrapolation of these landmarks to the soft tissue context, as analogs, intuitive for forensic craniofacial analyses and facial photogrammetry. However, this extrapolation has not, so far, been systematic. Instead, varied nomenclature and definitions exist for facial landmarks, and photographic analyses are complicated by the generalization of 3D craniometric landmarks to the 2D face space where analogy is subsequently often lost, complicating anatomical assessments. For example, landmarks requiring palpation of the skull or the examination of the 3D surface typology are impossible to legitimately position; similar applies to median landmarks not visible in lateral photographs. To redress these issues without disposing of the craniometric framework that underpins many facial landmarks, we provide an updated and transparent nomenclature for facial description. This nomenclature maintains the original craniometric intent (and base abbreviations) but provides clear distinction of ill-defined (quasi) landmarks in photographic contexts, as produced when anatomical points are subjectively inferred from shape-from-shading information alone.

  8. Quantification of captopril in urine through surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using 4-mercaptobenzoic acid-capped gold nanoparticles as an internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Tsen; Chiang, Cheng-Kang; Lin, Yang-Wei; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a new internal standard method for the determination of the concentration of captopril (CAP) through surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) using gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). This approach provided linearity for CAP over the concentration range 2.5-25 microM (R(2) = 0.987), with a limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) of 1.0 microM. The spot-to-spot variations in the concentration of CAP through SALDI-MS analyses performed in the absence and presence of the internal standard were 26% and 9%, respectively (15 measurements). This approach provides simplicity, accuracy, precision, and great reproducibility to the determination of the levels of CAP in human urine samples. Copyright 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Correlation of upper lip morphology to smile: A photographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine different components of a smile in subjects with class I occlusion and to formulate a comprehensive photographic analysis of a smile. This study was designed to find a correlation between upper lip elevation and retraction with upper lip morphology during smiling among male and female groups. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalogram and standardized frontal photographs were taken at rest and smiling. Results: A significant sexual dimorphism was apparent in several of the parameters studied. Middle portion of lower border of upper lip (MUL′-MUL rose significantly higher by 0.91 mm in the male group than in the female group, during smiling (P = 0.003. Decrease in vermillion display (VE-VE′ was significantly higher in the male group than the in female group by 0.668 mm (P = 0.021. Conclusion: This comprehensive study of lip mobility, when applied to a larger population can enable us to further evaluate the correlation between lip morphology and mobility.

  10. Decontamination of radioactively contaminated surfaces - Method for testing and assessing the ease of decontamination (International Standard Publication ISO 8690:1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    2001-01-01

    The specifications laid down in this International Standard apply to the testing of surfaces which may become contaminated by radioactive materials. Decontaminability data obtained using this test method are not applicable to technical systems where layers of contaminating materials are formed as a result of long-term application of higher temperatures and pressures (for example primary circuits of nuclear reactors). The purpose of the test is to assess the ease of decontamination of surfaces under laboratory conditions. In practical applications, it may be important to consider other qualities, such as chemical, mechanical and radiation resistance and long-term stability in the selection of the materials to be used. It should be recognized that further decontamination tests under simulated service conditions may be needed

  11. WAIS-IV administration errors: effects of altered response requirements on Symbol Search and violation of standard surface-variety patterns on Block Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph J; Swopes-Willhite, Nicole; Franklin, Cassi; Kreiner, David S

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized a sample of 50 college students to assess the possibility that responding to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) Symbol Search subtest items with an "x" instead of a "single slash mark" would affect performance. A second sample of 50 college students was used to assess the impact on WAIS-IV Block Design performance of presenting all the items with only red surfaces facing up. The modified Symbol Search and Block Design administrations yielded mean scaled scores and raw scores that did not differ significantly from mean scores obtained with standard administrations. Findings should not be generalized beyond healthy, well-educated young adults.

  12. Best of Adobe Photoshop techniques and images from professional photographers

    CERN Document Server

    Hurter, Bill

    2006-01-01

    Bill Hurter is the editor of ""Rangefinder"" magazine, the former editor of ""Petersen's PhotoGraphic,"" and the author of ""The Best of Wedding Photography, Group Portrait Photography Handbook, The Portrait Photographer's Guide to Posing, ""and ""Portrait Photographer's Handbook. ""He lives in Santa Monica, California.

  13. 7 CFR 500.9 - Photographs for news or advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Photographs for news or advertising. 500.9 Section 500... for news or advertising. Photographs for news purposes may be taken at the USNA without prior permission. Photographs for advertising and other commercial purposes may be taken, but only with the prior...

  14. Using Photographs to Integrate Liberal Arts Learning in Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Laura T.; Smith, Anne D.

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of photographic approaches in the business classroom can incorporate missing elements of liberal education into business education, which were highlighted in a recent Carnegie study of undergraduate business education. Building on photographic methods in social science research, we identify three categories of photographic approaches…

  15. Development of a standardized and safe airborne antibacterial assay, and its evaluation on antibacterial biomimetic model surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al-Ahmad

    Full Text Available Bacterial infection of biomaterials is a major concern in medicine, and different kinds of antimicrobial biomaterial have been developed to deal with this problem. To test the antimicrobial performance of these biomaterials, the airborne bacterial assay is used, which involves the formation of biohazardous bacterial aerosols. We here describe a new experimental set-up which allows safe handling of such pathogenic aerosols, and standardizes critical parameters of this otherwise intractable and strongly user-dependent assay. With this new method, reproducible, thorough antimicrobial data (number of colony forming units and live-dead-stain was obtained. Poly(oxonorbornene-based Synthetic Mimics of Antimicrobial Peptides (SMAMPs were used as antimicrobial test samples. The assay was able to differentiate even between subtle sample differences, such as different sample thicknesses. With this new set-up, the airborne bacterial assay was thus established as a useful, reliable, and realistic experimental method to simulate the contamination of biomaterials with bacteria, for example in an intraoperative setting.

  16. Calibration of the modulation transfer function of surface profilometers with binary pseudo-random test standards: expanding the application range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; Cambie, Rossana; Conley, Raymond; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2011-03-14

    A modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays [Proc. SPIE 7077-7 (2007), Opt. Eng. 47, 073602 (2008)] has been proven to be an effective MTF calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes and a scatterometer [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A616, 172 (2010)]. Here we report on a further expansion of the application range of the method. We describe the MTF calibration of a 6 inch phase shifting Fizeau interferometer. Beyond providing a direct measurement of the interferometer's MTF, tests with a BPR array surface have revealed an asymmetry in the instrument's data processing algorithm that fundamentally limits its bandwidth. Moreover, the tests have illustrated the effects of the instrument's detrending and filtering procedures on power spectral density measurements. The details of the development of a BPR test sample suitable for calibration of scanning and transmission electron microscopes are also presented. Such a test sample is realized as a multilayer structure with the layer thicknesses of two materials corresponding to BPR sequence. The investigations confirm the universal character of the method that makes it applicable to a large variety of metrology instrumentation with spatial wavelength bandwidths from a few nanometers to hundreds of millimeters.

  17. Calibration of the modulation transfer function of surface profilometers with binary pseudo-random test standards: Expanding the application range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; Cambie, Rossana; Conley, Raymond; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2010-07-26

    A modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays [Proc. SPIE 7077-7 (2007), Opt. Eng. 47(7), 073602-1-5 (2008)] has been proven to be an effective MTF calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes and a scatterometer [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 616, 172-82 (2010]. Here we report on a significant expansion of the application range of the method. We describe the MTF calibration of a 6 inch phase shifting Fizeau interferometer. Beyond providing a direct measurement of the interferometer's MTF, tests with a BPR array surface have revealed an asymmetry in the instrument's data processing algorithm that fundamentally limits its bandwidth. Moreover, the tests have illustrated the effects of the instrument's detrending and filtering procedures on power spectral density measurements. The details of the development of a BPR test sample suitable for calibration of scanning and transmission electron microscopes are also presented. Such a test sample is realized as a multilayer structure with the layer thicknesses of two materials corresponding to BPR sequence. The investigations confirm the universal character of the method that makes it applicable to a large variety of metrology instrumentation with spatial wavelength bandwidths from a few nanometers to hundreds of millimeters.

  18. Calibration of the modulation transfer function of surface profilometers with binary pseudo-random test standards: expanding the application range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; Cambie, Rossana; Conley, Raymond; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2011-01-01

    A modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays (Proc. SPIE 7077-7 (2007), Opt. Eng. 47, 073602 (2008)) has been proven to be an effective MTF calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes and a scatterometer (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A616, 172 (2010)). Here we report on a further expansion of the application range of the method. We describe the MTF calibration of a 6 inch phase shifting Fizeau interferometer. Beyond providing a direct measurement of the interferometer's MTF, tests with a BPR array surface have revealed an asymmetry in the instrument's data processing algorithm that fundamentally limits its bandwidth. Moreover, the tests have illustrated the effects of the instrument's detrending and filtering procedures on power spectral density measurements. The details of the development of a BPR test sample suitable for calibration of scanning and transmission electron microscopes are also presented. Such a test sample is realized as a multilayer structure with the layer thicknesses of two materials corresponding to BPR sequence. The investigations confirm the universal character of the method that makes it applicable to a large variety of metrology instrumentation with spatial wavelength bandwidths from a few nanometers to hundreds of millimeters.

  19. Effect of avalanche-type barrier discharge on a silver halide photographic material in the case of blocked ionic conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boychenko, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Imaging of avalanche-type barrier gas discharge excited by single videopulses ∼7 μs long is studied via chemical activation of an ion subsystem of microcrystals of silver halide photographic emulsions by 1-phenyl-5-mercaptotetrazole. Using “Retina” commercial X-ray film and specially fabricated photoemulsion microcrystals with effective surface and deep electron traps as an example, the selective gas-discharge sensitivity of photographic layers to applied-voltage polarity is detected. It is shown that their sensitivity to barrier discharge ignited by negative-polarity pulses (on the electrode with a photographic material) is higher than in the case of positive pulses, irrespective of the photographic material’s position in the capacitor system.

  20. Digital image processing of flow visualization photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselink, L.; White, B. S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the propagation of laser light through a slab of a randomly varying medium. A theoretical analysis is presented which relates the spectrum of the recorded-intensity field some distance downstream of the medium to the spectrum of the index-of-refraction field. For a homogeneous and isotropic random field, the 3-D spectrum of the medium is obtained from the 2-D spectrum of the photograph by dividing each component of the spectrum by the frequency raised to the fourth power. Free-space propagation outside the random medium is accounted for by a scaling factor. Experimental results are presented which support the theoretical analysis. The nonintrusive diagnostic technique presented here is applicable to photographs which contain partially developed caustic networks.

  1. The Cambridge photographic atlas of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    König, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Galaxies - the Milky Way's siblings - offer a surprising variety of forms and colours. Displaying symmetrical spiral arms, glowing red nebulae or diffuse halos, even the image of a galaxy can reveal much about its construction. All galaxies consist of gas, dust and stars, but the effects of gravity, dark matter and the interaction of star formation and stellar explosions all influence their appearances. This volume showcases more than 250 of the most beautiful galaxies within an amateur's reach and uses them to explain current astrophysical research. It features fantastic photographs, unique insights into our knowledge, tips on astrophotography and essential facts and figures based on the latest science. From the Andromeda Galaxy to galaxy clusters and gravitational lenses, the nature of galaxies is revealed through these stunning amateur photographs. This well illustrated reference atlas deserves a place on the bookshelves of astronomical imagers, observers and armchair enthusiasts.

  2. Oscilloscope trace photograph digitizing system (TRACE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, M.; Dabbs, R.D.

    1977-10-01

    The digitizing system allows digitization of photographs or sketches of waveforms and then the computer is used to reduce and analyze the data. The software allows for alignment, calibration, removal of baselines, removal of unwanted points and addition of new points which makes for a fairly versatile system as far as data reduction and manipulation are concerned. System considerations are introduced first to orient the potential user to the process of digitizing information. The start up and actual commands for TRACE are discussed. Detailed descriptions of each subroutine and program section are also provided. Three general examples of typical photographs are included. A partial listing of FAWTEK is made available. Once suitable arrays that contain the data are arranged, ''GO FA'' (active FAWTEK) and many mathematical operations to further analyze the data may be performed

  3. Photographic documentation of acute radiation-induced side effects of the oral mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesenbeck, D.; Doerr, W.; Feyerabend, T.; Richter, E.; Fietkau, R.; Henne, K.; Schendera, A.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Radiotherapy in cancer of the head and neck induces cutaneous and mucosal reactions. These must be carefully assessed and documented to control the accuracy of individual treatment, the overall toxicity of particular treatment schedules, the efficacy of prophylaxis and treatment and to determine the adequate therapy of treatment sequelae depending on the severity of the reactions. The accurate classification of lesions according to internationally accepted schedules (WHO/RTOG/CTC) is indispensable for the comparison of radiotherapy treatment results and efficacy of supportive care. Methods: While the treatment of cancer depends on tumor stage and medical circumstances of the patient and is more or less standardized, prophylaxis and treatment of side-effects is highly variable. Discussing an optimized prophylaxis and therapy of oral mucositis, the problem of accurate classification and documentation emerged. The verbal description of mucosal lesions is open to many subjective interpretations. Photographic documentation seems a suitable method to optimize the grading of toxicity. Results: A photographic survey of typical lesions for each grade of toxicity is a tool to reach several aims in one step. Toxicity of an individual patient may be compared with representative photographic examples in daily routine to decide quickly on the grade of toxicity. Subjective differences due to intra- and interpersonal variability of the evaluating radiooncologist will be reduced. The efficacy of trof treatment can be proven by accurate documentation. Randomized clinical studies concerning prophylaxis and treatmen mucositis will provide more reliable results if evaluation of toxicity grading is standardized by photographs. Conclusions: Photographic documentation of lesions of the oral mucosa might be the best means to reduce interindividual subjectivity in grading. It is a valuable appendix to standard classification systems and only concerns the visible signs of mucosal

  4. Tracking Protests Using Geotagged Flickr Photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanyali, Merve; Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed waves of protests sweeping across countries and continents, in some cases resulting in political and governmental change. Much media attention has been focused on the increasing usage of social media to coordinate and provide instantly available reports on these protests. Here, we investigate whether it is possible to identify protest outbreaks through quantitative analysis of activity on the photo sharing site Flickr. We analyse 25 million photos uploaded to Flickr in 2013 across 244 countries and regions, and determine for each week in each country and region what proportion of the photographs are tagged with the word "protest" in 34 different languages. We find that higher proportions of "protest"-tagged photographs in a given country and region in a given week correspond to greater numbers of reports of protests in that country and region and week in the newspaper The Guardian. Our findings underline the potential value of photographs uploaded to the Internet as a source of global, cheap and rapidly available measurements of human behaviour in the real world.

  5. Tracking Protests Using Geotagged Flickr Photographs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Alanyali

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed waves of protests sweeping across countries and continents, in some cases resulting in political and governmental change. Much media attention has been focused on the increasing usage of social media to coordinate and provide instantly available reports on these protests. Here, we investigate whether it is possible to identify protest outbreaks through quantitative analysis of activity on the photo sharing site Flickr. We analyse 25 million photos uploaded to Flickr in 2013 across 244 countries and regions, and determine for each week in each country and region what proportion of the photographs are tagged with the word "protest" in 34 different languages. We find that higher proportions of "protest"-tagged photographs in a given country and region in a given week correspond to greater numbers of reports of protests in that country and region and week in the newspaper The Guardian. Our findings underline the potential value of photographs uploaded to the Internet as a source of global, cheap and rapidly available measurements of human behaviour in the real world.

  6. Lippman photographs recorded in DuPont color photopolymer material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1997-04-01

    At the end of the last century, Gabriel Lippmann was experimenting with color photography. His photographic color recording technique, Lippmann photography, produced very beautiful photographs and the fact that the colors are preserved in the early Lippmann photographs indicates something about their archival properties. Recent progress in color reflection holography has made it possible to take a new look at this one hundred year old photographic technique. Today, high-resolution panchromatic recording materials suitable for Lippmann photography are on the market. In particular, the color photopolymers from DuPont have been investigated for modern Lippmann photography. Since the color photographs contain no dyes or pigments their archival stability may be high. In addition, a Lippmann photograph is difficult to copy which makes it a unique color photographic recording. Both of these features must attract a photographer interested in creating beautiful art photographs. Security application is another potential field for Lippmann photographs as well as optical filters. The dry processing of the photopolymer material is an important advantage. Another advantage is that no expensive equipment, such as lasers, is needed to explore this photographic recording technique; only a modified camera is required.

  7. Inter-observer reproducibility of back surface topography parameters allowing assessment of scoliotic thoracic gibbosity and comparison with two standard postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sèze, M; Randriaminahisoa, T; Gaunelle, A; de Korvin, G; Mazaux, J-M

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this work was to analyze the inter-observer reproducibility of an upright posture designed to bring out the thoracic humps by folding the upper limbs. The effect of this posture on back surface parameters was also compared with two standard radiological postures. A back surface topography was performed on 46 patients (40 girls and 6 boys) with a minimum of 15° Cobb angle on coronal spinal radiographs. Inter-observer reliability was evaluated using the typical error measurement (TEM) and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Variations between postures were assessed using a Student's t test. The inter-observer reproducibility is good enough for the three postures. The proposed posture leads to significant changes in the sagittal plane as well as in the identification of thoracic humps. This study shows the reproducibility of the proposed posture in order to explore the thoracic humps and highlights its relevance to explore scoliosis with back surface topography systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Surface Adsorption Energetics Studied with "Gold Standard" Wavefunction Based Ab Initio Methods: Small Molecule Binding to TiO2(110).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubas, Adam M; Berger, Daniel; Oberhofer, Harald; Maganas, Dimitrios; Reuter, Karsten; Neese, Frank

    2016-10-03

    Coupled cluster theory with single, double and perturbative triple excitations (CCSD(T)) is widely considered to be the 'gold standard' of ab initio quantum chemistry. Using the domain-based pair natural orbital local correlation concept (DLPNO-CCSD(T)), these calculations can be performed on systems with hundreds of atoms at an accuracy of about 99.9% of the canonical CCSD(T) method. This allows for ab initio calculations providing reference adsorption energetics at solid surfaces with an accuracy approaching 1 kcal/mol. This is an invaluable asset, not least for the assessment of density-functional theory (DFT) as the prevalent approach for large-scale production calculations in energy or catalysis applications. Here we use DLPNO-CCSD(T) with embedded cluster models to compute entire adsorbate potential energy surfaces for the binding of a set of prototypical closed-shell molecules (H2O, NH3, CH4, CH3OH, CO2) to the rutile TiO2(110) surface. The DLPNO-CCSD(T) calculations show excellent agreement with available experimental data, even for the 'infamous' challenge of correctly predicting the CO2 adsorption geometry. The numerical efficiency of the approach is within one order of magnitude of hybrid-level DFT calculations, hence blurring the borders between reference and production technique.

  9. Evidence for a Standardized Preadmission Showering Regimen to Achieve Maximal Antiseptic Skin Surface Concentrations of Chlorhexidine Gluconate, 4%, in Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Charles E; Lee, Cheong J; Krepel, Candace J; Spencer, Maureen; Leaper, David; Brown, Kellie R; Lewis, Brian D; Rossi, Peter J; Malinowski, Michael J; Seabrook, Gary R

    2015-11-01

    To reduce the amount of skin surface bacteria for patients undergoing elective surgery, selective health care facilities have instituted a preadmission antiseptic skin cleansing protocol using chlorhexidine gluconate. A Cochrane Collaborative review suggests that existing data do not justify preoperative skin cleansing as a strategy to reduce surgical site infection. To develop and evaluate the efficacy of a standardized preadmission showering protocol that optimizes skin surface concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate and to compare the findings with the design and methods of published studies on preoperative skin preparation. A randomized prospective analysis in 120 healthy volunteers was conducted at an academic tertiary care medical center from June 1, 2014, to September, 30, 2014. Data analysis was performed from October 13, 2014, to October 27, 2014. A standardized process of dose, duration, and timing was used to maximize antiseptic skin surface concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate applied during preoperative showering. The volunteers were randomized to 2 chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%, showering groups (2 vs 3 showers), containing 60 participants each, and 3 subgroups (no pause, 1-minute pause, or 2-minute pause before rinsing), containing 20 participants each. Volunteers used 118 mL of chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%, for each shower. Skin surface concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate were analyzed using colorimetric assay at 5 separate anatomic sites. Individual groups were analyzed using paired t test and analysis of variance. Preadmission showers using chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%. The primary outcome was to develop a standardized approach for administering the preadmission shower with chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%, resulting in maximal, persistent skin antisepsis by delineating a precise dose (volume) of chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%; duration (number of showers); and timing (pause) before rinsing. The mean (SD) composite chlorhexidine gluconate

  10. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); AMSM, ROS; Long: -168.16025, Lat: -14.55134 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20060307-20080312.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  11. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); AMSM, ROS; Long: -168.16018, Lat: -14.55140 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20020224-20020420.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  12. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); AMSM, ROS; Long: -168.16025, Lat: -14.55134 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20060307-20070902.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  13. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.81612, Lat: 27.85325 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20020918-20030314.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  14. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); NWHI, MAR; Long: -170.63382, Lat: 25.44652 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20020424-20020802.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  15. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); NWHI, LIS; Long: -173.91608, Lat: 25.96767 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20011020-20011225.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  16. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); NWHI, KUR; Long: -178.34455, Lat: 28.41863 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20040629-20041005.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  17. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, MAR; Long: -170.63382, Lat: 25.44643 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20040924-20051014.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  18. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.81595, Lat: 27.85396 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.91m; Data Range: 20060915-20080828.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  19. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.81590, Lat: 27.85408 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.50m; Data Range: 20030801-20030810.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  20. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, KUR; Long: -178.34455, Lat: 28.41863 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20020922-20030316.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  1. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.81590, Lat: 27.85408 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20020505-20020810.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  2. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); AMSM, ROS; Long: -168.16018, Lat: -14.55140 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20040209-20041002.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  3. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, MAR; Long: -170.63382, Lat: 25.44643 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20051016-20060907.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  4. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.81612, Lat: 27.85325 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20030812-20040428.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  5. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); NWHI, KUR; Long: -178.34453, Lat: 28.41852 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20060918-20080929.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  6. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, KUR; Long: -178.34453, Lat: 28.41852 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20060917-20080929.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  7. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); NWHI, MAR; Long: -170.63382, Lat: 25.44643 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20051020-20060907.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  8. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, MAR; Long: -170.63382, Lat: 25.44652 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20021001-20030321.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  9. Preferences for photographic art among hospitalized patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Hazel; Schroeter, Kathryn; Hanson, Andrew; Asmus, Kathryn; Grossman, Azure

    2013-07-01

    To determine the preferences of patients with cancer for viewing photographic art in an inpatient hospital setting and to evaluate the impact of viewing photographic art. Quantitative, exploratory, single-group, post-test descriptive design incorporating qualitative survey questions. An academic medical center in the midwestern United States. 80 men (n = 44) and women (n = 36) aged 19-85 years (X = 49) and hospitalized for cancer treatment. Participants viewed photographs via computers and then completed a five-instrument electronic survey. Fatigue, quality of life, performance status, perceptions of distraction and restoration, and content categories of photographs. Ninety-six percent of participants enjoyed looking at the study photographs. The photographs they preferred most often were lake sunset (76%), rocky river (66%), and autumn waterfall (66%). The most rejected photographs were amusement park (54%), farmer's market vegetable table (51%), and kayakers (49%). The qualitative categories selected were landscape (28%), animals (15%), people (14%), entertainment (10%), imagery (10%), water (7%), spiritual (7%), flowers (6%), and landmark (3%). Some discrepancy between the quantitative and qualitative sections may be related to participants considering water to be a landscape. The hypothesis that patients' preferences for a category of photographic art are affected by the psychophysical and psychological qualities of the photographs, as well as the patients' moods and characteristics, was supported. Nurses can play an active role in helping patients deal with the challenges of long hospital stays and life-threatening diagnoses through distraction and restoration interventions such as viewing photographic images of nature. Nurses can use photographic imagery to provide a restorative intervention during the hospital experience. Photographic art can be used as a distraction from the hospital stay and the uncertainty of a cancer diagnosis. Having patients view

  10. Validity of scoring caries and primary molar hypomineralization (DMH) on intraoral photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfrink, M E C; Veerkamp, J S J; Aartman, I H A; Moll, H A; Ten Cate, J M

    2009-11-01

    The aims of this study were to assess whether intraoral photographs could be used to score caries and hypomineralization on primary molars (Using adapted Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH)-criteria), and also to assess the reliability and validity in 3-7 year-old Dutch children of these scores by comparing them to direct clinical scorings. Cross-sectional study. In this study 62 children (38.7% girls) with a mean age of 4.96 years (SD 1.27) participated. The children were rated clinically by their own dentist (authors JV or ME) for caries reaching the dentine in their primary molars (WHO criteria) and also for primary molar hypomineralization using the adapted MIH-criteria. For the intraoral photographs, a digital intraoral camera was used. The two paediatric dentists rated all the intraoral photographs on caries and hypomineralizations on the second primary molars, using the same criteria for the clinical scoring as for the scoring of the photographs. They scored independently, at least 2 weeks after the initial clinical scoring to avoid observational bias with the clinical scoring. This clinical observation was used as the gold standard from which sensitivity, specificity, Positive Predictive Value (PPV), Negative Predictive Value (NPV) and the Positive and Negative Likelihood Ratio were computed. To test the intra-observer agreement 25 % of the photographs were scored again, at least 2 weeks after the initial scoring of the images. Inter- and intra-observer agreement were tested using Cohen's Kappa. The mean prevalence of clinically detected caries at tooth level was 46.7% and the mean prevalence of clinically detected hypomineralizations in second primary molars at tooth level was 21.8%. The sensitivity of assessing caries using intraoral photographs was 85.5%, the specificity 83.6%, the positive likelihood ratio 5.2 and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.17. For Primary Molar Hypomineralization (DMH) the sensitivity was 72.3%, the specificity 92.8%, the

  11. Adobe Photoshop Elements 11 for photographers

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Philip

    2013-01-01

    To coincide with some of the biggest changes in Photoshop Elements for years, Philip Andrews completely revises his bestselling title to include all the new features of this release. See how the new interface works alongside new tools, techniques and workflows to make editing, enhancing and sharing your pictures easier than ever. And as always, he introduces the changed and improved features with colorful illustrations and the clear step-by-step instruction that has made his books the go-to titles for photographers the world over. ????In this edition Andrews highlights followi

  12. Adobe Photoshop CS6 for photographers

    CERN Document Server

    Evening, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Renowned Photographer and Photoshop hall-of-famer, Martin Evening returns with his comprehensive guide to Photoshop. This acclaimed work covers everything from the core aspects of working in Photoshop to advanced techniques for refined workflows and professional results. Using concise advice, clear instruction and real world examples, this essential guide will give you the skills, regardless of your experience, to create professional quality results. A robust accompanying website features sample images, tutorial videos, bonus chapters and a plethora of extra resources. Quite simply, this is

  13. iPad for digital photographers

    CERN Document Server

    Story, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Discover innovative ways to strengthen your photography business with your iPad Many photographers are turning to the flexible, easy-to-use tools of the iPad and relying on them to wear a variety of hats in their photography business. Whether portable portfolio, editing tool, payment-tracking system, or appointment calendar, the iPad melds together the best attributes of the cell phone and a laptop computer and this unique book highlights them all. With this helpful resource, you'll learn how to get the most out of your iPad to not only improve your business but also enhance your p

  14. Daylight time-resolved photographs of lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qrville, R E; Lala, G G; Idone, V P

    1978-07-07

    Lightning dart leaders and return strokes have been recorded in daylight with both good spatial resolution and good time resolution as part of the Thunder-storm Research International Program. The resulting time-resolved photographs are apparently equivalent to the best data obtained earlier only at night. Average two-dimensional return stroke velocities in four subsequent strokes between the ground and a height of 1400 meters were approximately 1.3 x 10(8) meters per second. The estimated systematic error is 10 to 15 percent.

  15. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy introduced into the International Standard Organization (ISO) regulations as an alternative method for detection and identification of pathogens in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Evelin; Korsak, Dorota; Kowalska, Aneta; Księżopolska-Gocalska, Monika; Niedziółka-Jönsson, Joanna; Roźniecka, Ewa; Michałowicz, Weronika; Albrycht, Paweł; Podrażka, Marta; Hołyst, Robert; Waluk, Jacek; Kamińska, Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    We show that surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) can serve as a fast, reliable, and easy method for detection and identification of food-borne bacteria, namely Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Cronobacter spp., in different types of food matrices (salmon, eggs, powdered infant formula milk, mixed herbs, respectively). The main aim of this work was to introduce the SERS technique into three ISO (6579:2002; 11290-1:1996/A1:2004; 22964:2006) standard procedures required for detection of these bacteria in food. Our study demonstrates that the SERS technique is effective in distinguishing very closely related bacteria within a genus grown on solid and liquid media. The advantages of the proposed ISO-SERS method for bacteria identification include simplicity and reduced time of analysis, from almost 144 h required by standard methods to 48 h for the SERS-based approach. Additionally, PCA allows one to perform statistical classification of studied bacteria and to identify the spectrum of an unknown sample. Calculated first and second principal components (PC-1, PC-2) account for 96, 98, and 90% of total variance in the spectra and enable one to identify the Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes, and Cronobacter spp., respectively. Moreover, the presented study demonstrates the excellent possibility for simultaneous detection of analyzed food-borne bacteria in one sample test (98% of PC-1 and PC-2) with a goal of splitting the data set into three separated clusters corresponding to the three studied bacteria species. The studies described in this paper suggest that SERS represents an alternative to standard microorganism diagnostic procedures. Graphical Abstract New approach of the SERS strategy for detection and identification of food-borne bacteria, namely S. enterica, L. monocytogenes, and C. sakazakii in selected food matrices.

  16. Use of ecological risk assessment data to establish surface water and sediment media protection standards for the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard Kittery, Maine USA. Professional paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, R.K.; Munns, W.R.; Short, F.T.; Hahn, S.

    1994-10-01

    United States Federal Regulations, required for compliance with the Hazardous and Solid Waste Act, direct the permittee to propose Media Protection Standards (MPS) for hazardous chemicals that may have been released from their facility. Data and information developed from an ecological risk assessment conducted for the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, located in the Piscataqua River and Great Bay Estuary in New Hampshire and Maine, were used to provide the technical basis and justification for determining adverse chemical concentrations, estimating safe chemical levels, and proposing MPS for surface water and sediment. The ecological risk assessment framework was applied to develop a functional approach for relating observations of chemical levels (exposure) to observations of ecological impact (effect). Two screening procedures, one for surface water and the other for sediment, were used to screen exposure and effects data collected from the estuary surrounding the Shipyard. Chemical levels protective of marine resources were derived for the set of chemicals potentially released from Shipyard operations. The MPS proposed can be used to target areas that require possible corrective actions or restoration.

  17. Calibration of surface roughness standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thalmann, R.; Nicolet, A.; Meli, F.

    2016-01-01

    The key comparison EURAMET.L-K8.2013 on roughness was carried out in the framework of a EURAMET project starting in 2013 and ending in 2015. It involved the participation of 17 National Metrology Institutes from Europe, Asia, South America and Africa representing four regional metrology organisat...

  18. A high-speed photographic system for flow visualization in a steam turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, G. J.

    1973-01-01

    A photographic system was designed to visualize the moisture flow in a steam turbine. Good performance of the system was verified using dry turbine mockups in which an aerosol spray simulated, in a rough way, the moisture flow in the turbine. Borescopes and fiber-optic light tubes were selected as the general instrumentation approach. High speed motion-picture photographs of the liquid flow over the stator blade surfaces were taken using stroboscopic lighting. Good visualization of the liquid flow was obtained. Still photographs of drops in flight were made using short duration flash sources. Drops with diameters as small as 30 micrometers (0.0012 in.) could be resolved. In addition, motion pictures of a spray of water simulating the spray off the rotor blades and shrouds were taken at normal framing rates. Specially constructed light tubes containing small tungsten-halogen lamps were used. Sixteen millimeter photography was used in all cases. Two potential problems resulting from the two-phase turbine flow (attenuation and scattering of light by the fog present and liquid accumulation on the borescope mirrors) were taken into account in the photographic system design but not evaluated experimentally.

  19. New applications of photographic materials in science and technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschmann, H.T.; Deml, R.; Duville, R.; Philippaerts, H.; Bollen, R.; Ranz, E.

    1976-01-01

    In spite of some disatvantages photographic materials based on silver halides possess the outstanding feature of high sensitivity. So again and again special photographic materials have been developed for new techniques including information storage. This contribution reports on some special photographic materials and it briefly discusses some applications. Materials are discussed in detail for holography, carrier-frequency photography, producing masks for integrated circuits, recording equidensities, bubble chamber photography, and for neutron-radiography. (orig.) [de

  20. Celebrities, Saints and Sinners: The Photograph as Holy Relic

    OpenAIRE

    Howells, Richard

    2011-01-01

    We are today surrounded not only by celebrities but, more importantly, their images. Yet even in this famously multi-media world, it is the photograph that remains especially equipped for celebrity imaging. This paper seeks to explain both the ubiquity and the appeal of the celebrity photograph. It pays particular attention to the idea of ‘presence’ in the celebrity image and ultimately argues that the photograph can be equated to a holy relic, especially the ‘representative’ classification o...

  1. Mariner 9 photographs of small-scale volcanic structures on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.

    1972-01-01

    Surface features on the flanks of Martian shield volcanoes photographed by Mariner 9 are identified as lava flow channels, rift zones, and partly collapsed lava tubes by comparisons with similar structures on the flanks of Mauna Loa shield volcano, Hawaii. From these identifications, the composition of the Martian lava flows is interpreted to be basaltic, with viscosities ranging from those of fluid pahoehoe to more viscous aa.

  2. Automated Aesthetic Analysis of Photographic Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Tunç Ozan; Smolic, Aljoscha; Gross, Markus

    2015-01-01

    We present a perceptually calibrated system for automatic aesthetic evaluation of photographic images. Our work builds upon the concepts of no-reference image quality assessment, with the main difference being our focus on rating image aesthetic attributes rather than detecting image distortions. In contrast to the recent attempts on the highly subjective aesthetic judgment problems such as binary aesthetic classification and the prediction of an image's overall aesthetics rating, our method aims on providing a reliable objective basis of comparison between aesthetic properties of different photographs. To that end our system computes perceptually calibrated ratings for a set of fundamental and meaningful aesthetic attributes, that together form an "aesthetic signature" of an image. We show that aesthetic signatures can still be used to improve upon the current state-of-the-art in automatic aesthetic judgment, but also enable interesting new photo editing applications such as automated aesthetic analysis, HDR tone mapping evaluation, and providing aesthetic feedback during multi-scale contrast manipulation.

  3. ASCII Art Synthesis from Natural Photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuemiao; Zhong, Linyuan; Xie, Minshan; Liu, Xueting; Qin, Jing; Wong, Tien-Tsin

    2017-08-01

    While ASCII art is a worldwide popular art form, automatic generating structure-based ASCII art from natural photographs remains challenging. The major challenge lies on extracting the perception-sensitive structure from the natural photographs so that a more concise ASCII art reproduction can be produced based on the structure. However, due to excessive amount of texture in natural photos, extracting perception-sensitive structure is not easy, especially when the structure may be weak and within the texture region. Besides, to fit different target text resolutions, the amount of the extracted structure should also be controllable. To tackle these challenges, we introduce a visual perception mechanism of non-classical receptive field modulation (non-CRF modulation) from physiological findings to this ASCII art application, and propose a new model of non-CRF modulation which can better separate the weak structure from the crowded texture, and also better control the scale of texture suppression. Thanks to our non-CRF model, more sensible ASCII art reproduction can be obtained. In addition, to produce more visually appealing ASCII arts, we propose a novel optimization scheme to obtain the optimal placement of proportional-font characters. We apply our method on a rich variety of images, and visually appealing ASCII art can be obtained in all cases.

  4. Standardized methods for photography in procedural dermatology using simple equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexsel, Doris; Hexsel, Camile L; Dal'Forno, Taciana; Schilling de Souza, Juliana; Silva, Aline F; Siega, Carolina

    2017-04-01

    Photography is an important tool in dermatology. Reproducing the settings of before photos after interventions allows more accurate evaluation of treatment outcomes. In this article, we describe standardized methods and tips to obtain photographs, both for clinical practice and research procedural dermatology, using common equipment. Standards for the studio, cameras, photographer, patients, and framing are presented in this article. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 2: Test Bed Performance Evaluation and Final AeroMACS Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Magner, James

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II (this document) describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  6. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 1: Concepts of Use, Initial System Requirements, Architecture, and AeroMACS Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Isaacs, James; Henriksen, Steve; Zelkin, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this document) is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  7. Development testing of the chemical analysis automation polychlorinated biphenyl standard analysis method during surface soils sampling at the David Witherspoon 1630 site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, M.A.; Klatt, L.N.; Thompson, D.H.

    1998-02-01

    The Chemical Analysis Automation (CAA) project is developing standardized, software-driven, site-deployable robotic laboratory systems with the objective of lowering the per-sample analysis cost, decreasing sample turnaround time, and minimizing human exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials associated with DOE remediation projects. The first integrated system developed by the CAA project is designed to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) content in soil matrices. A demonstration and development testing of this system was conducted in conjuction with surface soil characterization activities at the David Witherspoon 1630 Site in Knoxville, Tennessee. The PCB system consists of five hardware standard laboratory modules (SLMs), one software SLM, the task sequence controller (TSC), and the human-computer interface (HCI). Four of the hardware SLMs included a four-channel Soxhlet extractor, a high-volume concentrator, a column cleanup, and a gas chromatograph. These SLMs performed the sample preparation and measurement steps within the total analysis protocol. The fifth hardware module was a robot that transports samples between the SLMs and the required consumable supplies to the SLMs. The software SLM is an automated data interpretation module that receives raw data from the gas chromatograph SLM and analyzes the data to yield the analyte information. The TSC is a software system that provides the scheduling, management of system resources, and the coordination of all SLM activities. The HCI is a graphical user interface that presents the automated laboratory to the analyst in terms of the analytical procedures and methods. Human control of the automated laboratory is accomplished via the HCI. Sample information required for processing by the automated laboratory is entered through the HCI. Information related to the sample and the system status is presented to the analyst via graphical icons

  8. Interrater and intrarater reliability of FDI criteria applied to photographs of posterior tooth-colored restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyun; Ahn, So-Yeon; Kim, Junyoung; Park, Sung-Ho

    2017-07-01

    Since 2007, the FDI World Dental Federation (FDI) criteria have been used for the clinical evaluation of dental restorations. However, the reliability of the FDI criteria has not been sufficiently addressed. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the interrater and intrarater reliability of the FDI criteria by evaluating posterior tooth-colored restorations photographically. A total of 160 clinical photographs of posterior tooth-colored restorations were evaluated independently by 5 raters with 9 of the FDI criteria suitable for photographic evaluation. The raters recorded the score of each restoration by using 5 grades, and the score was dichotomized into the clinical evaluation scores. After 1 month, 2 of the raters reevaluated the same set of 160 photographs in random order. To estimate the interrater reliability among the 5 raters, the proportion of agreement was calculated, and the Fleiss multirater kappa statistic was used. For the intrarater reliability, the proportion of agreement was calculated, and the Cohen standard kappa statistic was used for each of the 2 raters. The interrater proportion of agreement was 0.41 to 0.57, and the kappa value was 0.09 to 0.39. Overall, the intrarater reliability was higher than the interrater reliability, and rater 1 demonstrated higher intrarater reliability than rater 2. The proportion of agreement and kappa values increased when the 5 scores were dichotomized. The reliability was relatively lower for the esthetic properties compared with the functional or biological properties. Within the limitations of this study, the FDI criteria presented slight to fair interrater reliability and fair to excellent intrarater reliability in the photographic evaluation of posterior tooth-colored restorations. The reliability was improved by simplifying the evaluation scores. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Low-altitude aerial color digital photographic survey of the San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, David K.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Dearborn, David S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Ever since 1858, when Gaspard-Félix Tournachon (pen name Félix Nadar) took the first aerial photograph (Professional Aerial Photographers Association 2009), the scientific value and popular appeal of such pictures have been widely recognized. Indeed, Nadar patented the idea of using aerial photographs in mapmaking and surveying. Since then, aerial imagery has flourished, eventually making the leap to space and to wavelengths outside the visible range. Yet until recently, the availability of such surveys has been limited to technical organizations with significant resources. Geolocation required extensive time and equipment, and distribution was costly and slow. While these situations still plague older surveys, modern digital photography and lidar systems acquire well-calibrated and easily shared imagery, although expensive, platform-specific software is sometimes still needed to manage and analyze the data. With current consumer-level electronics (cameras and computers) and broadband internet access, acquisition and distribution of large imaging data sets are now possible for virtually anyone. In this paper we demonstrate a simple, low-cost means of obtaining useful aerial imagery by reporting two new, high-resolution, low-cost, color digital photographic surveys of selected portions of the San Andreas fault in California. All pictures are in standard jpeg format. The first set of imagery covers a 92-km-long section of the fault in Kern and San Luis Obispo counties and includes the entire Carrizo Plain. The second covers the region from Lake of the Woods to Cajon Pass in Kern, Los Angeles, and San Bernardino counties (151 km) and includes Lone Pine Canyon soon after the ground was largely denuded by the Sheep Fire of October 2009. The first survey produced a total of 1,454 oblique digital photographs (4,288 x 2,848 pixels, average 6 Mb each) and the second produced 3,762 nadir images from an elevation of approximately 150 m above ground level (AGL) on the

  10. AHP 44: DPAL RGYAL: ARTIST AND PHOTOGRAPHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klu thar rgyal ཀླུ་ཐར་རྒྱལ།

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One sweltering summer afternoon in 2016, my family was enjoying yogurt while sitting in order of age around a table at my home. Father suddenly clapped his leg and blurted out "Oh! I remember!" took his cell phone from his coat pocket and said, "Klu kho, please translate these new Chinese messages for me." "China Mobile is really your best friend! It texts you almost every day!" I joked, taking the phone from his hand. One message was for my older brother, Dpal rgyal. The prefecture government informed Brother (b. 1980 that he was chosen to represent Mtsho lho (Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture for the 2016 Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province Disabled Persons vocational skills competition in the photography category. Photography contestants were required to bring their own camera and would take photographs at the competition venue. ...

  11. The Preservation and Care of Photographic Records in Heritage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is not unusual for libraries and heritage institutions to include photographic records and collections in their archival holdings. The short history of photography reveals that a range of different materials, chemicals and processes are involved in capturing photographic records, indicating the chemical complexity of the ...

  12. Camera aboard 'Friendship 7' photographs John Glenn during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    A camera aboard the 'Friendship 7' Mercury spacecraft photographs Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. during the Mercury-Atlas 6 spaceflight (00302-3); Photographs Glenn as he uses a photometer to view the sun during sunsent on the MA-6 space flight (00304).

  13. Photographic assessment of burn size and depth: reliability and validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, M.; Moues, C.; Bogomolova, K.; Nieuwenhuis, M.; Oen, I.; Middelkoop, E.; Breederveld, R.; de Baar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of using photographs of burns to assess both burn size and depth. Method: Fifty randomly selected photographs taken on day 0-1 post burn were assessed by seven burn experts and eight referring physicians. Inter-rater

  14. Evaluation of Genotoxic Effect of Photographic Effluent Using Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased need to keep graphic records of events has led to the use of photography in investigation and surveys and hence increased photographic activities. Toxicological survey of photographic effluents has received little attention in Nigeria, though the constituents have been shown to be very toxic. This study ...

  15. READING SOME VAN KALKER STUDIO PHOTOGRAPHS Nkiruka J ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    Abstract. The photographic implement, from the earliest days of its invention in Europe, in 1839, has been used to document events considered as real. However, notions of 'reality' could be ambiguous as objects or sceneries intended to be photographed are sometimes constructed to represent an imagined stereotypical ...

  16. 8 CFR 333.1 - Description of required photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... naturalization must sign the photographs in the English language, unless the applicant is exempt from the English language requirement of part 312 of this chapter and is unable to sign in English, in which case the photographs may be signed in any language. (c)(1) If a child is unable to sign his or her name, the...

  17. The Utilization of Black – White Panchromatic Aerial Photograph for Mass Movement Study in Karang Kobar Areas, Banjarnegara, Centra Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Hardjono

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the result of applied remote sensing  for geological study the mass wasting in Karangkobar, the district of Banjarnegara, Central Java. The study on the mass wasting use the remote sensing method, by interpreting the blackwhite panhromatic aerial photographs, on the scale 1 : 50,000. The study is aimed at 1 revealing the capacity of the aerial photograph in supporting the study the mass wasting that an be identified by the aerial photographs; 2 to find out the influence of the physical environment and land-use on the mass wasting processes. The study in performed by using the visual interpretation method of the scale 1 : 50,000 black-white panchromati aerial photograph taken in 1994, using mirror stereoscope. The outcome of the aerial photograph interpretation is varis the quality of data and information. The data of interpretation of aerial photograph and the varis outcome in the spot are further tested in terms of its accuracy, particularly in its reltion with the aerial photograph interpretation. The technique of data analysis of the physical environment and the mass wasting is descriptive – comparative. The result of the study shows that the 1 : 50,000 black-white panchromatic aerial photograph can be used to identify and study both the mass wasting and influence of the physical environment on the mass wasting processes. The degree of identifying the mass wasting based on the aerial photograph interpretation is 75%. Compared to the previous studies, the present study hows that the mass wasting can be identified more easily by means of the 1 : 50,000 black – white panchromatic aerial photograph. Identifying the distribution of mass wasting are: a the geological element (rock, geological structure, and stratigraphy; b geomorphological elements (landform and the forming processes; the water condition (surface water and groundwater; and landuse (type and distribution. White marl – claystone type is the physical environmentsal

  18. Green Lightning Channels From the Chaiten Volcano in Chile Photographed By Carlos Gutierrez May 2-3, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    The two photographs containing the green lightning channels appeared on the Boston.com web site (The Big Picture, June 4, 2008). These web photographs were of limited resolution (176 Kb) making the interpretation of the green channels difficult. The agent for Gutierrez, Landov LLC, made available the two photographs as high resolution digital photographs (1.4 Mb and 1.5 Mb) that appear on the poster. Upon close examination of the green channels it is possible to exclude negative discharges or their remnants as being the source of the green channels; negative discharges require white-hot ionization processes at the leading tip of the channel. There are several examples of the white negative channels on the photographs. The green channels might be positive streamers. In thunderstorms positive streamers propagate within the negative charged region of the cloud collecting electrons, which are supplied to the connected negative discharge channel, hence they are not observed in thunderstorms. They can be detected and mapped inside the thunderstorm from observations of their electromagnetic radiations. Positive streamers are cooler than negative discharges because electrons are convergent on the leading tip of the positive streamer maintaining its conductivity. For the negative leading tips the electrons are divergent and new electrons must be generated by hot ionization processes. A close examination reveals that the green channels track the edge of the ash cloud, which if a positive streamer would indicate a negative surface charge on the cloud. Most likely the green color results from excited oxygen atoms returning to the ground state and emitting a green photon. This is the process that produces the green aurora, and if this produces green lightning, it places several constraints on the conditions of the channel. The two photographs below are selected clips from the much larger photographs; these show the green lightning channels.

  19. Environmental waste site characterization utilizing aerial photographs and satellite imagery: Three sites in New Mexico, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Pope, P.; Becker, N.; Wells, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Lewis, A.; David, N. [Environmental Research Inst. of Michigan, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The proper handling and characterization of past hazardous waste sites is becoming more and more important as world population extends into areas previously deemed undesirable. Historical photographs, past records, current aerial satellite imagery can play an important role in characterizing these sites. These data provide clear insight into defining problem areas which can be surface samples for further detail. Three such areas are discussed in this paper: (1) nuclear wastes buried in trenches at Los Alamos National Laboratory, (2) surface dumping at one site at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and (3) the historical development of a municipal landfill near Las Cruces, New Mexico.

  20. 78 FR 5207 - Certain Led Photographic Lighting Devices and Components Thereof; Commission's Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... COMMISSION Certain Led Photographic Lighting Devices and Components Thereof; Commission's Final Determination... general exclusion order prohibiting importation of infringing LED photographic lighting devices and... importation of certain LED photographic lighting devices and components thereof that infringe certain claims...

  1. LOCATION DISTRIBUTION OPTIMIZATION OF PHOTOGRAPHING SITES FOR INDOOR PANORAMA MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Generally, panoramas image modeling is costly and time-consuming because of photographing continuously to capture enough photos along the routes, especially in complicated indoor environment. Thus, difficulty follows for a wider applications of panoramic image modeling for business. It is indispensable to make a feasible arrangement of panorama sites locations because the locations influence the clarity, coverage and the amount of panoramic images under the condition of certain device. This paper is aim to propose a standard procedure to generate the specific location and total amount of panorama sites in indoor panoramas modeling. Firstly, establish the functional relationship between one panorama site and its objectives. Then, apply the relationship to panorama sites network. We propose the Distance Clarity function (FC and Fe manifesting the mathematical relationship between panoramas and objectives distance or obstacle distance. The Distance Buffer function (FB is modified from traditional buffer method to generate the coverage of panorama site. Secondly, transverse every point in possible area to locate possible panorama site, calculate the clarity and coverage synthetically. Finally select as little points as possible to satiate clarity requirement preferentially and then the coverage requirement. In the experiments, detailed parameters of camera lens are given. Still, more experiments parameters need trying out given that relationship between clarity and distance is device dependent. In short, through the function FC, Fe and FB, locations of panorama sites can be generated automatically and accurately.

  2. Alignment and referencing of maps and aerial photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullings, Harry M.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Hoshi, Masaharu; Egbert, Stephen D.; Kerr, George D.

    2005-01-01

    Documentation of survivor locations as well as sample collection sites for dosimetry-related measurements requires reference to suitable maps. The maps traditionally used at RERF for these purposes are the U.S. Army maps that date from circa 1945 (see Chapter 1). In later years, some use has been made of Japanese city plan maps, which are much newer (1979 in Hiroshima and 1981 in Nagasaki) and of larger scale (1:2,500 vs. 1:12,500 for the U.S. Army maps). Even before the publication of DS86, efforts were made to reconcile the locations of buildings and other features of interest on these two sets of maps. Beyond the simple desire to compare two different sources of map information, it was thought that a better standard of accuracy for technical reasons could be achieved with the use of the newer maps. The U.S. Army maps were compiled under wartime conditions from an assortment of older Japanese maps and other sources, including aerial photographs of limited quality, using the best methods available at the time. The newer Japanese maps had the benefit of 34 years of improvement in cartographic methods and were made with extensive new survey information. Because of their larger scale, they are also more detailed than the U.S. Army maps. (J.P.N.)

  3. Location Distribution Optimization of Photographing Sites for Indoor Panorama Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Wu, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Xin, Z.; Liu, J.

    2017-09-01

    Generally, panoramas image modeling is costly and time-consuming because of photographing continuously to capture enough photos along the routes, especially in complicated indoor environment. Thus, difficulty follows for a wider applications of panoramic image modeling for business. It is indispensable to make a feasible arrangement of panorama sites locations because the locations influence the clarity, coverage and the amount of panoramic images under the condition of certain device. This paper is aim to propose a standard procedure to generate the specific location and total amount of panorama sites in indoor panoramas modeling. Firstly, establish the functional relationship between one panorama site and its objectives. Then, apply the relationship to panorama sites network. We propose the Distance Clarity function (FC and Fe) manifesting the mathematical relationship between panoramas and objectives distance or obstacle distance. The Distance Buffer function (FB) is modified from traditional buffer method to generate the coverage of panorama site. Secondly, transverse every point in possible area to locate possible panorama site, calculate the clarity and coverage synthetically. Finally select as little points as possible to satiate clarity requirement preferentially and then the coverage requirement. In the experiments, detailed parameters of camera lens are given. Still, more experiments parameters need trying out given that relationship between clarity and distance is device dependent. In short, through the function FC, Fe and FB, locations of panorama sites can be generated automatically and accurately.

  4. Measuring change over time: the use of geotagged photographs to evaluate the weathering of monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehne, E.

    2012-04-01

    Evaluating the condition of weathered stone surfaces on a monument, building or sculpture requires information on how those surfaces have evolved. In a number of cases, the documentation related to a site or object is either not readily available or has been lost (due to war, fire, etc.). Exploring the use of geotagged photographs to supplement the evaluation of surface changes to monuments was tested using two sites: the Mausoleum at the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens in San Marino, California and the Duomo in Florence, Italy. Increasingly, photographs are being geo-located or geotagged, either automatically via GPS/WiFi or manually. Geolocation tags increase the value of a photograph to researchers by providing the geographic location where the image was taken, often along with the date and time the photograph was acquired. Estimates of the number of geolocated photographs posted to the Internet include 148 million on Flickr.com (as of June 3, 2011) increasing to 172 million as of January 15, 2012. On Panarimo.com five million geolocated images were archived as of October 2007. Tools such as auto-geotag and PhotoOverlay are making it easier for users to locate and exactly position existing photographs and historic photographs on sites such as Google Earth (PhotoOverlays are images that are directly embedded in the Google Earth's landscape). 42 photo sharing websites are listed currently on Wikipedia, with seven having Alexa rankings of less than 200, indicating the popularity of photo sharing and the vast nature of this resource. Preliminary results from the Huntington and the Duomo indicate that geolocated images are indeed a useful tool for aiding in understanding stone weathering patterns and changes over time. However, greater software support and new tools are needed to enable researchers to search, organize and analyze groups of photographs from a single geolocation. Such software would have obvious uses beyond the conservation

  5. Equidistant Intervals in Perspective Photographs and Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Human vision is extremely sensitive to equidistance of spatial intervals in the frontal plane. Thresholds for spatial equidistance have been extensively measured in bisecting tasks. Despite the vast number of studies, the informational basis for equidistance perception is unknown. There are three possible sources of information for spatial equidistance in pictures, namely, distances in the picture plane, in physical space, and visual space. For each source, equidistant intervals were computed for perspective photographs of walls and canals. Intervals appear equidistant if equidistance is defined in visual space. Equidistance was further investigated in paintings of perspective scenes. In appraisals of the perspective skill of painters, emphasis has been on accurate use of vanishing points. The current study investigated the skill of painters to depict equidistant intervals. Depicted rows of equidistant columns, tiles, tapestries, or trees were analyzed in 30 paintings and engravings. Computational analysis shows that from the middle ages until now, artists either represented equidistance in physical space or in a visual space of very limited depth. Among the painters and engravers who depict equidistance in a highly nonveridical visual space are renowned experts of linear perspective. PMID:27698983

  6. Spacelab-3 (STS-51B) Onboard Photograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Spacelab-3 mission was to conduct materials science experiments in a stable low-gravity environment. In addition, the crew performed research in life sciences, fluid mechanics, atmospheric science, and astronomy. Spacelab-3 was equipped with several new minilabs, special facilities that would be used repeatedly on future flights. Two elaborate crystal growth furnaces, a life support and housing facility for small animals, and two types of apparatus for the study of fluids were evaluated on their inaugural flight. In this photograph, astronaut Don Lind observes the mercuric iodide growth experiment through a microscope at the vapor crystal growth furnace. The goals of this investigation were to grow near-perfect single crystals of mercuric iodide and to gain improved understanding of crystal growth by a vapor process. Mercuric iodide crystals have practical use as sensitive x-ray and gamma-ray detectors, and in portable detector devices for nuclear power plant monitoring, natural resource prospecting, biomedical applications in diagnosis and therapy, and in astronomical instruments. Managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, Spacelab-3 (STS-51B) was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Challenger on April 29, 1985.

  7. 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake: a photographic tour of Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Evan E.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Anderson, Rebecca D.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    On March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m., a magnitude 9.2 earthquake, the largest recorded earthquake in U.S. history, struck southcentral Alaska (fig. 1). The Great Alaska Earthquake (also known as the Good Friday Earthquake) occurred at a pivotal time in the history of earth science, and helped lead to the acceptance of plate tectonic theory (Cox, 1973; Brocher and others, 2014). All large subduction zone earthquakes are understood through insights learned from the 1964 event, and observations and interpretations of the earthquake have influenced the design of infrastructure and seismic monitoring systems now in place. The earthquake caused extensive damage across the State, and triggered local tsunamis that devastated the Alaskan towns of Whittier, Valdez, and Seward. In Anchorage, the main cause of damage was ground shaking, which lasted approximately 4.5 minutes. Many buildings could not withstand this motion and were damaged or collapsed even though their foundations remained intact. More significantly, ground shaking triggered a number of landslides along coastal and drainage valley bluffs underlain by the Bootlegger Cove Formation, a composite of facies containing variably mixed gravel, sand, silt, and clay which were deposited over much of upper Cook Inlet during the Late Pleistocene (Ulery and others, 1983). Cyclic (or strain) softening of the more sensitive clay facies caused overlying blocks of soil to slide sideways along surfaces dipping by only a few degrees. This guide is the document version of an interactive web map that was created as part of the commemoration events for the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake. It is accessible at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Alaska Science Center website: http://alaska.usgs.gov/announcements/news/1964Earthquake/. The website features a map display with suggested tour stops in Anchorage, historical photographs taken shortly after the earthquake, repeat photography of selected sites, scanned documents

  8. Correlations between cephalometric and photographic measurements of facial attractiveness in Chinese and US patients after orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hee Soo; Korn, Edward L; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Liu, Yan; Xu, Tianmin; Boyd, Robert; Baumrind, Sheldon

    2009-12-01

    Orthodontists rely on esthetic judgments from facial photographs. Concordance between estimates of facial attractiveness made from lateral cephalograms and those made from clinical photographs has not been determined. We conducted a preliminary examination to correlate clinicians' rankings of facial attractiveness from standardized end-of-treatment facial photographs (Photo Attractiveness Rank) with cephalometric measurements of facial attractiveness made for the same subjects at the same time. Forty-five Chinese and US orthodontic clinicians ranked end-of-treatment photographs of separate samples of 45 US and 48 Chinese adolescent patients for facial attractiveness. Separately for each sample, the photographic rankings were correlated with the values of 21 conventional hard- and soft-tissue measures from lateral cephalograms taken at the same visits as the photographs. Among US patients, higher rank for facial attractiveness on the photographs was strongly associated with higher values for profile angle, chin prominence, lower lip prominence, and Z-angle, and also with lower values for angle of convexity, H-angle, and ANB. Among Chinese patients, higher rank for facial attractiveness on the photographs was strongly associated with higher values for Z-angle and chin prominence, and also with lower values for angle of convexity, H-angle, B-line to upper lip, and mandibular plane angle. Chinese patients whose %lower face height values approximated the ethnic "ideal" (54%) tended to rank higher for facial attractiveness than patients with either higher or lower values for %lower face height. The absolute values of the correlations for the 7 US measures noted above ranged from 0.41 to 0.59; those of the 7 Chinese measures ranged from 0.39 to 0.49.The P value of the least statistically significant of these 14 correlations was 0.006, unadjusted for multiple comparisons. On the other hand, many cephalometric measures believed by clinicians to be indicators of facial

  9. Painter 12 for photographers creating painterly images step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Addison, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Transform your photographs into stunning works of art with this fully updated, authoritative guide to the all-new Painter 12. Whether you are new to Painter or a seasoned pro wanting to go further with your digital art, Painter 12 for Photographers will show you how to get the most of Corel's powerful painting software. Starting with the basics and moving on to cover brushes, textures, cloning, toning, and other effects, Martin Addison will help you master the techniques needed to transform photographs into beautiful painterly images. Packed with vivid images to illustrate what can be achieve

  10. Design Standards for School Art Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Art Education Association, 2015

    2015-01-01

    "Design Standards for School Art Facilities" is an invaluable resource for any school or school district looking to build new facilities for the visual arts or renovate existing ones. Discover detailed information about spaces for the breadth of media used in the visual arts. Photographs illustrate all types of features including…

  11. Matthew Murray Photographs and interviews Tribute Bands and Acts, photographed in Birmingham and the Black Country

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    POPPELGANGER!\\ud A Tribute to Tribute Bands: \\ud Photographs by Matthew Murray\\ud \\ud \\ud Did you know that you can see 'Christina Aguilera' performing in Redditch,\\ud 'Eminem' in Stourbridge, or even 'Freddie Mercury' at The Hunters Moon pub\\ud in Nechells, Birmingham? Matthew Murray's irresistible photos capture the urge to break out of our humdrum daily lives by dressing up in spandex and bursting into song, to wild applause. His witty exhibition affectionately portrays the lucky few that ...

  12. Automated recognition of forest patterns using aerial photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbezat, Vincent; Kreiss, Philippe; Sulzmann, Armin; Jacot, Jacques

    1996-12-01

    In Switzerland, aerial photos are indispensable tools for research into ecosystems and their management. Every six years since 1950, the whole of Switzerland has been systematically surveyed by aerial photos. In the forestry field, these documents not only provide invaluable information but also give support to field activities such as the drawing up of tree population maps, intervention planning, precise positioning of the upper forest limit, evaluation of forest damage and rates of tree growth. Up to now, the analysis of aerial photos has been carried out by specialists who painstakingly examine every photograph, which makes it a very long, exacting and expensive job. The IMT-DMT of the EPFL and Antenne romande of FNP, aware of the special interest involved and the necessity of automated classification of aerial photos, have pooled their resources to develop a software program capable of differentiating between single trees, copses and dense forests. The developed algorithms detect the crowns of the trees and the surface of the orthogonal projection. Form the shadow of each tree they calculate its height. They also determine the position of the tree in the Swiss national coordinate thanks to the implementation of a numeric altitude model. For the future, we have the prospect of many new and better uses of aerial photos being available to us, particularly where isolated stands are concerned and also when evolutions based on a diachronic series of photos have to be assessed: from timberline monitoring in the research on global change to the exploitation of wooded pastures on small surface areas.

  13. The hatfield SCT lunar atlas photographic atlas for Meade, Celestron and other SCT telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    Schmitt-Cassegrain Telescopes (SCT) and Schmitt-Maksutov telescopes - which include the best-selling models from Meade, Celestron, and other important manufacturers - reverse the visual image left for right, giving a "mirror image". This makes it extremely difficult for observers to identify lunar features at the eyepiece of one of these instruments, using conventional atlases which show the Moon "upside-down" with south at the top. The human brain just doesn't cope well with trying to compare the real thing with a map that is a mirror-image of it!The Hatfield SCT Lunar Atlas solves the problem. Photographs and the detailed key maps are exactly as the Moon appears through the eyepiece of an SCT or Maksutov telescope. Smaller IAU-standard reference photographs are included on each page, to make it simple to compare the mirrored SCT photographs and maps with those that appear in other conventional atlases.Every owner of an SCT - and that's most amateur astronomers - will want this!.

  14. Psycholinguistic norms for action photographs in French and their relationships with spoken and written latencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Boyer, Bruno; Méot, Alain; Fayol, Michel; Droit, Sylvie

    2004-02-01

    A set of 142 photographs of actions (taken from Fiez & Tranel, 1997) was standardized in French on name agreement, image agreement, conceptual familiarity, visual complexity, imageability, age of acquisition, and duration of the depicted actions. Objective word frequency measures were provided for the infinitive modal forms of the verbs and for the cumulative frequency of the verbal forms associated with the photographs. Statistics on the variables collected for action items were provided and compared with the statistics on the same variables collected for object items. The relationships between these variables were analyzed, and certain comparisons between the current database and other similar published databases of pictures of actions are reported. Spoken and written naming latencies were also collected for the photographs of actions, and multiple regression analyses revealed that name agreement, image agreement, and age of acquisition are the major determinants of action naming speed. Finally, certain analyses were performed to compare object and action naming times. The norms and the spoken and written naming latencies corresponding to the pictures are available on the Internet (http://www.psy.univ-bpclermont.fr/~pbonin/pbonin-eng.html) and should be of great use to researchers interested in the processing of actions.

  15. Direct gaze of photographs of female nudes influences startle in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Schulz, André; Nees, Frauke; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2009-05-01

    Foreground presentation of photographs of opposite sex nudes lowers startle elicited by sudden acoustic stimuli. However, the impact of gaze direction of the presented nudes on this startle modulation has not been investigated. Theoretically, direct gaze of photographs of female nudes could either lead to a larger inhibition of the startle reaction due to a summating valence and arousal effect of direct eye contact, or lead to a smaller inhibition due to an attention capturing effect of the eyes. Two subsets of erotic photographs of female nudes (women looking directly at the observer vs. gazing away) and standard IAPS neutral pictures were viewed by 26 male volunteers, while startle eye blink responses to binaural bursts of white noise (50 ms, 105 dB) were recorded by EMG. Erotic pictures reduced startle eyeblink magnitude as compared to neutral pictures. Furthermore, erotic stimuli without direct gaze at the observer showed a greater startle eyeblink inhibition than erotic stimuli with direct gaze at the observer. Our data suggest that direct gaze of opposite sex nudes may direct attention to the face, thereby reducing the appetitive impact of an attractive body.

  16. Parametrization of translational surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Diaz, Sonia; Shen, Liyong

    2014-01-01

    The algebraic translational surface is a typical modeling surface in computer aided design and architecture industry. In this paper, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for that algebraic surface having a standard parametric representation and our proof is constructive. If the given algebraic surface is translational, then we can compute a standard parametric representation for the surface.

  17. Project Birdseye Aerial Photograph Collection: Digital and Analog Materials

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection consists of both analog and digital aerial photographs from Arctic areas in and around Baffin Bay, the Labrador Sea, the Arctic Ocean, the Beaufort...

  18. Photographs and Classroom Response Systems in Middle School Astronomy Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju; Feldman, Allan

    2015-08-01

    In spite of being readily available, photographs have played a minor and passive role in science classes. In our study, we present an active way of using photographs in classroom discussions with the use of a classroom response system (CRS) in middle school astronomy classes to teach the concepts of day-night and seasonal change. In this new pedagogical method, students observe objects or phenomena in photographs and use the information to develop understanding of the scientific concepts. They share their ideas in classroom discussion with the assistance of the CRS. Pre- and posttest results showed that the new pedagogy helped students overcome primitive conceptions and enhanced their understanding of the concepts. The observation of the rich details of photographs played three pedagogical roles in classroom discussion: easing students' anxiety about learning a new scientific concept; continuous stimulus of learning; and as evidence or data.

  19. Martin Parr in Mexico: Does Photographic Style Translate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Gleason

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes Martin Parr’s 2006 photobook, Mexico. Parr is a British documentary photographer best known for a direct photographic style that reflects upon “Englishness.”Mexico is his attempt to understand this foreign country via his camera. Mexico, as a research subject, is not a problem to solve but an opportunity to understand a photographer’s work. Parr’s Mexico photography (technique, photographic content, and interest in globalization, economics, and culture is compared to his previous work to explain how Parr uses fashion and icons to represent a culture or class. This article argues Parr’s primary subjects, heads/hats, food, and Christs, are photographed without excessive aesthetic pretensions so that the thrust of Parr’s message about globalization can be more evident:Mexico maintains many of its traditions and icons while adopting American brands.

  20. Photographic atlas of fish otoliths of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campana, Steven E

    2004-01-01

    This photographic atlas presents light and (or) scanning electron micrographs of 580 pairs of sagittal otoliths representing 288 species, 97 families, and 27 orders of fish from the northwest Atlantic...

  1. Ultraviolet photographic pyrometer used in rocket exhaust analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, B. P.

    1966-01-01

    Ultraviolet photographic pyrometer investigates the role of carbon as a thermal radiator and determines the geometry, location, and progress of afterburning phenomena in the exhaust plume of rocket engines using liquid oxygen/RP-1 as propellant.

  2. Vanessa Bell's Photographs: Modernism, the Maternal and the Erotic

    OpenAIRE

    Humm, Maggie

    2002-01-01

    The chapter focuses on Vanessa Bell member of modernism's "first family", proposing that as a painter and photographer, she crossed and recrossed genre boundaries, especially in her child photography, a body of work eroticizing the maternal presence.

  3. Colorimetric and longitudinal analysis of leukocoria in recreational photographs of children with retinoblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Abdolvahabi

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular tumor in children. The first sign that is often reported by parents is the appearance of recurrent leukocoria (i.e., "white eye" in recreational photographs. A quantitative definition or scale of leukocoria--as it appears during recreational photography--has not been established, and the amount of clinical information contained in a leukocoric image (collected by a parent remains unknown. Moreover, the hypothesis that photographic leukocoria can be a sign of early stage retinoblastoma has not been tested for even a single patient. This study used commercially available software (Adobe Photoshop® and standard color space conversion algorithms (operable in Microsoft Excel® to quantify leukocoria in actual "baby pictures" of 9 children with retinoblastoma (that were collected by parents during recreational activities i.e., in nonclinical settings. One particular patient with bilateral retinoblastoma ("Patient Zero" was photographed >7, 000 times by his parents (who are authors of this study over three years: from birth, through diagnosis, treatment, and remission. This large set of photographs allowed us to determine the longitudinal and lateral frequency of leukocoria throughout the patient's life. This study establishes: (i that leukocoria can emerge at a low frequency in early-stage retinoblastoma and increase in frequency during disease progression, but decrease upon disease regression, (ii that Hue, Saturation and Value (i.e., HSV color space are suitable metrics for quantifying the intensity of retinoblastoma-linked leukocoria; (iii that different sets of intraocular retinoblastoma tumors can produce distinct leukocoric reflections; and (iv the Saturation-Value plane of HSV color space represents a convenient scale for quantifying and classifying pupillary reflections as they appear during recreational photography.

  4. Remote diagnosis of traumatic dental injuries using digital photographs captured via a mobile phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Geraldino, Rogério; Rezende, Liliana Vicente Melo de Lucas; da-Silva, Cibele Queiroz; Almeida, Júlio César Franco

    2017-10-01

    Intra-oral photographs have been aided diagnosis of several pathologies in teledentistry. Mobile phone cameras may produce high-quality photographs, presenting itself as a viable tool for remote diagnosis of traumatic dental injuries. To evaluate the levels of interexaminer agreement in cases of traumatic dental injuries when comparing diagnoses conducted in person and remotely. The sample included 40 patients with 73 traumatized teeth, and a total of 90 diagnoses, who had presented to two dental clinics, one private, and the other public, in Brazil's Federal District. The dental history and clinical examination data were registered in electronic forms, and digital photographs were captured with a mobile phone camera and uploaded to a cloud drive. Six remote examiners formulated their diagnoses based solely on photographic analysis. Thereafter, they were provided with additional clinical data and asked to provide a second round of diagnoses. These diagnoses were compared to those conducted in person, which were considered the gold standard. The data were analyzed with Gwet's AC1 interexaminers' measure to evaluate the agreement between the in-surgery and remote diagnoses. The levels of interexaminer agreement between the in-surgery and remote diagnoses formulated exclusively with images were 0.83 or higher (95% confidence interval: 0.73-0.91), and 0.93 or higher (95% confidence interval: 0.88-0.97), when clinical information was available. The precision of the remote diagnoses was comparable to the diagnoses conducted in person. The levels of interexaminer agreement were higher when clinical data were included with the images. Mobile phones may be an effective tool for capturing images that assist in the remote diagnosis of traumatic dental injuries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Identification of Active Faults by Aerial Photograph Interpretation and Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.R.; Chang, C.J.; Choi, W.H.; Yun, K.H.; Park, D.H.; Shin, S.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This report is the technical memo of the research project entitled ''Development of Technology of Advanced Seismic Safety Assessment for NPP sites''. The purposes of this report are to describe analysis methods of photographic characteristics related with active faults, to identify active faults by aerial photograph interpretation and to review case studies. (author). 27 refs., 165 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. STS-51 astronauts photographed during sleep period on Discovery's middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Four of the five STS-51 crew members were photographed during one of their sleep periods on Discovery's middeck. At bottom center, astronaut Frank L. Culbertson Jr., mission commander, is barely visible, with most of his body zipped securely in the sleep restraint. Others, left to right, are astronauts Daniel W. Bursch and Carl E. Walz, mission specialists, and William F. Readdy, pilot. The photograph was taken by astronaut James H. Newman, mission specialist.

  7. Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

  8. Two-color double exposure photographic recording technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Josef

    1989-01-01

    A two-color double exposure technique is proposed for recording two close states of an object on the same photographic film. The idea is to use a two-color laser for illumination, one color for each state of the object, and a single photographic plate. After being developed, the image of each state may be observed separately. The technique is demonstrated for the deferred moire deflectometry where two closely displaced fringe patterns have to be recorded and resolved.

  9. Viewing platforms: a photographic investigation of Australian tourist landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Häggblom, Kristian Paul

    2017-01-01

    Viewing Platforms is a photographic investigation of the relationships that are played out in the Australian landscape between tourists and remote destinations and the subsequent interaction of society, space and nature. Photographs are made at both remote urban and rural landscape attractions and the liminal spaces that separate these tourist travel destinations. For this project, the uniquely Australian long distances to journey to these locations are considered part of the tourist experien...

  10. Photographs of Failure 250, the first C-pile rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chockie, L.J.

    1953-03-12

    This memorandum discusses four photographs of Failure 250, from Tube No. 2179-C, which are presented to show the type of failure as viewed in the 111-B cave. The first three photographs are successive rotations of the slug, illustrating the split-out portion at the base end of the piece. The fourth photo was focused on the split to show the bulging of the slug and the width of the opening.

  11. Measuring past glacier fluctuations from historic photographs geolocated using Structure from Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargo, L.; Anderson, B.; Horgan, H. J.; Mackintosh, A.; Lorrey, A.; Thornton, M.

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying glacier fluctuations is important for understanding how the cryosphere responds to climate variability and change. Photographs of past ice extents have become iconic images of climate change, but until now incorporating these images into quantitative estimates of glacier change has been problematic. We present a new method to quantitatively measure past glacier fluctuations from historic images. The method uses a large set of modern geolocated photographs and Structure from Motion (SfM) to calculate the camera parameters for the historic images, including the location from which they were taken. We initially apply this method to a small maritime New Zealand glacier (Brewster Glacier, 44°S, 2 km2), and quantify annual equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) and length changes from historic oblique aerial photographs (1981 - 2017). Results show that Brewster has retreated 364 ± 12 m since 1981 and, using independent field measurements of terminus positions (2005 - 2014), we show that this SfM-derived length record accurately captures glacier change. We calculate the uncertainties associated with this method using known coordinates of bedrock features surrounding the glacier. Mean uncertainties in the ELA and length records are 7 m and 11 m, respectively. In addition to Brewster, 49 other New Zealand glaciers have been monitored by aerial photographs since 1978. However, the length records for these glaciers only include years of relative advance or retreat, and no length changes have been quantified. We will ultimately apply this method to all 50 glaciers, expanding the database of New Zealand glacier fluctuations that until now included only a few glaciers. This method can be further applied to any glacier with historic images, and can be used to measure past changes in glacier width, area, and surface elevation in addition to ELA and length.

  12. A Geospatial Semantic Enrichment and Query Service for Geotagged Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Andrew; Nugent, Chris; Morrow, Philip; Chen, Liming; Ioannidis, George; Stan, Alexandru; Rachev, Preslav

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing abundance of technologies and smart devices, equipped with a multitude of sensors for sensing the environment around them, information creation and consumption has now become effortless. This, in particular, is the case for photographs with vast amounts being created and shared every day. For example, at the time of this writing, Instagram users upload 70 million photographs a day. Nevertheless, it still remains a challenge to discover the “right” information for the appropriate purpose. This paper describes an approach to create semantic geospatial metadata for photographs, which can facilitate photograph search and discovery. To achieve this we have developed and implemented a semantic geospatial data model by which a photograph can be enrich with geospatial metadata extracted from several geospatial data sources based on the raw low-level geo-metadata from a smartphone photograph. We present the details of our method and implementation for searching and querying the semantic geospatial metadata repository to enable a user or third party system to find the information they are looking for. PMID:26205265

  13. A Geospatial Semantic Enrichment and Query Service for Geotagged Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ennis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing abundance of technologies and smart devices, equipped with a multitude of sensors for sensing the environment around them, information creation and consumption has now become effortless. This, in particular, is the case for photographs with vast amounts being created and shared every day. For example, at the time of this writing, Instagram users upload 70 million photographs a day. Nevertheless, it still remains a challenge to discover the “right” information for the appropriate purpose. This paper describes an approach to create semantic geospatial metadata for photographs, which can facilitate photograph search and discovery. To achieve this we have developed and implemented a semantic geospatial data model by which a photograph can be enrich with geospatial metadata extracted from several geospatial data sources based on the raw low-level geo-metadata from a smartphone photograph. We present the details of our method and implementation for searching and querying the semantic geospatial metadata repository to enable a user or third party system to find the information they are looking for.

  14. Aerial photographs reveal late-20th-century dynamic ice loss in northwestern greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kurt H.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Korsgaard, Niels J

    2012-01-01

    Global warming is predicted to have a profound impact on the Greenland Ice Sheet and its contribution to global sea-level rise. Recent mass loss in the northwest of Greenland has been substantial. Using aerial photographs, we produced digital elevation models and extended the time record of recent...... primarily caused by short-lived dynamic ice loss events rather than changes in the surface mass balance. This finding challenges predictions about the future response of the Greenland Ice Sheet to increasing global temperatures....

  15. AMSR-E/Aqua level 3 global monthly Surface Soil Moisture Standard Deviation V005 (AMSRE_STDMO) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The dataset contains global monthly soil moisture statistics (standard deviation ) for 1 by 1 degree grid cells. The source for the data is AMSR-E daily estimates of...

  16. Efficacy of a Deep Learning System for Detecting Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy Based on Color Fundus Photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhixi; He, Yifan; Keel, Stuart; Meng, Wei; Chang, Robert T; He, Mingguang

    2018-03-02

    To assess the performance of a deep learning algorithm for detecting referable glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) based on color fundus photographs. A deep learning system for the classification of GON was developed for automated classification of GON on color fundus photographs. We retrospectively included 48 116 fundus photographs for the development and validation of a deep learning algorithm. This study recruited 21 trained ophthalmologists to classify the photographs. Referable GON was defined as vertical cup-to-disc ratio of 0.7 or more and other typical changes of GON. The reference standard was made until 3 graders achieved agreement. A separate validation dataset of 8000 fully gradable fundus photographs was used to assess the performance of this algorithm. The area under receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) with sensitivity and specificity was applied to evaluate the efficacy of the deep learning algorithm detecting referable GON. In the validation dataset, this deep learning system achieved an AUC of 0.986 with sensitivity of 95.6% and specificity of 92.0%. The most common reasons for false-negative grading (n = 87) were GON with coexisting eye conditions (n = 44 [50.6%]), including pathologic or high myopia (n = 37 [42.6%]), diabetic retinopathy (n = 4 [4.6%]), and age-related macular degeneration (n = 3 [3.4%]). The leading reason for false-positive results (n = 480) was having other eye conditions (n = 458 [95.4%]), mainly including physiologic cupping (n = 267 [55.6%]). Misclassification as false-positive results amidst a normal-appearing fundus occurred in only 22 eyes (4.6%). A deep learning system can detect referable GON with high sensitivity and specificity. Coexistence of high or pathologic myopia is the most common cause resulting in false-negative results. Physiologic cupping and pathologic myopia were the most common reasons for false-positive results. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by

  17. The analysis of track chamber photographs using flying spot digitizers

    CERN Multimedia

    Powell, Brian W

    1966-01-01

    A vast quantity of data pours from the experiments on particle accelerators throughout the world. For example, over 300 000 photographs per week came from the three bubble chambers operating on the CERN PS at the end of 1965. The conventional method of processing these bubble chamber photographs is for each one of them to be examined ('scanned') to see whether it records an interesting particle interaction. The interesting photographs are then passed to hand operated measuring machines to obtain precise measurements of the particle trajectories recorded on the film. Similar measurements are carried out on photographs taken in film spark chamber experiments. This article on the Flying Spot Digitizers at CERN describes one of the most fruitful attempts to speed and make more accurate the process of analysis of bubble and spark chamber photographs. There are two types of Flying Spot Digitizer at CERN — the HPD or Hough Powell Device (named after Professor Hough and the author who, together, initiated the devel...

  18. Children's Recognition of Emotional Facial Expressions Through Photographs and Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechet, Claire

    2017-01-01

    The author's purpose was to examine children's recognition of emotional facial expressions, by comparing two types of stimulus: photographs and drawings. The author aimed to investigate whether drawings could be considered as a more evocative material than photographs, as a function of age and emotion. Five- and 7-year-old children were presented with photographs and drawings displaying facial expressions of 4 basic emotions (i.e., happiness, sadness, anger, and fear) and were asked to perform a matching task by pointing to the face corresponding to the target emotion labeled by the experimenter. The photographs we used were selected from the Radboud Faces Database and the drawings were designed on the basis of both the facial components involved in the expression of these emotions and the graphic cues children tend to use when asked to depict these emotions in their own drawings. Our results show that drawings are better recognized than photographs, for sadness, anger, and fear (with no difference for happiness, due to a ceiling effect). And that the difference between the 2 types of stimuli tends to be more important for 5-year-olds compared to 7-year-olds. These results are discussed in view of their implications, both for future research and for practical application.

  19. Beauty is in the eye of the photographer

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    On Saturday 7 August, over 200 amateur photographers took part in the first “Particle Physics Photowalk”, a photo contest organized by CERN in collaboration with DESY in Germany, Fermilab in the USA, KEK in Japan and TRIUMF in Canada. As of mid-September you will be able to discover on a dedicated website the five particle physics laboratories as seen through the lenses of the participants.   Photographers at the photowalk. The Photowalk was a unique opportunity for the participants to photograph state-of-the-art accelerators and detectors in all their beauty and complexity. At CERN, the photographers were able to visit and take pictures of Linac4, the Computing Centre, SM18 and CLIC. Photographers came to CERN from Switzerland, France, the UK and Germany (one even came from the USA just for the event). “The 48 places available for the Photowalk at CERN were snatched up within days through the dedicated website”, says Sophie Tesauri from the Communication G...

  20. Photographic observation of a natural fifth-order rainbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, Harald E

    2015-02-01

    A photograph has been obtained of a natural fifth-order (quinary) rainbow. The photograph was acquired on 8 August 2012 with a digital camera and a polarization filter to maximize contrast of the rainbows with the background. The quinary rainbow, together with its first supernumerary, appears in a contrast-enhanced version of the photograph as broad green and blue-violet color bands within Alexander's dark band between the primary and secondary rainbows. The red band of the quinary rainbow is obscured by the much brighter secondary rainbow. A comparison with a numerical simulation using the Debye series confirms that the color bands of the quinary rainbow appear at the expected location. The numerical simulation produces a good match with the photograph for a droplet radius of 0.46 mm. The green band of the quinary rainbow is even faintly discernible in the unprocessed photograph, suggesting that under exceptional viewing conditions the green band of the quinary rainbow may be observed visually with the aid of a polarization filter.

  1. Preparation and deployment of the bottom ocean monitor for long term photographic observations of the sea floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    The components that make up the Bottom Ocean Monitor are described. The unit is designed to photographically record bottom fauna; the procedures used in testing on-board cameras are described. Recovery involves the use of a sonically-triggered release. The main instrument package then floats to the surface for retrieval by a research vessel; the base tripod remains on the ocean floor. Detailed specifications for component instruments are provided, and refurbishing procedures for each are given. 7 figures, 1 table

  2. ARIADNE, a Photographic LAr TPC at the CERN Neutrino Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Mavrokoridis, K; Nessi, M; Roberts, A; Smith, N A; Touramanis, C; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2016-01-01

    This letter of intent describes a novel and innovative two-phase LAr TPC with photographic capabilities as an attractive alternative readout method to the currently accepted segmented THGEMs which will require many thousands of charge readout channels for kton-scale two-phase TPCs. These colossal LAr TPCs will be used for the future long-baseline-neutrino-oscillation experiments. Optical readout also presents many other clear advantages over current readout techniques such as ease of scalability, upgrade, installation and maintenance, and cost effectiveness. This technology has already been demonstrated at the Liverpool LAr facility with the photographic capturing of cosmic muon tracks and single gammas using a 40-litre prototype. We have now secured ERC funding to develop this further with the ARIADNE programme. ARIADNE will be a 1-ton two-phase LAr TPC utilizing THGEM and EMCCD camera readouts in order to photograph interactions, allowing for track reconstruction and particle identification. We are request...

  3. Photographs from where the world is called Galicia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Ledo Andión, Ph. D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available If our main goal is to reconstruct the history of photojournalism in Galicia from the photograph as part of the journalistic discourse, it leads us to confirm some uncertainties that disable a linear story by being unable to construct, much less in the case of a social institution as the press, the period leading to the Second Republic with the long years of dictatorship, nor able to extract a major influence by the photographic practices of the early years of political transition in the subsequent configuration of the role of photojournalism in the media enterprises. This study tries to establish an anthropological link between certain images, to punctuate the signification of the photographic act and, finally, to highlight the value of the act of viewing, and the photos remembered, those images that among all the other images are ours, and we recover them so that other people love them too.

  4. Effects of radiation on photographic film. A study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, D.M.

    1971-01-01

    This study of the effects of radiation on photographic film is related to the Nevada Test Site's underground nuclear testing program, which has been active since implementation of the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963. Residual radioactivity, which has accidentally been released on several tests, adversely affects the photographic film used in test data acquisition. The report defines this problem in terms of radiation-caused image degradation, radiation/matter interactions, types of radiation released by accidental venting, and the photographic effects of gamma and x radiation. Techniques and experimental findings are documented that may be useful in recovering information from radiation-fogged film. Techniques discussed include processing methods, shielding, image enhancement techniques, and operational handling of potentially irradiated film. (U.S.)

  5. Generic E. coli levels in surface and nontraditional irrigation water in the mid Atlantic in relation to FSMA water quality standards: A CONSERVE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The use of surface (pond and river) and nontraditional (reclaimed wastewater, produce wash water) irrigation water (SNIW) could reduce stress on ground water resources. However, it is essential to understand how these irrigation sources may influence the microbiological safety of fresh...

  6. Microbial Life and Death in a Foxing Stain: a Suggested Mechanism of Photographic Prints Defacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclocchi, Maria Carla; Kraková, Lucia; Pinzari, Flavia; Colaizzi, Piero; Bicchieri, Marina; Šaková, Nikoleta; Pangallo, Domenico

    2017-05-01

    The gelatin-silver halide black and white prints represent an enormous photography heritage with a great value. Unaesthetic phenomena, the foxing stains that are caused by microbial growth on surface, have been described in stamps, drawings, books, and tissues but, until now, scarcely for photographic materials. In this study, a combination of various techniques, including culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches (RNA and DNA analysis), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and μ-Raman spectroscopy supported by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), permitted to describe the microbial contamination dynamics of foxing stains present on the surface of two gelatin-silver halide photographs. The investigation provided also information on the effects of microbial activity on the materials' chemistry of the two prints. The action of microbial community resulted locally in either (a) formation of mixed aluminum-iron-potassium phosphate compounds that could be attributed to the hydrolytic activity of bacteria, (b) leaching of barite, (c) precipitation of a mixture of oxides, and (d) a change in the barium sulfate chemical structures.

  7. Adobe Photoshop CS4 for Photographers The Ultimate Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Evening, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Professional commercial photographer and digital imager Jeff Schewe (based in Chicago, USA) has teamed up with best-selling Photoshop author Martin Evening to create this goldmine of information for advanced Photoshop users. Building on Martin Evening's successful Adobe Photoshop for Photographers series of titles, this new guide takes the same winning approach and applies it to a professional Photoshop workflow. Highly visual, with clear, step-by-step tutorials, this advanced guide will really appeal to those who want to see how the experts approach Photoshop, produci

  8. FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF PHOTOGRAPHIC OBSERVATIONS OF PULSATING STARS

    OpenAIRE

    Bezdenezhnyi, V. P.

    2017-01-01

    The Fourier analysis are performed for photoelectric and photographic B-observations (Goranskij and Shugarov, 1979) of RR Lyrae star RW Ari. Besides the main frequency f0 and four its first harmonics two more frequencies are found: f1 =f0 /3 and f2 =0.711f0 c/d. It permits to identify frequencies: f0 as fs, introduced by us earlier (Bezdenezhnyi, 1997b) for RR Lyrae star T Sex, and f2 - as f1H. Such analysis of photographic author's observations of RR Lyrae star BK Dra is performed too. It is...

  9. "Objects and Places” – Photographs by Alan Trachtenberg


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Chouard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available  “Black-and-white images of diverse scenes in America—ranging from a Mississippi ���ghost” town to rooftops in Pennsylvania to an upper New York state racetrack—are featured in a new exhibition of photographs by Yale professor Alan Trachtenberg at the Henry Koerner Center for Emeritus Faculty. The exhibit, titled “Objects and Places,” is a selection of 22 photographs that Trachtenberg made over the past 30 years using a large-format (8×10 camera.” [Excerpt from the Yale Daily Bulletin]The foll...

  10. PaintShop Pro x6 for photographers

    CERN Document Server

    McMahon, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Written for photographers of all levels, PaintShop Pro X6 for Photographers is packed with inspirational, full-color images and easy-to-follow step-by-step projects that will have you producing great images in PaintShop Pro in no time! Everything you need to enhance and improve your digital photography is right here in this Corel® endorsed guide.In this new edition, Ken McMahon looks at the pros and cons of the new, faster 64-bit version of the software and covers new features, including working with the Instant Effects palette, using the Smart selection brush, mapping photos, automatically ta

  11. Adobe Photoshop CS5 for Photographers The Ultimate Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Evening, Martin

    2010-01-01

    If you already have a good knowledge of Adobe Photoshop and are looking to advance your skills, Adobe Photoshop CS5 for Photographers: The Ultimate Workshop is the book you've been waiting for.  Renowned photographers Martin Evening and Jeff Schewe impart their Photoshop tips and workflow, showing you how to use a vast array of rarely seen advanced Photoshop techniques.  Whether the subject is serious retouching work, weird and wonderful compositions, or planning a shoot before you've even picked up a camera, you can be sure that the advice is based on years of practical experience.

  12. Nanoscale effects in the characterization of viscoelastic materials with atomic force microscopy: coupling of a quasi-three-dimensional standard linear solid model with in-plane surface interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solares, Santiago D

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress has been accomplished in the development of experimental contact-mode and dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods designed to measure surface material properties. However, current methods are based on one-dimensional (1D) descriptions of the tip-sample interaction forces, thus neglecting the intricacies involved in the material behavior of complex samples (such as soft viscoelastic materials) as well as the differences in material response between the surface and the bulk. In order to begin to address this gap, a computational study is presented where the sample is simulated using an enhanced version of a recently introduced model that treats the surface as a collection of standard-linear-solid viscoelastic elements. The enhanced model introduces in-plane surface elastic forces that can be approximately related to a two-dimensional (2D) Young's modulus. Relevant cases are discussed for single- and multifrequency intermittent-contact AFM imaging, with focus on the calculated surface indentation profiles and tip-sample interaction force curves, as well as their implications with regards to experimental interpretation. A variety of phenomena are examined in detail, which highlight the need for further development of more physically accurate sample models that are specifically designed for AFM simulation. A multifrequency AFM simulation tool based on the above sample model is provided as supporting information.

  13. Distribution of Different Sized Ocular Surface Vessels in Diabetics and Normal Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaee, Touka; Pourreza, Hamidreza; Doosti, Hassan; Abrishami, Mojtaba; Ehsaei, Asieh; Basiry, Mohsen; Pourreza, Reza

    2017-01-01

    To compare the distribution of different sized vessels using digital photographs of the ocular surface of diabetic and normal individuals. In this cross-sectional study, red-free conjunctival photographs of diabetic and normal individuals, aged 30-60 years, were taken under defined conditions and analyzed using a Radon transform-based algorithm for vascular segmentation. The image areas occupied by vessels (AOV) of different diameters were calculated. The main outcome measure was the distribution curve of mean AOV of different sized vessels. Secondary outcome measures included total AOV and standard deviation (SD) of AOV of different sized vessels. Two hundred and sixty-eight diabetic patients and 297 normal (control) individuals were included, differing in age (45.50 ± 5.19 vs. 40.38 ± 6.19 years, P distribution curves of mean AOV differed between patients and controls (smaller AOV for larger vessels in patients; P distribution curve of vessels compared to controls. Presence of diabetes mellitus is associated with contraction of larger vessels in the conjunctiva. Smaller vessels dilate with diabetic retinopathy. These findings may be useful in the photographic screening of diabetes mellitus and retinopathy.

  14. The advantages of using photographs and video images in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the advantages of a telephone consultation with a specialist in paediatric surgery after taking photographs and video images by a general practitioner for the diagnosis of some diseases. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of the reliability of paediatric ...

  15. The photograph collection of the Alan Paton Centre and Struggle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To address the problem of easy access while adhering to archivally correct procedures, the Alan Paton Centre and Struggle Archives has devised a system of arranging and documenting their photograph collection which honours the principle of original order, but also considers the meanings and links between ...

  16. With Raised Hands: Film as fantasy within a photograph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kau, Edvin

    2011-01-01

    About the manner in which this short film provides a poetic, audiovisuel interpretation and an adaptation of the famous WWII photograph from the Warshaw Ghetto. How are the dynamic elements of cinematic style used to create the viewer's experience of fantasy and provide a paradoxical sense of hope?...

  17. Photographs in Dutch History Textbooks: Quantity, type and educational use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kleppe (Martijn)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis article demonstrates a media scientific approach by studying the use of photographs in Dutch History textbooks for High School pupils in the period 1970 – 2000. The quantity of photos has been determined as well as the types of pictures and its use as educational tool. Results show

  18. Difference in brain activations during appreciating paintings and photographic analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori eMizokami

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies’ measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogues which included corresponding real images. We prepared for famous painters’ pictures and their photographic analogues which were set up to resemble each painting in order to investigate the hypothesis that there exist specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings. Forty-four subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance study which required comparisons of aesthetic appreciation of paintings of still life and landscape versus photographic analogues including corresponding real images of still life and landscape. Bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus were activated in the comparison of aesthetic appreciation of paintings versus photographic analogues. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a possibility of the existence of specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings and that bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus may be involved.

  19. 8 CFR 1236.5 - Fingerprints and photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 1236.5 Fingerprints and photographs. Every... immigration judge shall be fingerprinted, unless during the preceding year he or she has been fingerprinted at...

  20. 8 CFR 236.5 - Fingerprints and photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 236.5 Fingerprints and photographs. Every alien 14 years of age or older... inadmissible to the United States and ordered removed by an immigration judge shall be fingerprinted, unless...

  1. Emerging memory : photographs of colonial atrocity in Dutch cultural remembrance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, P.A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging Memory is about cultural memory in the Netherlands of a military expedition in the Dutch East Indies in 1904, during which the colonial army made photographs of the massacred inhabitants of several villages on the island of Sumatra. Over the past century, as this study shows, these

  2. Preserving local writers, genealogy, photographs, newspapers, and related materials

    CERN Document Server

    Smallwood, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Preserving Local Writers, Genealogy, Photographs, Newspapers, and Related Materials draws on the practical knowledge of archivists, preservationists, librarians, and others who share the goal of making local history accessible to future generations. Anyone who plans to start a local history project or preserve important historical materials will find plenty of tips, techniques, sample documents, project ideas, and inspiration in its pages.

  3. Directorial style and stylization:'The photographic synthesis' in Felix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research adopts analytical, participant observation and interview methods. Productions of ... These codes are the Total Theatre Aesthetics, the Multitasking Aesthetics, Design and Technical Compactedness, Non-Static Photographic Aesthetics, the Actor-Audience Appeal and the Line cum Demonstration Aesthetics.

  4. Photographic Documentation of Emerald Spreadwing at TA-3, LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foy, Bernard R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-20

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a considerable amount of suitable habitat for odonates, or dragonflies and damselflies. Few of these have been properly documented, however. With photographic documentation, the quality and size of odonate habitat on land owned by the Department of Energy will become more apparent to land managers.

  5. Publishing WWII aerial photographs in geographical and library information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhelst, E.C.H.; Missel, L.; Vanmeulebrouk, B.; Rip, F.I.

    2012-01-01

    The Library of the Dutch Wageningen University and Research centre houses a collection of aerial photographs taken by the Allied Air Forces. The collection is part of a project that aims to publish these images in a user friendly way so that they are accessible to a wide audience. This paper

  6. An interactive program for digitization of seabed photographs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.; Sharma, R.

    yield erroneous results. In this method, the user has to define the outlines of the nodule images on the photograph. For estimation of coverage, the nodule outlines are assumed to be polygons. In order to avoid possible errors in the areal calculations...

  7. Astronaut Aldrin is photographed by Astronaut Armstrong on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 Onboard Film -- The deployment of scientific experiments by Astronaut Edwin Aldrin Jr. is photographed by Astronaut Neil Armstrong. Man's first landing on the Moon occurred today at 4:17 p.m. as Lunar Module 'Eagle' touched down gently on the Sea of Tranquility on the east side of the Moon.

  8. Skylab 4 crew photographed near Pad B, Launch Complex 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The three members of the Skylab 4 crew are photographed standing near Pad B, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Cneter, Florida, during the preflight activity. They are, left to right, Scientist-Astronaut Edward G. Gibson, science pilot; Astronaut Gerald P. Carr, commander; and Astronaut William R. Pogue, pilot.

  9. The Far Side of the Moon A Photographic Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Charles J

    2008-01-01

    This book is a companion to Byrnes's award-winning Lunar Orbiter Photographic Atlas of the Near Side of the Moon (Springer, 2005). It provides comprehensive coverage of the far side of the Moon, and is the first book that collects photographs from all five Lunar Orbiter missions: Clementine, Apollo, Luna, Zond, and Nozomi. As in the previous book, the scanning artifacts of the Lunar Orbiter photos have been cleaned. The photographs show each part of the far side in the most favorable resolution and sun angle. There are many high-altitude oblique photos that provide a feeling of being in space; this book is more like a photographic tour of the far side than an atlas.  The striking differences between the near and far side have been a major mystery for astronomers but this book suggests an explanation: a massive early impact on the near side produced the Near Side Megabasin; an impact so large that its rim is on the far side. The floor of this basin established the canvas for the portrait of the Man in the Moo...

  10. Difference in brain activations during appreciating paintings and photographic analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokami, Yoshinori; Terao, Takeshi; Hatano, Koji; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Kohno, Kentaro; Araki, Yasuo; Kodama, Kensuke; Makino, Mayu; Izumi, Toshihiko; Shimomura, Tsuyoshi; Fujiki, Minoru; Kochiyama, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies’ measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogs which included corresponding real images. We prepared for famous painters’ pictures and their photographic analogs which were set up to resemble each painting in order to investigate the hypothesis that there exist specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings. Forty-four subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance study which required comparisons of aesthetic appreciation of paintings of still life and landscape versus photographic analogs including corresponding real images of still life and landscape. Bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus were activated in the comparison of aesthetic appreciation of paintings versus photographic analogs. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a possibility of the existence of specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings and that bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus may be involved. PMID:25071508

  11. Difference in brain activations during appreciating paintings and photographic analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokami, Yoshinori; Terao, Takeshi; Hatano, Koji; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Kohno, Kentaro; Araki, Yasuo; Kodama, Kensuke; Makino, Mayu; Izumi, Toshihiko; Shimomura, Tsuyoshi; Fujiki, Minoru; Kochiyama, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies' measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogs which included corresponding real images. We prepared for famous painters' pictures and their photographic analogs which were set up to resemble each painting in order to investigate the hypothesis that there exist specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings. Forty-four subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance study which required comparisons of aesthetic appreciation of paintings of still life and landscape versus photographic analogs including corresponding real images of still life and landscape. Bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus were activated in the comparison of aesthetic appreciation of paintings versus photographic analogs. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a possibility of the existence of specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings and that bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus may be involved.

  12. Re-Presenting Self: Reading Some Van Kalker Studio Photographs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It eroded the dignity of blacks by presenting them in public media as being inferior, poor and violent. Nonetheless, photography has equally been appropriated by the people to project their dignity in contrast to the images widely represented. These photographs of how the indigenes saw themselves were often kept in ...

  13. A photographic utilization guide for key riparian graminoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Kinney; Warren P. Clary

    1994-01-01

    Photographic guides are presented to help estimate grazing utilization of important riparian grasses and grasslike plants. Graphs showing the percent of a plant's weight that has been consumed based on the percent of its height left after grazing allow utilization estimates to be refined further.

  14. The cerebral cortex of Albert Einstein: a description and preliminary analysis of unpublished photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Dean; Lepore, Frederick E; Noe, Adrianne

    2013-04-01

    Upon his death in 1955, Albert Einstein's brain was removed, fixed and photographed from multiple angles. It was then sectioned into 240 blocks, and histological slides were prepared. At the time, a roadmap was drawn that illustrates the location within the brain of each block and its associated slides. Here we describe the external gross neuroanatomy of Einstein's entire cerebral cortex from 14 recently discovered photographs, most of which were taken from unconventional angles. Two of the photographs reveal sulcal patterns of the medial surfaces of the hemispheres, and another shows the neuroanatomy of the right (exposed) insula. Most of Einstein's sulci are identified, and sulcal patterns in various parts of the brain are compared with those of 85 human brains that have been described in the literature. To the extent currently possible, unusual features of Einstein's brain are tentatively interpreted in light of what is known about the evolution of higher cognitive processes in humans. As an aid to future investigators, these (and other) features are correlated with blocks on the roadmap (and therefore histological slides). Einstein's brain has an extraordinary prefrontal cortex, which may have contributed to the neurological substrates for some of his remarkable cognitive abilities. The primary somatosensory and motor cortices near the regions that typically represent face and tongue are greatly expanded in the left hemisphere. Einstein's parietal lobes are also unusual and may have provided some of the neurological underpinnings for his visuospatial and mathematical skills, as others have hypothesized. Einstein's brain has typical frontal and occipital shape asymmetries (petalias) and grossly asymmetrical inferior and superior parietal lobules. Contrary to the literature, Einstein's brain is not spherical, does not lack parietal opercula and has non-confluent Sylvian and inferior postcentral sulci.

  15. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  16. Assessment of surface and subsurface ground disturbance due to underground mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khair, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents highlights of the research carried out at West Virginia University in order to assess surface and subsurface ground disturbance due to longwall mining. Extensive instrumentation and measurements have been made over three longwall mines in northern West Virginia during a three-year period. Various monitoring techniques including full profile borehole extensometer, full profile borehole inclinometers, time domain reflectometry, sonic reflection technique, a unique mechanical grouting method, photographic and visual observations, standard surveying, and water-level measurements were utilized. The paper's emphasis is first on surface ground movement and its impact on integrity of surface ground and structures and second on type and magnitude of subsurface ground movements associated with mine geometry and geology. A subsidence prediction model based on implementation of both mechanisms of ground movement around the excavation and the geologic and geotechnical properties of the rock/coal surrounding the excavation has been developed. 8 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  17. Integrating airborne LiDAR dataset and photographic images towards the construction of 3D building model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, R.; Latif, Z. A.; Hamid, J. R. A.; Jaafar, J.; Ahmad, M. Y.

    2014-02-01

    A 3D building model of man-made objects is an important tool for various applications such as urban planning, flood mapping and telecommunication. The reconstruction of 3D building models remains difficult. No universal algorithms exist that can extract all objects in an image successfully. At present, advances in remote sensing such as airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) technology have changed the conventional method of topographic mapping and increased the interest of these valued datasets towards 3D building model construction. Airborne LiDAR has proven accordingly that it can provide three dimensional (3D) information of the Earth surface with high accuracy. In this study, with the availability of open source software such as Sketch Up, LiDAR datasets and photographic images could be integrated towards the construction of a 3D building model. In order to realize the work an area comprising residential areas situated at Putrajaya in the Klang Valley region, Malaysia, covering an area of two square kilometer was chosen. The accuracy of the derived 3D building model is assessed quantitatively. It is found that the difference between the vertical height (z) of the 3D building models derived from LiDAR dataset and ground survey is approximately ± 0.09 centimeter (cm). For the horizontal component (RMSExy), the accuracy estimates derived for the 3D building models were ± 0.31m. The result also shows that the qualitative assessment of the 3D building models constructed seems feasible for the depiction in the standard of LOD 3 (Level of details).

  18. Integrating airborne LiDAR dataset and photographic images towards the construction of 3D building model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, R; Latif, Z A; Hamid, J R A; Jaafar, J; Ahmad, M Y

    2014-01-01

    A 3D building model of man-made objects is an important tool for various applications such as urban planning, flood mapping and telecommunication. The reconstruction of 3D building models remains difficult. No universal algorithms exist that can extract all objects in an image successfully. At present, advances in remote sensing such as airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) technology have changed the conventional method of topographic mapping and increased the interest of these valued datasets towards 3D building model construction. Airborne LiDAR has proven accordingly that it can provide three dimensional (3D) information of the Earth surface with high accuracy. In this study, with the availability of open source software such as Sketch Up, LiDAR datasets and photographic images could be integrated towards the construction of a 3D building model. In order to realize the work an area comprising residential areas situated at Putrajaya in the Klang Valley region, Malaysia, covering an area of two square kilometer was chosen. The accuracy of the derived 3D building model is assessed quantitatively. It is found that the difference between the vertical height (z) of the 3D building models derived from LiDAR dataset and ground survey is approximately ± 0.09 centimeter (cm). For the horizontal component (RMSExy), the accuracy estimates derived for the 3D building models were ± 0.31m. The result also shows that the qualitative assessment of the 3D building models constructed seems feasible for the depiction in the standard of LOD 3 (Level of details)

  19. Facial recognition and laser surface scan: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Clausen, Maja-Lisa; Kristoffersen, Agnethe May

    2009-01-01

    that the discriminatory value was 86.7%. We also tested the surface scanner in terms of reliability in establishing point measures on skulls, and compared with physical measurements performed by calipers. The variation was on average 1 mm for five cranial measures. We suggest how surface scanning might be applied...... software (MIMICS and Photoshop) the surface scans were matched with the photographs in blind trials. The matches were graded as: a good fit; possible fit; and no fit. All the surface scans and photos were matched correctly, although one surface scan could be matched with two angled photographs, meaning...

  20. Single-image-based Modelling Architecture from a Historical Photograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwierzynska, Jolanta

    2017-10-01

    Historical photographs are proved to be very useful to provide a dimensional and geometrical analysis of buildings as well as to generate 3D reconstruction of the whole structure. The paper addresses the problem of single historical photograph analysis and modelling of an architectural object from it. Especially, it focuses on reconstruction of the original look of New-Town synagogue from the single historic photograph, when camera calibration is completely unknown. Due to the fact that the photograph faithfully followed the geometric rules of perspective, it was possible to develop and apply the method to obtain a correct 3D reconstruction of the building. The modelling process consisted of a series of familiar steps: feature extraction, determination of base elements of perspective, dimensional analyses and 3D reconstruction. Simple formulas were proposed in order to estimate location of characteristic points of the building in 3D Cartesian system of axes on the base of their location in 2D Cartesian system of axes. The reconstruction process proceeded well, although slight corrections were necessary. It was possible to reconstruct the shape of the building in general, and two of its facades in detail. The reconstruction of the other two facades requires some additional information or the additional picture. The success of the presented reconstruction method depends on the geometrical content of the photograph as well as quality of the picture, which ensures the legibility of building edges. The presented method of reconstruction is a combination of the descriptive method of reconstruction and computer aid; therefore, it seems to be universal. It can prove useful for single-image-based modelling architecture.

  1. Analysis of angular reading distortions of photographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codarin, Gabriela F; Felicio, Lilian R; Coelho, Daniel M; Oliveira, Anamaria S

    2012-01-01

    Although photogrammetry is a widespread technique in the health field, despite of the methodological efforts distortions in the angular readings of the images are common. To measure the error of angular measurements in photo images with different digital resolutions in an object with pre-determined angles. We used a rubber ball with 52 cm in circumference. The object was previously marked with angles of 10°, 30°, 60° and 90° degrees. The photographic records were performed with the focal axis of the camera perpendicular and three meters away from the object, without the use of optical zoom and a resolution of 3, 5 and 10 Megapixels (Mp). All photographic records were stored and a previously trained experimenter using the computer program ImageJ analyzed the angular values of each photo. The measurements were performed twice within a fifteen-days interval. Subsequently, we calculated the accuracy, relative error and error in degrees values, precision and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). When analyzing the angle of 10°, the average accuracy of measurements was higher for those records of 3 Mp resolution compared to 5 and 10 Mp resolutions. The ICC was considered excellent for all resolutions. With regards to the analyzed angles in photographic records, it was possible to verify that the 90-degree angle photographs were more accurate, had lower relative error and error in degrees, and were more precise, regardless of image resolution. The photographs records that were taken with a 3 Mp resolution provided great accuracy and precision measurements and lower errors values, suggesting to be the proper resolution to generate image of angles of 10º and 30º.

  2. Photographic documentation of acute radiation-induced side effects of the oral mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesenbeck, D. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie - Radioonkologie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Doerr, W. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, TU Dresden (Germany); Feyerabend, T.; Richter, E. [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie/Nuklearmedizin der Medizinischen Universitaet zu Luebeck (Germany); Fietkau, R. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie der Universitaet Rostock (Germany); Henne, K. [Abteilung fuer Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinik Freiburg (Germany); Schendera, A. [Strahlenklinik Staedtisches Krankenhaus Kemperhof, Koblenz (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Background: Radiotherapy in cancer of the head and neck induces cutaneous and mucosal reactions. These must be carefully assessed and documentated to control the accuracy of individual treatment, the overall toxicity of particular treatment schedules, the efficacy of prophylaxis and treatment and to determine the adequate therapy of treatment sequelae depending on the severity of the reactions. The accurate classification of lesions according to internationally accepted schedules (WHO/RTOG/CTC) is indispensable for the comparison of radiotherapy treatment results and efficacy of supportive care. Methods: While the treatment of cancer depends on tumor stage and medical circumstances of the patient and is more or less standardized, prophylaxis and treatment of side-effects is highly variable. Discussing an optimized prophylaxis and therapy of oral mucositis, the problem of accurate classification and documentation emerged. The verbal description of mucosal lesions is open to many subjective interpretations. Photographic documentation seems a suitable method to optimize the grading of toxicity. Results: A photographic survey of typical lesions for each grade of toxicity is a tool to reach several aims in one step. Toxicity of an individual patient may be compared with representative photographic examples in daily routine to decide quickly on the grade of toxicity. Subjective differences due to intra- and interpersonal variability of the evaluating radiooncologist will be reduced. The efficacy of trof treatment can be proven by accurate documentation. Randomized clinical studies concerning prophylaxis and treatmen mucositis will provide more reliable results if evaluation of toxicity grading is standardized by photographs. Conclusions: Photographic documentation of lesions of the oral mucosa might be the best means to reduce interindividual subjectivity in grading. It is a valuable appendix to standard classification systems and only concerns the visible signs of

  3. How to photograph the moon and planets with your digital camera

    CERN Document Server

    Buick, Tony

    2007-01-01

    Since the advent of astronomical CCD imaging it has been possible for amateurs to produce images of a quality that was attainable only by universities and professional observatories just a decade ago. However, astronomical CCD cameras are still very expensive, and technology has now progressed so that digital cameras - the kind you use on holiday - are more than capable of photographing the brighter astronomical objects, notably the Moon and major planets. Tony Buick has worked for two years on the techniques involved, and has written this illustrated step-by-step manual for anyone who has a telescope (of any size) and a digital camera. The color images he has produced - there are over 300 of them in the book - are of breathtaking quality. His book is more than a manual of techniques (including details of how to make a low-cost DIY camera mount) and examples; it also provides a concise photographic atlas of the whole of the nearside of the Moon - with every image made using a standard digital camera - and des...

  4. How to photograph the Moon and planets with your digital camera

    CERN Document Server

    Buick, Tony

    2007-01-01

    Since the advent of astronomical CCD imaging it has been possible for amateurs to produce images of a quality that was attainable only by universities and professional observatories just a decade ago. However, astronomical CCD cameras are still very expensive, and technology has now progressed so that digital cameras - the kind you use on holiday - are more than capable of photographing the brighter astronomical objects, notably the Moon and major planets. Tony Buick has worked for two years on the techniques involved, and has written this illustrated step-by-step manual for anyone who has a telescope (of any size) and a digital camera. The color images he has produced - there are over 300 of them in the book - are of breathtaking quality. His book is more than a manual of techniques (including details of how to make a low-cost DIY camera mount) and examples; it also provides a concise photographic atlas of the whole of the nearside of the Moon - with every image made using a standard digital camera - and des...

  5. A Catalogue of the General Electric Photographic Archives, 1890-1940

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David Edwin

    Catalogue of 5,000 selected images from the GE photographic Archives, together with an introduction and Index. c. 200 photographs reproduced in the book. A revised edition was published in 1998, but without the original author's involvement.......Catalogue of 5,000 selected images from the GE photographic Archives, together with an introduction and Index. c. 200 photographs reproduced in the book. A revised edition was published in 1998, but without the original author's involvement....

  6. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  7. 46 CFR 386.17 - Photographs for news, advertising, or commercial purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Photographs for news, advertising, or commercial... § 386.17 Photographs for news, advertising, or commercial purposes. Such photographs for news, advertising or commercial purposes may be taken on Academy premises only with the written consent of the...

  8. 7 CFR 501.9 - Photographs for news, advertising, or commercial purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Photographs for news, advertising, or commercial... CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.9 Photographs for news, advertising, or commercial purposes. Except where security regulations apply, or a Federal court order or rules prohibit it, photographs for news purposes may be taken...

  9. Potential surface alteration effects of laser-assisted periodontal surgery on existing dental restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Evren; Rothrock, James; Migliorati, Erica; Drukteinis, Saulius; Roshkind, David M; Bradley, Paul

    2012-05-01

    Laser-assisted gingivectomies are performed in proximity to teeth, existing restorations, and implants. In case of accidental exposures, a detrimental surface defect may cause failure. Surface interactions should be evaluated for safety margin determination of certain laser-material combinations. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the microscopic and visible effects of CO2, Nd:YAG, and 810-nm diode laser irradiations on various dental materials and tooth tissue. Study samples were fabricated (10 x 7.5 mm irradiation surface area, 1 mm thickness) from eight material groups (amalgam, base metal, gold, palladium-silver, composite, ceramic, titanium, and extracted tooth slices). Laser irradiations were performed with CO2, Nd:YAG, and 810-nm diode lasers using the manufacturer's recommended settings for gingivectomy at a 45-degree angle for 30 seconds. Irradiated surfaces were evaluated under SEM at 200x and 1,000x magnifications. Standardized photographs were obtained using a camera mount system (10x high-definition macro lens). The SEM images and photographs were correlated to determine surface interactions. Nd:YAG detrimentally affected all metallic materials and tooth structures. CO2 altered amalgam, gold, and palladium-silver slightly, whereas composite, ceramic, and tooth surfaces were detrimentally altered. The 810-nm diode altered amalgam, gold, titanium, palladium-silver, and composite but only gold and palladium-silver surfaces were barely traceable. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, surface effects were all instant; therefore, even a short accidental exposure may be destructive in some laser-material combinations. During gingivectomies, CO2 near tooth-colored restorations and Nd:YAG near metallic restorations and implants should be used carefully. The 810-nm diode was found to be safer due to its reversible alterations in only some materials. Further in vivo studies are necessary to clinically apply the outcomes of this study.

  10. Computerized Analysis of Digital Photographs for Evaluation of Tooth Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohammadHossein Toodehzaeim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Various methods have been introduced for evaluation of tooth movement in orthodontics. The challenge is to adopt the most accurate and most beneficial method for patients. This study was designed to introduce analysis of digital photographs with Auto- CAD software as a method to evaluate tooth movement and assess the reliability of this method.Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients were evaluated in this study. Three intraoral digital images from the buccal view were captured from each patient in half an hour inter- val. All the photos were sent to AutoCAD software 2011, calibrated and the distance be- tween canine and molar hooks were measured. The data was analyzed using intraclass cor- relation coefficient.Results: Photographs were found to have high reliability coefficient (P > 0.05. Conclusion: The introduced method is an accurate, efficient and reliable method for eval- uation of tooth movement.

  11. Photographic zoom fisheye lens design for DSLR cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yufeng; Sasian, Jose

    2017-09-01

    Photographic fisheye lenses with fixed focal length for cameras with different sensor formats have been well developed for decades. However, photographic fisheye lenses with variable focal length are rare on the market due in part to the greater design difficulty. This paper presents a large aperture zoom fisheye lens for DSLR cameras that produces both circular and diagonal fisheye imaging for 35-mm sensors and diagonal fisheye imaging for APS-C sensors. The history and optical characteristics of fisheye lenses are briefly reviewed. Then, a 9.2- to 16.1-mm F/2.8 to F/3.5 zoom fisheye lens design is presented, including the design approach and aberration control. Image quality and tolerance performance analysis for this lens are also presented.

  12. Reversal film development for streamer chamber track photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, J.

    1982-01-01

    It is the aim of this work to create a method of photographic development specially adapted to streamer image recording, i.e., with high sensitivity, only two signal levels, low dependence of the track signal on image intensity having a great jitter and noise suppression. The method has to be suitable for machine development of high speed films. A reversal photographic development was used to realize these demands, whereby strong fogging in the first step negative development and a solving process for silver bromide after blackening are specially introduced process stages. This results in a step-function shaped characteristic curve with small transition region having only two signal levels, i. e., independence of streamer image density, good resolution, fine grain, suppression of flares and low noise in the signal of the clear streamer images

  13. Computerized Analysis of Digital Photographs for Evaluation of Tooth Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toodehzaeim, Mohammad Hossein; Karandish, Maryam; Karandish, Mohammad Nabi

    2015-03-01

    Various methods have been introduced for evaluation of tooth movement in orthodontics. The challenge is to adopt the most accurate and most beneficial method for patients. This study was designed to introduce analysis of digital photographs with AutoCAD software as a method to evaluate tooth movement and assess the reliability of this method. Eighteen patients were evaluated in this study. Three intraoral digital images from the buccal view were captured from each patient in half an hour interval. All the photos were sent to AutoCAD software 2011, calibrated and the distance between canine and molar hooks were measured. The data was analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient. Photographs were found to have high reliability coefficient (P > 0.05). The introduced method is an accurate, efficient and reliable method for evaluation of tooth movement.

  14. Mapping alpine soils using color positive and color infrared photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S.

    1980-01-01

    During a soil survey of the Indian Peaks area of the Colorado Front Range, it was found that large scale color positive photographs taken in the autumn were extremely useful for mapping alpine soils. Smaller scale color infrared photos were also helpful for delineation of mapping units. The soil mapping units were deduced on the basis of landforms and snow accumulation which is reflected in patterns of vegetational communities.

  15. Photographic Study Of A Dead-Pressed Explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallowe, G. M.; Field, J. E.

    1983-03-01

    High speed photography in conjunction with electron microscopy and a pressure measuring technique have been used to investigate the differences between dead-pressed and non-dead-pressed samples of the primary explosive Mercury Fulminate (Hg Ful). Photographs of reaction propagation were taken in transmitted light using a specially adapted drop-weight machine with transparent anvils. The results of these experiments suggested a mechanism for dead-pressing in Hg Ful based on the microscopic internal structure of the compacted explosive.

  16. High speed photographic study of hot wire dynamic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sernas, V.; Murphy, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Investigation of hot wire dynamic behavior under high-current heating aimed at a better understanding of the ignition process, using high-speed photographic techniques for visual observation of the bridgewire itself during high current heating. Tests were conducted with Tophet A bridgewires in an air environment, as well as in a cell of distilled water at room temperature, and with a boron-potassium perchlorate-Viton pyrotechnic against the bridgewire behind a Plexiglas window.

  17. Neurocognitive processing of body representations in artistic and photographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Aline; Nassehi, Armin; Bao, Yan; Pöppel, Ernst; Sztrókay, Anikó; Reiser, Maximilian; Fehse, Kai; Gutyrchik, Evgeny

    2013-02-01

    Visual art because of its artistic context can be related to the general idea of providing alternative perceptual experiences. However, research examining the neural basis of art beyond the paradigm of beauty has been neglected. This study seeks to determine how the perception of a body in an artwork can be distinguished from the perception of a body in a non-artistic photography. While viewing different body representations in both artworks and photographs, subjects were required to evaluate the appeal of the portrayed persons. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we show that the perception of a body within the context of art leads to a higher activation in the right parietal cortex and the extrastriate cortex bilaterally. Relating this result to concepts from previous research, we suggest that the perception of art is linked to visuo-spatial coding and also motor mapping. In contrast, the higher activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the primary visual cortex during the perception of a body in a non-artistic frame of reference, i.e. in a photograph, can be linked to processes of person evaluation. Possibly, the task to judge the appeal of a person in a photograph might be more daunting and, thus, cause emotional and even moral challenges being reflected in the ventromedial prefrontal activity. Taken together, perceptual experiences within an artistic vs. a non-artistic frame of reference are based on distinct patterns of neuronal activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  19. Photographer : JPL Callisto , The outermost Galilean Satellite , or Moon , of Jupiter, as taken by

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer : JPL Callisto , The outermost Galilean Satellite , or Moon , of Jupiter, as taken by Voyager I . Range : About 7 Million km (5 Million miles) . Callisto, the darkest of the Galilean Satellites, still nearly twice as bright as the Earth's Moon, is seen here from the face that always faces Jupiter. All of the Galilean Satellites always show the same face to Jupiter, as the Earth's moon does to Earth. The Surface shows a mottled appearance of bright and dark patches. The former reminds scientists of rayed or bright haloed craters, similiar to those seen on earth's Moon. This color photo is assembled from 3 black and wite images taken though violet, orange, & green filters

  20. Approximation of a foreign object using x-rays, reference photographs and 3D reconstruction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Matt; Shanmugam, Mohan

    2013-12-01

    This case study describes how a 3D animation was created to approximate the depth and angle of a foreign object (metal bar) that had become embedded into a patient's head. A pre-operative CT scan was not available as the patient could not fit though the CT scanner, therefore a post surgical CT scan, x-ray and photographic images were used. A surface render was made of the skull and imported into Blender (a 3D animation application). The metal bar was not available, however images of a similar object that was retrieved from the scene by the ambulance crew were used to recreate a 3D model. The x-ray images were then imported into Blender and used as background images in order to align the skull reconstruction and metal bar at the correct depth/angle. A 3D animation was then created to fully illustrate the angle and depth of the iron bar in the skull.

  1. The Influence of Clinical Experience and Photographic Presentation on Age Assessment of Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, A.; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    consultants and 10 residents were asked to estimate the age of each participant using three different photographic presentations: facial photograph, whole-body photograph, and combined facial and whole-body photographs. Data were analyzed by means of summary statistics and linear mixed models. Results...... as the presentation of participants. Objective: It is not known whether the clinical experience of the assessor or photographic presentation have an influence on the assessment of perceived age, which the present study aimed to investigate. Methods: In a cross-sectional study of 460 women aged 25-93 years, 10......: The inter-class correlation coefficient within each assessor group and photographic presentation varied from 0.66 to 0.75. Limits of agreement were in a broad range but were similar in the two assessor groups. The best inter-assessor agreement was obtained from photographs of both the face and the whole...

  2. Geography for Life: National Geography Standards 1994. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Anthony R.; Downs, Roger M.

    This booklet is both an executive summary of "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards 1994" and an introduction to geography as an essential part of every child's education, and as an integral part of the lives of all U.S. citizens. The publication is illustrated on every page with photographs, paintings, graphs, and maps. It…

  3. SDOCT imaging to identify macular pathology in patients diagnosed with diabetic maculopathy by a digital photographic retinal screening programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mackenzie

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diabetic macular edema (DME is an important cause of vision loss. England has a national systematic photographic retinal screening programme to identify patients with diabetic eye disease. Grading retinal photographs according to this national protocol identifies surrogate markers for DME. We audited a care pathway using a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT clinic to identify macular pathology in this subset of patients. METHODS: A prospective audit was performed of patients referred from screening with mild to moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (R1 and surrogate markers for diabetic macular edema (M1 attending an SDOCT clinic. The SDOCT images were graded by an ophthalmologist as SDOCT positive, borderline or negative. SDOCT positive patients were referred to the medical retina clinic. SDOCT negative and borderline patients were further reviewed in the SDOCT clinic in 6 months. RESULTS: From a registered screening population of 17 551 patients with diabetes mellitus, 311 patients met the inclusion criteria between (March 2008 and September 2009. We analyzed images from 311 patients' SDOCT clinic episodes. There were 131 SDOCT negative and 12 borderline patients booked for revisit in the OCT clinic. Twenty-four were referred back to photographic screening for a variety of reasons. A total of 144 were referred to ophthalmology with OCT evidence of definite macular pathology requiring review by an ophthalmologist. DISCUSSION: This analysis shows that patients with diabetes, mild to moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (R1 and evidence of diabetic maculopathy on non-stereoscopic retinal photographs (M1 have a 42.1% chance of having no macular edema on SDOCT imaging as defined by standard OCT definitions of DME when graded by a retinal specialist. SDOCT imaging is a useful adjunct to colour fundus photography in screening for referable diabetic maculopathy in our screening population.

  4. KIC 8462852: Maria Mitchell Observatory Photographic Photometry 1930 to 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelaz, Michael; Barker, Thurburn

    2018-01-01

    KIC 8462852 is an F3V star which decreased 20% in visual brightness twice from 5 to 20 days (Boyajian et al., 2016, MNRAS, 457, 3988) in 2011 and again in 2013. New observations show decreases of a few percent in May 2017 (Waagen 2017, AAVSO Alert Notice, 579), and reanalysis of Kepler data shows a variation of 928.25 days and 22 dimming events (Kiefer et al. 2017, accepted). Photometry from the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae and the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) indicate two brightening episodes and a steady decrease in magnitude of 6.3 +/- 1.4 mmag/yr (Simon et al 2017, accepted). Photometric studies from photographic plate collections include a light curve from 1338 Harvard College Observatory plates over the period 1890 to 1989 (Schaefer 2016, ApJ, 822, L34) that indicates KIC 8462852 is dimming 0.164 +/- 0.013 magnitudes per century. Hippke et al. (2016, ApJ, 825, 73) present B and V light curves from photometry from the Sonneberg Observatory photographic plate collection (Brauer and Fuhrmann 1992, Die Sterne, 68, 19) covering the period from 1934 to 1995. The light curve suggests less than 3% or 0.03 magnitude per century decrease in brightness, consistent with the ASAS light curve and Kepler data.Another consistent set of astronomical photographic plates with KIC 8462852 are in the Maria Mitchell Observatory (MMO) collection (Strelnitski 2009 in ASP Conference Series Vol. 410 p. 96). This collection is located in the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute. We extracted the photographic magnitudes of KIC 8462852 from 743 plates from 1930 to 1988. We chose 8 nearby comparison stars within one spectral subclass and within 0.05 magnitudes of KIC 8462852, and not identified as variables. The photometry is calibrated to the USNO B filter, closest in bandpass to the emulsion wavelength sensitivity. The light curve of KIC 8462852 suggests a trend of about 0.1 +/- 0.07 magnitudes per century decrease, an

  5. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has......International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  6. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has......International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  7. Training Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation

  8. Food photographs in nutritional surveillance: errors in portion size estimation using drawings of bread and photographs of margarine and beverages consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyzer, de W.; Huybrechts, I.; Maeyer, de M.; Ocke, M.C.; Slimani, N.; Veer, van 't P.; Henauw, de S.

    2011-01-01

    Food photographs are widely used as instruments to estimate portion sizes of consumed foods. Several food atlases are available, all developed to be used in a specific context and for a given study population. Frequently, food photographs are adopted for use in other studies with a different context

  9. Cellulite: poor correlation between instrumental methods and photograph evaluation for severity classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, J L M; Miot, H A; Sanudo, A; Bagatin, E

    2015-02-01

    Cellulite refers to skin relief alterations in women's thighs and buttocks, causing dissatisfaction and search for treatment. Its physiopathology is complex and not completely understood. Many therapeutic options have been reported with no scientific evidence about benefits. The majority of the studies are not controlled nor randomized; most efficacy endpoints are subjective, like not well-standardized photographs and investigator opinion. Objective measures could improve severity assessment. Our purpose was to correlate non-invasive instrumental measures and standardized clinical evaluation. Twenty six women presenting cellulite on buttocks, aged from 25 to 41, were evaluated by: body mass index; standardized photography analysis (10-point severity and 5-point photonumeric scales) by five dermatologists; cutometry and high-frequency ultrasonography (dermal density and dermis/hypodermis interface length). Quality of life impact was assessed. Correlations between clinical and instrumental parameters were performed. Good agreement among dermatologists and main investigator perceptions was detected. Positive correlations: body mass index and clinical scores; ultrasonographic measures. Negative correlation: cutometry and clinical scores. Quality of life score was correlated to dermal collagen density. Cellulite caused impact in quality of life. Poor correlation between objective measures and clinical evaluation was detected. Cellulite severity assessment is a challenge, and objective parameters should be optimized for clinical trials. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  10. Undetected residual cement on standard or individualized all-ceramic abutments with cemented zirconia single crowns - a prospective randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Stefanie; Eiffler, Constantin; Lorenzo-Bermejo, Justo; Stober, Thomas; Rammelsberg, Peter

    2016-09-01

    To assess the frequency and amount of residual cement after attachment of monolithic zirconia crowns to standard and individualized ceramic abutments. Twenty patients (mean age 58.9 years at inclusion in the study; 30% male) were randomized to receive either a standard or an individualized abutment on a bone-level implant. Monolithic zirconia single crowns were attached to abutments by use of permanent glass-ionomer cement. Crowns were fabricated with an occlusal hole to enable unscrewing of the abutment-crown complex. Immediately after cementation, superstructures were removed and both the peri-implant soft tissue and the abutment-crown complex were photographed in a standardized manner, to detect residual cement. Photographs were analyzed using Corel Photo Paint X7, and residual cement-to-total abutment and residual cement-to-peri-implant soft tissue area ratios were calculated. Residual cement was observed for 9 of 10 (90%) individualized abutments, compared with 4 of 10 (40%) standard abutments (OR = 13.5, P = 0.049). Twenty-seven of 40 (68%) individualized abutment surfaces were affected, compared with 12 of 40 (30%) standard abutment surfaces. The probability of observing residual cement was approximately five times higher for the surfaces of individualized abutments than for those of standard abutments (P = 0.005). The mean amount of sulcus surface covered by cement was 1.17% (SD 2.85) for the individualized abutments and 3.78% (SD 7.40) for the standard abutments. The position of the margin significantly affected the amount of residual cement. Both individualized and standard all-ceramic abutments result in small amounts of subgingival residual cement on abutment and sulcus surfaces. However, use of individualized abutments does not guarantee complete avoidance of undetected cement rests. Undetected residual cement might be avoided by use of all-ceramic abutments with visible abutment shoulders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley

  11. Desertification? Northern Ethiopia re-photographed after 140 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyssen, Jan; Haile, Mitiku; Naudts, Jozef; Munro, Neil; Poesen, Jean; Moeyersons, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Deckers, Jozef; Pankhurst, Richard

    2009-04-01

    A collection of sepia photographs, taken during Great Britain's military expedition to Abyssinia in 1868, are the oldest landscape photographs from northern Ethiopia, and have been used to compare the status of vegetation and land management 140 years ago with that of contemporary times. Thirteen repeat landscape photographs, taken during the dry seasons of 1868 and 2008, were analyzed for various environmental indicators and show a significant improvement of vegetation cover. New eucalypt woodlands, introduced since the 1950s are visible and have provided a valuable alternative for house construction and fuel-wood, but more importantly there has also been locally important natural regeneration of indigenous trees and shrubs. The situation in respect to soil and water conservation measures in farmlands has also improved. According to both historical information and measured climatic data, rainfall conditions around 1868 and in the late 19th century were similar to those of the late 20th/early 21st century. Furthermore, despite a ten-fold increase in population density, land rehabilitation has been accomplished over extensive areas by large-scale implementation of reforestation and terracing activities, especially in the last two decades. In some cases repeat photography shows however that riparian vegetation has been washed away. This is related to river widening in recent degradation periods, particularly in the 1970s-1980s. More recently, riverbeds have become stabilized, and indicate a decreased runoff response. Environmental recovery programmes could not heal all scars, but this study shows that overall there has been a remarkable recovery of vegetation and also improved soil protection over the last 140 years, thereby invalidating hypotheses of the irreversibility of land degradation in semi-arid areas. In a highly degraded environment with high pressure on the land, rural communities were left with no alternative but to improve land husbandry: in northern

  12. Perceptions of a photograph of a woman with visible piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Sara

    2008-08-01

    To examine perceptions of people with visible piercings 105 undergraduate students from four different courses on campus (85 women, 20 men; M age=20.0 yr., SD=3.4) were randomly assigned to rate a photograph of a women with or without piercings on her eyebrow, ear, lip, and nose on 13 characteristics. Analysis indicated the model with visible piercings was rated less religious and more creative, artistic, and mysterious. These findings differ from previous findings on perception of tattoos. Implications and directions for research with different age groups are discussed.

  13. Photoshop CS5 restoration and retouching for digital photographers only

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzgerald, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Adobe Photoshop CS5 Restoration and Retouching For Digital Photographers Only is the complete guide to restoration and retouching. Whether you're new to Photoshop, or if you've been using it for years, you'll learn lots of new tricks that will help put the beauty back into cherished family photos, and turn new photos into frameable works of art. Follow Adobe Certified Photoshop Expert Mark Fitzgerald as he guides you through the restoration and retouching workflows. Begin by learning about basic concepts, such as proper tonal and color adjustment, selections, and masking. Then learn t

  14. Oil slick studies using photographic and multispectral scanner data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Macintyre, W. G.; Penney, M. E.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

    1971-01-01

    Field studies of spills of Nos. 6 (Bunker C), 4, and 2 fuel oils and menhaden fish oil in the southern Chesapeake Bay have been supplemented with aerial photographic and multispectral scanner data. Thin films showed best in ultraviolet and blue bands and thick films in the green. Color film was effective for all thicknesses. Thermal infrared imagery provided clear detection, but required field temperature and thickness data to distinguish thickness/emissivity variations from temperature variations. Slick spreading rates agree with the theory of Fay (1969); further study of spreading is in progress.

  15. Incineration of tyres, radioactive and photographic industry waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, S.

    1977-01-01

    In the list every day longer of 'industrial' wastes, there is a special place for combustible waste usually presenting a solution for their elimination, i. e. incineration with or without calory recovery. Three categories are well-known as they concern the general public. The overall data of the problem are first considered, then three incineration plants in three different fields are described: motor-car tyres, nuclear industry, photographic industry. In the last field, well-conducted recovery processes may result in surprising results as to the damping of the plant cost, which finally is both pleasant and useful [fr

  16. Telescopic observations - Visual, photographic, polarimetric. [of planet Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Leonard J.; James, Philip B.; Dollfus, Audouin; Iwasaki, Kyosuke; Beish, Jeffrey D.

    1992-01-01

    The paper divides the high points of telescopic observations of Mars into three time periods: historical, missions support (recent), and present. Particular attention is given to visual and photographic observations, with brief discussions of spectroscopic and polarization studies. Major topics of Martian phenomena included are albedo features, polar caps, dust storms, and white clouds. The interannual variability of the recessions of seasonal polar caps has been compared to dust storm activity, but this relationship remains uncertain. Only a very limited number of canals can be related to markings on the Viking images. The remainder are argued to be optical illusions created by observers pushing their perceived resolution beyond practical limits.

  17. PaintShop Photo Pro X3 For Photographers

    CERN Document Server

    McMahon, Ken

    2010-01-01

    If you are a digital photographer who's new to PaintShop Photo Pro or digital imaging in general, or have recently upgraded to the all-new version X3, this is the book for you! Packed with full color images to provide inspiration and easy to follow, step-by-step projects, you'll learn the ins and outs of this fantastic program in no time so you can start correcting and editing your images to create stunning works of art. Whether you want to learn or refresh yourself on the basics, such as effective cropping or simple color correction, or move on to more sophisticated techniques like creating s

  18. Visible-light system for detecting doxorubicin contamination on skin and surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Raalte, J; Rice, C; Moss, C E

    1990-05-01

    A portable system that uses fluorescence stimulated by visible light to identify doxorubicin contamination on skin and surfaces was studied. When activated by violet-blue light in the 465-nm range, doxorubicin fluoresces, emitting orange-red light in the 580-nm range. The light source to stimulate fluorescence was a slide projector with a filter to selectively pass short-wave (blue) visible light. Fluorescence was both observed visually with viewing spectacles and photographed. Solutions of doxorubicin in sterile 0.9% sodium chloride injection were prepared in nine standard concentrations ranging from 2 to 0.001 mg/mL. Droplets of each admixture were placed on stainless steel, laboratory coat cloth, pieces of latex examination glove, bench-top absorbent padding, and other materials on which antineoplastics might spill or leak. These materials then were stored for up to eight weeks and photographed weekly. The relative ability of water, household bleach, hydrogen peroxide solution, and soap solution to deactivate doxorubicin was also measured. Finally, this system was used to inspect the antineoplastic-drug preparation and administration areas of three outpatient cancer clinics for doxorubicin contamination. Doxorubicin fluorescence was easily detectable with viewing spectacles when a slide projector was used as the light source. The photographic method was sensitive for doxorubicin concentrations from 2.0 to 0.001 mg/mL. Immersion of study materials in bleach for one minute eliminated detectable fluorescence. Doxorubicin contamination is detectable for at least eight weeks in the ambient environment. Probable doxorubicin contamination was detected in two of the three clinics surveyed. A safe, portable system that uses fluorescence stimulated by visible light is a sensitive method for detecting doxorubicin on skin and surfaces.

  19. SOFG: Standards requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerganov, T.; Grigorov, S.; Kozhukharov, V.; Brashkova, N.

    2005-01-01

    It is well-known that Solid Oxide Fuel Cells will have industrial application in the nearest future. In this context, the problem of SOFC materials and SOFC systems standardization is of high level of priority. In the present study the attention is focused on the methods for physical and chemical characterization of the materials for SOFC components fabrication and about requirements on single SOFC cells tests. The status of the CEN, ISO, ASTM (ANSI, ASSN) and JIS class of standards has been verified. Standards regarding the test methods for physical-chemical characterization of vitreous materials (as sealing SOFC component), ceramic materials (as electrodes and electrolyte components, including alternative materials used) and metallic materials (interconnect components) are subject of overview. It is established that electrical, mechanical, surface and interfacial phenomena, chemical durability and thermal corrosion behaviour are the key areas for standardization of the materials for SOFC components

  20. Performativity and photographic representation. Dimensions to reflect on the production of meaning through images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Barrios

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects about performativity and photographic representation as two key dimensions that allow us to understand the place and the modes of intervention of the images in the production and regulation of meaning within a culture. From the observation of photographic acts, this paper presents five areas of development: 1 the photo readed as an image act, 2 photographic performance, its instances and dialogical recreation, 3 the work of representation in the photographic performative success, 4 forms of partial fixations of meaning in the photographic visibility and forms of identity formation in the difference, and finally 5 a reflection about production of meaning through photographic image, challenges and possible ways of approach.

  1. Photographic monitoring of soiling and decay of roadside walls in central Oxford, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornbush, Mary J.; Viles, Heather A.

    2008-12-01

    As part of the Environmental Monitoring of Integrated Transport Strategies (EMITS) project, which examined the impact of the Oxford Transport Strategy (OTS) on the soiling and decay of buildings and structures in central Oxford, England, a simple photographic survey of a sample of roadside walls was carried out in 1997, with re-surveys in 1999 and 2003. Thirty photographs were taken each time, covering an area of stonework approximately 30 × 30 cm in dimensions at 1-1.3 m above pavement level. The resulting images have been used to investigate, both qualitatively as well as quantitatively, the progression of soiling and decay. Comparison of images by eye reveals a number of minor changes in soiling and decay patterns, but generally indicates stability except at one site where dramatic, superficial damage occurred over 2 years. Quantitative analysis of decay features (concavities resulting from surface blistering, flaking, and scaling), using simple techniques in Adobe Photoshop, shows variable pixel-based size proportions of concavities across 6 years of survey. Colour images (in Lab Color) generally have a reduced proportion of pixels, representing decay features in comparison to black and white (Grayscale) images. The study conveys that colour images provide more information both for general observations of soiling and decay patterns and for segmentation of decay-produced concavities. The study indicates that simple repeat photography can reveal useful information about changing patterns of both soiling and decay, although unavoidable variation in external lighting conditions between re-surveys is a factor limiting the accuracy of change detection.

  2. Photographic nucleonics: a record of many lost opportunities in the history of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackray, M

    1978-06-01

    Underexposed photographic negatives were toned with uranium around the turn of the century. Such radioactive photographs permit image transfer by autoradiography, and this confers several new options in photography. It is surprising that about half a century elapsed before the implications of such image transfer were described. The full possibilities of such transfer in processes of intensification, relief imaging, and photographic research are only now being realized.

  3. Perceived availability of culturally and demographically diverse photographs for health education materials, Colorado, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Mary K; Bettinghaus, Erwin; Buller, David B; Liu, Xia; Fluharty, Lyndsay

    2015-02-26

    An online survey was conducted with health educators in Colorado to ascertain their needs and ability to access relevant stock art photographs for their print and electronic educational media. Health educators were dissatisfied with the cultural and demographic diversity of photographs available from their own sources or from commercial stock art websites. There was a perceived need for more photographs that would better represent their target populations. The health educators believed, furthermore, that representative visual images can help improve their message effectiveness.

  4. Scanning negatives and slides digitizing your photographic archive

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhoff, Sascha

    2009-01-01

    Many photographers have either moved into digital photography exclusively or use both analog and digital media in their work. In either case, there is sure to be an archive of slides and negatives that cannot be directly integrated into the new digital workflow, nor can it be archived in a digital format. Increasingly, photographers are trying to bridge this gap with the use of high-performance film scanners. In this 2nd edition, you will learn how to achieve the best possible digital image from a negative or a slide, and how to build a workflow to make this process efficient, repeatable, and reliable. The author uses Nikon's film scanners, but all steps can easily be accomplished while using a different scanner. The most common software tools for scanning (SilverFast, VueScan, NikonScan) are not only covered extensively in the book, but trial versions are also provided on a DVD, which also contains other useful tools for image editing, as well as numerous sample scans.

  5. Photowalk 2015: CERN as seen by a photographer

    CERN Multimedia

    Julie Haffner

    2015-01-01

    On Friday, 25 September, CERN opened its doors to nineteen photographers from all over the world for the CERN Photowalk 2015: behind the scenes at the Laboratory.   The photo competition was organised as part of an international photo competition, the Global Physics Photowalk, in which seven other physics laboratories also participated. Professional and amateur photographers alike had the chance to visit and capture for posterity a number of unique CERN sites: Linac4, the main workshop and the ISOLDE facility. They were also able to get a feel for life at CERN by exploring the Meyrin campus. A jury will select the best three photos taken at CERN before the end of October. These photos will be exhibited in 2016 and will represent CERN in the international competition, in which each of the other labs will also enter three snapshots. In November, an international jury and a public vote will pick the winning photos, which will be exhibited in 2016 in Asia, Europe and North America and will be featured ...

  6. Rubeola keratitis: a photographic study of corneal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlopoulos, Georgios P; Giannakos, Georgios I; Theodosiadis, Panagiotis G; Moschos, Marilita M; Iliakis, Evangelos K; Theodosiadis, Georgios P

    2008-05-01

    Detailed description of the morphology of rubeola keratitis lesions is missing from textbooks and published reports. We performed a detailed analysis of rubeola keratitis lesions by using a photographic slit lamp and ophthalmic dyes. Thirty-four eyes of 17 male young adult patients with rubeola keratitis were examined. Patients were examined at 3.6 days after the development of rash. Ocular symptoms were recorded, and patients underwent complete ocular examination including photography of corneal lesions, with and without instillation of ophthalmic dyes (rose Bengal and fluorescein). Patients complained of foreign-body sensation (88%), photophobia (65%), tearing (65%), and burning sensation (47%). Visual acuity was unaffected (26%) or mildly affected (71%). Conjunctivitis was observed in 74% and keratitis in 100% of eyes. Corneal photographs were studied, and 4 types of corneal lesions were identified: small, punctate epithelial lesions staining only with rose Bengal (100%); small, round, or larger and irregular when they coalesced epithelial defects (100%); large or tiny filaments (39%); and target lesions (100%). Target lesions appeared when both dyes were instilled. The outline of target lesions stained with rose Bengal, and they consisted of a pattern of alternating concentric zones of staining with rose Bengal and fluorescein. Keratitis was strictly confined to the epithelium and resolved gradually in all patients without the appearance of complications. Rubeola keratitis in healthy young adults runs a benign course. Recognition of the specific to rubeola keratitis corneal target lesions could aid in the differential diagnosis and prevent the transmission of the disease.

  7. Surreal and Canny Selves: Photographic Figures in Claude Cahun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Zachmann

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In her 1975 essay, Le Rire de la méduse , Hélène Cixous enthusiastically announced that it was high time for women to enter into discourse. A full half-century earlier, Claude Cahun (1894-1954, a powerful writer and a haunting photographer and artist, was already inscribing herself, Woman, and a woman's voice in visual and verbal self-portraits, photomontages, prose texts, poetry, and aesthetic and political treatises. Cahun's uncanny interventions in both verbal and visual discourse cannily interrogate conventions of literary and pictorial representation and the constructions of self, gender and culture that they exhibit. Insistently asking readers and spectators, "What's wrong with this picture?," her carnivalesque play with the doxa and the politics of identity, destabilizes not only gender and genre norms, but the boundaries and distinctions between visual and verbal representation. Surreal and Canny Selves explores the aesthetic frameworks of writer/artist Claude Cahun. Elucidating how Cahun's questioning of her self and Surrealist representations of woman were part of a much more expansive adventure that questioned more than femininity—the manuscript moves on to trace how and what Cahun's foregrounding of figuration and, more specifically, photographic figuration, might signify for the uncanny aesthetic practices deployed in the hybrid text Aveux non avenus .

  8. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  9. Analyzing participant produced photographs from an ethnographic study of fatherhood and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, J L; Bottorff, J L; Kelly, M; Halpin, M

    2008-10-01

    As part of an ongoing ethnographic study, we examined the photographs and narratives that new fathers produced to ascertain how they created social, psychological, and relational space for continued smoking. A four-part process for analyzing the photographs consisting of preview, review, cross-photo comparison, and theorizing revealed how visual data analyses can be used to develop insights into men's health behaviors and beliefs. There is ongoing epistemological debate and methodological uncertainty about how photographic data should be treated in health sciences research. By conducting formal layered analyses, researchers can expand and extend both what is said about, and interpreted through, photographs. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. An exploration of ageism and sexism in obituary photographs: 1967-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Keith A; Han, Jina

    Newspaper obituaries are important mourning rituals that announce the deaths of individuals and share their life stories with others. Obituaries also provide insight into the societal values and attitudes of the day. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether factors such as gender and age were related to age-inaccuracy in obituary photographs and whether the level of age-inaccurate photographs has increased over time. Obituary photographs were analyzed from The Cleveland Plain Dealer for the years 1967, 1977, 1987, and 1997 (N = 400). Results indicated that obituary photographs of women (p youthful appearance has persisted and grown over time, particularly in the case of older women.

  11. The value of serial personal photographs in timing the onset of unilateral cataracts in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Gagan K; Hutchinson, Amy K; Lambert, Scott R

    2009-10-01

    To determine the value of serial personal photographs in timing the onset of unilateral cataracts in children over 6 months of age. Personal photographs from children with unilateral cataracts who underwent cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation when > or =6 months of age were reviewed. Photographs were evaluated for changes in the red reflex, which might indicate the presence of a cataract. Twelve children underwent cataract surgery at a mean age of 37 months. They were followed for a mean of 32 months. Ten children were diagnosed as having an acquired cataract by photographic review documenting a previously normal red reflex. The visual acuity in the affected eye of 4 of these children improved to > or =20/60. Cataracts were visible on photographs prior to clinical diagnosis in 6 patients, from 0.5 to 22 months prior to clinical diagnosis. Visual outcomes did not relate closely to the photographically documented duration of the cataract prior to treatment. Photographs were not helpful in timing the onset of cataract in 2 children due to the poor quality of the images. Serial personal photographs are sometimes helpful in determining whether cataracts are acquired. However, the usefulness of personal photographs alone in predicting the visual outcome after cataract surgery was limited in this small, retrospective study.

  12. Relevant Standards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    .86: Ethernet over LAPS. Standard in China and India. G.7041: Generic Framing Procedure (GFP). Supports Ethernet as well as other data formats (e.g., Fibre Channel); Protocol of ... IEEE 802.3x for flow control of incoming Ethernet data ...

  13. The calibration of photographic and spectroscopic films. A densitometric analysis of IIaO film flown aboard the space shuttle transportation system STS3, STS8, and STS7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The results of these studies have implications for the utilization of the IIaO spectroscopic film on the future shuttle and space lab missions. These responses to standard photonic energy sources will have immediate application for the uneven responses of the film photographing a star field in a terrestrial or extraterrestrial environment with associated digital imaging equipment.

  14. Facial recognition software success rates for the identification of 3D surface reconstructed facial images: implications for patient privacy and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazura, Jan C; Juluru, Krishna; Chen, Joseph J; Morgan, Tara A; John, Majnu; Siegel, Eliot L

    2012-06-01

    Image de-identification has focused on the removal of textual protected health information (PHI). Surface reconstructions of the face have the potential to reveal a subject's identity even when textual PHI is absent. This study assessed the ability of a computer application to match research subjects' 3D facial reconstructions with conventional photographs of their face. In a prospective study, 29 subjects underwent CT scans of the head and had frontal digital photographs of their face taken. Facial reconstructions of each CT dataset were generated on a 3D workstation. In phase 1, photographs of the 29 subjects undergoing CT scans were added to a digital directory and tested for recognition using facial recognition software. In phases 2-4, additional photographs were added in groups of 50 to increase the pool of possible matches and the test for recognition was repeated. As an internal control, photographs of all subjects were tested for recognition against an identical photograph. Of 3D reconstructions, 27.5% were matched correctly to corresponding photographs (95% upper CL, 40.1%). All study subject photographs were matched correctly to identical photographs (95% lower CL, 88.6%). Of 3D reconstructions, 96.6% were recognized simply as a face by the software (95% lower CL, 83.5%). Facial recognition software has the potential to recognize features on 3D CT surface reconstructions and match these with photographs, with implications for PHI.

  15. Non-rigid contour-to-pixel registration of photographic and quantitative light-induced fluorescence imaging of decalcified teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkels, Benjamin; Deserno, Thomas; Ehrlich, Eva E.; Fritz, Ulrike B.; Sirazitdinova, Ekaterina; Tatano, Rosalia

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) is widely used to assess the damage of a tooth due to decalcification. In digital photographs, decalcification appears as white spot lesions, i.e. white spots on the tooth surface. We propose a novel multimodal registration approach for the matching of digital photographs and QLF images of decalcified teeth. The registration is based on the idea of contour-to-pixel matching. Here, the curve, which represents the shape of the tooth, is extracted from the QLF image using a contour segmentation by binarization and morphological processing. This curve is aligned to the photo with a non-rigid variational registration approach. Thus, the registration problem is formulated as minimization problem with an objective function that consists of a data term and a regularizer for the deformation. To construct the data term, the photo is pointwise classified into tooth and non-tooth regions. Then, the signed distance function of the tooth region allows to measure the mismatch between curve and photo. As regularizer a higher order, linear elastic prior is used. The resulting minimization problem is solved numerically using bilinear Finite Elements for the spatial discretization and the Gauss-Newton algorithm. The evaluation is based on 150 image pairs, where an average of 5 teeth have been captured from 32 subjects. All registrations have been confirmed correctly by a dental expert. The contour-to-pixel methods can directly be used in 3D for surface-to-voxel tasks.

  16. Semi-Automated Classification of Gray Scale Aerial Photographs using Geographic Object Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb Rabia, Ahmed; Terribile, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    crops fields, olive tree fields, vineyards, mixed vineyards and olive trees, roads, rivers and urban areas). Results showed that in the segmentation process, grater values of scale, shape and compactness parameters are more suitable for classifying forest and river objects. While lower values of scale, shape and compactness parameters are more suitable for classifying objects of agricultural crops fields, olive tree fields, vineyards, mixed vineyards and olive trees, roads and urban areas. Applying map accuracy assessment test revealed high accuracy of the generated map of approximately 87%. Forest and river objects were recognized through the main spectral signal value of the object. Tree stripes were recognized through the object's main spectral signal value, shape and size. Many different features were used for classifying the other classes' objects. Among others, features like object's density, texture, relative border to other classes, width, contrast and standard deviation were used in the classification process. The results showed that after developing the rule set process tree, classifying an aerial photograph can be faster by more than thirty times the classical techniques based on the computer machine speed. Generally, GEOBIA is a promising technique for classifying and interpreting gray scale aerial photographs.

  17. Digital Orthophoto Production Using Close-Range Photographs for High Curved Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanar Mansour Abed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orthophoto provides a significant alternative capability for the presentation of architectural or archaeological applications. Although orthophoto production from airphotography of high or lower altitudes is considered to be typical, the close range applications for the large-scale survey of statue or art masterpiece or any kind of monuments still contain a lot of interesting issues to be investigated. In this paper a test was carried out for the production of large scale orthophoto of highly curved surface, using a statue constructed of some kind of stones. In this test we use stereo photographs to produce the orthophoto in stead of single photo and DTM, by applying the DLT mathematical relationship as base formula in differential rectification process. The possibilities and the restrictions of the used programs for the extraction of digital surface model & orthophoto production were investigated. The accuracy of the adjusted images using the digital differential rectification package, are checked using 3 check points and the RMSE was computed in 3-dimensions. Conclusions for usefulness and reliability of this test for such special applications were derived.

  18. A study of Japanese landscapes using structure from motion derived DSMs and DEMs based on historical aerial photographs: New opportunities for vegetation monitoring and diachronic geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Christopher; Hayakawa, Yuichi; Obanawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    SfM-MVS (Structure from Motion and Multiple-View Stereophotogrammetry) is part of a series of technological progresses brought to the field of earth-sciences during the last decade or so, which has allowed geoscientists to collect unprecedented precise and extensive DSMs (Digital Surface Model) for virtually no cost, rivaling LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) technology. Previous work on SfM-MVS in geosciences has been solely exploring data acquired for the purpose of SfM-MVS, but no research has been done in the exploration of photographic archives for geomorphological purposes. Therefore, the present publications aims to present the usage of SfM-MVS applied to historical aerial photographs in Japan, in order to (1) demonstrate the potentials to extract topographical and vegetation data and (2) to present the potential for chronological analysis of landscape evolution. SfM-MVS was implemented on black-and-white and colour aerial photographs of 1966, 1976, 1996, 2006 and 2013, using the commercial software Photoscanpro®. Firstly, the photographs were masked, tied to GPS points; secondly the positions of the cameras and the 3D pointcloud were calculated; and thirdly the 3D surface was created. Data were then exported in the GIS software ArcGIS for analysis. Results also proved satisfactory for the reconstruction of 3D past-geomorphological landscapes in coastal areas, riverine areas, and in hilly and volcanic areas. They also prove that the height of trees and large vegetation features can also be calculated from aerial photographs alone. Diachronic analysis of the evolution in 3D landforms presented more difficulties, because the resolution of the early photographs was lower than the recent ones. Volume and surface calculations should therefore be conducted carefully. Although the method holds merit and great promise in the exploration of active landscapes that have widely changed during the 20th century; the authors have also reflected on the issues linked to

  19. Management of electronic social networks by students of medicine: The case of publication of photographs with patients and professional medical conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamizar, Pedro José; Moreno, Sandra Milena; Moreno, Freddy

    2016-03-03

    The socio-demographic characterization of medical students at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana in Cali, Colombia, was made using a survey and focus group discussion to collect information on access to the Internet, management of electronic social networks and the dissemination of photographs with patients taken during medical teaching rounds, a practice that constitutes a breach of professional medical conduct.  To identify the management of social electronic networks by students of medicine with respect to the publication of photographs with patients.  A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken to characterize students of medicine at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana in Cali. Of the 423 students enrolled in January 2013, 299 participated in a survey designed with the software Cardiff TELEform®, version 10.0. Twenty students were also selected at random for a focus group discussion on the publication of photographs with patients on electronic social networks.  Of the students surveyed, 97.6% claimed to be active users of at least one of the main electronic social networks (96.2% Facebook, 70.5% Instagram and 44.1% Twitter). Of these, 52 (17.6%) admitted having published a photograph showing patient care on at least one occasion.  Most of the students had smartphones and user profiles on the main social electronic networks, on which they disseminated photographs of patients taken during teaching rounds, as well as images of various activities which could have ethical and legal implications and contravene standards of professional medical conduct.

  20. Digital image processing: Cylindrical surface plane development of CAREM fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caccavelli, J; Cativa Tolosa, S; Gommes, C

    2012-01-01

    As part of the development of fuel pellets (FPs) for nuclear reactor CAREM-25, is necessary to systematize the analysis of the mechanical integrity of the FPs that is now done manually by a human operator. Following specifications and standards of reference for this purpose, the FPs should be inspected visually for detecting material discontinuities in the FPs surfaces to minimize any deterioration, loss of material and excessive breakage during operation and load of fuel bars. The material discontinuities are classified into two defects: surface cracks and chips. For each of these surface defects exist acceptance criteria that determine if the fuel pellet (FP) as a whole is accepted or rejected. One criteria for surface cracks is that they do not exceed one third (1/3) of the circumferential surface of the FP. The FP has cylindrical shape, so some of these acceptance criteria make difficult to analyze the FP in a single photographic image. Depending on the axial rotation of the FP, the crack could not be entirely visualized on the picture frame. Even a single crack that appears in different parts of the FP rotated images may appear to be different cracks in the FP when it is actually one. For this reason it is necessary, for the automatic detection and measurement of surface defects, obtain the circumferential surface of the FP into a single image in order to decide the acceptance or reject of the FP. As the FP shape is cylindrical, it is possible to obtain the flat development of the cylindrical surface (surface unrolling) of the FPs into a single image combining the image set of the axial rotation of the FP. In this work, we expose the procedure to implement the flat development of the cylindrical surface (surface unrolling). Starting from a photographic image of the FP surface, which represents the projection of a cylinder in the plane, we obtain three-dimensional information of each point on the cylindrical surface of the FP (3D-mapping). Then, we can

  1. Comparing humans to automation in rating photographic aesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarala, Ramakrishna; Agrawal, Abhishek; Morales, Sandino

    2015-03-01

    Computer vision researchers have recently developed automated methods for rating the aesthetic appeal of a photograph. Machine learning techniques, applied to large databases of photos, mimic with reasonably good accuracy the mean ratings of online viewers. However, owing to the many factors underlying aesthetics, it is likely that such techniques for rating photos do not generalize well beyond the data on which they are trained. This paper reviews recent attempts to compare human ratings, obtained in a controlled setting, to ratings provided by machine learning techniques. We review methods to obtain meaningful ratings both from selected groups of judges and also from crowd sourcing. We find that state-of-the-art techniques for automatic aesthetic evaluation are only weakly correlated with human ratings. This shows the importance of obtaining data used for training automated systems under carefully controlled conditions.

  2. BV photographic and CCD photometry of IC 4651

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony-Twarog, B.J.; Mukherjee, K.; Twarog, B.A.; Caldwell, N.

    1988-05-01

    A BV photometric survey in IC 4651 based on photographic and CCD material calibrated with photoelectric photometry from Eggen (1971) and Anthony-Twarog and Twarog (1987) has been completed. The color-magnitude diagram is consistent with an age of 2.4 + or - 0.3 x 10 to the 9th yr derived by comparison with the isochrones of VandenBerg (1985) if the apparent distance modulus and reddening derived from uvby photometry in Anthony-Twarog and Twarog (1987) are employed. While evidence is found of a hook in the upper main sequence, no evidence is found of a significantly bifurcated main sequence for this cluster, although it is similar in age to NGC 752 and NGC 3680, where this phenomenon has been noted. Finally, the survey has not resolved the apparent deficit of main-sequence stars fainter than V = 14.5 noted in Anthony-Twarog and Twarog (1987). 16 references.

  3. BV photographic and CCD photometry of IC 4651

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.; Mukherjee, Krishna; Twarog, Bruce A.; Caldwell, Nelson

    1988-05-01

    A BV photometric survey in IC 4651 based on photographic and CCD material calibrated with photoelectric photometry from Eggen (1971) and Anthony-Twarog and Twarog (1987) has been completed. The color-magnitude diagram is consistent with an age of 2.4 + or - 0.3 x 10 to the 9th yr derived by comparison with the isochrones of VandenBerg (1985) if the apparent distance modulus and reddening derived from uvby photometry in Anthony-Twarog and Twarog (1987) are employed. While evidence is found of a hook in the upper main sequence, no evidence is found of a significantly bifurcated main sequence for this cluster, although it is similar in age to NGC 752 and NGC 3680, where this phenomenon has been noted. Finally, the survey has not resolved the apparent deficit of main-sequence stars fainter than V = 14.5 noted in Anthony-Twarog and Twarog (1987).

  4. Venus' spectroscopic phase variation - Implications of the Mariner 10 photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The recent ultraviolet photographs of Venus by Mariner 10 have shown an irregular cloud structure. There is an apparent tendency for clearing along a wide equatorial band more or less centered on the subsolar point. This synoptic picture is in marked contrast to the uniform cloud cover conventionally used in model calculations of the variation with phase of CO2 absorption bands. To illustrate the consequences of subsolar weakening of CO2 absorption, a mathematically simple (but realistically naive) model is used. Two conclusions are reached: (1) efforts to distinguish between single- and double-layer models for the clouds from spectroscopic data alone are not merely ambiguous (as argued earlier by Chamberlain and Smith); with present data they are hopeless; (2) the decrease in the CO2 absorption close to full phase, as reported by Young et al., could result entirely from an equatorial darkening that is relatively inconsequential at the crescent phase and increasingly predominant for fuller phases.

  5. Track theory and nuclear photographic emulsions for Dark Matter searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditlov, V.A.

    2013-01-01

    This work is devoted to the analysis of possibilities of nuclear emulsions for Dark Matter search, particles of which can produce slow recoil-nuclei. Tracks of such recoil-nuclei in developed nuclear emulsion consist from several emulsion grains. The analysis was carried out with Monte-Carlo calculations made on the basis of the Track Theory and the various factors influencing Dark Matter particles registration efficiency were investigated. Problems, which should be solved for optimal utilization of nuclear emulsions in Dark Matter search, were formulated. B ody - Highlights: ► Specific features of Dark Matter Search in nuclear photographic emulsions. ► Track theory for WIMP search in nuclear emulsions. ► Primary efficiency for single WIMP registration. ► Properties of primary WIMP registration efficiency. ► Primary registration efficiency of WIMP flow

  6. Yellowstone and the biology of time: Photographs across a century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Mary; Houston, Douglas B.

    1999-01-01

    Established in 1872, Yellowstone National Park is the oldest and one of the largest national parks in the world. In this remarkable book, scientists Mary Meagher and Douglas B. Houston present 100 sets of photographs that compare the Yellowstone of old with the park of today.Most of the photo sets include three pictures-not the usual two-with many of the original views dating back to the 1870s and 1880s. From the same photo points used by early photographers, Meagher and Houston rephotographed the scenes in the 1970s, and then, following the great fires of 1988, again in the 1990s. The result is an illuminating record of Yellowstone’s dynamic ecosystem and its changes over time.Through close analysis of the photos and reference to the vast amount of available data, Meagher and Houston describe changes in vegetation, growth of wildlife populations, the effect of beaver occupancy on wetland areas, and geothermal and elevational shifts. At the same time they point out the extent to which many sites have not changed-despite important switches in park policy and an increase in human activity.Yellowstone National Park has long been the focus of major ecological debates. Should managers allow wildfires to burn? Should the elk and bison populations be controlled? Are too many people visiting the park? Yellowstone And The Biology Of Time offers a wealth of information to help us answer these questions. A visual treasure, this book will be of value to scientists from various disciplines as well as to the many people who care about Yellowstone and other protected wilderness areas around the world.

  7. Automated segmentation of the optic disc from stereo color photographs using physiologically plausible features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramoff, M.D.; Alward, W.L.M.; Greenlee, E.C.; Shuba, L.; Kim, Chan Y.; Fingert, J.H.; Kwon, Y.H.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE. To evaluate a novel automated segmentation algorithm for cup-to-disc segmentation from stereo color photographs of patients with glaucoma for the measurement of glaucoma progression. METHODS. Stereo color photographs of the optic disc were obtained by using a fixed stereo-base fundus

  8. Females are sensitive to unpleasant human emotions regardless of the emotional context of photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ryousuke; Takeda, Yuji

    2017-06-09

    Previous studies have demonstrated that females exhibit higher sensitivity than males to the emotional state of a person in a photograph. The present study examined whether such females' sensitivity to human emotions could be observed even when the background emotional contexts were incongruent with facial expressions. The late positive potential (LPP) was measured while 19-female and 15-male participants viewed a photograph of a face with varied emotional expressions (pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant) superimposed on a background photograph with varied valences (pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant). The results showed that unpleasant background photographs elicited a larger LPP compared to pleasant and neutral background photographs in both female and male participants. In contrast, a larger LPP for the unpleasant face photographs was observed only in female participants. Furthermore, the effect of face photographs did not interact with the effect of background photographs. These results suggest that females are sensitive to human emotions regardless of the emotional context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fun and Games with Photoshop: Using Image Editors To Change Photographic Meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Richard S.

    The introduction of techniques for digitizing photographic images, as well as the subsequent development of powerful image-editing software, has both broadened the possibilities of altering photographs and brought the means for doing so within the reach of many. This article is an informal review of the ways image-editing software can be used to…

  10. Permanent pixels : Building blocks for the longevity of digital surrogates of historical photographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Horik, M.P.M.

    2005-01-01

    Within the context of long-term access to digital objects in general this dissertation takes the longevity of digital surrogates of historical photographs into consideration. For memory institutes digitisation of analogue source material, such as historical photographs, is an exciting way to open up

  11. 77 FR 69499 - Certain LED Photographic Lighting Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of the Commission's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain LED Photographic Lighting Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of the Commission's... certain LED photographic lighting devices and components thereof that infringe certain claims of U.S..., LLC d/b/a Cool Lights, USA of Reno, Nevada; Elation Lighting, Inc. of Los Angeles, California...

  12. Forever Young : the reproduction of photographic artworks as a conservation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesi, M.

    2017-01-01

    Photographs, because of their chemical make up, are inherently unstable. The process of degradation is relatively fast and cannot be turned around. This puts both artists and conservators in a difficult position. The idea of reproducing old photographs in order to be able to present them 'the way

  13. Male and Female Photographic Representation in 50 Years of "Music Educators Journal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Adam J.; Giebelhausen, Robin; Shouldice, Heather N.; Ramsey, Andrea L.

    2015-01-01

    Considering the potential for stereotypes to shape professional expectations, the four researchers in this study investigated photographic representation of adult men and women in implied positions of authority in 50 years (1962-2011) of issues of "Music Educators Journal" ("MEJ"). Data included every photograph (N = 7,288) of…

  14. 31 CFR 407.10 - Photographs for news, advertising, or commercial purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commercial purposes. 407.10 Section 407.10 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... TREASURY BUILDING AND THE TREASURY ANNEX § 407.10 Photographs for news, advertising, or commercial purposes. Except where security regulations apply, or a Federal court order or rule prohibits it, photographs for...

  15. Apllication of plastic scintillators with light intensifiers in photographic dosemeters to increase the sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, C.H. de; Hamada, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effect of a light converter (plastic scintillator) to use as badge in the conventional photographic dosimeter. In this dosimeter the light is a new component of emulsion sensibilization. So, even radiations that are not able to reach the photographic emulsion can be detected by producing photons in the plastic scintillator. (author) [pt

  16. A telescopic method for photographing within 8x8 cm minirhizotrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, G; vandeKoppel, J

    1996-01-01

    A system for photographing within 8 x 8 cm minirhizotrons is described, that uses a telescopic lens instead of an endoscope. A comparison was made between the telescope system and the commonly used endoscope system. Photographs obtained with the telescope system are of superior quality as compared

  17. Monitoring the vegetation structure of south-central Etosha National Park using terrestrial photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H.T. Hipondoka

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1984, a ground-based, photographic library was initiated for monitoring the vegetation dynamics in Etosha National Park. Over 400 photographic points were selected. At these points, panchromatic photographs were taken at intervals of six years. This study was undertaken to assess the applicability of this terrestrial photographic library in characterising the dynamics of the vegetation structure in south-central Etosha National Park. The methods employed include field validation, visual photograph interpretations, spatial analysis, and aggregated two-dimensional tables. Results, though patchy in nature, show that the vegetation structure at 63 % of the sites covered remained either unchanged or increased over the 15-year study period. The patchiness of the photo points can be exploited and be treated as training sites for corresponding satellite image classifications to provide continuous ground coverage results.

  18. Retinopathy online challenge: automatic detection of microaneurysms in digital color fundus photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, Meindert; van Ginneken, Bram; Cree, Michael J; Mizutani, Atsushi; Quellec, Gwénolé; Sanchez, Clara I; Zhang, Bob; Hornero, Roberto; Lamard, Mathieu; Muramatsu, Chisako; Wu, Xiangqian; Cazuguel, Guy; You, Jane; Mayo, Agustín; Li, Qin; Hatanaka, Yuji; Cochener, Béatrice; Roux, Christian; Karray, Fakhri; Garcia, María; Fujita, Hiroshi; Abramoff, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    The detection of microaneurysms in digital color fundus photographs is a critical first step in automated screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR), a common complication of diabetes. To accomplish this detection numerous methods have been published in the past but none of these was compared with each other on the same data. In this work we present the results of the first international microaneurysm detection competition, organized in the context of the Retinopathy Online Challenge (ROC), a multiyear online competition for various aspects of DR detection. For this competition, we compare the results of five different methods, produced by five different teams of researchers on the same set of data. The evaluation was performed in a uniform manner using an algorithm presented in this work. The set of data used for the competition consisted of 50 training images with available reference standard and 50 test images where the reference standard was withheld by the organizers (M. Niemeijer, B. van Ginneken, and M. D. Abràmoff). The results obtained on the test data was submitted through a website after which standardized evaluation software was used to determine the performance of each of the methods. A human expert detected microaneurysms in the test set to allow comparison with the performance of the automatic methods. The overall results show that microaneurysm detection is a challenging task for both the automatic methods as well as the human expert. There is room for improvement as the best performing system does not reach the performance of the human expert. The data associated with the ROC microaneurysm detection competition will remain publicly available and the website will continue accepting submissions.

  19. Colour analysis of the equine endometrium: comparison of spectrophotometry and computer-assisted analysis of photographs within the L*a*b* colour space system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, S; Handler, J

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to compare two different methods of quantifying the colour of the luminal surface of the equine endometrium and to relate the results to histopathological evidence of inflammation and fibrosis. The mucosal surfaces of 17 equine uteri obtained from an abattoir were assessed using a spectrophotometer and by computer-assisted analysis of photographs. Values were converted into L(*)a(*)b(*) colour space. Although there was significant correlation between the two methods of quantification, variations in 'brightness', 'red' and 'yellow' values were noted. Within a given uterus, measurements using the spectrophotometer did not differ significantly. Using photographic analysis, brightness differed between horns, although no differences in chromaticity were found. Histopathological classification of changes within endometria corresponded to measured differences in colour. Extensive fibrosis was associated with increased brightness and decreased chromaticity using both methods. Inflammation correlated with reduced chromaticity, when measured by spectrophotometry, and with reduced brightness and yellow values, when assessed photographically. For this technique to gain wider acceptance as a diagnostic tool, e.g. for the endoscopic evaluation of uterine mucosae in vivo, standardised illumination techniques will be required so that colours can be compared and interpreted accurately. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of facial attractiveness from end-of-treatment facial photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Roxanne; Korn, Edward L; Pearson, Helmer; Boyd, Robert L; Baumrind, Sheldon

    2008-04-01

    Orthodontists typically make judgments of facial attractiveness by examining groupings of profile, full-face, and smiling photographs considered together as a "triplet." The primary objective of this study was to determine the relative contributions of the 3 photographs-each considered separately-to the overall judgment a clinician forms by examining the combination of the 3. End-of-treatment triplet orthodontic photographs of 45 randomly selected orthodontic patients were duplicated. Copies of the profile, full-face, and smiling images were generated, and the images were separated and then pooled by image type for all subjects. Ten judges ranked the 45 photographs of each image type for facial attractiveness in groups of 9 to 12, from "most attractive" to "least attractive." Each judge also ranked the triplet groupings for the same 45 subjects. The mean attractiveness rankings for each type of photograph were then correlated with the mean rankings of each other and the triplets. The rankings of the 3 image types correlated highly with each other and the rankings of the triplets (P <.0001). The rankings of the smiling photographs were most predictive of the rankings of the triplets (r = 0.93); those of the profile photographs were the least predictive (r = 0.76). The difference between these correlations was highly statistically significant (P = .0003). It was also possible to test the extent to which the judges' rankings were influenced by sex, original Angle classification, and extraction status of each patient. No statistically significant preferences were found for sex or Angle classification, and only 1 marginally significant preference was found for extraction pattern. Clinician judges demonstrated a high level of agreement in ranking the facial attractiveness of profile, full-face, and smiling photographs of a group of orthodontically treated patients whose actual differences in physical dimensions were relatively small. The judges' rankings of the smiling

  1. Relationship between iris surface features and angle width in Asian eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhartha, Elizabeth; Nongpiur, Monisha Esther; Cheung, Carol Y; He, Mingguang; Wong, Tien Yin; Aung, Tin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2014-10-23

    To examine the associations between iris surface features with anterior chamber angle width in Asian eyes. In this prospective cross-sectional study, we recruited 600 subjects from a large population-based study, the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases (SEED) study. We obtained standardized digital slit-lamp iris photographs and graded the iris crypts (by number and size), furrows (by number and circumferential extent), and color (higher grade denoting darker iris). Vertical and horizontal cross-sections of anterior chamber were imaged using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Angle opening distance (AOD), angle recess area (ARA), and trabecular-iris space area (TISA) were measured using customized software. Associations of the angle width with the iris surface features in the subject's right eyes were assessed using linear regression analysis. A total of 464 eyes of the 464 subjects (mean age: 57.5 ± 8.6 years) had complete and gradable data for crypts and color, and 423 eyes had gradable data for furrows. After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, pupil size, and corneal arcus, higher crypt grade was independently associated with wider AOD750 (β [change in angle width per grade higher] = 0.018, P = 0.023), ARA750 (β = 0.022, P = 0.049), and TISA750 (β = 0.011, P = 0.019), and darker iris was associated narrower ARA750 (β = -0.025, P = 0.044) and TISA750 (β = -0.013, P = 0.011). Iris surface features, assessed and measured from slit-lamp photographs, correlated well with anterior chamber angle width; irises with more crypts and lighter color were associated with wider angle. These findings may provide another imaging modality to assess angle closure risk based on iris surface features. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  2. Aquatic vegetation were photographed from aircraft from Florida Bay, Indian River (Florida), and the Coast of Massachusetts (NODC Accession 0000411)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial photographs were taken of the aquatic vegetation of Florida Bay, Indian River (Florida), and the Coast of Massachusetts. Photographs were scanned and...

  3. Put a Face to a Name (Part A): The Effects of Photographic Aids on Patient Satisfaction, Clinician Communication, and Quality of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-04

    Effects of Photographic Aids (Photos of Faces) on Patient Recall of Their Clinical Care Team; Effects of Photographic Aids (Photos of Faces) on Clinician-patient Communication; Effects of Photographic Aids (Photos of Faces) on Overall Patient Satisfaction

  4. Estimation of tiger densities in the tropical dry forests of Panna, Central India, using photographic capture-recapture sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, K.Ullas; Chundawat, Raghunandan S.; Nichols, James D.; Kumar, N. Samba

    2004-01-01

    Tropical dry-deciduous forests comprise more than 45% of the tiger (Panthera tigris) habitat in India. However, in the absence of rigorously derived estimates of ecological densities of tigers in dry forests, critical baseline data for managing tiger populations are lacking. In this study tiger densities were estimated using photographic capture–recapture sampling in the dry forests of Panna Tiger Reserve in Central India. Over a 45-day survey period, 60 camera trap sites were sampled in a well-protected part of the 542-km2 reserve during 2002. A total sampling effort of 914 camera-trap-days yielded photo-captures of 11 individual tigers over 15 sampling occasions that effectively covered a 418-km2 area. The closed capture–recapture model Mh, which incorporates individual heterogeneity in capture probabilities, fitted these photographic capture history data well. The estimated capture probability/sample, p̂= 0.04, resulted in an estimated tiger population size and standard error (N̂(SÊN̂)) of 29 (9.65), and a density (D̂(SÊD̂)) of 6.94 (3.23) tigers/100 km2. The estimated tiger density matched predictions based on prey abundance. Our results suggest that, if managed appropriately, the available dry forest habitat in India has the potential to support a population size of about 9000 wild tigers.

  5. Image storage and permanence considerations in the long-term preservation of photographic images - update 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBarca, Joseph E

    2010-01-01

    Archivists and consumers, alike, need to become aware of long-term storage and preservation issues that relate to the preservation of the data behind digital photographic images. The more obvious issues, such as accidental or catastrophic data loss and hardware format evolution, are only now being recognized in the archiving community. Consumers need to be alerted to these issues and be prepared to develop preservation strategies as well. However, longer-term issues beyond routine backup and migration of data need to be considered. The very basic solution of preservation via hardcopy images stored in shoeboxes or albums is one option, but this raises a fundamental question regarding image preservation that transcends even the more complex solutions-the long-term stability of the chosen media, whether digital or analog. This paper discusses archiving and preservation as it relates to images, and the data behind those images, along with historical perspectives and an overview of possible longer-term preservation strategies. The importance of image permanence standards, as they relate to overall selection of preservation strategies, will also be discussed.

  6. Determination of vertical dimension of occlusion using lateral profile photographs: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnakota, Dileep Nag; Kanneganti, Krishna Chaitanya; Pulagam, Mahesh; Keerthi, Gopala Krishna

    2016-01-01

    To hypothesize a new theory based on soft tissue reference points on lateral profile photographs (LPPs) for determining the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO), as there is need to explore for simple strategies. Fifty-three participants in the age range of 20-27 years who met the inclusion criteria were recruited. LPPs were taken for all participants using standard protocol and duplicate copies obtained, on which five soft tissue reference points, nasion (Stn), subnasale (Stsn), porion (Stp), gnathion (Stgn), and gonion (Stg) (Stg prenoted on the face) were marked and joined to form angles; distance between Stsn and Stgn was considered as VDO in LPP (VDO-LP). The angle formed between Stn-Stsn-Stgn and Stn-Stsn-Stg; Stp-Stg-Stgn and Stp-Stg-Stsn was correlated; two simple linear regression models were developed to predict Stn-Stsn-Stgn and Stp-Stg-Stgn using Stn-Stsn-Stg and Stp-Stg-Stsn as independent variables. Using the formulae, VDO-LP predicted was constructed and correlated with the actual values. The angle Stn-Stsn-Stgn had a statistically significant moderate positive correlation with Stn-Stsn-Stg ( r = 0.57, P dimensions during prosthetic replacement of lost teeth.

  7. Building Change Detection from Historical Aerial Photographs Using Dense Image Matching and Object-Based Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Nebiker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A successful application of dense image matching algorithms to historical aerial photographs would offer a great potential for detailed reconstructions of historical landscapes in three dimensions, allowing for the efficient monitoring of various landscape changes over the last 50+ years. In this paper we propose the combination of image-based dense DSM (digital surface model reconstruction from historical aerial imagery with object-based image analysis for the detection of individual buildings and the subsequent analysis of settlement change. Our proposed methodology is evaluated using historical greyscale and color aerial photographs and numerous reference data sets of Andermatt, a historical town and tourism destination in the Swiss Alps. In our paper, we first investigate the DSM generation performance of different sparse and dense image matching algorithms. They demonstrate the superiority of dense matching algorithms and of the resulting historical DSMs with root mean square error values of 1–1.5 GSD (ground sampling distance and yield point densities comparable to those of recent airborne LiDAR DSMs. In the second part, we present an object-based building detection workflow mainly based on the historical DSMs and the historical imagery itself. Additional inputs are a current digital terrain model and a cadastral building database. For the case of densely matched DSMs, the evaluation yields building detection rates of 92% for grayscale and 94% for color imagery.

  8. POEMS AND PHOTOGRAPHS IN SEARCH OF THE ETERNAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio d’Abadia de Sousa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As possíveis semelhanças entre a poesia e a fotografia é o que analisamos neste texto. A partir da obra do modernista Oswald de Andrade, discutimos alguns elementos de aproximação entre a visualidade fotográfica e a imagem poética. Defendemos que parte da poesia oswaldiana - na qual predomina uma linguagem clara, direta, simples, sem adornos e que apresenta uma visualidade explícita - passa a impressão de que o poeta tenta colocar para o leitor cenas que se assemelham a fotografias. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Poesia;  modernismo; fotografia.   ABSTRACT The possible similarities between poetry and photography is what we analyze in this text. From the work of the modernist Oswald de Andrade, we discussed some elements of approximation between the photographic visuality and the poetic image. We argue that part of Oswald's poetry - in which clear, direct, simple, unadorned language and explicit visuality predominates - gives the impression that the poet tries to put scenes that resemble photographs to the reader.  KEYWORDS: Poetry; modernism; photography.   RESUMEN Las posibles similitudes entre la poesía y la fotografía es lo que se analiza en este texto. Desde el modernista obra de Oswald de Andrade, se discuten algunos elementos de enfoque entre la imagen visual y poética fotográfica. Se argumenta que parte de la poesía Oswaldian - en la que predomina un lenguaje claro, directo, sencillo, sin adornos y tiene una visualidad explícita - da la impresión de que el poeta trata de poner las escenas de lectores que se asemejan a las fotografías.  PALAVRAS CLAVE: Poesía; modernismo; la fotografía. Arquivamento e preservação de longo prazo do arquivo em: OpenDepot / Edina (The University of Edinburgh:  em processo de inclusão/indexação SSOAR-GESIS – Leibniz-Institut (Alemanha:  HAL (França: em processo de inclusão/indexação

  9. What's in a Name: Differential Labelling of Plant and Animal Photographs in Two Nationally Syndicated Elementary Science Textbook Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link-Perez, Melanie A.; Dollo, Vanessa H.; Weber, Kirk M.; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated plant and animal photographs in elementary science textbooks to discern whether there were disparities in the number of plant and animal photographs or in how those photographs were labelled. We examined the Life Science sections of two nationally syndicated (USA) textbook series. For each text, we identified the…

  10. Touch HDR: photograph enhancement by user controlled wide dynamic range adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrall, Steve; Siddiqui, Hasib; Atanassov, Kalin; Goma, Sergio; Ramachandra, Vikas

    2013-03-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) technology enables photographers to capture a greater range of tonal detail. HDR is typically used to bring out detail in a dark foreground object set against a bright background. HDR technologies include multi-frame HDR and single-frame HDR. Multi-frame HDR requires the combination of a sequence of images taken at different exposures. Single-frame HDR requires histogram equalization post-processing of a single image, a technique referred to as local tone mapping (LTM). Images generated using HDR technology can look less natural than their non- HDR counterparts. Sometimes it is only desired to enhance small regions of an original image. For example, it may be desired to enhance the tonal detail of one subject's face while preserving the original background. The Touch HDR technique described in this paper achieves these goals by enabling selective blending of HDR and non-HDR versions of the same image to create a hybrid image. The HDR version of the image can be generated by either multi-frame or single-frame HDR. Selective blending can be performed as a post-processing step, for example, as a feature of a photo editor application, at any time after the image has been captured. HDR and non-HDR blending is controlled by a weighting surface, which is configured by the user through a sequence of touches on a touchscreen.

  11. Sapc - Application for Adapting Scanned Analogue Photographs to Use Them in Structure from Motion Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salach, A.

    2017-05-01

    The documentary value of analogue scanned photographs is invaluable. A large and rich collection of archival photographs is often the only source of information about past of the selected area. This paper presents a method of adaptation of scanned, analogue photographs to suitable form allowing to use them in Structure from Motion technology. For this purpose, an automatic algorithm, implemented in the application called SAPC (Scanned Aerial Photographs Correction), which transforms scans to a form, which characteristic similar to the images captured by a digital camera, was invented. Images, which are created in the applied program as output data, are characterized by the same principal point position in each photo and the same resolution through cutting out the black photo frame. Additionally, SAPC generates a binary image file, which can mask areas of fiducial marks. In the experimental section, scanned, analogue photographs of Warsaw, which had been captured in 1986, were used in two variants: unprocessed and processed in SAPC application. An insightful analysis was conducted on the influence of transformation in SAPC on quality of spatial orientation of photographs. Block adjustment through aerial triangulation was calculated using two SfM software products: Agisoft PhotoScan and Pix4d and their results were compared with results obtained from professional photogrammetric software - Trimble Inpho. The author concluded that pre-processing in SAPC application had a positive impact on a quality of block orientation of scanned, analogue photographs, using SfM technology.

  12. SAPC – APPLICATION FOR ADAPTING SCANNED ANALOGUE PHOTOGRAPHS TO USE THEM IN STRUCTURE FROM MOTION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salach

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The documentary value of analogue scanned photographs is invaluable. A large and rich collection of archival photographs is often the only source of information about past of the selected area. This paper presents a method of adaptation of scanned, analogue photographs to suitable form allowing to use them in Structure from Motion technology. For this purpose, an automatic algorithm, implemented in the application called SAPC (Scanned Aerial Photographs Correction, which transforms scans to a form, which characteristic similar to the images captured by a digital camera, was invented. Images, which are created in the applied program as output data, are characterized by the same principal point position in each photo and the same resolution through cutting out the black photo frame. Additionally, SAPC generates a binary image file, which can mask areas of fiducial marks. In the experimental section, scanned, analogue photographs of Warsaw, which had been captured in 1986, were used in two variants: unprocessed and processed in SAPC application. An insightful analysis was conducted on the influence of transformation in SAPC on quality of spatial orientation of photographs. Block adjustment through aerial triangulation was calculated using two SfM software products: Agisoft PhotoScan and Pix4d and their results were compared with results obtained from professional photogrammetric software – Trimble Inpho. The author concluded that pre-processing in SAPC application had a positive impact on a quality of block orientation of scanned, analogue photographs, using SfM technology.

  13. Reliability of the craniocervical posture assessment: visual and angular measurements using photographs and radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadotti, Inae C; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Silveira, Anelise; Magee, David

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the intrarater and interrater reliability of the craniocervical posture in a sagittal view using quantitative measurements on photographs and radiographs and to determine the agreement of the visual assessment of posture between raters. One photograph and 1 radiograph of the sagittal craniocervical posture were simultaneously taken from 39 healthy female subjects. Three angles were measured on the photographs and 10 angles on the radiographs of 22 subjects using Alcimage software (Alcimage; Uberlândia, MG, Brazil). Two repeated measurements were performed by 2 raters. The measurements were compared within and between raters to test the intrarater and interrater reliability, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient and SEM were used. κ Agreement was calculated for the visual assessment of 39 subjects using photographs and radiographs between 2 raters. Good to excellent intrarater and interrater intraclass correlation coefficient values were found on both photographs and radiographs. Interrater SEM was large and clinically significant for cervical lordosis photogrammetry and for 1 angle measuring cervical lordosis on radiographs. Interrater κ agreement for the visual assessment using photographs was poor (κ = 0.37). The raters were reliable to measure angles in photographs and radiographs to quantify craniocervical posture with exception of 2 angles measuring lordosis of the cervical spine when compared between raters. The visual assessment of posture between raters was not reliable. © 2013. Published by National University of Health Sciences All rights reserved.

  14. A randomized comparison of nail surface remanence of three nail lacquers, containing amorolfine 5%, ciclopirox 8% or tioconazole 28%, in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidou, F; Soto, P

    2004-01-01

    This randomized, investigator-masked study compared the remanence on the nail surface of commercially available antimycotic nail lacquers containing amorolfine, ciclopirox and tioconazole. The lacquers, to which a coloring agent was added, were applied randomly to the left and right thumbnails and great toenails of 10 healthy volunteers. Volunteers were asked to wash their hands under standardized conditions at 30, 60 and 90 min after product application and to take at least one shower during the study. Photographs were taken immediately after drug application and at 30, 60 and 90 min, i.e., immediately after each hand washing, and then at 8 and 24 h. Photographs of treated toenails were taken at 0, 8 and 24 h. Photographic image analysis allowed automatic calculation of the proportion of nail surface remaining covered by the different nail lacquers over time and after washing. In addition, clinical visual assessment was made to determine the degree of the nail surface covered by the nail lacquers over time. It was demonstrated that at 24 h after product application, remanence of amorolfine nail lacquer on the thumbnails was significantly higher than that of ciclopirox (p < 0.05) and that of tioconazole on the thumb- and toenails at each time point up to 8 h after product application (all p < 0.05). Clinical observation showed that 30 min after application, the tioconazole nail lacquer had still had not completely dried. Amorolfine nail lacquer was shown to be more resistant than ciclopirox and tioconazole nail lacquers to chemical trauma from soaps and to mechanical aggressions from the immediate nail environment.

  15. Evaluation of smile esthetics by photographic assessment of the dento-labio-gingival complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundoor Manjunath Dayakar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The esthetics of a smile is determined by various factors including symmetry, anatomy and position of teeth, periodontal visibility, and musculoskeletal relationships. Aim: This study analyzed the dento-labio-gingival esthetic components of the smile, evaluating: (a Amount of gingiva visible during natural smile and forced smile, (b relationship between incisal edges of maxillary anterior teeth and upper border of lower lip, (c deviation of dental midline from facial midline to right or left side. Materials and Methods: Photographs of 127 subjects were taken by standardizing by placing patients head in Frankfurt horizontal plane and photos were cropped uniformly. Analysis of the dento-labial-gingival esthetic components of the smile, evaluating the relationship between the curve formed by the incisal edges of anterior teeth that is, incisal line and the curve of the lower lip, whether the incisal line touches the lower lip, presence of overlap of the lower lip over the incisal edges or absence of touch and also the amount of periodontal visibility during natural smile and the forced smile was done using Microsoft PowerPoint. Result: During natural smile the most frequent smile line was class 4 that is, low smile line seen in 67% of participants and class 3 for forced smile that is, average smile line seen in 44% of participants. There was a highly significant prevalence for females to have more periodontal visibility during both natural and forced smile (P 0.05. 78 % of subjects showed no deviation from the midline, 19.7 % of the subjects showed the deviation of midline toward the right, and 2.4% showed deviation toward the left. Conclusion: Harmony of the dento-labial-gingival complex is essential for a pleasing smile. Evaluating the smile of each patient using photographs, as well as radiographs and clinical data assures the clinician of the possibility of deciding what needs to be carried out and what can be done to treat a gummy or

  16. Land Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is the international standard code format for hourly surface weather observations. The acronym roughly translates from French as Aviation Routine Weather...

  17. Stakeholders' Perceptions Regarding the Use of Patient Photographs Integrated with Medical Imaging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadigh, Gelareh; Applegate, Kimberly E; Ng, Timothy W; Hendrix, Kamilah A; Tridandapani, Srini

    2016-06-01

    Integrating digital facial photographs of pediatric patients as identifiers (ID) with medical imaging (integrated photographic IDs) may increase the detection of mislabeled studies. The purpose of this study was to determine how different stakeholders would receive this novel technology. Parents or guardians of patients in a children's hospital outpatient radiology department, radiology faculty and residents, and radiology technologists and nurses were asked to complete a survey. The perception about the anticipated use of integrated photographic ID in different clinical scenarios was investigated, and its predictors were determined using logistic regression analysis. Four hundred ninety-eight parents responded (response rate 83 %); 96 and 97 % supported the use of integrated photographic ID, if it improves the radiologist's imaging interpretation or decreases the rate of mislabeled errors, respectively. Thirty-eight percent were worried that photographic IDs would impact patients' privacy. Ninety-four percent believed that they should be asked for their consent prior to obtaining their child's photograph. Seventy-eight radiologists responded (response rate 39 %); 63 and 59 % believed that the use of integrated photographic ID would result in improvement in accurate interpretation of images and identification of mislabeled patient errors, respectively. Forty-nine percent of radiologists had concern that integrated photographic ID would increase interpretation time. Fifty technologists and nurses responded (response rate 59 %); 71 and 73 % supported the technology if it resulted in more acute interpretation of images and identification of mislabeled patients, respectively. A majority of stakeholders support integrated photographic ID in order to improve safety. A majority of parents believe that consent should be obtained.

  18. THE QUALITY OF THE SURFACE AT THE BEECH WOODTURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela CHERCIU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There have been experiments made with outside cylindrical beech woodturning with low cutting speed, and feed successively changed. We study, qualitative rather than quantitative, the roughnesss of the surface achieved. It interprets the appearance of each surface based on the theory of cutting considerations. Resulted surface images are given, photographed with a camera and microscope. It appears that here are no propellers generated by the cutting tool nose on the cylindrical part, excepting the situation of using high feeds.

  19. First results of MAO NASU SS bodies photographic archive digitizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakuliak, L.; Andruk, V.; Shatokhina, S.; Golovnya, V.; Yizhakevych, O.; Kulyk, I.

    2013-05-01

    MAO NASU glass archive encloses about 1800 photographic plates with planets and their satellites (including near 80 images of Uranus, Pluto and Neptune), about 1700 plates with minor planets and about 900 plates with comets. Plates were made during 1949-1999 using 11 telescopes of different focus, mostly the Double Wide-angle Astrograph (F/D=2000/400) and the Double Long-focus Astrograph (F/D=5500/400) of MAO NASU. Observational sites are Kyiv, Lviv (Ukraine), Biurakan (Armenia), Abastumani (Georgia), Mt. Maidanak (Uzbekistan), Quito (Equador). Tables contain data about the most significant numbers of plates sub-divided by years and objects. The database with metadata of plates (DBGPA) is available on the computer cluster of MAO (http://gua.db.ukr-vo.org) via open access. The database accumulates archives of four Ukrainian observatories, involving the UkrVO national project. Together with the archive managing system, the database serves as a test area for JDA - Joint Digital Archive - the core of the UkrVO.

  20. Dissociating Simon and affordance compatibility effects: silhouettes and photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Zissis

    2014-12-01

    When a graspable object's handle is oriented to the same side as the response hand, responses are quicker and more accurate than when it is oriented to the opposite side. This effect has been attributed to the affordance of the object's handle (Tucker & Ellis, 1998). Recent findings suggest this effect results instead from an abstract spatial response code (i.e., Simon effect; Cho & Proctor, 2010). However, the stimuli used in these previous studies differ in the amount of object and environmental depth information they contain, which may be critical to conveying an affordance. This information could explain these disparate findings as well as dissociate Simon and affordance compatibility effects. Four experiments demonstrate that the Simon effect results from the absence of this information, as in a silhouette, and the affordance effect results from its presence, as in a photograph. A fifth experiment confirmed that modifying information associated with the affordance, rather than the modification itself, produced the effects observed in the previous experiments. These findings support the following: (a) the internal details of an object and environmental depth can dissociate Simon and affordance compatibility effects, (b) this information is necessary to convey the object's graspable affordance, and (c) the outer shape of the object is not sufficient to elicit an affordance effect. These findings are discussed in relation to the theory of embodied cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1) Onboard Photograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1) was the first in a series of Shuttle flights dedicated to fundamental materials and life sciences research with the international partners. The participating space agencies included: NASA, the 14-nation European Space Agency (ESA), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the French National Center of Space Studies (CNES), the German Space Agency and the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DAR/DLR), and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). Dedicated to the study of life and materials sciences in microgravity, the IML missions explored how life forms adapt to weightlessness and investigated how materials behave when processed in space. Both life and materials sciences benefited from the extended periods of microgravity available inside the Spacelab science module in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. In this photograph, Astronauts Stephen S. Oswald and Norman E. Thagard handle ampoules used in the Mercuric Iodide Crystal Growth (MICG) experiment. Mercury Iodide crystals have practical uses as sensitive x-ray and gamma-ray detectors. In addition to their exceptional electronic properties, these crystals can operate at room temperature rather than at the extremely low temperatures usually required by other materials. Because a bulky cooling system is urnecessary, these crystals could be useful in portable detector devices for nuclear power plant monitoring, natural resource prospecting, biomedical applications in diagnosis and therapy, and astronomical observation. Managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, IML-1 was launched on January 22, 1992 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery (STS-42 mission).

  2. Preferred skin color enhancement for photographic color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2011-01-01

    Skin tones are the most important colors among the memory color category. Reproducing skin colors pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the color preference of skin color reproduction. Several methods to morph skin colors to a smaller preferred skin color region has been reported in the past. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to further improve the result of skin color enhancement. An ellipsoid skin color model is applied to compute skin color probabilities for skin color detection and to determine a weight for skin color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers determined through psychophysical experiments were applied for color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers for dark, medium, and light skin colors are applied to adjust skin colors differently. Skin colors are morphed toward their preferred color centers. A special processing is applied to avoid contrast loss in highlight. A 3-D interpolation method is applied to fix a potential contouring problem and to improve color processing efficiency. An psychophysical experiment validates that the method of preferred skin color enhancement effectively identifies skin colors, improves the skin color preference, and does not objectionably affect preferred skin colors in original images.

  3. STS-98 Onboard Photograph-U.S. Laboratory, Destiny

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    With its new U.S. Laboratory, Destiny, contrasted over a blue and white Earth, the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by one of the STS-98 crew members aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis following separation of the Shuttle and Station. The Laboratory is shown at the lower right of the Station. The American-made Destiny module is the cornerstone for space-based research aboard the orbiting platform and the centerpiece of the ISS, where unprecedented science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. Destiny will also serve as the command and control center for the ISS. The aluminum module is 8.5- meters (28-feet) long and 4.3-meters (14-feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two endcones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations. Payload racks will occupy 15 locations especially designed to support experiments. The Destiny module was built by the Boeing Company under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  4. Photographic emulsion versus bubble chambers in charm and beauty searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacton, J.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the use of visual detectors in the search for charm and other flavors. The photographic emulsion and the bubble chamber techniques are compared. The main difficulties encounted in searching for charmed and beautiful hadrons are related to the short lifetimes of these particles and to their small production cross-sections, even at SPS energies. Resolution, visibility, the data analysis rate, and exposure time are considered. Most of the charmed hadrons present a large variety of decay modes of which only a fraction has been identified to date. First results from CESR indicate that the average charged particle multiplicity in the hadronic decay of beautiful hadrons is as high as 6.31 + or - 0.35; no B meson decay has yet been kinematically reconstructed. The case of hadronic charmed particle production at SPS energies is examined. The data show that 1) the bubble chamber technique (high resolution or holographic optics) is well suited to the study of charmed hadrons with lifetimes in the range 10 -13 to 10 -12 s; 2) searches for beautiful hadrons remain presently a domain for triggered emulsion experiments due to the smallness of the production cross-sections (provided the lifetime is not much shorter than 10 -14 s); and 3) for particles of lifetimes shorter than a few times 10 -14 s the emulsion technique is still without competitor

  5. Automated syndrome detection in a set of clinical facial photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Stefan; Guenther, Manuel; Sinigerova, Stella; Wurtz, Rolf P; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Wieczorek, Dagmar

    2011-09-01

    Computer systems play an important role in clinical genetics and are a routine part of finding clinical diagnoses but make it difficult to fully exploit information derived from facial appearance. So far, automated syndrome diagnosis based on digital, facial photographs has been demonstrated under study conditions but has not been applied in clinical practice. We have therefore investigated how well statistical classifiers trained on study data comprising 202 individuals affected by one of 14 syndromes could classify a set of 91 patients for whom pictures were taken under regular, less controlled conditions in clinical practice. We found a classification accuracy of 21% percent in the clinical sample representing a ratio of 3.0 over a random choice. This contrasts with a 60% accuracy or 8.5 ratio in the training data. Producing average images in both groups from sets of pictures for each syndrome demonstrates that the groups exhibit large phenotypic differences explaining discrepancies in accuracy. A broadening of the data set is suggested in order to improve accuracy in clinical practice. In order to further this goal, a software package is made available that allows application of the procedures and contributions toward an improved data set. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Automatic building extraction using LiDAR and aerial photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Uzar

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automatic building extraction approach using LiDAR data and aerial photographs from a multi-sensor system positioned at the same platform. The automatic building extraction approach consists of segmentation, analysis and classification steps based on object-based image analysis. The chessboard, contrast split and multi-resolution segmentation methods were used in the segmentation step. The determined object primitives in segmentation, such as scale parameter, shape, completeness, brightness, and statistical parameters, were used to determine threshold values for classification in the analysis step. The rule-based classification was carried out with defined decision rules based on determined object primitives and fuzzy rules. In this study, hierarchical classification was preferred. First, the vegetation and ground classes were generated; the building class was then extracted. The NDVI, slope and Hough images were generated and used to avoid confusing the building class with other classes. The intensity images generated from the LiDAR data and morphological operations were utilized to improve the accuracy of the building class. The proposed approach achieved an overall accuracy of approximately 93% for the target class in a suburban neighborhood, which was the study area. Moreover, completeness (96.73% and correctness (95.02% analyses were performed by comparing the automatically extracted buildings and reference data.

  7. The Power of the Photograph in Terms of Manipulation and Agenda Setting

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİREL, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    The adventure of the photograph has a long story. This adventure leads to many debates, such as whether or not photography is an art, or what should a photographer do when he/she stands against an ethical situation or if the photograph is genuine or is it all a fiction.  The acceleration of photography is highly impressive and scientifically evident.  Photography has become practical, most popular and pretty cheap with the developing DSL cameras, computer apps such as photoshop, smart phones ...

  8. Images and displacements: photographs as enunciation of knowledges, cultures and affections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoésley José Negreiros Mendes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the proposal of two photographic exhibitions in an International Seminar on Education. We aim to engage in a dialogue with the images that these photographs give us with, the theproposal of the researchers producers of the t photographic projects of the Postgraduate Education Program from Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ. The first one consists in an over 20 years research on the child in the religious universe of Candomblé; and the second, with photos produced by 12 students from GuineaConacri, a material produced as part of a Master's research.

  9. Application of X-ray fluorescence in an investigation of photographic heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čechák, T.; Kopecká, I.; Trojek, T.; Štanzel, T.; Bártová, H.

    2015-11-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis uses ionizing radiation to study the elemental composition of materials. It is widely used for many purposes, including studies of various cultural and historic relicts and objects of art. This paper summarizes our experience with X-ray fluorescence analysis and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in investigating historical photographs by means of portable spectroscopic devices. The results of these measurements provide information about the composition of historical photographs and their toning. They can be used for comparing the processes used in fabricating the photographs, for assessing the quality of the paper and, in many cases, for information about how to repair damaged parts.

  10. Investigation of the value of a photographic tool to measure self-perception of enamel opacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Gill M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The standard measurement of oral conditions that are mainly of cosmetic concern can be carried out by a trained clinical professional, or they can be assessed and reported by the individuals who may have the condition or be aware of others who have it. Enamel opacities of anterior teeth are examples of such a condition. At a public health level the interest is only about opacities that are of aesthetic concern, so the need for an index that records opacities that the public perceive to be a problem is clear. Measurement methods carried out by highly trained professionals, using unnatural conditions are not indicated at this level. This study reports on the testing of a novel epidemiological tool that aims to report on the prevalence and impact of self-perceived enamel opacities in a population of young adolescents. Methods A dental health survey was carried out using a random sample of 12-year-old school pupils during 2008/09 by Primary Care Organisations (PCOs in England. This included the use of a novel self-perception tool which aimed to measure individual’s self-perception of the presence and impact of enamel opacities to produce population measures. This tool comprised questions asking about the presence of white marks on their teeth and whether these marks bothered the volunteers and a sheet of grouped photographs of anterior teeth showing opacities ranging from TF 0, TF 1–2 to TF 2–3. Volunteers were asked which of the groups of photographs looked more like their own teeth. Examining teams from a convenience sample of 3 PCOs from this survey agreed to undertake additional measurements to assess the value of the self-perception tool. Volunteer pupils were asked the questions on a second occasion, some time after the first and clinical examiners recorded their assessments of the most closely matching set of photographs of the volunteers on two occasions. Results The tool was feasible to use, with 74% of pupils

  11. Rivited panel surface measurement using photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, W. D.; Lobb, V. B.; Lansing, F. L.; Stoller, F. W.

    1986-01-01

    Two riveted antenna panels on rings number 3 and 9 were removed from the 34m antenna at DSS-15, fixed in the leveled position and the surface was photographed indoors. The results from this pilot photogrammetric demonstration and diagnostics of panel surface contours, are presented. The photogrammetric network for each panel incorporated eight photographs, two from each of four camera stations and observed over 200 targets. The accuracy (1 sigma) of the XYZ coordinates for the error ellipsoids was + or - 0.013 mm (0.0005 inch). This level of precision relative to the object size corresponds roughly to 1 part in 250,000 which is superior to conventional dial sweep-arm template techniques by at least a factor of 4.

  12. Comprehensive measurement of UVB-induced non-melanoma skin cancer burden in mice using photographic images as a substitute for the caliper method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Marc; Purohit, Nupur K; Shah, Girish M

    2017-01-01

    The vernier caliper has been used as a gold standard to measure the length, width and height of skin tumors to calculate their total area and volume. It is a simple method for collecting data on a few tumors at a time, but becomes tedious, time-consuming and stressful for the animals and the operator when used for measuring multiple tumors in a large number of animals in protocols such as UVB-induced non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in SKH-1 mice. Here, we show that photographic images of these mice taken within a few minutes under optimized conditions can be subjected to computerized analyses to determine tumor volume and area as accurately and precisely as the caliper method. Unlike the caliper method, the photographic method also records the incidence and multiplicity of tumors, thus permitting comprehensive measurement of tumor burden in the animal. The simplicity and ease of this method will permit more frequent monitoring of tumor burden in long protocols, resulting in the creation of additional data about dynamic changes in progression of cancer or the efficacy of therapeutic intervention. The photographic method can broadly substitute the caliper method for quantifying other skin pathologies.

  13. Food photographs in nutritional surveillance: errors in portion size estimation using drawings of bread and photographs of margarine and beverages consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keyzer, Willem; Huybrechts, Inge; De Maeyer, Mieke; Ocké, Marga; Slimani, Nadia; van 't Veer, Pieter; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2011-04-01

    Food photographs are widely used as instruments to estimate portion sizes of consumed foods. Several food atlases are available, all developed to be used in a specific context and for a given study population. Frequently, food photographs are adopted for use in other studies with a different context or another study population. In the present study, errors in portion size estimation of bread, margarine on bread and beverages by two-dimensional models used in the context of a Belgian food consumption survey are investigated. A sample of 111 men and women (age 45-65 years) were invited for breakfast; two test groups were created. One group was asked to estimate portion sizes of consumed foods using photographs 1-2 d after consumption, and a second group was asked the same after 4 d. Also, real-time assessment of portion sizes using photographs was performed. At the group level, large overestimation of margarine, acceptable underestimation of bread and only small estimation errors for beverages were found. Women tended to have smaller estimation errors for bread and margarine compared with men, while the opposite was found for beverages. Surprisingly, no major difference in estimation error was found after 4 d compared with 1-2 d. Individual estimation errors were large for all foods. The results from the present study suggest that the use of food photographs for portion size estimation of bread and beverages is acceptable for use in nutrition surveys. For photographs of margarine on bread, further validation using smaller amounts corresponding to actual consumption is recommended.

  14. Explosive Contamination from Substrate Surfaces: Differences and Similarities in Contamination Techniques using RDX and C-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Miller; T.S. Yoder

    2010-06-01

    The amount of time that an explosive is present on the surface of a material is dependent upon the original amount of explosive on the surface, temperature, humidity, rain, etc. This laboratory study focused on looking at similarities and differences in three different surface contamination techniques that are used when performance testing explosive trace detection equipment in an attempt to determine how effective the techniques are at replicating actual field samples. The three techniques used were dry transfer deposition of solutions using the Transportation Security Laboratory (TSL) patented dry transfer techniques (US patent 6470730), direct deposition of explosive standards, and fingerprinting of actual explosives. Explosives were deposited on the surface of one of five substrates using one of the three different deposition techniques. The process was repeated for each surface type using each contamination technique. The surface types used were: 50% cotton/50% polyester as found in T-shirts, 100% cotton with a smooth surface such as that found in a cotton dress shirt, 100% cotton on a rough surface such as that found on canvas or denim, suede leather such as might be found on jackets, purses, or shoes, and metal obtained from a car hood at a junk yard. The samples were not pre-cleaned prior to testing and contained sizing agents, and in the case of the metal, oil and dirt. The substrates were photographed using a Zeiss Discover V12 stereoscope with Axiocam ICc1 3 megapixel digital camera to determine the difference in the crystalline structure and surface contamination in an attempt to determine differences and similarities associated with current contamination techniques.

  15. Date: Aug 6, 1996 Photographer: Maria Garcia 1996 'STELLAR' program commencement activities. Special

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Date: Aug 6, 1996 Photographer: Maria Garcia 1996 'STELLAR' program commencement activities. Special guest Astronaut Buzz Aldrin drops by to tour and chat. Aldrin was attending his book signing at US Space Camp earlier in the day.

  16. Full disc of moon photographed by Apollo 17 crewmen during transearth coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    This full disc of the moon was photographed by the Apollo 17 crewmen during their transearth coast homeward following a successful lunar landing mission in December 1972. Mare seen on this photo include Serentatis, Tranquillitatis, Nectaris, Foecunditatis and Crisium.

  17. Project Birdseye Aerial Photograph Collection: Digital and Analog Materials, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This collection consists of both analog and digital aerial photographs from Arctic areas in and around Baffin Bay, the Labrador Sea, the Arctic Ocean, the Beaufort...

  18. Creating a web-based digital photographic archive: one hospital library’s experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Marshall, MLS, AHIP

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Within 8 months, we digitized and indexed over 500 photographs. The digital archive now allows patrons and researchers to access the history of the hospital and enables the library to process archival references more efficiently.

  19. Photographing wheelchair-bound patients with neuromuscular scoliosis in a paediatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Julie; Tsirikos, Athanasios I

    2005-06-01

    This is an investigation of the photography services offered to children and adolescents with neuromuscular scoliosis at the spinal inpatient and outpatient clinic of Great Ormond Street Hospital. The spine service, in cooperation with the medical photography department, sought to identify what clinicians required in the content of photographs as part of the patients' routine clinical assessment, and also what equipment was available on the market to meet these requirements. Current techniques for obtaining medical photographs of this specific group of severely disabled children were also evaluated, and compared to a proposed method of obtaining photographs using the Mangar chair. The authors sought to develop a safe, reliable, patient-friendly and parent-friendly, and easily reproducible technique, which would provide accurate and consistent photographs, and adequately supplement the clinicians' evaluation of patients' conditions.

  20. The Use of Official Photographs in the Army Officer Promotion Selection Board Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bigler, Katherine

    2000-01-01

    .... The articulated reason is to allow the board to judge military bearing and physical fitness. While this is important, there is strong evidence to suggest that the photograph is unnecessarily adding a controversial aspect to the promotion process...

  1. [Comparison between photographic analysis and orthopedic goniometer of measurement of compensatory head posture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-qiang; Zhao, Kan-xing; Guo, Xin; Ma, Hui-zhi; Yue, Yi-ying; Chen, Xia; Zhu, Li-na; Zhang, Wei

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the application of relative reference point photographic analysis method and goniometer method for head posture measurement, and compare the characteristics of the two methods. Thirty patients from March 2011 to April 2011 and August to September with AHP in our hospital were recruited. The AHP were measured by photographic analysis and goniometer method respectively. The data were analyzed by SPSS software. The mean AHP was 15.62° ± 7.48° by photographic analysis measurement, 15.50° ± 6.99° by goniometer measurement. The Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.955, P < 0.001, t = 0.286, P = 0.777). Relative reference point photographic analysis is a simple and effective way to measure AHP. The results measured by the two methods are highly consistent.

  2. Digital reproduction of historical aerial photographic prints for preserving a deteriorating archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luman, D.E.; Stohr, C.; Hunt, L.

    1997-01-01

    Aerial photography from the 1920s and 1930s is a unique record of historical information used by government agencies, surveyors, consulting scientists and engineers, lawyers, and individuals for diverse purposes. Unfortunately, the use of the historical aerial photographic prints has resulted in their becoming worn, lost, and faded. Few negatives exist for the earliest photography. A pilot project demonstrated that high-quality, precision scanning of historical aerial photography is an appealing alternative to traditional methods for reproduction. Optimum sampling rate varies from photograph to photograph, ranging between 31 and 42 ??m/pixel for the USDA photographs tested. Inclusion of an index, such as a photomosaic or gazetteer, and ability to view the imagery promptly upon request are highly desirable.

  3. Multi-directional radiation detector using photographic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junet, L K; Majid, Z A Abdul; Sapuan, A H; Sayed, I S; Pauzi, N F

    2014-01-01

    Ionising radiation has always been part of our surrounding and people are continuously exposed to it. Ionising radiation is harmful to human health, thus it is vital to monitor the radiation. To monitor radiation, there are three main points that should be observed cautiously, which are energy, quantity, and direction of the radiation sources. A three dimensional (3D) dosimeter is an example of a radiation detector that provide these three main points. This dosimeter is able to record the radiation dose distribution in 3D. Applying the concept of dose detection distribution, study has been done to design a multi-directional radiation detector of different filter thicknesses. This is obtained by designing a cylinder shaped aluminum filter with several layers of different thickness. Black and white photographic material is used as a radiation-sensitive material and a PVC material has been used as the enclosure. The device is then exposed to a radiation source with different exposure factors. For exposure factor 70 kVp, 16 mAs; the results have shown that optical density (OD) value at 135° is 1.86 higher compared with an OD value at 315° which is 0.71 as the 135° area received more radiation compare to 315° region. Furthermore, with an evidence of different angle of film give different value of OD shows that this device has a multidirectional ability. Materials used to develop this device are widely available in the market, thus reducing the cost of development and making it suitable for commercialisation

  4. Spectral model of an electro-photographic printing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriss, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    At EI 2007 in San Jose, California detailed physical models for monochrome and color electro-photographic printers were presented. These models were based on computer simulations of toner-dot formation for a variety of halftone structures. The optical interactions between the toner-dots and the paper substrate were incorporated by means of an optical scattering function, which allowed for the calculation of optical dot-gain (and physical dot-gain) as function of the halftone structure. The color model used simple red-green-blue channels to measure the effect of the absorption and scattering properties of the cyan, magenta, yellow and black toners on the final half-tone image. The new spectral model uses the full absorption and scattering spectrum of the image toners in calculating the final color image in terms of CIE XYZ values for well-defined color and gray patches. The new spectral model will be used to show the impact of halftone structure and toner-layerorder on conventional dot-on-dot, rotated dot and error diffusion color halftone systems and how to minimize the impact of image toner scattering. The model has been expanded to use the Neugebauer equations to approximate the amount of cyan, magenta, and yellow toners required to give a "good" neutral in the rotated dot halftone and fine tuning is achieved by adjusting the development threshold level for each layer to hold a good neutral over the full tonal range. In addition to the above fine-tuning, cyan, yellow and magenta offsets are used to find an optimum use of the halftone dither patterns. Once a "good" neutral is obtained the impact on dot gain, color reproduction and optimum layer order can studied with an emphasis on how the full spectral model differs from the simpler three-channel model. The model is used to explore the different approaches required in dot-on-dot, rotated dot and error diffusion halftones to achieve good results.

  5. Photographing Fashion: a critical look at The Sartorialist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Rosser

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Abstract (E:

    Scott Schuman’s photographic style and blog project, The Sartorialist is investigated through the frame of fashion photography. The location of the city and the rhetoric of street style underline the visual and conceptual relationship between Schuman’s work and the discourse of fashion. The notion of the blog as an alternative mode of address is contrasted with the more conventional content of the images.

    Abstract (F:

    Le présent article examine le style photographique et le blog de Scott Schuman, "The Sartorialist" (Le Tailleur, par le prisme de la photographie de mode. Le décor urbain mais aussi la rhétorique d'un style venu de la rue soulignent les rapports visuels et conceptuels entre le travail de Schuman et le discours de la mode. La notion du blog comme forme alternative de s'adresser à un public est opposée au contenu plus traditionnel des images.

  6. Mature women’s attitude toward fashion photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Hor-Meyll

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective –To investigate the influence of the cognitive age of upper-middle class mature women regarding their attitude towards photographs of articles of clothing, as a result of their identification with the model wearing them. Design/methodology/approach – Experiment with a sample of 164 women, aged 55- 70 years old, living in Rio de Janeiro. The questionnaire was were based on scales found in the literature. Theoretical foundation Cognitive age (Barak; Schiffman, 1981; Leventhal, 1997; Szmigin; Carrigan, 2000; Wray; Hodges, 2008; Amaro; Johann; Meira, 2007; Birtwistle; Tsim, 2005; Moschis, 2003; Moschis; Mathur, 2006 Mature woman and fashion (Schewe, 1988; Slongo et al., 2009; Thomas; Peters, 2009; Moschis, Lee, & Mathur, 1997; Young; Miller, 2006; Wilkes, 1992; Facenda, 2000; Holmlund; Hagman; Polsa, 2010; Szmigin; Carrigan, 2000. Mature woman and advertising (Moschis, 2003; Venkatesh et al., 2010; Nam et al., 2007; Kozar; Damhorst, 2008; Araujo, Casotti, Da Silva, & Pessôa, 2015 Findings – The identification with the model was greater when the respondent perceived her as being close to her own cognitive age (F(1, 162 =615.87, p=0.000. The attitude toward the collection was more positive when the respondent perceived the model as being closer to her own cognitive age (F (2, 162 =1074.55, p=0.000. Practical implications –The degree of the consumer’s identification is greater when the model appears to be the same cognitive age as the consumer. When the consumer believes that the model is close to her own cognitive age, her attitude toward the displayed item is more positive.

  7. Photographic taxonomy: a methodological proposal for the research of selfies in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertz Wendel de Camargo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexities that involve selfies could not be contemplated in a single article. Thus, our goals are to provide a brief epistemological framework that allows a plausible interpretation of this photographic genre and to present the methodological approaches to the selection of a corpus for a possible self-portrait analysis on Instagram. We conclude that, despite the polysemic nature of social networks, it is possible a taxonomy of selfie applicable to other current photographic genres in media culture.

  8. Photographing without shooting: the survival of artistic appropriation in the digital age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana S. Martins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the ways in which postmodern artistic appropriation resisted the digital revolution and its impact on the (immateriality of photographic objects. Drawing on the analysis of the particular production and reception processes in the work of the artist Joachim Schmid, this text investigates how art has adapted itself to the new technological landscapes in a paradoxical world, where people are shooting more than ever, while traditional photographic objects are on the verge of disappearance.

  9. Devils Hole, Nevada—A photographic story of a restricted subaqueous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ray J.

    2017-07-24

    This report presents selected photographic images taken by the author during U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research into paleoclimatology and geochemistry in Devils Hole cavern during 1984 to 1993 in cooperation with the National Park Service. The unaltered suite of photographs was prepared by the USGS dive team as an aid to assist nondiving scientists with a visual perspective of the environment where earth-science samples were collected and subsequently analyzed for chemical and isotopic composition.

  10. Comparison of film and digital fundus photographs in eyes of individuals with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gangaputra, Sapna; Almukhtar, Talat; Glassman, Adam R

    2011-01-01

    To compare grading of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) from stereoscopic film versus stereoscopic digital photographs obtained from a subset of Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR.net) participants.......To compare grading of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) from stereoscopic film versus stereoscopic digital photographs obtained from a subset of Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR.net) participants....

  11. Making a Home in Poland: The Jewish Sightseeing Movement and Its Photographic Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Pasternak, Gil; Ziętkiewicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    We delivered this paper at the conference 'Discovering “Peripheries”: Photographic Histories in Central and Eastern Europe'. Institute of Art, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland, 31 May - 1 June 2016 (organised by Society “Liber pro arte” in collaboration with the Polish Association of Photography Historians and the peer-reviewed journal “Dagerotyp”). Our paper focused on the photographic practices the Poland-based Jewish sightseeing movement employed between the two World Wars, to...

  12. Microfilms and photographs of neumatic manuscripts in the SASA Institute of Musicology Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peno Vesna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microfilms of neumatic MSS, and photographs of some folia taken from neumed codices kept at the SASA Institute of Musicology Archives, are represented in this paper. In the microfilms, there are mainly heirmologia from Byzantine and late-Byzantine period and sticherarios and antologies as well. The selected folia from the Chilandar manuscripts, primarily with the Greek text, constitute the collection of photographs.

  13. The New Visual Testimonial: Narrative, Authenticity, and Subjectivity in Emerging Commercial Photographic Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Heather

    2017-01-01

    By studying the cultural and aesthetic impact of increasingly pervasive digital technologies and mass amateurization, this paper examines the ramifications of the networked information economy on professional photographic practice and considers the concomitant implications for the photographic classroom. Using the framework of convergence culture as per the writings of Yochai Benkler, Henry Jenkins, Mark Deuze, and Axel Bruns, the impact of accessible and instantaneous image creation and disp...

  14. A histogram-based technique for rapid vector extraction from PIV photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, William M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A new analysis technique, performed totally in the image plane, is proposed which rapidly extracts all available vectors from individual interrogation regions on PIV photographs. The technique avoids the need for using Fourier transforms with the associated computational burden. The data acquisition and analysis procedure is described, and results of a preliminary simulation study to evaluate the accuracy of the technique are presented. Recently obtained PIV photographs are analyzed.

  15. Which environmental factors most strongly influence a street's appeal for bicycle transport among adults? A conjoint study using manipulated photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Lieze; Van Dyck, Delfien; Ghekiere, Ariane; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Van de Weghe, Nico; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle

    2016-09-01

    Micro-environmental factors (specific features within a streetscape), instead of macro-environmental factors (urban planning features), are more feasible to modify in existing neighborhoods and thus more practical to target for environmental interventions. Because it is often not possible to change the whole micro-environment at once, the current study aims to determine which micro-environmental factors should get the priority to target in physical environmental interventions increasing bicycle transport. Additionally, interaction effects among micro-environmental factors on the street's appeal for bicycle transport will be determined. In total, 1950 middle-aged adults completed a web-based questionnaire consisting of a set of 12 randomly assigned choice tasks with manipulated photographs. Seven micro-environmental factors (type of cycle path, speed limit, speed bump, vegetation, evenness of the cycle path surface, general upkeep and traffic density) were manipulated in each photograph. Conjoint analysis was used to analyze the data. Providing streets with a cycle path separated from motorized traffic seems to be the best strategy to increase the street's appeal for adults' bicycle transport. If this adjustment is not practically feasible, micro-environmental factors related to safety (i.e. speed limit, traffic density) may be more effective in promoting bicycle transport than micro-environmental factors related to comfort (i.e. evenness of the cycle path surface) or aesthetic (i.e. vegetation, general upkeep). On the other hand, when a more separated cycle path is already provided, micro-environmental factors related to comfort or aesthetic appeared to become more prominent. Findings obtained from this research could provide advice to physical environmental interventions about which environmental factors should get priority to modify in different environmental situations. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Ghent University Hospital. B

  16. The Dynamics of Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsson, Nils; Rasche, Andreas; Seidl, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests that when the phenomenon of standards and standardization is examined from the perspective of organization studies, three aspects stand out: the standardization of organizations, standardization by organizations and standardization as (a form of) organization. Following a comp...

  17. Photographing travel of classical windturbines in Europe; Oshu Koen fusha satsuei ryoko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H.

    1997-03-01

    Travel in Europe for taking photographs of classical windturbines is reported. The Netherlands which is a representative windturbine country, Spain which is a theme country of this travel, Greece which is a root country of the windmills, and the UK with the Windturbine Museum were visited. In the Netherlands, photographs of Kinder d`eiche Windturbine, Leiden de Valk Windturbine Museum, and a windturbine in the south end of Amstle Park were taken. Photographs of don Quijote Windturbine at Campo de Criptana in Spain, and Crete Windturbine and sail-type windturbine in the Rhodes Island, Greece were taken. In the UK, the Windturbine Museum was visited at Wimbledon. After coming back to Japan, films were exposed. The walls of windturbines were dark due to insufficient exposure against the light sky. In spite of consideration of the exposure, 70% of the photographs of windturbine walls were still dark. Only 10% of them can be available. This may be a limit of amateur photographer. Professional photographer may be complete. 12 figs.

  18. Photographic Histories of the Civil War and the First World War and Rebirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Meigs

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article compares The Photographic History of the Civil War published in 1912, with A Photographic History of the First World War, published in 1933. The author is looking for similarities in the reworking of interpretations of war photography after the war and discovers that the photographs in conjunction with their editing can be made to cover up as much as they reveal. The Photographic History of the Civil War, published at the height of the Jim Crow era, with its hugely elaborate editorial structure, manages to deny the importance of slavery to the war and the importance of freed slaves afterwards. Even photographs of the dead of Gettysburg take on a meaning more appropriate to 1912 than to the event that produced them. The comparatively direct A Photographic History of the First World War, manages loyalty only to the thought of the author at the moment of its publication. Other interpretations were possible at other times as the author editor followed literary fashion and history.

  19. Measurement, modeling and perception of painted surfaces: A Multi-scale Analysis of the Touch-up Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalghatgi, Suparna Kishore

    Real-world surfaces typically have geometric features at a range of spatial scales. At the microscale, opaque surfaces are often characterized by bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF), which describes how a surface scatters incident light. At the mesoscale, surfaces often exhibit visible texture -- stochastic or patterned arrangements of geometric features that provide visual information about surface properties such as roughness, smoothness, softness, etc. These textures also affect how light is scattered by the surface, but the effects are at a different spatial scale than those captured by the BRDF. Through this research, we investigate how microscale and mesoscale surface properties interact to contribute to overall surface appearance. This behavior is also the cause of the well-known "touch-up problem" in the paint industry, where two regions coated with exactly the same paint, look different in color, gloss and/or texture because of differences in application methods. At first, samples were created by applying latex paint to standard wallboard surfaces. Two application methods- spraying and rolling were used. The BRDF and texture properties of the samples were measured, which revealed differences at both the microscale and mesoscale. This data was then used as input for a physically-based image synthesis algorithm, to generate realistic images of the surfaces under different viewing conditions. In order to understand the factors that govern touch-up visibility, psychophysical tests were conducted using calibrated, digital photographs of the samples as stimuli. Images were presented in pairs and a two alternative forced choice design was used for the experiments. These judgments were then used as data for a Thurstonian scaling analysis to produce psychophysical scales of visibility, which helped determine the effect of paint formulation, application methods, and viewing and illumination conditions on the touch-up problem. The results can be

  20. HUBBLE PHOTOGRAPHS WARPED GALAXY AS CAMERA PASSES MILESTONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has captured an image of an unusual edge-on galaxy, revealing remarkable details of its warped dusty disk and showing how colliding galaxies spawn the formation of new generations of stars. The dust and spiral arms of normal spiral galaxies, like our own Milky Way, appear flat when viewed edge-on. This month's Hubble Heritage image of ESO 510-G13 shows a galaxy that, by contrast, has an unusual twisted disk structure, first seen in ground-based photographs obtained at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile. ESO 510-G13 lies in the southern constellation Hydra, roughly 150 million light-years from Earth. Details of the structure of ESO 510-G13 are visible because the interstellar dust clouds that trace its disk are silhouetted from behind by light from the galaxy's bright, smooth central bulge. The strong warping of the disk indicates that ESO 510-G13 has recently undergone a collision with a nearby galaxy and is in the process of swallowing it. Gravitational forces distort the structures of the galaxies as their stars, gas, and dust merge together in a process that takes millions of years. Eventually the disturbances will die out, and ESO 510-G13 will become a normal-appearing single galaxy. In the outer regions of ESO 510-G13, especially on the right-hand side of the image, we see that the twisted disk contains not only dark dust, but also bright clouds of blue stars. This shows that hot, young stars are being formed in the disk. Astronomers believe that the formation of new stars may be triggered by collisions between galaxies, as their interstellar clouds smash together and are compressed. The Heritage Team used Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) to observe ESO 510-G13 in April 2001. Pictures obtained through blue, green, and red filters were combined to make this color-composite image, which emphasizes the contrast between the dusty spiral arms, the bright bulge, and the blue star-forming regions. During the

  1. Rapid grading of fundus photographs for diabetic retinopathy using crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Christopher J; Villanti, Andrea C; Pearson, Jennifer L; Kirchner, Thomas R; Gupta, Omesh P; Shah, Chirag P

    2014-10-30

    Screening for diabetic retinopathy is both effective and cost-effective, but rates of screening compliance remain suboptimal. As screening improves, new methods to deal with screening data may help reduce the human resource needs. Crowdsourcing has been used in many contexts to harness distributed human intelligence for the completion of small tasks including image categorization. Our goal was to develop and validate a novel method for fundus photograph grading. An interface for fundus photo classification was developed for the Amazon Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing platform. We posted 19 expert-graded images for grading by Turkers, with 10 repetitions per photo for an initial proof-of-concept (Phase I). Turkers were paid US $0.10 per image. In Phase II, one prototypical image from each of the four grading categories received 500 unique Turker interpretations. Fifty draws of 1-50 Turkers were then used to estimate the variance in accuracy derived from randomly drawn samples of increasing crowd size to determine the minimum number of Turkers needed to produce valid results. In Phase III, the interface was modified to attempt to improve Turker grading. Across 230 grading instances in the normal versus abnormal arm of Phase I, 187 images (81.3%) were correctly classified by Turkers. Average time to grade each image was 25 seconds, including time to review training images. With the addition of grading categories, time to grade each image increased and percentage of images graded correctly decreased. In Phase II, area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) indicated that sensitivity and specificity were maximized after 7 graders for ratings of normal versus abnormal (AUC=0.98) but was significantly reduced (AUC=0.63) when Turkers were asked to specify the level of severity. With improvements to the interface in Phase III, correctly classified images by the mean Turker grade in four-category grading increased to a maximum of 52.6% (10/19 images

  2. Environmental monitoring using a conventional photographic digital camera for multianalyte disposable optical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapresta-Fernández, A; Capitán-Vallvey, L F

    2011-11-14

    The primary interest of this study concerns the use of an inexpensive photographic digital camera as the detection system, using its own flash as the source of light to present a new analytical procedure to measure disposable multianalyte optical sensors for potassium, magnesium, hardness and conventional pH test strips. The camera arrangement was designed in a fixed position over an optical board with controllable ambient conditions. After acquiring the digital image, the analytical information contained in each test zone is analyzed using theRGB colour space. Reflectance measurements were developed to study the colourimetric and spectral characteristics of the test zones. We obtained the following application ranges and precision in terms of relative standard deviation (RSD %): for potassium from 3.2×10(-7) to 0.1 M with a precision between 3.3 and 4.0%, for magnesium from 2.7×10(-6) to 1.5 M showing a precision between 4.7 and 7.8% and finally for hardness from 4.3×10(-2) to 200,000 mg L(-1) CaCO(3) and between 5.1 and 7.0%. Moreover, the analytical characteristics of several optical procedures were compared with the results presented here. The proposed method was statistically validated against a reference procedure using samples of water from different sources and beverages, indicating that there are no significant statistical differences at a 95% confidence level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. EXTRACTION OF BENTHIC COVER INFORMATION FROM VIDEO TOWS AND PHOTOGRAPHS USING OBJECT-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. L. Estomata

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mapping benthic cover in deep waters comprises a very small proportion of studies in the field of research. Majority of benthic cover mapping makes use of satellite images and usually, classification is carried out only for shallow waters. To map the seafloor in optically deep waters, underwater videos and photos are needed. Some researchers have applied this method on underwater photos, but made use of different classification methods such as: Neural Networks, and rapid classification via down sampling. In this study, accurate bathymetric data obtained using a multi-beam echo sounder (MBES was attempted to be used as complementary data with the underwater photographs. Due to the absence of a motion reference unit (MRU, which applies correction to the data gathered by the MBES, accuracy of the said depth data was compromised. Nevertheless, even with the absence of accurate bathymetric data, object-based image analysis (OBIA, which used rule sets based on information such as shape, size, area, relative distance, and spectral information, was still applied. Compared to pixel-based classifications, OBIA was able to classify more specific benthic cover types other than coral and sand, such as rubble and fish. Through the use of rule sets on area, less than or equal to 700 pixels for fish and between 700 to 10,000 pixels for rubble, as well as standard deviation values to distinguish texture, fish and rubble were identified. OBIA produced benthic cover maps that had higher overall accuracy, 93.78±0.85%, as compared to pixel-based methods that had an average accuracy of only 87.30±6.11% (p-value = 0.0001, α = 0.05.

  4. Several considerations with respect to the future of digital photography and photographic printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijn, Chris; Mahy, Marc F.

    2000-12-01

    Digital cameras are no longer exotic gadgets being used by a privileged group of early adopters. More and more people realize that there are obvious advantages to the digital solution over the conventional film-based workflow. Claiming that prints on paper are no longer necessary in the digit workflow, however, would be similar to reviving the myth of the paperless office. Often, people still like to share their memories on paper and this for a variety of reasons. There are still some hurdles to be taken in order to make the digital dream com true. In this paper, we will give a survey of the different workflows in digital photography. The local, semi-local and Internet solutions will be discussed as well as the preferred output systems for each of these solutions. When discussing output system, we immediately think of appropriate color management solutions. In the second part of this paper, we will discuss the major color management issues appearing in digital photography. A clear separation between the image acquisition and the image rendering phases will be made. After a quick survey of the different image restoration and enhancement techniques, we will make some reflections on the ideal color exchange space; the enhanced image should be delivered in this exchange space and, from there, the standard color management transformations can be applied to transfer the image from this exchange space to the native color space of the output device. We will also discus some color gamut characteristics and color management problems of different types of photographic printers that can occur during this conversion process.

  5. Agreement between photographic screening and hospital biomicroscopy grading of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Rachel; Sallam, Ahmed; Jones, Vanessa; Donachie, Paul H J; Scanlon, Peter H; Stratton, Irene M; Johnston, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    To examine the level of agreement and reasons for disagreement between grading of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy using mydriatic digital photographs in a diabetic retinopathy screening service (DRSS) and hospital eye service (HES). English NHS Diabetic Eye Screening Programme grades for diabetic retinopathy prospectively recorded on a hospital electronic medical record were compared to the grades from the DRSS event that prompted referral. In cases of disagreement, images were reviewed. Data for 1,501 patients (3,002 eyes) referred between 2008 and 2011 were analyzed. The HES retinopathy grades were R0 (no retinopathy) in 341 eyes, R1 (background retinopathy) in 1,712 eyes, R2 (pre-proliferative retinopathy) in 821 eyes, and R3 (proliferative retinopathy) in 128 eyes. The DRSS grades were in agreement in 2,309 eyes (76.9%), recorded a lower grade in 227 eyes, and recorded a higher grade in 466 eyes. Agreement was substantial (κ = 0.65). The commonest cause for disagreement was overgrading of R1 as R2 by hospital clinicians. The HES maculopathy grades were M0 (no maculopathy) in 2,267 eyes and M1 (maculopathy) in 735 eyes. The DRSS were in agreement in 2,111 eyes (70.2%), recorded a lower grade in 106 eyes, and recorded a higher grade in 785 eyes. Agreement was fair (κ = 0.39). The commonest cause for disagreement was hospital clinicians missing fine exudates. This study establishes a benchmark standard for agreement between HES and DRSS grading. Review of DRSS and grading reports images for newly referred patients is likely to improve levels of agreement, particularly for diabetic retinopathy, and should be strongly encouraged.

  6. Earth's influx of different populations of sporadic meteoroids from photographic and television data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceplecha, Z.

    1988-01-01

    Precise photographic and television double- and multi-station data on 3624 sporadic meteors in the mass range from 2 x 10 -5 grams to 2 x 10 7 grams form the basis of this paper. The applied classification criteria and procedures are defined and described. A survey of 7 different populations of sporadic meteoroids known so far is presented. The total numbers and masses of meteoroids as a function of mass are given for individual groups and for all sporadic meteors. The absolute calibration of the influx to the Earth was carried out by comparison with the results of Halliday et al. (1984). The comparison with the visual and cratering data revealed good agreement in the narrow ''visual'' interval of masses, and disagreement in the extrapolated parts of the visual and cratering flux curves. The slope of the cumulative number curve for the meteorite-dropping fireballs (type I) with masses larger than 1 kg was found as -0.69 in perfect agreement with the results of Halliday et al. (1984). The final mass scale derived in this paper is situated between the scale of McCrosky and the scale of Halliday. The relative significance of the different groups of meteoroids changes with the mass quite dramatically. The total influx of sporadic meteoroids in the mass interval of 12 orders from 2 x 10 7 to 2 x 10 -5 grams resulted in 5 x 10 9 grams per year for the entire Earth's surface. Most of this mass comes in the form of larger meteoroids. Bulk densities and ablation coefficient are presented for the individual meteor groups depending on different ablation models of several authors and some extreme concepts of this problem are discussed. (author). 3 figs., 6 tabs., 38 refs

  7. Determining urban land uses through building-associated element attributes derived from lidar and aerial photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xuelian

    Urban land-use research is a key component in analyzing the interactions between human activities and environmental change. Researchers have conducted many experiments to classify urban or built-up land, forest, water, agriculture, and other land-use and land-cover types. Separating residential land uses from other land uses within urban areas, however, has proven to be surprisingly troublesome. Although high-resolution images have recently become more available for land-use classification, an increase in spatial resolution does not guarantee improved classification accuracy by traditional classifiers due to the increase of class complexity. This research presents an approach to detect and separate residential land uses on a building scale directly from remotely sensed imagery to enhance urban land-use analysis. Specifically, the proposed methodology applies a multi-directional ground filter to generate a bare ground surface from lidar data, then utilizes a morphology-based building detection algorithm to identify buildings from lidar and aerial photographs, and finally separates residential buildings using a supervised C4.5 decision tree analysis based on the seven selected building land-use indicators. Successful execution of this study produces three independent methods, each corresponding to the steps of the methodology: lidar ground filtering, building detection, and building-based object-oriented land-use classification. Furthermore, this research provides a prototype as one of the few early explorations of building-based land-use analysis and successful separation of more than 85% of residential buildings based on an experiment on an 8.25-km2 study site located in Austin, Texas.

  8. Method of producing a pseudo-color photograph with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Mataichi.

    1965-01-01

    Conventional black and white X-ray photography cannot simultaneously produce an image on photographic film of a subject having regions of high and low X-ray absorption due to the limitation of photographic density range, gradation and exposure tolerance. This invention records both regions as images of different colors on the same color photographic film. According to a method of this invention for making an X-ray pseudo-color photograph, the subject is directly irradiated by an X-ray beam emergent from an X-ray beam generator, and an X-ray permeation image of the subject is converted into and displayed as a visible light image by means of a fluorescent screen. In one aspect of this invention, there is used a color photographic film which has at least two kinds of sensitive and coloring layers exhibiting the same sensitivity. During the period in which the visible image is displayed, the film is exposed to the visible light in such a way that at least two color filters differing in color and density are successively interposed between the film and the fluorescent screen. In another aspect, a color photographic film is employed having at least two kinds of sensitive and coloring layers exhibiting different sensitivities. During the period in which the visible image is displayed, the film is exposed to visible light by sequentially interposing at least two color filters of different color but of equal density. In this manner, regions comparatively low in X-ray absorption, such as the lungs, and regions comparatively high in absorption, such as the heart, appear as, for example, a blue image and a red image on the color photographic film, respectively. (Takasuka, S.)

  9. A comparison of photographic, replication and direct clinical examination methods for detecting developmental defects of enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakshir Hamid-Reza

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different methods have been used for detecting developmental defects of enamel (DDE. This study aimed to compare photographic and replication methods with the direct clinical examination method for detecting DDE in children's permanent incisors. Methods 110 8-10-year-old schoolchildren were randomly selected from an examined sample of 335 primary Shiraz school children. Modified DDE index was used in all three methods. Direct examinations were conducted by two calibrated examiners using flat oral mirrors and tongue blades. Photographs were taken using a digital SLR camera (Nikon D-80, macro lens, macro flashes, and matt flash filters. Impressions were taken using additional-curing silicon material and casts made in orthodontic stone. Impressions and models were both assessed using dental loupes (magnification=x3.5. Each photograph/impression/cast was assessed by two calibrated examiners. Reliability of methods was assessed using kappa agreement tests. Kappa agreement, McNemar's and two-sample proportion tests were used to compare results obtained by the photographic and replication methods with those obtained by the direct examination method. Results Of the 110 invited children, 90 were photographed and 73 had impressions taken. The photographic method had higher reliability levels than the other two methods, and compared to the direct clinical examination detected significantly more subjects with DDE (P = 0.002, 3.1 times more DDE (P Conclusion The photographic method was much more sensitive than direct clinical examination in detecting DDE and was the best of the three methods for epidemiological studies. The replication method provided less information about DDE compared to photography. Results of this study have implications for both epidemiological and detailed clinical studies on DDE.

  10. Sex equity in French newspaper photographs: A content analysis of 2012 Olympic Games by L'Equipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Nicolas; Testard, Nadège

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to examine sex equity in the photographic coverage of the London 2012 Olympic Games by a French sports daily newspaper. A sample of 1073 photographs was collected and analysed. A content analysis was carried out focusing on the number of photographs, the space they cover, their location and position, the type and colour of shot and the sport they depict. A significant under-representation of female athletes' photographs was found. However, contrary to most of previous research in this field, the other quantitative and qualitative variables do not show any differences. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation between the number of photographs for each sport and the number of French medals was found (for women, for men and for the whole sample), suggesting that the photographic coverage of this event is mainly based on the success of French athletes independently of their sex.

  11. THE USE OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHS TO QUANTIFY VEGETATION GROUND COVER IN DEGRADED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinete Martins Azevedo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at assessing the possibility to use digital photographs to evaluate success of the reclamation of a gravel-mined degraded area. The indicator used to measure success was the degree of vegetation ground cover. Photographs were taken with a Canon camera (model Power Shot A 100. On 11th of October 2003, in a sunny day (without clouds, a total of 24 photographs were taken of the centre of the 24 experimental plots. All the 24 photographs were processed with ENVI 3.5 software following the same procedures appliedto process satellite scenes. In each scene analysed, two classes - vegetation cover and bared soil - were identified with the maximum likelihood algorithm. Results showed that digital photographs can be used in the quantification of vegetation ground cover and that the technique employed in this study can be applied to evaluate methodologies of reclamation of mined areas in which the establishment of vegetation is expected. The technique tested in thisstudy can be employed by government agencies in charge of land reclamation plans because it is efficient in determining vegetation ground cover, is easy to perform and is not expensive.

  12. Absent Histories and Absent Images: Photographs, Museums and the Colonial Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Edwards

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on research in a range of UK museums, this paper explores the visibility and invisibility of the photographic legacy of colonial relations and the representation of the colonial past in museum galleries. It explores the conditions of the ‘invisibility’ and ‘disavowal’ of the colonial past in the historical narrative developed by museums, and the anxieties that cluster around such narratives in a postcolonial and multicultural society. The paper argues that the photographic legacy of the colonial past offers a way into those histories, but it is one that can only be realized through the critical engagement with photographs themselves and the work they might be made to do in museums. As an example, it examines the active and complex role of photographs played in the galleries of the British Empire and Commonwealth Museum, Bristol. It concludes that the failure of museums to integrate colonial pasts into their narratives has worked against the wider liberal agendas to which museums subscribe, and that photographic invisibility is both a symptom of and metaphor for the ‘invisibility’ of the colonial past.

  13. Photographs of "the Sun City": a registry of exposure and concealment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvana Kelly Marques da Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the different media the photograph stands out as an important visual document that establishes the tension between concealment and revelation, crucial to understanding the social and imaginary aspects. The most important relation between photography and tourism is precisely in both don´t being the picture of society, but rather, they are a representation and fragmented memory, capable of continuous interpretations. Photographs are circumscribed by definite social and cultural issues, as there are from a process of creation and assembly consisting of choices and decisions about what deserves to be photographed. This paper discuss the role of photographs of Natal City concatenated to tourism, searching for what is specific that contributed to the construction of tourist landscape in the Natal city and analyzing the ideological elements that motivated its materialization in the spaces of the city. The photographs of Fatos e Fotos magazine published in 1968 will be analyzed through iconographic and iconological observation suggested by Kossoy (2003, 2006, 2009 and directed by dialectical reading of José de Souza Martins (2009, who claims photography’s mediation in the interests immersed at the social life, resulting by the dynamic expression of the exposure, a result of presences and absences that reveal the denials and contradictions of the real world. Finally, means that the landscapes do not exist in themselves while a fixed space, but were consolidated through the discourses and images linked to the hegemonic logic of the capitalist society.

  14. Arnheim's Gestalt theory of visual balance: Examining the compositional structure of art photographs and abstract images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Stöver, Katharina; Kim, Do

    2011-01-01

    In Art and Visual Perception, Rudolf Arnheim, following on from Denman Ross's A Theory of Pure Design, proposed a Gestalt theory of visual composition. The current paper assesses a physicalist interpretation of Arnheim's theory, calculating an image's centre of mass (CoM). Three types of data are used: a large, representative collection of art photographs of recognised quality; croppings by experts and non-experts of photographs; and Ross and Arnheim's procedure of placing a frame around objects such as Arnheim's two black disks. Compared with control images, the CoM of art photographs was closer to an axis (horizontal, vertical, or diagonal), as was the case for photographic croppings. However, stronger, within-image, paired comparison studies, comparing art photographs with the CoM moved on or off an axis (the 'gamma-ramp study'), or comparing adjacent croppings on or off an axis (the 'spider-web study'), showed no support for the Arnheim-Ross theory. Finally, studies moving a frame around two disks, of different size, greyness, or background, did not support Arnheim's Gestalt theory. Although the detailed results did not support the Arnheim-Ross theory, several significant results were found which clearly require explanation by any adequate theory of the aesthetics of visual composition.

  15. Arnheim's Gestalt Theory of Visual Balance: Examining the Compositional Structure of Art Photographs and Abstract Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I C McManus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In Art and Visual Perception, Rudolf Arnheim, following on from Denman Ross's A Theory of Pure Design, proposed a Gestalt theory of visual composition. The current paper assesses a physicalist interpretation of Arnheim's theory, calculating an image's centre of mass (CoM. Three types of data are used: a large, representative collection of art photographs of recognised quality; croppings by experts and non-experts of photographs; and Ross and Arnheim's procedure of placing a frame around objects such as Arnheim's two black disks. Compared with control images, the CoM of art photographs was closer to an axis (horizontal, vertical, or diagonal, as was the case for photographic croppings. However, stronger, within-image, paired comparison studies, comparing art photographs with the CoM moved on or off an axis (the “gamma-ramp study”, or comparing adjacent croppings on or off an axis (the “spider-web study”, showed no support for the Arnheim-Ross theory. Finally, studies moving a frame around two disks, of different size, greyness, or background, did not support Arnheim's Gestalt theory. Although the detailed results did not support the Arnheim-Ross theory, several significant results were found which clearly require explanation by any adequate theory of the aesthetics of visual composition.

  16. Using photographic art to connect researchers with public audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haren, J. L.; Roberts, E.; Fields, J.; Johnson, B.; Saleska, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Communication is a process by which information is exchanged between individuals. Before information can be exchanged both or al parties have to be willing to partake in the communication process. Climate change scientists are still struggling to present their message in part because the general public does not want to hear their message and in part of the personality gap between scientists and the general public (Weiler et al. 2011). This demonstrates the need for communication, through a variety of means, with the general public about who climate change researchers are and what they do, besides the message that they have to convey. This ';feeling' type - relying on personal value and impact of decisions on others- of communication, not common in the scientific community that requires facts, has been suggested to be more effective with the general public (Weiler et al. 2011). We created a multimedia exhibition, which aims to put an intimate human face on science with an approach based on the following ideas: 1) Art initiates the connection between researchers and public audiences through visual stimulation, and 2) The one-on-one experience with a researcher through audio-visual means increases public engagement with climate change science. The exhibition implements these ideas by first, building on the core artistic vision of an artist/photographer who has been accompanying us on field courses and expeditions in the Amazon basin, and second, by bringing the personal voice and stories of students and scientists to the images in which they are represented. Our approach expanded on these themes with a unique twist: we use artistic imagery and video to show the personality of researchers and the process of science. After an image has captured the attention of a visitor, they will be engaged by the intimacy of hearing the scientist explaining how they got there, what they were doing at that particular moment, and why it's relevant and important to the visitor's life

  17. Photographic and video techniques used in the 1/5-scale Mark I boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.; Lord, D.

    1978-03-16

    The report provides a description of the techniques and equipment used for the photographic and video recordings of the air test series conducted on the 1/5 scale Mark I boiling water reactor (BWR) pressure suppression experimental facility at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) between March 4, 1977, and May 12, 1977. Lighting and water filtering are discussed in the photographic system section and are also applicable to the video system. The appendices contain information from the photographic and video camera logs.

  18. Correlation analysis of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Barrera de Azambuja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to correlate alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal and the mesial/distal surfaces of upper molars in rats. Thirty-three, 60-day-old, male Wistar rats were divided in two groups, one treated with alcohol and the other not treated with alcohol. All rats received silk ligatures on the right upper second molars for 4 weeks. The rats were then euthanized and their maxillae were split and defleshed with sodium hypochlorite (9%. The cemento-enamel junction (CEJ was stained with 1% methylene blue and the alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal surfaces was measured linearly in 5 points on standardized digital photographs. Measurement of the proximal sites was performed by sectioning the hemimaxillae, restaining the CEJ and measuring the alveolar bone loss linearly in 3 points. A calibrated and blinded examiner performed all the measurements. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient revealed values of 0.96 and 0.89 for buccal/lingual and proximal surfaces, respectively. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r between measurements in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces was 0.35 and 0.05 for the group treated with alcohol, with and without ligatures, respectively. The best correlations between buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces were observed in animals not treated with alcohol, in sites both with and without ligatures (r = 0.59 and 0.65, respectively. A positive correlation was found between alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces. The correlation is stronger in animals that were not treated with alcohol, in sites without ligatures. Areas with and without ligature-induced periodontal destruction allow detection of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces.

  19. Private portraits or suffering on stage: curating clinical photographic collections in the museum context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Mieneke te Hennepe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Medical photography collections often remind us of the inescapable reality of human suffering and pain, and at the same time they oblige us to deal with questions of ownership and privacy. Medical photography collections are thus considered ‘sensitive’ collections within the museum context. This essay investigates privacy issues involved in the curating of historical photographic collections in museum spaces. When medical photography entered into non-medical domains privacy issues emerged. It is these privacy issues that cast a shadow of sensitivity on the medical material. But the relationship between clinical photograph collections and museums is not as straightforward as it may seem. Personal pictures involve power and privacy, and both aspects play a role in the public display of historical medical photographs, often in unexpected ways.

  20. Photographical observations of planet satellite carried out in MAO NASU in 1961- 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhakevich, E. M.; Kulik, I. V.; Shatohina, S. V.

    2001-10-01

    Intensive photographic observations of the Solar System body were made during the 1961-1990 at Golosiiv. More than 300 photographic plates were obtained for this period. The images of the satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, Uran are available in these plates. The photographic observations of the natural moons were acquired in 1986-1990 at Majdanak. All accumulated plates were remeasured and astrometric positions all available moons were obtained in the ACT and Tyho-2 systems. We present about 900 positions of eight Saturian satellites, Uranium moons Ariel, Umbriel, Oberon, Titanium and Neptunium moon Triton. The differences calculated and theoretical positions were obtained. Mean rms errors of the (O-C) are in the range 0.2-0.3 arcsec.

  1. Performance Test of Automated Photographic Photometer and Photometry of Cluster Byur 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dong-Hwan; Lee, See-Woo; Lee, Hyun-Gon

    1993-12-01

    The Automated Eichner Iris Photometer(AEIP) at the Korea Basic Science Center was tested for its function and the proper procedure for photographic photometry. The AEIP requires about three hours for reaching the electrical stability. When the iris is controlled automatically, the repeatability of density unit(DU) is accurate in the uncertainty of (0.0028~0.0048)DU. The iris reading is found to be accurate within the mean error of 0.05m, which could be reduced to 0.02m by the manual control. To check the applicability of the AEIP, each two photographic plates for UBV colors which were taken by Dupuy and Zukauskas(1976) for the open cluster Byur 2, were measured by using the AEIP, and the photographic magnitudes and colors of the stars in Byur 2 were determined, discussing the previous results.

  2. Imaging the Rural: Modernity and Agrarianism in Hiroshi Hamaya’s ‘Snow Land’ Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Tunney

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Snow Land photographic series by Japanese photographer Hiroshi Hamaya [1915–1999] in relation to issues of modernity, nostalgia and discourses of agrarianism in 1940s and 1950s Japan. Hamaya is one of Japan’s most celebrated and influential documentary photographers at both a national and international level. His Snow Land series presents an idyllic view of life in the small mountain villages of Japan’s Niigata Prefecture, emphasising a sense of community and spiritual meaning that Hamaya perceived to be lacking in modern society. In this sense, Snow Land constituted a critique of modernity. Through engagement with theorists such as Heidegger, Foucault and Barthes, as well as critical writings on agrarian ideology, this article investigates the underlying assumptions that govern Hamaya’s depiction of snow country, demonstrating that the series is shaped by a modern worldview and is tied to ideological discourses of agrarianism.

  3. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  4. Validity and practicability of smartphone-based photographic food records for estimating energy and nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kaimeng; Zhang, Lulu; Huang, Lisu; Tao, Yexuan

    2017-05-01

    Image-assisted dietary assessment methods are frequently used to record individual eating habits. This study tested the validity of a smartphone-based photographic food recording approach by comparing the results obtained with those of a weighed food record. We also assessed the practicality of the method by using it to measure the energy and nutrient intake of college students. The experiment was implemented in two phases, each lasting 2 weeks. In the first phase, a labelled menu and a photograph database were constructed. The energy and nutrient content of 31 randomly selected dishes in three different portion sizes were then estimated by the photograph-based method and compared with a weighed food record. In the second phase, we combined the smartphone-based photographic method with the WeChat smartphone application and applied this to 120 randomly selected participants to record their energy and nutrient intake. The Pearson correlation coefficients for energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate content between the weighed and the photographic food record were 0.997, 0.936, 0.996, and 0.999, respectively. Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between the two methods. The estimated protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake by participants was in accordance with values in the Chinese Residents' Nutrition and Chronic Disease report (2015). Participants expressed satisfaction with the new approach and the compliance rate was 97.5%. The smartphone-based photographic dietary assessment method combined with the WeChat instant messaging application was effective and practical for use by young people.

  5. Pre- and postoperative photographs and surgical outcomes in patients with Lenke type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Akif; Buyuk, Abdul Fettah; Ucpunar, Hanifi; Balioglu, Mehmet Bulent; Kargin, Deniz; Kaygusuz, Mehmet Akif

    2015-04-01

    Clinical study with pre- and postoperative back photographs and postoperative Scoliosis Research Society-22 survey in patients who had undergone surgery for idiopathic scoliosis. To determine the effect of showing patients their photographs before and after surgery for idiopathic scoliosis on postoperative patient satisfaction. After scoliosis surgery, patient satisfaction may be limited because the patients cannot directly see their back and may forget the preoperative appearance. In 60 patients who had undergone surgery for correction of idiopathic scoliosis (Lenke type 1), pre- and postoperative photographs were taken from the anterior, posterior, and right and left lateral views. After surgery, patients in group 1 (30 patients) were shown the preoperative and most recent follow-up photographs, and patients in group 2 (30 patients) had routine evaluation but were not shown their photographs. All patients completed the Scoliosis Research Society-22 survey. Patients in both groups had similar age, sex, distribution of Lenke type and Risser sign, follow-up, and pre- and postoperative Cobb angles and balance (coronal and sagittal). A significant difference was observed between the groups for survey question 10 (which was about self-image), question 18 (which was about function and activity), and question 21 (which was about satisfaction) (P ≤ 0.05). There were no differences between patients in groups 1 and 2 in Scoliosis Research Society-22 domain or total scores. By showing patients the pre- and postoperative clinical photographs, patient satisfaction may be greater, as measured with some SRS-22 scores. This method may enable clinicians to positively change the patients' self-image perception after surgery for correction of scoliosis. 4.

  6. Establishing Base Elements of Perspective in Order to Reconstruct Architectural Buildings from Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwierzynska, Jolanta

    2017-12-01

    The use of perspective images, especially historical photographs for retrieving information about presented architectural environment is a fast developing field recently. The photography image is a perspective image with secure geometrical connection with reality, therefore it is possible to reverse this process. The aim of the herby study is establishing requirements which a photographic perspective representation should meet for a reconstruction purpose, as well as determination of base elements of perspective such as a horizon line and a circle of depth, which is a key issue in any reconstruction. The starting point in the reconstruction process is geometrical analysis of the photograph, especially determination of the kind of perspective projection applied, which is defined by the building location towards a projection plane. Next, proper constructions can be used. The paper addresses the problem of establishing base elements of perspective on the basis of the photograph image in the case when camera calibration is impossible to establish. It presents different geometric construction methods selected dependently on the starting assumptions. Therefore, the methods described in the paper seem to be universal. Moreover, they can be used even in the case of poor quality photographs with poor perspective geometry. Such constructions can be realized with computer aid when the photographs are in digital form as it is presented in the paper. The accuracy of the applied methods depends on the photography image accuracy, as well as drawing accuracy, however, it is sufficient for further reconstruction. Establishing base elements of perspective presented in the paper is especially useful in difficult cases of reconstruction, when one lacks information about reconstructed architectural form and it is necessary to lean on solid geometry.

  7. Review: Irene Ziehle & Ulrich Hägele (Eds. (2004. Fotografien vom Alltag – Fotografieren als Alltag [Photographs of Everyday Life—Taking Photographs in Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Döring

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The reader looks at the meaning of (everyday photographs for ethnography and cultural studies. It deals with the methodological implications of both the photograph as a research object and the taking of photographs as a research method. Some contributions describe selected methods—for example, photo archiving or photo interpretation. Most chapters reconstruct photo practices in everyday life (i.e. the work of photo studios in department stores or sanatoriums or present the results of photo analyses (e.g., family photo albums, photo collections of companies, or photo contributions of magazine readers. The book covers a whole conference and delivers 21 exciting, but fairly heterogeneous chapters; it would have benefited from a tighter structure. The focus is on the 20th and 19th centuries and ample photo material is provided. One thing this book, the first volume of a series on visual culture, does not do is build a bridge to the era of digital photography. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0703181

  8. Un-earthing emotions through art: facilitating reflective practice with poetry and photographic imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapum, Jennifer; Yau, Terrence; Church, Kathryn; Ruttonsha, Perin; David, Alison Matthews

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we comment upon and provide an arts-informed example of an emotive-focused reflection of a health care practitioner. Specifically, we use poetry and photographic imagery as tools to un-earth practitioners' emotions within agonizing and traumatic clinical encounters. In order to recognize one's own humanness and authentically engage in the art of medicine, we immerse ourselves in the first author's poetic and photographic self-reflection. The poem and image are intended to inspire interpretation and meaning based on the reader's own professional and/or personal context. The last line of the poem is "I take off the gloves. My hands are marked."

  9. Detection of coloured tracks of heavy ion particles using photographic colour film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuge, K.; Yasuda, N.; Kumagai, H.; Nakazawa, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Aoki, N.; Hasegawa, A.

    2001-01-01

    A photographic colour film, which was exposed to heavy ions, reveals a coloured dye image of the ion tracks. Since the colour film consists of several layers and different colours appear on each layer, three-dimensional information on the tracks in the layers can be obtained by the colour image. Previously, we have reported the method for which the tracks in different colours represented differences of track depth and we also discussed the disadvantages of using commercial colour films. Here we present the procedure for a self-made photographic coating and the development formula which can overcome the disadvantages

  10. Post-process intensification of photographic silver images, using radioactive compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A method of post-process intensification of silver images on a developed and fixed photographic film or plate is described, comprising the steps of (a) converting silver of the developed film or plate to a radioactive compound by contracting the film or plate with an aqueous alkaline solution of an organo-S 35 compound which reacts selectively with silver in a photographic film or plate; (b) placing the film or plate treated in step (a) in direct contact with a receiver film which is sensitive to beta radiation whereby the receiver film is exposed by radiation from the radioactive compound; and (c) developing and fixing the resulting intensified receiver film. (author)

  11. Digital Restoration from Start to Finish How to repair old and damaged photographs

    CERN Document Server

    Ctein,

    2010-01-01

    Digital Restoration: Start to Finish 2nd edition guides you step-by-step through the entire process of restoring old photographs and repairing new ones using Adobe Photoshop, Picture Window, and now Elements. Nothing is left out, from choosing the right hardware and software and getting the photographs into the computer, to getting the finished photo out of the computer and preserving it for posterity.  LEARN HOW TO: Scan faded and damaged prints or films Improve snapshots with Shadow/Highlight adjustment Correct uneven exposure Fix color and skin tones quickly with Curves, plug-ins, a

  12. An early medical photograph in the history of modern surgery in Tabriz-Iran, 1919.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Ahmadreza

    2014-10-01

    This article presents one of the earliest clinical photographs in the history of surgery in Iran. The picture was taken around 1919 (1297 of the Iranian solar calendar) in Tabriz, Iran. It shows the post-operative care of two amputees by the surgical team, the surgical instruments and the method of applied anesthesia. The patients were Iranian Gendarmerie soldiers who lost their limbs to frostbite. The surgeries were performed by Dr. Ali Roshdi in Gendarmerie Hospital in Tabriz. This photograph cleverly demonstrates the coconscious endeavor of the surgical team to treat and save lives of patients in about a century ago in Tabriz, Iran.

  13. AHP 34: Fading Memories, Faded Lives: Mongghul (Tu Photographs from Qinghai China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limusishiden

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This collection of 131 photos features four introductions that discuss the development of commercial photography in the Huzhu area of Qinghai Province, China; details of photo collection; the social place of photographs within traditional socio-religious cultures; and how photographs are displayed within the home. For each photo there is commentary describing the when and where of their production and the people in each image. Biographic details include ethnicity, language abilities, family ties, educational background, garb and, at times, medical history.

  14. Is face-only photographic view enough for the aesthetic evaluation of breast cancer conservative treatment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, Maria João; Magalhães, André; Almeida, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    The breast cancer conservative treatment. cosmetic results (BCCT.core) is a new software tool created for the automatic and objective evaluation of the aesthetic result of BCCT. It makes use of a face-only photographic view of each patient and might thus have been considered insufficient for an a......The breast cancer conservative treatment. cosmetic results (BCCT.core) is a new software tool created for the automatic and objective evaluation of the aesthetic result of BCCT. It makes use of a face-only photographic view of each patient and might thus have been considered insufficient...

  15. Environmental standards for thermal solar collectors with particular regard to the selective coatings of the absorber surfaces. Final report; Umweltstandards fuer thermische Solarkollektoren unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der selektiven Beschichtung ihrer Absorberoberflaechen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handke, Volker; Kamburow, Christian

    2008-07-15

    There are only out-dated research results on the environmental impact of solar thermal collectors which do not show the state of the art at the moment in this field. Particularly with regard to the long-term resistance and the ageing there are no current scientific findings. There are controversial findings on the different coating technologies with regard to their energy demand, optical performance, environmental impact and long-term resistance. The research project aims on the development of ambitious technical environmental standards to update the ''Marktanreizprogramm'' (market stimulating programme) in accordance with the European laws and regulations on grants and taking into account the technological and market development. The following methods were used: empirical market analysis with manufacturers interviews, investigation of the cumulated energy demand and EcoIndicator 99 values of different collectors, life cycle analysis of different coating technologies in accordance with ISO 14040-42 and examination of the resistance according to Task 10 of the IEA SHC. The following environmental standards are being proposed: the solar thermal generated heat quantity, compliance with the Task 10 resistance requirements, compliance with EN 12975-12977 and Solar Keymark respectively, compliance with RAL UZ 73 as well as a minimum return of 525 kWh/ m2/ year at a solar coverage ratio of more than 40%. To apply these environmental standards it is being proposed to divide the funding within the ''Marktanreizprogramm'' into a basic funding and a funding based on the performance of the collectors. Prerequisite for receiving the basic funding is the compliance with the environmental standards. The basic funding should be differentiated taking into account the different technologies and applications as well as the competitiveness. Furthermore the basic funding should be a precondition for receiving the performance funding. The

  16. Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Calcasieu Lake, Louisiana, to Brownsville, Texas, September 9-10, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.; Karen A. Westphal,

    2016-04-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms (Morgan, 2009). On September 9-10, 2008, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Calcasieu Lake, Louisiana, to Brownsville, Texas, aboard a Cessna C-210 (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,000 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes of the beach and nearshore area, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change.The photographs provided in this report are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. ExifTool was used to add the following to the header of each photo: time of collection, Global Positioning System (GPS) latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist (photographer), caption, copyright, and contact information. The photograph locations are an estimate of the position of the aircraft at the time the photograph was taken and do not indicate the location of any feature in the images (see the Navigation Data page). These photographs document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey. Pages containing thumbnail images of the photographs, referred to as contact sheets, were created in 5-minute segments of flight time. These segments can be found on the Photos and Maps page. Photographs can be opened directly with any JPEG-compatible image viewer by clicking on a thumbnail on the contact sheet.In addition to the photographs, a Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file is provided and can be used to view the images by clicking on the marker and then clicking on either the thumbnail or the link above the thumbnail. The KML file was created using the photographic navigation files. The KML file can be found in the kml folder.

  17. Malaysian NDT standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazali Mohd Zin

    2001-01-01

    In order to become a developed country, Malaysia needs to develop her own national standards. It has been projected that by the year 2020, Malaysia requires about 8,000 standards (Department of Standard Malaysia). Currently more than 2,000 Malaysian Standards have been gazette by the government which considerably too low before tire year 2020. NDT standards have been identified by the standard working group as one of the areas to promote our national standards. In this paper the author describes the steps taken to establish the Malaysian very own NDT standards. The project starts with the establishment of radiographic standards. (Author)

  18. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin after deployment of EASEP on surface of moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, is photographed during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity on the Moon. He has just deployed the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP). In the foreground is the Passive Seismic Experiment Package (PSEP); beyond it is the Laser Ranging RetroReflector (LR-3); in the center background is the United States flag; in the left background is the black and white lunar surface television camera; in the far right background is the Lunar Module. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this photograph with a 70mm lunar surface camera.

  19. Explosive Contamination from Substrate Surfaces: Differences and Similarities in Contamination Techniques Using RDX and C-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. J.; Yoder, T. S.

    2010-06-01

    Explosive trace detection equipment has been deployed to airports for more than a decade. During this time, the need for standardized procedures and calibrated trace amounts for ensuring that the systems are operating properly and detecting the correct explosive has been apparent but a standard representative of a fingerprint has been elusive. Standards are also necessary to evaluate instrumentation in the laboratories during development and prior to deployment to determine sample throughput, probability of detection, false positive/negative rates, ease of use by operator, mechanical and/or software problems that may be encountered, and other pertinent parameters that would result in the equipment being unusable during field operations. Since many laboratories do not have access to nor are allowed to handle explosives, the equipment is tested using techniques aimed at simulating the actual explosives fingerprint. This laboratory study focused on examining the similarities and differences in three different surface contamination techniques that are used to performance test explosive trace detection equipment in an attempt to determine how effective the techniques are at replicating actual field samples and to offer scenarios where each contamination technique is applicable. The three techniques used were dry transfer deposition of standard solutions using the Transportation Security Laboratory’s (TSL) patented dry transfer techniques (US patent 6470730), direct deposition of explosive standards onto substrates, and fingerprinting of actual explosives onto substrates. RDX was deposited on the surface of one of five substrates using one of the three different deposition techniques. The process was repeated for each substrate type using each contamination technique. The substrate types used were: 50% cotton/50% polyester as found in T-shirts, 100% cotton with a smooth surface such as that found in a cotton dress shirt, 100% cotton on a rough surface such as that

  20. DNA ELECTROPHORESIS AT SURFACES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAFAILOVICH, MIRIAM; SOKOLOV, JONATHAN; GERSAPPE, DILIP

    2003-09-01

    During this year we performed two major projects: I. We developed a detailed theoretical model which complements our experiments on surface DNA electrophoresis. We found that it was possible to enhance the separation of DNA chains by imposing a chemical nanoscale pattern on the surface. This approach utilized the surface interaction effect of the DNA chains with the substrate and is a refinement to our previous method in which DNA chains were separated on homogeneous flat surfaces. By introducing the nano-patterns on the surface, the conformational changes of DNA chains of different lengths can be amplified, which results in the different friction strengths with the substrate surface. Our results also show that, when compared to the DNA electrophoresis performed on homogeneous flat surfaces, nanopatterned surfaces offer a larger window in choosing different surface interactions to achieve separation. II. In collaboration with a large international manufacturer of skin care products we also embarked on a project involving photo toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, which are a key ingredient in sunscreen and cosmetic lotions. The results clearly implicated the nanoparticles in catalyzing damage to chromosomal DNA. We then used this knowledge to develop a polymer/anti-oxidant coating which prevented the photocatalytic reaction on DNA while still retaining the UV absorptive properties of the nanoparticles. The standard gel electrophoresis was not sufficient in determining the extent of the DNA damage. The conclusions of this study were based predominantly on analysis obtained with the surface electrophoresis method.