Sample records for surface parameterization schemes

  1. Impact of Urban Surface Roughness Length Parameterization Scheme on Urban Atmospheric Environment Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meichun Cao


    Full Text Available In this paper, the impact of urban surface roughness length z0 parameterization scheme on the atmospheric environment simulation over Beijing has been investigated through two sets of numerical experiments using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the Urban Canopy Model. For the control experiment (CTL, the urban surface z0 parameterization scheme used in UCM is the model default one. For another experiment (EXP, a newly developed urban surface z0 parameterization scheme is adopted, which takes into account the comprehensive effects of urban morphology. The comparison of the two sets of simulation results shows that all the roughness parameters computed from the EXP run are larger than those in the CTL run. The increased roughness parameters in the EXP run result in strengthened drag and blocking effects exerted by buildings, which lead to enhanced friction velocity, weakened wind speed in daytime, and boosted turbulent kinetic energy after sunset. Thermal variables (sensible heat flux and temperature are much less sensitive to z0 variations. In contrast with the CTL run, the EXP run reasonably simulates the observed nocturnal low-level jet. Besides, the EXP run-simulated land surface-atmosphere momentum and heat exchanges are also in better agreement with the observation.

  2. A subgrid parameterization scheme for precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Turner


    Full Text Available With increasing computing power, the horizontal resolution of numerical weather prediction (NWP models is improving and today reaches 1 to 5 km. Nevertheless, clouds and precipitation formation are still subgrid scale processes for most cloud types, such as cumulus and stratocumulus. Subgrid scale parameterizations for water vapor condensation have been in use for many years and are based on a prescribed probability density function (PDF of relative humidity spatial variability within the model grid box, thus providing a diagnosis of the cloud fraction. A similar scheme is developed and tested here. It is based on a prescribed PDF of cloud water variability and a threshold value of liquid water content for droplet collection to derive a rain fraction within the model grid. Precipitation of rainwater raises additional concerns relative to the overlap of cloud and rain fractions, however. The scheme is developed following an analysis of data collected during field campaigns in stratocumulus (DYCOMS-II and fair weather cumulus (RICO and tested in a 1-D framework against large eddy simulations of these observed cases. The new parameterization is then implemented in a 3-D NWP model with a horizontal resolution of 2.5 km to simulate real cases of precipitating cloud systems over France.

  3. Closing the scale gap between land surface parameterizations and GCMs with a new scheme, SiB3-Bins (United States)

    Baker, I. T.; Sellers, P. J.; Denning, A. S.; Medina, I.; Kraus, P.; Haynes, K. D.; Biraud, S. C.


    The interaction of land with the atmosphere is sensitive to soil moisture (W). Evapotranspiration (ET) reacts to soil moisture in a nonlinear way, f(W), as soils dry from saturation to wilt point. This nonlinear behavior and the fact that soil moisture varies on scales as small as 1-10 m in nature, while numerical general circulation models (GCMs) have grid cell sizes on the order of 1 to 100s of kilometers, makes the calculation of grid cell-average ET problematic. It is impractical to simulate the land in GCMs on the small scales seen in nature, so techniques have been developed to represent subgrid scale heterogeneity, including: (1) statistical-dynamical representations of grid subelements of varying wetness, (2) relaxation of f(W), (3) moderating f(W) with approximations of catchment hydrology, (4) "tiling" the landscape into vegetation types, and (5) hyperresolution. Here we present an alternative method for representing subgrid variability in W, one proven in a conceptual framework where landscape-scale W is represented as a series of "Bins" of increasing wetness from dry to saturated. The grid cell-level f(W) is defined by the integral of the fractional area of the wetness bins and the value of f(W) associated with each. This approach accounts for the spatiotemporal dynamics of W. We implemented this approach in the SiB3 land surface parameterization and then evaluated its performance against a control, which assumes a horizontally uniform field of W. We demonstrate that the Bins method, with a physical basis, attenuates unrealistic jumps in model state and ET seen in the control runs.

  4. The performance of different cumulus parameterization schemes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . The loss has been estimated around USD 500 million in economy and. Keywords. Modelling; acuity–fidelity; cumulus parameterization scheme; southern peninsular Malaysia; rainfall. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 121, No. 2, April 2012, pp. 317–327.

  5. Impact of different parameterization schemes on simulation of mesoscale convective system over south-east India (United States)

    Madhulatha, A.; Rajeevan, M.


    Main objective of the present paper is to examine the role of various parameterization schemes in simulating the evolution of mesoscale convective system (MCS) occurred over south-east India. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, numerical experiments are conducted by considering various planetary boundary layer, microphysics, and cumulus parameterization schemes. Performances of different schemes are evaluated by examining boundary layer, reflectivity, and precipitation features of MCS using ground-based and satellite observations. Among various physical parameterization schemes, Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) boundary layer scheme is able to produce deep boundary layer height by simulating warm temperatures necessary for storm initiation; Thompson (THM) microphysics scheme is capable to simulate the reflectivity by reasonable distribution of different hydrometeors during various stages of system; Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ) cumulus scheme is able to capture the precipitation by proper representation of convective instability associated with MCS. Present analysis suggests that MYJ, a local turbulent kinetic energy boundary layer scheme, which accounts strong vertical mixing; THM, a six-class hybrid moment microphysics scheme, which considers number concentration along with mixing ratio of rain hydrometeors; and BMJ, a closure cumulus scheme, which adjusts thermodynamic profiles based on climatological profiles might have contributed for better performance of respective model simulations. Numerical simulation carried out using the above combination of schemes is able to capture storm initiation, propagation, surface variations, thermodynamic structure, and precipitation features reasonably well. This study clearly demonstrates that the simulation of MCS characteristics is highly sensitive to the choice of parameterization schemes.

  6. The performance of different cumulus parameterization schemes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The performance of four different cumulus parameterization schemes (CPS) in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for simulating three heavy rainfall episodes over the southern peninsular Malaysia during the winter monsoon of 2006/2007 were examined. The modelled rainfall was compared with the ...

  7. An intracloud lightning parameterization scheme for a storm electrification model (United States)

    Helsdon, John H., Jr.; Wu, Gang; Farley, Richard D.


    The parameterization of an intracloud lightning discharge has been implemented in the present storm electrification model. The initiation, propagation direction, and termination of the discharge are computed using the magnitude and direction of the electric field vector as the determining criteria. The charge redistribution due to the lightning is approximated assuming the channel to be an isolated conductor with zero net charge over its entire length. Various simulations involving differing amounts of charge transferred and distribution of charges have been done. Values of charge transfer, dipole moment change, and electrical energy dissipation computed in the model are consistent with observations. The effects of the lightning-produced ions on the hydrometeor charges and electric field components depend strongly on the amount of charge transferred. A comparison between the measured electric field change of an actual intracloud flash and the field change due to the simulated discharge shows favorable agreement. Limitations of the parameterization scheme are discussed.

  8. Intercomparison of Martian Lower Atmosphere Simulated Using Different Planetary Boundary Layer Parameterization Schemes (United States)

    Natarajan, Murali; Fairlie, T. Duncan; Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia; Smith, Michael D.


    We use the mesoscale modeling capability of Mars Weather Research and Forecasting (MarsWRF) model to study the sensitivity of the simulated Martian lower atmosphere to differences in the parameterization of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Characterization of the Martian atmosphere and realistic representation of processes such as mixing of tracers like dust depend on how well the model reproduces the evolution of the PBL structure. MarsWRF is based on the NCAR WRF model and it retains some of the PBL schemes available in the earth version. Published studies have examined the performance of different PBL schemes in NCAR WRF with the help of observations. Currently such assessments are not feasible for Martian atmospheric models due to lack of observations. It is of interest though to study the sensitivity of the model to PBL parameterization. Typically, for standard Martian atmospheric simulations, we have used the Medium Range Forecast (MRF) PBL scheme, which considers a correction term to the vertical gradients to incorporate nonlocal effects. For this study, we have also used two other parameterizations, a non-local closure scheme called Yonsei University (YSU) PBL scheme and a turbulent kinetic energy closure scheme called Mellor- Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) PBL scheme. We will present intercomparisons of the near surface temperature profiles, boundary layer heights, and wind obtained from the different simulations. We plan to use available temperature observations from Mini TES instrument onboard the rovers Spirit and Opportunity in evaluating the model results.

  9. Closing the scale gap between land surface parameterizations and GCMs with a new scheme, SiB3-Bins: SOIL MOISTURE SCALE GAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, I. T.; Sellers, P. J.; Denning, A. S.; Medina, I.; Kraus, P.


    The interaction of land with the atmosphere is sensitive to soil moisture (W). Evapotranspiration (ET) reacts to soil moisture in a nonlinear way, f(W), as soils dry from saturation to wilt point. This nonlinear behavior and the fact that soil moisture varies on scales as small as 1–10 m in nature, while numerical general circulation models (GCMs) have grid cell sizes on the order of 1 to 100s of kilometers, makes the calculation of grid cell-average ET problematic. It is impractical to simulate the land in GCMs on the small scales seen in nature, so techniques have been developed to represent subgrid scale heterogeneity, including: (1) statistical-dynamical representations of grid subelements of varying wetness, (2) relaxation of f(W), (3) moderating f(W) with approximations of catchment hydrology, (4) “tiling” the landscape into vegetation types, and (5) hyperresolution. Here we present an alternative method for representing subgrid variability in W, one proven in a conceptual framework where landscape-scale W is represented as a series of “Bins” of increasing wetness from dry to saturated. The grid cell-level f(W) is defined by the integral of the fractional area of the wetness bins and the value of f(W) associated with each. This approach accounts for the spatiotemporal dynamics of W. We implemented this approach in the SiB3 land surface parameterization and then evaluated its performance against a control, which assumes a horizontally uniform field of W. We demonstrate that the Bins method, with a physical basis, attenuates unrealistic jumps in model state and ET seen in the control runs.

  10. Inclusion of Solar Elevation Angle in Land Surface Albedo Parameterization Over Bare Soil Surface. (United States)

    Zheng, Zhiyuan; Wei, Zhigang; Wen, Zhiping; Dong, Wenjie; Li, Zhenchao; Wen, Xiaohang; Zhu, Xian; Ji, Dong; Chen, Chen; Yan, Dongdong


    Land surface albedo is a significant parameter for maintaining a balance in surface energy. It is also an important parameter of bare soil surface albedo for developing land surface process models that accurately reflect diurnal variation characteristics and the mechanism behind the solar spectral radiation albedo on bare soil surfaces and for understanding the relationships between climate factors and spectral radiation albedo. Using a data set of field observations, we conducted experiments to analyze the variation characteristics of land surface solar spectral radiation and the corresponding albedo over a typical Gobi bare soil underlying surface and to investigate the relationships between the land surface solar spectral radiation albedo, solar elevation angle, and soil moisture. Based on both solar elevation angle and soil moisture measurements simultaneously, we propose a new two-factor parameterization scheme for spectral radiation albedo over bare soil underlying surfaces. The results of numerical simulation experiments show that the new parameterization scheme can more accurately depict the diurnal variation characteristics of bare soil surface albedo than the previous schemes. Solar elevation angle is one of the most important factors for parameterizing bare soil surface albedo and must be considered in the parameterization scheme, especially in arid and semiarid areas with low soil moisture content. This study reveals the characteristics and mechanism of the diurnal variation of bare soil surface solar spectral radiation albedo and is helpful in developing land surface process models, weather models, and climate models.

  11. Prediction of heavy rainfall over Chennai Metropolitan City, Tamil Nadu, India: Impact of microphysical parameterization schemes (United States)

    Singh, K. S.; Bonthu, Subbareddy; Purvaja, R.; Robin, R. S.; Kannan, B. A. M.; Ramesh, R.


    This study attempts to investigate the real-time prediction of a heavy rainfall event over the Chennai Metropolitan City, Tamil Nadu, India that occurred on 01 December 2015 using Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model. The study evaluates the impact of six microphysical (Lin, WSM6, Goddard, Thompson, Morrison and WDM6) parameterization schemes of the model on prediction of heavy rainfall event. In addition, model sensitivity has also been evaluated with six Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) and two Land Surface Model (LSM) schemes. Model forecast was carried out using nested domain and the impact of model horizontal grid resolutions were assessed at 9 km, 6 km and 3 km. Analysis of the synoptic features using National Center for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System (NCEP-GFS) analysis data revealed strong upper-level divergence and high moisture content at lower level were favorable for the occurrence of heavy rainfall event over the northeast coast of Tamil Nadu. The study signified that forecasted rainfall was more sensitive to the microphysics and PBL schemes compared to the LSM schemes. The model provided better forecast of the heavy rainfall event using the logical combination of Goddard microphysics, YSU PBL and Noah LSM schemes, and it was mostly attributed to timely initiation and development of the convective system. The forecast with different horizontal resolutions using cumulus parameterization indicated that the rainfall prediction was not well represented at 9 km and 6 km. The forecast with 3 km horizontal resolution provided better prediction in terms of timely initiation and development of the event. The study highlights that forecast of heavy rainfall events using a high-resolution mesoscale model with suitable representations of physical parameterization schemes are useful for disaster management and planning to minimize the potential loss of life and property.

  12. Delivery of parameterization schemes for the determination of the regional evapotranspiration of different land surfaces. Final report; Bereitstellung von Parameterisierungsverfahren zur Bestimmung der regionalen Verdunstung verschiedener Landoberflaechen. Abschlussbericht 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenel, H.D.; Loepmeier, F.J.


    The task was the delivery of parameterization schemes for the calculation of the regional evapotranspiration of different land surfaces. The main weight was on the discussion of existing approaches and on the development of new ones for the calculation of evapotranspiration. After consideration of different concepts the well-known Penman-Monteith equation proved to the optimal basis of calculation. The surface resistance, respectively the related bulk-stomata resistance, is an important part of the resistance pattern (analogous to Ohm`s law) on which the Penman-Monteith equation is based. Under consideration of the dependence of these resistances of the spatial scale (leaf, canopy) as well as of the time scale (hour, day) possibilities for their estimation were discussed. An important step to determine the surface resistances from literature data of vegetation evapotranspiration was the development of a converting scheme of Haude`s factors to surface resistances. For bare soil an approach was developed which allows approximately to give a new interpretation to surface resistances from evapotranspiration courses, described in literature as proportional to the square root of time. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Aufgabenstellung bestand in der Bereitstellung von Parametrisierungsverfahren zur Bestimmung der regionalen Verdunstung verschiedener Landoberflaechen. Dabei lag das Schwergewicht auf der Diskussion bereits bestehender und der Entwicklung neuer Ansaetze zur Berechnung der Verdunstung. Nach der Betrachtung unterschiedlicher Konzepte erwies sich die bekannte Penman-Monteith-Gleichung als optimale Berechnungsgrundlage. Ein wesentlicher Bestandteil des der Penman-Monteith-Gleichung zugrundeliegenden Widerstandsschemas (Analogie zum Ohmschen Gesetz) ist der Oberflaechenwiderstand bzw. der damit verwandte Bulk-Stomatawiderstand. Unter Beruecksichtigung der Abhaengigkeit dieser Widerstaende sowohl von der raeumlichen Skala (Blatt/Bestand) als auch von der zeitlichen Skala

  13. evaluation of land surface temperature parameterization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Smith and Blackall, [14], SM) has been used .... characterized by weak wind (< 3.0 ms-1) and the results of the validated Ts parameterizations for this site ... area where low-wind speed is prevalent. The GO slightly underestimated Ts during the early ...

  14. Multi-sensor remote sensing parameterization of heat fluxes over heterogeneous land surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faivre, R.D.


    The parameterization of heat transfer by remote sensing, and based on SEBS scheme for turbulent heat fluxes retrieval, already proved to be very convenient for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) over homogeneous land surfaces. However, the use of such a method over heterogeneous landscapes (e.g.

  15. The development and evaluation of new runoff parameterization representations coupled with Noah Land Surface Model (United States)

    Zheng, Z.; Zhang, W.; Xu, J.


    As a key component of the global water cycle, runoff plays an important role in earth climate system by affecting the land surface water and energy balance. Realistic runoff parameterization within land surface model (LSM) is significant for accurate land surface modeling and numerical weather and climate prediction. Hence, optimization and refinement of runoff formulation in LSM can further improve model predictive capability of surface-to-atmosphere fluxes which influences the complex interactions between the land surface and atmosphere. Moreover, the performance of runoff simulation in LSM would essential to drought and flood prediction and warning. In this study, a new runoff parameterization named XXT (Xin'anjiang x TOPMODEL) was developed by introducing the water table depth into the soil moisture storage capacity distribution curve (SMSCC) from Xin'anjiang model for surface runoff calculation improvement and then integrating with a TOPMODEL-based groundwater scheme. Several studies had already found a strong correlation between the water table depth and land surface processes. In this runoff parameterization, the dynamic variation of surface and subsurface runoff calculation is connected in a systematic way through the change of water table depth. The XXT runoff parameterization was calibrated and validated with datasets both from observation and Weather Research & Forecasting model (WRF) outputs, the results with high Nash-efficiency coefficient indicated that it has reliable capability of runoff simulation in different climate regions. After model test, the XXT runoff parameterization is coupled with the unified Noah LSM 3.2 instead of simple water balance model (SWB) in order to alleviate the runoff simulating bias which may lead to poor energy partition and evaporation. The impact of XXT is investigated through application of a whole year (1998) simulation at surface flux site of Champaign, Illinois (40.01°N, 88.37°W). The results show that Noah

  16. Role of Cumulus Parameterization Scheme on the Diurnal Cycle of Precipitation over Southeast Asia in RegCM4 (United States)

    Lui, Yuk Sing; Tam, Chi Yung Francis; Au-Yeung, Yee Man


    This study examines the sensitivity of precipitation simulations over the CORDEX-Southeast Asia (SEA) domain to the cumulus convection scheme used in the Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4). With the ERA-interim reanalysis as lateral boundary conditions, model integrations using the MIT-Emanuel cumulus parameterization scheme, and those using a "mixed convection scheme" (namely with the MIT-Emanuel scheme over ocean and the Grell scheme with Arakawa Schubert-type closure over land), have been carried out for the 2001-2010 period. On the seasonal average, the use of the mixed convection scheme, in comparison to MIT-Emanuel scheme everywhere, improves rainfall simulations over the South China Sea (SCS) by reducing the summer-time wet bias there. On the other hand, runs with the mixed convection scheme under(over)-estimate rainfall over land in Southeastern China (western coastlines of Indochina and the Philippines). For the diurnal variation of precipitation, it is found that the RegCM4 can reproduce well the characteristics of the diurnal cycle (DC) in SEA. Compared with the mixed convection scheme, the MIT-Emanual scheme performs better in reproducing the amplitude and phase of DC over the landside coastal area of Indochina during summer. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis indicates that switching from the MIT-Emanuel scheme to the mixed convection scheme leads to a reduction in importance of the second EOF mode, which corresponds to rainfall peaked in the afternoon (local time). Further analyses reveal that such underestimation is related to increased cloud cover in RegCM4 using the mixed convection scheme; enhanced cloudiness in turn leads to reduced surface air temperature over land and thus reduced convective instability at 1200 and 1500 local time in the model simulations.

  17. Incorporating the subgrid-scale variability of clouds in the autoconversion parameterization using a PDF-scheme (United States)

    Weber, T.; Quaas, J.


    An investigation of the impact of the subgrid-scale variability of cloud liquid water on the autoconversion process as parameterized in a general circulation model is presented in this paper. For this purpose, a prognostic statistical probability density distribution (PDF) of the subgrid scale variability of cloud water is incorporated in a continuous autoconversion parameterization. Thus, the revised autoconversion rate is calculated by an integral of the autoconversion equation over the PDF of total water mixing ratio from the saturation vapor mixing ratio to the maximum of total water mixing ratio. An evaluation of the new autoconversion parameterization is carried out by means of one year simulations with the ECHAM5 climate model. The results indicate that the new autoconversion scheme causes an increase of the frequency of occurrence of high autoconversion rates and a decrease of low ones compared to the original scheme. This expected result is due to the emphasis on areas of high cloud liquid water in the new approach, and the non-linearity of the autoconversion with respect to liquid water mixing ratio. A similar trend as in the autoconversion is observed in the accretion process resulting from the coupling of both processes. As a consequence of the altered autoconversion, large-scale surface precipitation also shows a shift of occurrence from lower to higher rates. The vertically integrated cloud liquid water estimated by the model shows slight improvements compared to satellite data. Most importantly, the artificial tuning factor for autoconversion in the continuous parameterization could be reduced by almost an order of magnitude using the revised parameterization.

  18. Assessment of the turbulence parameterization schemes for the Martian mesoscale simulations (United States)

    Temel, Orkun; Karatekin, Ozgur; Van Beeck, Jeroen


    Turbulent transport within the Martian atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is one of the most important physical processes in the Martian atmosphere due to the very thin structure of Martian atmosphere and super-adiabatic conditions during the diurnal cycle [1]. The realistic modeling of turbulent fluxes within the Martian ABL has a crucial effect on the many physical phenomena including dust devils [2], methane dispersion [3] and nocturnal jets [4]. Moreover, the surface heat and mass fluxes, which are related with the mass transport within the sub-surface of Mars, are being computed by the turbulence parameterization schemes. Therefore, in addition to the possible applications within the Martian boundary layer, parameterization of turbulence has an important effect on the biological research on Mars including the investigation of water cycle or sub-surface modeling. In terms of the turbulence modeling approaches being employed for the Martian ABL, the "planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes" have been applied not only for the global circulation modeling but also for the mesoscale simulations [5]. The PBL schemes being used for Mars are the variants of the PBL schemes which had been developed for the Earth and these schemes are either based on the empirical determination of turbulent fluxes [6] or based on solving a one dimensional turbulent kinetic energy equation [7]. Even though, the Large Eddy Simulation techniques had also been applied with the regional models for Mars, it must be noted that these advanced models also use the features of these traditional PBL schemes for sub-grid modeling [8]. Therefore, assessment of these PBL schemes is vital for a better understanding the atmospheric processes of Mars. In this framework, this present study is devoted to the validation of different turbulence modeling approaches for the Martian ABL in comparison to Viking Lander [9] and MSL [10] datasets. The GCM/Mesoscale code being used is the PlanetWRF, the extended version

  19. Firefly Algorithm for Polynomial Bézier Surface Parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Gálvez


    reality, medical imaging, computer graphics, computer animation, and many others. Very often, the preferred approximating surface is polynomial, usually described in parametric form. This leads to the problem of determining suitable parametric values for the data points, the so-called surface parameterization. In real-world settings, data points are generally irregularly sampled and subjected to measurement noise, leading to a very difficult nonlinear continuous optimization problem, unsolvable with standard optimization techniques. This paper solves the parameterization problem for polynomial Bézier surfaces by applying the firefly algorithm, a powerful nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithm introduced recently to address difficult optimization problems. The method has been successfully applied to some illustrative examples of open and closed surfaces, including shapes with singularities. Our results show that the method performs very well, being able to yield the best approximating surface with a high degree of accuracy.

  20. Performance evaluation of dispersion parameterization schemes in the plume simulation of FFT-07 diffusion experiment (United States)

    Pandey, Gavendra; Sharan, Maithili


    Application of atmospheric dispersion models in air quality analysis requires a proper representation of the vertical and horizontal growth of the plume. For this purpose, various schemes for the parameterization of dispersion parameters σ‧s are described in both stable and unstable conditions. These schemes differ on the use of (i) extent of availability of on-site measurements (ii) formulations developed for other sites and (iii) empirical relations. The performance of these schemes is evaluated in an earlier developed IIT (Indian Institute of Technology) dispersion model with the data set in single and multiple releases conducted at Fusion Field Trials, Dugway Proving Ground, Utah 2007. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the relative performance of all the schemes is carried out in both stable and unstable conditions in the light of (i) peak/maximum concentrations, and (ii) overall concentration distribution. The blocked bootstrap resampling technique is adopted to investigate the statistical significance of the differences in performances of each of the schemes by computing 95% confidence limits on the parameters FB and NMSE. The various analysis based on some selected statistical measures indicated consistency in the qualitative and quantitative performances of σ schemes. The scheme which is based on standard deviation of wind velocity fluctuations and Lagrangian time scales exhibits a relatively better performance in predicting the peak as well as the lateral spread.

  1. An efficient physically based parameterization to derive surface solar irradiance based on satellite atmospheric products (United States)

    Qin, Jun; Tang, Wenjun; Yang, Kun; Lu, Ning; Niu, Xiaolei; Liang, Shunlin


    Surface solar irradiance (SSI) is required in a wide range of scientific researches and practical applications. Many parameterization schemes are developed to estimate it using routinely measured meteorological variables, since SSI is directly measured at a very limited number of stations. Even so, meteorological stations are still sparse, especially in remote areas. Remote sensing can be used to map spatiotemporally continuous SSI. Considering the huge amount of satellite data, coarse-resolution SSI has been estimated for reducing the computational burden when the estimation is based on a complex radiative transfer model. On the other hand, many empirical relationships are used to enhance the retrieval efficiency, but the accuracy cannot be guaranteed out of regions where they are locally calibrated. In this study, an efficient physically based parameterization is proposed to balance computational efficiency and retrieval accuracy for SSI estimation. In this parameterization, the transmittances for gases, aerosols, and clouds are all handled in full band form and the multiple reflections between the atmosphere and surface are explicitly taken into account. The newly proposed parameterization is applied to estimate SSI with both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) atmospheric and land products as inputs. These retrievals are validated against in situ measurements at the Surface Radiation Budget Network and at the North China Plain on an instantaneous basis, and moreover, they are validated and compared with Global Energy and Water Exchanges-Surface Radiation Budget and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project-flux data SSI estimates at radiation stations of China Meteorological Administration on a daily mean basis. The estimation results indicates that the newly proposed SSI estimation scheme can effectively retrieve SSI based on MODIS products with mean root-mean-square errors of about 100 Wm- 1 and 35 Wm- 1 on an instantaneous and daily

  2. Observations of surface momentum exchange over the marginal-ice-zone and recommendations for its parameterization (United States)

    Elvidge, A. D.; Renfrew, I. A.; Weiss, A. I.; Brooks, I. M.; Lachlan-Cope, T. A.; King, J. C.


    Comprehensive aircraft observations are used to characterise surface roughness over the Arctic marginal ice zone (MIZ) and consequently make recommendations for the parameterization of surface momentum exchange in the MIZ. These observations were gathered in the Barents Sea and Fram Strait from two aircraft as part of the Aerosol-Cloud Coupling And Climate Interactions in the Arctic (ACCACIA) project. They represent a doubling of the total number of such aircraft observations currently available over the Arctic MIZ. The eddy covariance method is used to derive estimates of the 10 m neutral drag coefficient (CDN10) from turbulent wind velocity measurements, and a novel method using albedo and surface temperature is employed to derive ice fraction. Peak surface roughness is found at ice fractions in the range 0.6 to 0.8 (with a mean interquartile range in CDN10 of 1.25 to 2.85 × 10-3). CDN10 as a function of ice fraction is found to be well approximated by the negatively skewed distribution provided by a leading parameterization scheme (Lüpkes et al., 2012) tailored for sea ice drag over the MIZ in which the two constituent components of drag - skin and form drag - are separately quantified. Current parameterization schemes used in the weather and climate models are compared with our results and the majority are found to be physically unjustified and unrepresentative. The Lüpkes et al. (2012) scheme is recommended in a computationally simple form, with adjusted parameter settings. A good agreement is found to hold for subsets of the data from different locations despite differences in sea ice conditions. Ice conditions in the Barents Sea, characterised by small, unconsolidated ice floes, are found to be associated with higher CDN10 values - especially at the higher ice fractions - than those of Fram Strait, where typically larger, smoother floes are observed. Consequently, the important influence of sea ice morphology and floe size on surface roughness is

  3. An improved snow scheme for the ECMWF land surface model: Description and offline validation (United States)

    Emanuel Dutra; Gianpaolo Balsamo; Pedro Viterbo; Pedro M. A. Miranda; Anton Beljaars; Christoph Schar; Kelly Elder


    A new snow scheme for the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) land surface model has been tested and validated. The scheme includes a new parameterization of snow density, incorporating a liquid water reservoir, and revised formulations for the subgrid snow cover fraction and snow albedo. Offline validation (covering a wide range of spatial and...

  4. Improvement in the Modeled Representation of North American Monsoon Precipitation Using a Modified Kain–Fritsch Convective Parameterization Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thang M. Luong


    Full Text Available A commonly noted problem in the simulation of warm season convection in the North American monsoon region has been the inability of atmospheric models at the meso-β scales (10 s to 100 s of kilometers to simulate organized convection, principally mesoscale convective systems. With the use of convective parameterization, high precipitation biases in model simulations are typically observed over the peaks of mountain ranges. To address this issue, the Kain–Fritsch (KF cumulus parameterization scheme has been modified with new diagnostic equations to compute the updraft velocity, the convective available potential energy closure assumption, and the convective trigger function. The scheme has been adapted for use in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF. A numerical weather prediction-type simulation is conducted for the North American Monsoon Experiment Intensive Observing Period 2 and a regional climate simulation is performed, by dynamically downscaling. In both of these applications, there are notable improvements in the WRF model-simulated precipitation due to the better representation of organized, propagating convection. The use of the modified KF scheme for atmospheric model simulations may provide a more computationally economical alternative to improve the representation of organized convection, as compared to convective-permitting simulations at the kilometer scale or a super-parameterization approach.

  5. Improvement in the Modeled Representation of North American Monsoon Precipitation Using a Modified Kain–Fritsch Convective Parameterization Scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Luong, Thang


    A commonly noted problem in the simulation of warm season convection in the North American monsoon region has been the inability of atmospheric models at the meso-β scales (10 s to 100 s of kilometers) to simulate organized convection, principally mesoscale convective systems. With the use of convective parameterization, high precipitation biases in model simulations are typically observed over the peaks of mountain ranges. To address this issue, the Kain–Fritsch (KF) cumulus parameterization scheme has been modified with new diagnostic equations to compute the updraft velocity, the convective available potential energy closure assumption, and the convective trigger function. The scheme has been adapted for use in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF). A numerical weather prediction-type simulation is conducted for the North American Monsoon Experiment Intensive Observing Period 2 and a regional climate simulation is performed, by dynamically downscaling. In both of these applications, there are notable improvements in the WRF model-simulated precipitation due to the better representation of organized, propagating convection. The use of the modified KF scheme for atmospheric model simulations may provide a more computationally economical alternative to improve the representation of organized convection, as compared to convective-permitting simulations at the kilometer scale or a super-parameterization approach.

  6. Air–lake boundary layer and performance of a simple lake parameterization scheme over the Tibetan highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Wen


    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau (TP is covered by thousands of lakes which affect the regional and global heat and mass budget with important implications for the current and future climate change. However, the heat and mass budget of TP lakes and the performance of contemporary lake models over TP have not been quantified to date. We utilise 3-yr observations from Ngoring Lake, the largest lake in the Yellow River source region of TP, to investigate the typical properties of the lake–air boundary layer and to evaluate the performance of a simplified lake scheme from the Community Land Model version 4.5 (SLCLM as one of the most popular lake parameterization schemes in atmospheric models. The strong boundary layer instability during the entire open-water period is a distinguishing feature of the air–lake exchange, similar to the situation over tropical and subtropical lakes, while contrasting to the generally stable atmospheric conditions commonly observed over ice-free temperate and boreal lakes from spring to summer. The rather simple algorithm of SLCLM demonstrated good performance in these conditions. A series of sensitivity simulations with SLCLM revealed strong shortwave solar radiation and cold air temperatures because of high altitude as the primary factors causing the boundary layer instability. The outcomes of the study (1 demonstrate the role of TP lakes as accumulators of shortwave solar radiation releasing the heat into the atmosphere during the entire open-water period; (2 justify the use of simple lake models for the Tibetan highlands, while revealing remarkable uncertainties in the estimations of the latent heat flux; (3 qualify the strong cool-skin effect on the lake surface which results from permanent negative air–lake temperature difference, and should be taken into account when interpreting remote sensing data from highland areas.

  7. Characteristics of different convective parameterization schemes on the simulation of intensity and track of severe extratropical cyclones over North Atlantic (United States)

    Pradhan, P. K.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Ferreira, Juan A.; Dasamsetti, S.; Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, S.


    The role of the convective parameterization schemes (CPSs) in the ARW-WRF (WRF) mesoscale model is examined for extratropical cyclones (ETCs) over the North Atlantic Ocean. The simulation of very severe winter storms such as Xynthia (2010) and Gong (2013) are considered in this study. Most popular CPSs within WRF model, along with Yonsei University (YSU) planetary boundary layer (PBL) and WSM6 microphysical parameterization schemes are incorporated for the model experiments. For each storm, four numerical experiments were carried out using New Kain Fritsch (NKF), Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ), Grell 3D Ensemble (Gr3D) and no convection scheme (NCS) respectively. The prime objectives of these experiments were to recognize the best CPS that can forecast the intensity, track, and landfall over the Iberian Peninsula in advance of two days. The WRF model results such as central sea level pressure (CSLP), wind field, moisture flux convergence, geopotential height, jet stream, track and precipitation have shown sensitivity CPSs. The 48-hour lead simulations with BMJ schemes produce the best simulations both regarding ETCs intensity and track than Gr3D and NKF schemes. The average MAE and RMSE of intensities are least that (6.5 hPa in CSLP and 3.4 ms- 1 in the 10-m wind) found in BMJ scheme. The MAE and RMSE for and intensity and track error have revealed that NCS produces large errors than other CPSs experiments. However, for track simulation of these ETCs, at 72-, 48- and 24-hour means track errors were 440, 390 and 158 km respectively. In brevity, BMJ and Gr3D schemes can be used for short and medium range predictions of the ETCs over North Atlantic. For the evaluation of precipitation distributions using Gr3D scheme are good agreement with TRMM satellite than other CPSs.

  8. Sensitivity of tropical cyclones to resolution, convection scheme and ocean flux parameterization over Eastern Tropical Pacific and Tropical North Atlantic Oceans in the RegCM4 model (United States)

    Fuentes-Franco, Ramón; Giorgi, Filippo; Coppola, Erika; Zimmermann, Klaus


    The sensitivity of simulated tropical cyclones (TCs) to resolution, convection scheme and ocean surface flux parameterization is investigated with a regional climate model (RegCM4) over the CORDEX Central America domain, including the Tropical North Atlantic (TNA) and Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) basins. Simulations for the TC seasons of the ten-year period (1989-1998) driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis fields are completed using 50 and 25 km grid spacing, two convection schemes (Emanuel, Em; and Kain-Fritsch, KF) and two ocean surface flux representations, a Monin-Obukhov scheme available in the BATS land surface package (Dickinson et al. 1993), and the scheme of Zeng et al. (J Clim 11(10):2628-2644, 1998). The model performance is assessed against observed TC characteristics for the simulation period. In general, different sensitivities are found over the two basins investigated. The simulations using the KF scheme show higher TC density, longer TC duration (up to 15 days) and stronger peak winds (>50 ms-1) than those using Em (<40 ms-1). All simulations show a better spatial representation of simulated TC density and interannual variability over the TNA than over the ETP. The 25 km resolution simulations show greater TC density, duration and intensity compared to the 50 km resolution ones, especially over the ETP basin, and generally more in line with observations. Simulated TCs show a strong sensitivity to ocean fluxes, especially over the TNA basin, with the Monin-Obukhov scheme leading to an overestimate of the TC number, and the Zeng scheme being closer to observations. All simulations capture the density of cyclones during active TC seasons over the TNA, however, without data assimilation, the tracks of individual events do not match closely the corresponding observed ones. Overall, the best model performance is obtained when using the KF and Zeng schemes at 25 km grid spacing.

  9. A New Accurate Finite-Difference Scheme Based on the Optimally Accurate Operators and Boundary-Condition Consistent Material Parameterization (United States)

    Kristek, J.; Moczo, P.; Galis, M.


    Geller and Takeuchi (1995) developed optimally accurate finite-difference (FD) operators. The operators minimize the error of the numerical solution of the discretized equation of motion. The criterion for obtaining the optimally accurate operators requires that the leading term of the truncation error of the discretized homogeneous (without body-force term) equation of motion (that is if operand is an eigenfunction and frequency is equal to eigenfrequency) is zero. Consequently, the optimally accurate operators satisfy (up to the leading term of the truncation error) homogeneous equation of motion. The grid dispersion of an optimally accurate FD scheme is significantly smaller than that of a standard FD scheme. A heterogeneous FD scheme cannot be anything else than a FD approximation to the heterogeneous formulation of the equation of motion (the same form of the equation for a point away from a material discontinuity and a point at the material discontinuity). If an optimally accurate FD scheme for heterogeneous media is to be obtained, the optimally accurate operators have to be applied to the heterogeneous formulation of the equation of motion. Moczo et al. (2002) found a heterogeneous formulation and developed a FD scheme based on standard staggered-grid 4th-order operators. The scheme is capable to sense both smooth material heterogeneity and material discontinuity at any position in a spatial grid. We present a new FD scheme that combines optimally accurate operators of Geller and Takeuchi (1995) with a material parameterization of Moczo et al. (2002). Models of a single material discontinuity, interior constant-velocity layer, and interior layer with the velocity gradient were calculated with the new scheme, conventional-operator scheme and analytically. Numerical results clearly isolate and demonstrate effects of the boundary and grid dispersion. The results demonstrate significant accuracy improvement compared to previous FD schemes.

  10. Comprehensive assessment of parameterization methods for estimating clear-sky surface downward longwave radiation (United States)

    Guo, Yamin; Cheng, Jie; Liang, Shunlin


    Surface downward longwave radiation (SDLR) is a key variable for calculating the earth's surface radiation budget. In this study, we evaluated seven widely used clear-sky parameterization methods using ground measurements collected from 71 globally distributed fluxnet sites. The Bayesian model averaging (BMA) method was also introduced to obtain a multi-model ensemble estimate. As a whole, the parameterization method of Carmona et al. (2014) performs the best, with an average BIAS, RMSE, and R 2 of - 0.11 W/m2, 20.35 W/m2, and 0.92, respectively, followed by the parameterization methods of Idso (1981), Prata (Q J R Meteorol Soc 122:1127-1151, 1996), Brunt and Sc (Q J R Meteorol Soc 58:389-420, 1932), and Brutsaert (Water Resour Res 11:742-744, 1975). The accuracy of the BMA is close to that of the parameterization method of Carmona et al. (2014) and comparable to that of the parameterization method of Idso (1981). The advantage of the BMA is that it achieves balanced results compared to the integrated single parameterization methods. To fully assess the performance of the parameterization methods, the effects of climate type, land cover, and surface elevation were also investigated. The five parameterization methods and BMA all failed over land with the tropical climate type, with high water vapor, and had poor results over forest, wetland, and ice. These methods achieved better results over desert, bare land, cropland, and grass and had acceptable accuracies for sites at different elevations, except for the parameterization method of Carmona et al. (2014) over high elevation sites. Thus, a method that can be successfully applied everywhere does not exist.

  11. Assessment of the weather research and forecasting model generalized parameterization schemes for advancement of precipitation forecasting in monsoon-driven river basins (United States)

    Sikder, Safat; Hossain, Faisal


    Some of the world's largest and flood-prone river basins experience a seasonal flood regime driven by the monsoon weather system. Highly populated river basins with extensive rain-fed agricultural productivity such as the Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, and Mekong are examples of monsoon-driven river basins. It is therefore appropriate to investigate how precipitation forecasts from numerical models can advance flood forecasting in these basins. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting model was used to evaluate downscaling of coarse-resolution global precipitation forecasts from a numerical weather prediction model. Sensitivity studies were conducted using the TOPSIS analysis to identify the likely best set of microphysics and cumulus parameterization schemes, and spatial resolution from a total set of 15 combinations. This identified best set can pinpoint specific parameterizations needing further development to advance flood forecasting in monsoon-dominated regimes. It was found that the Betts-Miller-Janjic cumulus parameterization scheme with WRF Single-Moment 5-class, WRF Single-Moment 6-class, and Thompson microphysics schemes exhibited the most skill in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basins. Finer spatial resolution (3 km) without cumulus parameterization schemes did not yield significant improvements. The short-listed set of the likely best microphysics-cumulus parameterization configurations was found to also hold true for the Indus basin. The lesson learned from this study is that a common set of model parameterization and spatial resolution exists for monsoon-driven seasonal flood regimes at least in South Asian river basins.

  12. Patterns and signatures characterizing the partitioning of precipitation into evapotranspiration and runoff in land surface parameterizations (United States)

    Yang, Z. L.; Zheng, H.; Lin, P.; Wei, J.; Li, L.; Wu, W. Y.; Zhao, L.; Wang, S.


    Quantifying how climate and land surface processes drive the partitioning of precipitation into evapotranspiration (ET) and runoff (R) is important for improving our predictive capability of climate-land interactions. To this end, this study focuses on quantifying the sensitivity of parameterizations for runoff, β-factor, turbulence, and stomatal conductance by employing the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and a 48-member ensemble from the Noah LSM with multi-parameterization (Noah-MP). All 48 Noah-MP simulations systematically overestimate ET and underestimate R in Florida, eastern Texas, and Nebraska, which precisely coincide with the sand distribution from NLDAS, suggesting a need to augment Noah-MP's sand parameters. The impacts of the selected parameterizations on the precipitation partitioning are climate-dependent. The stomatal conductance parameterizations are dominant in humid regions, while the runoff parameterizations are dominant in arid and semi-arid regions. Under snow conditions, incorporating a groundwater module significantly damps the modeled runoff peak and delays the timing. These parameterizations have a direct and seasonal influence on ET, but their influences on R are indirect and cross-seasonal.

  13. Hygroscopic growth and activation of HULIS particles: experimental data and a new iterative parameterization scheme for complex aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Massling


    Full Text Available The hygroscopic growth and activation of two HULIS (HUmic LIke Substance and one Aerosol-Water-Extract sample, prepared from urban-type aerosol, were investigated. All samples were extracted from filters, redissolved in water and atomized for the investigations presented here. The hygroscopic growth measurements were done using LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator together with a HH-TDMA (High Humidity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer. Hygroscopic growth was determined for relative humidities (RHs up to 99.75%. The critical diameters for activation were measured for supersaturations between 0.2 and 1%. All three samples showed a similar hygroscopic growth behavior, and the two HULIS samples also were similar in their activation behavior, while the Aerosol-Water-Extract turned out to be more CCN active than the HULIS samples. The experimental data was used to derive parameterizations for the hygroscopic growth and activation of HULIS particles. The concept of ρion (Wex et al., 2007a and the Szyszkowski-equation (Szyszkowski, 1908; Facchini, 1999 were used for parameterizing the Raoult and the Kelvin (surface tension terms of the Köhler equation, respectively. This concept proved to be very successful for the HULIS samples in the saturation range from RHs larger than 98% up to activation. It was also shown to work well with data on HULIS taken from literature. Here, different atmospheric life-times and/or different sources for the different samples showed up in different coefficients for the parameterization. However, the parameterization did not work out well for the Aerosol-Water-Extract.

  14. Development and testing of an aerosol-stratus cloud parameterization scheme for middle and high latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, P.Q.; Meyers, M.P.; Kreidenweis, S.; Cotton, W.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)


    The aim of this new project is to develop an aerosol/cloud microphysics parameterization of mixed-phase stratus and boundary layer clouds. Our approach is to create, test, and implement a bulk-microphysics/aerosol model using data from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites and large-eddy simulation (LES) explicit bin-resolving aerosol/microphysics models. The primary objectives of this work are twofold. First, we need the prediction of number concentrations of activated aerosol which are transferred to the droplet spectrum, so that the aerosol population directly affects the cloud formation and microphysics. Second, we plan to couple the aerosol model to the gas and aqueous-chemistry module that will drive the aerosol formation and growth. We begin by exploring the feasibility of performing cloud-resolving simulations of Arctic stratus clouds over the North Slope CART site. These simulations using Colorado State University`s regional atmospheric modeling system (RAMS) will be useful in designing the structure of the cloud-resolving model and in interpreting data acquired at the North Slope site.

  15. Representing the Australian Heat Low in a GCM Using Different Surface and Cloud Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. Allcock


    Full Text Available The high insolation during the Southern Hemisphere summer leads to the development of a heat low over north-west Australia, which is a significant feature of the monsoon circulation. It is therefore important that General Circulation Models (GCMs are able to represent this feature well in order to adequately represent the Australian Monsoon. Given that there are many different configurations of GCMs used globally (such as those used as part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, it is difficult to assess the underlying causes of the differences in circulation between such GCMs. In order to address this problem, the work presented here makes use of three different configurations of the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS. The configurations incorporate changes to the surface parameterization, cloud parameterization, and both together (surface and cloud while keeping all other parameterized processes unchanged. The work finds that the surface scheme has a larger impact on the heat low than the cloud scheme, which is caused by differences in the soil thermal inertia. This study also finds that the differences in the circulation caused by changing the cloud and surface schemes together are the linear sum of the individual perturbations (i.e., no nonlinear interaction.

  16. Regionalization and parameterization of hydrological processes at the land surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolman, A.J.; Kabat, P.; Elbers, J.A.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.; Ogink-Hendriks, M.J.


    Hydrological processes on the land surface play a critical role in physically based hydrological and atmospheric modelling. A series of experiments have been initiated to test and develop parametrizations of spatial heterogeneity on the full range of spatial and temporal scales considered relevant.

  17. Quantitative parameterization of soil surface structure with increasing rainfall volumes


    Edison Aparecido Mome Filho


    The study of soil structure allows inferences on soil behavior. Quantitative parameters are oftentimes required to describe soil structure and the multifractal ones are still underused in soil science. Some studies have shown relations between the multifractal spectrum and both soil surface roughness decay by rainfall and porous system heterogeneity, however, a particular multifractal response to a specific soil behavior is not established yet. Therefore, the objectives of this research were:...

  18. Sensitivity of Tropical Cyclones to Resolution, Convection Scheme and Ocean Flux Parameterization over Eastern Tropical Pacific and Tropical North Atlantic Oceans in RegCM4 Model (United States)

    Fuentes-Franco, Ramon; Giorgi, Filippo; Coppola, Erika; Zimmermann, Klaus


    The sensitivity of simulated tropical cyclones (TC) to resolution and convection scheme parameterization is investigated over the CORDEX Central America domain. The performance of the simulations, performed for a ten-year period (1989-1998) using ERA-Interim reanalysis as boundary and initial conditions, is assessed considering 50 km and 25 km resolution, and the use of two different convection schemes: Emanuel (Em) and Kain-Fritsch (KF). Two ocean surface fluxes are also compared as well: the Monin-Obukhov scheme, and the one proposed by Zeng et al. (1998). By comparing with observations, for the whole period we assess the spatial representation of the TC, and their intensity. At interannual scale we assess the representation of their variability and at daily scale we compare observed and simulated tracks in order to establish a measure of how similar to observed are the simulated tracks. In general the simulations using KF convection scheme show higher TC density, as well as longer-duration TC (up to 15 days) with stronger winds (> 50ms-1) than those using Em (<40ms-1). Similar results were found for simulations using 25 km respect to 50 km resolution. All simulations show a better spatial representation of simulated TC density and its interannual variability over the Tropical North Atlantic Ocean (TNA) than over the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean (ETP). The 25 km resolution simulations show an overestimation of TC density compared to observations over ETP off the coast of Mexico. The duration of the TC in simulations using 25km resolution is similar to the observations, while is underestimated by the 50km resolution. The Monin-Obukhov ocean flux overestimates the number of TCs, while Zeng parameterization give a number similar to observations in both oceans. At daily scale, in general all simulations capture the density of cyclones during highly active TC seasons over the TNA, however the tracks generally are not coincident with observations, except for highly

  19. Parameterization of albedo, thermal inertia, and surface roughness of desert scrub/sandy soil surface (United States)

    Otterman, J.; Mccumber, M.


    Spectral albedo, A sub n, for the direct solar beam is defined as A sub n (r sub i,s, theta sub 0) = r sub i exp(-s tan theta sub 0)1-I(s) where I(s) is the integral over all reflection angles describing the interception by the absorbing plants of the flux reflected from the soil, r sub i soil reflectance, assumed Lambertian, S the projection on a vertical plane of plants per unit surface area, and theta sub 0 is the solar zenith angle. Hemispheric reflectance for the direct solar beam equals 1-I(s) times the reflectance to the zenith. The values of s of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 respectively quantify sparse, moderately dense, and very dense desert scrub. Thin plants are assumed to be of negligible thermal inertia, and thus directly yield the absorbed insolation to the atmosphere. Surface thermal inertia is therefore effectively reduced. The ratio of surface roughness height to plant height is parameterized for sparse, moderately dense, and very dense desert-scrub as a function of s based on data expressing the dependence of this ratio on plant silhouette.

  20. New advection schemes for free surface flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavan, Sara


    The purpose of this thesis is to build higher order and less diffusive schemes for pollutant transport in shallow water flows or 3D free surface flows. We want robust schemes which respect the main mathematical properties of the advection equation with relatively low numerical diffusion and apply them to environmental industrial applications. Two techniques are tested in this work: a classical finite volume method and a residual distribution technique combined with a finite element method. For both methods we propose a decoupled approach since it is the most advantageous in terms of accuracy and CPU time. Concerning the first technique, a vertex-centred finite volume method is used to solve the augmented shallow water system where the numerical flux is computed through an Harten-Lax-Van Leer-Contact Riemann solver. Starting from this solution, a decoupled approach is formulated and is preferred since it allows to compute with a larger time step the advection of a tracer. This idea was inspired by Audusse, E. and Bristeau, M.O. [13]. The Monotonic Upwind Scheme for Conservation Law, combined with the decoupled approach, is then used for the second order extension in space. The wetting and drying problem is also analysed and a possible solution is presented. In the second case, the shallow water system is entirely solved using the finite element technique and the residual distribution method is applied to the solution of the tracer equation, focusing on the case of time-dependent problems. However, for consistency reasons the resolution of the continuity equation must be considered in the numerical discretization of the tracer. In order to get second order schemes for unsteady cases a predictor-corrector scheme is used in this work. A first order but less diffusive version of the predictor-corrector scheme is also introduced. Moreover, we also present a new locally semi-implicit version of the residual distribution method which, in addition to good properties in

  1. A land surface scheme for atmospheric and hydrologic models: SEWAB (Surface Energy and Water Balance)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengelkamp, H.T.; Warrach, K.; Raschke, E. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik


    A soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer scheme is presented here which solves the coupled system of the Surface Energy and Water Balance (SEWAB) equations considering partly vegetated surfaces. It is based on the one-layer concept for vegetation. In the soil the diffusion equations for heat and moisture are solved on a multi-layer grid. SEWAB has been developed to serve as a land-surface scheme for atmospheric circulation models. Being forced with atmospheric data from either simulations or measurements it calculates surface and subsurface runoff that can serve as input to hydrologic models. The model has been validated with field data from the FIFE experiment and has participated in the PILPS project for intercomparison of land-surface parameterization schemes. From these experiments we feel that SEWAB reasonably well partitions the radiation and precipitation into sensible and latent heat fluxes as well as into runoff and soil moisture Storage. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein Landoberflaechenschema wird vorgestellt, das den Transport von Waerme und Wasser zwischen dem Erdboden, der Vegetation und der Atmosphaere unter Beruecksichtigung von teilweise bewachsenem Boden beschreibt. Im Erdboden werden die Diffusionsgleichungen fuer Waerme und Feuchte auf einem Gitter mit mehreren Schichten geloest. Das Schema SEWAB (Surface Energy and Water Balance) beschreibt die Landoberflaechenprozesse in atmosphaerischen Modellen und berechnet den Oberflaechenabfluss und den Basisabfluss, die als Eingabedaten fuer hydrologische Modelle genutzt werden koennen. Das Modell wurde mit Daten des FIFE-Experiments kalibriert und hat an Vergleichsexperimenten fuer Landoberflaechen-Schemata im Rahmen des PILPS-Projektes teilgenommen. Dabei hat sich gezeigt, dass die Aufteilung der einfallenden Strahlung und des Niederschlages in den sensiblen und latenten Waermefluss und auch in Abfluss und Speicherung der Bodenfeuchte in SEWAB den beobachteten Daten recht gut entspricht. (orig.)

  2. Investigation of the Representation of OLEs and Terrain Effects within the Coastal Zone in the EDMF Parameterization Scheme: An Airborne Doppler Wind Lidar Perspective (United States)


    in the EDMF Parameterization Scheme: An Airborne Doppler Wind Lidar Perspective 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER N000141110450 5c. PROGRAM...Wind Lidar (TODWL) data near Monterey, CA and Dugway, UT to investigate the physical characteristics, TKE transports and contributions to EDMF...EDMF. 15. SUBJECT TERMS OLE, EDMF, Doppler Wind Lidar 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF 18. NUMBER a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS

  3. Using polarimetric radar observations and probabilistic inference to develop the Bayesian Observationally-constrained Statistical-physical Scheme (BOSS), a novel microphysical parameterization framework (United States)

    van Lier-Walqui, M.; Morrison, H.; Kumjian, M. R.; Prat, O. P.


    Microphysical parameterization schemes have reached an impressive level of sophistication: numerous prognostic hydrometeor categories, and either size-resolved (bin) particle size distributions, or multiple prognostic moments of the size distribution. Yet, uncertainty in model representation of microphysical processes and the effects of microphysics on numerical simulation of weather has not shown a improvement commensurate with the advanced sophistication of these schemes. We posit that this may be caused by unconstrained assumptions of these schemes, such as ad-hoc parameter value choices and structural uncertainties (e.g. choice of a particular form for the size distribution). We present work on development and observational constraint of a novel microphysical parameterization approach, the Bayesian Observationally-constrained Statistical-physical Scheme (BOSS), which seeks to address these sources of uncertainty. Our framework avoids unnecessary a priori assumptions, and instead relies on observations to provide probabilistic constraint of the scheme structure and sensitivities to environmental and microphysical conditions. We harness the rich microphysical information content of polarimetric radar observations to develop and constrain BOSS within a Bayesian inference framework using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampler (see Kumjian et al., this meeting for details on development of an associated polarimetric forward operator). Our work shows how knowledge of microphysical processes is provided by polarimetric radar observations of diverse weather conditions, and which processes remain highly uncertain, even after considering observations.

  4. Surface Energy Balance Closure and Turbulent Flux Parameterization on a Mid-Latitude Mountain Glacier, Purcell Mountains, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Fitzpatrick


    Full Text Available In the majority of glacier surface energy balance studies, parameterization rather than direct measurement is used to estimate one or more of the individual heat fluxes, with others, such as the rain and ground heat fluxes, often deemed negligible. Turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat are commonly parameterized using the bulk aerodynamic technique. This method was developed for horizontal, uniform surfaces rather than sloped, inhomogeneous glacier terrain, and significant uncertainty remains regarding the selection of appropriate roughness length values, and the validity of the atmospheric stability functions employed. A customized weather station, designed to measure all relevant heat fluxes, was installed on an alpine glacier over the 2014 melt season. Eddy covariance techniques were used to observe the turbulent heat fluxes, and to calculate site-specific roughness values. The obtained dataset was used to drive a point ablation model, and to evaluate the most commonly used bulk methods and roughness length schemes in the literature. Modeled ablation showed good agreement with observed rates at seasonal, daily, and sub-daily timescales, effectively closing the surface energy balance, and giving a high level of confidence in the flux observation method. Net radiation was the dominant contributor to melt energy over the season (65.2%, followed by the sensible heat flux (29.7%, while the rain heat flux was observed to be a significant contributor on daily timescales during periods of persistent heavy rain (up to 20% day−1. Momentum roughness lengths observed for the study surface (snow: 10−3.8 m; ice: 10−2.2 m showed general agreement with previous findings, while the scalar values (temperature: 10−4.6 m; water vapor: 10−6 m differed significantly from those for momentum, disagreeing with the assumption of equal roughness lengths. Of the three bulk method stability schemes tested, the functions based on the Monin-Obukhov length

  5. Uncertainties of parameterized surface downward clear-sky shortwave and all-sky longwave radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gubler


    Full Text Available As many environmental models rely on simulating the energy balance at the Earth's surface based on parameterized radiative fluxes, knowledge of the inherent model uncertainties is important. In this study we evaluate one parameterization of clear-sky direct, diffuse and global shortwave downward radiation (SDR and diverse parameterizations of clear-sky and all-sky longwave downward radiation (LDR. In a first step, SDR is estimated based on measured input variables and estimated atmospheric parameters for hourly time steps during the years 1996 to 2008. Model behaviour is validated using the high quality measurements of six Alpine Surface Radiation Budget (ASRB stations in Switzerland covering different elevations, and measurements of the Swiss Alpine Climate Radiation Monitoring network (SACRaM in Payerne. In a next step, twelve clear-sky LDR parameterizations are calibrated using the ASRB measurements. One of the best performing parameterizations is elected to estimate all-sky LDR, where cloud transmissivity is estimated using measured and modeled global SDR during daytime. In a last step, the performance of several interpolation methods is evaluated to determine the cloud transmissivity in the night.

    We show that clear-sky direct, diffuse and global SDR is adequately represented by the model when using measurements of the atmospheric parameters precipitable water and aerosol content at Payerne. If the atmospheric parameters are estimated and used as a fix value, the relative mean bias deviance (MBD and the relative root mean squared deviance (RMSD of the clear-sky global SDR scatter between between −2 and 5%, and 7 and 13% within the six locations. The small errors in clear-sky global SDR can be attributed to compensating effects of modeled direct and diffuse SDR since an overestimation of aerosol content in the atmosphere results in underestimating the direct, but overestimating the diffuse SDR. Calibration of LDR parameterizations

  6. Model-driven harmonic parameterization of the cortical surface: HIP-HOP. (United States)

    Auzias, G; Lefèvre, J; Le Troter, A; Fischer, C; Perrot, M; Régis, J; Coulon, O


    In the context of inter subject brain surface matching, we present a parameterization of the cortical surface constrained by a model of cortical organization. The parameterization is defined via an harmonic mapping of each hemisphere surface to a rectangular planar domain that integrates a representation of the model. As opposed to previous landmark-based registration methods we do not match folds between individuals but instead optimize the fit between cortical sulci and specific iso-coordinate axis in the model. This strategy overcomes some limitation to sulcus-based registration techniques such as topological variability in sulcal landmarks across subjects. Experiments on 62 subjects with manually traced sulci are presented and compared with the result of the Freesurfer software. The evaluation involves a measure of dispersion of sulci with both angular and area distortions. We show that the model-based strategy can lead to a natural, efficient and very fast (less than 5 min per hemisphere) method for defining inter subjects correspondences. We discuss how this approach also reduces the problems inherent to anatomically defined landmarks and open the way to the investigation of cortical organization through the notion of orientation and alignment of structures across the cortex.

  7. Assessing the Resolution Adaptability of the Zhang-McFarlane Cumulus Parameterization With Spatial and Temporal Averaging: RESOLUTION ADAPTABILITY OF ZM SCHEME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Yuxing [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Fan, Jiwen [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Xiao, Heng [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Zhang, Guang J. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego CA USA; Ghan, Steven J. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Xu, Kuan-Man [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton VA USA; Ma, Po-Lun [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Gustafson, William I. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA


    Realistic modeling of cumulus convection at fine model resolutions (a few to a few tens of km) is problematic since it requires the cumulus scheme to adapt to higher resolution than they were originally designed for (~100 km). To solve this problem, we implement the spatial averaging method proposed in Xiao et al. (2015) and also propose a temporal averaging method for the large-scale convective available potential energy (CAPE) tendency in the Zhang-McFarlane (ZM) cumulus parameterization. The resolution adaptability of the original ZM scheme, the scheme with spatial averaging, and the scheme with both spatial and temporal averaging at 4-32 km resolution is assessed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, by comparing with Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) results. We find that the original ZM scheme has very poor resolution adaptability, with sub-grid convective transport and precipitation increasing significantly as the resolution increases. The spatial averaging method improves the resolution adaptability of the ZM scheme and better conserves the total transport of moist static energy and total precipitation. With the temporal averaging method, the resolution adaptability of the scheme is further improved, with sub-grid convective precipitation becoming smaller than resolved precipitation for resolution higher than 8 km, which is consistent with the results from the CRM simulation. Both the spatial distribution and time series of precipitation are improved with the spatial and temporal averaging methods. The results may be helpful for developing resolution adaptability for other cumulus parameterizations that are based on quasi-equilibrium assumption.

  8. Sensitivity of Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance to surface albedo parameterization: a study with a regional climate model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Angelen, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325922470; Lenaerts, J.T.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314850163; Lhermitte, S.; Fettweis, X.; Kuipers Munneke, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831891; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; van Meijgaard, E.; Smeets, C.J.P.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/191522236


    We present a sensitivity study of the surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland Ice Sheet, as modeled using a regional atmospheric climate model, to various parameter settings in the albedo scheme. The snow albedo scheme uses grain size as a prognostic variable and further depends on cloud cover,

  9. Stable water isotope simulation by current land-surface schemes:Results of IPILPS phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson-Sellers, A.; Fischer, M.; Aleinov, I.; McGuffie, K.; Riley, W.J.; Schmidt, G.A.; Sturm, K.; Yoshimura, K.; Irannejad, P.


    Phase 1 of isotopes in the Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (iPILPS) compares the simulation of two stable water isotopologues ({sup 1}H{sub 2} {sup 18}O and {sup 1}H{sup 2}H{sup 16}O) at the land-atmosphere interface. The simulations are off-line, with forcing from an isotopically enabled regional model for three locations selected to offer contrasting climates and ecotypes: an evergreen tropical forest, a sclerophyll eucalypt forest and a mixed deciduous wood. Here we report on the experimental framework, the quality control undertaken on the simulation results and the method of intercomparisons employed. The small number of available isotopically-enabled land-surface schemes (ILSSs) limits the drawing of strong conclusions but, despite this, there is shown to be benefit in undertaking this type of isotopic intercomparison. Although validation of isotopic simulations at the land surface must await more, and much more complete, observational campaigns, we find that the empirically-based Craig-Gordon parameterization (of isotopic fractionation during evaporation) gives adequately realistic isotopic simulations when incorporated in a wide range of land-surface codes. By introducing two new tools for understanding isotopic variability from the land surface, the Isotope Transfer Function and the iPILPS plot, we show that different hydrological parameterizations cause very different isotopic responses. We show that ILSS-simulated isotopic equilibrium is independent of the total water and energy budget (with respect to both equilibration time and state), but interestingly the partitioning of available energy and water is a function of the models' complexity.

  10. Sparse canopy parameterizations for meteorological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurk, van den B.J.J.M.


    Meteorological models for numerical weather prediction or climate simulation require a description of land surface exchange processes. The degree of complexity of these land-surface parameterization schemes - or SVAT's - that is necessary for accurate model predictions, is yet unclear. Also, the

  11. Evaluation of WRF PBL parameterization schemes against direct observations during a dry event over the Ganges valley (United States)

    Sathyanadh, Anusha; Prabha, Thara V.; Balaji, B.; Resmi, E. A.; Karipot, Anandakumar


    Accurate representations of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) are important in all weather forecast systems, especially in simulations of turbulence, wind and air quality in the lower atmosphere. In the present study, detailed observations from the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment - Integrated Ground based Observational Campaign (CAIPEEX-IGOC) 2014 comprising of the complete surface energy budget and detailed boundary layer observations are used to validate Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations over a diverse terrain over the Ganges valley region, Uttar Pradesh, India. A drying event in June 2014 associated with a heat wave is selected for validation.Six local and nonlocal PBL schemes from WRF at 1 km resolution are compared with hourly observations during the diurnal cycle. Near-surface observations of weather parameters, radiation components and eddy covariance fluxes from micrometeorological tower, and profiles of variables from microwave radiometer, and radiosonde observations are used for model evaluations. Models produce a warmer, drier surface layer with higher wind speed, sensible heat flux and temperature than observations. Layered boundary layer dynamics, including the residual layer structure as illustrated in the observations over the Ganges valley are missed in the model, which lead to deeper mixed layers and excessive drying.Although it is difficult to identify any single scheme as the best, the qualitative and quantitative analyses for the entire study period and overall reproducibility of the observations indicate that the MYNN2 simulations describe lower errors and more realistic simulation of spatio-temporal variations in the boundary layer height.

  12. Simulation of Forest Evapotranspiration Using Time-Series Parameterization of the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS over the Qilian Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tian


    Full Text Available We propose a long-term parameterization scheme for two critical parameters, zero-plane displacement height (d and aerodynamic roughness length (z0m, that we further use in the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS. A sensitivity analysis of SEBS indicated that these two parameters largely impact the estimated sensible heat and latent heat fluxes. First, we calibrated regression relationships between measured forest vertical parameters (Lorey’s height and the frontal area index (FAI and forest aboveground biomass (AGB. Next, we derived the interannual Lorey’s height and FAI values from our calibrated regression models and corresponding forest AGB dynamics that were converted from interannual carbon fluxes, as simulated from two incorporated ecological models and a 2009 forest basis map These dynamic forest vertical parameters, combined with refined eight-day Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS LAI products, were applied to estimate the eight-day d, z0m, and, thus, the heat roughness length (z0h. The obtained d, z0m and z0h were then used as forcing for the SEBS model in order to simulate long-term forest evapotranspiration (ET from 2000 to 2012 within the Qilian Mountains (QMs. As compared with MODIS, MOD16 products at the eddy covariance (EC site, ET estimates from the SEBS agreed much better with EC measurements (R2 = 0.80 and RMSE = 0.21 mm·day−1.

  13. Parameterization of rain induced surface roughness and its validation study using a third generation wave model (United States)

    Rajesh Kumar, R.; Prasad Kumar, B.; Bala Subrahamanyam, D.


    The effect of raindrops striking water surface and their role in modifying the prevailing sea-surface roughness is investigated. The work presents a new theoretical formulation developed to study rain-induced stress on sea-surface based on dimensional analysis. Rain parameters include drop size, rain intensity and rain duration. The influences of these rain parameters on young and mature waves were studied separately under varying wind speeds, rain intensity and rain duration. Contrary to popular belief that rain only attenuates surface waves, this study also points out rain duration under certain condition can contribute to wave growth at high wind speeds. Strong winds in conjunction with high rain intensity enhance the horizontal stress component on the sea-surface, leading to wave growth. Previous studies based on laboratory experiments and dimensional analysis do not account for rain duration when attempting to parameterize sea-surface roughness. This study signifies the importance of rain duration as an important parameter modifying sea-surface roughness. Qualitative as well quantitative support for the developed formulation is established through critical validation with reports of several researchers and satellite measurements for an extreme cyclonic event in the Indian Ocean. Based on skill assessment, it is suggested that the present formulation is superior to prior studies. Numerical experiments and validation performed by incorporating in state-of-art WAM wave model show the importance of treating rain-induced surface roughness as an essential pre-requisite for ocean wave modeling studies.

  14. Stepping towards new parameterizations for non-canonical atmospheric surface-layer conditions (United States)

    Calaf, M.; Margairaz, F.; Pardyjak, E.


    Representing land-atmosphere exchange processes as a lower boundary condition remains a challenge. This is partially a result of the fact that land-surface heterogeneity exists at all spatial scales and its variability does not "average" out with decreasing scales. Such variability need not rapidly blend away from the boundary thereby impacting the near-surface region of the atmosphere. Traditionally, momentum and energy fluxes linking the land surface to the flow in NWP models have been parameterized using atmospheric surface layer (ASL) similarity theory. There is ample evidence that such representation is acceptable for stationary and planar-homogeneous flows in the absence of subsidence. However, heterogeneity remains a ubiquitous feature eliciting appreciable deviations when using ASL similarity theory, especially in scalars such moisture and air temperature whose blending is less efficient when compared to momentum. The focus of this project is to quantify the effect of surface thermal heterogeneity with scales Ο(1/10) the height of the atmospheric boundary layer and characterized by uniform roughness. Such near-canonical cases describe inhomogeneous scalar transport in an otherwise planar homogeneous flow when thermal stratification is weak or absent. In this work we present a large-eddy simulation study that characterizes the effect of surface thermal heterogeneities on the atmospheric flow using the concept of dispersive fluxes. Results illustrate a regime in which the flow is mostly driven by the surface thermal heterogeneities, in which the contribution of the dispersive fluxes can account for up to 40% of the total sensible heat flux. Results also illustrate an alternative regime in which the effect of the surface thermal heterogeneities is quickly blended, and the dispersive fluxes provide instead a quantification of the flow spatial heterogeneities produced by coherent turbulent structures result of the surface shear stress. A threshold flow

  15. Nested Hilbert schemes on surfaces: Virtual fundamental class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholampour, Amin; Sheshmani, Artan; Yau, Shing-Tung

    We construct natural virtual fundamental classes for nested Hilbert schemes on a nonsingular projective surface S. This allows us to define new invariants of S that recover some of the known important cases such as Poincare invariants of Durr-Kabanov-Okonek and the stable pair invariants of Kool......-Thomas. In the case of the nested Hilbert scheme of points, we can express these invariants in terms of integrals over the products of Hilbert scheme of points on S, and relate them to the vertex operator formulas found by Carlsson-Okounkov. The virtual fundamental classes of the nested Hilbert schemes play a crucial...

  16. Performance of RegCM-4.3 over the Caribbean region using different configurations of the Tiedtke convective parameterization scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Martínez-Castro


    Full Text Available A sensitivity study about the performance of the RegCM-4.3 regional climate model, driven by ERA Interim reanalysis was conducted for a domain including the Caribbean, with horizontal resolution of 50 km from year 2000 to 2001. Sixteen configurations of the model, including variations in the parameters of the Tiedtke convective scheme were tested. The performance of the model using these configurations was compared with data and with simulations using Emanuel (EM and Grell over land-Emanuel over sea (GE convective parameterization schemes. Global datasets of temperature and precipitation and quality controlled data form the weather station networks of Cuba, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic were used as reference. After an analysis of the simulated precipitation fields, some of the configurations were discarded and four of them were chosen to evaluate the representation by the model of the main climatological features of the region. The chosen configurations simulate the general wind and precipitation patterns reasonably well, and at the same time, the seasonal diurnal cycles and the Caribbean low level jet, but they showed different skill in reproducing the particular features of the regional climate. For the rainy season GE shows the best performance, while EM and the default Tiedtke scheme (TI widely overestimate precipitation in the Pacific coast of Central America, whereas for the dry season, the Tiedtke scheme underestimates precipitation, but after tuning parameters biases were reduced. TI scheme showed the best representation of the precipitation seasonal cycle, while the diurnal circle was best reproduced by the GE scheme. Temperature fields were best simulated by Tiedtke configurations, as the area with negative bias was reduced.

  17. Optimal Physics Parameterization Scheme Combination of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model for Seasonal Precipitation Simulation over Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Yao Kuma Agyeman


    Full Text Available Seasonal predictions of precipitation, among others, are important to help mitigate the effects of drought and floods on agriculture, hydropower generation, disasters, and many more. This work seeks to obtain a suitable combination of physics schemes of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model for seasonal precipitation simulation over Ghana. Using the ERA-Interim reanalysis as forcing data, simulation experiments spanning eight months (from April to November were performed for two different years: a dry year (2001 and a wet year (2008. A double nested approach was used with the outer domain at 50 km resolution covering West Africa and the inner domain covering Ghana at 10 km resolution. The results suggest that the WRF model generally overestimated the observed precipitation by a mean value between 3% and 64% for both years. Most of the scheme combinations overestimated (underestimated precipitation over coastal (northern zones of Ghana for both years but estimated precipitation reasonably well over forest and transitional zones. On the whole, the combination of WRF Single-Moment 6-Class Microphysics Scheme, Grell-Devenyi Ensemble Cumulus Scheme, and Asymmetric Convective Model Planetary Boundary Layer Scheme simulated the best temporal pattern and temporal variability with the least relative bias for both years and therefore is recommended for Ghana.

  18. A resistance representation of schemes for evaporation from bare and partly plant-covered surfaces for use in atmospheric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihailovic, D.T.; Pielke, R.A.; Rajkovic, B.; Lee, T.J.; Jeftic, M. (Novi Sad Univ. (Yugoslavia) Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States) Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia))


    In the parameterization of land surface processes, attention must be devoted to surface evaporation, one of the main processes in the air-land energy exchange. One of the most used approaches is the resistance representation which requires the calculation of aerodynamic resistances. These resistances are calculated using K theory for different morphologies of plant communities; then, the performance of the evaporation schemes within the alpha, beta, and their combination approaches that parameterize evaporation from bare and partly plant-covered soil surfaces are discussed. Additionally, a new alpha scheme is proposed based on an assumed power dependence alpha on volumetric soil moisture content and its saturated value. Finally, the performance of the considered and the proposed schemes is tested based on time integrations using real data. The first set was for 4 June 1982, and the second for 3 June 1981 at the experimental site in Rimski Sancevi, Yugoslavia, on chernozem soil, as representative for a bare, and partly plant-covered surface, respectively. 63 refs.

  19. Sensitivity of hurricane track to cumulus parameterization schemes in the WRF model for three intense tropical cyclones: impact of convective asymmetry (United States)

    Shepherd, Tristan J.; Walsh, Kevin J.


    This study investigates the effect of the choice of convective parameterization (CP) scheme on the simulated tracks of three intense tropical cyclones (TCs), using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We focus on diagnosing the competing influences of large-scale steering flow, beta drift and convectively induced changes in track, as represented by four different CP schemes (Kain-Fritsch (KF), Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ), Grell-3D (G-3), and the Tiedtke (TD) scheme). The sensitivity of the results to initial conditions, model domain size and shallow convection is also tested. We employ a diagnostic technique by Chan et al. (J Atmos Sci 59:1317-1336, 2002) that separates the influence of the large-scale steering flow, beta drift and the modifications of the steering flow by the storm-scale convection. The combined effect of the steering flow and the beta drift causes TCs typically to move in the direction of the wavenumber-1 (WN-1) cyclonic potential vorticity tendency (PVT). In instances of asymmetrical TCs, the simulated TC motion does not necessarily match the motion expected from the WN-1 PVT due to changes in the convective pattern. In the present study, we test this concept in the WRF simulations and investigate whether if the diagnosed motion from the WN-1 PVT and the TC motion do not match, this can be related to the emerging evolution of changes in convective structure. Several systematic results are found across the three cyclone cases. The sensitivity of TC track to initial conditions (the initialisation time and model domain size) is less than the sensitivity of TC track to changing the CP scheme. The simulated track is not overly sensitive to shallow convection in the KF, BMJ, and TD schemes, compared to the track difference between CP schemes. The G3 scheme, however, is highly sensitive to shallow convection being used. Furthermore, while agreement between the simulated TC track direction and the WN-1 diagnostic is usually good, there are

  20. Why is the simulated climatology of tropical cyclones so sensitive to the choice of cumulus parameterization scheme in the WRF model? (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxi; Wang, Yuqing


    The sensitivity of simulated tropical cyclones (TCs) to the choice of cumulus parameterization (CP) scheme in the advanced Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF-ARW) version 3.5 is analyzed based on ten seasonal simulations with 20-km horizontal grid spacing over the western North Pacific. Results show that the simulated frequency and intensity of TCs are very sensitive to the choice of the CP scheme. The sensitivity can be explained well by the difference in the low-level circulation in a height and sorted moisture space. By transporting moist static energy from dry to moist region, the low-level circulation is important to convective self-aggregation which is believed to be related to genesis of TC-like vortices (TCLVs) and TCs in idealized settings. The radiative and evaporative cooling associated with low-level clouds and shallow convection in dry regions is found to play a crucial role in driving the moisture-sorted low-level circulation. With shallow convection turned off in a CP scheme, relatively strong precipitation occurs frequently in dry regions. In this case, the diabatic cooling can still drive the low-level circulation but its strength is reduced and thus TCLV/TC genesis is suppressed. The inclusion of the cumulus momentum transport (CMT) in a CP scheme can considerably suppress genesis of TCLVs/TCs, while changes in the moisture-sorted low-level circulation and horizontal distribution of precipitation are trivial, indicating that the CMT modulates the TCLVs/TCs activities in the model by mechanisms other than the horizontal transport of moist static energy.

  1. The Interplay Between Transpiration and Runoff Formulations in Land Surface Schemes Used with Atmospheric Models (United States)

    Koster, Rindal D.; Milly, P. C. D.


    The Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS) has shown that different land surface models (LSMS) driven by the same meteorological forcing can produce markedly different surface energy and water budgets, even when certain critical aspects of the LSMs (vegetation cover, albedo, turbulent drag coefficient, and snow cover) are carefully controlled. To help explain these differences, the authors devised a monthly water balance model that successfully reproduces the annual and seasonal water balances of the different PILPS schemes. Analysis of this model leads to the identification of two quantities that characterize an LSM's formulation of soil water balance dynamics: (1) the efficiency of the soil's evaporation sink integrated over the active soil moisture range, and (2) the fraction of this range over which runoff is generated. Regardless of the LSM's complexity, the combination of these two derived parameters with rates of interception loss, potential evaporation, and precipitation provides a reasonable estimate for the LSM's simulated annual water balance. The two derived parameters shed light on how evaporation and runoff formulations interact in an LSM, and the analysis as a whole underscores the need for compatibility in these formulations.

  2. Error in Radar-Derived Soil Moisture due to Roughness Parameterization: An Analysis Based on Synthetical Surface Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard De Baets


    Full Text Available In the past decades, many studies on soil moisture retrieval from SAR demonstrated a poor correlation between the top layer soil moisture content and observed backscatter coefficients, which mainly has been attributed to difficulties involved in the parameterization of surface roughness. The present paper describes a theoretical study, performed on synthetical surface profiles, which investigates how errors on roughness parameters are introduced by standard measurement techniques, and how they will propagate through the commonly used Integral Equation Model (IEM into a corresponding soil moisture retrieval error for some of the currently most used SAR configurations. Key aspects influencing the error on the roughness parameterization and consequently on soil moisture retrieval are: the length of the surface profile, the number of profile measurements, the horizontal and vertical accuracy of profile measurements and the removal of trends along profiles. Moreover, it is found that soil moisture retrieval with C-band configuration generally is less sensitive to inaccuracies in roughness parameterization than retrieval with L-band configuration.

  3. The impact of changes in parameterizations of surface drag and vertical diffusion on the large-scale circulation in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) (United States)

    Lindvall, Jenny; Svensson, Gunilla; Caballero, Rodrigo


    Simulations with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) are used to analyze the sensitivity of the large-scale circulation to changes in parameterizations of orographic surface drag and vertical diffusion. Many GCMs and NWP models use enhanced turbulent mixing in stable conditions to improve simulations, while CAM5 cuts off all turbulence at high stabilities and instead employs a strong orographic surface stress parameterization, known as turbulent mountain stress (TMS). TMS completely dominates the surface stress over land and reduces the near-surface wind speeds compared to simulations without TMS. It is found that TMS is generally beneficial for the large-scale circulation as it improves zonal wind speeds, Arctic sea level pressure and zonal anomalies of the 500-hPa stream function, compared to ERA-Interim. It also alleviates atmospheric blocking frequency biases in the Northern Hemisphere. Using a scheme that instead allows for a modest increase of turbulent diffusion at higher stabilities only in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) appears to in some aspects have a similar, although much smaller, beneficial effect as TMS. Enhanced mixing throughout the atmospheric column, however, degrades the CAM5 simulation. Evaluating the simulations in comparison with detailed measurements at two locations reveals that TMS is detrimental for the PBL at the flat grassland ARM Southern Great Plains site, giving too strong wind turning and too deep PBLs. At the Sodankylä forest site, the effect of TMS is smaller due to the larger local vegetation roughness. At both sites, all simulations substantially overestimate the boundary layer ageostrophic flow.

  4. Sensitivity of Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance to surface albedo parameterization: a study with a regional climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. van Angelen


    Full Text Available We present a sensitivity study of the surface mass balance (SMB of the Greenland Ice Sheet, as modeled using a regional atmospheric climate model, to various parameter settings in the albedo scheme. The snow albedo scheme uses grain size as a prognostic variable and further depends on cloud cover, solar zenith angle and black carbon concentration. For the control experiment the overestimation of absorbed shortwave radiation (+6% at the K-transect (west Greenland for the period 2004–2009 is considerably reduced compared to the previous density-dependent albedo scheme (+22%. To simulate realistic snow albedo values, a small concentration of black carbon is needed, which has strongest impact on melt in the accumulation area. A background ice albedo field derived from MODIS imagery improves the agreement between the modeled and observed SMB gradient along the K-transect. The effect of enhanced meltwater retention and refreezing is a decrease of the albedo due to an increase in snow grain size. As a secondary effect of refreezing the snowpack is heated, enhancing melt and further lowering the albedo. Especially in a warmer climate this process is important, since it reduces the refreezing potential of the firn layer that covers the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  5. Improvements and validation of the linear surface characteristics scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santandrea, S.; Jaboulay, J.C.; Bellier, P.; Fevotte, F.; Golfier, H.


    In this paper we present the last improvements of the recently proposed linear surface (LS) characteristics scheme for unstructured meshes. First we introduce a new numerical tracking technique, specifically adapted to the LS method, which tailors transverse integration weights to take into account the geometrical discontinuities that appear along the pipe affected to every trajectory in classical characteristics schemes. Another development allows using the volumetric flux variation of the LS method to re-compute step-wise constant fluxes to be used in other parts of a computational scheme. This permits to take greater advantage of the higher precision of the LS method without necessarily conceiving specialized theories for all the modular functionalities of a spectral code such as APOLLO2. Moreover we present a multi-level domain decomposition method for solving the synthetic acceleration operator that is used to accelerate the free iterations for the LS method. We discuss all these new developments by illustrating some benchmarks results obtained with the LS method. This is done by detailed comparisons with Monte-Carlo calculations. In particular we show that the new method can be used not only as a reference tool, but also inside a suitable industrial calculation scheme

  6. The influence of the surface roughness parameterization on remote sensing-based estimates of evapotranspiration from vineyards (United States)

    Alfieri, J. G.; Kustas, W. P.; Gao, F.; Nieto, H.; Prueger, J. H.; Hipps, L.


    Because the judicious application of water is key to ensuring berry quality, information regarding evapotranspiration (ET) is critical when making irrigation and other crop management decisions for vineyards. Increasingly, wine grape producers seek to use remote sensing-based models to monitor ET and inform management decisions. However, the parameterization schemes used by these models do not fully account for the effects of the highly-structured canopy architecture on either the roughness characteristics of the vineyard or the turbulent transport and exchange within and above the vines. To investigate the effects of vineyard structure on the roughness length (zo) and displacement height (do) of vineyards, data collected from 2013 to 2016 as a part of the Grape Remote Sensing Atmospheric Profiling and Evapotranspiration Experiment (GRAPEX), an ongoing multi-agency field campaign conducted in the Central Valley of California, was used. Specifically, vertical profiles (2.5 m, 3.75 m, 5 m, and 8 m, agl) of wind velocity collected under near-neutral conditions were used to estimate do and zo and characterize how these roughness parameters vary in response changing environmental conditions. The roughness length was found to vary as a function of wind direction. It increased sigmoidally from a minimum near 0.15 m when the wind direction was parallel to the vine rows to a maximum between 0.3 m and 0.4 m when the winds were perpendicularly to the rows. Similarly, do was found responds strongly to changes in vegetation density as measured via leaf area index (LAI). Although the maximum varied from year-to-year, do increased rapidly after bud break in all cases and then remained constant for the remainder of the growing season. A comparison of the model output from the remote sensing-based two-source energy balance (TSEB) model using the standard roughness parameterization scheme and the empirical relationships derived from observations indicates a that the modeled ET

  7. Best convective parameterization scheme within RegCM4 to downscale CMIP5 multi-model data for the CORDEX-MENA/Arab domain (United States)

    Almazroui, Mansour; Islam, Md. Nazrul; Al-Khalaf, A. K.; Saeed, Fahad


    A suitable convective parameterization scheme within Regional Climate Model version 4.3.4 (RegCM4) developed by the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, is investigated through 12 sensitivity runs for the period 2000-2010. RegCM4 is driven with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim 6-hourly boundary condition fields for the CORDEX-MENA/Arab domain. Besides ERA-Interim lateral boundary conditions data, the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) data is also used to assess the performance of RegCM4. Different statistical measures are taken into consideration in assessing model performance for 11 sub-domains throughout the analysis domain, out of which 7 (4) sub-domains give drier (wetter) conditions for the area of interest. There is no common best option for the simulation of both rainfall and temperature (with lowest bias); however, one option each for temperature and rainfall has been found to be superior among the 12 options investigated in this study. These best options for the two variables vary from region to region as well. Overall, RegCM4 simulates large pressure and water vapor values along with lower wind speeds compared to the driving fields, which are the key sources of bias in simulating rainfall and temperature. Based on the climatic characteristics of most of the Arab countries located within the study domain, the drier sub-domains are given priority in the selection of a suitable convective scheme, albeit with a compromise for both rainfall and temperature simulations. The most suitable option Grell over Land and Emanuel over Ocean in wet (GLEO wet) delivers a rainfall wet bias of 2.96 % and a temperature cold bias of 0.26 °C, compared to CRU data. An ensemble derived from all 12 runs provides unsatisfactory results for rainfall (28.92 %) and temperature (-0.54 °C) bias in the drier region because some options highly overestimate rainfall (reaching up to 200 %) and underestimate

  8. Evaluation of snow and frozen soil parameterization in a cryosphere land surface modeling framework in the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Zhou, J.


    Snow and frozen soil are important components in the Tibetan Plateau, and influence the water cycle and energy balances through snowpack accumulation and melt and soil freeze-thaw. In this study, a new cryosphere land surface model (LSM) with coupled snow and frozen soil parameterization was developed based on a hydrologically improved LSM (HydroSiB2). First, an energy-balance-based three-layer snow model was incorporated into HydroSiB2 (hereafter HydroSiB2-S) to provide an improved description of the internal processes of the snow pack. Second, a universal and simplified soil model was coupled with HydroSiB2-S to depict soil water freezing and thawing (hereafter HydroSiB2-SF). In order to avoid the instability caused by the uncertainty in estimating water phase changes, enthalpy was adopted as a prognostic variable instead of snow/soil temperature in the energy balance equation of the snow/frozen soil module. The newly developed models were then carefully evaluated at two typical sites of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) (one snow covered and the other snow free, both with underlying frozen soil). At the snow-covered site in northeastern TP (DY), HydroSiB2-SF demonstrated significant improvements over HydroSiB2-F (same as HydroSiB2-SF but using the original single-layer snow module of HydroSiB2), showing the importance of snow internal processes in three-layer snow parameterization. At the snow-free site in southwestern TP (Ngari), HydroSiB2-SF reasonably simulated soil water phase changes while HydroSiB2-S did not, indicating the crucial role of frozen soil parameterization in depicting the soil thermal and water dynamics. Finally, HydroSiB2-SF proved to be capable of simulating upward moisture fluxes toward the freezing front from the underlying soil layers in winter.

  9. Sensitivity of simulated South America climate to the land surface schemes in RegCM4 (United States)

    Llopart, Marta; da Rocha, Rosmeri P.; Reboita, Michelle; Cuadra, Santiago


    This work evaluates the impact of two land surface parameterizations on the simulated climate and its variability over South America (SA). Two numerical experiments using RegCM4 coupled with the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (RegBATS) and the Community Land Model version 3.5 (RegCLM) land surface schemes are compared. For the period 1979-2008, RegCM4 simulations used 50 km horizontal grid spacing and the ERA-Interim reanalysis as initial and boundary conditions. For the period studied, both simulations represent the main observed spatial patterns of rainfall, air temperature and low level circulation over SA. However, with regard to the precipitation intensity, RegCLM values are closer to the observations than RegBATS (it is wetter in general) over most of SA. RegCLM also produces smaller biases for air temperature. Over the Amazon basin, the amplitudes of the annual cycles of the soil moisture, evapotranspiration and sensible heat flux are higher in RegBATS than in RegCLM. This indicates that RegBATS provides large amounts of water vapor to the atmosphere and has more available energy to increase the boundary layer thickness and cause it to reach the level of free convection (higher sensible heat flux values) resulting in higher precipitation rates and a large wet bias. RegCLM is closer to the observations than RegBATS, presenting smaller wet and warm biases over the Amazon basin. On an interannual scale, the magnitudes of the anomalies of the precipitation and air temperature simulated by RegCLM are closer to the observations. In general, RegBATS simulates higher magnitude for the interannual variability signal.

  10. A new design of the LAPS land surface scheme for use over and through heterogeneous and non-heterogeneous surfaces: Numerical simulations and tests (United States)

    Mihailovic, Dragutin T.; Lazic, Jelena; Leśny, Jacek; Olejnik, Janusz; Lalic, Branislava; Kapor, Darko; Cirisan, Ana


    Numerical simulations and tests with the recently redesigned land-air parameterization scheme (LAPS) are presented. In all experiments, supported either by one-point micrometeorological, 1D or 3D simulations, the attention has been directed to: (1) comparison of simulation outputs, expressing the energy transfer over and through heterogeneous and non-heterogeneous surfaces, versus observations and (2) analysis of uncertainties occurring in the solution of the energy balance equation at the land-air interface. To check the proposed method for aggregation of albedo, "propagating hole" sensitivity tests with LAPS over a sandstone rock grid cell have been performed with the forcing meteorological data for July 17, 1999 in Baxter site, Philadelphia (USA). Micrometeorological and biophysical measurements from the surface experiments conducted over crops and apple orchard in Serbia, Poland, Austria and France were used to test the operation of LAPS in calculating surface fluxes and canopy environment temperatures within and above plant covers of different densities. In addition, sensitivity tests with single canopy covers over the Central Europe region and comparison against the observations taken from SYNOP data using 3D simulations were made. Validation of LAPS performances over a solid surface has been done by comparison of 2 m air temperature observations against 5-day simulations over the Sahara Desert rocky ground using 3D model. To examine how realistically the LAPS simulates surface processes over a heterogeneous surface, we compared the air temperature measured at 2 m and that predicted by the 1D model with the LAPS as the surface scheme. Finally, the scheme behaviour over urban surface was tested by runs over different parts of a hypothetical urban area. The corresponding 1D simulations were carried out with an imposed meteorological dataset collected during HAPEX-MOBILHY experiment at Caumont (France). The quantities predicted by the LAPS compare well with the

  11. Pesticide volatilization from small surface waters : rationale of a new parameterization for TOXSWA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, C.M.J.; Adriaanse, P.I.


    In the TOXSWA (TOXic substances in Surface WAters) model volatilization of pesticides from surface water is computed because it may be an important component of the mass balance of pesticides in water bodies. Here, we briefly review the physics of air-water gas exchange relevant in this context. A

  12. Surface shear stress dependence of gas transfer velocity parameterizations using DNS (United States)

    Fredriksson, S. T.; Arneborg, L.; Nilsson, H.; Handler, R. A.


    Air-water gas-exchange is studied in direct numerical simulations (DNS) of free-surface flows driven by natural convection and weak winds. The wind is modeled as a constant surface-shear-stress and the gas-transfer is modeled via a passive scalar. The simulations are characterized via a Richardson number Ri=Bν/u*4 where B, ν, and u* are the buoyancy flux, kinematic viscosity, and friction velocity respectively. The simulations comprise 0water gas-exchange, (ii) determine, for a given buoyancy flux, the wind speed at which gas transfer becomes primarily shear driven, and (iii) find an expression for the gas-transfer velocity for flows driven by both convection and shear. The evaluated gas transfer-velocity parametrizations are based on either the rate of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation, the surface flow-divergence, the surface heat-flux, or the wind-speed. The parametrizations based on dissipation or divergence show an unfavorable Ri dependence for flows with combined forcing whereas the parametrization based on heat-flux only shows a limited Ri dependence. The two parametrizations based on wind speed give reasonable estimates for the transfer-velocity, depending however on the surface heat-flux. The transition from convection- to shear-dominated gas-transfer-velocity is shown to be at Ri≈0.004. Furthermore, the gas-transfer is shown to be well represented by two different approaches: (i) additive forcing expressed as kg,sum =AShearu*|Ri/Ric+1| 1/4Sc-n where Ric=|AShear/ABuoy|4, and (ii) either buoyancy or shear dominated expressed as, kg=ABuoy|Bν| 1/4Sc-n, Ri>Ric or kg=AShearu*Sc-n, Riwater surface-characteristics.

  13. Parameterization of atmosphere–surface exchange of CO2 over sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Jensen, Bjarne; Glud, Ronnie


    of the atmosphere and sea ice surface that can be measured or calculated on a routine basis. Parameters, which can be used in the conceptual model, are analysed based on data sampled from a seasonal fast-ice area, and the different variables influencing the exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and ice...

  14. Tests of Parameterized Langmuir Circulation Mixing in the Oceans Surface Mixed Layer II (United States)


    zero in deep mixed layers below the influence of the surface waves. When the SDC is zero, the GV and GS functions ((29) and (30)) will be zero, and...current and do not include the SDC. With the inclusion of the SDC in the Coriolis term in the momentum equations, the net transport of u is not zero, but...balances the net transport of the SDC us, so that the combined net downwind transport of the Eulerian current plus the SDC is zero. Hence, since the

  15. Evaluating the influence of plant-specific physiological parameterizations on the partitioning of land surface energy fluxes (United States)

    Sulis, Mauro; Langensiepen, Matthias; Shrestha, Prabhakar; Schickling, Anke; Simmer, Clemens; Kollet, Stefan


    Vegetation has a significant influence on the partitioning of radiative forcing, the spatial and temporal variability of soil water and soil temperature. Therefore plant physiological properties play a key role in mediating and amplifying interactions and feedback mechanisms in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. Because of the direct impact on latent heat fluxes, these properties may also influence weather generating processes, such as the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). In land surface models, plant physiological properties are usually obtained from literature synthesis by unifying several plant/crop species in predefined vegetation classes. In this work, crop-specific physiological characteristics, retrieved from detailed field measurements, are included in the bio-physical parameterization of the Community Land Model (CLM), which is a component of the Terrestrial Systems Modeling Platform (TerrSysMP). The measured set of parameters for two typical European mid-latitudinal crops (sugar beet and winter wheat) is validated using eddy covariance measurements (sensible heat and latent heat) over multiple years from three measurement sites located in the North Rhine-Westphalia region, Germany. We found clear improvements of CLM simulations, when using the crop-specific physiological characteristics of the plants instead of the generic crop type when compared to the measurements. In particular, the increase of latent heat fluxes in conjunction with decreased sensible heat fluxes as simulated by the two new crop-specific parameter sets leads to an improved quantification of the diurnal energy partitioning. These findings are cross-validated using estimates of gross primary production extracted from net ecosystem exchange measurements. This independent analysis reveals that the better agreement between observed and simulated latent heat using the plant-specific physiological properties largely stems from an improved simulation of the

  16. Parameterization of N2O5 Reaction Probabilities on the Surface of Particles Containing Ammonium, Sulfate, and Nitrate (United States)

    A comprehensive parameterization was developed for the heterogeneous reaction probability (γ) of N2O5 as a function of temperature, relative humidity, particle composition, and phase state, for use in advanced air quality models. The reaction probabilities o...

  17. Impact of PBL and convection parameterization schemes for prediction of severe land-falling Bay of Bengal cyclones using WRF-ARW model (United States)

    Singh, K. S.; Bhaskaran, Prasad K.


    This study evaluates the performance of the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model for prediction of land-falling Bay of Bengal (BoB) tropical cyclones (TCs). Model integration was performed using two-way interactive double nested domains at 27 and 9 km resolutions. The present study comprises two major components. Firstly, the study explores the impact of five different planetary boundary layer (PBL) and six cumulus convection (CC) schemes on seven land-falling BoB TCs. A total of 85 numerical simulations were studied in detail, and the results signify that the model simulated better both the track and intensity by using a combination of Yonsei University (YSU) PBL and the old simplified Arakawa-Schubert CC scheme. Secondly, the study also investigated the model performance based on the best possible combinations of model physics on the real-time forecasts of four BoB cyclones (Phailin, Helen, Lehar, and Madi) that made landfall during 2013 based on another 15 numerical simulations. The predicted mean track error during 2013 was about 71 km, 114 km, 133 km, 148 km, and 130 km respectively from day-1 to day-5. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) for Minimum Central Pressure (MCP) was about 6 hPa and the same noticed for Maximum Surface Wind (MSW) was about 4.5 m s-1 noticed during the entire simulation period. In addition the study also reveals that the predicted track errors during 2013 cyclones improved respectively by 43%, 44%, and 52% from day-1 to day-3 as compared to cyclones simulated during the period 2006-2011. The improvements noticed can be attributed due to relatively better quality data that was specified for the initial mean position error (about 48 km) during 2013. Overall the study signifies that the track and intensity forecast for 2013 cyclones using the specified combinations listed in the first part of this study performed relatively better than the other NWP (Numerical Weather Prediction) models, and thereby finds

  18. GHI calculation sensitivity on microphysics, land- and cumulus parameterization in WRF over the Reunion Island (United States)

    De Meij, A.; Vinuesa, J.-F.; Maupas, V.


    The sensitivity of different microphysics and dynamics schemes on calculated global horizontal irradiation (GHI) values in the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model is studied. 13 sensitivity simulations were performed for which the microphysics, cumulus parameterization schemes and land surface models were changed. Firstly we evaluated the model's performance by comparing calculated GHI values for the Base Case with observations for the Reunion Island for 2014. In general, the model calculates the largest bias during the austral summer. This indicates that the model is less accurate in timing the formation and dissipation of clouds during the summer, when higher water vapor quantities are present in the atmosphere than during the austral winter. Secondly, the model sensitivity on changing the microphysics, cumulus parameterization and land surface models on calculated GHI values is evaluated. The sensitivity simulations showed that changing the microphysics from the Thompson scheme (or Single-Moment 6-class scheme) to the Morrison double-moment scheme, the relative bias improves from 45% to 10%. The underlying reason for this improvement is that the Morrison double-moment scheme predicts the mass and number concentrations of five hydrometeors, which help to improve the calculation of the densities, size and lifetime of the cloud droplets. While the single moment schemes only predicts the mass for less hydrometeors. Changing the cumulus parameterization schemes and land surface models does not have a large impact on GHI calculations.

  19. Parameterization of N2O5 reaction probabilities on the surface of particles containing ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bhave


    Full Text Available A parameterization was developed for the heterogeneous reaction probability (γ of N2O5 as a function of temperature, relative humidity (RH, particle composition, and phase state, for use in advanced air quality models. The reaction probabilities on aqueous NH4HSO4, (NH42SO4, and NH4NO3 were modeled statistically using data and uncertainty values compiled from seven different laboratory studies. A separate regression model was fit to laboratory data for dry NH4HSO4 and (NH42SO4 particles, yielding lower γ values than the corresponding aqueous parameterizations. The regression equations reproduced 80% of the laboratory data within a factor of two and 63% within a factor of 1.5. A fixed value was selected for γ on ice-containing particles based on a review of the literature. The combined parameterization was applied under atmospheric conditions representative of the eastern United States using 3-dimensional fields of temperature, RH, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium. The resulting spatial distributions of γ were contrasted with three other parameterizations that have been applied in air quality models in the past and with atmospheric observational determinations of γ. Our equations lay the foundation for future research that will parameterize the suppression of γ when inorganic ammoniated particles are mixed or coated with organic material. Our analyses draw attention to a major uncertainty in the available laboratory data at high RH and highlight a critical need for future laboratory measurements of γ at low temperature and high RH to improve model simulations of N2O5 hydrolysis during wintertime conditions.

  20. A cohomological stability result for projective schemes over surfaces


    Brodmann, M


    Let π : X → X 0 be a projective morphism of schemes such that X 0 is noetherian and essentially of finite type over a field K. Let i ∈ ℕ0, let ℱ be a coherent sheaf of -modules and let ℒ be an ample invertible sheaf over X. We show that the set of associated points of the higher direct image sheaf ultimately becomes constant if n tends to −∞, provided X 0 has dimensione ≦ 2. If , this stability result need not hold any more. To prove this, we show that the set of associated primes of the n-th...

  1. Mesoscale model parameterizations for radiation and turbulent fluxes at the lower boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somieski, F.


    A radiation parameterization scheme for use in mesoscale models with orography and clouds has been developed. Broadband parameterizations are presented for the solar and the terrestrial spectral ranges. They account for clear, turbid or cloudy atmospheres. The scheme is one-dimensional in the atmosphere, but the effects of mountains (inclination, shading, elevated horizon) are taken into account at the surface. In the terrestrial band, grey and black clouds are considered. Furthermore, the calculation of turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat and momentum at an inclined lower model boundary is described. Surface-layer similarity and the surface energy budget are used to evaluate the ground surface temperature. The total scheme is part of the mesoscale model MESOSCOP. (orig.) With 3 figs., 25 refs [de

  2. Comparison of using distribution-specific versus effective radius methods for hydrometeor single-scattering properties for all-sky microwave satellite radiance simulations with different microphysics parameterization schemes (United States)

    Sieron, Scott B.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Zhang, Fuqing; Lu, Yinghui; Otkin, Jason A.


    The Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) presently uses one look-up table (LUT) of cloud and precipitation single-scattering properties at microwave frequencies, with which any particle size distribution may interface via effective radius. This may produce scattering properties insufficiently representative of the model output if the microphysics parameterization scheme particle size distribution mismatches that assumed in constructing the LUT, such as one being exponential and the other monodisperse, or assuming different particle bulk densities. The CRTM also assigns a 5 μm effective radius to all nonprecipitating clouds, an additional inconsistency. Brightness temperatures are calculated from 3 h convection-permitting simulations of Hurricane Karl (2010) by the Weather Research and Forecasting model; each simulation uses one of three different microphysics schemes. For each microphysics scheme, a consistent cloud scattering LUT is constructed; the use of these LUTs produces differences in brightness temperature fields that would be better for analyzing and constraining microphysics schemes than using the CRTM LUT as-released. Other LUTs are constructed which contain one of the known microphysics inconsistencies with the CRTM LUT as-released, such as the bulk density of graupel, but are otherwise microphysics-consistent; differences in brightness temperature to using an entirely microphysics-consistent LUT further indicate the significance of that inconsistency. The CRTM LUT as-released produces higher brightness temperature than using microphysics-consistent LUTs. None of the LUTs can produce brightness temperatures that can match well to observations at all frequencies, which is likely due in part to the use of spherical particle scattering.

  3. An adaptive interpolation scheme for molecular potential energy surfaces (United States)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Larsson, Elisabeth; Heryudono, Alfa


    The calculation of potential energy surfaces for quantum dynamics can be a time consuming task—especially when a high level of theory for the electronic structure calculation is required. We propose an adaptive interpolation algorithm based on polyharmonic splines combined with a partition of unity approach. The adaptive node refinement allows to greatly reduce the number of sample points by employing a local error estimate. The algorithm and its scaling behavior are evaluated for a model function in 2, 3, and 4 dimensions. The developed algorithm allows for a more rapid and reliable interpolation of a potential energy surface within a given accuracy compared to the non-adaptive version.

  4. Improving the representation of river-groundwater interactions in land surface modeling at the regional scale: Observational evidence and parameterization applied in the Community Land Model

    KAUST Repository

    Zampieri, Matteo


    Groundwater is an important component of the hydrological cycle, included in many land surface models to provide a lower boundary condition for soil moisture, which in turn plays a key role in the land-vegetation-atmosphere interactions and the ecosystem dynamics. In regional-scale climate applications land surface models (LSMs) are commonly coupled to atmospheric models to close the surface energy, mass and carbon balance. LSMs in these applications are used to resolve the momentum, heat, water and carbon vertical fluxes, accounting for the effect of vegetation, soil type and other surface parameters, while lack of adequate resolution prevents using them to resolve horizontal sub-grid processes. Specifically, LSMs resolve the large-scale runoff production associated with infiltration excess and sub-grid groundwater convergence, but they neglect the effect from loosing streams to groundwater. Through the analysis of observed data of soil moisture obtained from the Oklahoma Mesoscale Network stations and land surface temperature derived from MODIS we provide evidence that the regional scale soil moisture and surface temperature patterns are affected by the rivers. This is demonstrated on the basis of simulations from a land surface model (i.e., Community Land Model - CLM, version 3.5). We show that the model cannot reproduce the features of the observed soil moisture and temperature spatial patterns that are related to the underlying mechanism of reinfiltration of river water to groundwater. Therefore, we implement a simple parameterization of this process in CLM showing the ability to reproduce the soil moisture and surface temperature spatial variabilities that relate to the river distribution at regional scale. The CLM with this new parameterization is used to evaluate impacts of the improved representation of river-groundwater interactions on the simulated water cycle parameters and the surface energy budget at the regional scale. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Towards improved parameterization of a macroscale hydrologic model in a discontinuous permafrost boreal forest ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Endalamaw


    Full Text Available Modeling hydrological processes in the Alaskan sub-arctic is challenging because of the extreme spatial heterogeneity in soil properties and vegetation communities. Nevertheless, modeling and predicting hydrological processes is critical in this region due to its vulnerability to the effects of climate change. Coarse-spatial-resolution datasets used in land surface modeling pose a new challenge in simulating the spatially distributed and basin-integrated processes since these datasets do not adequately represent the small-scale hydrological, thermal, and ecological heterogeneity. The goal of this study is to improve the prediction capacity of mesoscale to large-scale hydrological models by introducing a small-scale parameterization scheme, which better represents the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties and vegetation cover in the Alaskan sub-arctic. The small-scale parameterization schemes are derived from observations and a sub-grid parameterization method in the two contrasting sub-basins of the Caribou Poker Creek Research Watershed (CPCRW in Interior Alaska: one nearly permafrost-free (LowP sub-basin and one permafrost-dominated (HighP sub-basin. The sub-grid parameterization method used in the small-scale parameterization scheme is derived from the watershed topography. We found that observed soil thermal and hydraulic properties – including the distribution of permafrost and vegetation cover heterogeneity – are better represented in the sub-grid parameterization method than the coarse-resolution datasets. Parameters derived from the coarse-resolution datasets and from the sub-grid parameterization method are implemented into the variable infiltration capacity (VIC mesoscale hydrological model to simulate runoff, evapotranspiration (ET, and soil moisture in the two sub-basins of the CPCRW. Simulated hydrographs based on the small-scale parameterization capture most of the peak and low flows, with similar accuracy in both sub

  6. A general scheme for the estimation of oxygen binding energies on binary transition metal surface alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greeley, Jeffrey Philip; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet


    A simple scheme for the estimation of oxygen binding energies on transition metal surface alloys is presented. It is shown that a d-band center model of the alloy surfaces is a convenient and appropriate basis for this scheme; variations in chemical composition, strain effects, and ligand effects...... are all incorporated into the binding energy analysis through this parameter. With few exceptions, the agreement of the results from the simple model with full DFT calculations on hundreds of binary surface alloys is remarkable. The scheme should therefore provide a fast and effective method...... for the estimation of oxygen binding energies on a wide variety of transition metal alloys. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  7. Performance of Two Cloud-Radiation Parameterization Schemes in the Finite Volume General Circulation Model for Anomalously Wet May and June 2003 Over the Continental United States and Amazonia (United States)

    Sud, Y. C.; Mocko, David M.; Lin, S. J.


    An objective assessment of the impact of a new cloud scheme, called Microphysics of Clouds with Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert Scheme (McRAS) (together with its radiation modules), on the finite volume general circulation model (fvGCM) was made with a set of ensemble forecasts that invoke performance evaluation over both weather and climate timescales. The performance of McRAS (and its radiation modules) was compared with that of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (NCAR CCM3) cloud scheme (with its NCAR physics radiation). We specifically chose the boreal summer months of May and June 2003, which were characterized by an anomalously wet eastern half of the continental United States as well as northern regions of Amazonia. The evaluation employed an ensemble of 70 daily 10-day forecasts covering the 61 days of the study period. Each forecast was started from the analyzed initial state of the atmosphere and spun-up soil moisture from the first-day forecasts with the model. Monthly statistics of these forecasts with up to 10-day lead time provided a robust estimate of the behavior of the simulated monthly rainfall anomalies. Patterns of simulated versus observed rainfall, 500-hPa heights, and top-of-the-atmosphere net radiation were recast into regional anomaly correlations. The correlations were compared among the simulations with each of the schemes. The results show that fvGCM with McRAS and its radiation package performed discernibly better than the original fvGCM with CCM3 cloud physics plus its radiation package. The McRAS cloud scheme also showed a reasonably positive response to the observed sea surface temperature on mean monthly rainfall fields at different time leads. This analysis represents a method for helpful systematic evaluation prior to selection of a new scheme in a global model.

  8. A new scheme for urban impervious surface classification from SAR images (United States)

    Zhang, Hongsheng; Lin, Hui; Wang, Yunpeng


    Urban impervious surfaces have been recognized as a significant indicator for various environmental and socio-economic studies. There is an increasingly urgent demand for timely and accurate monitoring of the impervious surfaces with satellite technology from local to global scales. In the past decades, optical remote sensing has been widely employed for this task with various techniques. However, there are still a range of challenges, e.g. handling cloud contamination on optical data. Therefore, the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) was introduced for the challenging task because it is uniquely all-time- and all-weather-capable. Nevertheless, with an increasing number of SAR data applied, the methodology used for impervious surfaces classification remains unchanged from the methods used for optical datasets. This shortcoming has prevented the community from fully exploring the potential of using SAR data for impervious surfaces classification. We proposed a new scheme that is comparable to the well-known and fundamental Vegetation-Impervious surface-Soil (V-I-S) model for mapping urban impervious surfaces. Three scenes of fully polarimetric Radsarsat-2 data for the cities of Shenzhen, Hong Kong and Macau were employed to test and validate the proposed methodology. Experimental results indicated that the overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 96.00% and 0.8808 in Shenzhen, 93.87% and 0.8307 in Hong Kong and 97.48% and 0.9354 in Macau, indicating the applicability and great potential of the new scheme for impervious surfaces classification using polarimetric SAR data. Comparison with the traditional scheme indicated that this new scheme was able to improve the overall accuracy by up to 4.6% and Kappa coefficient by up to 0.18.

  9. Frozen soil parameterization in a distributed biosphere hydrological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang


    Full Text Available In this study, a frozen soil parameterization has been modified and incorporated into a distributed biosphere hydrological model (WEB-DHM. The WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme was then rigorously evaluated in a small cold area, the Binngou watershed, against the in-situ observations from the WATER (Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research. First, by using the original WEB-DHM without the frozen scheme, the land surface parameters and two van Genuchten parameters were optimized using the observed surface radiation fluxes and the soil moistures at upper layers (5, 10 and 20 cm depths at the DY station in July. Second, by using the WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme, two frozen soil parameters were calibrated using the observed soil temperature at 5 cm depth at the DY station from 21 November 2007 to 20 April 2008; while the other soil hydraulic parameters were optimized by the calibration of the discharges at the basin outlet in July and August that covers the annual largest flood peak in 2008. With these calibrated parameters, the WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme was then used for a yearlong validation from 21 November 2007 to 20 November 2008. Results showed that the WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme has given much better performance than the WEB-DHM without the frozen scheme, in the simulations of soil moisture profile at the cold regions catchment and the discharges at the basin outlet in the yearlong simulation.

  10. An Adaptive Window-setting Scheme for Segmentation of Bladder Tumor Surface via MR Cystography (United States)

    Duan, Chaijie; Liu, Fanghua; Xiao, Ping; Lv, Guoqing


    This paper proposes an adaptive window-setting scheme for non-invasive detection and segmentation of bladder tumor surface in T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. The inner border of the bladder wall is firstly covered by a group of ball-shaped detecting windows with different radii. By extracting the candidate tumor windows and excluding the false positive (FP) candidates, the entire bladder tumor surface is detected and segmented by the remaining windows. Different from previous bladder tumor detection methods which are mostly focusing on the existence of a tumor, this paper emphasizes segmenting the entire tumor surface in addition to detecting the presence of the tumor. The presented scheme was validated by 10 clinical T1-weighted MR image datasets (5 volunteers and 5 patients). The bladder tumor surfaces and the normal bladder wall inner borders in the ten datasets were covered by 223 and 10491 windows, respectively. Such large number of the detecting windows makes the validation statistically meaningful. In the FP reduction step, the best feature combination was obtained by using receiver operating characteristics or ROC analysis. The validation results demonstrated the potential of this presented scheme in segmenting the entire tumor surface with high sensitivity and low FP rate. This work inherits our previous results of automatic segmentation of the bladder wall and will be an important element in our MR-based virtual cystoscopy or MR cystography system. PMID:22645274

  11. Cloud Simulations in Response to Turbulence Parameterizations in the GISS Model E GCM (United States)

    Yao, Mao-Sung; Cheng, Ye


    The response of cloud simulations to turbulence parameterizations is studied systematically using the GISS general circulation model (GCM) E2 employed in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5).Without the turbulence parameterization, the relative humidity (RH) and the low cloud cover peak unrealistically close to the surface; with the dry convection or with only the local turbulence parameterization, these two quantities improve their vertical structures, but the vertical transport of water vapor is still weak in the planetary boundary layers (PBLs); with both local and nonlocal turbulence parameterizations, the RH and low cloud cover have better vertical structures in all latitudes due to more significant vertical transport of water vapor in the PBL. The study also compares the cloud and radiation climatologies obtained from an experiment using a newer version of turbulence parameterization being developed at GISS with those obtained from the AR5 version. This newer scheme differs from the AR5 version in computing nonlocal transports, turbulent length scale, and PBL height and shows significant improvements in cloud and radiation simulations, especially over the subtropical eastern oceans and the southern oceans. The diagnosed PBL heights appear to correlate well with the low cloud distribution over oceans. This suggests that a cloud-producing scheme needs to be constructed in a framework that also takes the turbulence into consideration.

  12. Sensitivity test of parameterizations of subgrid-scale orographic form drag in the NCAR CESM1 (United States)

    Liang, Yishuang; Wang, Lanning; Zhang, Guang Jun; Wu, Qizhong


    Turbulent drag caused by subgrid orographic form drag has significant effects on the atmosphere. It is represented through parameterization in large-scale numerical prediction models. An indirect parameterization scheme, the Turbulent Mountain Stress scheme (TMS), is currently used in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Earth System Model v1.0.4. In this study we test a direct scheme referred to as BBW04 (Beljaars et al. in Q J R Meteorol Soc 130:1327-1347, 10.1256/qj.03.73), which has been used in several short-term weather forecast models and earth system models. Results indicate that both the indirect and direct schemes increase surface wind stress and improve the model's performance in simulating low-level wind speed over complex orography compared to the simulation without subgrid orographic effect. It is shown that the TMS scheme produces a more intense wind speed adjustment, leading to lower wind speed near the surface. The low-level wind speed by the BBW04 scheme agrees better with the ERA-Interim reanalysis and is more sensitive to complex orography as a direct method. Further, the TMS scheme increases the 2-m temperature and planetary boundary layer height over large areas of tropical and subtropical Northern Hemisphere land.

  13. Single-Column Modeling, GCM Parameterizations and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somerville, R.C.J.; Iacobellis, S.F.


    Our overall goal is identical to that of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: the development of new and improved parameterizations of cloud-radiation effects and related processes, using ARM data at all three ARM sites, and the implementation and testing of these parameterizations in global and regional models. To test recently developed prognostic parameterizations based on detailed cloud microphysics, we have first compared single-column model (SCM) output with ARM observations at the Southern Great Plains (SGP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Topical Western Pacific (TWP) sites. We focus on the predicted cloud amounts and on a suite of radiative quantities strongly dependent on clouds, such as downwelling surface shortwave radiation. Our results demonstrate the superiority of parameterizations based on comprehensive treatments of cloud microphysics and cloud-radiative interactions. At the SGP and NSA sites, the SCM results simulate the ARM measurements well and are demonstrably more realistic than typical parameterizations found in conventional operational forecasting models. At the TWP site, the model performance depends strongly on details of the scheme, and the results of our diagnostic tests suggest ways to develop improved parameterizations better suited to simulating cloud-radiation interactions in the tropics generally. These advances have made it possible to take the next step and build on this progress, by incorporating our parameterization schemes in state-of-the-art 3D atmospheric models, and diagnosing and evaluating the results using independent data. Because the improved cloud-radiation results have been obtained largely via implementing detailed and physically comprehensive cloud microphysics, we anticipate that improved predictions of hydrologic cycle components, and hence of precipitation, may also be achievable. We are currently testing the performance of our ARM-based parameterizations in state-of-the--art global and regional

  14. Parameterizing the Leaching Surface by Combining Curve-Fitting for Solute Breakthrough and for Spatial Solute Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, E.; Gee, de M.; Rooij, de G.H.


    Multi-compartment samplers (MCSs) measure unsaturated solute transport in space and time at a given depth. Sorting the breakthrough curves (BTCs) for individual compartments in descending order of total solute amount and plotting in 3D produces the leaching surface. The leaching surface is a useful

  15. Multi-scale freeform surface texture filtering using a mesh relaxation scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xiangqian; Abdul-Rahman, Hussein S; Scott, Paul J


    Surface filtering algorithms using Fourier, Gaussian, wavelets, etc, are well-established for simple Euclidean geometries. However, these filtration techniques cannot be applied to today's complex freeform surfaces, which have non-Euclidean geometries, without distortion of the results. This paper proposes a new multi-scale filtering algorithm for freeform surfaces that are represented by triangular meshes based on a mesh relaxation scheme. The proposed algorithm is capable of decomposing a freeform surface into different scales and separating surface roughness, waviness and form from each other, as will be demonstrated throughout the paper. Results of applying the proposed algorithm to computer-generated as well as real surfaces are represented and compared with a lifting wavelet filtering algorithm. (paper)

  16. Spectral cumulus parameterization based on cloud-resolving model (United States)

    Baba, Yuya


    We have developed a spectral cumulus parameterization using a cloud-resolving model. This includes a new parameterization of the entrainment rate which was derived from analysis of the cloud properties obtained from the cloud-resolving model simulation and was valid for both shallow and deep convection. The new scheme was examined in a single-column model experiment and compared with the existing parameterization of Gregory (2001, Q J R Meteorol Soc 127:53-72) (GR scheme). The results showed that the GR scheme simulated more shallow and diluted convection than the new scheme. To further validate the physical performance of the parameterizations, Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) experiments were performed, and the results were compared with reanalysis data. The new scheme performed better than the GR scheme in terms of mean state and variability of atmospheric circulation, i.e., the new scheme improved positive bias of precipitation in western Pacific region, and improved positive bias of outgoing shortwave radiation over the ocean. The new scheme also simulated better features of convectively coupled equatorial waves and Madden-Julian oscillation. These improvements were found to be derived from the modification of parameterization for the entrainment rate, i.e., the proposed parameterization suppressed excessive increase of entrainment, thus suppressing excessive increase of low-level clouds.

  17. Multi-scale validation of a new soil freezing scheme for a land-surface model with physically-based hydrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Gouttevin


    Full Text Available Soil freezing is a major feature of boreal regions with substantial impact on climate. The present paper describes the implementation of the thermal and hydrological effects of soil freezing in the land surface model ORCHIDEE, which includes a physical description of continental hydrology. The new soil freezing scheme is evaluated against analytical solutions and in-situ observations at a variety of scales in order to test its numerical robustness, explore its sensitivity to parameterization choices and confront its performance to field measurements at typical application scales.

    Our soil freezing model exhibits a low sensitivity to the vertical discretization for spatial steps in the range of a few millimetres to a few centimetres. It is however sensitive to the temperature interval around the freezing point where phase change occurs, which should be 1 °C to 2 °C wide. Furthermore, linear and thermodynamical parameterizations of the liquid water content lead to similar results in terms of water redistribution within the soil and thermal evolution under freezing. Our approach does not allow firm discrimination of the performance of one approach over the other.

    The new soil freezing scheme considerably improves the representation of runoff and river discharge in regions underlain by permafrost or subject to seasonal freezing. A thermodynamical parameterization of the liquid water content appears more appropriate for an integrated description of the hydrological processes at the scale of the vast Siberian basins. The use of a subgrid variability approach and the representation of wetlands could help capture the features of the Arctic hydrological regime with more accuracy.

    The modeling of the soil thermal regime is generally improved by the representation of soil freezing processes. In particular, the dynamics of the active layer is captured with more accuracy, which is of crucial importance in the prospect of

  18. A simple parameterization of sub-grid scale open water for climate models (United States)

    Pitman, Aj


    The effects of small fractions ( water covering a grid element are currently neglected even in atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) which incorporate complex land surface parameterization schemes. Here, a method for simulating sub-grid scale open water is proposed which permits any existing land surface model to be modified to account for open water. This new parameterization is tested as an addition to an advanced land surface scheme and, as expected, is shown to produce general increases in the surface latent heat flux at the expense of the surface sensible heat flux. Small changes in temperature are associated with this change in the partitioning of available energy which is driven by an increase in the wetness of the grid element. The sensitivity of the land surface to increasing amounts of open water is dependent upon the type of vegetation represented. Dense vegetation (with a high leaf area index) is shown to complicate the apparently simple model sensitivity and indicates that more advanced methods of incorporating open water into AGCMs need to be considered and compared against the parameterization suggested here. However, the sensitivity of one land surface model to incorporating open water is large enough to warrant consideration of its incorporation into climate models.

  19. Estimating Land Surface Temperature from Feng Yun-3C/MERSI Data Using a New Land Surface Emissivity Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangchen Meng


    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is a key parameter for a wide number of applications, including hydrology, meteorology and surface energy balance. In this study, we first proposed a new land surface emissivity (LSE scheme, including a lookup table-based method to determine the vegetated surface emissivity and an empirical method to derive the bare soil emissivity from the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS broadband emissivity (BBE product. Then, the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA reanalysis data and the Feng Yun-3C/Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (FY-3C/MERSI precipitable water vapor product were used to correct the atmospheric effects. After resolving the land surface emissivity and atmospheric effects, the LST was derived in a straightforward manner from the FY-3C/MERSI data by the radiative transfer equation algorithm and the generalized single-channel algorithm. The mean difference between the derived LSE and field-measured LSE over seven stations is approximately 0.002. Validation of the LST retrieved with the LSE determined by the new scheme can achieve an acceptable accuracy. The absolute biases are less than 1 K and the STDs (RMSEs are less than 1.95 K (2.2 K for both the 1000 m and 250 m spatial resolutions. The LST accuracy is superior to that retrieved with the LSE determined by the commonly used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI threshold method. Thus, the new emissivity scheme can be used to improve the accuracy of the LSE and further the LST for sensors with broad spectral ranges such as FY-3C/MERSI.

  20. Evaluating the effect of alternative carbon allocation schemes in a land surface model (CLM4.5 on carbon fluxes, pools, and turnover in temperate forests

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    F. Montané


    Full Text Available How carbon (C is allocated to different plant tissues (leaves, stem, and roots determines how long C remains in plant biomass and thus remains a central challenge for understanding the global C cycle. We used a diverse set of observations (AmeriFlux eddy covariance tower observations, biomass estimates from tree-ring data, and leaf area index (LAI measurements to compare C fluxes, pools, and LAI data with those predicted by a land surface model (LSM, the Community Land Model (CLM4.5. We ran CLM4.5 for nine temperate (including evergreen and deciduous forests in North America between 1980 and 2013 using four different C allocation schemes: i. dynamic C allocation scheme (named "D-CLM4.5" with one dynamic allometric parameter, which allocates C to the stem and leaves to vary in time as a function of annual net primary production (NPP; ii. an alternative dynamic C allocation scheme (named "D-Litton", where, similar to (i, C allocation is a dynamic function of annual NPP, but unlike (i includes two dynamic allometric parameters involving allocation to leaves, stem, and coarse roots; iii.–iv. a fixed C allocation scheme with two variants, one representative of observations in evergreen (named "F-Evergreen" and the other of observations in deciduous forests (named "F-Deciduous". D-CLM4.5 generally overestimated gross primary production (GPP and ecosystem respiration, and underestimated net ecosystem exchange (NEE. In D-CLM4.5, initial aboveground biomass in 1980 was largely overestimated (between 10 527 and 12 897 g C m−2 for deciduous forests, whereas aboveground biomass accumulation through time (between 1980 and 2011 was highly underestimated (between 1222 and 7557 g C m−2 for both evergreen and deciduous sites due to a lower stem turnover rate in the sites than the one used in the model. D-CLM4.5 overestimated LAI in both evergreen and deciduous sites because the leaf C–LAI relationship in the model did not match the

  1. Evaluating the effect of alternative carbon allocation schemes in a land surface model (CLM4.5) on carbon fluxes, pools, and turnover in temperate forests (United States)

    Montané, Francesc; Fox, Andrew M.; Arellano, Avelino F.; MacBean, Natasha; Alexander, M. Ross; Dye, Alex; Bishop, Daniel A.; Trouet, Valerie; Babst, Flurin; Hessl, Amy E.; Pederson, Neil; Blanken, Peter D.; Bohrer, Gil; Gough, Christopher M.; Litvak, Marcy E.; Novick, Kimberly A.; Phillips, Richard P.; Wood, Jeffrey D.; Moore, David J. P.


    How carbon (C) is allocated to different plant tissues (leaves, stem, and roots) determines how long C remains in plant biomass and thus remains a central challenge for understanding the global C cycle. We used a diverse set of observations (AmeriFlux eddy covariance tower observations, biomass estimates from tree-ring data, and leaf area index (LAI) measurements) to compare C fluxes, pools, and LAI data with those predicted by a land surface model (LSM), the Community Land Model (CLM4.5). We ran CLM4.5 for nine temperate (including evergreen and deciduous) forests in North America between 1980 and 2013 using four different C allocation schemes: i. dynamic C allocation scheme (named "D-CLM4.5") with one dynamic allometric parameter, which allocates C to the stem and leaves to vary in time as a function of annual net primary production (NPP); ii. an alternative dynamic C allocation scheme (named "D-Litton"), where, similar to (i), C allocation is a dynamic function of annual NPP, but unlike (i) includes two dynamic allometric parameters involving allocation to leaves, stem, and coarse roots; iii.-iv. a fixed C allocation scheme with two variants, one representative of observations in evergreen (named "F-Evergreen") and the other of observations in deciduous forests (named "F-Deciduous"). D-CLM4.5 generally overestimated gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration, and underestimated net ecosystem exchange (NEE). In D-CLM4.5, initial aboveground biomass in 1980 was largely overestimated (between 10 527 and 12 897 g C m-2) for deciduous forests, whereas aboveground biomass accumulation through time (between 1980 and 2011) was highly underestimated (between 1222 and 7557 g C m-2) for both evergreen and deciduous sites due to a lower stem turnover rate in the sites than the one used in the model. D-CLM4.5 overestimated LAI in both evergreen and deciduous sites because the leaf C-LAI relationship in the model did not match the observed leaf C

  2. Modeling and evaluation of the global sea-salt aerosol distribution: sensitivity to size-resolved and sea-surface temperature dependent emission schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Spada


    Full Text Available One of the major sources of uncertainty in model estimates of the global sea-salt aerosol distribution is the emission parameterization. We evaluate a new sea-salt aerosol life cycle module coupled to the online multiscale chemical transport model NMMB/BSC-CTM. We compare 5 yr global simulations using five state-of-the-art sea-salt open-ocean emission schemes with monthly averaged coarse aerosol optical depth (AOD from selected AERONET sun photometers, surface concentration measurements from the University of Miami's Ocean Aerosol Network, and measurements from two NOAA/PMEL cruises (AEROINDOEX and ACE1. Model results are highly sensitive to the introduction of sea-surface-temperature (SST-dependent emissions and to the accounting of spume particles production. Emission ranges from 3888 Tg yr−1 to 8114 Tg yr−1, lifetime varies between 7.3 h and 11.3 h, and the average column mass load is between 5.0 Tg and 7.2 Tg. Coarse AOD is reproduced with an overall correlation of around 0.5 and with normalized biases ranging from +8.8% to +38.8%. Surface concentration is simulated with normalized biases ranging from −9.5% to +28% and the overall correlation is around 0.5. Our results indicate that SST-dependent emission schemes improve the overall model performance in reproducing surface concentrations. On the other hand, they lead to an overestimation of the coarse AOD at tropical latitudes, although it may be affected by uncertainties in the comparison due to the use of all-sky model AOD, the treatment of water uptake, deposition and optical properties in the model and/or an inaccurate size distribution at emission.

  3. Validation of parameterizations for the surface turbulent fluxes over sea ice with CHINARE 2010 and SHEBA data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixiong Lu


    Full Text Available This study examines the modelled surface turbulent fluxes over sea ice from the bulk algorithms of the Beijing Climate Centre Climate System Model (BCC_CSM, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF model and the Community Earth System Model (CESM with data from the fourth Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE 2010 and the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA experiment. Of all the model algorithms, wind stresses are replicated well and have small annual biases (−0.6% in BCC_CSM, 0.2% in CESM and 17% in ECMWF with observations, annual sensible heat fluxes are consistently underestimated by 83–141%, and annual latent heat fluxes are generally overestimated by 49–73%. Five sets of stability functions for stable stratification are evaluated based on theoretical and observational analyses, and the superior stability functions are employed in a new bulk algorithm proposal, which also features varying roughness lengths. Compared to BCC_CSM, the new algorithm can estimate the friction velocity with significantly reduced bias, 84% smaller in winter and 56% smaller in summer, respectively. For the sensible heat flux, the bias of the new algorithm is 30% smaller in winter and 19% smaller in summer than that of BCC_CSM. Finally, the bias of modelled latent heat fluxes is 27% smaller in summer.

  4. Microbial counts of food contact surfaces at schools depending on a feeding scheme

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    Nthabiseng Nhlapo


    Full Text Available The prominence of disease transmission between individuals in confined environments is a concern, particularly in the educational environment. With respect to school feeding schemes, food contact surfaces have been shown to be potential vehicles of foodborne pathogens. The aim of this study was to assess the cleanliness of the surfaces that come into contact with food that is provided to children through the National School Nutrition Programme in central South Africa. In each school under study, microbiological samples were collected from the preparation surface and the dominant hand and apron of the food handler. The samples were analysed for total viable counts, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts and moulds. The criteria specified in the British Columbia Guide for Environmental Health Officers were used to evaluate the results. Total viable counts were high for all surfaces, with the majority of colonies being too numerous to count (over 100 colonies per plate. Counts of organisms were relatively low, with 20% of the surfaces producing unsatisfactory enumeration of S. aureus and E. coli and 30% unsatisfactory for coliforms. Yeast and mould produced 50% and 60% unsatisfactory counts from preparation surfaces and aprons, respectively. Statistically significant differences could not be established amongst microbial counts of the surfaces, which suggests cross-contamination may have occurred. Contamination may be attributed to foodstuffs and animals in the vicinity of the preparation area rather than to the food handlers, because hands had the lowest counts of enumerated organisms amongst the analysed surfaces.

  5. Application of an Online-Coupled Regional Climate Model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for Examination of Ice Nucleation Schemes: Part II. Sensitivity to Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation Parameterizations and Dust Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang


    Full Text Available Aerosol particles can affect cloud microphysical properties by serving as ice nuclei (IN. Large uncertainties exist in the ice nucleation parameterizations (INPs used in current climate models. In this Part II paper, to examine the sensitivity of the model predictions to different heterogeneous INPs, WRF-CAM5 simulation using the INP of Niemand et al. (N12 [1] is conducted over East Asia for two full years, 2006 and 2011, and compared with simulation using the INP of Meyers et al. (M92 [2], which is the original INP used in CAM5. M92 calculates the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of ice supersaturation, while N12 represents the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of temperature and the number concentrations and surface areas of dust particles. Compared to M92, the WRF-CAM5 simulation with N12 produces significantly higher nucleated ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs in the northern domain where dust sources are located, leading to significantly higher cloud ice number and mass concentrations and ice water path, but the opposite is true in the southern domain where temperatures and moistures play a more important role in ice formation. Overall, the simulation with N12 gives lower downward shortwave radiation but higher downward longwave radiation, cloud liquid water path, cloud droplet number concentrations, and cloud optical depth. The increase in cloud optical depth and the decrease in downward solar flux result in a stronger shortwave and longwave cloud forcing, and decreases temperature at 2-m and precipitation. Changes in temperature and radiation lower surface concentrations of OH, O3, SO42−, and PM2.5, but increase surface concentrations of CO, NO2, and SO2 over most of the domain. By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN and IN, dust particles have different impacts on cloud water and ice number concentrations, radiation, and temperature at 2-m and precipitation depending on whether the

  6. New Scheme for Validating Remote-Sensing Land Surface Temperature Products with Station Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Yu


    Full Text Available Continuous land-surface temperature (LST observations from ground-based stations are an important reference dataset for validating remote-sensing LST products. However, a lack of evaluations of the representativeness of station observations limits the reliability of validation results. In this study, a new practical validation scheme is presented for validating remote-sensing LST products that includes a key step: assessing the spatial representativeness of ground-based LST measurements. Three indicators, namely, the dominant land-cover type (DLCT, relative bias (RB, and average structure scale (ASS, are established to quantify the representative levels of station observations based on the land-cover type (LCT and LST reference maps with high spatial resolution. We validated MODIS LSTs using station observations from the Heihe River Basin (HRB in China. The spatial representative evaluation steps show that the representativeness of observations greatly differs among stations and varies with different vegetation growth and other factors. Large differences in the validation results occur when using different representative level observations, which indicates a large potential for large error during the traditional T-based validation scheme. Comparisons show that the new validation scheme greatly improves the reliability of LST product validation through high-level representative observations.

  7. A finite-volume HLLC-based scheme for compressible interfacial flows with surface tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrick, Daniel P. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States); Owkes, Mark [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT (United States); Regele, Jonathan D., E-mail: [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States)


    Shock waves are often used in experiments to create a shear flow across liquid droplets to study secondary atomization. Similar behavior occurs inside of supersonic combustors (scramjets) under startup conditions, but it is challenging to study these conditions experimentally. In order to investigate this phenomenon further, a numerical approach is developed to simulate compressible multiphase flows under the effects of surface tension forces. The flow field is solved via the compressible multicomponent Euler equations (i.e., the five equation model) discretized with the finite volume method on a uniform Cartesian grid. The solver utilizes a total variation diminishing (TVD) third-order Runge–Kutta method for time-marching and second order TVD spatial reconstruction. Surface tension is incorporated using the Continuum Surface Force (CSF) model. Fluxes are upwinded with a modified Harten–Lax–van Leer Contact (HLLC) approximate Riemann solver. An interface compression scheme is employed to counter numerical diffusion of the interface. The present work includes modifications to both the HLLC solver and the interface compression scheme to account for capillary force terms and the associated pressure jump across the gas–liquid interface. A simple method for numerically computing the interface curvature is developed and an acoustic scaling of the surface tension coefficient is proposed for the non-dimensionalization of the model. The model captures the surface tension induced pressure jump exactly if the exact curvature is known and is further verified with an oscillating elliptical droplet and Mach 1.47 and 3 shock-droplet interaction problems. The general characteristics of secondary atomization at a range of Weber numbers are also captured in a series of simulations.

  8. Dynamics of a Rydberg hydrogen atom near a metal surface in the electron-extraction scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iñarrea, Manuel [Área de Física Aplicada, Universidad de La Rioja, Logroño (Spain); Lanchares, Víctor [Departamento de Matemáticas y Computación, Universidad de La Rioja, Logroño, La Rioja (Spain); Palacián, Jesús [Departamento de Ingeniería Matemática e Informática, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Pascual, Ana I. [Departamento de Matemáticas y Computación, Universidad de La Rioja, Logroño, La Rioja (Spain); Salas, J. Pablo, E-mail: [Área de Física Aplicada, Universidad de La Rioja, Logroño (Spain); Yanguas, Patricia [Departamento de Ingeniería Matemática e Informática, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain)


    We study the classical dynamics of a Rydberg hydrogen atom near a metal surface in the presence of a constant electric field in the electron-extraction situation [1], e.g., when the field attracts the electron to the vacuum. From a dynamical point of view, this field configuration provides a dynamics richer than in the usual ion-extraction scheme, because, depending on the values of field and the atom–surface distance, the atom can be ionized only towards the metal surface, only to the vacuum or to the both sides. The evolution of the phase space structure as a function of the atom–surface distance is explored in the bound regime of the atom. In the high energy regime, the ionization mechanism is also investigated. We find that the classical results of this work are in good agreement with the results obtained in the wave-packet propagation study carried out by So et al. [1]. - Highlights: • We study a classical hydrogen atom near a metal surface plus a electric field. • We explore the phase space structure as a function of the field strength. • We find most of the electronic orbits are oriented along the field direction. • We study the ionization of the atom for several atom–surface distances. • This classical study is in good agreement with the quantum results.

  9. A surface evolution scheme to identify nanoscale intrinsic geometry from AFM experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hong-Lae; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Youmie; Cho, Seonho


    The geometrical properties of metallic nanoparticles such as the size and morphology have significant impacts on the structure and stability of the adsorbed biological entities as well as the nanoscale structural performances. To identify the nanoscale intrinsic geometry from the height images by atomic force microscopy (AFM), we developed a curvature-dependent evolution scheme that can eliminate the noise and smoothen the surfaces. The principal curvatures are computed directly from the first and second derivatives of the discrete AFM height data. The principal curvatures and directions correspond to the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of shape operator matrix, respectively. The evolution equation using the principal curvature flows smoothens the images in the corresponding principal directions. For an idealized model, κ 2 flow successfully identifies the major valley lines to represent the boundary of nanoparticles without referring to the phase information, whereas the mean curvature flow eliminates all the minor ones leaving only the major feature of the boundary. To demonstrate the capability of noise removal, smoothing surfaces, the identification of ridge and valley lines, and the extraction of intrinsic geometry, the developed numerical scheme is applied to real AFM data that include the silver nanoparticles of 24 nm diameter and the gold nanoparticles of 33–56 nm diameters

  10. Improved Climate Simulations through a Stochastic Parameterization of Ocean Eddies (United States)

    Williams, Paul; Howe, Nicola; Gregory, Jonathan; Smith, Robin; Joshi, Manoj


    In climate simulations, the impacts of the subgrid scales on the resolved scales are conventionally represented using deterministic closure schemes, which assume that the impacts are uniquely determined by the resolved scales. Stochastic parameterization relaxes this assumption, by sampling the subgrid variability in a computationally inexpensive manner. This study shows that the simulated climatological state of the ocean is improved in many respects by implementing a simple stochastic parameterization of ocean eddies into a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. Simulations from a high-resolution, eddy-permitting ocean model are used to calculate the eddy statistics needed to inject realistic stochastic noise into a low-resolution, non-eddy-permitting version of the same model. A suite of four stochastic experiments is then run to test the sensitivity of the simulated climate to the noise definition by varying the noise amplitude and decorrelation time within reasonable limits. The addition of zero-mean noise to the ocean temperature tendency is found to have a nonzero effect on the mean climate. Specifically, in terms of the ocean temperature and salinity fields both at the surface and at depth, the noise reduces many of the biases in the low-resolution model and causes it to more closely resemble the high-resolution model. The variability of the strength of the global ocean thermohaline circulation is also improved. It is concluded that stochastic ocean perturbations can yield reductions in climate model error that are comparable to those obtained by refining the resolution, but without the increased computational cost. Therefore, stochastic parameterizations of ocean eddies have the potential to significantly improve climate simulations. Reference Williams PD, Howe NJ, Gregory JM, Smith RS, and Joshi MM (2016) Improved Climate Simulations through a Stochastic Parameterization of Ocean Eddies. Journal of Climate, 29, 8763-8781.

  11. Evaluating parameterizations of aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer using field measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaomin Liu


    Full Text Available Parameterizations of aerodynamic resistance to heat and water transfer have a significant impact on the accuracy of models of land – atmosphere interactions and of estimated surface fluxes using spectro-radiometric data collected from aircrafts and satellites. We have used measurements from an eddy correlation system to derive the aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer over a bare soil surface as well as over a maize canopy. Diurnal variations of aerodynamic resistance have been analyzed. The results showed that the diurnal variation of aerodynamic resistance during daytime (07:00 h–18:00 h was significant for both the bare soil surface and the maize canopy although the range of variation was limited. Based on the measurements made by the eddy correlation system, a comprehensive evaluation of eight popularly used parameterization schemes of aerodynamic resistance was carried out. The roughness length for heat transfer is a crucial parameter in the estimation of aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer and can neither be taken as a constant nor be neglected. Comparing with the measurements, the parameterizations by Choudhury et al. (1986, Viney (1991, Yang et al. (2001 and the modified forms of Verma et al. (1976 and Mahrt and Ek (1984 by inclusion of roughness length for heat transfer gave good agreements with the measurements, while the parameterizations by Hatfield et al. (1983 and Xie (1988 showed larger errors even though the roughness length for heat transfer has been taken into account.

  12. Climate impacts of parameterized Nordic Sea overflows (United States)

    Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Large, William G.; Briegleb, Bruce P.


    A new overflow parameterization (OFP) of density-driven flows through ocean ridges via narrow, unresolved channels has been developed and implemented in the ocean component of the Community Climate System Model version 4. It represents exchanges from the Nordic Seas and the Antarctic shelves, associated entrainment, and subsequent injection of overflow product waters into the abyssal basins. We investigate the effects of the parameterized Denmark Strait (DS) and Faroe Bank Channel (FBC) overflows on the ocean circulation, showing their impacts on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and the North Atlantic climate. The OFP is based on the Marginal Sea Boundary Condition scheme of Price and Yang (1998), but there are significant differences that are described in detail. Two uncoupled (ocean-only) and two fully coupled simulations are analyzed. Each pair consists of one case with the OFP and a control case without this parameterization. In both uncoupled and coupled experiments, the parameterized DS and FBC source volume transports are within the range of observed estimates. The entrainment volume transports remain lower than observational estimates, leading to lower than observed product volume transports. Due to low entrainment, the product and source water properties are too similar. The DS and FBC overflow temperature and salinity properties are in better agreement with observations in the uncoupled case than in the coupled simulation, likely reflecting surface flux differences. The most significant impact of the OFP is the improved North Atlantic Deep Water penetration depth, leading to a much better comparison with the observational data and significantly reducing the chronic, shallow penetration depth bias in level coordinate models. This improvement is due to the deeper penetration of the southward flowing Deep Western Boundary Current. In comparison with control experiments without the OFP, the abyssal ventilation rates increase in the North

  13. Snow specific surface area simulation using the one-layer snow model in the Canadian LAnd Surface Scheme (CLASS

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    A. Roy


    Full Text Available Snow grain size is a key parameter for modeling microwave snow emission properties and the surface energy balance because of its influence on the snow albedo, thermal conductivity and diffusivity. A model of the specific surface area (SSA of snow was implemented in the one-layer snow model in the Canadian LAnd Surface Scheme (CLASS version 3.4. This offline multilayer model (CLASS-SSA simulates the decrease of SSA based on snow age, snow temperature and the temperature gradient under dry snow conditions, while it considers the liquid water content of the snowpack for wet snow metamorphism. We compare the model with ground-based measurements from several sites (alpine, arctic and subarctic with different types of snow. The model provides simulated SSA in good agreement with measurements with an overall point-to-point comparison RMSE of 8.0 m2 kg–1, and a root mean square error (RMSE of 5.1 m2 kg–1 for the snowpack average SSA. The model, however, is limited under wet conditions due to the single-layer nature of the CLASS model, leading to a single liquid water content value for the whole snowpack. The SSA simulations are of great interest for satellite passive microwave brightness temperature assimilations, snow mass balance retrievals and surface energy balance calculations with associated climate feedbacks.

  14. Physically Accurate Soil Freeze-Thaw Processes in a Global Land Surface Scheme (United States)

    Cuntz, Matthias; Haverd, Vanessa


    Transfer of energy and moisture in frozen soil, and hence the active layer depth, are strongly influenced by the soil freezing curve which specifies liquid moisture content as a function of temperature. However, the curve is typically not represented in global land surface models, with less physically-based approximations being used instead. In this work, we develop a physically accurate model of soil freeze-thaw processes, suitable for use in a global land surface scheme. We incorporated soil freeze-thaw processes into an existing detailed model for the transfer of heat, liquid water and water vapor in soils, including isotope diagnostics - Soil-Litter-Iso (SLI, Haverd & Cuntz 2010), which has been used successfully for water and carbon balances of the Australian continent (Haverd et al. 2013). A unique feature of SLI is that fluxes of energy and moisture are coupled using a single system of linear equations. The extension to include freeze-thaw processes and snow maintains this elegant coupling, requiring only coefficients in the linear equations to be modified. No impedance factor for hydraulic conductivity is needed because of the formulation by matric flux potential rather than pressure head. Iterations are avoided which results in the same computational speed as without freezing. The extended model is evaluated extensively in stand-alone mode (against theoretical predictions, lab experiments and field data) and as part of the CABLE global land surface scheme. SLI accurately solves the classical Stefan problem of a homogeneous medium undergoing a phase change. The model also accurately reproduces the freezing front, which is observed in laboratory experiments (Hansson et al. 2004). SLI was further tested against observations at a permafrost site in Tibet (Weismüller et al. 2011). It reproduces seasonal thawing and freezing of the active layer to within 3 K of the observed soil temperature and to within 10% of the observed volumetric liquid soil moisture

  15. Evaluating the impacts of cumulus, land surface and ocean surface schemes on summertime rainfall simulations over East-to-southeast Asia and the western north Pacific by RegCM4 (United States)

    Li, Yu-Bin; Tam, Chi-Yung; Huang, Wan-Ru; Cheung, Kevin K. W.; Gao, Zhiqiu


    This study evaluates the sensitivity of summertime rainfall simulations over East-to-southeast Asia and the western north Pacific in the regional climate model version 4 (RegCM4) to cumulus (including Grell with Arakawa-Schubert type closure, Grell with Fritsch-Chappell type closure, and Emanuel), land surface (Biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme or BATS, and the community land model or CLM) and ocean surface (referred to as Zeng1, Zeng2 and BATS1e in the model) schemes by running the model with different combinations of these parameterization packages. For each of these experiments, ensemble integration of the model was carried out in the extended boreal summer of May-October from 1998 to 2007. The simulated spatial distribution, intensity and inter-annual variation of the precipitation, latent heat flux, position of the subtropical high and tropical cyclone genesis patterns from these numerical experiments were analyzed. Examinations show that the combination of Emanuel, CLM and Zeng2 (E-C-Z2) yields the best overall results, consistent with the fact that physical mechanisms considered in E-C-Z2 tend to be more comprehensive in comparison with the others. Additionally, the rainfall quantity is found very sensitive to sea surface roughness length, and the reduction of the roughness length constant (from 2 × 10-4 to 5 × 10-5 m) in our modified BATS1e mitigates the drastic overestimation of latent heat flux and rainfall, and is therefore preferable to the default value for simulations in the western north Pacific region in RegCM4.

  16. Stellar Atmospheric Parameterization Based on Deep Learning (United States)

    Pan, Ru-yang; Li, Xiang-ru


    Deep learning is a typical learning method widely studied in the fields of machine learning, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence. This work investigates the problem of stellar atmospheric parameterization by constructing a deep neural network with five layers, and the node number in each layer of the network is respectively 3821-500-100-50-1. The proposed scheme is verified on both the real spectra measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the theoretic spectra computed with the Kurucz's New Opacity Distribution Function (NEWODF) model, to make an automatic estimation for three physical parameters: the effective temperature (Teff), surface gravitational acceleration (lg g), and metallic abundance (Fe/H). The results show that the stacked autoencoder deep neural network has a better accuracy for the estimation. On the SDSS spectra, the mean absolute errors (MAEs) are 79.95 for Teff/K, 0.0058 for (lg Teff/K), 0.1706 for lg (g/(cm·s-2)), and 0.1294 dex for the [Fe/H], respectively; On the theoretic spectra, the MAEs are 15.34 for Teff/K, 0.0011 for lg (Teff/K), 0.0214 for lg(g/(cm · s-2)), and 0.0121 dex for [Fe/H], respectively.

  17. Impact of model structure and parameterization on Penman-Monteith type evaporation models

    KAUST Repository

    Ershadi, A.


    The impact of model structure and parameterization on the estimation of evaporation is investigated across a range of Penman-Monteith type models. To examine the role of model structure on flux retrievals, three different retrieval schemes are compared. The schemes include a traditional single-source Penman-Monteith model (Monteith, 1965), a two-layer model based on Shuttleworth and Wallace (1985) and a three-source model based on Mu et al. (2011). To assess the impact of parameterization choice on model performance, a number of commonly used formulations for aerodynamic and surface resistances were substituted into the different formulations. Model response to these changes was evaluated against data from twenty globally distributed FLUXNET towers, representing a cross-section of biomes that include grassland, cropland, shrubland, evergreen needleleaf forest and deciduous broadleaf forest. Scenarios based on 14 different combinations of model structure and parameterization were ranked based on their mean value of Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency. Results illustrated considerable variability in model performance both within and between biome types. Indeed, no single model consistently outperformed any other when considered across all biomes. For instance, in grassland and shrubland sites, the single-source Penman-Monteith model performed the best. In croplands it was the three-source Mu model, while for evergreen needleleaf and deciduous broadleaf forests, the Shuttleworth-Wallace model rated highest. Interestingly, these top ranked scenarios all shared the simple lookup-table based surface resistance parameterization of Mu et al. (2011), while a more complex Jarvis multiplicative method for surface resistance produced lower ranked simulations. The highly ranked scenarios mostly employed a version of the Thom (1975) formulation for aerodynamic resistance that incorporated dynamic values of roughness parameters. This was true for all cases except over deciduous broadleaf

  18. Inheritance versus parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik


    This position paper argues that inheritance and parameterization differ in their fundamental structure, even though they may emulate each other in many ways. Based on this, we claim that certain mechanisms, e.g., final classes, are in conflict with the nature of inheritance, and hence causes...

  19. Parameterization of extended systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik


    The YJBK parameterization (of all stabilizing controllers) is extended to handle systems with additional sensors and/or actuators. It is shown that the closed loop transfer function is still an affine function in the YJBK parameters in the nominal case. Further, some closed-loop stability results...

  20. Exploiting coastal altimetry to improve the surface circulation scheme over the central Mediterranean Sea (United States)

    Jebri, Fatma; Birol, Florence; Zakardjian, Bruno; Bouffard, Jérome; Sammari, Cherif


    This work is the first study exploiting along track altimetry data to observe and monitor coastal ocean features over the transition area between the western and eastern Mediterranean Basins. The relative performances of both the AVISO and the X-TRACK research regional altimetric data sets are compared using in situ observations. Both products are cross validated with tide gauge records. The altimeter-derived geostrophic velocities are also compared with observations from a moored Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler. Results indicate the good potential of satellite altimetry to retrieve dynamic features over the area. However, X-TRACK shows a more homogenous data coverage than AVISO, with longer time series in the 50 km coastal band. The seasonal evolution of the surface circulation is therefore analyzed by conjointly using X-TRACK data and remotely sensed sea surface temperature observations. This combined data set clearly depicts different current regimes and bifurcations, which allows us to propose a new seasonal circulation scheme for the central Mediterranean. The analysis shows variations of the path and temporal behavior of the main circulation features: the Atlantic Tunisian Current, the Atlantic Ionian Stream, the Atlantic Libyan Current, and the Sidra Gyre. The resulting bifurcating veins of these currents are also discussed, and a new current branch is observed for the first time.

  1. Ensemble based Assimilation of SMOS Surface Soil Moisture into the Surfex 11-layer Diffusion Scheme (United States)

    Blyverket, Jostein; Hamer, Paul; Svendby, Tove; Lahoz, William


    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite samples soil moisture at a spatial scale of ˜40 km and in the top ˜5 cm of the soil, depending on land cover and soil type. Remote sensing products have a limited spatial and temporal cover, with a re-visit time of 3 days close to the Equator for SMOS. These factors make it difficult to monitor the hydrological cycle over e.g., Northern Areas where there is a strong topography, fractal coastline and long periods of snow cover, all of which affect the SMOS soil moisture retrieval. Until now simple 3-layer force and restore models have been used to close the spatial (vertical/horizontal) and temporal gaps of soil moisture from remote sensing platforms. In this study we have implemented the Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (ETKF) into the Surfex land surface model, and used the ISBA diffusion scheme with 11-vertical layers. In contrast to the rapid changing surface layer, the slower changing root zone soil moisture is important for long term evapotranspiration and water supply. By combining a land surface model with satellite observations using data assimilation we can provide a better estimate of the root zone soil moisture at regional scales. The Surfex model runs are done for a European domain, from 1 July 2012 to 1 August 2013. For validation of our model setup, we compare with in situ stations from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) and the Norwegian Water and Energy Authorities (NVE); we also compare against the ESA CCI soil moisture product v02.2, which does not include SMOS soil moisture data. SMOS observations and open loop model runs are shown to exhibit large biases, these are removed before assimilation by a linear rescaling technique. Information from the satellite is transferred into deeper layers of the model using data assimilation, improving the root zone product when validated against in situ stations. The improved correlation between the assimilated product and the in situ values

  2. Evaluating the performance of SURFEXv5 as a new land surface scheme for the ALADINcy36 and ALARO-0 models (United States)

    Hamdi, R.; Degrauwe, D.; Duerinckx, A.; Cedilnik, J.; Costa, V.; Dalkilic, T.; Essaouini, K.; Jerczynki, M.; Kocaman, F.; Kullmann, L.; Mahfouf, J.-F.; Meier, F.; Sassi, M.; Schneider, S.; Váňa, F.; Termonia, P.


    The newly developed land surface scheme SURFEX (SURFace EXternalisée) is implemented into a limited-area numerical weather prediction model running operationally in a number of countries of the ALADIN and HIRLAM consortia. The primary question addressed is the ability of SURFEX to be used as a new land surface scheme and thus assessing its potential use in an operational configuration instead of the original ISBA (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere) scheme. The results show that the introduction of SURFEX either shows improvement for or has a neutral impact on the 2 m temperature, 2 m relative humidity and 10 m wind. However, it seems that SURFEX has a tendency to produce higher maximum temperatures at high-elevation stations during winter daytime, which degrades the 2 m temperature scores. In addition, surface radiative and energy fluxes improve compared to observations from the Cabauw tower. The results also show that promising improvements with a demonstrated positive impact on the forecast performance are achieved by introducing the town energy balance (TEB) scheme. It was found that the use of SURFEX has a neutral impact on the precipitation scores. However, the implementation of TEB within SURFEX for a high-resolution run tends to cause rainfall to be locally concentrated, and the total accumulated precipitation obviously decreases during the summer. One of the novel features developed in SURFEX is the availability of a more advanced surface data assimilation using the extended Kalman filter. The results over Belgium show that the forecast scores are similar between the extended Kalman filter and the classical optimal interpolation scheme. Finally, concerning the vertical scores, the introduction of SURFEX either shows improvement for or has a neutral impact in the free atmosphere.

  3. Demonstration of Effects on Tropical Cyclone Forecasts with a High Resolution Global Model from Variation in Cumulus Convection Parameterization (United States)

    Miller, Timothy L.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Cohen, Charles; Mackaro, Jessica


    The Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) is a system of models that have been developed at Goddard Space Flight Center to support NASA's earth science research in data analysis, observing system modeling and design, climate and weather prediction, and basic research. The work presented used GEOS-5 with 0.25o horizontal resolution and 72 vertical levels (up to 0.01 hP) resolving both the troposphere and stratosphere, with closer packing of the levels close to the surface. The model includes explicit (grid-scale) moist physics, as well as convective parameterization schemes. Results will be presented that will demonstrate strong dependence in the results of modeling of a strong hurricane on the type of convective parameterization scheme used. The previous standard (default) option in the model was the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS) scheme, which uses a quasi-equilibrium closure. In the cases shown, this scheme does not permit the efficient development of a strong storm in comparison with observations. When this scheme is replaced by a modified version of the Kain-Fritsch scheme, which was originally developed for use on grids with intervals of order 25 km such as the present one, the storm is able to develop to a much greater extent, closer to that of reality. Details of the two cases will be shown in order to elucidate the differences in the two modeled storms.

  4. Implementation of new sub-grid runoff parameterization within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling system (United States)

    Khodamorad poor, M.; Irannejad, P.


    Runoff is an important component of the water cycle in land surface parameterization schemes, whose estimation is very difficult because of its dependence on rainfall, soil moisture, and topography, which vary temporally and spatially. In this study, two different methods of sub-grid parameterization of runoff are tested within the WRF numerical weather forecast model. The land surface scheme originally used in WRF is NOAH, in which runoff is parameterized based on the probably distributed function (PDF) of soil infiltration capacity. The river discharge calculated from WRF-NOAH simulated runoff and routed using total runoff integrating pathways (TRIP) model for three sub-basins of Karoon River, in the southwestern Iran, including Soosan, Harmaleh and Farseat is compared with observations for the winter 2006. WRF-NOAH extremely underestimates the discharge in the Karoon River basin, probably because of uncertainties in the runoff parameterization, which is in turn due to unavailability of soil infiltration data needed to estimate the shape and parameters of the PDF of the infiltration capacity. For this reason, we modified NOAH (NOAH-SIM) by substituting the infiltration capacity dependent runoff parameterization with a parameterization based on the PDF of the topographic index, following the philosophy used in the simplified TOPMODEL. As the topographic index is scale dependent, high resolution of topographic indices (10 m) are derived from digital elevation data model in low resolution (1000 m) by using a downscaling method. Evaluation of stimulated discharge by the two land surface schemes (NOAH-SIM, NOAH) coupled in WRF, with observed discharge proves improved runoff simulation by NOAH-SIM in all the three sub-basins. Compared to NOAH, NOAH-SIM simulated discharge has lower bias, smaller mean absolute error, higher efficiency coefficient, and a standard deviation closer to that observed. Coupling NOAH-SIM with WRF not only improves runoff simulations, but also

  5. Accuracy of parameterized proton range models; A comparison (United States)

    Pettersen, H. E. S.; Chaar, M.; Meric, I.; Odland, O. H.; Sølie, J. R.; Röhrich, D.


    An accurate calculation of proton ranges in phantoms or detector geometries is crucial for decision making in proton therapy and proton imaging. To this end, several parameterizations of the range-energy relationship exist, with different levels of complexity and accuracy. In this study we compare the accuracy of four different parameterizations models for proton range in water: Two analytical models derived from the Bethe equation, and two different interpolation schemes applied to range-energy tables. In conclusion, a spline interpolation scheme yields the highest reproduction accuracy, while the shape of the energy loss-curve is best reproduced with the differentiated Bragg-Kleeman equation.

  6. A simple parameterization of aerosol emissions in RAMS (United States)

    Letcher, Theodore

    model. Furthermore, SA formation is greatly reduced during the winter months due to the lack of naturally produced organic VOC's. Because of these reasons, it was felt that neglecting SOA within the model was the best course of action. The actual parameterization uses a prescribed source map to add aerosol to the model at two vertical levels that surround an arbitrary height decided by the user. To best represent the real-world, the WRF Chemistry model was run using the National Emissions Inventory (NEI2005) to represent anthropogenic emissions and the Model Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) to represent natural contributions to aerosol. WRF Chemistry was run for one hour, after which the aerosol output along with the hygroscopicity parameter (κ) were saved into a data file that had the capacity to be interpolated to an arbitrary grid used in RAMS. The comparison of this parameterization to observations collected at Mesa Verde National Park (MVNP) during the Inhibition of Snowfall from Pollution Aerosol (ISPA-III) field campaign yielded promising results. The model was able to simulate the variability in near surface aerosol concentration with reasonable accuracy, though with a general low bias. Furthermore, this model compared much better to the observations than did the WRF Chemistry model using a fraction of the computational expense. This emissions scheme was able to show reasonable solutions regarding the aerosol concentrations and can therefore be used to provide an estimate of the seasonal impact of increased CCN on water resources in Western Colorado with relatively low computational expense.

  7. A new boundary scheme for simulation of gas flow in kerogen pores with considering surface diffusion effect (United States)

    Wang, Lingquan; Zeng, Zhong; Zhang, Liangqi; Qiao, Long; Zhang, Yi; Lu, Yiyu


    Navier-Stokes (NS) equations with no-slip boundary conditions fail to realistically describe micro-flows with considering nanoscale phenomena. Particularly, in kerogen pores, slip-flow and surface diffusion are important. In this study, we propose a new slip boundary scheme for the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method through the non-equilibrium extrapolation scheme to simulate the slip-flow considering surface diffusion effect. Meanwhile, the second-order slip velocity can be taken into account. The predicted characteristics in a two-dimensional micro-flow, including slip-velocity, velocity distribution along the flow direction with/without surface diffusion are present. The results in this study are compared with available analytical and reference results, and good agreements are achieved.

  8. An improved parameterization of the allocation of assimilated carbon to plant parts in vegetation dynamics for Noah-MP (United States)

    Gim, Hyeon-Ju; Park, Seon Ki; Kang, Minseok; Thakuri, Bindu Malla; Kim, Joon; Ho, Chang-Hoi


    In the land surface models predicting vegetation growth and decay, representation of the seasonality of land surface energy and mass fluxes largely depends on how to describe the vegetation dynamics. In this study, we developed a new parameterization scheme to characterize allocation of the assimilated carbon to plant parts, including leaves and fine roots. The amount of carbon allocation in this scheme depends on the climatological net primary production (NPP) of the plants. The newly developed scheme is implemented in the augmented Noah land surface model with multiple parameterization options (Noah-MP) along with other biophysical processes related to variations in photosynthetic capacity. The scheme and the augmented biophysical processes are evaluated against tower measurements of vegetation from four forest sites in various regions—two for the deciduous broadleaf and two for the needleleaf evergreen forest. Results from the augmented Noah-MP showed good agreement with the observations and demonstrated improvements in representing the seasonality of leaf area index (LAI), gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and latent heat flux. In particular, significant improvements are found in simulating amplitudes and phase shift timing in the LAI seasonal cycle, and the amount of GPP and ER in the growing season. Furthermore, the augmented Noah-MP performed reasonably well in simulating the spatial distributions of LAI, GPP, and NPP in East Asia, consistent with the satellite observations.

  9. Metric of the 2–6 day sea-surface temperature response to wind stress in the Tropical Pacific and its sensitivity to the K-Profile Parameterization of vertical mixing

    KAUST Repository

    Wagman, Benjamin M.


    Uncertainty in wind forcing has long hampered direct tests of ocean model output against observations for the purpose of refining the boundary layer K-Profile Parameterization (KPP) of oceanic vertical mixing. Considered here is a short-term metric that could be sensitive to the ways in which the KPP directly affects the adjustment of sea surface temperatures for a given change in wind stress. In particular a metric is developed based on the lagged correlation between the 2–6 day filtered wind stress and sea surface temperature. The metric is normalized by estimated observational and model uncertainties such that the significance of differences may be assessed. For this purpose multiple wind reanalysis products and their blended combinations were used to represent the range of forcing uncertainty, while perturbed KPP parameter model runs explore the sensitivity of the metric to the parameterization of vertical mixing. The correlation metric is sensitive to perturbations to most KPP parameters, in ways that accord with expectations, although only a few parameters show a sensitivity on the same order as the sensitivity to switching between wind products. This suggests that uncertainties in wind forcing continue to be a significant limitation for applying direct observational tests of KPP physics. Moreover, model correlations are biased high, suggesting that the model lacks or does not resolve sources of variability on the 2–6 day time scale.

  10. Parameterized examination in econometrics (United States)

    Malinova, Anna; Kyurkchiev, Vesselin; Spasov, Georgi


    The paper presents a parameterization of basic types of exam questions in Econometrics. This algorithm is used to automate and facilitate the process of examination, assessment and self-preparation of a large number of students. The proposed parameterization of testing questions reduces the time required to author tests and course assignments. It enables tutors to generate a large number of different but equivalent dynamic questions (with dynamic answers) on a certain topic, which are automatically assessed. The presented methods are implemented in DisPeL (Distributed Platform for e-Learning) and provide questions in the areas of filtering and smoothing of time-series data, forecasting, building and analysis of single-equation econometric models. Questions also cover elasticity, average and marginal characteristics, product and cost functions, measurement of monopoly power, supply, demand and equilibrium price, consumer and product surplus, etc. Several approaches are used to enable the required numerical computations in DisPeL - integration of third-party mathematical libraries, developing our own procedures from scratch, and wrapping our legacy math codes in order to modernize and reuse them.

  11. A Flexible Parameterization for Shortwave Optical Properties of Ice Crystals (United States)

    VanDiedenhoven, Bastiaan; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Cairns, Brian; Fridlind, Ann M.


    A parameterization is presented that provides extinction cross section sigma (sub e), single-scattering albedo omega, and asymmetry parameter (g) of ice crystals for any combination of volume, projected area, aspect ratio, and crystal distortion at any wavelength in the shortwave. Similar to previous parameterizations, the scheme makes use of geometric optics approximations and the observation that optical properties of complex, aggregated ice crystals can be well approximated by those of single hexagonal crystals with varying size, aspect ratio, and distortion levels. In the standard geometric optics implementation used here, sigma (sub e) is always twice the particle projected area. It is shown that omega is largely determined by the newly defined absorption size parameter and the particle aspect ratio. These dependences are parameterized using a combination of exponential, lognormal, and polynomial functions. The variation of (g) with aspect ratio and crystal distortion is parameterized for one reference wavelength using a combination of several polynomials. The dependences of g on refractive index and omega are investigated and factors are determined to scale the parameterized (g) to provide values appropriate for other wavelengths. The parameterization scheme consists of only 88 coefficients. The scheme is tested for a large variety of hexagonal crystals in several wavelength bands from 0.2 to 4 micron, revealing absolute differences with reference calculations of omega and (g) that are both generally below 0.015. Over a large variety of cloud conditions, the resulting root-mean-squared differences with reference calculations of cloud reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance are 1.4%, 1.1%, and 3.4%, respectively. Some practical applications of the parameterization in atmospheric models are highlighted.

  12. Sensitivity Study of Cloud Cover and Ozone Modeling to Microphysics Parameterization (United States)

    Wałaszek, Kinga; Kryza, Maciej; Szymanowski, Mariusz; Werner, Małgorzata; Ojrzyńska, Hanna


    Cloud cover is a significant meteorological parameter influencing the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground surface, and therefore affecting the formation of photochemical pollutants, most of all tropospheric ozone (O3). Because cloud amount and type in meteorological models are resolved by microphysics schemes, adjusting this parameterization is a major factor determining the accuracy of the results. However, verification of cloud cover simulations based on surface data is difficult and yields significant errors. Current meteorological satellite programs provide many high-resolution cloud products, which can be used to verify numerical models. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) has been applied for the area of Poland for an episode of June 17th-July 4th, 2008, when high ground-level ozone concentrations were observed. Four simulations were performed, each with a different microphysics parameterization: Purdue Lin, Eta Ferrier, WRF Single-Moment 6-class, and Morrison Double-Moment scheme. The results were then evaluated based on cloud mask satellite images derived from SEVIRI data. Meteorological variables and O3 concentrations were also evaluated. The results show that the simulation using Morrison Double-Moment microphysics provides the most and Purdue Lin the least accurate information on cloud cover and surface meteorological variables for the selected high ozone episode. Those two configurations were used for WRF-Chem runs, which showed significantly higher O3 concentrations and better model-measurements agreement of the latter.

  13. Assessing the influence of groundwater and land surface scheme in the modelling of land surface-atmosphere feedbacks over the FIFE area in Kansas, USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl; Højmark Rasmussen, Søren; Drews, Martin


    by HIRHAM simulated precipitation. The last two simulations include iv) a standard HIRHAM simulation, and v) a fully coupled HIRHAM-MIKE SHE simulation locally replacing the land surface scheme by MIKE SHE for the FIFE area, while HIRHAM in standard configuration is used for the remaining model area......The land surface-atmosphere interaction is described differently in large scale surface schemes of regional climate models and small scale spatially distributed hydrological models. In particular, the hydrological models include the influence of shallow groundwater on evapotranspiration during dry...... experiments include five simulations. First MIKE SHE is forced by observed climate data in two versions i) with groundwater at a fixed uniform depth, and ii) with a dynamical groundwater component simulating shallow groundwater conditions in river valleys. iii) In a third simulation MIKE SHE is forced...

  14. Influences of Two Land-Surface Schemes on RegCM4 Precipitation Simulations over the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejia Wang


    Full Text Available The effects of different RegCM4 land-surface schemes on Tibetan Plateau (TP precipitation simulations were investigated. Two groups of ten-year (1992–2001 simulation experiments (hereafter referred to as BATS and CLM were performed based on two land-surface schemes (BATS and CLM3.5, resp. and were compared with observed data using the same domain, initial, and lateral boundary conditions, cumulus convective scheme, and spatial resolution. The results showed that the CLM monthly precipitation more closely matched the observed data compared with BATS. BATS and CLM both overestimated summer precipitation in the northern TP but underestimated summer precipitation in the southern TP. However, CLM, because of its detailed land-surface process descriptions, reduced the overestimated precipitation areas and magnitudes of BATS. Compared to CN05, the regional average summer precipitation in BATS and CLM was overestimated by 34.7% and underestimated by 24.7%, respectively. Higher soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and heating effects in the BATS experiment triggered changes in atmospheric circulation patterns over the TP. Moreover, BATS simulated the lower atmosphere as warmer and more humid and the upper atmosphere (~150 hPa as colder than the CLM simulations; these characteristics likely increased the instability for moist convection and produced more summer precipitation.

  15. A shallow convection parameterization for the non-hydrostatic MM5 mesoscale model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaman, N.L.; Kain, J.S.; Deng, A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)


    A shallow convection parameterization suitable for the Pennsylvannia State University (PSU)/National Center for Atmospheric Research nonhydrostatic mesoscale model (MM5) is being developed at PSU. The parameterization is based on parcel perturbation theory developed in conjunction with a 1-D Mellor Yamada 1.5-order planetary boundary layer scheme and the Kain-Fritsch deep convection model.

  16. Collaborative Research: Reducing tropical precipitation biases in CESM — Tests of unified parameterizations with ARM observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Vincent [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Gettelman, Andrew [Univ. Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Morrison, Hugh [Univ. Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Bacmeister, Julio [Univ. Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Feingold, Graham [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Lee, Seoung-soo [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Williams, Christopher [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)


    In state-of-the-art climate models, each cloud type is treated using its own separate cloud parameterization and its own separate microphysics parameterization. This use of separate schemes for separate cloud regimes is undesirable because it is theoretically unfounded, it hampers interpretation of results, and it leads to the temptation to overtune parameters. In this grant, we are creating a climate model that contains a unified cloud parameterization and a unified microphysics parameterization. This model will be used to address the problems of excessive frequency of drizzle in climate models and excessively early onset of deep convection in the Tropics over land. The resulting model will be compared with ARM observations.

  17. Parameterization of the Satellite-Based Model (METRIC for the Estimation of Instantaneous Surface Energy Balance Components over a Drip-Irrigated Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Carrasco-Benavides


    Full Text Available A study was carried out to parameterize the METRIC (Mapping EvapoTranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration model for estimating instantaneous values of albedo (shortwave albedo (αi, net radiation (Rni and soil heat flux (Gi, sensible (Hi and latent heat (LEi over a drip-irrigated Merlot vineyard (location: 35°25′ LS; 71°32′ LW; 125 m.a.s. (l. The experiment was carried out in a plot of 4.25 ha, processing 15 Landsat images, which were acquired from 2006 to 2009. An automatic weather station was placed inside the experimental plot to measure αi, Rni and Gi. In the same tower an Eddy Covariance (EC system was mounted to measure Hi and LEi. Specific sub-models to estimate Gi, leaf area index (LAI and aerodynamic roughness length for momentum transfer (zom were calibrated for the Merlot vineyard as an improvement to the original METRIC model. Results indicated that LAI, zom and Gi were estimated using the calibrated functions with errors of 4%, 2% and 17%, while those were computed using the original functions with errors of 58%, 81%, and 5%, respectively. At the time of satellite overpass, comparisons between measured and estimated values indicated that METRIC overestimated αi in 21% and Rni in 11%. Also, METRIC using the calibrated functions overestimated Hi and LEi with errors of 16% and 17%, respectively while it using the original functions overestimated Hi and LEi with errors of 13% and 15%, respectively. Finally, LEi was estimated with root mean square error (RMSE between 43 and 60 W∙m−2 and mean absolute error (MAE between 35 and 48 W∙m−2 for both calibrated and original functions, respectively. These results suggested that biases observed for instantaneous pixel-by-pixel values of Rni, Gi and other intermediate components of the algorithm were presumably absorbed into the computation of sensible heat flux as a result of the internal self-calibration of METRIC.

  18. Optimizing Weather Research and Forecasting model parameterizations for boundary-layer turbulence production and dissipation over the Southern Appalachians (United States)

    Thaxton, C.; Sherman, J. P.; Krintz, I. A.; Scher, A.; Ross, D.; Schlesselman, D.


    Atmospheric aerosol and contaminant transport and mixing over complex terrain are influenced by a broad-spectrum of turbulence production and dissipation mechanisms that are not, at present, considered in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model v3.9 numerical schemes that are constrained to parameterize the dynamic effects of small-scale turbulent structures. Unresolved thermally-driven processes, such slope and valley flows and associated recirculations, as well as orographically-produced or enhanced mechanical turbulence structures, may express as systematic yet potentially predictable model biases in the diurnal evolution of measurables and diagnostic parameters such as planetary boundary layer (PBL) height. Herein, we present an assessment of the (non-LES) WRF PBL schemes - YSU, MYJ, MYNNx, and ACM2 - over a range of synoptic conditions in the warm months of 2013 through comparison to a subset of 76 radiosonde launches taken at various times throughout the day, as well as continuous ground weather station data and ground-based lidar-derived diagnostics. Preliminary results, many of which may be explained by known passive and active mechanisms in complex terrain, include an over-prediction of PBL heights for non-local PBL schemes; an enhanced surface layer cold bias and under-prediction of PBL heights for local PBL schemes; and peak variance in potential temperature, specific humidity, and wind speed for all schemes at or near the entrainment zone. Suppressed amplitudes in the diurnal lidar-derived PBL height time series also suggest enhanced turbulence production during a range of nocturnal flow conditions. The aim of this investigation is to develop a recommended suite of coupled WRF PBL-surface layer parameterizations optimized to support modeling of aerosol load dynamics, aerosol-meteorology coupling, and operational forecasting in the Southern Appalachians, as well as to inform future WRF PBL scheme use and development.

  19. Models parameterization for SWE retrievals from passive microwave over Canadian boreal forest (United States)

    Roy, A.; Royer, A.; Langlois, A.; Montpetit, B.


    Boreal forest is the world largest northern land biome and has important impact and feedback on climate. Snow in this ecosystem changed drastically surface energy balance (albedo, turbulent fluxes). Furthermore, snow is a freshwater reservoir influencing hydrological regime and is an important source of energy through hydroelectricity. Passive microwave remote sensing is an appealing approach for characterizing the properties of snow at the synoptic scale; images are available at least twice a day for northern regions where meteorological stations and networks are generally sparse. However, major challenge such as forest canopy contribution and snow grain size within the snowpack, which have both huge impact on passive microwave signature from space-born sensors, must be well parameterized to retrieve variables of interest like Snow water equivalent (SWE). In this presentation, we show advances made in boreal forest τ-ω (forest transmissivity and scattering) and QH (soil reflectivity) models parameterization, as well as snow grains consideration development in the microwave snow emission. In the perspective of AMSR-E brightness temperature (Tb) assimilation in the Canadian Land surface scheme (CLASS), we used a new version of a multi-layer snow emission model: DMRT-ML. First, based on two distinct Tb datasets (winter airborne and summer space-borne), τ-ω and QH models are parameterized at 4 frequencies (6.9, 10.7, 18.7 and 36.5 GHz) for dense boreal forest sites. The forest transmissivity is then spatialized by establishing a relationship with forest structure parameters (LAI and stem volume). Secondly, snow surface specific area (SSA) was parameterized in DMRT-ML based on SWIR reflectance measurements for SSA calculation, as well as snow characteristics (temperature, density, height) and radiometric (19 & 37 GHz) measurements conducted on 20 snowpits in different open environments (grass, tundra, dry fen). Analysis shows that a correction factor must be


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Baik


    Full Text Available The Shallow Subsurface Radar (SHARAD, a sounding radar equipped on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO, has produced highly valuable information about the Martian subsurface. In particular, the complicated substructures of Mars such as polar deposit, pedestal crater and the other geomorphic features involving possible subsurface ice body has been successfully investigated by SHARAD. In this study, we established a 3D subsurface mapping strategy employing the multiple SHARAD profiles. A number of interpretation components of SHARAD signals were integrated into a subsurface mapping scheme using radargram information and topographic data, then applied over a few mid latitude Lobate Debris Aprons (LDAs. From the identified subsurface layers of LDA, and the GIS data base incorporating the other interpretation outcomes, we are expecting to trace the origin of LDAs. Also, the subsurface mapping scheme developed in this study will be further applied to other interesting Martian geological features such as inter crater structures, aeolian deposits and fluvial sediments. To achieve higher precision sub-surface mapping, the clutter simulation employing the high resolution topographic data and the upgraded clustering algorithms assuming multiple sub-surface layers will be also developed.

  1. The Development of 3d Sub-Surface Mapping Scheme and its Application to Martian Lobate Debris Aprons (United States)

    Baik, H.; Kim, J.


    The Shallow Subsurface Radar (SHARAD), a sounding radar equipped on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), has produced highly valuable information about the Martian subsurface. In particular, the complicated substructures of Mars such as polar deposit, pedestal crater and the other geomorphic features involving possible subsurface ice body has been successfully investigated by SHARAD. In this study, we established a 3D subsurface mapping strategy employing the multiple SHARAD profiles. A number of interpretation components of SHARAD signals were integrated into a subsurface mapping scheme using radargram information and topographic data, then applied over a few mid latitude Lobate Debris Aprons (LDAs). From the identified subsurface layers of LDA, and the GIS data base incorporating the other interpretation outcomes, we are expecting to trace the origin of LDAs. Also, the subsurface mapping scheme developed in this study will be further applied to other interesting Martian geological features such as inter crater structures, aeolian deposits and fluvial sediments. To achieve higher precision sub-surface mapping, the clutter simulation employing the high resolution topographic data and the upgraded clustering algorithms assuming multiple sub-surface layers will be also developed.

  2. European upper mantle tomography: adaptively parameterized models (United States)

    Schäfer, J.; Boschi, L.


    We have devised a new algorithm for upper-mantle surface-wave tomography based on adaptive parameterization: i.e. the size of each parameterization pixel depends on the local density of seismic data coverage. The advantage in using this kind of parameterization is that a high resolution can be achieved in regions with dense data coverage while a lower (and cheaper) resolution is kept in regions with low coverage. This way, parameterization is everywhere optimal, both in terms of its computational cost, and of model resolution. This is especially important for data sets with inhomogenous data coverage, as it is usually the case for global seismic databases. The data set we use has an especially good coverage around Switzerland and over central Europe. We focus on periods from 35s to 150s. The final goal of the project is to determine a new model of seismic velocities for the upper mantle underlying Europe and the Mediterranean Basin, of resolution higher than what is currently found in the literature. Our inversions involve regularization via norm and roughness minimization, and this in turn requires that discrete norm and roughness operators associated with our adaptive grid be precisely defined. The discretization of the roughness damping operator in the case of adaptive parameterizations is not as trivial as it is for the uniform ones; important complications arise from the significant lateral variations in the size of pixels. We chose to first define the roughness operator in a spherical harmonic framework, and subsequently translate it to discrete pixels via a linear transformation. Since the smallest pixels we allow in our parameterization have a size of 0.625 °, the spherical-harmonic roughness operator has to be defined up to harmonic degree 899, corresponding to 810.000 harmonic coefficients. This results in considerable computational costs: we conduct the harmonic-pixel transformations on a small Beowulf cluster. We validate our implementation of adaptive

  3. Use of Geostationary Satellite Data to Force Land Surface Schemes within Atmospheric Mesoscale Models (United States)

    Lapenta, William M.; Suggs, Ron; McNider, Richard T.; Jedlovec, Gary; Dembek, Scott R.; Goodman, H. Michael (Technical Monitor)


    A technique has been developed for assimilating GOES-derived skin temperature tendencies and insolation into the surface energy budget equation of a mesoscale model so that the simulated rate of temperature change closely agrees with the satellite observations. A critical assumption of the technique is that the availability of moisture (either from the soil or vegetation) is the least known term in the model's surface energy budget. Therefore, the simulated latent heat flux, which is a function of surface moisture availability, is adjusted based upon differences between the modeled and satellite-observed skin temperature tendencies. An advantage of this technique is that satellite temperature tendencies are assimilated in an energetically consistent manner that avoids energy imbalances and surface stability problems that arise from direct assimilation of surface shelter temperatures. The fact that the rate of change of the satellite skin temperature is used rather than the absolute temperature means that sensor calibration is not as critical. The technique has been employed on a semi-operational basis at the GHCC within the PSU/NCAR MM5. Assimilation has been performed on a grid centered over the Southeastern US since November 1998. Results from the past year show that assimilation of the satellite data reduces both the bias and RMSE for simulations of surface air temperature and relative humidity. These findings are based on comparison of assimilation runs with a control using the simple 5-layer soil model available in MM5. A significant development in the past several months was the inclusion of the detailed Oregon State University land surface model (OSU/LSM) as an option within MM5. One of our working hypotheses has been that the assimilation technique, although simple, may provide better short-term forecasts than a detailed LSM that requires significant number initialized parameters. Preliminary results indicate that the assimilation out performs the OSU

  4. Land Surface Scheme Conceptualisation and Parameter Values for Three Sites with Contrasting Soil and Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soet, M.; Ronda, R.J.; Stricker, J.N.M.; Dolman, A.J.


    The objective of the present study is to test the performance of the ECMWF land surface module (LSM) developed by Viterbo and Beljaars (1995) and to identify primary future adjustments, focusing on the hydrological components. This was achieved by comparing off-line simulations against observations

  5. Higher order hierarchical discretization scheme for surface integral equations for layered media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Erik; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter


    equation. This higher order MoM solution comprises higher order curved patches for the geometry modeling and higher order hierarchical basis functions for expansion of the electric surface current density. Due to the hierarchical property of the basis functions, the order of the expansion can be selected...

  6. Parameterization of mixing by secondary circulation in estuaries (United States)

    Basdurak, N. B.; Huguenard, K. D.; Valle-Levinson, A.; Li, M.; Chant, R. J.


    Eddy viscosity parameterizations that depend on a gradient Richardson number Ri have been most pertinent to the open ocean. Parameterizations applicable to stratified coastal regions typically require implementation of a numerical model. Two novel parameterizations of the vertical eddy viscosity, based on Ri, are proposed here for coastal waters. One turbulence closure considers temporal changes in stratification and bottom stress and is coined the "regular fit." The alternative approach, named the "lateral fit," incorporates variability of lateral flows that are prevalent in estuaries. The two turbulence parameterization schemes are tested using data from a Self-Contained Autonomous Microstructure Profiler (SCAMP) and an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) collected in the James River Estuary. The "regular fit" compares favorably to SCAMP-derived vertical eddy viscosity values but only at relatively small values of gradient Ri. On the other hand, the "lateral fit" succeeds at describing the lateral variability of eddy viscosity over a wide range of Ri. The modifications proposed to Ri-dependent eddy viscosity parameterizations allow applicability to stratified coastal regions, particularly in wide estuaries, without requiring implementation of a numerical model.

  7. Elastic orthorhombic anisotropic parameter inversion: An analysis of parameterization

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon


    The resolution of a multiparameter full-waveform inversion (FWI) is highly influenced by the parameterization used in the inversion algorithm, as well as the data quality and the sensitivity of the data to the elastic parameters because the scattering patterns of the partial derivative wavefields (PDWs) vary with parameterization. For this reason, it is important to identify an optimal parameterization for elastic orthorhombic FWI by analyzing the radiation patterns of the PDWs for many reasonable model parameterizations. We have promoted a parameterization that allows for the separation of the anisotropic properties in the radiation patterns. The central parameter of this parameterization is the horizontal P-wave velocity, with an isotropic scattering potential, influencing the data at all scales and directions. This parameterization decouples the influence of the scattering potential given by the P-wave velocity perturbation fromthe polar changes described by two dimensionless parameter perturbations and from the azimuthal variation given by three additional dimensionless parameters perturbations. In addition, the scattering potentials of the P-wave velocity perturbation are also decoupled from the elastic influences given by one S-wave velocity and two additional dimensionless parameter perturbations. The vertical S-wave velocity is chosen with the best resolution obtained from S-wave reflections and converted waves, little influence on P-waves in conventional surface seismic acquisition. The influence of the density on observed data can be absorbed by one anisotropic parameter that has a similar radiation pattern. The additional seven dimensionless parameters describe the polar and azimuth variations in the P- and S-waves that we may acquire, with some of the parameters having distinct influences on the recorded data on the earth\\'s surface. These characteristics of the new parameterization offer the potential for a multistage inversion from high symmetry

  8. Impact of cloud parameterization on the numerical simulation of a super cyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Deshpande


    Full Text Available This study examines the role of parameterization of convection and explicit moisture processes on the simulated track, intensity and inner core structure of Orissa super cyclone (1999 in Bay of Bengal (north Indian Ocean. Sensitivity experiments are carried out to examine the impact of cumulus parameterization schemes (CPS using MM5 model (Version 3.7 in a two-way nested domain (D1 and D2 configuration at horizontal resolutions (45–15 km. Three different cumulus parameterization schemes, namely Grell (Gr, Betts-Miller (BM and updated Kain Fritsch (KF2, are tested. It is noted that track and intensity both are very sensitive to CPS and comparatively, KF2 predicts them reasonably well. Particularly, the rapid intensification phase of the super cyclone is best simulated by KF2 compared to other CPS. To examine the effect of the cumulus parameterization scheme at high resolution (5 km, the three-domain configuration (45-15-5 km resolution is utilized. Based on initial results, KF2 scheme is used for both the domains (D1 and D2. Two experiments are conducted: one in which KF2 is used as CPS and another in which no CPS is used in the third domain. The intensity is well predicted when no CPS is used in the innermost domain. The sensitivity experiments are also carried out to examine the impact from microphysics parameterization schemes (MPS. Four cloud microphysics parameterization schemes, namely mixed phase (MP, Goddard microphysics with Graupel (GG, Reisner Graupel (RG and Schultz (Sc, are tested in these experiments. It is noted that the tropical cyclone tracks and intensity variation have considerable sensitivity to the varying cloud microphysical parameterization schemes. The MPS of MP and Sc could very well capture the rapid intensification phase. The final intensity is well predicted by MP, which is overestimated by Sc. The MPS of GG and RG underestimates the intensity.

  9. Implications of the choice of land surface model schemes and reanalyzes data for initialization in model simulations with WRF to characterize atmospheric dynamics and the effect on black carbon concentrations into the Eurasian Arctic. (United States)

    Cavazos Guerra, C.; Lauer, A.; Herber, A. B.; Butler, T. M.


    Realistic simulation of physical and dynamical processes happening in the Arctic surface and atmosphere, and the interacting feedbacks of these processes is still a challenge for Arctic climate modelers. This is critical when further studies involving for the example transport mechanisms and pathways of pollutants from lower latitudes into the Arctic rely on the efficiency of the model to represent atmospheric circulation, especially given the complexity of the Arctic atmosphere. In this work we evaluate model performance of the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF) according to the choice of two land surface model schemes (Noah and NoahMP) and two reanalyzes data for initialization to create lateral boundary conditions (ERA-interim and ASR) to simulate surface and atmosphere dynamics including the location and displacement of the polar dome and other features characterizing atmospheric circulation associated to sea ice maxima/minima extent within the Eurasian Arctic conformed by the Nordic countries in Northern Europe and part of West Russia. Sensitivity analyses include simulations at 15km horizontal resolution within a period of five years from 2008 to 2012. The WRF model simulations are evaluated against surface meteorological data from automated weather stations and atmospheric profiles from radiosondes. Results show that the model is able to reproduce the main features of the atmospheric dynamics and vertical structure of the Arctic atmosphere reasonably well. The model is, however, sensitive to the choice of the reanalyses used for initialization and land surface scheme with significant biases in the simulated description of surface meteorology and winds, moisture and temperature profiles. The best choice of physical parameterization is then used in the WRF with coupled chemistry (WRF-Chem) to simulate BC concentrations in several case studies within the analyzed period in our domain and assess the role of modeled circulation in concentrations of BC

  10. The performance of different cumulus parameterization schemes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    represents the model's realism or skill at detect- ing the spatial distribution of features such as rain. In the calculation, the observation is used as the target data where a set of forecast values are used as candidate to be matched with the target. Fidelity measures faithfulness of the model's pre- diction to observation.

  11. An interactive ocean surface albedo scheme (OSAv1.0): formulation and evaluation in ARPEGE-Climat (V6.1) and LMDZ (V5A) (United States)

    Séférian, Roland; Baek, Sunghye; Boucher, Olivier; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Decharme, Bertrand; Saint-Martin, David; Roehrig, Romain


    Ocean surface represents roughly 70 % of the Earth's surface, playing a large role in the partitioning of the energy flow within the climate system. The ocean surface albedo (OSA) is an important parameter in this partitioning because it governs the amount of energy penetrating into the ocean or reflected towards space. The old OSA schemes in the ARPEGE-Climat and LMDZ models only resolve the latitudinal dependence in an ad hoc way without an accurate representation of the solar zenith angle dependence. Here, we propose a new interactive OSA scheme suited for Earth system models, which enables coupling between Earth system model components like surface ocean waves and marine biogeochemistry. This scheme resolves spectrally the various contributions of the surface for direct and diffuse solar radiation. The implementation of this scheme in two Earth system models leads to substantial improvements in simulated OSA. At the local scale, models using the interactive OSA scheme better replicate the day-to-day distribution of OSA derived from ground-based observations in contrast to old schemes. At global scale, the improved representation of OSA for diffuse radiation reduces model biases by up to 80 % over the tropical oceans, reducing annual-mean model-data error in surface upwelling shortwave radiation by up to 7 W m-2 over this domain. The spatial correlation coefficient between modeled and observed OSA at monthly resolution has been increased from 0.1 to 0.8. Despite its complexity, this interactive OSA scheme is computationally efficient for enabling precise OSA calculation without penalizing the elapsed model time.

  12. Incorporating contact angles in the surface tension force with the ACES interface curvature scheme (United States)

    Owkes, Mark


    In simulations of gas-liquid flows interacting with solid boundaries, the contact line dynamics effect the interface motion and flow field through the surface tension force. The surface tension force is directly proportional to the interface curvature and the problem of accurately imposing a contact angle must be incorporated into the interface curvature calculation. Many commonly used algorithms to compute interface curvatures (e.g., height function method) require extrapolating the interface, with defined contact angle, into the solid to allow for the calculation of a curvature near a wall. Extrapolating can be an ill-posed problem, especially in three-dimensions or when multiple contact lines are near each other. We have developed an accurate methodology to compute interface curvatures that allows for contact angles to be easily incorporated while avoiding extrapolation and the associated challenges. The method, known as Adjustable Curvature Evaluation Scale (ACES), leverages a least squares fit of a polynomial to points computed on the volume-of-fluid (VOF) representation of the gas-liquid interface. The method is tested by simulating canonical test cases and then applied to simulate the injection and motion of water droplets in a channel (relevant to PEM fuel cells).

  13. Physically Accurate Soil Freeze-Thaw Processes in a Global Land Surface Scheme (United States)

    Cuntz, Matthias; Haverd, Vanessa


    The model Soil-Litter-Iso (SLI) calculates coupled heat and water transport in soil. It was recently implemented into the Australian land surface model CABLE, which is the land component of the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS). Here we extended SLI to include accurate freeze-thaw processes in the soil and snow. SLI provides thence an implicit solution of the energy and water balances of soil and snow as a standalone model and within CABLE. The enhanced SLI was tested extensively against theoretical formulations, laboratory experiments, field data, and satellite retrievals. The model performed well for all experiments at wide-ranging temporal and spatial scales. SLI melts snow faster at the end of the cold season compared to observations though because there is no subgrid variability within SLI given by the implicit, coupled solution of energy and water. Combined CABLE-SLI shows very realistic dynamics and extent of permafrost on the Northern hemisphere. It illustrated, however, also the limits of possible comparisons between large-scale land surface models and local permafrost observations. CABLE-SLI exhibits the same patterns of snow depth and snow water equivalent on the Northern hemisphere compared to satellite-derived observations but quantitative comparisons depend largely on the given meteorological input fields. Further extension of CABLE-SLI with depth-dependence of soil carbon will allow realistic projections of the development of permafrost and frozen carbon stocks in a changing climate.

  14. Improving Limit Surface Search Algorithms in RAVEN Using Acceleration Schemes: Level II Milestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sen, Ramazan Sonat [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    , subject of the analysis. These methodologies are named, in the RAVEN environment, adaptive sampling strategies. These methodologies infer system responses from surrogate models constructed from already existing samples (produced using high fidelity simulations) and suggest the most relevant location (coordinate in the input space) of the next sampling point to be explored in the uncertain/parametric domain. When using those methodologies, it is possible to understand features of the system response with a small number of carefully selected samples. This report focuses on the development and improvement of the limit surface search. The limit surface is an important concept in system reliability analysis. Without going into the details, which will be covered later in the report, the limit surface could be briefly described as an hyper-surface in the system uncertainty/parametric space separating the regions leading to a prescribed system outcome. For example, if the uncertainty/parametric space is the one generated by the reactor power level and the duration of the batteries, the system is a nuclear power plant and the system outcome discriminating variable is the clad failure in a station blackout scenario, then the limit surface separates the combinations of reactor power level and battery duration that lead to clad failure from the ones that do not.

  15. Sensitivity of boundary layer variables to PBL schemes over the central Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Xu, L.; Liu, H.; Wang, L.; Du, Q.; Liu, Y.


    Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) parameterization schemes play critical role in numerical weather prediction and research. They describe physical processes associated with the momentum, heat and humidity exchange between land surface and atmosphere. In this study, two non-local (YSU and ACM2) and two local (MYJ and BouLac) planetary boundary layer parameterization schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model have been tested over the central Tibetan Plateau regarding of their capability to model boundary layer parameters relevant for surface energy exchange. The model performance has been evaluated against measurements from the Third Tibetan Plateau atmospheric scientific experiment (TIPEX-III). Simulated meteorological parameters and turbulence fluxes have been compared with observations through standard statistical measures. Model results show acceptable behavior, but no particular scheme produces best performance for all locations and parameters. All PBL schemes underestimate near surface air temperatures over the Tibetan Plateau. By investigating the surface energy budget components, the results suggest that downward longwave radiation and sensible heat flux are the main factors causing the lower near surface temperature. Because the downward longwave radiation and sensible heat flux are respectively affected by atmosphere moisture and land-atmosphere coupling, improvements in water vapor distribution and land-atmosphere energy exchange is meaningful for better presentation of PBL physical processes over the central Tibetan Plateau.

  16. A finite area scheme for shallow granular flows on three-dimensional surfaces (United States)

    Rauter, Matthias


    Shallow granular flow models have become a popular tool for the estimation of natural hazards, such as landslides, debris flows and avalanches. The shallowness of the flow allows to reduce the three-dimensional governing equations to a quasi two-dimensional system. Three-dimensional flow fields are replaced by their depth-integrated two-dimensional counterparts, which yields a robust and fast method [1]. A solution for a simple shallow granular flow model, based on the so-called finite area method [3] is presented. The finite area method is an adaption of the finite volume method [4] to two-dimensional curved surfaces in three-dimensional space. This method handles the three dimensional basal topography in a simple way, making the model suitable for arbitrary (but mildly curved) topography, such as natural terrain. Furthermore, the implementation into the open source software OpenFOAM [4] is shown. OpenFOAM is a popular computational fluid dynamics application, designed so that the top-level code mimics the mathematical governing equations. This makes the code easy to read and extendable to more sophisticated models. Finally, some hints on how to get started with the code and how to extend the basic model will be given. I gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the OEAW project "beyond dense flow avalanches". Savage, S. B. & Hutter, K. 1989 The motion of a finite mass of granular material down a rough incline. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 199, 177-215. Ferziger, J. & Peric, M. 2002 Computational methods for fluid dynamics, 3rd edn. Springer. Tukovic, Z. & Jasak, H. 2012 A moving mesh finite volume interface tracking method for surface tension dominated interfacial fluid flow. Computers & fluids 55, 70-84. Weller, H. G., Tabor, G., Jasak, H. & Fureby, C. 1998 A tensorial approach to computational continuum mechanics using object-oriented techniques. Computers in physics 12(6), 620-631.

  17. Investigating Surface Bias Errors in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model using a Geographic Information System (GIS) (United States)


    Mlawer et al. 1997) is used for long wave radiation and the Dudhia (1989) scheme for shortwave radiation . The Noah land surface model (Chen and...decreases the background turbulent kinetic energy and alters the diagnosis of the boundary layer depth used for model output and data assimilation...Kain 2004) cumulus parameterization is used only on the 9-km outer domain. For radiation , the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) parameterization

  18. Mudanças do esquema de convecção profunda Kain-Fritsch para a região do centro de lançamento de Alcântara Changes in the Kain-Fritsch convective parameterization deep scheme for the Alcântara launch center region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vicente Pereira Neto


    Full Text Available Foram realizadas mudanças no esquema de parametrização convectiva de Kain-Fritsch (KF2, para melhor representar a precipitação na região do Centro de Lançamento de Alcântara (CLA em simulações com o modelo regional MM5. Simulações de 24 h em um domínio aproximadamente centrado no CLA, com espaçamento de grade de 30 km foram realizadas para o período de 2005-2006 (calibração e 2008 (validação. O KF2 foi modificado sob a seguinte configuração: passo de tempo de 60 s, uso do esquema de convecção explícita warm rain e uso conjunto dos esquemas de convecção rasa de Grell e do KF2. As mudanças no KF2 foram: aumento da profundidade de nuvem necessária para disparar a convecção profunda e ajuste de alguns parâmetros da função disparo da convecção dependentes da velocidade vertical ascendente na coluna atmosférica. Com as modificações, houve expressiva melhoria na representação do total de precipitação e da fração dos dias do mês com chuva na escala mensal. O padrão espacial de erros no domínio, no entanto, não sofreu muitas alterações sobre o continente (em geral, a precipitação foi melhor representada sobre o continente do que sobre o oceano. Todas as etapas de mudanças e ajustes realizadas no trabalho poderão ser empregadas para melhorar a representação da precipitação em outras regiões específicas.Changes in the Kain-Fritsch convective parameterization scheme (KF2 were included to better represent the precipitation in simulations using the MM5 regional model for the Alcântara Launch Center (CLA region. Daily (24 h integrations for a 30 km grid spacing domain centered in CLA were performed for 2005-2006 (calibration and 2008 (validation. KF2 scheme was modified under the following simulation settings: time step of 60 s, use of warm rain scheme and joint use of Grell and KF2 shallow convection schemes. Changes in KF2 were: increase of minimum cloud depth to initiate deep convection and

  19. Extended averaging phase-shift schemes for Fizeau interferometry on high-numerical-aperture spherical surfaces (United States)

    Burke, Jan


    Phase-shifting Fizeau interferometry on spherical surfaces is impaired by phase-shift errors increasing with the numerical aperture, unless a custom optical set-up or wavelength shifting is used. This poses a problem especially for larger numerical apertures, and requires good error tolerance of the phase-shift method used; but it also constitutes a useful testing facility for phase-shift formulae, because a vast range of phase-shift intervals can be tested in a single measurement. In this paper I show how the "characteristic polynomials" method can be used to generate a phase-shifting method for the actual numerical aperture, and analyse residual cyclical phase errors by comparing a phase map from an interferogram with a few fringes to a phase mpa from a nulled fringe. Unrelated to the phase-shift miscalibration, thirdharmonic error fringes are found. These can be dealt with by changing the nominal phase shift from 90°/step to 60°/step and re-tailoring the evaluation formula for third-harmonic rejection. The residual error has the same frequency as the phase-shift signal itself, and can be removed by averaging measurements. Some interesting features of the characteristic polynomials for the averaged formulae emerge, which also shed some light on the mechanism that generates cyclical phase errors.

  20. Development of Phase Detection Schemes Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance Using Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif


    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR is a novel optical sensing technique with a unique ability to monitor molecular binding in real-time for biological and chemical sensor applications. Interferometry is an excellent tool for accurate measurement of SPR changes, the measurement and comparison is made for the sensitivity, dynamic range and resolution of the different analytes using interferometry techniques. SPR interferometry can also employ phase detection in addition to the amplitude of the reflected light wave, and the phase changes more rapidly compared with other approaches, i.e., intensity, angle and wavelength. Therefore, the SPR phase interferometer offers the advantages of spatial phase resolution and high sensitivity. This work discusses the advancements in interferometric SPR methods to measure the phase shifts due to refractive index changes. The main application areas of SPR sensors are demonstrated, i.e., the Fabry-Perot interferometer, Michelson interferometer and Mach-Zehnder interferometer, with different configurations. The three interferometers are discussed in detail, and solutions are suggested to enhance the performance parameters that will aid in future biological and chemical sensors.

  1. Performance evaluation of land surface models and cumulus convection schemes in the simulation of Indian summer monsoon using a regional climate model (United States)

    Maity, S.; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.; Mandal, M.; Nayak, S.


    In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the sensitivity of land surface models (LSM) and cumulus convection schemes (CCS) using a regional climate model, RegCM Version-4.1 in simulating the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM). Numerical experiments were conducted in seasonal scale (May-September) for three consecutive years: 2007, 2008, 2009 with two LSMs (Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS), Community Land Model (CLM 3.5) and five CCSs (MIT, KUO, GRELL, GRELL over land and MIT over ocean (GL_MO), GRELL over ocean and MIT over land (GO_ML)). Important synoptic features are validated using various reanalysis datasets and satellite derived products from TRMM and CRU data. Seasonally averaged surface temperature is reasonably well simulated by the model using both the LSMs along with CCSs namely, MIT, GO_ML and GL_MO schemes. Model simulations reveal slight warm bias using these schemes whereas significant cold bias is seen with KUO and GRELL schemes during all three years. It is noticed that the simulated Somali Jet (SJ) is weak in all simulations except MIT scheme in the simulations with (both BATS and CLM) in which the strength of SJ reasonably well captured. Although the model is able to simulate the Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ) and Sub-Tropical Westerly Jet (STWJ) with all the CCSs in terms of their location and strength, the performance of MIT scheme seems to be better than the rest of the CCSs. Seasonal rainfall is not well simulated by the model. Significant underestimation of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) is observed over Central and North West India. Spatial distribution of seasonal ISMR is comparatively better simulated by the model with MIT followed by GO_ML scheme in combination with CLM although it overestimates rainfall over heavy precipitation zones. On overall statistical analysis, it is noticed that RegCM4 shows better skill in simulating ISM with MIT scheme using CLM.

  2. Sea surface temperature predictions using a multi-ocean analysis ensemble scheme (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Jieshun; Li, Zhongxian; Chen, Haishan; Zeng, Gang


    This study examined the global sea surface temperature (SST) predictions by a so-called multiple-ocean analysis ensemble (MAE) initialization method which was applied in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Version 2 (CFSv2). Different from most operational climate prediction practices which are initialized by a specific ocean analysis system, the MAE method is based on multiple ocean analyses. In the paper, the MAE method was first justified by analyzing the ocean temperature variability in four ocean analyses which all are/were applied for operational climate predictions either at the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts or at NCEP. It was found that these systems exhibit substantial uncertainties in estimating the ocean states, especially at the deep layers. Further, a set of MAE hindcasts was conducted based on the four ocean analyses with CFSv2, starting from each April during 1982-2007. The MAE hindcasts were verified against a subset of hindcasts from the NCEP CFS Reanalysis and Reforecast (CFSRR) Project. Comparisons suggested that MAE shows better SST predictions than CFSRR over most regions where ocean dynamics plays a vital role in SST evolutions, such as the El Niño and Atlantic Niño regions. Furthermore, significant improvements were also found in summer precipitation predictions over the equatorial eastern Pacific and Atlantic oceans, for which the local SST prediction improvements should be responsible. The prediction improvements by MAE imply a problem for most current climate predictions which are based on a specific ocean analysis system. That is, their predictions would drift towards states biased by errors inherent in their ocean initialization system, and thus have large prediction errors. In contrast, MAE arguably has an advantage by sampling such structural uncertainties, and could efficiently cancel these errors out in their predictions.

  3. A study of Bangladesh's sub-surface water storages using satellite products and data assimilation scheme. (United States)

    Khaki, M; Forootan, E; Kuhn, M; Awange, J; Papa, F; Shum, C K


    Climate change can significantly influence terrestrial water changes around the world particularly in places that have been proven to be more vulnerable such as Bangladesh. In the past few decades, climate impacts, together with those of excessive human water use have changed the country's water availability structure. In this study, we use multi-mission remotely sensed measurements along with a hydrological model to separately analyze groundwater and soil moisture variations for the period 2003-2013, and their interactions with rainfall in Bangladesh. To improve the model's estimates of water storages, terrestrial water storage (TWS) data obtained from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission are assimilated into the World-Wide Water Resources Assessment (W3RA) model using the ensemble-based sequential technique of the Square Root Analysis (SQRA) filter. We investigate the capability of the data assimilation approach to use a non-regional hydrological model for a regional case study. Based on these estimates, we investigate relationships between the model derived sub-surface water storage changes and remotely sensed precipitations, as well as altimetry-derived river level variations in Bangladesh by applying the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method. A larger correlation is found between river level heights and rainfalls (78% on average) in comparison to groundwater storage variations and rainfalls (57% on average). The results indicate a significant decline in groundwater storage (∼32% reduction) for Bangladesh between 2003 and 2013, which is equivalent to an average rate of 8.73 ± 2.45mm/year. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensitivity of Drought Processes to Runoff Parameterizations in East Asia with the Community Land Model (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Um, M. J.; Kim, Y.


    Drought is one of the most powerful and extensive disasters and has the highest annual average damage among all the disasters. Focusing on East Asia, where over one fifth of all the people in the world live, drought has impacted as well as been projected to impact the region significantly. .Therefore it is critical to reasonably simulate the drought phenomenon in the region and thus this study would focus on the reproducibility of drought with the NCAR CLM. In this study, we examine the propagation of drought processes with different runoff parameterization of CLM in East Asia. Two different schemes are used; TOPMODEL-based and VIC-based schemes, which differentiate the result of runoff through the surface and subsurface runoff parameterization. CLM with different runoff scheme are driven with two atmospheric forcings from CRU/NCEP and NCEP reanalysis data. Specifically, propagation of drought from meteorological, agricultural to hydrologic drought is investigated with different drought indices, estimated with not only model simulated results but also observational data. The indices include the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI), standardized runoff index (SRI) and standardized soil moisture index (SSMI). Based on these indices, the drought characteristics such as intensity, frequency and spatial extent are investigated. At last, such drought assessments would reveal the possible model deficiencies in East Asia. AcknowledgementsThis work was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (2015R1C1A2A01054800) and the Korea Meteorological Administration R&D Program under Grant KMIPA 2015-6180.

  5. Performance Assessment of New Land-Surface and Planetary Boundary Layer Physics in the WRF-ARW (United States)

    The Pleim-Xiu land surface model, Pleim surface layer scheme, and Asymmetric Convective Model (version 2) are now options in version 3.0 of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) Advanced Research WRF (ARW) core. These physics parameterizations were developed for the f...

  6. A Stochastic Lagrangian Basis for a Probabilistic Parameterization of Moisture Condensation in Eulerian Models


    Tsang, Yue-Kin; Vallis, Geoffrey K.


    In this paper we describe the construction of an efficient probabilistic parameterization that could be used in a coarse-resolution numerical model in which the variation of moisture is not properly resolved. An Eulerian model using a coarse-grained field on a grid cannot properly resolve regions of saturation---in which condensation occurs---that are smaller than the grid boxes. Thus, in the absence of a parameterization scheme, either the grid box must become saturated or condensation will ...

  7. Simultaneous estimation of land surface scheme states and parameters using the ensemble Kalman filter: identical twin experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nie


    displays a relatively poor parameter estimation performance. Because all these constraints between parameters were obtained in a statistical sense, this constrained state-parameter estimation scheme is likely suitable for other land surface models even with more imperfect parameters estimated in soil moisture assimilation applications.

  8. Parameterization of Fuel-Optimal Synchronous Approach Trajectories to Tumbling Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Charles Sternberg


    Full Text Available Docking with potentially tumbling Targets is a common element of many mission architectures, including on-orbit servicing and active debris removal. This paper studies synchronized docking trajectories as a way to ensure the Chaser satellite remains on the docking axis of the tumbling Target, thereby reducing collision risks and enabling persistent onboard sensing of the docking location. Chaser satellites have limited computational power available to them and the time allowed for the determination of a fuel optimal trajectory may be limited. Consequently, parameterized trajectories that approximate the fuel optimal trajectory while following synchronous approaches may be used to provide a computationally efficient means of determining near optimal trajectories to a tumbling Target. This paper presents a method of balancing the computation cost with the added fuel expenditure required for parameterization, including the selection of a parameterization scheme, the number of parameters in the parameterization, and a means of incorporating the dynamics of a tumbling satellite into the parameterization process. Comparisons of the parameterized trajectories are made with the fuel optimal trajectory, which is computed through the numerical propagation of Euler’s equations. Additionally, various tumble types are considered to demonstrate the efficacy of the presented computation scheme. With this parameterized trajectory determination method, Chaser satellites may perform terminal approach and docking maneuvers with both fuel and computational efficiency.

  9. Parameterized and resolved Southern Ocean eddy compensation (United States)

    Poulsen, Mads B.; Jochum, Markus; Nuterman, Roman


    The ability to parameterize Southern Ocean eddy effects in a forced coarse resolution ocean general circulation model is assessed. The transient model response to a suite of different Southern Ocean wind stress forcing perturbations is presented and compared to identical experiments performed with the same model in 0.1° eddy-resolving resolution. With forcing of present-day wind stress magnitude and a thickness diffusivity formulated in terms of the local stratification, it is shown that the Southern Ocean residual meridional overturning circulation in the two models is different in structure and magnitude. It is found that the difference in the upper overturning cell is primarily explained by an overly strong subsurface flow in the parameterized eddy-induced circulation while the difference in the lower cell is mainly ascribed to the mean-flow overturning. With a zonally constant decrease of the zonal wind stress by 50% we show that the absolute decrease in the overturning circulation is insensitive to model resolution, and that the meridional isopycnal slope is relaxed in both models. The agreement between the models is not reproduced by a 50% wind stress increase, where the high resolution overturning decreases by 20%, but increases by 100% in the coarse resolution model. It is demonstrated that this difference is explained by changes in surface buoyancy forcing due to a reduced Antarctic sea ice cover, which strongly modulate the overturning response and ocean stratification. We conclude that the parameterized eddies are able to mimic the transient response to altered wind stress in the high resolution model, but partly misrepresent the unperturbed Southern Ocean meridional overturning circulation and associated heat transports.

  10. Application of the dual Youla parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik


    Different applications of the parameterization of all systems stabilized by a given controller, i.e. the dual Youla parameterization, are considered in this paper. It will be shown how the parameterization can be applied in connection with controller design, adaptive controllers, model validation...

  11. The CCPP-ARM Parameterization Testbed (CAPT): Where Climate Simulation Meets Weather Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, T J; Potter, G L; Williamson, D L; Cederwall, R T; Boyle, J S; Fiorino, M; Hnilo, J J; Olson, J G; Xie, S; Yio, J J


    To significantly improve the simulation of climate by general circulation models (GCMs), systematic errors in representations of relevant processes must first be identified, and then reduced. This endeavor demands, in particular, that the GCM parameterizations of unresolved processes should be tested over a wide range of time scales, not just in climate simulations. Thus, a numerical weather prediction (NWP) methodology for evaluating model parameterizations and gaining insights into their behavior may prove useful, provied that suitable adaptations are made for implementation in climate GCMs. This method entails the generation of short-range weather forecasts by realistically initialized climate GCM, and the application of six-hourly NWP analyses and observations of parameterized variables to evaluate these forecasts. The behavior of the parameterizations in such a weather-forecasting framework can provide insights on how these schemes might be improved, and modified parameterizations then can be similarly tested. In order to further this method for evaluating and analyzing parameterizations in climate GCMs, the USDOE is funding a joint venture of its Climate Change Prediction Program (CCPP) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: the CCPP-ARM Parameterization Testbed (CAPT). This article elaborates the scientific rationale for CAPT, discusses technical aspects of its methodology, and presents examples of its implementation in a representative climate GCM. Numerical weather prediction methods show promise for improving parameterizations in climate GCMs.

  12. Improving the Representation of Snow Crystal Properties Within a Single-Moment Microphysics Scheme (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Petersen, Walter A.; Case, Jonathan L.; Dembek, S. R.


    As computational resources continue their expansion, weather forecast models are transitioning to the use of parameterizations that predict the evolution of hydrometeors and their microphysical processes, rather than estimating the bulk effects of clouds and precipitation that occur on a sub-grid scale. These parameterizations are referred to as single-moment, bulk water microphysics schemes, as they predict the total water mass among hydrometeors in a limited number of classes. Although the development of single moment microphysics schemes have often been driven by the need to predict the structure of convective storms, they may also provide value in predicting accumulations of snowfall. Predicting the accumulation of snowfall presents unique challenges to forecasters and microphysics schemes. In cases where surface temperatures are near freezing, accumulated depth often depends upon the snowfall rate and the ability to overcome an initial warm layer. Precipitation efficiency relates to the dominant ice crystal habit, as dendrites and plates have relatively large surface areas for the accretion of cloud water and ice, but are only favored within a narrow range of ice supersaturation and temperature. Forecast models and their parameterizations must accurately represent the characteristics of snow crystal populations, such as their size distribution, bulk density and fall speed. These properties relate to the vertical distribution of ice within simulated clouds, the temperature profile through latent heat release, and the eventual precipitation rate measured at the surface. The NASA Goddard, single-moment microphysics scheme is available to the operational forecast community as an option within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The NASA Goddard scheme predicts the occurrence of up to six classes of water mass: vapor, cloud ice, cloud water, rain, snow and either graupel or hail.

  13. The predictive consequences of parameterization (United States)

    White, J.; Hughes, J. D.; Doherty, J. E.


    In numerical groundwater modeling, parameterization is the process of selecting the aspects of a computer model that will be allowed to vary during history matching. This selection process is dependent on professional judgment and is, therefore, inherently subjective. Ideally, a robust parameterization should be commensurate with the spatial and temporal resolution of the model and should include all uncertain aspects of the model. Limited computing resources typically require reducing the number of adjustable parameters so that only a subset of the uncertain model aspects are treated as estimable parameters; the remaining aspects are treated as fixed parameters during history matching. We use linear subspace theory to develop expressions for the predictive error incurred by fixing parameters. The predictive error is comprised of two terms. The first term arises directly from the sensitivity of a prediction to fixed parameters. The second term arises from prediction-sensitive adjustable parameters that are forced to compensate for fixed parameters during history matching. The compensation is accompanied by inappropriate adjustment of otherwise uninformed, null-space parameter components. Unwarranted adjustment of null-space components away from prior maximum likelihood values may produce bias if a prediction is sensitive to those components. The potential for subjective parameterization choices to corrupt predictions is examined using a synthetic model. Several strategies are evaluated, including use of piecewise constant zones, use of pilot points with Tikhonov regularization and use of the Karhunen-Loeve transformation. The best choice of parameterization (as defined by minimum error variance) is strongly dependent on the types of predictions to be made by the model.

  14. Exploring Alternate Parameterizations for Snowfall with Validation from Satellite and Terrestrial Radars (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Petersen, Walter A.; Case, Jonathan L.; Dembek, Scott R.; Jedlovec, Gary J.


    Increases in computational resources have allowed operational forecast centers to pursue experimental, high resolution simulations that resolve the microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation. These experiments are motivated by a desire to improve the representation of weather and climate, but will also benefit current and future satellite campaigns, which often use forecast model output to guide the retrieval process. Aircraft, surface and radar data from the Canadian CloudSat/CALIPSO Validation Project are used to check the validity of size distribution and density characteristics for snowfall simulated by the NASA Goddard six-class, single-moment bulk water microphysics scheme, currently available within the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) Model. Widespread snowfall developed across the region on January 22, 2007, forced by the passing of a midlatitude cyclone, and was observed by the dual-polarimetric, C-band radar King City, Ontario, as well as the NASA 94 GHz CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar. Combined, these data sets provide key metrics for validating model output: estimates of size distribution parameters fit to the inverse-exponential equations prescribed within the model, bulk density and crystal habit characteristics sampled by the aircraft, and representation of size characteristics as inferred by the radar reflectivity at C- and W-band. Specified constants for distribution intercept and density differ significantly from observations throughout much of the cloud depth. Alternate parameterizations are explored, using column-integrated values of vapor excess to avoid problems encountered with temperature-based parameterizations in an environment where inversions and isothermal layers are present. Simulation of CloudSat reflectivity is performed by adopting the discrete-dipole parameterizations and databases provided in literature, and demonstrate an improved capability in simulating radar reflectivity at W-band versus Mie scattering

  15. Exploring Alternative Parameterizations for Snowfall with Validation from Satellite and Terrestrial Radars (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Petersen, Walter A.; Case, Jonathan L.; Dembek, Scott R.


    Increases in computational resources have allowed operational forecast centers to pursue experimental, high resolution simulations that resolve the microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation. These experiments are motivated by a desire to improve the representation of weather and climate, but will also benefit current and future satellite campaigns, which often use forecast model output to guide the retrieval process. The combination of reliable cloud microphysics and radar reflectivity may constrain radiative transfer models used in satellite simulators during future missions, including EarthCARE and the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement. Aircraft, surface and radar data from the Canadian CloudSat/CALIPSO Validation Project are used to check the validity of size distribution and density characteristics for snowfall simulated by the NASA Goddard six-class, single moment bulk water microphysics scheme, currently available within the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) Model. Widespread snowfall developed across the region on January 22, 2007, forced by the passing of a mid latitude cyclone, and was observed by the dual-polarimetric, C-band radar King City, Ontario, as well as the NASA 94 GHz CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar. Combined, these data sets provide key metrics for validating model output: estimates of size distribution parameters fit to the inverse-exponential equations prescribed within the model, bulk density and crystal habit characteristics sampled by the aircraft, and representation of size characteristics as inferred by the radar reflectivity at C- and W-band. Specified constants for distribution intercept and density differ significantly from observations throughout much of the cloud depth. Alternate parameterizations are explored, using column-integrated values of vapor excess to avoid problems encountered with temperature-based parameterizations in an environment where inversions and isothermal layers are present. Simulation of

  16. Cloud-radiation interactions and their parameterization in climate models (United States)


    This report contains papers from the International Workshop on Cloud-Radiation Interactions and Their Parameterization in Climate Models met on 18-20 October 1993 in Camp Springs, Maryland, USA. It was organized by the Joint Working Group on Clouds and Radiation of the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences. Recommendations were grouped into three broad areas: (1) general circulation models (GCMs), (2) satellite studies, and (3) process studies. Each of the panels developed recommendations on the themes of the workshop. Explicitly or implicitly, each panel independently recommended observations of basic cloud microphysical properties (water content, phase, size) on the scales resolved by GCMs. Such observations are necessary to validate cloud parameterizations in GCMs, to use satellite data to infer radiative forcing in the atmosphere and at the earth's surface, and to refine the process models which are used to develop advanced cloud parameterizations.

  17. An efficient geometric parameterization technique for the continuation power flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbelini, Enio; Alves, Dilson A.; Neto, Alfredo B.; Righeto, Edson [Department of Electrical Engineering, Electrical Engineering Faculty, Paulista State University (CISA/UNESP), C.P. 31, CEP 15378-000 Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); da Silva, Luiz C.P.; Castro, Carlos A. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering State University of Campinas, UNICAMP C.P. 6101, CEP 13081-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    Continuation methods have been shown as efficient tools for solving ill-conditioned cases, with close to singular Jacobian matrices, such as the maximum loading point of power systems. Some parameterization techniques have been proposed to avoid matrix singularity and successfully solve those cases. This paper presents a new geometric parameterization scheme that allows the complete tracing of the P-V curves without ill-conditioning problems. The proposed technique associates robustness to simplicity and, it is of easy understanding. The Jacobian matrix singularity is avoided by the addition of a line equation, which passes through a point in the plane determined by the total real power losses and loading factor. These two parameters have clear physical meaning. The application of this new technique to the IEEE systems (14, 30, 57, 118 and 300 buses) shows that the best characteristics of the conventional Newton's method are not only preserved but also improved. (author)

  18. A sampling scheme intended for tandem measurements of sodium transport and microvillous surface area in the coprodaeal epithelium of hens on high- and low-salt diets. (United States)

    Mayhew, T M; Dantzer, V; Elbrønd, V S; Skadhauge, E


    A tissue sampling protocol for combined morphometric and physiological studies on the mucosa of the avian coprodaeum is presented. The morphometric goal is to estimate the surface area due to microvilli at the epithelial cell apex and the proposed scheme is illustrated using material from three White Plymouth Rock hens. The scheme is designed to satisfy sampling requirements for the unbiased estimation of surface areas by vertical sectioning coupled with cycloid test lines and it incorporates a number of useful internal checks. It relies on multi-level sampling with four levels of stereological estimation. At Level I, macroscopic estimates of coprodaeal volume are obtained. Light microscopy is employed at Level II to calculate epithelial volume density. Levels III and IV require low and high power electron microscopy to estimate the surface density of the epithelial apical border and the amplification factor due to microvilli. Worked examples of the calculation steps are provided.

  19. Sensitivity analysis of WRF model PBL schemes in simulating boundary-layer variables in southern Italy: An experimental campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avolio, E.; Federico, S.; Miglietta, M.


    the surface, where the model uncertainties are, usually, smaller than at the surface. A general anticlockwise rotation of the simulated flow with height is found at all levels. The mixing height is overestimated by all schemes and a possible role of the simulated sensible heat fluxes for this mismatching......The sensitivity of boundary layer variables to five (two non-local and three local) planetary boundary-layer (PBL) parameterization schemes, available in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale meteorological model, is evaluated in an experimental site in Calabria region (southern...... is investigated. On a single-case basis, significantly better results are obtained when the atmospheric conditions near the measurement site are dominated by synoptic forcing rather than by local circulations. From this study, it follows that the two first order non-local schemes, ACM2 and YSU, are the schemes...

  20. Improving irrigation and groundwater parameterizations in the Community Land Model (CLM) using in-situ observations and satellite data (United States)

    Felfelani, F.; Pokhrel, Y. N.


    In this study, we use in-situ observations and satellite data of soil moisture and groundwater to improve irrigation and groundwater parameterizations in the version 4.5 of the Community Land Model (CLM). The irrigation application trigger, which is based on the soil moisture deficit mechanism, is enhanced by integrating soil moisture observations and the data from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission which is available since 2015. Further, we incorporate different irrigation application mechanisms based on schemes used in various other land surface models (LSMs) and carry out a sensitivity analysis using point simulations at two different irrigated sites in Mead, Nebraska where data from the AmeriFlux observational network are available. We then conduct regional simulations over the entire High Plains region and evaluate model results with the available irrigation water use data at the county-scale. Finally, we present results of groundwater simulations by implementing a simple pumping scheme based on our previous studies. Results from the implementation of current irrigation parameterization used in various LSMs show relatively large difference in vertical soil moisture content profile (e.g., 0.2 mm3/mm3) at point scale which is mostly decreased when averaged over relatively large regions (e.g., 0.04 mm3/mm3 in the High Plains region). It is found that original irrigation module in CLM 4.5 tends to overestimate the soil moisture content compared to both point observations and SMAP, and the results from the improved scheme linked with the groundwater pumping scheme show better agreement with the observations.

  1. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.


    cloud optical properties formulated in terms of PSD parameters in combination with remote measurements of thermal radiances to characterize the small mode. This is possible since the absorption efficiency (Qabs) of small mode crystals is larger at 12 µm wavelength relative to 11 µm wavelength due to the process of wave resonance or photon tunneling more active at 12 µm. This makes the 12/11 µm absorption optical depth ratio (or equivalently the 12/11 µm Qabs ratio) a means for detecting the relative concentration of small ice particles in cirrus. Using this principle, this project tested and developed PSD schemes that can help characterize cirrus clouds at each of the three ARM sites: SGP, NSA and TWP. This was the main effort of this project. These PSD schemes and ice sedimentation velocities predicted from them have been used to test the new cirrus microphysics parameterization in the GCM known as the Community Climate Systems Model (CCSM) as part of an ongoing collaboration with NCAR. Regarding the second problem, we developed and did preliminary testing on a passive thermal method for retrieving the total water path (TWP) of Arctic mixed phase clouds where TWPs are often in the range of 20 to 130 g m-2 (difficult for microwave radiometers to accurately measure). We also developed a new radar method for retrieving the cloud ice water content (IWC), which can be vertically integrated to yield the ice water path (IWP). These techniques were combined to determine the IWP and liquid water path (LWP) in Arctic clouds, and hence the fraction of ice and liquid water. We have tested this approach using a case study from the ARM field campaign called M-PACE (Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment). This research led to a new satellite remote sensing method that appears promising for detecting low levels of liquid water in high clouds typically between -20 and -36 oC. We hope to develop this method in future research.

  2. Sub-grid scale representation of vegetation in global land surface schemes: implications for estimation of the terrestrial carbon sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Melton


    Full Text Available Terrestrial ecosystem models commonly represent vegetation in terms of plant functional types (PFTs and use their vegetation attributes in calculations of the energy and water balance as well as to investigate the terrestrial carbon cycle. Sub-grid scale variability of PFTs in these models is represented using different approaches with the "composite" and "mosaic" approaches being the two end-members. The impact of these two approaches on the global carbon balance has been investigated with the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM v 1.2 coupled to the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS v 3.6. In the composite (single-tile approach, the vegetation attributes of different PFTs present in a grid cell are aggregated and used in calculations to determine the resulting physical environmental conditions (soil moisture, soil temperature, etc. that are common to all PFTs. In the mosaic (multi-tile approach, energy and water balance calculations are performed separately for each PFT tile and each tile's physical land surface environmental conditions evolve independently. Pre-industrial equilibrium CLASS-CTEM simulations yield global totals of vegetation biomass, net primary productivity, and soil carbon that compare reasonably well with observation-based estimates and differ by less than 5% between the mosaic and composite configurations. However, on a regional scale the two approaches can differ by > 30%, especially in areas with high heterogeneity in land cover. Simulations over the historical period (1959–2005 show different responses to evolving climate and carbon dioxide concentrations from the two approaches. The cumulative global terrestrial carbon sink estimated over the 1959–2005 period (excluding land use change (LUC effects differs by around 5% between the two approaches (96.3 and 101.3 Pg, for the mosaic and composite approaches, respectively and compares well with the observation-based estimate of 82.2 ± 35 Pg C over the same

  3. The impacts of a plume-rise scheme on earth system modeling: climatological effects of biomass aerosols on the surface temperature and energy budget of South America (United States)

    de Menezes Neto, Otacilio L.; Coutinho, Mariane M.; Marengo, José A.; Capistrano, Vinícius B.


    Seasonal forest fires in the Amazon are the largest source of pollutants in South America. The impacts of aerosols due to biomass burning on the temperature and energy balance in South America are investigated using climate simulations from 1979 to 2005 using HadGEM2-ES, which includes the hot plume-rise scheme (HPR) developed by Freitas et al. (Estudos Avançados 19:167-185, 2005, Atmos Chem Phys 7:3385-3398, 2007, Atmos Chem Phys 10:585-594, 2010). The HPR scheme is used to estimate the vertical heights of biomass-burning aerosols based on the thermodynamic characteristics of the underlying model. Three experiments are performed. The first experiment includes the HPR scheme, the second experiment turns off the HPR scheme and the effects of biomass aerosols (BIOMASS OFF), and the final experiment assumes that all biomass aerosols are released at the surface (HPR OFF). Relative to the BIOMASS OFF experiment, the temperature decreased in the HPR experiment as the net shortwave radiation at the surface decreased in a region with a large amount of biomass aerosols. When comparing the HPR and HPR OFF experiments, the release of biomass aerosols higher on the atmosphere impacts on temperature and the energy budget because the aerosols were transported by strong winds in the upper atmospheric levels.

  4. On the importance of the albedo parameterization for the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet in EC-Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Helsen


    Full Text Available The albedo of the surface of ice sheets changes as a function of time due to the effects of deposition of new snow, ageing of dry snow, bare ice exposure, melting and run-off. Currently, the calculation of the albedo of ice sheets is highly parameterized within the earth system model EC-Earth by taking a constant value for areas with thick perennial snow cover. This is an important reason why the surface mass balance (SMB of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS is poorly resolved in the model. The purpose of this study is to improve the SMB forcing of the GrIS by evaluating different parameter settings within a snow albedo scheme. By allowing ice-sheet albedo to vary as a function of wet and dry conditions, the spatial distribution of albedo and melt rate improves. Nevertheless, the spatial distribution of SMB in EC-Earth is not significantly improved. As a reason for this, we identify omissions in the current snow albedo scheme, such as separate treatment of snow and ice and the effect of refreezing. The resulting SMB is downscaled from the lower-resolution global climate model topography to the higher-resolution ice-sheet topography of the GrIS, such that the influence of these different SMB climatologies on the long-term evolution of the GrIS is tested by ice-sheet model simulations. From these ice-sheet simulations we conclude that an albedo scheme with a short response time of decaying albedo during wet conditions performs best with respect to long-term simulated ice-sheet volume. This results in an optimized albedo parameterization that can be used in future EC-Earth simulations with an interactive ice-sheet component.

  5. On the importance of the albedo parameterization for the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet in EC-Earth (United States)

    Helsen, Michiel M.; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.; Reerink, Thomas J.; Bintanja, Richard; Madsen, Marianne S.; Yang, Shuting; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Qiong


    The albedo of the surface of ice sheets changes as a function of time due to the effects of deposition of new snow, ageing of dry snow, bare ice exposure, melting and run-off. Currently, the calculation of the albedo of ice sheets is highly parameterized within the earth system model EC-Earth by taking a constant value for areas with thick perennial snow cover. This is an important reason why the surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is poorly resolved in the model. The purpose of this study is to improve the SMB forcing of the GrIS by evaluating different parameter settings within a snow albedo scheme. By allowing ice-sheet albedo to vary as a function of wet and dry conditions, the spatial distribution of albedo and melt rate improves. Nevertheless, the spatial distribution of SMB in EC-Earth is not significantly improved. As a reason for this, we identify omissions in the current snow albedo scheme, such as separate treatment of snow and ice and the effect of refreezing. The resulting SMB is downscaled from the lower-resolution global climate model topography to the higher-resolution ice-sheet topography of the GrIS, such that the influence of these different SMB climatologies on the long-term evolution of the GrIS is tested by ice-sheet model simulations. From these ice-sheet simulations we conclude that an albedo scheme with a short response time of decaying albedo during wet conditions performs best with respect to long-term simulated ice-sheet volume. This results in an optimized albedo parameterization that can be used in future EC-Earth simulations with an interactive ice-sheet component.

  6. Parameterized combinatorial geometry modeling in Moritz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Riper, K.A.


    We describe the use of named variables as surface and solid body coefficients in the Moritz geometry editing program. Variables can also be used as material numbers, cell densities, and transformation values. A variable is defined as a constant or an arithmetic combination of constants and other variables. A variable reference, such as in a surface coefficient, can be a single variable or an expression containing variables and constants. Moritz can read and write geometry models in MCNP and ITS ACCEPT format; support for other codes will be added. The geometry can be saved with either the variables in place, for modifying the models in Moritz, or with the variables evaluated for use in the transport codes. A program window shows a list of variables and provides fields for editing them. Surface coefficients and other values that use a variable reference are shown in a distinctive style on object property dialogs; associated buttons show fields for editing the reference. We discuss our use of variables in defining geometry models for shielding studies in PET clinics. When a model is parameterized through the use of variables, changes such as room dimensions, shielding layer widths, and cell compositions can be quickly achieved by changing a few numbers without requiring knowledge of the input syntax for the transport code or the tedious and error prone work of recalculating many surface or solid body coefficients. (author)

  7. A stochastic parameterization for deep convection using cellular automata (United States)

    Bengtsson, L.; Steinheimer, M.; Bechtold, P.; Geleyn, J.


    Cumulus parameterizations used in most operational weather and climate models today are based on the mass-flux concept which took form in the early 1970's. In such schemes it is assumed that a unique relationship exists between the ensemble-average of the sub-grid convection, and the instantaneous state of the atmosphere in a vertical grid box column. However, such a relationship is unlikely to be described by a simple deterministic function (Palmer, 2011). Thus, because of the statistical nature of the parameterization challenge, it has been recognized by the community that it is important to introduce stochastic elements to the parameterizations (for instance: Plant and Craig, 2008, Khouider et al. 2010, Frenkel et al. 2011, Bentsson et al. 2011, but the list is far from exhaustive). There are undoubtedly many ways in which stochastisity can enter new developments. In this study we use a two-way interacting cellular automata (CA), as its intrinsic nature possesses many qualities interesting for deep convection parameterization. In the one-dimensional entraining plume approach, there is no parameterization of horizontal transport of heat, moisture or momentum due to cumulus convection. In reality, mass transport due to gravity waves that propagate in the horizontal can trigger new convection, important for the organization of deep convection (Huang, 1988). The self-organizational characteristics of the CA allows for lateral communication between adjacent NWP model grid-boxes, and temporal memory. Thus the CA scheme used in this study contain three interesting components for representation of cumulus convection, which are not present in the traditional one-dimensional bulk entraining plume method: horizontal communication, memory and stochastisity. The scheme is implemented in the high resolution regional NWP model ALARO, and simulations show enhanced organization of convective activity along squall-lines. Probabilistic evaluation demonstrate an enhanced spread in

  8. Neutrosophic Parameterized Soft Relations and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Deli


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of relation on neutrosophic parameterized soft set (NP- soft sets theory. We have studied some related properties and also put forward some propositions on neutrosophic parameterized soft relation with proofs and examples. Finally the notions of symmetric, transitive, reflexive, and equivalence neutrosophic parameterized soft set relations have been established in our work. Finally a decision making method on NP-soft sets is presented.

  9. A Finite Difference Scheme for Double-Diffusive Unsteady Free Convection from a Curved Surface to a Saturated Porous Medium with a Non-Newtonian Fluid

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed


    In this paper, a finite difference scheme is developed to solve the unsteady problem of combined heat and mass transfer from an isothermal curved surface to a porous medium saturated by a non-Newtonian fluid. The curved surface is kept at constant temperature and the power-law model is used to model the non-Newtonian fluid. The explicit finite difference method is used to solve simultaneously the equations of momentum, energy and concentration. The consistency of the explicit scheme is examined and the stability conditions are determined for each equation. Boundary layer and Boussinesq approximations have been incorporated. Numerical calculations are carried out for the various parameters entering into the problem. Velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are shown graphically. It is found that as time approaches infinity, the values of wall shear, heat transfer coefficient and concentration gradient at the wall, which are entered in tables, approach the steady state values.

  10. Coupling Nitrogen Transport and Transformation Model with Land Surface Scheme SABAE-HW and its Application on the Canadian Prairies (United States)

    Hejazi, A.; Woodbury, A. D.; Loukili, Y.; Akinremi, W.


    The main goal of the present research is to contribute to the understanding of nutrient transport and transformations in soil and its impact on groundwater on a large scale. This paper specifically integrates the physical, chemical and biochemical nitrogen transport processes with a spatial and temporal Land Surface Scheme (LSS). Because solute transport highly depends on soil moisture and soil temperature, a vertical soil nitrogen transport and transformations model was coupled with the SABAE-HW model. Since manure is one of the most commonly available sources of nutrients, it is assumed that the main source of organic N is from animal manure in this study. A-single-pool nitrogen transformation is designed to simulate nitrogen dynamics. Mineralization and nitrification are modeled using the first order kinetics. The performance of the integrated model (SABAE-HWS) is calibrated and verified using 3 years field data from Carberry site in central Canada, Manitoba. Two rates of hog manure (2500 and 7500 gal/acre) were investigated to study the distribution of soil ammonium and soil nitrate within the 120 cm of soil profile. The results clearly showed that there is a good agreement between observed and simulated soil ammonium and soil nitrate for the two manure application rates in the first two years of study. However, there were significant differences between observations and simulations at lower depths with 7500 gal/acre by the end of growing season of 2004. Also, a 10-year climate data was used to evaluate the effect of manure rates on nitrate leaching at the Carberry site. The results indicated that to minimize the risk of nitrate leaching, the rate of manure application, accumulated soil nitrogen from earlier applications, and the atmospheric conditions should be all taken into account at the same time. The simulations clearly showed that to have a nitrate concentration below 10 mg/kg in the leachate, the manure rate should not exceed 2500 gal/acre. The model is

  11. Tuning controllers using the dual Youla parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob


    This paper describes the application of the Youla parameterization of all stabilizing controllers and the dual Youla parameterization of all systems stabilized by a given controller in connection with tuning of controllers. In the uncertain case, it is shown that the use of the Youla parameteriza......This paper describes the application of the Youla parameterization of all stabilizing controllers and the dual Youla parameterization of all systems stabilized by a given controller in connection with tuning of controllers. In the uncertain case, it is shown that the use of the Youla...

  12. Parameterization Of Solar Radiation Using Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiya, J. D.; Alfa, B.


    This paper presents a neural network technique for parameterization of global solar radiation. The available data from twenty-one stations is used for training the neural network and the data from other ten stations is used to validate the neural model. The neural network utilizes latitude, longitude, altitude, sunshine duration and period number to parameterize solar radiation values. The testing data was not used in the training to demonstrate the performance of the neural network in unknown stations to parameterize solar radiation. The results indicate a good agreement between the parameterized solar radiation values and actual measured values

  13. Building a Structural Model: Parameterization and Structurality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Mouchart


    Full Text Available A specific concept of structural model is used as a background for discussing the structurality of its parameterization. Conditions for a structural model to be also causal are examined. Difficulties and pitfalls arising from the parameterization are analyzed. In particular, pitfalls when considering alternative parameterizations of a same model are shown to have lead to ungrounded conclusions in the literature. Discussions of observationally equivalent models related to different economic mechanisms are used to make clear the connection between an economically meaningful parameterization and an economically meaningful decomposition of a complex model. The design of economic policy is used for drawing some practical implications of the proposed analysis.

  14. Impact of parameterization of physical processes on simulation of track and intensity of tropical cyclone Nargis (2008) with WRF-NMM model. (United States)

    Pattanayak, Sujata; Mohanty, U C; Osuri, Krishna K


    The present study is carried out to investigate the performance of different cumulus convection, planetary boundary layer, land surface processes, and microphysics parameterization schemes in the simulation of a very severe cyclonic storm (VSCS) Nargis (2008), developed in the central Bay of Bengal on 27 April 2008. For this purpose, the nonhydrostatic mesoscale model (NMM) dynamic core of weather research and forecasting (WRF) system is used. Model-simulated track positions and intensity in terms of minimum central mean sea level pressure (MSLP), maximum surface wind (10 m), and precipitation are verified with observations as provided by the India Meteorological Department (IMD) and Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM). The estimated optimum combination is reinvestigated with six different initial conditions of the same case to have better conclusion on the performance of WRF-NMM. A few more diagnostic fields like vertical velocity, vorticity, and heat fluxes are also evaluated. The results indicate that cumulus convection play an important role in the movement of the cyclone, and PBL has a crucial role in the intensification of the storm. The combination of Simplified Arakawa Schubert (SAS) convection, Yonsei University (YSU) PBL, NMM land surface, and Ferrier microphysics parameterization schemes in WRF-NMM give better track and intensity forecast with minimum vector displacement error.

  15. Parameterization of solar flare dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarche, A.H.; Poston, J.W.


    A critical aspect of missions to the moon or Mars will be the safety and health of the crew. Radiation in space is a hazard for astronauts, especially high-energy radiation following certain types of solar flares. A solar flare event can be very dangerous if astronauts are not adequately shielded because flares can deliver a very high dose in a short period of time. The goal of this research was to parameterize solar flare dose as a function of time to see if it was possible to predict solar flare occurrence, thus providing a warning time. This would allow astronauts to take corrective action and avoid receiving a dose greater than the recommended limit set by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP)

  16. Investigating the Sensitivity of Nucleation Parameterization on Ice Growth (United States)

    Gaudet, L.; Sulia, K. J.


    The accurate prediction of precipitation from lake-effect snow events associated with the Great Lakes region depends on the parameterization of thermodynamic and microphysical processes, including the formation and subsequent growth of frozen hydrometeors. More specifically, the formation of ice hydrometeors has been represented through varying forms of ice nucleation parameterizations considering the different nucleation modes (e.g., deposition, condensation-freezing, homogeneous). These parameterizations have been developed from in-situ measurements and laboratory observations. A suite of nucleation parameterizations consisting of those published in Meyers et al. (1992) and DeMott et al. (2010) as well as varying ice nuclei data sources are coupled with the Adaptive Habit Model (AHM, Harrington et al. 2013), a microphysics module where ice crystal aspect ratio and density are predicted and evolve in time. Simulations are run with the AHM which is implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to investigate the effect of ice nucleation parameterization on the non-spherical growth and evolution of ice crystals and the subsequent effects on liquid-ice cloud-phase partitioning. Specific lake-effect storms that were observed during the Ontario Winter Lake-Effect Systems (OWLeS) field campaign (Kristovich et al. 2017) are examined to elucidate this potential microphysical effect. Analysis of these modeled events is aided by dual-polarization radar data from the WSR-88D in Montague, New York (KTYX). This enables a comparison of the modeled and observed polarmetric and microphysical profiles of the lake-effect clouds, which involves investigating signatures of reflectivity, specific differential phase, correlation coefficient, and differential reflectivity. Microphysical features of lake-effect bands, such as ice, snow, and liquid mixing ratios, ice crystal aspect ratio, and ice density are analyzed to understand signatures in the aforementioned modeled

  17. Sensitivity of tropical cyclone simulations to microphysics parameterizations in WRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshmi Mohan, P.; Srinivas, C.V.; Bhaskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.; Yesubabu, V.


    Tropical cyclones (TC) cause storm surge along coastal areas where these storms cross the coast. As major nuclear facilities are usually installed in coastal region, the surge predictions are highly important for DAE. The critical TC parameters needed in estimating storm surge are intensity (winds, central pressure and radius of maximum winds) and storm tracks. The predictions with numerical models are generally made by representing the clouds and precipitation processes using convective and microphysics parameterization. At high spatial resolutions (1-3Km) microphysics can act as cloud resolving NWP model to explicitly resolve the convective precipitation without using convection schemes. Recent simulation studies using WRF on severe weather phenomena such as thunderstorms and hurricanes indicated large sensitivity of predicted rainfall and hurricane tracks to microphysics due to variation in temperature and pressure gradients which generate winds that determine the storm track. In the present study the sensitivity of tropical cyclone tracks and intensity to different microphysics schemes has been conducted

  18. Parameterized Linear Longitudinal Airship Model (United States)

    Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Bayard, David; Quadrelli, Marco; Johnson, Joseph


    A parameterized linear mathematical model of the longitudinal dynamics of an airship is undergoing development. This model is intended to be used in designing control systems for future airships that would operate in the atmospheres of Earth and remote planets. Heretofore, the development of linearized models of the longitudinal dynamics of airships has been costly in that it has been necessary to perform extensive flight testing and to use system-identification techniques to construct models that fit the flight-test data. The present model is a generic one that can be relatively easily specialized to approximate the dynamics of specific airships at specific operating points, without need for further system identification, and with significantly less flight testing. The approach taken in the present development is to merge the linearized dynamical equations of an airship with techniques for estimation of aircraft stability derivatives, and to thereby make it possible to construct a linearized dynamical model of the longitudinal dynamics of a specific airship from geometric and aerodynamic data pertaining to that airship. (It is also planned to develop a model of the lateral dynamics by use of the same methods.) All of the aerodynamic data needed to construct the model of a specific airship can be obtained from wind-tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics

  19. A review of the theoretical basis for bulk mass flux convective parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Plant


    Full Text Available Most parameterizations for precipitating convection in use today are bulk schemes, in which an ensemble of cumulus elements with different properties is modelled as a single, representative entraining-detraining plume. We review the underpinning mathematical model for such parameterizations, in particular by comparing it with spectral models in which elements are not combined into the representative plume. The chief merit of a bulk model is that the representative plume can be described by an equation set with the same structure as that which describes each element in a spectral model. The equivalence relies on an ansatz for detrained condensate introduced by Yanai et al. (1973 and on a simplified microphysics. There are also conceptual differences in the closure of bulk and spectral parameterizations. In particular, we show that the convective quasi-equilibrium closure of Arakawa and Schubert (1974 for spectral parameterizations cannot be carried over to a bulk parameterization in a straightforward way. Quasi-equilibrium of the cloud work function assumes a timescale separation between a slow forcing process and a rapid convective response. But, for the natural bulk analogue to the cloud-work function, the relevant forcing is characterised by a different timescale, and so its quasi-equilibrium entails a different physical constraint. Closures of bulk parameterizations that use a parcel value of CAPE do not suffer from this timescale issue. However, the Yanai et al. (1973 ansatz must be invoked as a necessary ingredient of those closures.

  20. Integrated cumulus ensemble and turbulence (ICET): An integrated parameterization system for general circulation models (GCMs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.L.; Frank, W.M.; Young, G.S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)


    Successful simulations of the global circulation and climate require accurate representation of the properties of shallow and deep convective clouds, stable-layer clouds, and the interactions between various cloud types, the boundary layer, and the radiative fluxes. Each of these phenomena play an important role in the global energy balance, and each must be parameterized in a global climate model. These processes are highly interactive. One major problem limiting the accuracy of parameterizations of clouds and other processes in general circulation models (GCMs) is that most of the parameterization packages are not linked with a common physical basis. Further, these schemes have not, in general, been rigorously verified against observations adequate to the task of resolving subgrid-scale effects. To address these problems, we are designing a new Integrated Cumulus Ensemble and Turbulence (ICET) parameterization scheme, installing it in a climate model (CCM2), and evaluating the performance of the new scheme using data from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites.

  1. Sensitivity of Turbine-Height Wind Speeds to Parameters in Planetary Boundary-Layer and Surface-Layer Schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ben; Qian, Yun; Berg, Larry K.; Ma, Po-Lun; Wharton, Sonia; Bulaevskaya, Vera; Yan, Huiping; Hou, Zhangshuan; Shaw, William J.


    We evaluate the sensitivity of simulated turbine-height winds to 26 parameters applied in a planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme and a surface layer scheme of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over an area of complex terrain during the Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study. An efficient sampling algorithm and a generalized linear model are used to explore the multiple-dimensional parameter space and quantify the parametric sensitivity of modeled turbine-height winds. The results indicate that most of the variability in the ensemble simulations is contributed by parameters related to the dissipation of the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), Prandtl number, turbulence length scales, surface roughness, and the von Kármán constant. The relative contributions of individual parameters are found to be dependent on both the terrain slope and atmospheric stability. The parameter associated with the TKE dissipation rate is found to be the most important one, and a larger dissipation rate can produce larger hub-height winds. A larger Prandtl number results in weaker nighttime winds. Increasing surface roughness reduces the frequencies of both extremely weak and strong winds, implying a reduction in the variability of the wind speed. All of the above parameters can significantly affect the vertical profiles of wind speed, the altitude of the low-level jet and the magnitude of the wind shear strength. The wind direction is found to be modulated by the same subset of influential parameters. Remainder of abstract is in attachment.

  2. Sensitivity of Turbine-Height Wind Speeds to Parameters in Planetary Boundary-Layer and Surface-Layer Schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (United States)

    Yang, Ben; Qian, Yun; Berg, Larry K.; Ma, Po-Lun; Wharton, Sonia; Bulaevskaya, Vera; Yan, Huiping; Hou, Zhangshuan; Shaw, William J.


    We evaluate the sensitivity of simulated turbine-height wind speeds to 26 parameters within the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN) planetary boundary-layer scheme and MM5 surface-layer scheme of the Weather Research and Forecasting model over an area of complex terrain. An efficient sampling algorithm and generalized linear model are used to explore the multiple-dimensional parameter space and quantify the parametric sensitivity of simulated turbine-height wind speeds. The results indicate that most of the variability in the ensemble simulations is due to parameters related to the dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), Prandtl number, turbulent length scales, surface roughness, and the von Kármán constant. The parameter associated with the TKE dissipation rate is found to be most important, and a larger dissipation rate produces larger hub-height wind speeds. A larger Prandtl number results in smaller nighttime wind speeds. Increasing surface roughness reduces the frequencies of both extremely weak and strong airflows, implying a reduction in the variability of wind speed. All of the above parameters significantly affect the vertical profiles of wind speed and the magnitude of wind shear. The relative contributions of individual parameters are found to be dependent on both the terrain slope and atmospheric stability.

  3. Experimental research on the effect of the ball burnishing process, using new kinematical scheme on hardness and phase composition of surface layer of AISI 304L stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrov Diyan M.


    Full Text Available In this paper, experimental results about hardness and phase composition of surface layer of AISI 304L SS, machined by using ball burnishing process, conducted under a new kinematic scheme, are presented. The effect of different combinations of the process regime parameters on the amount of strain induced martensitic phase, is discussed. The amounts of austenitic and strain induced martensitic phases are identified by x-ray diffractometer. Micro hardness along the depth of the hardened layer is measured. Conclusions about the influence of the ball burnishing process on strain induced martensitic phase are given.

  4. The influence of Cloud Longwave Scattering together with a state-of-the-art Ice Longwave Optical Parameterization in Climate Model Simulations (United States)

    Chen, Y. H.; Kuo, C. P.; Huang, X.; Yang, P.


    Clouds play an important role in the Earth's radiation budget, and thus realistic and comprehensive treatments of cloud optical properties and cloud-sky radiative transfer are crucial for simulating weather and climate. However, most GCMs neglect LW scattering effects by clouds and tend to use inconsistent cloud SW and LW optical parameterizations. Recently, co-authors of this study have developed a new LW optical properties parameterization for ice clouds, which is based on ice cloud particle statistics from MODIS measurements and state-of-the-art scattering calculation. A two-stream multiple-scattering scheme has also been implemented into the RRTMG_LW, a widely used longwave radiation scheme by climate modeling centers. This study is to integrate both the new LW cloud-radiation scheme for ice clouds and the modified RRTMG_LW with scattering capability into the NCAR CESM to improve the cloud longwave radiation treatment. A number of single column model (SCM) simulations using the observation from the ARM SGP site on July 18 to August 4 in 1995 are carried out to assess the impact of new LW optical properties of clouds and scattering-enabled radiation scheme on simulated radiation budget and cloud radiative effect (CRE). The SCM simulation allows interaction between cloud and radiation schemes with other parameterizations, but the large-scale forcing is prescribed or nudged. Comparing to the results from the SCM of the standard CESM, the new ice cloud optical properties alone leads to an increase of LW CRE by 26.85 W m-2 in average, as well as an increase of the downward LW flux at surface by 6.48 W m-2. Enabling LW cloud scattering further increases the LW CRE by another 3.57 W m-2 and the downward LW flux at the surface by 0.2 W m-2. The change of LW CRE is mainly due to an increase of cloud top height, which enhances the LW CRE. A long-term simulation of CESM will be carried out to further understand the impact of such changes on simulated climates.

  5. Effects of Parameterized Orographic Drag on Weather Forecasting and Simulated Climatology Over East Asia During Boreal Summer (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Suk-Jin; Koo, Myung-Seo; Kim, Jung-Eun; Kwon, Young Cheol; Hong, Song-You


    The impact of subgrid orographic drag on weather forecasting and simulated climatology over East Asia in boreal summer is examined using two parameterization schemes in a global forecast model. The schemes consider gravity wave drag (GWD) with and without lower-level wave breaking drag (LLWD) and flow-blocking drag (FBD). Simulation results from sensitivity experiments verify that the scheme with LLWD and FBD improves the intensity of a summertime continental high over the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, which is exaggerated with GWD only. This is because the enhanced lower tropospheric drag due to the effects of lower-level wave breaking and flow blocking slows down the wind flowing out of the high-pressure system in the lower troposphere. It is found that the decreased lower-level divergence induces a compensating weakening of middle- to upper-level convergence aloft. Extended experiments for medium-range forecasts for July 2013 and seasonal simulations for June to August of 2013-2015 are also conducted. Statistical skill scores for medium-range forecasting are improved not only in low-level winds but also in surface pressure when both LLWD and FBD are considered. A simulated climatology of summertime monsoon circulation in East Asia is also realistically reproduced.

  6. Parameterization Improvements and Functional and Structural Advances in Version 4 of the Community Land Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. Slater


    Full Text Available The Community Land Model is the land component of the Community Climate System Model. Here, we describe a broad set of model improvements and additions that have been provided through the CLM development community to create CLM4. The model is extended with a carbon-nitrogen (CN biogeochemical model that is prognostic with respect to vegetation, litter, and soil carbon and nitrogen states and vegetation phenology. An urban canyon model is added and a transient land cover and land use change (LCLUC capability, including wood harvest, is introduced, enabling study of historic and future LCLUC on energy, water, momentum, carbon, and nitrogen fluxes. The hydrology scheme is modified with a revised numerical solution of the Richards equation and a revised ground evaporation parameterization that accounts for litter and within-canopy stability. The new snow model incorporates the SNow and Ice Aerosol Radiation model (SNICAR - which includes aerosol deposition, grain-size dependent snow aging, and vertically-resolved snowpack heating –– as well as new snow cover and snow burial fraction parameterizations. The thermal and hydrologic properties of organic soil are accounted for and the ground column is extended to ~50-m depth. Several other minor modifications to the land surface types dataset, grass and crop optical properties, atmospheric forcing height, roughness length and displacement height, and the disposition of snow-capped runoff are also incorporated.Taken together, these augmentations to CLM result in improved soil moisture dynamics, drier soils, and stronger soil moisture variability. The new model also exhibits higher snow cover, cooler soil temperatures in organic-rich soils, greater global river discharge, and lower albedos over forests and grasslands, all of which are improvements compared to CLM3.5. When CLM4 is run with CN, the mean biogeophysical simulation is slightly degraded because the vegetation structure is prognostic rather

  7. Testing longwave radiation parameterizations under clear and overcast skies at Storglaciären, Sweden


    Sedlar, J.; Hock, R.


    Energy balance based glacier melt models require accurate estimates of incoming longwave radiation but direct measurements are often not available. Multi-year near-surface meteorological data from Storglaciären, Northern Sweden, were used to evaluate commonly used longwave radiation parameterizations in a glacier environment under clear-sky and all-sky conditions. Parameterizations depending solely on air temperature performed worse than those which include water vapor pressure. All models te...

  8. Menangkal Serangan SQL Injection Dengan Parameterized Query

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulianingsih Yulianingsih


    Full Text Available Semakin meningkat pertumbuhan layanan informasi maka semakin tinggi pula tingkat kerentanan keamanan dari suatu sumber informasi. Melalui tulisan ini disajikan penelitian yang dilakukan secara eksperimen yang membahas tentang kejahatan penyerangan database secara SQL Injection. Penyerangan dilakukan melalui halaman autentikasi dikarenakan halaman ini merupakan pintu pertama akses yang seharusnya memiliki pertahanan yang cukup. Kemudian dilakukan eksperimen terhadap metode Parameterized Query untuk mendapatkan solusi terhadap permasalahan tersebut.   Kata kunci— Layanan Informasi, Serangan, eksperimen, SQL Injection, Parameterized Query.

  9. Parameterization and measurements of helical magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.; Okamura, M.


    Magnetic fields with helical symmetry can be parameterized using multipole coefficients (a n , b n ). We present a parameterization that gives the familiar multipole coefficients (a n , b n ) for straight magnets when the helical wavelength tends to infinity. To measure helical fields all methods used for straight magnets can be employed. We show how to convert the results of those measurements to obtain the desired helical multipole coefficients (a n , b n )

  10. Parameterized String Matching Algorithms with Application to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the parameterized string matching problem, a given pattern P is said to match with a sub-string t of the text T, if there exist a bijection from the symbols of P to the symbols of t. Salmela and Tarhio solve the parameterized string matching problem in sub-linear time by applying the concept of q-gram in the Horspool algorithm ...

  11. Development of a Mobile Dust Source Parameterization Using an Inverse Lagrangian Stochastic Modeling Technique (United States)

    McAlpine, Jerrold D.

    In arid regions, mechanical disturbances along the desert floor can result in large fluctuations of dust particles into the atmosphere. Rotorcraft operation near the surface may have the greatest potential for dust entrainment per vehicle. Due to this, there is a need for efficient tools to estimate the risk of air quality and visibility impacts in the neighborhood of rotorcraft operating near the desert surface. In this study, a set of parameterized models were developed to form a multi-component modeling system to simulate the entrainment and dispersion of dust from a rotorcraft wake. A simplified scheme utilizing momentum theory was applied to predict the shear stress at the ground under the rotorcraft. Stochastic dust emission algorithms were used to predict the PM10 emission rate from the wake. The distribution of dust emission from the wake was assigned at the walls of a box-volume that encapsulates the wake. The distribution was determined using the results of an inverse Lagrangian stochastic particle dispersion modeling study, using a dataset from a full-scale experiment. All of the elements were put together into a model that simulates the dispersion of PM10 dust from a rotorcraft wake. Downwind concentrations of PM10 estimated using the multi-component modeling system compared well to a set of experimental measurements.

  12. Improving Weather Research and Forecasting Model Initial Conditions via Surface Pressure Analysis (United States)


    boundary layer (ABL). It predicts turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and is a Mellor-Yamada Level 2.5 turbulence closure model. As in Lee et al. (2012...cumulus parameterization (Kain 2004) is employed. For radiation , the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) (Mlawer et al. 1997) is used for...longwave and the Dudhia scheme (Dudhia 1989) for shortwave . The Noah land surface model (Chen and Dudhia 2001) is used to represent land surface processes

  13. Colour schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo


    This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation.......This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation....

  14. Applying the Triangle Method for the parameterization of irrigated areas as input for spatially distributed hydrological modeling - Assessing future drought risk in the Gaza Strip (Palestine). (United States)

    Gampe, David; Ludwig, Ralf; Qahman, Khalid; Afifi, Samir


    In the Mediterranean region, particularly in the Gaza strip, an increased risk of drought is among the major concerns related to climate change. The impacts of climate change on water availability, drought risk and food security can be assessed by means of hydro-climatological modeling. However, the region is prone to severe observation data scarcity, which limits the potential for robust model parameterization, calibration and validation. In this study, the physically based, spatially distributed hydrological model WaSiM is parameterized and evaluated using satellite imagery to assess hydrological quantities. The Triangle Method estimates actual evapotranspiration (ETR) through the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land surface temperature (LST) provided by Landsat TM imagery. So-derived spatially distributed evapotranspiration is then used in two ways: first a subset of the imagery is used to parameterize the irrigation module of WaSiM and second, withheld scenes are applied to evaluate the performance of the hydrological model in the data scarce study area. The results show acceptable overall correlation with the validation scenes (r=0.53) and an improvement over the usual irrigation parameterization scheme using land use information exclusively. This model setup is then applied for future drought risk assessment in the Gaza Strip using a small ensemble of four regional climate projections for the period 2041-2070. Hydrological modeling reveals an increased risk of drought, assessed with an evapotranspiration index, compared to the reference period 1971-2000. Current irrigation procedures cannot maintain the agricultural productivity under future conditions without adaptation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A hydrological prediction system based on the SVS land-surface scheme: efficient calibration of GEM-Hydro for streamflow simulation over the Lake Ontario basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    É. Gaborit


    Full Text Available This work explores the potential of the distributed GEM-Hydro runoff modeling platform, developed at Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC over the last decade. More precisely, the aim is to develop a robust implementation methodology to perform reliable streamflow simulations with a distributed model over large and partly ungauged basins, in an efficient manner. The latest version of GEM-Hydro combines the SVS (Soil, Vegetation and Snow land-surface scheme and the WATROUTE routing scheme. SVS has never been evaluated from a hydrological point of view, which is done here for all major rivers flowing into Lake Ontario. Two established hydrological models are confronted to GEM-Hydro, namely MESH and WATFLOOD, which share the same routing scheme (WATROUTE but rely on different land-surface schemes. All models are calibrated using the same meteorological forcings, objective function, calibration algorithm, and basin delineation. GEM-Hydro is shown to be competitive with MESH and WATFLOOD: the NSE  √  (Nash–Sutcliffe criterion computed on the square root of the flows is for example equal to 0.83 for MESH and GEM-Hydro in validation on the Moira River basin, and to 0.68 for WATFLOOD. A computationally efficient strategy is proposed to calibrate SVS: a simple unit hydrograph is used for routing instead of WATROUTE. Global and local calibration strategies are compared in order to estimate runoff for ungauged portions of the Lake Ontario basin. Overall, streamflow predictions obtained using a global calibration strategy, in which a single parameter set is identified for the whole basin of Lake Ontario, show accuracy comparable to the predictions based on local calibration: the average NSE  √  in validation and over seven subbasins is 0.73 and 0.61, respectively for local and global calibrations. Hence, global calibration provides spatially consistent parameter values, robust performance at gauged locations, and reduces the

  16. A hydrological prediction system based on the SVS land-surface scheme: efficient calibration of GEM-Hydro for streamflow simulation over the Lake Ontario basin (United States)

    Gaborit, Étienne; Fortin, Vincent; Xu, Xiaoyong; Seglenieks, Frank; Tolson, Bryan; Fry, Lauren M.; Hunter, Tim; Anctil, François; Gronewold, Andrew D.


    This work explores the potential of the distributed GEM-Hydro runoff modeling platform, developed at Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) over the last decade. More precisely, the aim is to develop a robust implementation methodology to perform reliable streamflow simulations with a distributed model over large and partly ungauged basins, in an efficient manner. The latest version of GEM-Hydro combines the SVS (Soil, Vegetation and Snow) land-surface scheme and the WATROUTE routing scheme. SVS has never been evaluated from a hydrological point of view, which is done here for all major rivers flowing into Lake Ontario. Two established hydrological models are confronted to GEM-Hydro, namely MESH and WATFLOOD, which share the same routing scheme (WATROUTE) but rely on different land-surface schemes. All models are calibrated using the same meteorological forcings, objective function, calibration algorithm, and basin delineation. GEM-Hydro is shown to be competitive with MESH and WATFLOOD: the NSE √ (Nash-Sutcliffe criterion computed on the square root of the flows) is for example equal to 0.83 for MESH and GEM-Hydro in validation on the Moira River basin, and to 0.68 for WATFLOOD. A computationally efficient strategy is proposed to calibrate SVS: a simple unit hydrograph is used for routing instead of WATROUTE. Global and local calibration strategies are compared in order to estimate runoff for ungauged portions of the Lake Ontario basin. Overall, streamflow predictions obtained using a global calibration strategy, in which a single parameter set is identified for the whole basin of Lake Ontario, show accuracy comparable to the predictions based on local calibration: the average NSE √ in validation and over seven subbasins is 0.73 and 0.61, respectively for local and global calibrations. Hence, global calibration provides spatially consistent parameter values, robust performance at gauged locations, and reduces the complexity and computation burden of the

  17. Parameterization of ionization rate by auroral electron precipitation in Jupiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hiraki


    Full Text Available We simulate auroral electron precipitation into the Jovian atmosphere in which electron multi-directional scattering and energy degradation processes are treated exactly with a Monte Carlo technique. We make a parameterization of the calculated ionization rate of the neutral gas by electron impact in a similar way as used for the Earth's aurora. Our method allows the altitude distribution of the ionization rate to be obtained as a function of an arbitrary initial energy spectrum in the range of 1–200 keV. It also includes incident angle dependence and an arbitrary density distribution of molecular hydrogen. We show that there is little dependence of the estimated ionospheric conductance on atomic species such as H and He. We compare our results with those of recent studies with different electron transport schemes by adapting our parameterization to their atmospheric conditions. We discuss the intrinsic problem of their simplified assumption. The ionospheric conductance, which is important for Jupiter's magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling system, is estimated to vary by a factor depending on the electron energy spectrum based on recent observation and modeling. We discuss this difference through the relation with field-aligned current and electron spectrum.

  18. Parameterization of ionization rate by auroral electron precipitation in Jupiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hiraki


    Full Text Available We simulate auroral electron precipitation into the Jovian atmosphere in which electron multi-directional scattering and energy degradation processes are treated exactly with a Monte Carlo technique. We make a parameterization of the calculated ionization rate of the neutral gas by electron impact in a similar way as used for the Earth's aurora. Our method allows the altitude distribution of the ionization rate to be obtained as a function of an arbitrary initial energy spectrum in the range of 1–200 keV. It also includes incident angle dependence and an arbitrary density distribution of molecular hydrogen. We show that there is little dependence of the estimated ionospheric conductance on atomic species such as H and He. We compare our results with those of recent studies with different electron transport schemes by adapting our parameterization to their atmospheric conditions. We discuss the intrinsic problem of their simplified assumption. The ionospheric conductance, which is important for Jupiter's magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling system, is estimated to vary by a factor depending on the electron energy spectrum based on recent observation and modeling. We discuss this difference through the relation with field-aligned current and electron spectrum.

  19. Improving microphysics in a convective parameterization: possibilities and limitations (United States)

    Labbouz, Laurent; Heikenfeld, Max; Stier, Philip; Morrison, Hugh; Milbrandt, Jason; Protat, Alain; Kipling, Zak


    The convective cloud field model (CCFM) is a convective parameterization implemented in the climate model ECHAM6.1-HAM2.2. It represents a population of clouds within each ECHAM-HAM model column, simulating up to 10 different convective cloud types with individual radius, vertical velocities and microphysical properties. Comparisons between CCFM and radar data at Darwin, Australia, show that in order to reproduce both the convective cloud top height distribution and the vertical velocity profile, the effect of aerodynamic drag on the rising parcel has to be considered, along with a reduced entrainment parameter. A new double-moment microphysics (the Predicted Particle Properties scheme, P3) has been implemented in the latest version of CCFM and is compared to the standard single-moment microphysics and the radar retrievals at Darwin. The microphysical process rates (autoconversion, accretion, deposition, freezing, …) and their response to changes in CDNC are investigated and compared to high resolution CRM WRF simulations over the Amazon region. The results shed light on the possibilities and limitations of microphysics improvements in the framework of CCFM and in convective parameterizations in general.

  20. Accurate description of the bonding of C6H6 at noble metal surfaces, using a local exchange-correlation correction scheme (United States)

    McNellis, Erik; Reuter, Karsten; Scheffler, Matthias


    The adsorption of benzene (C6H6) at the Cu(111) surface is a much studied model system for the interaction of larger π-conjugated molecules with solid surfaces. At first glance a simple system, the suspected predominantly van der Waals type bonding at the extended metal surface poses a severe challenge for accurate first-principles calculations. Density-Functional Theory (DFT) with local and semi-local exchange-correlation (xc) functionals is uncertain to properly account for this type of bonding, while the system sizes required to correctly grasp the metallic band structure are computationally untractable with correlated wave function techniques. We overcome these limitations with a recently introduced ``local xc correction'' scheme [1], correcting the adsorption energetics from present-day DFT xc functionals with hybrid functional and Møller-Plesset perturbation theory calculations for small clusters. From the obtained convergence of the xc correction with cluster size we can disentangle short-range and dispersion type contributions to the bonding of the molecule at different heights above the surface. This enables us to qualify the role played by the two contributions in determining the binding energetics and geometry. [1] Q.-M. Hu, K. Reuter, and M. Scheffler, PRL 98, 176103 (2007) and 99, 169903 (2007); C. Tuma and J. Sauer, CPL 387, 388 (2004).

  1. On quaternion based parameterization of orientation in computer vision and robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Terzakis


    Full Text Available The problem of orientation parameterization for applications in computer vision and robotics is examined in detail herein. The necessary intuition and formulas are provided for direct practical use in any existing algorithm that seeks to minimize a cost function in an iterative fashion. Two distinct schemes of parameterization are analyzed: The first scheme concerns the traditional axis-angle approach, while the second employs stereographic projection from unit quaternion sphere to the 3D real projective space. Performance measurements are taken and a comparison is made between the two approaches. Results suggests that there exist several benefits in the use of stereographic projection that include rational expressions in the rotation matrix derivatives, improved accuracy, robustness to random starting points and accelerated convergence.

  2. An Investigation of Ice Surface Albedo and Its Influence on the High-Altitude Lakes of the Tibetan Plateau


    Jiahe Lang; Shihua Lyu; Zhaoguo Li; Yaoming Ma; Dongsheng Su


    Most high-altitude lakes are more sensitive to global warming than the regional atmosphere. However, most existing climate models produce unrealistic surface temperatures on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) lakes, and few studies have focused on the influence of ice surface albedo on high-altitude lakes. Based on field albedo measurements, moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS) albedo products and numerical simulation, this study evaluates the ice albedo parameterization schemes in existing...

  3. Impact and Suggestion of Column-to-Surface Vertical Correction Scheme on the Relationship between Satellite AOD and Ground-Level PM2.5 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gong


    Full Text Available As China is suffering from severe fine particle pollution from dense industrialization and urbanization, satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD has been widely used for estimating particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5. However, the correlation between satellite AOD and ground-level PM2.5 could be influenced by aerosol vertical distribution, as satellite AOD represents the entire column, rather than just ground-level concentration. Here, a new column-to-surface vertical correction scheme is proposed to improve separation of the near-surface and elevated aerosol layers, based on the ratio of the integrated extinction coefficient within 200–500 m above ground level (AGL, using the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP aerosol profile products. There are distinct differences in climate, meteorology, terrain, and aerosol transmission throughout China, so comparisons between vertical correction via CALIOP ratio and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH were conducted in different regions from 2014 to 2015, combined with the original Pearson coefficient between satellite AOD and ground-level PM2.5 for reference. Furthermore, the best vertical correction scheme was suggested for different regions to achieve optimal correlation with PM2.5, based on the analysis and discussion of regional and seasonal characteristics of aerosol vertical distribution. According to our results and discussions, vertical correction via PBLH is recommended in northwestern China, where the PBLH varies dramatically, stretching or compressing the surface aerosol layer; vertical correction via the CALIOP ratio is recommended in northeastern China, southwestern China, Central China (excluding summer, North China Plain (excluding Beijing, and the spring in the southeast coast, areas that are susceptible to exogenous aerosols and exhibit the elevated aerosol layer; and original AOD without vertical correction is

  4. Parameterizing deep water percolation improves subsurface temperature simulations by a multilayer firn model (United States)

    Marchenko, Sergey; van Pelt, Ward J. J.; Claremar, Björn; Pohjola, Veijo; Pettersson, Rickard; Machguth, Horst; Reijmer, Carleen


    Deep preferential percolation of melt water in snow and firn brings water lower along the vertical profile than a laterally homogeneous wetting front. This widely recognized process is an important source of uncertainty in simulations of subsurface temperature, density and water content in seasonal snow and in firn packs on glaciers and ice sheets. However, observation and quantification of preferential flow is challenging and therefore it is not accounted for by most of the contemporary snow/firn models. Here we use temperature measurements in the accumulation zone of Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard, done in April 2012 - 2015 using multiple thermistor strings to describe the process of water percolation in snow and firn. Effects of water flow through the snow and firn profile are further explored using a coupled surface energy balance - firn model forced by the output of the regional climate model WRF. In situ air temperature, radiation and surface height change measurements are used to constrain the surface energy and mass fluxes. To account for the effects of preferential water flow in snow and firn we test a set of depth-dependent functions allocating a certain fraction of the melt water available at the surface to each snow/firn layer. Experiments are performed for a range of characteristic percolation depths and results indicate a reduction in root mean square difference between the modeled and measured temperature by up to a factor of two compared to the results from the default water infiltration scheme. This illustrates the significance of accounting for preferential water percolation to simulate subsurface conditions. The suggested approach to parameterization of the preferential water flow requires low additional computational cost and can be implemented in layered snow/firn models applied both at local and regional scales, for distributed domains with multiple mesh points.

  5. Tradable schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K. Hoogland (Jiri); C.D.D. Neumann


    textabstractIn this article we present a new approach to the numerical valuation of derivative securities. The method is based on our previous work where we formulated the theory of pricing in terms of tradables. The basic idea is to fit a finite difference scheme to exact solutions of the pricing

  6. Testing stable boundary layer parameterizations against the BASE:ALFA measurements (United States)

    Bonafè, G.; Tampieri, F.; di Giuseppe, F.; Caporaso, L.


    The Po valley in the Northern Italy is a large plain in a semi-closed basin surrounded by complex orography; the Alps to the North and Apennines to the South-East, and closed to the east by the Adriatic sea. As a flatland basin shielded by mountains, calm wind is very frequent and strong temperature inversions are often observed near the ground, during the night and in the winter period the occurrence of a extremely stable boundary layer is common. A complete set of surface and atmospheric measurements have been collected during a four month observational program carried out at San Pietro Capofiume meteo station, in the middle of the Po Valley. The long term dataset has been collected in the contest of the project BASE:ALFA with the main aim of creating a data pool of micro-meteorological /soil data to test and validate numerical weather prediction PBL schemes. The measurement periods span summer, winter and spring and allows to analyse a wide range of PBL stability conditions. Different parameterizations of first and second order moments of velocity and temperature are tested against the collected data. A particular focus is given to stable boundary layer and the values of its height obtained from Nieuwstadt 1984 and Zilitinkievich et al 2005 formulas will be provided and compared against radiosounding profile estimates.

  7. A Parameterized Variable Dark Energy Model: Structure Formation and Observational Constraints


    Bidgoli, Sepehr Arbabi; Movahed, M. Sadegh; Rahvar, Sohrab


    In this paper we investigate a simple parameterization scheme of the quintessence model given by Wetterich (2004). The crucial parameter of this model is the bending parameter $b$, which is related to the amount of dark energy in the early universe. Using the linear perturbation and the spherical infall approximations, we investigate the evolution of matter density perturbations in the variable dark energy model, and obtain an analytical expression for the growth index $f$. We show that incre...

  8. Basic theory behind parameterizing atmospheric convection


    Plant, R. S.; Fuchs, Z.; Yano, J. I.


    Last fall, a network of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST), called “Basic Concepts for Convection Parameterization in Weather Forecast and Climate Models” (COST Action ES0905; see, organized a 10-day training course on atmospheric convection and its parameterization. The aim of the workshop, held on the island of Brac, Croatia, was to help young scientists develop an in-depth understanding of the core theory ...

  9. Collaborative Project. 3D Radiative Transfer Parameterization Over Mountains/Snow for High-Resolution Climate Models. Fast physics and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Kuo-Nan [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    Under the support of the aforementioned DOE Grant, we have made two fundamental contributions to atmospheric and climate sciences: (1) Develop an efficient 3-D radiative transfer parameterization for application to intense and intricate inhomogeneous mountain/snow regions. (2) Innovate a stochastic parameterization for light absorption by internally mixed black carbon and dust particles in snow grains for understanding and physical insight into snow albedo reduction in climate models. With reference to item (1), we divided solar fluxes reaching mountain surfaces into five components: direct and diffuse fluxes, direct- and diffuse-reflected fluxes, and coupled mountain-mountain flux. “Exact” 3D Monte Carlo photon tracing computations can then be performed for these solar flux components to compare with those calculated from the conventional plane-parallel (PP) radiative transfer program readily available in climate models. Subsequently, Parameterizations of the deviations of 3D from PP results for five flux components are carried out by means of the multiple linear regression analysis associated with topographic information, including elevation, solar incident angle, sky view factor, and terrain configuration factor. We derived five regression equations with high statistical correlations for flux deviations and successfully incorporated this efficient parameterization into WRF model, which was used as the testbed in connection with the Fu-Liou-Gu PP radiation scheme that has been included in the WRF physics package. Incorporating this 3D parameterization program, we conducted simulations of WRF and CCSM4 to understand and evaluate the mountain/snow effect on snow albedo reduction during seasonal transition and the interannual variability for snowmelt, cloud cover, and precipitation over the Western United States presented in the final report. With reference to item (2), we developed in our previous research a geometric-optics surface-wave approach (GOS) for the

  10. Deep-subwavelength light routing in nanowire-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: an alternative to the hybrid guiding scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian, Yusheng; Gong, Qihuang


    Nanowire-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide is an extremely simple structure that can be naturally formed by directly dropping a dielectric cylinder onto a metallic substrate. However, despite the substantial emphasis devoted to its hybrid plasmonic counterparts, this waveguiding structure has been paid little attention to so far. Here in this paper, through comprehensive numerical analysis, we reveal that such a configuration can be leveraged to achieve deep-subwavelength field confinement with mode area more than one order of magnitude smaller than that of the conventional hybrid waveguide, while maintaining a moderate attenuation with propagation distance over tens of microns. Two-dimensional parameter mapping concerning physical dimension, shape and material of the nanowire as well as the refractive index of the cladding has disclosed the wide-range existence nature of this plasmonic mode and the feasibility to further balance its confinement and loss. (paper)

  11. Generalized Temporal Acceleration Scheme for Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations of Surface Catalytic Processes by Scaling the Rates of Fast Reactions. (United States)

    Dybeck, Eric C; Plaisance, Craig P; Neurock, Matthew


    A novel algorithm is presented that achieves temporal acceleration during kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of surface catalytic processes. This algorithm allows for the direct simulation of reaction networks containing kinetic processes occurring on vastly disparate time scales which computationally overburden standard KMC methods. Previously developed methods for temporal acceleration in KMC were designed for specific systems and often require a priori information from the user such as identifying the fast and slow processes. In the approach presented herein, quasi-equilibrated processes are identified automatically based on previous executions of the forward and reverse reactions. Temporal acceleration is achieved by automatically scaling the intrinsic rate constants of the quasi-equilibrated processes, bringing their rates closer to the time scales of the slow kinetically relevant nonequilibrated processes. All reactions are still simulated directly, although with modified rate constants. Abrupt changes in the underlying dynamics of the reaction network are identified during the simulation, and the reaction rate constants are rescaled accordingly. The algorithm was utilized here to model the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reaction over ruthenium nanoparticles. This reaction network has multiple time-scale-disparate processes which would be intractable to simulate without the aid of temporal acceleration. The accelerated simulations are found to give reaction rates and selectivities indistinguishable from those calculated by an equivalent mean-field kinetic model. The computational savings of the algorithm can span many orders of magnitude in realistic systems, and the computational cost is not limited by the magnitude of the time scale disparity in the system processes. Furthermore, the algorithm has been designed in a generic fashion and can easily be applied to other surface catalytic processes of interest.

  12. Using isotopes to improve impact and hydrological predictions of land-surface schemes in global climate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuffie, K.; Henderson-Sellers, A.


    Global climate model (GCM) predictions of the impact of large-scale land-use change date back to 1984 as do the earliest isotopic studies of large-basin hydrology. Despite this coincidence in interest and geography, with both papers focussed on the Amazon, there have been few studies that have tried to exploit isotopic information with the goal of improving climate model simulations of the land-surface. In this paper we analyze isotopic results from the IAEA global data base specifically with the goal of identifying signatures of potential value for improving global and regional climate model simulations of the land-surface. Evaluation of climate model predictions of the impacts of deforestation of the Amazon has been shown to be of significance by recent results which indicate impacts occurring distant from the Amazon i.e. tele-connections causing climate change elsewhere around the globe. It is suggested that these could be similar in magnitude and extent to the global impacts of ENSO events. Validation of GCM predictions associated with Amazonian deforestation are increasingly urgently required because of the additional effects of other aspects of climate change, particularly synergies occurring between forest removal and greenhouse gas increases, especially CO 2 . Here we examine three decades distributions of deuterium excess across the Amazon and use the results to evaluate the relative importance of the fractionating (partial evaporation) and non-fractionating (transpiration) processes. These results illuminate GCM scenarios of importance to the regional climate and hydrology: (i) the possible impact of increased stomatal resistance in the rainforest caused by higher levels of atmospheric CO2 [4]; and (ii) the consequences of the combined effects of deforestation and global warming on the regions climate and hydrology

  13. Seasonal evaluation of the land surface scheme HTESSEL against remote sensing derived energy fluxes of the Transdanubian region in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Wipfler


    Full Text Available The skill of the land surface model HTESSEL is assessed to reproduce evaporation in response to land surface characteristics and atmospheric forcing, both being spatially variable. Evaporation estimates for the 2005 growing season are inferred from satellite observations of the Western part of Hungary and compared to model outcomes. Atmospheric forcings are obtained from a hindcast run with the Regional Climate Model RACMO2. Although HTESSEL slightly underpredicts the seasonal evaporative fraction as compared to satellite estimates, the mean, 10th and 90th percentile of this variable are of the same magnitude as the satellite observations. The initial water as stored in the soil and snow layer does not have a significant effect on the statistical properties of the evaporative fraction. However, the spatial distribution of the initial soil and snow water significantly affects the spatial distribution of the calculated evaporative fraction and the models ability to reproduce evaporation correctly in low precipitation areas in the considered region. HTESSEL performs weaker in dryer areas. In Western Hungary these areas are situated in the Danube valley, which is partly covered by irrigated cropland and which also may be affected by shallow groundwater. Incorporating (lateral groundwater flow and irrigation, processes that are not included now, may improve HTESSELs ability to predict evaporation correctly. Evaluation of the model skills using other test areas and larger evaluation periods is needed to confirm the results.

    Based on earlier sensitivity analysis, the effect of a number of modifications to HTESSEL has been assessed. A more physically based reduction function for dry soils has been introduced, the soil depth is made variable and the effect of swallow groundwater included. However, the combined modification does not lead to a significantly improved performance of HTESSEL.

  14. Gain scheduling using the Youla parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob


    Gain scheduling controllers are considered in this paper. The gain scheduling problem where the scheduling parameter vector cannot be measured directly, but needs to be estimated is considered. An estimation of the scheduling vector has been derived by using the Youla parameterization. The use of...

  15. Gain scheduling using the youla parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, H.H.; Stoustrup, Jakob


    Gain scheduling controllers are considered in this paper. The gain scheduling problem where the scheduling parameter vector theta cannot be measured directly, but needs to be estimated is considered. An estimation of the scheduling vector theta has been derived by using the Youla parameterization...

  16. Parameterization guidelines and considerations for hydrologic models (United States)

     R. W. Malone; G. Yagow; C. Baffaut; M.W  Gitau; Z. Qi; Devendra Amatya; P.B.   Parajuli; J.V. Bonta; T.R.  Green


     Imparting knowledge of the physical processes of a system to a model and determining a set of parameter values for a hydrologic or water quality model application (i.e., parameterization) are important and difficult tasks. An exponential...

  17. Prototype Mcs Parameterization for Global Climate Models (United States)

    Moncrieff, M. W.


    Excellent progress has been made with observational, numerical and theoretical studies of MCS processes but the parameterization of those processes remain in a dire state and are missing from GCMs. The perceived complexity of the distribution, type, and intensity of organized precipitation systems has arguably daunted attention and stifled the development of adequate parameterizations. TRMM observations imply links between convective organization and large-scale meteorological features in the tropics and subtropics that are inadequately treated by GCMs. This calls for improved physical-dynamical treatment of organized convection to enable the next-generation of GCMs to reliably address a slew of challenges. The multiscale coherent structure parameterization (MCSP) paradigm is based on the fluid-dynamical concept of coherent structures in turbulent environments. The effects of vertical shear on MCS dynamics implemented as 2nd baroclinic convective heating and convective momentum transport is based on Lagrangian conservation principles, nonlinear dynamical models, and self-similarity. The prototype MCS parameterization, a minimalist proof-of-concept, is applied in the NCAR Community Climate Model, Version 5.5 (CAM 5.5). The MCSP generates convectively coupled tropical waves and large-scale precipitation features notably in the Indo-Pacific warm-pool and Maritime Continent region, a center-of-action for weather and climate variability around the globe.

  18. Characterizing Reinforcement Learning Methods through Parameterized Learning Problems (United States)


    exploration, function approximation, and constraints on computation andmemory. To this end, we propose parameterized learning problems , in which such...control of the parametersthat affect learning, our parameterized learning problems enable benchmarking againstoptimal behavior; their relatively small sizes

  19. A Simple Parameterization of 3 x 3 Magic Squares (United States)

    Trenkler, Gotz; Schmidt, Karsten; Trenkler, Dietrich


    In this article a new parameterization of magic squares of order three is presented. This parameterization permits an easy computation of their inverses, eigenvalues, eigenvectors and adjoints. Some attention is paid to the Luoshu, one of the oldest magic squares.

  20. Cloud parameterization for climate modeling - Status and prospects (United States)

    Randall, David A.


    The current status of cloud parameterization research is reviewed. It is emphasized that the upper tropospheric stratiform clouds associated with deep convection are both physically important and poorly parameterized in current models. Emerging parameterizations are described in general terms, with emphasis on prognostic cloud water and fractional cloudiness, and how these relate to the problem just mentioned.

  1. Parameterization of ion-induced nucleation rates based on ambient observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nieminen


    Full Text Available Atmospheric ions participate in the formation of new atmospheric aerosol particles, yet their exact role in this process has remained unclear. Here we derive a new simple parameterization for ion-induced nucleation or, more precisely, for the formation rate of charged 2-nm particles. The parameterization is semi-empirical in the sense that it is based on comprehensive results of one-year-long atmospheric cluster and particle measurements in the size range ~1–42 nm within the EUCAARI (European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions project. Data from 12 field sites across Europe measured with different types of air ion and cluster mobility spectrometers were used in our analysis, with more in-depth analysis made using data from four stations with concomitant sulphuric acid measurements. The parameterization is given in two slightly different forms: a more accurate one that requires information on sulfuric acid and nucleating organic vapor concentrations, and a simpler one in which this information is replaced with the global radiation intensity. These new parameterizations are applicable to all large-scale atmospheric models containing size-resolved aerosol microphysics, and a scheme to calculate concentrations of sulphuric acid, condensing organic vapours and cluster ions.

  2. Parameterized Concurrent Multi-Party Session Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Charalambides


    Full Text Available Session types have been proposed as a means of statically verifying implementations of communication protocols. Although prior work has been successful in verifying some classes of protocols, it does not cope well with parameterized, multi-actor scenarios with inherent asynchrony. For example, the sliding window protocol is inexpressible in previously proposed session type systems. This paper describes System-A, a new typing language which overcomes many of the expressiveness limitations of prior work. System-A explicitly supports asynchrony and parallelism, as well as multiple forms of parameterization. We define System-A and show how it can be used for the static verification of a large class of asynchronous communication protocols.

  3. Aerosol water parameterization: a single parameter framework (United States)

    Metzger, S.; Steil, B.; Abdelkader, M.; Klingmüller, K.; Xu, L.; Penner, J. E.; Fountoukis, C.; Nenes, A.; Lelieveld, J.


    We introduce a framework to efficiently parameterize the aerosol water uptake for mixtures of semi-volatile and non-volatile compounds, based on the coefficient, νi. This solute specific coefficient was introduced in Metzger et al. (2012) to accurately parameterize the single solution hygroscopic growth, considering the Kelvin effect - accounting for the water uptake of concentrated nanometer sized particles up to dilute solutions, i.e., from the compounds relative humidity of deliquescence (RHD) up to supersaturation (Köhler-theory). Here we extend the νi-parameterization from single to mixed solutions. We evaluate our framework at various levels of complexity, by considering the full gas-liquid-solid partitioning for a comprehensive comparison with reference calculations using the E-AIM, EQUISOLV II, ISORROPIA II models as well as textbook examples. We apply our parameterization in EQSAM4clim, the EQuilibrium Simplified Aerosol Model V4 for climate simulations, implemented in a box model and in the global chemistry-climate model EMAC. Our results show: (i) that the νi-approach enables to analytically solve the entire gas-liquid-solid partitioning and the mixed solution water uptake with sufficient accuracy, (ii) that, e.g., pure ammonium nitrate and mixed ammonium nitrate - ammonium sulfate mixtures can be solved with a simple method, and (iii) that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) simulations are in close agreement with remote sensing observations for the year 2005. Long-term evaluation of the EMAC results based on EQSAM4clim and ISORROPIA II will be presented separately.

  4. A Comparison of Parameterizations of Secondary Organic Aerosol Production: Global Budget and Spatiotemporal Variability (United States)

    Liu, J.; Chen, Z.; Horowitz, L. W.; Carlton, A. M. G.; Fan, S.; Cheng, Y.; Ervens, B.; Fu, T. M.; He, C.; Tao, S.


    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) have a profound influence on air quality and climate, but large uncertainties exist in modeling SOA on the global scale. In this study, five SOA parameterization schemes, including a two-product model (TPM), volatility basis-set (VBS) and three cloud SOA schemes (Ervens et al. (2008, 2014), Fu et al. (2008) , and He et al. (2013)), are implemented into the global chemical transport model (MOZART-4). For each scheme, model simulations are conducted with identical boundary and initial conditions. The VBS scheme produces the highest global annual SOA production (close to 35 Tg·y-1), followed by three cloud schemes (26-30 Tg·y-1) and TPM (23 Tg·y-1). Though sharing a similar partitioning theory to the TPM scheme, the VBS approach simulates the chemical aging of multiple generations of VOCs oxidation products, resulting in a much larger SOA source, particularly from aromatic species, over Europe, the Middle East and Eastern America. The formation of SOA in VBS, which represents the net partitioning of semi-volatile organic compounds from vapor to condensed phase, is highly sensitivity to the aging and wet removal processes of vapor-phase organic compounds. The production of SOA from cloud processes (SOAcld) is constrained by the coincidence of liquid cloud water and water-soluble organic compounds. Therefore, all cloud schemes resolve a fairly similar spatial pattern over the tropical and the mid-latitude continents. The spatiotemporal diversity among SOA parameterizations is largely driven by differences in precursor inputs. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the evolution, wet removal, and phase partitioning of semi-volatile organic compounds, particularly above remote land and oceanic areas, is critical to better constrain the global-scale distribution and related climate forcing of secondary organic aerosols.

  5. Introducing a moisture scheme to a nonhydrostatic sigma coordinate model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bopape, Mary-Jane M


    Full Text Available and precipitation in mid-latitude cyclones. VII: A model for the ?seeder-feeder? process in warm-frontal rainbands. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 40, 1185-1206. Stensrud DJ, 2007: Parameterization schemes. Keys to understanding numerical weather...

  6. Explicit simulation and parameterization of mesoscale convective systems. Final report, November 1, 1993--April 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, W.R.


    This research has focused on the development of a parameterization scheme for mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), to be used in numerical weather prediction models with grid spacing too coarse to explicitly simulate such systems. This is an extension to cumulus parameterization schemes, which have long been used to account for the unresolved effects of convection in numerical models. Although MCSs generally require an extended sequence of numerous deep convective cells in order to develop into their characteristic sizes and to persist for their typical durations, their effects on the large scale environment are significantly different than that due to the collective effects of numerous ordinary deep convective cells. These differences are largely due to a large stratiform cloud that develops fairly early in the MCS life-cycle, where mesoscale circulations and dynamics interact with the environment in ways that call for a distinct MCS parameterization. Comparing an MCS and a collection of deep convection that ingests the same amount of boundary layer air and moisture over an extended several hour period, the MCS will generally generates more stratiform rainfall, produce longer-lasting and optically thicker cirrus, and result in different vertical distributions of large-scale tendencies due to latent heating and moistening, momentum transfers, and radiational heating.

  7. A satellite based scheme for predicting the effects of land cover change on local microclimate and surface hydrology: Development of an operational regional planning tool (United States)

    Arthur, Sandra Traci

    Humans have diverse goals for their use of land: mining, water supply, aesthetic enjoyment, recreation, transportation, housing, etc. Any individual living within an actively developing community can look back in time and note how, perhaps slowly but nonetheless dramatically, the total land area dedicated to human use has increased. As our society's basic functioning intensifies, the disappearance of "free" open space is apparent---today, even conservation areas are carefully designated, mapped and controlled. This transition in land use is a result of many individual decisions that occur throughout space and time, often with little concern for the potential impacts on the local environment. Two specific environmental components---the microclimate and surface hydrology---are the focus of this thesis. This study, as well as related tools and bodies of knowledge, should be used to broaden the scientific basis behind land use management decisions. It will be shown that development can induce predictable changes in measures of the local radiant surface temperature and evapotranspiration fraction---as long as certain features of the development are known. Specifically, the vegetation changes that accompany the development must be noted, as well as the initial climatic state of the land parcel. Additionally, plots of runoff vs. rainfall for gauged basins will be interpreted in terms of the proportion of the basin contributing to a storm event's runoff signal. For a particular basin, four distinct runoff responses, separated by season and antecedent moisture conditions, will be distinguished. The response for the non-summer months under typical antecedent moisture conditions will be shown to be the most representative of and responsive to a basin's land use patterns. A scheme that makes use of satellite-derived land cover patterns and other physical attributes of the basin in order to determine this particular runoff response will be presented. The Soil Conservation

  8. Ocean's response to Hurricane Frances and its implications for drag coefficient parameterization at high wind speeds

    KAUST Repository

    Zedler, S. E.


    The drag coefficient parameterization of wind stress is investigated for tropical storm conditions using model sensitivity studies. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Ocean General Circulation Model was run in a regional setting with realistic stratification and forcing fields representing Hurricane Frances, which in early September 2004 passed east of the Caribbean Leeward Island chain. The model was forced with a NOAA-HWIND wind speed product after converting it to wind stress using four different drag coefficient parameterizations. Respective model results were tested against in situ measurements of temperature profiles and velocity, available from an array of 22 surface drifters and 12 subsurface floats. Changing the drag coefficient parameterization from one that saturated at a value of 2.3 × 10 -3 to a constant drag coefficient of 1.2 × 10-3 reduced the standard deviation difference between the simulated minus the measured sea surface temperature change from 0.8°C to 0.3°C. Additionally, the standard deviation in the difference between simulated minus measured high pass filtered 15-m current speed reduced from 15 cm/s to 5 cm/s. The maximum difference in sea surface temperature response when two different turbulent mixing parameterizations were implemented was 0.3°C, i.e., only 11% of the maximum change of sea surface temperature caused by the storm. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Ocean's response to Hurricane Frances and its implications for drag coefficient parameterization at high wind speeds (United States)

    Zedler, S. E.; Niiler, P. P.; Stammer, D.; Terrill, E.; Morzel, J.


    The drag coefficient parameterization of wind stress is investigated for tropical storm conditions using model sensitivity studies. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Ocean General Circulation Model was run in a regional setting with realistic stratification and forcing fields representing Hurricane Frances, which in early September 2004 passed east of the Caribbean Leeward Island chain. The model was forced with a NOAA-HWIND wind speed product after converting it to wind stress using four different drag coefficient parameterizations. Respective model results were tested against in situ measurements of temperature profiles and velocity, available from an array of 22 surface drifters and 12 subsurface floats. Changing the drag coefficient parameterization from one that saturated at a value of 2.3 × 10-3 to a constant drag coefficient of 1.2 × 10-3 reduced the standard deviation difference between the simulated minus the measured sea surface temperature change from 0.8°C to 0.3°C. Additionally, the standard deviation in the difference between simulated minus measured high pass filtered 15-m current speed reduced from 15 cm/s to 5 cm/s. The maximum difference in sea surface temperature response when two different turbulent mixing parameterizations were implemented was 0.3°C, i.e., only 11% of the maximum change of sea surface temperature caused by the storm.

  10. Evaluating parameterizations of aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer using field measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, S.; Lu, L.; Mao, D.; Jia, L.


    Parameterizations of aerodynamic resistance to heat and water transfer have a significant impact on the accuracy of models of land - atmosphere interactions and of estimated surface fluxes using spectro-radiometric data collected from aircrafts and satellites. We have used measurements from an eddy

  11. A new albedo parameterization for use in climate models over the Antarctic ice sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers Munneke, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831891; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Lenaerts, J.T.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314850163; Flanner, M.G.; Gardner, A.S.; van de Berg, W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831611


    A parameterization for broadband snow surface albedo, based on snow grain size evolution, cloud optical thickness, and solar zenith angle, is implemented into a regional climate model for Antarctica and validated against field observations of albedo for the period 1995–2004. Over the Antarctic

  12. Simulation of Mixed-Phase Convective Clouds: A Comparison of Spectral and Parameterized Microphysics (United States)

    Seifert, A.; Khain, A.; Pokrovsky, A.


    The simulation of clouds and precipitation is one of the most complex problems in atmospheric modeling. The microphysics of clouds has to deal with a large variety of hydrometeor types and a multitude of complicated physical processes like nukleation, condensation, freezing, melting, collection and breakup of particles. Due to the lack of reliable in-situ observations many of the processes are still not well understood. Nevertheless a cloud resolving model (CRM) has to include these processes in some way. All CRMs can be separated into two groups, according to the microphysical representation used. Cloud models of the first kind utilize the so-called bulk parameterization of cloud microphysics. This concept has been introduced by Kessler (1969) and has been improved and extended in the field of mesoscale modeling. The state-of-the-art bulk schemes include several particle types like cloud droplets, raindrops, ice crystals, snow and graupel which are represented by mass contents and for some of them also by the number concentrations. Within a bulk microphysical model all relevant processes have to be parameterized in terms of these model variables. CRMs of the second kind are based on the spectral formulation of cloud microphysics. For each particle type taken into account the size distribution function is represented by a number of discrete size bins with its corresponding budget equation. To achieve satisfactory numerical results at least 30 bins are necessary for each particle type. This approach has the clear advantage of being a more general representation of the relevant physical processes and the different physical properties of particles of different sizes. A spectral model is able to include detailed descriptions of collisional and condensational growth and activation/nucleation of particles. But this approach suffers from the large computational effort necessary, especially in threedimensional models. We present a comparison between a cloud model with

  13. A test harness for accelerating physics parameterization advancements into operations (United States)

    Firl, G. J.; Bernardet, L.; Harrold, M.; Henderson, J.; Wolff, J.; Zhang, M.


    The process of transitioning advances in parameterization of sub-grid scale processes from initial idea to implementation is often much quicker than the transition from implementation to use in an operational setting. After all, considerable work must be undertaken by operational centers to fully test, evaluate, and implement new physics. The process is complicated by the scarcity of like-to-like comparisons, availability of HPC resources, and the ``tuning problem" whereby advances in physics schemes are difficult to properly evaluate without first undertaking the expensive and time-consuming process of tuning to other schemes within a suite. To address this process shortcoming, the Global Model TestBed (GMTB), supported by the NWS NGGPS project and undertaken by the Developmental Testbed Center, has developed a physics test harness. It implements the concept of hierarchical testing, where the same code can be tested in model configurations of varying complexity from single column models (SCM) to fully coupled, cycled global simulations. Developers and users may choose at which level of complexity to engage. Several components of the physics test harness have been implemented, including a SCM and an end-to-end workflow that expands upon the one used at NOAA/EMC to run the GFS operationally, although the testbed components will necessarily morph to coincide with changes to the operational configuration (FV3-GFS). A standard, relatively user-friendly interface known as the Interoperable Physics Driver (IPD) is available for physics developers to connect their codes. This prerequisite exercise allows access to the testbed tools and removes a technical hurdle for potential inclusion into the Common Community Physics Package (CCPP). The testbed offers users the opportunity to conduct like-to-like comparisons between the operational physics suite and new development as well as among multiple developments. GMTB staff have demonstrated use of the testbed through a

  14. Parameterization of Fire Injection Height in Large Scale Transport Model (United States)

    Paugam, R.; Wooster, M.; Atherton, J.; Val Martin, M.; Freitas, S.; Kaiser, J. W.; Schultz, M. G.


    The parameterization of fire injection height in global chemistry transport model is currently a subject of debate in the atmospheric community. The approach usually proposed in the literature is based on relationships linking injection height and remote sensing products like the Fire Radiative Power (FRP) which can measure active fire properties. In this work we present an approach based on the Plume Rise Model (PRM) developed by Freitas et al (2007, 2010). This plume model is already used in different host models (e.g. WRF, BRAMS). In its original version, the fire is modeled by: a convective heat flux (CHF; pre-defined by the land cover and evaluated as a fixed part of the total heat released) and a plume radius (derived from the GOES Wildfire-ABBA product) which defines the fire extension where the CHF is homogeneously distributed. Here in our approach the Freitas model is modified, in particular we added (i) an equation for mass conservation, (ii) a scheme to parameterize horizontal entrainment/detrainment, and (iii) a new initialization module which estimates the sensible heat released by the fire on the basis of measured FRP rather than fuel cover type. FRP and Active Fire (AF) area necessary for the initialization of the model are directly derived from a modified version of the Dozier algorithm applied to the MOD14 product. An optimization (using the simulating annealing method) of this new version of the PRM is then proposed based on fire plume characteristics derived from the official MISR plume height project and atmospheric profiles extracted from the ECMWF analysis. The data set covers the main fire region (Africa, Siberia, Indonesia, and North and South America) and is set up to (i) retain fires where plume height and FRP can be easily linked (i.e. avoid large fire cluster where individual plume might interact), (ii) keep fire which show decrease of FRP and AF area after MISR overpass (i.e. to minimize effect of the time period needed for the plume to

  15. A Physically Based Horizontal Subgrid-scale Turbulent Mixing Parameterization for the Convective Boundary Layer in Mesoscale Models (United States)

    Zhou, Bowen; Xue, Ming; Zhu, Kefeng


    Compared to the representation of vertical turbulent mixing through various PBL schemes, the treatment of horizontal turbulence mixing in the boundary layer within mesoscale models, with O(10) km horizontal grid spacing, has received much less attention. In mesoscale models, subgrid-scale horizontal fluxes most often adopt the gradient-diffusion assumption. The horizontal mixing coefficients are usually set to a constant, or through the 2D Smagorinsky formulation, or in some cases based on the 1.5-order turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) closure. In this work, horizontal turbulent mixing parameterizations using physically based characteristic velocity and length scales are proposed for the convective boundary layer based on analysis of a well-resolved, wide-domain large-eddy simulation (LES). The proposed schemes involve different levels of sophistication. The first two schemes can be used together with first-order PBL schemes, while the third uses TKE to define its characteristic velocity scale and can be used together with TKE-based higher-order PBL schemes. The current horizontal mixing formulations are also assessed a priori through the filtered LES results to illustrate their limitations. The proposed parameterizations are tested a posteriori in idealized simulations of turbulent dispersion of a passive scalar. Comparisons show improved horizontal dispersion by the proposed schemes, and further demonstrate the weakness of the current schemes.

  16. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt


    This paper describes and discusses two different Scheme documentation tools. The first is SchemeDoc, which is intended for documentation of the interfaces of Scheme libraries (APIs). The second is the Scheme Elucidator, which is for internal documentation of Scheme programs. Although the tools...... as named functions in Scheme. Finally, the Scheme Elucidator is able to integrate SchemeDoc resources as part of an internal documentation resource....

  17. Importance of the surface size distribution of erodible material: an improvement of the Dust Entrainment And Deposition DEAD (United States)

    Mokhtari, M.; Gomes, L.; Tulet, P.; Rezoug, T.


    This paper is based on dust aerosol cycle modelling in the atmospheric model ALADIN (Aire Limitée Adaptation dynamique Développement InterNational) coupled with the EXternalised SURFace scheme SURFEX. Its main goal is to create a global mineral dust emission parameterization compatible with the global database of land surface parameters ECOCLIMAP and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) soil type database in SURFEX, based on both Shao (1993) and Marticorena and Bergametti (1995) parameterizations. An arrangement on the Dust Entrainment And Deposition scheme (DEAD) is proposed in this paper by introducing the geographic variation of surface size distribution, the Marticorena and Bergametti (1995) formulation of horizontal saltation flux and the Shao (2001) formulation of sandblasting efficiency α. To show the importance of the modifications introduced in the code DEAD, both sensitivity and comparative studies are realized in 0 dimensions (0-D) and then in 3 dimensions (3-D) between the old DEAD and that developed in this paper. The results in the 0-D simulations indicate that the developed DEAD scheme represents the dust source emission better, particularly in the Bodélé depression and provides a reasonable friction threshold velocity. In 3-D simulations, small differences are found between the DEAD and developed DEAD schemes for the simulated Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) compared with the photometer AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) measurements available in the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA) databases. But, for the surface concentration a remarkable improvement is noted for the developed DEAD scheme.

  18. Landscape-scale soil moisture heterogeneity and its influence on surface fluxes at the Jornada LTER site: Evaluating a new model parameterization for subgrid-scale soil moisture variability (United States)

    Baker, I. T.; Prihodko, L.; Vivoni, E. R.; Denning, A. S.


    Arid and semiarid regions represent a large fraction of global land, with attendant importance of surface energy and trace gas flux to global totals. These regions are characterized by strong seasonality, especially in precipitation, that defines the level of ecosystem stress. Individual plants have been observed to respond non-linearly to increasing soil moisture stress, where plant function is generally maintained as soils dry down to a threshold at which rapid closure of stomates occurs. Incorporating this nonlinear mechanism into landscape-scale models can result in unrealistic binary "on-off" behavior that is especially problematic in arid landscapes. Subsequently, models have `relaxed' their simulation of soil moisture stress on evapotranspiration (ET). Unfortunately, these relaxations are not physically based, but are imposed upon model physics as a means to force a more realistic response. Previously, we have introduced a new method to represent soil moisture regulation of ET, whereby the landscape is partitioned into `BINS' of soil moisture wetness, each associated with a fractional area of the landscape or grid cell. A physically- and observationally-based nonlinear soil moisture stress function is applied, but when convolved with the relative area distribution represented by wetness BINS the system has the emergent property of `smoothing' the landscape-scale response without the need for non-physical impositions on model physics. In this research we confront BINS simulations of Bowen ratio, soil moisture variability and trace gas flux with soil moisture and eddy covariance observations taken at the Jornada LTER dryland site in southern New Mexico. We calculate the mean annual wetting cycle and associated variability about the mean state and evaluate model performance against this variability and time series of land surface fluxes from the highly instrumented Tromble Weir watershed. The BINS simulations capture the relatively rapid reaction to wetting

  19. Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N


    Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy

  20. Lightning parameterization in a storm electrification model (United States)

    Helsdon, John H., Jr.; Farley, Richard D.; Wu, Gang


    The parameterization of an intracloud lightning discharge has been implemented in our Storm Electrification Model. The initiation, propagation direction, termination and charge redistribution of the discharge are approximated assuming overall charge neutrality. Various simulations involving differing amounts of charge transferred have been done. The effects of the lightning-produced ions on the hydrometeor charges, electric field components and electrical energy depend strongly on the charge transferred. A comparison between the measured electric field change of an actual intracloud flash and the field change due to the simulated discharge show favorable agreement.

  1. A Proof Checking View of Parameterized Complexity


    Mathieson, Luke


    The PCP Theorem is one of the most stunning results in computational complexity theory, a culmination of a series of results regarding proof checking it exposes some deep structure of computational problems. As a surprising side-effect, it also gives strong non-approximability results. In this paper we initiate the study of proof checking within the scope of Parameterized Complexity. In particular we adapt and extend the PCP[n log log n, n log log n] result of Feige et al. to several paramete...

  2. Improvement of a snow albedo parameterization in the Snow-Atmosphere-Soil Transfer model: evaluation of impacts of aerosol on seasonal snow cover (United States)

    Zhong, Efang; Li, Qian; Sun, Shufen; Chen, Wen; Chen, Shangfeng; Nath, Debashis


    The presence of light-absorbing aerosols (LAA) in snow profoundly influence the surface energy balance and water budget. However, most snow-process schemes in land-surface and climate models currently do not take this into consideration. To better represent the snow process and to evaluate the impacts of LAA on snow, this study presents an improved snow albedo parameterization in the Snow-Atmosphere-Soil Transfer (SAST) model, which includes the impacts of LAA on snow. Specifically, the Snow, Ice and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model is incorporated into the SAST model with an LAA mass stratigraphy scheme. The new coupled model is validated against in-situ measurements at the Swamp Angel Study Plot (SASP), Colorado, USA. Results show that the snow albedo and snow depth are better reproduced than those in the original SAST, particularly during the period of snow ablation. Furthermore, the impacts of LAA on snow are estimated in the coupled model through case comparisons of the snowpack, with or without LAA. The LAA particles directly absorb extra solar radiation, which accelerates the growth rate of the snow grain size. Meanwhile, these larger snow particles favor more radiative absorption. The average total radiative forcing of the LAA at the SASP is 47.5 W m-2. This extra radiative absorption enhances the snowmelt rate. As a result, the peak runoff time and "snow all gone" day have shifted 18 and 19.5 days earlier, respectively, which could further impose substantial impacts on the hydrologic cycle and atmospheric processes.

  3. An Evaluation of Lightning Flash Rate Parameterizations Based on Observations of Colorado Storms during DC3 (United States)

    Basarab, B.; Fuchs, B.; Rutledge, S. A.


    to observed flash rates. For the 6 June storm, a preliminary analysis of aircraft observations of storm inflow and outflow is presented in order to place flash rates (and other lightning statistics) in the context of storm chemistry. An approach to a possibly improved LNOx parameterization scheme using different lightning metrics such as flash area will be discussed.

  4. Effects of microphysics parameterization on simulations of summer heavy precipitation in the Yangtze-Huaihe Region, China (United States)

    Kan, Yu; Chen, Bo; Shen, Tao; Liu, Chaoshun; Qiao, Fengxue


    It has been a longstanding problem for current weather/climate models to accurately predict summer heavy precipitation over the Yangtze-Huaihe Region (YHR) which is the key flood-prone area in China with intensive population and developed economy. Large uncertainty has been identified with model deficiencies in representing precipitation processes such as microphysics and cumulus parameterizations. This study focuses on examining the effects of microphysics parameterization on the simulation of different type of heavy precipitation over the YHR taking into account two different cumulus schemes. All regional persistent heavy precipitation events over the YHR during 2008-2012 are classified into three types according to their weather patterns: the type I associated with stationary front, the type II directly associated with typhoon or with its spiral rain band, and the type III associated with strong convection along the edge of the Subtropical High. Sixteen groups of experiments are conducted for three selected cases with different types and a local short-time rainstorm in Shanghai, using the WRF model with eight microphysics and two cumulus schemes. Results show that microphysics parameterization has large but different impacts on the location and intensity of regional heavy precipitation centers. The Ferrier (microphysics) -BMJ (cumulus) scheme and Thompson (microphysics) - KF (cumulus) scheme most realistically simulates the rain-bands with the center location and intensity for type I and II respectively. For type III, the Lin microphysics scheme shows advantages in regional persistent cases over YHR, while the WSM5 microphysics scheme is better in local short-term case, both with the BMJ cumulus scheme.

  5. Sensitivity analysis of WRF model PBL schemes in simulating boundary-layer variables in southern Italy: An experimental campaign (United States)

    Avolio, E.; Federico, S.; Miglietta, M. M.; Lo Feudo, T.; Calidonna, C. R.; Sempreviva, A. M.


    The sensitivity of boundary layer variables to five (two non-local and three local) planetary boundary-layer (PBL) parameterization schemes, available in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale meteorological model, is evaluated in an experimental site in Calabria region (southern Italy), in an area characterized by a complex orography near the sea. Results of 1 km × 1 km grid spacing simulations are compared with the data collected during a measurement campaign in summer 2009, considering hourly model outputs. Measurements from several instruments are taken into account for the performance evaluation: near surface variables (2 m temperature and relative humidity, downward shortwave radiation, 10 m wind speed and direction) from a surface station and a meteorological mast; vertical wind profiles from Lidar and Sodar; also, the aerosol backscattering from a ceilometer to estimate the PBL height. Results covering the whole measurement campaign show a cold and moist bias near the surface, mostly during daytime, for all schemes, as well as an overestimation of the downward shortwave radiation and wind speed. Wind speed and direction are also verified at vertical levels above the surface, where the model uncertainties are, usually, smaller than at the surface. A general anticlockwise rotation of the simulated flow with height is found at all levels. The mixing height is overestimated by all schemes and a possible role of the simulated sensible heat fluxes for this mismatching is investigated. On a single-case basis, significantly better results are obtained when the atmospheric conditions near the measurement site are dominated by synoptic forcing rather than by local circulations. From this study, it follows that the two first order non-local schemes, ACM2 and YSU, are the schemes with the best performance in representing parameters near the surface and in the boundary layer during the analyzed campaign.

  6. Fine-scale application of WRF-CAM5 during a dust storm episode over East Asia: Sensitivity to grid resolutions and aerosol activation parameterizations (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Xin; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, L. Ruby; Zheng, Bo; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin


    An advanced online-coupled meteorology and chemistry model WRF-CAM5 has been applied to East Asia using triple-nested domains at different grid resolutions (i.e., 36-, 12-, and 4-km) to simulate a severe dust storm period in spring 2010. Analyses are performed to evaluate the model performance and investigate model sensitivity to different horizontal grid sizes and aerosol activation parameterizations and to examine aerosol-cloud interactions and their impacts on the air quality. A comprehensive model evaluation of the baseline simulations using the default Abdul-Razzak and Ghan (AG) aerosol activation scheme shows that the model can well predict major meteorological variables such as 2-m temperature (T2), water vapor mixing ratio (Q2), 10-m wind speed (WS10) and wind direction (WD10), and shortwave and longwave radiation across different resolutions with domain-average normalized mean biases typically within ±15%. The baseline simulations also show moderate biases for precipitation and moderate-to-large underpredictions for other major variables associated with aerosol-cloud interactions such as cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC), cloud optical thickness (COT), and cloud liquid water path (LWP) due to uncertainties or limitations in the aerosol-cloud treatments. The model performance is sensitive to grid resolutions, especially for surface meteorological variables such as T2, Q2, WS10, and WD10, with the performance generally improving at finer grid resolutions for those variables. Comparison of the sensitivity simulations with an alternative (i.e., the Fountoukis and Nenes (FN) series scheme) and the default (i.e., AG scheme) aerosol activation scheme shows that the former predicts larger values for cloud variables such as CDNC and COT across all grid resolutions and improves the overall domain-average model performance for many cloud/radiation variables and precipitation. Sensitivity simulations using the FN series scheme also have large impacts on

  7. Parameterized Metatheory for Continuous Markovian Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim G. Larsen


    Full Text Available This paper shows that a classic metalogical framework, including all Boolean operators, can be used to support the development of a metric behavioural theory for Markov processes. Previously, only intuitionistic frameworks or frameworks without negation and logical implication have been developed to fulfill this task. The focus of this paper is on continuous Markovian logic (CML, a logic that characterizes stochastic bisimulation of Markov processes with an arbitrary measurable state space and continuous-time transitions. For a parameter epsilon>0 interpreted as observational error, we introduce an epsilon-parameterized metatheory for CML: we define the concepts of epsilon-satisfiability and epsilon-provability related by a sound and complete axiomatization and prove a series of "parameterized" metatheorems including decidability, weak completeness and finite model property. We also prove results regarding the relations between metalogical concepts defined for different parameters. Using this framework, we can characterize both the stochastic bisimulation relation and various observational preorders based on behavioural pseudometrics. The main contribution of this paper is proving that all these analyses can actually be done using a unified complete Boolean framework. This extends the state of the art in this field, since the related works only propose intuitionistic contexts that limit, for instance, the use of the Boolean logical implication.

  8. Incorporating the subgrid-scale variability of clouds in the autoconversion parameterization in a large-scale model (United States)

    Weber, Torsten; Quaas, Johannes


    Precipitation formation in warm clouds is mainly governed by the autoconversion rate being a high nonlinear process. Large scale models commonly calculate the autoconversion rate using the grid-cell mean of liquid cloud water which introduces a strong low-bias because clouds and therefore liquid cloud water are inhomogeneous distributed. The parameterized autoconversion is thus artificially tuned so that accumulated large-scale precipitation matches the observations. Here, we revise the parameterization for the autoconversion rate to incorporate the subgrid-scale variability of clouds using the horizontal subgrid-scale distribution of liquid cloud water mixing ratio derived from the subgrid-scale variability scheme of water vapor and cloud condensate. This scheme is employed in the ECHAM5 climate model in order to calculate the horizontal cloud fraction by means of a probability density function (PDF) of the total water mixing ratio. The revised parameterization now also ensures the consistency between the calculation of horizontal cloud fraction and the precipitation formation. An introduction of the improved parameterization and first results of the evaluation of the precipitation rate on a global scale will be presented. Specifically, precipitation and vertically integrated liquid cloud water estimated by the model are compared with observational data derived from ground based measurements and satellite instruments.

  9. Correction of Excessive Precipitation over Steep and High Mountains in a GCM: A Simple Method of Parameterizing the Thermal Effects of Subgrid Topographic Variation (United States)

    Chao, Winston C.


    The excessive precipitation over steep and high mountains (EPSM) in GCMs and meso-scale models is due to a lack of parameterization of the thermal effects of the subgrid-scale topographic variation. These thermal effects drive subgrid-scale heated slope induced vertical circulations (SHVC). SHVC provide a ventilation effect of removing heat from the boundary layer of resolvable-scale mountain slopes and depositing it higher up. The lack of SHVC parameterization is the cause of EPSM. The author has previously proposed a method of parameterizing SHVC, here termed SHVC.1. Although this has been successful in avoiding EPSM, the drawback of SHVC.1 is that it suppresses convective type precipitation in the regions where it is applied. In this article we propose a new method of parameterizing SHVC, here termed SHVC.2. In SHVC.2 the potential temperature and mixing ratio of the boundary layer are changed when used as input to the cumulus parameterization scheme over mountainous regions. This allows the cumulus parameterization to assume the additional function of SHVC parameterization. SHVC.2 has been tested in NASA Goddard's GEOS-5 GCM. It achieves the primary goal of avoiding EPSM while also avoiding the suppression of convective-type precipitation in regions where it is applied.

  10. Advances in understanding, models and parameterizations of biosphere-atmosphere ammonia exchange (United States)

    Flechard, C. R.; Massad, R.-S.; Loubet, B.; Personne, E.; Simpson, D.; Bash, J. O.; Cooter, E. J.; Nemitz, E.; Sutton, M. A.


    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) dominates global emissions of total reactive nitrogen (Nr), while emissions from agricultural production systems contribute about two-thirds of global NH3 emissions; the remaining third emanates from oceans, natural vegetation, humans, wild animals and biomass burning. On land, NH3 emitted from the various sources eventually returns to the biosphere by dry deposition to sink areas, predominantly semi-natural vegetation, and by wet and dry deposition as ammonium (NH4+) to all surfaces. However, the land/atmosphere exchange of gaseous NH3 is in fact bi-directional over unfertilized as well as fertilized ecosystems, with periods and areas of emission and deposition alternating in time (diurnal, seasonal) and space (patchwork landscapes). The exchange is controlled by a range of environmental factors, including meteorology, surface layer turbulence, thermodynamics, air and surface heterogeneous-phase chemistry, canopy geometry, plant development stage, leaf age, organic matter decomposition, soil microbial turnover, and, in agricultural systems, by fertilizer application rate, fertilizer type, soil type, crop type, and agricultural management practices. We review the range of processes controlling NH3 emission and uptake in the different parts of the soil-canopy-atmosphere continuum, with NH3 emission potentials defined at the substrate and leaf levels by different [NH4+] / [H+] ratios (Γ). Surface/atmosphere exchange models for NH3 are necessary to compute the temporal and spatial patterns of emissions and deposition at the soil, plant, field, landscape, regional and global scales, in order to assess the multiple environmental impacts of airborne and deposited NH3 and NH4+. Models of soil/vegetation/atmosphere NH3 exchange are reviewed from the substrate and leaf scales to the global scale. They range from simple steady-state, "big leaf" canopy resistance models, to dynamic, multi-layer, multi-process, multi-chemical species schemes

  11. Advances in understanding, models and parameterizations of biosphere-atmosphere ammonia exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Flechard


    -chemical species schemes. Their level of complexity depends on their purpose, the spatial scale at which they are applied, the current level of parameterization, and the availability of the input data they require. State-of-the-art solutions for determining the emission/sink Γ potentials through the soil/canopy system include coupled, interactive chemical transport models (CTM and soil/ecosystem modelling at the regional scale. However, it remains a matter for debate to what extent realistic options for future regional and global models should be based on process-based mechanistic versus empirical and regression-type models. Further discussion is needed on the extent and timescale by which new approaches can be used, such as integration with ecosystem models and satellite observations.

  12. Atmosphere-surface interactions over polar oceans and heterogeneous surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vihma, T.


    Processes of interaction between the atmospheric boundary layer and the planetary surface have been studied with special emphasis on polar ocean surfaces: the open ocean, leads, polynyas and sea ice. The local exchange of momentum, heat and moisture has been studied experimentally both in the Weddell Sea and in the Greenland Sea. Exchange processes over heterogeneous surfaces are addressed by modelling studies. Over a homogeneous surface, the local turbulent fluxes can be reasonably well estimated using an iterative flux-profile scheme based on the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. In the Greenland Sea, the near-surface air temperature and the generally small turbulent fluxes over the open ocean were affected by the sea surface temperature fronts. Over the sea ice cover in the Weddell Sea, the turbulent sensible heat flux was generally downwards, and together with an upward oceanic heat flux through the ice it compensated the heat loss from the surface via long-wave radiation. The wind dominated on time scales of days, while the current became important on longer time scales. The drift dynamics showed apparent spatial differences between the eastern and western regions, as well as between the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the rest of the Weddell Sea. Inertial motion was present in regions of low ice concentration. The surface heterogeneity, arising e.g. from roughness or temperature distribution, poses a problem for the parameterization of surface exchange processes in large-scale models. In the case of neutral flow over a heterogeneous terrain, an effective roughness length can be used to parameterize the roughness effects

  13. On parameterized deformations and unsupervised learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass

    on an unrestricted linear parameter space, where all derivatives are defined, is introduced. Furthermore, it is shown that L2-norm the parameter space introduces a reasonable metric in the actual space of modelled diffeomorphisms. A new parametrization of 3D deformation fields, using potentials and Helmholtz...... smoothing or averaging cost, of selecting warp parameterizations at a specific kernel resolution, has been analyzed. A refinement measure has been derived, which is shown to be efficient for guiding the local mesh layout. With the combination of the refinement measure and the local flexibility...... of the multivariate B-splines, the warp field is automatically refined in areas where it results in the minimization of the registration cost function....

  14. Optika : a GUI framework for parameterized applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nusbaum, Kurtis L.


    In the field of scientific computing there are many specialized programs designed for specific applications in areas such as biology, chemistry, and physics. These applications are often very powerful and extraordinarily useful in their respective domains. However, some suffer from a common problem: a non-intuitive, poorly-designed user interface. The purpose of Optika is to address this problem and provide a simple, viable solution. Using only a list of parameters passed to it, Optika can dynamically generate a GUI. This allows the user to specify parameters values in a fashion that is much more intuitive than the traditional 'input decks' used by some parameterized scientific applications. By leveraging the power of Optika, these scientific applications will become more accessible and thus allow their designers to reach a much wider audience while requiring minimal extra development effort.

  15. Parameterization of convective transport in the boundary layer and its impact on the representation of the diurnal cycle of wind and dust emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hourdin


    boundary layer by a mass flux scheme leads to realistic representation of the diurnal cycle of wind in spring, with a maximum near-surface wind in the morning. This maximum occurs when the thermal plumes reach the low-level jet that forms during the night at a few hundred meters above surface. The horizontal momentum in the jet is transported downward to the surface by compensating subsidence around thermal plumes in typically less than 1 h. This leads to a rapid increase of wind speed at surface and therefore of dust emissions owing to the strong nonlinearity of emission laws. The numerical experiments are performed with a zoomed and nudged configuration of the LMDZ general circulation model coupled to the emission module of the CHIMERE chemistry transport model, in which winds are relaxed toward that of the ERA-Interim reanalyses. The new set of parameterizations leads to a strong improvement of the representation of the diurnal cycle of wind when compared to a previous version of LMDZ as well as to the reanalyses used for nudging themselves. It also generates dust emissions in better agreement with current estimates, but the aerosol optical thickness is still significantly underestimated.

  16. TVD schemes for open channel flow (United States)

    Delis, A. I.; Skeels, C. P.


    The Saint Venant equations for modelling flow in open channels are solved in this paper, using a variety of total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes. The performance of second- and third-order-accurate TVD schemes is investigated for the computation of free-surface flows, in predicting dam-breaks and extreme flow conditions created by the river bed topography. Convergence of the schemes is quantified by comparing error norms between subsequent iterations. Automatically calculated time steps and entropy corrections allow high CFL numbers and smooth transition between different conditions. In order to compare different approaches with TVD schemes, the most accurate of each type was chosen. All four schemes chosen proved acceptably accurate. However, there are important differences between the schemes in the occurrence of clipping, overshooting and oscillating behaviour and in the highest CFL numbers allowed by a scheme. These variations in behaviour stem from the different orders and inherent properties of the four schemes.

  17. Parameterization of MARVELS Spectra Using Deep Learning (United States)

    Gilda, Sankalp; Ge, Jian; MARVELS


    Like many large-scale surveys, the Multi-Object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS) was designed to operate at a moderate spectral resolution ($\\sim$12,000) for efficiency in observing large samples, which makes the stellar parameterization difficult due to the high degree of blending of spectral features. Two extant solutions to deal with this issue are to utilize spectral synthesis, and to utilize spectral indices [Ghezzi et al. 2014]. While the former is a powerful and tested technique, it can often yield strongly coupled atmospheric parameters, and often requires high spectral resolution (Valenti & Piskunov 1996). The latter, though a promising technique utilizing measurements of equivalent widths of spectral indices, has only been employed with respect to FKG dwarfs and sub-giants and not red-giant branch stars, which constitute ~30% of MARVELS targets. In this work, we tackle this problem using a convolution neural network (CNN). In particular, we train a one-dimensional CNN on appropriately processed PHOENIX synthetic spectra using supervised training to automatically distinguish the features relevant for the determination of each of the three atmospheric parameters – T_eff, log(g), [Fe/H] – and use the knowledge thus gained by the network to parameterize 849 MARVELS giants. When tested on the synthetic spectra themselves, our estimates of the parameters were consistent to within 11 K, .02 dex, and .02 dex (in terms of mean absolute errors), respectively. For MARVELS dwarfs, the accuracies are 80K, .16 dex and .10 dex, respectively.

  18. Accuracy of cuticular resistance parameterizations in ammonia dry deposition models (United States)

    Schrader, Frederik; Brümmer, Christian; Richter, Undine; Fléchard, Chris; Wichink Kruit, Roy; Erisman, Jan Willem


    Accurate representation of total reactive nitrogen (Nr) exchange between ecosystems and the atmosphere is a crucial part of modern air quality models. However, bi-directional exchange of ammonia (NH3), the dominant Nr species in agricultural landscapes, still poses a major source of uncertainty in these models, where especially the treatment of non-stomatal pathways (e.g. exchange with wet leaf surfaces or the ground layer) can be challenging. While complex dynamic leaf surface chemistry models have been shown to successfully reproduce measured ammonia fluxes on the field scale, computational restraints and the lack of necessary input data have so far limited their application in larger scale simulations. A variety of different approaches to modelling dry deposition to leaf surfaces with simplified steady-state parameterizations have therefore arisen in the recent literature. We present a performance assessment of selected cuticular resistance parameterizations by comparing them with ammonia deposition measurements by means of eddy covariance (EC) and the aerodynamic gradient method (AGM) at a number of semi-natural and grassland sites in Europe. First results indicate that using a state-of-the-art uni-directional approach tends to overestimate and using a bi-directional cuticular compensation point approach tends to underestimate cuticular resistance in some cases, consequently leading to systematic errors in the resulting flux estimates. Using the uni-directional model, situations where low ratios of total atmospheric acids to NH3 concentration occur lead to fairly high minimum cuticular resistances, limiting predicted downward fluxes in conditions usually favouring deposition. On the other hand, the bi-directional model used here features a seasonal cycle of external leaf surface emission potentials that can lead to comparably low effective resistance estimates under warm and wet conditions, when in practice an expected increase in the compensation point due to

  19. Parameterizing A Surface Water Model for Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (United States)

    The unique electronic, mechanical, and structural properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has lead to increasing production of these versatile materials; currently, the use of carbon-based nanomaterials in consumer products is second only to that of nano-scale silver. Although ther...

  20. Attributing the behavior of low-level clouds in large-scale models to subgrid-scale parameterizations (United States)

    Neggers, R. A. J.


    This study explores ways of establishing the characteristic behavior of boundary layer schemes in representing subtropical marine low-level clouds in climate models. To this purpose, parameterization schemes are studied in both isolated and interactive mode with the larger-scale circulation. Results of the EUCLIPSE/GASS intercomparison study for Single-Column Models (SCM) on low-level cloud transitions are compared to General Circulation Model (GCM) results from the CFMIP-2 project at selected grid points in the subtropical eastern Pacific. Low cloud characteristics are plotted as a function of key state variables for which Large-Eddy Simulation results suggest a distinct and reasonably tight relation. These include the Cloud Top Entrainment Instability (CTEI) parameter and the total cloud cover. SCM and GCM results are thus compared and their resemblance is quantified using simple metrics. Good agreement is reported, to such a degree that SCM results are found to be uniquely representative of their GCM, and vice versa. This suggests that the system of parameterized fast boundary layer physics dominates the model state at any given time, even when interactive with the larger-scale flow. This behavior can loosely be interpreted as a unique "fingerprint" of a boundary layer scheme, recognizable in both SCM and GCM simulations. The result justifies and advocates the use of SCM simulation for improving weather and climate models, including the attribution of typical responses of low clouds to climate change in a GCM to specific parameterizations.

  1. Incorporation of UK Met Office's radiation scheme into CPTEC's global model (United States)

    Chagas, Júlio C. S.; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.


    Current parameterization of radiation in the CPTEC's (Center for Weather Forecast and Climate Studies, Cachoeira Paulista, SP, Brazil) operational AGCM has its origins in the work of Harshvardhan et al. (1987) and uses the formulation of Ramaswamy and Freidenreich (1992) for the short-wave absorption by water vapor. The UK Met Office's radiation code (Edwards and Slingo, 1996) was incorporated into CPTEC's global model, initially for short-wave only, and some impacts of that were shown by Chagas and Barbosa (2006). Current paper presents some impacts of the complete incorporation (both short-wave and long-wave) of UK Met Office's scheme. Selected results from off-line comparisons with line-by-line benchmark calculations are shown. Impacts on the AGCM's climate are assessed by comparing output of climate runs of current and modified AGCM with products from GEWEX/SRB (Surface Radiation Budget) project.

  2. Parameterization of Cloud Optical Properties for a Mixture of Ice Particles for use in Atmospheric Models (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Yang, Ping; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)


    Based on the single-scattering optical properties that are pre-computed using an improve geometric optics method, the bulk mass absorption coefficient, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor of ice particles have been parameterized as a function of the mean effective particle size of a mixture of ice habits. The parameterization has been applied to compute fluxes for sample clouds with various particle size distributions and assumed mixtures of particle habits. Compared to the parameterization for a single habit of hexagonal column, the solar heating of clouds computed with the parameterization for a mixture of habits is smaller due to a smaller cosingle-scattering albedo. Whereas the net downward fluxes at the TOA and surface are larger due to a larger asymmetry factor. The maximum difference in the cloud heating rate is approx. 0.2 C per day, which occurs in clouds with an optical thickness greater than 3 and the solar zenith angle less than 45 degrees. Flux difference is less than 10 W per square meters for the optical thickness ranging from 0.6 to 10 and the entire range of the solar zenith angle. The maximum flux difference is approximately 3%, which occurs around an optical thickness of 1 and at high solar zenith angles.

  3. Parameterizing Subgrid-Scale Orographic Drag in the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) Atmospheric Model (United States)

    Toy, M. D.; Olson, J.; Kenyon, J.; Smirnova, T. G.; Brown, J. M.


    The accuracy of wind forecasts in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models is improved when the drag forces imparted on atmospheric flow by subgrid-scale orography are included. Without such parameterizations, only the terrain resolved by the model grid, along with the small-scale obstacles parameterized by the roughness lengths can have an effect on the flow. This neglects the impacts of subgrid-scale terrain variations, which typically leads to wind speeds that are too strong. Using statistical information about the subgrid-scale orography, such as the mean and variance of the topographic height within a grid cell, the drag forces due to flow blocking, gravity wave drag, and turbulent form drag are estimated and distributed vertically throughout the grid cell column. We recently implemented the small-scale gravity wave drag paramterization of Steeneveld et al. (2008) and Tsiringakis et al. (2017) for stable planetary boundary layers, and the turbulent form drag parameterization of Beljaars et al. (2004) in the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) NWP model developed at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). As a result, a high surface wind speed bias in the model has been reduced and small improvement to the maintenance of stable layers has also been found. We present the results of experiments with the subgrid-scale orographic drag parameterization for the regional HRRR model, as well as for a global model in development at NOAA, showing the direct and indirect impacts.

  4. Regional model simulation of summer rainfall over the Philippines: Effect of choice of driving fields and ocean flux schemes (United States)

    Francisco, R. V.; Argete, J.; Giorgi, F.; Pal, J.; Bi, X.; Gutowski, W. J.


    The latest version of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) regional model RegCM is used to investigate summer monsoon precipitation over the Philippine archipelago and surrounding ocean waters, a region where regional climate models have not been applied before. The sensitivity of simulated precipitation to driving lateral boundary conditions (NCEP and ERA40 reanalyses) and ocean surface flux scheme (BATS and Zeng) is assessed for 5 monsoon seasons. The ability of the RegCM to simulate the spatial patterns and magnitude of monsoon precipitation is demonstrated, both in response to the prominent large scale circulations over the region and to the local forcing by the physiographical features of the Philippine islands. This provides encouraging indications concerning the development of a regional climate modeling system for the Philippine region. On the other hand, the model shows a substantial sensitivity to the analysis fields used for lateral boundary conditions as well as the ocean surface flux schemes. The use of ERA40 lateral boundary fields consistently yields greater precipitation amounts compared to the use of NCEP fields. Similarly, the BATS scheme consistently produces more precipitation compared to the Zeng scheme. As a result, different combinations of lateral boundary fields and surface ocean flux schemes provide a good simulation of precipitation amounts and spatial structure over the region. The response of simulated precipitation to using different forcing analysis fields is of the same order of magnitude as the response to using different surface flux parameterizations in the model. As a result it is difficult to unambiguously establish which of the model configurations is best performing.

  5. Parameterizations of Cloud Microphysics and Indirect Aerosol Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo [NASA/GSFC


    , 2005]. Recently, a detailed spectral-bin microphysical scheme was implemented into the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. Atmospheric aerosols are also described using number density size-distribution functions. A spectral-bin microphysical model is very expensive from a computational point of view and has only been implemented into the 2D version of the GCE at the present time. The model is tested by studying the evolution of deep tropical clouds in the west Pacific warm pool region and summertime convection over a mid-latitude continent with different concentrations of CCN: a low "clean" concentration and a high "dirty" concentration. The impact of atmospheric aerosol concentration on cloud and precipitation will be investigated. 2. MODEL DESCRIPTION AND CASE STUDIES 2.1 GCE MODEL The model used in this study is the 2D version of the GCE model. Modeled flow is anelastic. Second- or higher-order advection schemes can produce negative values in the solution. Thus, a Multi-dimensional Positive Definite Advection Transport Algorithm (MPDATA) has been implemented into the model. All scalar variables (potential temperature, water vapor, turbulent coefficient and all five hydrometeor classes) use forward time differencing and the MPDATA for advection. Dynamic variables, u, v and w, use a second-order accurate advection scheme and a leapfrog time integration (kinetic energy semi-conserving method). Short-wave (solar) and long-wave radiation as well as a subgrid-scale TKE turbulence scheme are also included in the model. Details of the model can be found in Tao and Simpson (1993) and Tao et al. (2003). 2.2 Microphysics (Bin Model) The formulation of the explicit spectral-bin microphysical processes is based on solving stochastic kinetic equations for the size distribution functions of water droplets (cloud droplets and raindrops), and six types of ice particles: pristine ice crystals (columnar and plate-like), snow (dendrites and aggregates), graupel and frozen drops

  6. Sensitivity of Tropical Cyclones to Parameterized Convection in the NASA GEOS5 Model (United States)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Reale, Oreste; Lee, Myong-In; Molod, Andrea M.; Suarez, Max J.


    The sensitivity of tropical cyclones (TCs) to changes in parameterized convection is investigated to improve the simulation of TCs in the North Atlantic. Specifically, the impact of reducing the influence of the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS) scheme-based parameterized convection is explored using the Goddard Earth Observing System version5 (GEOS5) model at 0.25 horizontal resolution. The years 2005 and 2006 characterized by very active and inactive hurricane seasons, respectively, are selected for simulation. A reduction in parameterized deep convection results in an increase in TC activity (e.g., TC number and longer life cycle) to more realistic levels compared to the baseline control configuration. The vertical and horizontal structure of the strongest simulated hurricane shows the maximum lower-level (850-950hPa) wind speed greater than 60 ms and the minimum sea level pressure reaching 940mb, corresponding to a category 4 hurricane - a category never achieved by the control configuration. The radius of the maximum wind of 50km, the location of the warm core exceeding 10 C, and the horizontal compactness of the hurricane center are all quite realistic without any negatively affecting the atmospheric mean state. This study reveals that an increase in the threshold of minimum entrainment suppresses parameterized deep convection by entraining more dry air into the typical plume. This leads to cooling and drying at the mid- to upper-troposphere, along with the positive latent heat flux and moistening in the lower-troposphere. The resulting increase in conditional instability provides an environment that is more conducive to TC vortex development and upward moisture flux convergence by dynamically resolved moist convection, thereby increasing TC activity.

  7. Recent developments and assessment of a three-dimensional PBL parameterization for improved wind forecasting over complex terrain (United States)

    Kosovic, B.; Jimenez, P. A.; Haupt, S. E.; Martilli, A.; Olson, J.; Bao, J. W.


    At present, the planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterizations available in most numerical weather prediction (NWP) models are one-dimensional. One-dimensional parameterizations are based on the assumption of horizontal homogeneity. This homogeneity assumption is appropriate for grid cell sizes greater than 10 km. However, for mesoscale simulations of flows in complex terrain with grid cell sizes below 1 km, the assumption of horizontal homogeneity is violated. Applying a one-dimensional PBL parameterization to high-resolution mesoscale simulations in complex terrain could result in significant error. For high-resolution mesoscale simulations of flows in complex terrain, we have therefore developed and implemented a three-dimensional (3D) PBL parameterization in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The implementation of the 3D PBL scheme is based on the developments outlined by Mellor and Yamada (1974, 1982). Our implementation in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model uses a pure algebraic model (level 2) to diagnose the turbulent fluxes. To evaluate the performance of the 3D PBL model, we use observations from the Wind Forecast Improvement Project 2 (WFIP2). The WFIP2 field study took place in the Columbia River Gorge area from 2015-2017. We focus on selected cases when physical phenomena of significance for wind energy applications such as mountain waves, topographic wakes, and gap flows were observed. Our assessment of the 3D PBL parameterization also considers a large-eddy simulation (LES). We carried out a nested LES with grid cell sizes of 30 m and 10 m covering a large fraction of the WFIP2 study area. Both LES domains were discretized using 6000 x 3000 x 200 grid cells in zonal, meridional, and vertical direction, respectively. The LES results are used to assess the relative magnitude of horizontal gradients of turbulent stresses and fluxes in comparison to vertical gradients. The presentation will highlight the advantages of the 3

  8. Evaluation and Improvement of Cloud and Convective Parameterizations from Analyses of ARM Observations and Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Genio, Anthony D. [NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies (GISS), New York, NY (United States)


    Over this period the PI and his performed a broad range of data analysis, model evaluation, and model improvement studies using ARM data. These included cloud regimes in the TWP and their evolution over the MJO; M-PACE IOP SCM-CRM intercomparisons; simulations of convective updraft strength and depth during TWP-ICE; evaluation of convective entrainment parameterizations using TWP-ICE simulations; evaluation of GISS GCM cloud behavior vs. long-term SGP cloud statistics; classification of aerosol semi-direct effects on cloud cover; depolarization lidar constraints on cloud phase; preferred states of the winter Arctic atmosphere, surface, and sub-surface; sensitivity of convection to tropospheric humidity; constraints on the parameterization of mesoscale organization from TWP-ICE WRF simulations; updraft and downdraft properties in TWP-ICE simulated convection; insights from long-term ARM records at Manus and Nauru.

  9. A simplified PDF parameterization of subgrid-scale clouds and turbulence for cloud-resolving models (United States)

    Bogenschutz, Peter A.; Krueger, Steven K.


    Over the past decade a new type of global climate model (GCM) has emerged, which is known as a multiscale modeling framework (MMF). Colorado State University's MMF represents a coupling between the Community Atmosphere Model and the System for Atmospheric Modeling (SAM) to serve as the cloud-resolving model (CRM) that replaces traditionally parameterized convection in GCMs. However, due to the high computational expense of the MMF, the grid size of the embedded CRM is typically limited to 4 km for long-term climate simulations. With grid sizes this coarse, shallow convective processes and turbulence cannot be resolved and must still be parameterized within the context of the embedded CRM. This paper describes a computationally efficient closure that aims to better represent turbulence and shallow convective processes in coarse-grid CRMs. The closure is based on the assumed probability density function (PDF) technique to serve as the subgrid-scale (SGS) condensation scheme and turbulence closure that employs a diagnostic method to determine the needed input moments. This paper describes the scheme, as well as the formulation of the eddy length which is empirically determined from large eddy simulation (LES) data. CRM tests utilizing the closure yields good results when compared to LESs for two trade-wind cumulus cases, a transition from stratocumulus to cumulus, and continental cumulus. This new closure improves the representation of clouds through the use of SGS condensation scheme and turbulence due to better representation of the buoyancy flux and dissipation rates. In addition, the scheme reduces the sensitivity of CRM simulations to horizontal grid spacing. The improvement when compared to the standard low-order closure configuration of the SAM is especially striking.

  10. Single interval shortwave radiation scheme with parameterized optical saturation and spectral overlaps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašek, Jan; Geleyn, J.- F.; Brožková, Radmila; Giot, O.; Achom, H. O.; Kuma, P.


    Roč. 142, č. 659 (2016), s. 304-326 ISSN 0035-9009 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : shortwave radiative transfer * delta-two stream system * broadband approach * Malkmus band model * optical saturation * idealized optical paths * spectral overlap Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.444, year: 2016

  11. New association schemes for mono-ethylene glycol: Cubic-Plus-Association parameterization and uncertainty analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruger, Francois; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.; von Solms, Nicolas


    Accurate thermodynamic predictions for systems containing glycols are essential for the design and commissioning of novel subsea natural gas dehydration units. Previously it has been shown that the Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state can be used to model VLE, SLE and LLE for mixtures...

  12. A triple-moment hail bulk microphysics scheme. Part II: Verification and comparison with two-moment bulk microphysics (United States)

    Loftus, A. M.; Cotton, W. R.


    Microphysical parameterizations in numerical cloud models continue to grow in complexity as our capability to represent microphysical processes increases owing to greater knowledge of these processes as well as advances in computing power. In Part I of this study, a new triple-moment bulk hail microphysics scheme (3MHAIL) that predicts the spectral shape parameter of the hail size distribution was presented and evaluated against lower order-moment schemes. In this paper, the 3MHAIL scheme is verified in simulations of a well-observed supercell storm that occurred over northwest Kansas on 29 June 2000 during the Severe Thunderstorm and Electrification and Precipitation Study (STEPS). Comparisons of the simulation results with the observations for this case, as well as with results of simulations using two different two-moment (2M) configurations of the RAMS microphysics schemes, suggest a significant improvement of the simulated storm structure and evolution is achieved with the 3MHAIL scheme. The generation of large hail and subsequent fallout in the simulation using 3MHAIL microphysics show particularly good agreement with surface hail reports for this storm as well as with previous studies of hail-producing supercell storms. On the other hand, the simulation with 2M microphysics produces only small hail aloft and virtually no hail at the surface, whereas a 2M version of the 3MHAIL scheme (with a fixed spectral shape parameter) produces unrealistically high amounts of large hail at low levels as a result of artificial shifts in the hail size spectra towards larger diameter hail during the melting process.

  13. Assessment of Noah model physics and various runoff parameterizations over a Tibetan River (United States)

    Zheng, Donghai; van der Velde, Rogier; Su, Zhongbo; Wen, Jun; Wang, Xin


    Noah model physics options validated for the source region of the Yellow River (SRYR) are applied to investigate their ability in reproducing runoff at the catchment scale. Three sets of augmentations are implemented affecting the descriptions of i) turbulent and soil heat transport (Noah-H), ii) soil water flow (Noah-W) and iii) frozen ground processes (Noah-F). Five numerical experiments are designed with the three augmented versions, a control run with default model physics and a run with all augmentations (Noah-A). Further, runoff parameterizations currently adopted by the i) Noah-MP model, ii) Community Land Model (CLM), and iii) CLM with variable infiltration capacity hydrology (CLM-VIC) are incorporated into the structure of Noah-A, and four additional numerical experiments are designed with the three aforementioned and the default Noah runoff parameterizations within the Noah-A. Each experiment is forced with 0.1o atmospheric forcing data from Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, with vegetation and soil parameters adopted from Weather Research and Forecasting dataset and China Soil Database. In addition, the Community Earth System Model database provides the maximum surface saturated area parameter for the Noah-MP and CLM parameterizations. Each model run is initialized using a single-year recurrent spin-up to achieve the equilibrium model states. The results highlight that i) a complete description of vertical heat and water exchanges is necessary to correctly simulate the runoff at the catchment scale, and ii) the soil water storage-based parameterizations (Noah-A and CLM-VIC) outperform the groundwater table-based parameterizations (Noah-MP and CLM) in the seasonally frozen and high altitude SRYR.

  14. On the parameterization of turbulent fluxes over the tropical Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Raga


    Full Text Available We present estimates of turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum derived from low level (~30 m aircraft measurements over the tropical Eastern Pacific and provide empirical relationships that are valid under high wind speed conditions (up to 25 ms−1. The estimates of total momentum flux and turbulent kinetic energy can be represented very accurately (r2=0.99, when data are binned every 1 ms−1 by empirical fits with a linear and a cubic terms of the average horizontal wind speed. The latent heat flux shows a strong quadratic dependence on the horizontal wind speed and a linear relationship with the difference between the air specific humidity and the saturated specific humidity at the sea surface, explaining 96% of the variance. The estimated values were used to evaluate the performance of three currently used parameterizations of turbulence fluxes, varying in complexity and computational requirements. The comparisons with the two more complex parameterizations show good agreement between the observed and parameterized latent heat fluxes, with less agreement in the sensible heat fluxes, and one of them largely overestimating the momentum fluxes. A third, very simple parameterization shows a surprisingly good agreement of the sensible heat flux, while momentum fluxes are again overestimated and a poor agreement was observed for the latent heat flux (r2=0.62. The performance of all three parameterizations deteriorates significantly in the high wind speed regime (above 10–15 ms−1. The dataset obtained over the tropical Eastern Pacific allows us to derive empirical functions for the turbulent fluxes that are applicable from 1 to 25 ms−1, which can be introduced in meteorological models under high wind conditions.

  15. Evaluating the Performance of the Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling Framework with Different Cloud Microphysical Schemes (United States)

    Chern, J.; Tao, W.; Lang, S. E.; Matsui, T.


    The accurate representation of clouds and cloud processes in atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) with relatively coarse resolution (~100 km) has been a long-standing challenge. With the rapid advancement in computational technology, new breed of GCMs that are capable of explicitly resolving clouds have been developed. Though still computationally very expensive, global cloud-resolving models (GCRMs) with horizontal resolutions of 3.5 to 14 km are already being run in an exploratory manner. Another less computationally demanding approach is the multi-scale modeling framework (MMF) that replaces conventional cloud parameterizations with a cloud-resolving model (CRM) in each grid column of a GCM. The Goddard MMF is based on the coupling of the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE), a CRM model, and the GEOS global model. In recent years a few new and improved microphysical schemes are developed and implemented to the GCE based on observations from field campaigns. It is important to evaluating these microphysical schemes for global applications such as the MMFs and GCRMs. Two-year (2007-2008) MMF sensitivity experiments have been carried out with different cloud microphysical schemes. The model simulated mean and variability of surface precipitation, cloud types, cloud properties such as cloud amount, hydrometeors vertical profiles, and cloud water contents, etc. in different geographic locations and climate regimes are evaluated against TRMM, CloudSat and CALIPSO satellite observations. The Goddard MMF has also been coupled with the Goddard Satellite Data Simulation Unit (G-SDSU), a system with multi-satellite, multi-sensor, and multi-spectrum satellite simulators. The statistics of MMF simulated radiances and backscattering can be directly compared with satellite observations to evaluate the performance of different cloud microphysical schemes. We will assess the strengths and/or deficiencies in of these microphysics schemes and provide guidance on how to improve

  16. Approximability and Parameterized Complexity of Minmax Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro


    We consider approximating the minmax value of a multi player game in strategic form. Tightening recent bounds by Borgs et al., we observe that approximating the value with a precision of ε log n digits (for any constant ε > 0) is NP-hard, where n is the size of the game. On the other hand......, approximating the value with a precision of c log log n digits (for any constant c ≥ 1) can be done in quasi-polynomial time. We consider the parameterized complexity of the problem, with the parameter being the number of pure strategies k of the player for which the minmax value is computed. We show...... that if there are three players, k = 2 and there are only two possible rational payoffs, the minmax value is a rational number and can be computed exactly in linear time. In the general case, we show that the value can be approximated wigh any polynomial number of digits of accuracy in time n^O(k) . On the other hand, we...

  17. Carbody structural lightweighting based on implicit parameterized model (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Ma, Fangwu; Wang, Dengfeng; Xie, Chen


    Most of recent research on carbody lightweighting has focused on substitute material and new processing technologies rather than structures. However, new materials and processing techniques inevitably lead to higher costs. Also, material substitution and processing lightweighting have to be realized through body structural profiles and locations. In the huge conventional workload of lightweight optimization, model modifications involve heavy manual work, and it always leads to a large number of iteration calculations. As a new technique in carbody lightweighting, the implicit parameterization is used to optimize the carbody structure to improve the materials utilization rate in this paper. The implicit parameterized structural modeling enables the use of automatic modification and rapid multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) in carbody structure, which is impossible in the traditional structure finite element method (FEM) without parameterization. The structural SFE parameterized model is built in accordance with the car structural FE model in concept development stage, and it is validated by some structural performance data. The validated SFE structural parameterized model can be used to generate rapidly and automatically FE model and evaluate different design variables group in the integrated MDO loop. The lightweighting result of body-in-white (BIW) after the optimization rounds reveals that the implicit parameterized model makes automatic MDO feasible and can significantly improve the computational efficiency of carbody structural lightweighting. This paper proposes the integrated method of implicit parameterized model and MDO, which has the obvious practical advantage and industrial significance in the carbody structural lightweighting design.

  18. An assessment of urban heat island effect adopting urban parameterizations in COSMO-CLM simulations over big cities in Northern Italy (United States)

    Montesarchio, Myriam; Rianna, Guido; Mercogliano, Paola; Castellari, Sergio; Schiano, Pasquale


    In Europe, about 80% of people live in urban areas, which most of them can be particularly vulnerable to climate impacts (e.g. high air temperatures along with heat waves, flooding due to intense precipitation events, water scarcity and droughts). In fact, the density of people and assets within relatively small geographic areas, such as an urban settlements, mean more risk exposure than in rural areas. Therefore, reliable numerical climate models are needed for elaborating climate risk assessment at urban scale. These models must take into account the effects of the complex three-dimensional structure of urban settlements, combined with the mixture of surface types with contrasting radiative, thermal and moisture characteristics. In this respect, previous studies (e.g. Trusilova et al., 2013) have already assessed the importance to consider urban properties in very high resolution regional climate modeling to better reproduce the features of urban climate, especially in terms of urban heat island effect. In this work, two different configurations of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM at the horizontal resolution of 0.02° (about 2.2km), one including urban parameterization scheme and another without including them, have been applied in order to perform two different climate simulations covering the entire northern Italy. In particular, the present study is focused on large urban settlements such as Milan and Turin. Due to high computational cost required to run very high resolution simulations, the results of the two simulations have been compared over a period of ten years, from 1980 to 1989. Preliminary results indicate that the modification of climate conditions, due to the presence of urban areas, is present mainly in the areas covered by big cities and surrounding them, or rather the presence of urban areas induces modification mainly in their local climate. Other evidences are that the simulation including urban parameterization scheme shows, in general

  19. Homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Min


    We present a homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials that is based on reproducing the lowest orders of scattering amplitudes from a finite volume of metamaterials. This approach is noted to differ significantly from that of coherent potential approximation, which is based on adjusting the effective-medium parameters to minimize scatterings in the long-wavelength limit. With the aid of metamaterials’ eigenstates, the effective parameters, such as mass density and elastic modulus can be obtained by matching the surface responses of a metamaterial\\'s structural unit cell with a piece of homogenized material. From the Green\\'s theorem applied to the exterior domain problem, matching the surface responses is noted to be the same as reproducing the scattering amplitudes. We verify our scheme by applying it to three different examples: a layered lattice, a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and a decorated-membrane system. It is shown that the predicted characteristics and wave fields agree almost exactly with numerical simulations and experiments and the scheme\\'s validity is constrained by the number of dominant surface multipoles instead of the usual long-wavelength assumption. In particular, the validity extends to the full band in one dimension and to regimes near the boundaries of the Brillouin zone in two dimensions.

  20. Improvement and implementation of a parameterization for shallow cumulus in the global climate model ECHAM5-HAM (United States)

    Isotta, Francesco; Spichtinger, Peter; Lohmann, Ulrike; von Salzen, Knut


    Convection is a crucial component of weather and climate. Its parameterization in General Circulation Models (GCMs) is one of the largest sources of uncertainty. Convection redistributes moisture and heat, affects the radiation budget and transports tracers from the PBL to higher levels. Shallow convection is very common over the globe, in particular over the oceans in the trade wind regions. A recently developed shallow convection scheme by von Salzen and McFarlane (2002) is implemented in the ECHAM5-HAM GCM instead of the standard convection scheme by Tiedtke (1989). The scheme of von Salzen and McFarlane (2002) is a bulk parameterization for an ensemble of transient shallow cumuli. A life cycle is considered, as well as inhomogeneities in the horizontal distribution of in-cloud properties due to mixing. The shallow convection scheme is further developed to take the ice phase and precipitation in form of rain and snow into account. The double moment microphysics scheme for cloud droplets and ice crystals implemented is consistent with the stratiform scheme and with the other types of convective clouds. The ice phase permits to alter the criterion to distinguish between shallow convection and the other two types of convection, namely deep and mid-level, which are still calculated by the Tiedtke (1989) scheme. The lunching layer of the test parcel in the shallow convection scheme is chosen as the one with maximum moist static energy in the three lowest levels. The latter is modified to the ``frozen moist static energy'' to account for the ice phase. Moreover, tracers (e.g. aerosols) are transported in the updraft and scavenged in and below clouds. As a first test of the performance of the new scheme and the interaction with the rest of the model, the Barbados Oceanographic and Meteorological EXperiment (BOMEX) and the Rain In Cumulus over the Ocean experiment (RICO) case are simulated with the single column model (SCM) and the results are compared with large eddy

  1. Theoretical Tools for Relativistic Gravimetry, Gradiometry and Chronometric Geodesy and Application to a Parameterized Post-Newtonian Metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacôme Delva


    Full Text Available An extensive review of past work on relativistic gravimetry, gradiometry and chronometric geodesy is given. Then, general theoretical tools are presented and applied for the case of a stationary parameterized post-Newtonian metric. The special case of a stationary clock on the surface of the Earth is studied.

  2. Investigation of vegetation-induced drag parameterizations for natural and nature-based extreme events coastal protection in the Chesapeake Bay (United States)

    Maldonado, S.; Suckale, J.; Ferreira, C.; Arkema, K.


    Increasing intensity and frequency of extreme meteorological events around the world highlight the need for resilient coastal defenses. For more than a century, it has been recognized that coastal ecosystems such as marshes and mangroves may mitigate the damage caused by natural hazards such as storms. Aquatic vegetation can potentially attenuate waves and currents through drag forces, with strong implications for sediment transport processes and hence morphological evolution. However, although observations exist that support such a theory, an accurate quantification of the protective role of coastal ecosystems remains a standing challenge for the scientific community, which manifests itself in the large, diverse set of available empirical expressions for parameterizing the fluid-vegetation interaction. We propose a comparison of different state-of-the-art parameterizations for the effect of vegetation on hydrodynamics (particularly, the drag coefficient), with varying degrees of complexity and number of required input variables. The inter-comparison of such alternatives, when validated against field data, can lead to a modeling framework that optimizes the trade-offs between complexity, input requirements and uncertainty in the results. We focus our numerical study on storm events in the marshes and wetlands of Chesapeake Bay. We simulate the hydrodynamics via the Non-Linear Shallow Water Equations, which are in turn solved numerically through a Finite Volume scheme. The simulations are complemented by an ongoing 2-years field campaign, where we continuously collect hydrodynamic measurements such as free surface elevation and vertical velocity profiles, biophysical characteristics of the vegetation and high-resolution topo-bathymetric data of the site. Field measurements are used for calibration and validation purposes. We also investigate some implications on sediment transport processes. We expect that results from our study can support policy makers and

  3. Parameterization of a Hydrological Model for a Large, Ungauged Urban Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Krebs


    Full Text Available Urbanization leads to the replacement of natural areas by impervious surfaces and affects the catchment hydrological cycle with adverse environmental impacts. Low impact development tools (LID that mimic hydrological processes of natural areas have been developed and applied to mitigate these impacts. Hydrological simulations are one possibility to evaluate the LID performance but the associated small-scale processes require a highly spatially distributed and explicit modeling approach. However, detailed data for model development are often not available for large urban areas, hampering the model parameterization. In this paper we propose a methodology to parameterize a hydrological model to a large, ungauged urban area by maintaining at the same time a detailed surface discretization for direct parameter manipulation for LID simulation and a firm reliance on available data for model conceptualization. Catchment delineation was based on a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM and model parameterization relied on a novel model regionalization approach. The impact of automated delineation and model regionalization on simulation results was evaluated for three monitored study catchments (5.87–12.59 ha. The simulated runoff peak was most sensitive to accurate catchment discretization and calibration, while both the runoff volume and the fit of the hydrograph were less affected.

  4. A sea spray aerosol flux parameterization encapsulating wave state (United States)

    Ovadnevaite, J.; Manders, A.; de Leeuw, G.; Ceburnis, D.; Monahan, C.; Partanen, A.-I.; Korhonen, H.; O'Dowd, C. D.


    A new sea spray source function (SSSF), termed Oceanflux Sea Spray Aerosol or OSSA, was derived based on in-situ sea spray aerosol measurements along with meteorological/physical parameters. Submicron sea spray aerosol fluxes derived from particle number concentration measurements at the Mace Head coastal station, on the west coast of Ireland, were used together with open-ocean eddy correlation flux measurements from the Eastern Atlantic Sea Spray, Gas Flux, and Whitecap (SEASAW) project cruise. In the overlapping size range, the data for Mace Head and SEASAW were found to be in a good agreement, which allowed deriving the new SSSF from the combined dataset spanning the dry diameter range from 15 nm to 6 μm. The OSSA source function has been parameterized in terms of five lognormal modes and the Reynolds number instead of the more commonly used wind speed, thereby encapsulating important influences of wave height, wind history, friction velocity, and viscosity. This formulation accounts for the different flux relationships associated with rising and waning wind speeds since these are included in the Reynolds number. Furthermore, the Reynolds number incorporates the kinematic viscosity of water, thus the SSSF inherently includes dependences on sea surface temperature and salinity. The temperature dependence of the resulting SSSF is similar to that of other in-situ derived source functions and results in lower production fluxes for cold waters and enhanced fluxes from warm waters as compared with SSSF formulations that do not include temperature effects.

  5. Parameterization adaption for 3D shape optimization in aerodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr Abou El Majd


    Full Text Available When solving a PDE problem numerically, a certain mesh-refinement process is always implicit, and very classically, mesh adaptivity is a very effective means to accelerate grid convergence. Similarly, when optimizing a shape by means of an explicit geometrical representation, it is natural to seek for an analogous concept of parameterization adaptivity. We propose here an adaptive parameterization for three-dimensional optimum design in aerodynamics by using the so-called “Free-Form Deformation” approach based on 3D tensorial Bézier parameterization. The proposed procedure leads to efficient numerical simulations with highly reduced computational costs.[How to cite this article:  Majd, B.A.. 2014. Parameterization adaption for 3D shape optimization in aerodynamics. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 6(1:61-69. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.61-69

  6. Parameterization effects in nonlinear models to describe growth curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Jesus Fernandes


    Full Text Available Various parameterizations of nonlinear models are common in the literature.In addition to complicating the understanding of these models, these parameterizations affect the nonlinearity measures and subsequently the inferences about the parameters. Bates and Watts (1980 quantified model nonlinearity using the geometric concept of curvature. Here we aimed to evaluate the three most common parameterizations of the Logistic and Gompertz nonlinear models with a focus on their nonlinearity and how this might affect inferences, and to establish relations between the parameters under the various expressions of the models. All parameterizations were adjusted to the growth data from pequi fruit. The intrinsic and parametric curvature described by Bates and Watts were calculated for each parameter. The choice of parameterization affects the nonlinearity measures, thus influencing the reliability and inferences about the estimated parameters. The most used methodologies presented the highest distance from linearity, showing the importance of analyzing these measures in any growth curve study. We propose that the parameterization in which the estimate of B is the abscissa of the inflection point should be used because of the lower deviations from linearity and direct biological interpretation for all parameters.

  7. Parameterization of Cloud Droplet Formation in Global Climate Models (United States)

    Nenes, A.; Seinfeld, J.H.


    An aerosol activation parameterization has been developed based on a generalized representation of aerosol size and composition within the framework of an ascending adiabatic parcel; this allows for parameterizing the activation of chemically complex aerosol with an arbitrary size distribution and mixing state. The new parameterization introduces the concept of"population splitting", in which the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that form droplets are treated as two separate populations; those that have a size close to their critical diameter and those that do not.Explicit consideration of kinetic limitations of droplet growth is introduced. Our treatment of the activation process unravels much of its complexity. As a result of this, a substantial number of conditions of droplet formation can be treated completely free of empirical information or correlations; there are, however, some conditions of droplet activation for which an empirically derived correlation is utilized. Predictions of the parameterization are compared against extensive cloud parcel model simu;lations for a variety of aerosol activation conditions that cover a wide range of chemical variability and CCN concentrations. The parameterization tracks the parcel model simulations closely and robustly. The parameterization presented here is intended to allow for a comprehensive assessment of the aerosol indirect effect in general circulation models.

  8. N-Heterocyclic carbenes on close-packed coinage metal surfaces: bis-carbene metal adatom bonding scheme of monolayer films on Au, Ag and Cu. (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Zhang, Bodong; Médard, Guillaume; Seitsonen, Ari Paavo; Haag, Felix; Allegretti, Francesco; Reichert, Joachim; Kuster, Bernhard; Barth, Johannes V; Papageorgiou, Anthoula C


    By means of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), complementary density functional theory (DFT) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) we investigate the binding and self-assembly of a saturated molecular layer of model N -heterocyclic carbene (NHC) on Cu(111), Ag(111) and Au(111) surfaces under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. XPS reveals that at room temperature, coverages up to a monolayer exist, with the molecules engaged in metal carbene bonds. On all three surfaces, we resolve similar arrangements, which can be interpreted only in terms of mononuclear M(NHC) 2 (M = Cu, Ag, Au) complexes, reminiscent of the paired bonding of thiols to surface gold adatoms. Theoretical investigations for the case of Au unravel the charge distribution of a Au(111) surface covered by Au(NHC) 2 and reveal that this is the energetically preferential adsorption configuration.

  9. A Framework to Evaluate Unified Parameterizations for Seasonal Prediction: An LES/SCM Parameterization Test-Bed (United States)


    GOALS The long term goals of this effort are (i) the development of a unified parameterization for the marine boundary layer; (ii) the...Unfortunately most of these small-scale processes are extremely difficult to represent (parameterize) in global models such as the Navy’s NAVGEM. The Marine ...horizontal boundaries are periodic and the top and bottom boundaries are impermeable with a ‘ sponge ’ region near the top boundary to minimize undesirable

  10. Narrowband interference parameterization for sparse Bayesian recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Anum


    This paper addresses the problem of narrowband interference (NBI) in SC-FDMA systems by using tools from compressed sensing and stochastic geometry. The proposed NBI cancellation scheme exploits the frequency domain sparsity of the unknown signal and adopts a Bayesian sparse recovery procedure. This is done by keeping a few randomly chosen sub-carriers data free to sense the NBI signal at the receiver. As Bayesian recovery requires knowledge of some NBI parameters (i.e., mean, variance and sparsity rate), we use tools from stochastic geometry to obtain analytical expressions for the required parameters. Our simulation results validate the analysis and depict suitability of the proposed recovery method for NBI mitigation. © 2015 IEEE.

  11. New schemes for particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Y.


    In the present paper, the authors propose new schemes for realizing the v/sub p/xB accelerator, by using no plasma system for producing the strong longitudinal waves. The first method is to use a grating for obtaining extended interaction of an electron beam moving along the grating surface with light beam incident also along the surface. Here, the light beam propagates obliquely to the grating grooves for producing strong electric field, and the electron beam propagates in parallel to the light beam. The static magnetic field is applied perpendicularly to the grating surface. In the present system, the beam interacts synchronously with the p-polarized wave which has the electric field be parallel to the grating surface. Another conventional scheme is to use a delay circuit. Here, the light beam propagates obliquely between a pair of array of conductor fins or slots. The phase velocity of the spatial harmonics in the y-direction (right angle to the array of slots) is slower than the speed of light. With the aid of powerful laser light or microwave source, it should be possible to miniaturise linacs by using the v/sub p/xB effect and schemes proposed here

  12. Sensitivity of WRF-Chem model to land surface schemes: Assessment in a severe dust outbreak episode in the Central Mediterranean (Apulia Region) (United States)

    Rizza, Umberto; Miglietta, Mario Marcello; Mangia, Cristina; Ielpo, Pierina; Morichetti, Mauro; Iachini, Chiara; Virgili, Simone; Passerini, Giorgio


    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with online coupled chemistry (WRF-Chem) is applied to simulate a severe Saharan dust outbreak event that took place over Southern Italy in March 2016. Numerical experiments have been performed applying a physics-based dust emission model, with soil properties generated from three different Land Surface Models, namely Noah, RUC and Noah-MP. The model performance in reproducing the severe desert dust outbreak is analysed using an observational dataset of aerosol and desert dust features that includes optical properties from satellite and ground-based sun-photometers, and in-situ particulate matter mass concentration (PM) data. The results reveal that the combination of the dust emission model with the RUC Land Surface Model significantly over-predicts the emitted mineral dust; on the other side, the combination with Noah or Noah-MP Land Surface Model (LSM) gives better results, especially for the daily averaged PM10.

  13. Near-glacier surveying of a subglacial discharge plume: Implications for plume parameterizations (United States)

    Jackson, R. H.; Shroyer, E. L.; Nash, J. D.; Sutherland, D. A.; Carroll, D.; Fried, M. J.; Catania, G. A.; Bartholomaus, T. C.; Stearns, L. A.


    At tidewater glaciers, plume dynamics affect submarine melting, fjord circulation, and the mixing of meltwater. Models often rely on buoyant plume theory to parameterize plumes and submarine melting; however, these parameterizations are largely untested due to a dearth of near-glacier measurements. Here we present a high-resolution ocean survey by ship and remotely operated boat near the terminus of Kangerlussuup Sermia in west Greenland. These novel observations reveal the 3-D structure and transport of a near-surface plume, originating at a large undercut conduit in the glacier terminus, that is inconsistent with axisymmetric plume theory, the most common representation of plumes in ocean-glacier models. Instead, the observations suggest a wider upwelling plume—a "truncated" line plume of ˜200 m width—with higher entrainment and plume-driven melt compared to the typical axisymmetric representation. Our results highlight the importance of a subglacial outlet's geometry in controlling plume dynamics, with implications for parameterizing the exchange flow and submarine melt in glacial fjord models.

  14. Generalization of binary tensor product schemes depends upon four parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, R.; Bari, M.; Mustafa, G.


    This article deals with general formulae of parametric and non parametric bivariate subdivision scheme with four parameters. By assigning specific values to those parameters we get some special cases of existing tensor product schemes as well as a new proposed scheme. The behavior of schemes produced by the general formulae is interpolating, approximating and relaxed. Approximating bivariate subdivision schemes produce some other surfaces as compared to interpolating bivariate subdivision schemes. Polynomial reproduction and polynomial generation are desirable properties of subdivision schemes. Capability of polynomial reproduction and polynomial generation is strongly connected with smoothness, sum rules, convergence and approximation order. We also calculate the polynomial generation and polynomial reproduction of 9-point bivariate approximating subdivision scheme. Comparison of polynomial reproduction, polynomial generation and continuity of existing and proposed schemes has also been established. Some numerical examples are also presented to show the behavior of bivariate schemes. (author)

  15. Generalization of Binary Tensor Product Schemes Depends upon Four Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robina Bashir


    Full Text Available This article deals with general formulae of parametric and non parametric bivariate subdivision scheme with four parameters. By assigning specific values to those parameters we get some special cases of existing tensor product schemes as well as a new proposed scheme. The behavior of schemes produced by the general formulae is interpolating, approximating and relaxed. Approximating bivariate subdivision schemes produce some other surfaces as compared to interpolating bivariate subdivision schemes. Polynomial reproduction and polynomial generation are desirable properties of subdivision schemes. Capability of polynomial reproduction and polynomial generation is strongly connected with smoothness, sum rules, convergence and approximation order. We also calculate the polynomial generation and polynomial reproduction of 9-point bivariate approximating subdivision scheme. Comparison of polynomial reproduction, polynomial generation and continuity of existing and proposed schemes has also been established. Some numerical examples are also presented to show the behavior of bivariate schemes.

  16. Fast engineering optimization: A novel highly effective control parameterization approach for industrial dynamic processes. (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Li, Guodong; Liu, Xinggao


    Control vector parameterization (CVP) is an important approach of the engineering optimization for the industrial dynamic processes. However, its major defect, the low optimization efficiency caused by calculating the relevant differential equations in the generated nonlinear programming (NLP) problem repeatedly, limits its wide application in the engineering optimization for the industrial dynamic processes. A novel highly effective control parameterization approach, fast-CVP, is first proposed to improve the optimization efficiency for industrial dynamic processes, where the costate gradient formulae is employed and a fast approximate scheme is presented to solve the differential equations in dynamic process simulation. Three well-known engineering optimization benchmark problems of the industrial dynamic processes are demonstrated as illustration. The research results show that the proposed fast approach achieves a fine performance that at least 90% of the computation time can be saved in contrast to the traditional CVP method, which reveals the effectiveness of the proposed fast engineering optimization approach for the industrial dynamic processes. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling late rectal toxicities based on a parameterized representation of the 3D dose distribution (United States)

    Buettner, Florian; Gulliford, Sarah L.; Webb, Steve; Partridge, Mike


    Many models exist for predicting toxicities based on dose-volume histograms (DVHs) or dose-surface histograms (DSHs). This approach has several drawbacks as firstly the reduction of the dose distribution to a histogram results in the loss of spatial information and secondly the bins of the histograms are highly correlated with each other. Furthermore, some of the complex nonlinear models proposed in the past lack a direct physical interpretation and the ability to predict probabilities rather than binary outcomes. We propose a parameterized representation of the 3D distribution of the dose to the rectal wall which explicitly includes geometrical information in the form of the eccentricity of the dose distribution as well as its lateral and longitudinal extent. We use a nonlinear kernel-based probabilistic model to predict late rectal toxicity based on the parameterized dose distribution and assessed its predictive power using data from the MRC RT01 trial (ISCTRN 47772397). The endpoints under consideration were rectal bleeding, loose stools, and a global toxicity score. We extract simple rules identifying 3D dose patterns related to a specifically low risk of complication. Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models based on parameterized representations of geometrical and volumetric measures resulted in areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.66, 0.63 and 0.67 for predicting rectal bleeding, loose stools and global toxicity, respectively. In comparison, NTCP models based on standard DVHs performed worse and resulted in AUCs of 0.59 for all three endpoints. In conclusion, we have presented low-dimensional, interpretable and nonlinear NTCP models based on the parameterized representation of the dose to the rectal wall. These models had a higher predictive power than models based on standard DVHs and their low dimensionality allowed for the identification of 3D dose patterns related to a low risk of complication.

  18. Modeling late rectal toxicities based on a parameterized representation of the 3D dose distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Florian; Gulliford, Sarah L; Webb, Steve; Partridge, Mike, E-mail: [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)


    Many models exist for predicting toxicities based on dose-volume histograms (DVHs) or dose-surface histograms (DSHs). This approach has several drawbacks as firstly the reduction of the dose distribution to a histogram results in the loss of spatial information and secondly the bins of the histograms are highly correlated with each other. Furthermore, some of the complex nonlinear models proposed in the past lack a direct physical interpretation and the ability to predict probabilities rather than binary outcomes. We propose a parameterized representation of the 3D distribution of the dose to the rectal wall which explicitly includes geometrical information in the form of the eccentricity of the dose distribution as well as its lateral and longitudinal extent. We use a nonlinear kernel-based probabilistic model to predict late rectal toxicity based on the parameterized dose distribution and assessed its predictive power using data from the MRC RT01 trial (ISCTRN 47772397). The endpoints under consideration were rectal bleeding, loose stools, and a global toxicity score. We extract simple rules identifying 3D dose patterns related to a specifically low risk of complication. Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models based on parameterized representations of geometrical and volumetric measures resulted in areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.66, 0.63 and 0.67 for predicting rectal bleeding, loose stools and global toxicity, respectively. In comparison, NTCP models based on standard DVHs performed worse and resulted in AUCs of 0.59 for all three endpoints. In conclusion, we have presented low-dimensional, interpretable and nonlinear NTCP models based on the parameterized representation of the dose to the rectal wall. These models had a higher predictive power than models based on standard DVHs and their low dimensionality allowed for the identification of 3D dose patterns related to a low risk of complication.

  19. Application of the Spectral Structure Parameterization technique: retrieval of total water vapor columns from GOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lang


    Full Text Available We use a recently proposed spectral sampling technique for measurements of atmospheric transmissions called the Spectral Structure Parameterization (SSP in order to retrieve total water vapor columns (WVC from reflectivity spectra measured by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME. SSP provides a good compromise between efficiency and speed when performing retrievals on highly structured spectra of narrow-band absorbers like water vapor. We show that SSP can be implemented in a radiative transfer scheme which treats both direct-path absorption and absorption by singly-scattered light directly. For the retrieval we exploit a ro-vibrational overtone band of water vapor located in the visible around 590 nm. We compare our results to independent values given by the data assimilation model of ECMWF. In addition, results are compared to those obtained from the more accurate, but more computationally expensive, Optical Absorption Coefficient Spectroscopy (OACS.

  20. Parameterization for subgrid-scale motion of ice-shelf calving fronts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Albrecht


    Full Text Available A parameterization for the motion of ice-shelf fronts on a Cartesian grid in finite-difference land-ice models is presented. The scheme prevents artificial thinning of the ice shelf at its edge, which occurs due to the finite resolution of the model. The intuitive numerical implementation diminishes numerical dispersion at the ice front and enables the application of physical boundary conditions to improve the calculation of stress and velocity fields throughout the ice-sheet-shelf system. Numerical properties of this subgrid modification are assessed in the Potsdam Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM-PIK for different geometries in one and two horizontal dimensions and are verified against an analytical solution in a flow-line setup.

  1. Impact of Physics Parameterization Ordering in a Global Atmosphere Model (United States)

    Donahue, Aaron S.; Caldwell, Peter M.


    Because weather and climate models must capture a wide variety of spatial and temporal scales, they rely heavily on parameterizations of subgrid-scale processes. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that the assumptions used to couple these parameterizations have an important effect on the climate of version 0 of the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) General Circulation Model (GCM), a close relative of version 1 of the Community Earth System Model (CESM1). Like most GCMs, parameterizations in E3SM are sequentially split in the sense that parameterizations are called one after another with each subsequent process feeling the effect of the preceding processes. This coupling strategy is noncommutative in the sense that the order in which processes are called impacts the solution. By examining a suite of 24 simulations with deep convection, shallow convection, macrophysics/microphysics, and radiation parameterizations reordered, process order is shown to have a big impact on predicted climate. In particular, reordering of processes induces differences in net climate feedback that are as big as the intermodel spread in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. One reason why process ordering has such a large impact is that the effect of each process is influenced by the processes preceding it. Where output is written is therefore an important control on apparent model behavior. Application of k-means clustering demonstrates that the positioning of macro/microphysics and shallow convection plays a critical role on the model solution.

  2. Advances in land modeling of KIAPS based on the Noah Land Surface Model (United States)

    Koo, Myung-Seo; Baek, Sunghye; Seol, Kyung-Hee; Cho, Kyoungmi


    As of 2013, the Noah Land Surface Model (LSM) version 2.7.1 was implemented in a new global model being developed at the Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS). This land surface scheme is further refined in two aspects, by adding new physical processes and by updating surface input parameters. Thus, the treatment of glacier land, sea ice, and snow cover are addressed more realistically. Inconsistencies in the amount of absorbed solar flux at ground level by the land surface and radiative processes are rectified. In addition, new parameters are available by using 1-km land cover data, which had usually not been possible at a global scale. Land surface albedo/emissivity climatology is newly created using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellitebased data and adjusted parameterization. These updates have been applied to the KIAPS-developed model and generally provide a positive impact on near-surface weather forecasting.

  3. Robust pre-specified time synchronization of chaotic systems by employing time-varying switching surfaces in the sliding mode control scheme (United States)

    Khanzadeh, Alireza; Pourgholi, Mahdi


    In the conventional chaos synchronization methods, the time at which two chaotic systems are synchronized, is usually unknown and depends on initial conditions. In this work based on Lyapunov stability theory a sliding mode controller with time-varying switching surfaces is proposed to achieve chaos synchronization at a pre-specified time for the first time. The proposed controller is able to synchronize chaotic systems precisely at any time when we want. Moreover, by choosing the time-varying switching surfaces in a way that the reaching phase is eliminated, the synchronization becomes robust to uncertainties and exogenous disturbances. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method of stabilizing and synchronizing chaotic systems with complete robustness to uncertainty and disturbances exactly at a pre-specified time.

  4. Robust pre-specified time synchronization of chaotic systems by employing time-varying switching surfaces in the sliding mode control scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanzadeh, Alireza; Pourgholi, Mahdi


    In the conventional chaos synchronization methods, the time at which two chaotic systems are synchronized, is usually unknown and depends on initial conditions. In this work based on Lyapunov stability theory a sliding mode controller with time-varying switching surfaces is proposed to achieve chaos synchronization at a pre-specified time for the first time. The proposed controller is able to synchronize chaotic systems precisely at any time when we want. Moreover, by choosing the time-varying switching surfaces in a way that the reaching phase is eliminated, the synchronization becomes robust to uncertainties and exogenous disturbances. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method of stabilizing and synchronizing chaotic systems with complete robustness to uncertainty and disturbances exactly at a pre-specified time. (paper)

  5. Electron Cloud Parameterization Studies in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dominguez, O; Baglin, V; Bregliozzi, G; Jimenez, J M; Metral, E; Rumolo, G; Schulte, D; Zimmermann, F


    During LHC beam commissioning with 150, 75 and 50-ns bunch spacing, important electron-cloud effects, like pressure rise, cryogenic heat load, beam instabilities or emittance growth, were observed. The main strategy to combat the LHC electron cloud, defined about ten years ago, relies on the surface conditioning arising from the chamber-surface bombardment with cloud electrons. In a standard model, the conditioning state of the beam-pipe surface is characterized by three parameters: 1. most importantly, the secondary emission yield δmax; 2. the incident electron energy at which the yield is maximum, ε_max; and 3. the probability of elastic reflection of low-energy primary electrons hitting the chamber wall, R. Since at the LHC no in-situ secondary-yield measurements are available, we compare the relative local pressure-rise measurements taken for different beam configurations against simulations in which surface parameters are scanned. This benchmarking of measurements and simulations is used to infer the s...

  6. The Mawala irrigation scheme


    de Bont, Chris


    This booklet was written to share research results with farmers and practitioners in Tanzania. It gives a summary of the empirical material collected during three months of field work in the Mawala irrigation scheme (Kilimanjaro Region), and includes maps, tables and photos. It describes the history of the irrigation scheme, as well current irrigation and farming practices. It especially focuses on the different kinds of infrastructural improvement in the scheme (by farmers and the government...

  7. Dynamic downscaling over western Himalayas: Impact of cloud microphysics schemes (United States)

    Tiwari, Sarita; Kar, Sarat C.; Bhatla, R.


    Due to lack of observation data in the region of inhomogeneous terrain of the Himalayas, detailed climate of Himalayas is still unknown. Global reanalysis data are too coarse to represent the hydroclimate over the region with sharp orography gradient in the western Himalayas. In the present study, dynamic downscaling of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) Reanalysis-Interim (ERA-I) dataset over the western Himalayas using high-resolution Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model has been carried out. Sensitivity studies have also been carried out using convection and microphysics parameterization schemes. The WRF model simulations have been compared against ERA-I and available station observations. Analysis of the results suggests that the WRF model has simulated the hydroclimate of the region well. It is found that in the simulations that the impact of convection scheme is more during summer months than in winter. Examination of simulated results using various microphysics schemes reveal that the WRF single-moment class-6 (WSM6) scheme simulates more precipitation on the upwind region of the high mountain than that in the Morrison and Thompson schemes during the winter period. Vertical distribution of various hydrometeors shows that there are large differences in mixing ratios of ice, snow and graupel in the simulations with different microphysics schemes. The ice mixing ratio in Morrison scheme is more than WSM6 above 400 hPa. The Thompson scheme favors formation of more snow than WSM6 or Morrison schemes while the Morrison scheme has more graupel formation than other schemes.

  8. Parameterized Analysis of Paging and List Update Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorrigiv, Reza; Ehmsen, Martin R.; López-Ortiz, Alejandro


    that a larger cache leads to a better performance. We also apply the parameterized analysis framework to list update and show that certain randomized algorithms which are superior to MTF in the classical model are not so in the parameterized case, which matches experimental results....... set model and express the performance of well known algorithms in terms of this parameter. This explicitly introduces parameterized-style analysis to online algorithms. The idea is that rather than normalizing the performance of an online algorithm by an (optimal) offline algorithm, we explicitly...... express the behavior of the algorithm in terms of two more natural parameters: the size of the cache and Denning’s working set measure. This technique creates a performance hierarchy of paging algorithms which better reflects their experimentally observed relative strengths. It also reflects the intuition...

  9. Sensitivity of Coupled Tropical Pacific Model Biases to Convective Parameterization in CESM1 (United States)

    Woelfle, M. D.; Yu, S.; Bretherton, C. S.; Pritchard, M. S.


    Six month coupled hindcasts show the central equatorial Pacific cold tongue bias development in a GCM to be sensitive to the atmospheric convective parameterization employed. Simulations using the standard configuration of the Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1) develop a cold bias in equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) within the first two months of integration due to anomalous ocean advection driven by overly strong easterly surface wind stress along the equator. Disabling the deep convection parameterization enhances the zonal pressure gradient leading to stronger zonal wind stress and a stronger equatorial SST bias, highlighting the role of pressure gradients in determining the strength of the cold bias. Superparameterized hindcasts show reduced SST bias in the cold tongue region due to a reduction in surface easterlies despite simulating an excessively strong low-level jet at 1-1.5 km elevation. This reflects inadequate vertical mixing of zonal momentum from the absence of convective momentum transport in the superparameterized model. Standard CESM1simulations modified to omit shallow convective momentum transport reproduce the superparameterized low-level wind bias and associated equatorial SST pattern. Further superparameterized simulations using a three-dimensional cloud resolving model capable of producing realistic momentum transport simulate a cold tongue similar to the default CESM1. These findings imply convective momentum fluxes may be an underappreciated mechanism for controlling the strength of the equatorial cold tongue. Despite the sensitivity of equatorial SST to these changes in convective parameterization, the east Pacific double-Intertropical Convergence Zone rainfall bias persists in all simulations presented in this study.

  10. Droplet Nucleation: Physically-Based Parameterizations and Comparative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Ghan


    Full Text Available One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in simulations of climate and climate change is the influence of aerosols on the optical properties of clouds. The root of this influence is the droplet nucleation process, which involves the spontaneous growth of aerosol into cloud droplets at cloud edges, during the early stages of cloud formation, and in some cases within the interior of mature clouds. Numerical models of droplet nucleation represent much of the complexity of the process, but at a computational cost that limits their application to simulations of hours or days. Physically-based parameterizations of droplet nucleation are designed to quickly estimate the number nucleated as a function of the primary controlling parameters: the aerosol number size distribution, hygroscopicity and cooling rate. Here we compare and contrast the key assumptions used in developing each of the most popular parameterizations and compare their performances under a variety of conditions. We find that the more complex parameterizations perform well under a wider variety of nucleation conditions, but all parameterizations perform well under the most common conditions. We then discuss the various applications of the parameterizations to cloud-resolving, regional and global models to study aerosol effects on clouds at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. We compare estimates of anthropogenic aerosol indirect effects using two different parameterizations applied to the same global climate model, and find that the estimates of indirect effects differ by only 10%. We conclude with a summary of the outstanding challenges remaining for further development and application.

  11. A new parameterization for waveform inversion in acoustic orthorhombic media

    KAUST Repository

    Masmoudi, Nabil


    Orthorhombic anisotropic model inversion is extra challenging because of the multiple parameter nature of the inversion problem. The high number of parameters required to describe the medium exerts considerable trade-off and additional nonlinearity to a full-waveform inversion (FWI) application. Choosing a suitable set of parameters to describe the model and designing an effective inversion strategy can help in mitigating this problem. Using the Born approximation, which is the central ingredient of the FWI update process, we have derived radiation patterns for the different acoustic orthorhombic parameterizations. Analyzing the angular dependence of scattering (radiation patterns) of the parameters of different parameterizations starting with the often used Thomsen-Tsvankin parameterization, we have assessed the potential trade-off between the parameters and the resolution in describing the data and inverting for the parameters. The analysis led us to introduce new parameters ϵd, δd, and ηd, which have azimuthally dependent radiation patterns, but keep the scattering potential of the transversely isotropic parameters stationary with azimuth (azimuth independent). The novel parameters ϵd, δd, and ηd are dimensionless and represent a measure of deviation between the vertical planes in orthorhombic anisotropy. Therefore, these deviation parameters offer a new parameterization style for an acoustic orthorhombic medium described by six parameters: three vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) parameters, two deviation parameters, and one parameter describing the anisotropy in the horizontal symmetry plane. The main feature of any parameterization based on the deviation parameters, is the azimuthal independency of the modeled data with respect to the VTI parameters, which allowed us to propose practical inversion strategies based on our experience with the VTI parameters. This feature of the new parameterization style holds for even the long-wavelength components of

  12. Parameterizing Plasmaspheric Hiss Wave Power by Plasmapause Location (United States)

    Malaspina, D.; Jaynes, A. N.; Boule, C.; Bortnik, J.; Thaller, S. A.; Ergun, R.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J. R.


    Plasmaspheric hiss is a superposition of electromagnetic whistler-mode waves largely confined within the plasmasphere, the cold plasma torus surrounding Earth. Hiss plays an important role in radiation belt dynamics by pitch angle scattering electrons for a wide range of electron energies (10's of keV to > 1 MeV) which can result in their loss to the atmosphere. This interaction is often included in predictive models of radiation belt dynamics using statistical hiss wave power distributions derived from observations. However, the traditional approach to creating these distributions parameterizes hiss power by L-parameter (e.g. MacIlwain L, dipole L, or L*) and a geomagnetic index (e.g. DST or AE). Such parameterization introduces spatial averaging of dissimilar wave power radial profiles, resulting in heavily smoothed wave power distributions. This work instead parameterizes hiss wave power distributions using plasmapause location and distance from the plasmapause. Using Van Allen Probes data and these new parameterizations, previously unreported and highly repeatable features of the hiss wave power distribution become apparent. These features include: (1) The highest amplitude hiss wave power is concentrated over a narrower range of L than previous studies have indicated, and (2) the location of the peak in hiss wave power is determined by the plasmapause location, occurring at a consistent standoff distance Earthward of the plasmapause. Based on these features, parameterizing hiss using the plasmapause location and distance from the plasmapause may shed new light on hiss generation and propagation physics, as well as serve to improve the parameterization of hiss in predictive models of the radiation belts.

  13. Evaluation of Modeling Schemes to Estimate Evapotranspiration and Root Zone Soil Water Content over Vineyard using a Scintillometer and Remotely Sensed Surface Energy Balance (United States)

    Geli, H. M. E.; Gonzalez-Piqueras, J.; Isidro, C., Sr.


    Actual crop evapotranspiration (ETa) and root zone soil water content (SMC) are key operational variable to monitor water consumption and water stress condition for improve vineyard grapes productivity and quality. This analysis, evaluates the estimation of ETa and SMC based on two modeling approaches. The first approach is a hybrid model that couples a thermal-based two source energy balance (TSEB) model (Norman et al. 1995) and water balance model to estimate the two variable (Geli 2012). The second approach is based on Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS)-based estimates of sensible heat flux. The LAS-based estimates of sensible heat fluxes were used to calculate latent heat flux as the residual of surface energy balance equation on hourly basis which was converted to daily ETa. The calculated ETa from the scintillometer was then couple with the water balance approach to provide updated ETa_LAS and SMC_LAS. Both estimates of ETa and SMC based on LAS (i.e. ETa_LAS and SMC_LAS) and TSEB (ETa_TSEB and SMC_TSEB) were compared with ground-based observation from eddy covariance and soil water content measurements at multiple depths. The study site is an irrigated vineyard located in Central Spain Primary with heterogeneous surface conditions in term of irrigation practices and the ground based observation over the vineyard were collected during the summer of 2007. Preliminary results of the inter-comparison of the two approaches suggests relatively good between both modeling approaches and ground-based observations with RMSE lower than 1.2 mm/day for ETa and lower than 20% for SMC. References Norman, J. M., Kustas, W. P., & Humes, K. S. (1995). A two-source approach for estimating soil and vegetation energy fluxes in observations of directional radiometric surface temperature. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 77, 263293. Geli, Hatim M. E. (2012). Modeling spatial surface energy fluxes of agricultural and riparian vegetation using remote sensing, Ph. D. dissertation

  14. Modelling of primary aerosols in the chemical transport model MOCAGE: development and evaluation of aerosol physical parameterizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sič


    Full Text Available This paper deals with recent improvements to the global chemical transport model of Météo-France MOCAGE (Modèle de Chimie Atmosphérique à Grande Echelle that consists of updates to different aerosol parameterizations. MOCAGE only contains primary aerosol species: desert dust, sea salt, black carbon, organic carbon, and also volcanic ash in the case of large volcanic eruptions. We introduced important changes to the aerosol parameterization concerning emissions, wet deposition and sedimentation. For the emissions, size distribution and wind calculations are modified for desert dust aerosols, and a surface sea temperature dependant source function is introduced for sea salt aerosols. Wet deposition is modified toward a more physically realistic representation by introducing re-evaporation of falling rain and snowfall scavenging and by changing the in-cloud scavenging scheme along with calculations of precipitation cloud cover and rain properties. The sedimentation scheme update includes changes regarding the stability and viscosity calculations. Independent data from satellites (MODIS, SEVIRI, the ground (AERONET, EMEP, and a model inter-comparison project (AeroCom are compared with MOCAGE simulations and show that the introduced changes brought a significant improvement on aerosol representation, properties and global distribution. Emitted quantities of desert dust and sea salt, as well their lifetimes, moved closer towards values of AeroCom estimates and the multi-model average. When comparing the model simulations with MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD observations over the oceans, the updated model configuration shows a decrease in the modified normalized mean bias (MNMB; from 0.42 to 0.10 and a better correlation (from 0.06 to 0.32 in terms of the geographical distribution and the temporal variability. The updates corrected a strong positive MNMB in the sea salt representation at high latitudes (from 0.65 to 0.16, and a negative MNMB in

  15. Surface wind mixing in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) (United States)

    Robertson, Robin; Hartlipp, Paul


    Mixing at the ocean surface is key for atmosphere-ocean interactions and the distribution of heat, energy, and gases in the upper ocean. Winds are the primary force for surface mixing. To properly simulate upper ocean dynamics and the flux of these quantities within the upper ocean, models must reproduce mixing in the upper ocean. To evaluate the performance of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) in replicating the surface mixing, the results of four different vertical mixing parameterizations were compared against observations, using the surface mixed layer depth, the temperature fields, and observed diffusivities for comparisons. The vertical mixing parameterizations investigated were Mellor- Yamada 2.5 level turbulent closure (MY), Large- McWilliams- Doney Kpp (LMD), Nakanishi- Niino (NN), and the generic length scale (GLS) schemes. This was done for one temperate site in deep water in the Eastern Pacific and three shallow water sites in the Baltic Sea. The model reproduced the surface mixed layer depth reasonably well for all sites; however, the temperature fields were reproduced well for the deep site, but not for the shallow Baltic Sea sites. In the Baltic Sea, the models overmixed the water column after a few days. Vertical temperature diffusivities were higher than those observed and did not show the temporal fluctuations present in the observations. The best performance was by NN and MY; however, MY became unstable in two of the shallow simulations with high winds. The performance of GLS nearly as good as NN and MY. LMD had the poorest performance as it generated temperature diffusivities that were too high and induced too much mixing. Further observational comparisons are needed to evaluate the effects of different stratification and wind conditions and the limitations on the vertical mixing parameterizations.

  16. A bare ground evaporation revision in the ECMWF land-surface scheme: evaluation of its impact using ground soil moisture and satellite microwave data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Albergel


    Full Text Available In situ soil moisture data from 122 stations across the United States are used to evaluate the impact of a new bare ground evaporation formulation at ECMWF. In November 2010, the bare ground evaporation used in ECMWF's operational Integrated Forecasting System (IFS was enhanced by adopting a lower stress threshold than for the vegetation, allowing a higher evaporation. It results in more realistic soil moisture values when compared to in situ data, particularly over dry areas. Use was made of the operational IFS and offline experiments for the evaluation. The latter are based on a fixed version of the IFS and make it possible to assess the impact of a single modification, while the operational analysis is based on a continuous effort to improve the analysis and modelling systems, resulting in frequent updates (a few times a year. Considering the field sites with a fraction of bare ground greater than 0.2, the root mean square difference (RMSD of soil moisture is shown to decrease from 0.118 m3 m−3 to 0.087 m3 m−3 when using the new formulation in offline experiments, and from 0.110 m3 m−3 to 0.088 m3 m−3 in operations. It also improves correlations. Additionally, the impact of the new formulation on the terrestrial microwave emission at a global scale is investigated. Realistic and dynamically consistent fields of brightness temperature as a function of the land surface conditions are required for the assimilation of the SMOS data. Brightness temperature simulated from surface fields from two offline experiments with the Community Microwave Emission Modelling (CMEM platform present monthly mean differences up to 7 K. Offline experiments with the new formulation present drier soil moisture, hence simulated brightness temperature with its surface fields are larger. They are also closer to SMOS remotely sensed brightness temperature.

  17. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia


    to carry out a campaign targeted at this segment. The awareness percentage is already 92 % and 67% of the respondents believe they know the meaning of the scheme. But it stands to reason to study whether the respondents actually know what the labelling scheme stands for or if they just think they do...

  18. Adaptive protection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sitharthan


    Full Text Available This paper aims at modelling an electronically coupled distributed energy resource with an adaptive protection scheme. The electronically coupled distributed energy resource is a microgrid framework formed by coupling the renewable energy source electronically. Further, the proposed adaptive protection scheme provides a suitable protection to the microgrid for various fault conditions irrespective of the operating mode of the microgrid: namely, grid connected mode and islanded mode. The outstanding aspect of the developed adaptive protection scheme is that it monitors the microgrid and instantly updates relay fault current according to the variations that occur in the system. The proposed adaptive protection scheme also employs auto reclosures, through which the proposed adaptive protection scheme recovers faster from the fault and thereby increases the consistency of the microgrid. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive protection is studied through the time domain simulations carried out in the PSCAD⧹EMTDC software environment.

  19. Deposition parameterizations for the Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesely, Marvin L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Doskey, Paul V. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shannon, J. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    Improved algorithms have been developed to simulate the dry and wet deposition of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) with the Industrial Source Complex version 3 (ISC3) model system. The dry deposition velocities (concentrations divided by downward flux at a specified height) of the gaseous HAPs are modeled with algorithms adapted from existing dry deposition modules. The dry deposition velocities are described in a conventional resistance scheme, for which micrometeorological formulas are applied to describe the aerodynamic resistances above the surface. Pathways to uptake at the ground and in vegetative canopies are depicted with several resistances that are affected by variations in air temperature, humidity, solar irradiance, and soil moisture. The role of soil moisture variations in affecting the uptake of gases through vegetative plant leaf stomata is assessed with the relative available soil moisture, which is estimated with a rudimentary budget of soil moisture content. Some of the procedures and equations are simplified to be commensurate with the type and extent of information on atmospheric and surface conditions available to the ISC3 model system user. For example, standardized land use types and seasonal categories provide sets of resistances to uptake by various components of the surface. To describe the dry deposition of the large number of gaseous organic HAPS, a new technique based on laboratory study results and theoretical considerations has been developed providing a means of evaluating the role of lipid solubility in uptake by the waxy outer cuticle of vegetative plant leaves.

  20. The performance of RegCM4 over the Central America and Caribbean region using different cumulus parameterizations (United States)

    Martínez-Castro, Daniel; Vichot-Llano, Alejandro; Bezanilla-Morlot, Arnoldo; Centella-Artola, Abel; Campbell, Jayaka; Giorgi, Filippo; Viloria-Holguin, Cecilia C.


    A sensitivity study of the performance of the RegCM4 regional climate model driven by the ERA Interim reanalysis is conducted for the Central America and Caribbean region. A set of numerical experiments are completed using four configurations of the model, with a horizontal grid spacing of 25 km for a period of 6 years (1998-2003), using three of the convective parameterization schemes implemented in the model, the Emanuel scheme, the Grell over land-Emanuel over ocean scheme and two configurations of the Tiedtke scheme. The objective of the study is to investigate the ability of each configuration to reproduce different characteristics of the temperature, circulation and precipitation fields for the dry and rainy seasons. All schemes simulate the general temperature and precipitation patterns over land reasonably well, with relatively high correlations compared to observation datasets, though in specific regions there are positive or negative biases, greater in the rainy season. We also focus on some circulation features relevant for the region, such as the Caribbean low level jet and sea breeze circulations over islands, which are simulated by the model with varied performance across the different configurations. We find that no model configuration assessed is best performing for all the analysis criteria selected, but the Tiedtke configurations, which include the capability of tuning in particular the exchanges between cloud and environment air, provide the most balanced range of biases across variables, with no outstanding systematic bias emerging.

  1. The use of the k - {epsilon} turbulence model within the Rossby Centre regional ocean climate model: parameterization development and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markus Meier, H.E. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Norrkoeping (Sweden). Rossby Centre


    As mixing plays a dominant role for the physics of an estuary like the Baltic Sea (seasonal heat storage, mixing in channels, deep water mixing), different mixing parameterizations for use in 3D Baltic Sea models are discussed and compared. For this purpose two different OGCMs of the Baltic Sea are utilized. Within the Swedish regional climate modeling program, SWECLIM, a 3D coupled ice-ocean model for the Baltic Sea has been coupled with an improved version of the two-equation k - {epsilon} turbulence model with corrected dissipation term, flux boundary conditions to include the effect of a turbulence enhanced layer due to breaking surface gravity waves and a parameterization for breaking internal waves. Results of multi-year simulations are compared with observations. The seasonal thermocline is simulated satisfactory and erosion of the halocline is avoided. Unsolved problems are discussed. To replace the controversial equation for dissipation the performance of a hierarchy of k-models has been tested and compared with the k - {epsilon} model. In addition, it is shown that the results of the mixing parameterization depend very much on the choice of the ocean model. Finally, the impact of two mixing parameterizations on Baltic Sea climate is investigated. In this case the sensitivity of mean SST, vertical temperature and salinity profiles, ice season and seasonal cycle of heat fluxes is quite large.

  2. Improved surface-roughness scattering and mobility models for multi-gate FETs with arbitrary cross-section and biasing scheme (United States)

    Lizzit, D.; Badami, O.; Specogna, R.; Esseni, D.


    We present a new model for surface roughness (SR) scattering in n-type multi-gate FETs (MuGFETs) and gate-all-around nanowire FETs with fairly arbitrary cross-sections, its implementation in a complete device simulator, and the validation against experimental electron mobility data. The model describes the SR scattering matrix elements as non-linear transformations of interface fluctuations, which strongly influences the root mean square value of the roughness required to reproduce experimental mobility data. Mobility simulations are performed via the deterministic solution of the Boltzmann transport equation for a 1D-electron gas and including the most relevant scattering mechanisms for electronic transport, such as acoustic, polar, and non-polar optical phonon scattering, Coulomb scattering, and SR scattering. Simulation results show the importance of accounting for arbitrary cross-sections and biasing conditions when compared to experimental data. We also discuss how mobility is affected by the shape of the cross-section as well as by its area in gate-all-around and tri-gate MuGFETs.

  3. Analysis of different atmospheric physical parameterizations in COAWST modeling system for the Tropical Storm Nock-ten application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Danqin; Du, Jianting; Hua, Feng


    the storm center area. As a result, using Kain–Fritsch cumulus scheme, Goddard shortwave radiation scheme and RRTM longwave radiation scheme in WRF may lead to much larger wind intensity, significant wave height, current intensity, as well as lower SST and sea surface pressure. Thus...... of atmosphere, ocean wave and current features were compared with storm observations, ERA-Interim data, NOAA sea surface temperature data, AVISO current data and HYCOM data, respectively. It was found that the storm track and intensity are sensitive to the cumulus and radiation schemes in WRF, especially around...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LIU,Y.; DAUM,P.H.; CHAI,S.K.; LIU,F.


    This paper consists of three parts. The first part is concerned with the parameterization of cloud microphysics in climate models. We demonstrate the crucial importance of spectral dispersion of the cloud droplet size distribution in determining radiative properties of clouds (e.g., effective radius), and underline the necessity of specifying spectral dispersion in the parameterization of cloud microphysics. It is argued that the inclusion of spectral dispersion makes the issue of cloud parameterization essentially equivalent to that of the droplet size distribution function, bringing cloud parameterization to the forefront of cloud physics. The second part is concerned with theoretical investigations into the spectral shape of droplet size distributions in cloud physics. After briefly reviewing the mainstream theories (including entrainment and mixing theories, and stochastic theories), we discuss their deficiencies and the need for a paradigm shift from reductionist approaches to systems approaches. A systems theory that has recently been formulated by utilizing ideas from statistical physics and information theory is discussed, along with the major results derived from it. It is shown that the systems formalism not only easily explains many puzzles that have been frustrating the mainstream theories, but also reveals such new phenomena as scale-dependence of cloud droplet size distributions. The third part is concerned with the potential applications of the systems theory to the specification of spectral dispersion in terms of predictable variables and scale-dependence under different fluctuating environments.

  5. Adapting Parameterized Motions using Iterative Learning and Online Collision Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Johan Sund; Sørensen, Lars Carøe; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh


    in the assembly processes. In this paper, we address the use of parameterized motions suitable for blind execution and robust to uncertainties in the assembly process. Collisions and incorrect assemblies are detected based on robot motor currents while motion parameters are updated based on Bayesian Optimization...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LIU, Y.; DAUM, P.H.; CHAI, S.K.; LIU, F.


    This paper consists of three parts. The first part is concerned with the parameterization of cloud microphysics in climate models. We demonstrate the crucial importance of spectral dispersion of the cloud droplet size distribution in determining radiative properties of clouds (e.g., effective radius), and underline the necessity of specifying spectral dispersion in the parameterization of cloud microphysics. It is argued that the inclusion of spectral dispersion makes the issue of cloud parameterization essentially equivalent to that of the droplet size distribution function, bringing cloud parameterization to the forefront of cloud physics. The second part is concerned with theoretical investigations into the spectral shape of droplet size distributions in cloud physics. After briefly reviewing the mainstream theories (including entrainment and mixing theories, and stochastic theories), we discuss their deficiencies and the need for a paradigm shift from reductionist approaches to systems approaches. A systems theory that has recently been formulated by utilizing ideas from statistical physics and information theory is discussed, along with the major results derived from it. It is shown that the systems formalism not only easily explains many puzzles that have been frustrating the mainstream theories, but also reveals such new phenomena as scale-dependence of cloud droplet size distributions. The third part is concerned with the potential applications of the systems theory to the specification of spectral dispersion in terms of predictable variables and scale-dependence under different fluctuating environments

  7. Clebsch (String) Parameterization of 3-Vectors and Their Actions


    Deser, S.; Jackiw, R.; Polychronakos, A. P.


    We discuss some properties of the intrinsically nonlinear Clebsch decomposition of a vector field into three scalars in d=3. In particular, we note and account for the incompleteness of this parameterization when attempting to use it in variational principles involving Maxwell and Chern-Simons actions. Similarities with string decomposition of metrics and their actions are also pointed out.

  8. Parameterization of movement execution in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waelvelde, H. van; Weerdt, W. de; Cock, P. de; Janssens, L.; Feys, H.; Engelsman, B.C.M.


    The Rhythmic Movement Test (RMT) evaluates temporal and amplitude parameterization and fluency of movement execution in a series of rhythmic arm movements under different sensory conditions. The RMT was used in combination with a jumping and a drawing task, to evaluate 36 children with Developmental

  9. Parameterization of movement execution in children with developmental coordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waelvelde, H. van; Weerdt, W. de; Cock, P. de; Janssens, L.; Feys, H.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.


    The Rhythmic Movement Test (RMT) evaluates temporal and amplitude parameterization and fluency of movement execution in a series of rhythmic arm movements under different sensory conditions. The RMT was used in combination with a jumping and a drawing task, to evaluate 36 children with Developmental

  10. Parameterized representation of macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiel, João Cláudio Batista; Carvalho da Silva, Fernando; Senra Martinez, Aquilino; Leal, Luiz C.


    Highlights: • This work describes a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor. • Parameterization enables a quick determination of problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few group calculations. • This work allows generating group cross-section data to perform PWR core calculations without computer code calculations. - Abstract: The purpose of this work is to describe, by means of Chebyshev polynomials, a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR fuel element as a function of soluble boron concentration, moderator temperature, fuel temperature, moderator density and 235 92 U enrichment. The cross-section data analyzed are fission, scattering, total, transport, absorption and capture. The parameterization enables a quick and easy determination of problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few group calculations. The methodology presented in this paper will allow generation of group cross-section data from stored polynomials to perform PWR core calculations without the need to generate them based on computer code calculations using standard steps. The results obtained by the proposed methodology when compared with results from the SCALE code calculations show very good agreement

  11. Impact of cloud microphysics and cumulus parameterization on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Oct 9, 2007 ... Impact of cloud microphysics and cumulus parameterization on simulation of heavy rainfall event during 7–9 October 2007 over Bangladesh. M Mahbub Alam. Theoretical Division, SAARC Meteorological Research Centre (SMRC), Dhaka, Bangladesh. Department of Physics, Khulna University of ...

  12. Collaborative Research: Using ARM Observations to Evaluate GCM Cloud Statistics for Development of Stochastic Cloud-Radiation Parameterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Samuel S. P. [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)


    The long-range goal of several past and current projects in our DOE-supported research has been the development of new and improved parameterizations of cloud-radiation effects and related processes, using ARM data, and the implementation and testing of these parameterizations in global models. The main objective of the present project being reported on here has been to develop and apply advanced statistical techniques, including Bayesian posterior estimates, to diagnose and evaluate features of both observed and simulated clouds. The research carried out under this project has been novel in two important ways. The first is that it is a key step in the development of practical stochastic cloud-radiation parameterizations, a new category of parameterizations that offers great promise for overcoming many shortcomings of conventional schemes. The second is that this work has brought powerful new tools to bear on the problem, because it has been an interdisciplinary collaboration between a meteorologist with long experience in ARM research (Somerville) and a mathematician who is an expert on a class of advanced statistical techniques that are well-suited for diagnosing model cloud simulations using ARM observations (Shen). The motivation and long-term goal underlying this work is the utilization of stochastic radiative transfer theory (Lane-Veron and Somerville, 2004; Lane et al., 2002) to develop a new class of parametric representations of cloud-radiation interactions and closely related processes for atmospheric models. The theoretical advantage of the stochastic approach is that it can accurately calculate the radiative heating rates through a broken cloud layer without requiring an exact description of the cloud geometry.

  13. Threshold Signature Schemes Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Victorovna Beresneva


    Full Text Available This work is devoted to an investigation of threshold signature schemes. The systematization of the threshold signature schemes was done, cryptographic constructions based on interpolation Lagrange polynomial, elliptic curves and bilinear pairings were examined. Different methods of generation and verification of threshold signatures were explored, the availability of practical usage of threshold schemes in mobile agents, Internet banking and e-currency was shown. The topics of further investigation were given and it could reduce a level of counterfeit electronic documents signed by a group of users.

  14. Numerical framework and performance of the new multiple-phase cloud microphysics scheme in RegCM4.5: precipitation, cloud microphysics, and cloud radiative effects (United States)

    Nogherotto, Rita; Tompkins, Adrian Mark; Giuliani, Graziano; Coppola, Erika; Giorgi, Filippo


    We implement and evaluate a new parameterization scheme for stratiform cloud microphysics and precipitation within regional climate model RegCM4. This new parameterization is based on a multiple-phase one-moment cloud microphysics scheme built upon the implicit numerical framework recently developed and implemented in the ECMWF operational forecasting model. The parameterization solves five prognostic equations for water vapour, cloud liquid water, rain, cloud ice, and snow mixing ratios. Compared to the pre-existing scheme, it allows a proper treatment of mixed-phase clouds and a more physically realistic representation of cloud microphysics and precipitation. Various fields from a 10-year long integration of RegCM4 run in tropical band mode with the new scheme are compared with their counterparts using the previous cloud scheme and are evaluated against satellite observations. In addition, an assessment using the Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) Observational Simulator Package (COSP) for a 1-year sub-period provides additional information for evaluating the cloud optical properties against satellite data. The new microphysics parameterization yields an improved simulation of cloud fields, and in particular it removes the overestimation of upper level cloud characteristics of the previous scheme, increasing the agreement with observations and leading to an amelioration of a long-standing problem in the RegCM system. The vertical cloud profile produced by the new scheme leads to a considerably improvement of the representation of the longwave and shortwave components of the cloud radiative forcing.

  15. Simulating deep convection with a shallow convection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hohenegger


    Full Text Available Convective processes profoundly affect the global water and energy balance of our planet but remain a challenge for global climate modeling. Here we develop and investigate the suitability of a unified convection scheme, capable of handling both shallow and deep convection, to simulate cases of tropical oceanic convection, mid-latitude continental convection, and maritime shallow convection. To that aim, we employ large-eddy simulations (LES as a benchmark to test and refine a unified convection scheme implemented in the Single-column Community Atmosphere Model (SCAM. Our approach is motivated by previous cloud-resolving modeling studies, which have documented the gradual transition between shallow and deep convection and its possible importance for the simulated precipitation diurnal cycle.

    Analysis of the LES reveals that differences between shallow and deep convection, regarding cloud-base properties as well as entrainment/detrainment rates, can be related to the evaporation of precipitation. Parameterizing such effects and accordingly modifying the University of Washington shallow convection scheme, it is found that the new unified scheme can represent both shallow and deep convection as well as tropical and mid-latitude continental convection. Compared to the default SCAM version, the new scheme especially improves relative humidity, cloud cover and mass flux profiles. The new unified scheme also removes the well-known too early onset and peak of convective precipitation over mid-latitude continental areas.

  16. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J


    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  17. Scheme of energy utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This scheme defines the objectives relative to the renewable energies and the rational use of the energy in the framework of the national energy policy. It evaluates the needs and the potentialities of the regions and preconizes the actions between the government and the territorial organizations. The document is presented in four parts: the situation, the stakes and forecasts; the possible actions for new measures; the scheme management and the regional contributions analysis. (A.L.B.)

  18. Convexity-preserving Bernstein–Bézier quartic scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hussain


    Full Text Available A C1 convex surface data interpolation scheme is presented to preserve the shape of scattered data arranged over a triangular grid. Bernstein–Bézier quartic function is used for interpolation. Lower bound of the boundary and inner Bézier ordinates is determined to guarantee convexity of surface. The developed scheme is flexible and involves more relaxed constraints.

  19. Global evaluation of particulate organic carbon flux parameterizations and implications for atmospheric pCO2 (United States)

    Gloege, Lucas; McKinley, Galen A.; Mouw, Colleen B.; Ciochetto, Audrey B.


    The shunt of photosynthetically derived particulate organic carbon (POC) from the euphotic zone and deep remineralization comprises the basic mechanism of the "biological carbon pump." POC raining through the "twilight zone" (euphotic depth to 1 km) and "midnight zone" (1 km to 4 km) is remineralized back to inorganic form through respiration. Accurately modeling POC flux is critical for understanding the "biological pump" and its impacts on air-sea CO2 exchange and, ultimately, long-term ocean carbon sequestration. Yet commonly used parameterizations have not been tested quantitatively against global data sets using identical modeling frameworks. Here we use a single one-dimensional physical-biogeochemical modeling framework to assess three common POC flux parameterizations in capturing POC flux observations from moored sediment traps and thorium-234 depletion. The exponential decay, Martin curve, and ballast model are compared to data from 11 biogeochemical provinces distributed across the globe. In each province, the model captures satellite-based estimates of surface primary production within uncertainties. Goodness of fit is measured by how well the simulation captures the observations, quantified by bias and the root-mean-square error and displayed using "target diagrams." Comparisons are presented separately for the twilight zone and midnight zone. We find that the ballast hypothesis shows no improvement over a globally or regionally parameterized Martin curve. For all provinces taken together, Martin's b that best fits the data is [0.70, 0.98]; this finding reduces by at least a factor of 3 previous estimates of potential impacts on atmospheric pCO2 of uncertainty in POC export to a more modest range [-16 ppm, +12 ppm].

  20. Testing longwave radiation parameterizations under clear and overcast skies at Storglaciären, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sedlar


    Full Text Available Energy balance based glacier melt models require accurate estimates of incoming longwave radiation but direct measurements are often not available. Multi-year near-surface meteorological data from Storglaciären, Northern Sweden, were used to evaluate commonly used longwave radiation parameterizations in a glacier environment under clear-sky and all-sky conditions. Parameterizations depending solely on air temperature performed worse than those which include water vapor pressure. All models tended to overestimate incoming longwave radiation during periods of low longwave radiation, while incoming longwave was underestimated when radiation was high. Under all-sky conditions root mean square error (RMSE and mean bias error (MBE were 17 to 20 W m−2 and −5 to 1 W m−2, respectively. Two attempts were made to circumvent the need of cloud cover data. First cloud fraction was parameterized as a function of the ratio, τ, of measured incoming shortwave radiation and calculated top of atmosphere radiation. Second, τ was related directly to the cloud factor (i.e. the increase in sky emissivity due to clouds. Despite large scatter between τ and both cloud fraction and the cloud factor, resulting calculations of hourly incoming longwave radiation for both approaches were only slightly more variable with RMSE roughly 3 W m−2 larger compared to using cloud observations as input. This is promising for longwave radiation modeling in areas where shortwave radiation data are available but cloud observations are not.

  1. Modeling parameterized geometry in GPU-based Monte Carlo particle transport simulation for radiotherapy. (United States)

    Chi, Yujie; Tian, Zhen; Jia, Xun


    Monte Carlo (MC) particle transport simulation on a graphics-processing unit (GPU) platform has been extensively studied recently due to the efficiency advantage achieved via massive parallelization. Almost all of the existing GPU-based MC packages were developed for voxelized geometry. This limited application scope of these packages. The purpose of this paper is to develop a module to model parametric geometry and integrate it in GPU-based MC simulations. In our module, each continuous region was defined by its bounding surfaces that were parameterized by quadratic functions. Particle navigation functions in this geometry were developed. The module was incorporated to two previously developed GPU-based MC packages and was tested in two example problems: (1) low energy photon transport simulation in a brachytherapy case with a shielded cylinder applicator and (2) MeV coupled photon/electron transport simulation in a phantom containing several inserts of different shapes. In both cases, the calculated dose distributions agreed well with those calculated in the corresponding voxelized geometry. The averaged dose differences were 1.03% and 0.29%, respectively. We also used the developed package to perform simulations of a Varian VS 2000 brachytherapy source and generated a phase-space file. The computation time under the parameterized geometry depended on the memory location storing the geometry data. When the data was stored in GPU's shared memory, the highest computational speed was achieved. Incorporation of parameterized geometry yielded a computation time that was ~3 times of that in the corresponding voxelized geometry. We also developed a strategy to use an auxiliary index array to reduce frequency of geometry calculations and hence improve efficiency. With this strategy, the computational time ranged in 1.75-2.03 times of the voxelized geometry for coupled photon/electron transport depending on the voxel dimension of the auxiliary index array, and in 0

  2. Evaluating and constraining ice cloud parameterizations in CAM5 using aircraft measurements from the SPARTICUS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zhang


    Full Text Available This study uses aircraft measurements of relative humidity and ice crystal size distribution collected during the SPARTICUS (Small PARTicles In CirrUS field campaign to evaluate and constrain ice cloud parameterizations in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5. About 200 h of data were collected during the campaign between January and June 2010, providing the longest aircraft measurements available so far for cirrus clouds in the midlatitudes. The probability density function (PDF of ice crystal number concentration (Ni derived from the high-frequency (1 Hz measurements features a strong dependence on ambient temperature. As temperature decreases from −35 °C to −62 °C, the peak in the PDF shifts from 10–20 L−1 to 200–1000 L−1, while Ni shows a factor of 6–7 increase. Model simulations are performed with two different ice nucleation schemes for pure ice-phase clouds. One of the schemes can reproduce a clear increase of Ni with decreasing temperature by using either an observation-based ice nuclei spectrum or a classical-theory-based spectrum with a relatively low (5–10% maximum freezing ratio for dust aerosols. The simulation with the other scheme, which assumes a high maximum freezing ratio (100%, shows much weaker temperature dependence of Ni. Simulations are also performed to test empirical parameters related to water vapor deposition and the autoconversion of ice crystals to snow. Results show that a value between 0.05 and 0.1 for the water vapor deposition coefficient, and 250 μm for the critical diameter that distinguishes ice crystals from snow, can produce good agreement between model simulation and the SPARTICUS measurements in terms of Ni and effective radius. The climate impact of perturbing these parameters is also discussed.

  3. Parameterizations for Cloud Overlapping and Shortwave Single-Scattering Properties for Use in General Circulation and Cloud Ensemble Models. (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Suarez, Max J.; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Yan, Michael M.-H.; Lee, Kyu-Tae


    Parameterizations for cloud single-scattering properties and the scaling of optical thickness in a partial cloudiness condition have been developed for use in atmospheric models. Cloud optical properties are parameterized for four broad bands in the solar (or shortwave) spectrum; one in the ultraviolet and visible region and three in the infrared region. The extinction coefficient, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor are parameterized separately for ice and water clouds. Based on high spectral-resolution calculations, the effective single-scattering coalbedo of a broad band is determined such that errors in the fluxes at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface are minimized. This parameterization introduces errors of a few percent in the absorption of shortwave radiation in the atmosphere and at the surface.Scaling of the optical thickness is based on the maximum-random cloud-overlapping approximation. The atmosphere is divided into three height groups separated approximately by the 400- and 700-mb levels. Clouds are assumed maximally overlapped within each height group and randomly overlapped among different groups. The scaling is applied only to the maximally overlapped cloud layers in individual height groups. The scaling as a function of the optical thickness, cloud amount, and the solar zenith angle is derived from detailed calculations and empirically adjusted to minimize errors in the fluxes at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface. Different scaling is used for direct and diffuse radiation. Except for a large solar zenith angle, the error in fluxes introduced by the scaling is only a few percent. In terms of absolute error, it is within a few watts per square meter.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    A parameterization of linear coupling in action-angle coordinates is convenient for analytical calculations and interpretation of turn-by-turn (TBT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. We demonstrate how to use this parameterization to extract the twiss and coupling parameters in interaction regions (IRs), using BPMs on each side of the long IR drift region. The example of TBT BPM analysis was acquired at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), using an AC dipole to excite a single eigenmode. Besides the full treatment, a fast estimate of beta*, the beta function at the interaction point (IP), is provided, along with the phase advance between these BPMs. We also calculate and measure the waist of the beta function and the local optics

  5. Elastic FWI for VTI media: A synthetic parameterization study

    KAUST Repository

    Kamath, Nishant


    A major challenge for multiparameter full-waveform inversion (FWI) is the inherent trade-offs (or cross-talk) between model parameters. Here, we perform FWI of multicomponent data generated for a synthetic VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) model based on a geologic section of the Valhall field. A horizontal displacement source, which excites intensive shear waves in the conventional offset range, helps provide more accurate updates to the SV-wave vertical velocity. We test three model parameterizations, which exhibit different radiation patterns and, therefore, create different parameter trade-offs. The results show that the choice of parameterization for FWI depends on the availability of long-offset data, the quality of the initial model for the anisotropy coefficients, and the parameter that needs to be resolved with the highest accuracy.

  6. Parameterized Complexity of k-Anonymity: Hardness and Tractability (United States)

    Bonizzoni, Paola; Della Vedova, Gianluca; Dondi, Riccardo; Pirola, Yuri

    The problem of publishing personal data without giving up privacy is becoming increasingly important. A precise formalization that has been recently proposed is the k-anonymity, where the rows of a table are partitioned in clusters of size at least k and all rows in a cluster become the same tuple after the suppression of some entries. The natural optimization problem, where the goal is to minimize the number of suppressed entries, is hard even when the stored values are over a binary alphabet or the table consists of a bounded number of columns. In this paper we study how the complexity of the problem is influenced by different parameters. First we show that the problem is W[1]-hard when parameterized by the value of the solution (and k). Then we exhibit a fixed-parameter algorithm when the problem is parameterized by the number of columns and the number of different values in any column.

  7. Vector and axial nucleon form factors: A duality constrained parameterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodek, A.; Avvakumov, S.; Bradford, R.; Budd, H.


    We present new parameterizations of vector and axial nucleon form factors. We maintain an excellent descriptions of the form factors at low momentum transfers, where the spatial structure of the nucleon is important, and use the Nachtman scaling variable ξ to relate elastic and inelastic form factors and impose quark-hadron duality constraints at high momentum transfers where the quark structure dominates. We use the new vector form factors to re-extract updated values of the axial form factor from neutrino experiments on deuterium. We obtain an updated world average value from ν μ d and pion electroproduction experiments of M A =1.014±0.014 GeV/c 2 . Our parameterizations are useful in modeling neutrino interactions at low energies (e.g. for neutrino oscillations experiments). The predictions for high momentum transfers can be tested in the next generation electron and neutrino scattering experiments. (orig.)

  8. Parameterization of Process Characteristics along the Danish Shores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabuth, Alina Kristin

    This study deals with coastal process characteristics in Denmark, and targets at a morphodynamic parameterization with specific focus on the low-wave energetic, micro-tidal inner Danish seas. Historical shoreline change rates were quantified in a countrywide GIS-based study based on topographic...... maps embracing the past century. The computed shoreline-change rates were connected with a simple onshore and offshore coastal slope classification, and the observed coastal processes were parameterized by means of the directional distribution of incident wave-energy fluxes in local 5-years hindcast...... wave climates. The countrywide overview of historical shoreline changes showed that ongoing shoreline straightening with a high alongshore variability of accretion and erosion was a dominant process especially in the sheltered parts of the inner Danish seas. Directional wave-climate parameters were...

  9. submitter Data-driven RBE parameterization for helium ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Mairani, A; Dokic, I; Valle, S M; Tessonnier, T; Galm, R; Ciocca, M; Parodi, K; Ferrari, A; Jäkel, O; Haberer, T; Pedroni, P; Böhlen, T T


    Helium ion beams are expected to be available again in the near future for clinical use. A suitable formalism to obtain relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for treatment planning (TP) studies is needed. In this work we developed a data-driven RBE parameterization based on published in vitro experimental values. The RBE parameterization has been developed within the framework of the linear-quadratic (LQ) model as a function of the helium linear energy transfer (LET), dose and the tissue specific parameter ${{(\\alpha /\\beta )}_{\\text{ph}}}$ of the LQ model for the reference radiation. Analytic expressions are provided, derived from the collected database, describing the $\\text{RB}{{\\text{E}}_{\\alpha}}={{\\alpha}_{\\text{He}}}/{{\\alpha}_{\\text{ph}}}$ and ${{\\text{R}}_{\\beta}}={{\\beta}_{\\text{He}}}/{{\\beta}_{\\text{ph}}}$ ratios as a function of LET. Calculated RBE values at 2 Gy photon dose and at 10% survival ($\\text{RB}{{\\text{E}}_{10}}$ ) are compared with the experimental ones. Pearson's correlati...

  10. Observed and simulated effect of plant physiology and structure on land surface energy fluxes and soil conditions (United States)

    Lu, Yen-Sen; Rihani, Jehan; Langensiepen, Matthias; Simmer, Clemens


    The parameterization of stomatal conductance and leaf area index (LAI) in land surface models largely influence simulated terrestrial system states. While stomatal conductance mainly controls transpiration, latent heat flux, and root-water-uptake, LAI impacts additionally the radiative energy exchange. Thus both affect canopy evaporation and transpiration and land surface energy and water fluxes as a whole. Common parameterizations of stomatal conductance follow either semi-mechanistic forms based on photosynthesis (Ball-Berry Type (BB)) or forms which consider environmental factors such as impact of light, temperature, humidity and soil moisture (Jarvis-Stewart Type (JS)). Both approaches differ also in the interpretation of humidity effects and light-use efficiency. While soil moisture plays an important role for root-water-uptake there is no clear conclusion yet about how soil moisture interacts with stomata activity. Values for LAI can be obtained from field measurements, satellite estimates or modelling and are used as an essential model input. While field measurements are very time consuming and only represent single points, satellite estimates may have biases caused by variable albedo and sensor limitations. Representing LAI within land surface models requires complex schemes in order to represent all processes contributing to plant growth. We use the Terrestrial System Modelling Platform (TerrSysMP) over the Rur watershed in Germany for studying the influence of plant physiology and structure on the state of the terrestrial system. The Transregional Collaborative Research Center 32 (TR32) extensively monitors this catchment for almost a decade. The land surface (CLM3.5) and the subsurface (ParFlow) modules of TerrSysMP are conditioned based on satellite-retrieved land cover and the soil map from FAO and forced with a high-resolution reanalysis by DWD. For studying the effect of plant physiology, the Ball-Berry-Leuning, and Jarvis-Stewart stomatal

  11. Understanding and Improving Ocean Mixing Parameterizations for modeling Climate Change (United States)

    Howard, A. M.; Fells, J.; Clarke, J.; Cheng, Y.; Canuto, V.; Dubovikov, M. S.


    Climate is vital. Earth is only habitable due to the atmosphere&oceans' distribution of energy. Our Greenhouse Gas emissions shift overall the balance between absorbed and emitted radiation causing Global Warming. How much of these emissions are stored in the ocean vs. entering the atmosphere to cause warming and how the extra heat is distributed depends on atmosphere&ocean dynamics, which we must understand to know risks of both progressive Climate Change and Climate Variability which affect us all in many ways including extreme weather, floods, droughts, sea-level rise and ecosystem disruption. Citizens must be informed to make decisions such as "business as usual" vs. mitigating emissions to avert catastrophe. Simulations of Climate Change provide needed knowledge but in turn need reliable parameterizations of key physical processes, including ocean mixing, which greatly impacts transport&storage of heat and dissolved CO2. The turbulence group at NASA-GISS seeks to use physical theory to improve parameterizations of ocean mixing, including smallscale convective, shear driven, double diffusive, internal wave and tidal driven vertical mixing, as well as mixing by submesoscale eddies, and lateral mixing along isopycnals by mesoscale eddies. Medgar Evers undergraduates aid NASA research while learning climate science and developing computer&math skills. We write our own programs in MATLAB and FORTRAN to visualize and process output of ocean simulations including producing statistics to help judge impacts of different parameterizations on fidelity in reproducing realistic temperatures&salinities, diffusivities and turbulent power. The results can help upgrade the parameterizations. Students are introduced to complex system modeling and gain deeper appreciation of climate science and programming skills, while furthering climate science. We are incorporating climate projects into the Medgar Evers college curriculum. The PI is both a member of the turbulence group at

  12. Robust parameterization of elastic and absorptive electron atomic scattering factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, L.M.; Ren, G.; Dudarev, S.L.; Whelan, M.J.


    A robust algorithm and computer program have been developed for the parameterization of elastic and absorptive electron atomic scattering factors. The algorithm is based on a combined modified simulated-annealing and least-squares method, and the computer program works well for fitting both elastic and absorptive atomic scattering factors with five Gaussians. As an application of this program, the elastic electron atomic scattering factors have been parameterized for all neutral atoms and for s up to 6 A -1 . Error analysis shows that the present results are considerably more accurate than the previous analytical fits in terms of the mean square value of the deviation between the numerical and fitted scattering factors. Parameterization for absorptive atomic scattering factors has been made for 17 important materials with the zinc blende structure over the temperature range 1 to 1000 K, where appropriate, and for temperature ranges for which accurate Debye-Waller factors are available. For other materials, the parameterization of the absorptive electron atomic scattering factors can be made using the program by supplying the atomic number of the element, the Debye-Waller factor and the acceleration voltage. For ions or when more accurate numerical results for neutral atoms are available, the program can read in the numerical values of the elastic scattering factors and return the parameters for both the elastic and absorptive scattering factors. The computer routines developed have been tested both on computer workstations and desktop PC computers, and will be made freely available via electronic mail or on floppy disk upon request. (orig.)

  13. Development and evaluation of a physics-based windblown dust emission scheme implemented in the CMAQ modeling system (United States)

    A new windblown dust emission treatment was incorporated in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. This new model treatment has been built upon previously developed physics-based parameterization schemes from the literature. A distinct and novel feature of t...

  14. Computational evaluation of convection schemes in fluid dynamics problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Laerte Natti


    Full Text Available This article provides a computational evaluation of the popular high resolution upwind WACEB, CUBISTA and ADBQUICKEST schemes for solving non-linear fluid dynamics problems. By using the finite difference methodology, the schemes are analyzed and implemented in the context of normalized variables of Leonard. In order to access the performance of the schemes, Riemann problems for 1D Burgers, Euler and shallow water equations are considered. From the numerical results, the schemes are ranked according to their performance in solving these non-linear equations. The best scheme is then applied in the numerical simulation of tridimensional incompressible moving free surface flows.

  15. Intensity-dependent parameterization of elevation effects in precipitation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Haiden


    Full Text Available Elevation effects in long-term (monthly to inter-annual precipitation data have been widely studied and are taken into account in the regionalization of point-like precipitation amounts by using methods like external drift kriging and cokriging. On the daily or hourly time scale, precipitation-elevation gradients are more variable, and difficult to parameterize. For example, application of the annual relative precipitation-elevation gradient to each 12-h sub-period reproduces the annual total, but at the cost of a large root-mean-square error. If the precipitation-elevation gradient is parameterized as a function of precipitation rate, the error can be substantially reduced. It is shown that the form of the parameterization suggested by the observations conforms to what one would expect based on the physics of the orographic precipitation process (the seeder-feeder mechanism. At low precipitation rates, orographic precipitation is "conversion-limited", thus increasing roughly linearly with precipitation rate. At higher rates, orographic precipitation becomes "condensation-limited" thus leading to an additive rather than multiplicative orographic precipitation enhancement. Also it is found that for large elevation differences it becomes increasingly important to take into account those events where the mountain station receives precipitation but the valley station remains dry.

  16. Parameterizing the Spatial Markov Model From Breakthrough Curve Data Alone (United States)

    Sherman, Thomas; Fakhari, Abbas; Miller, Savannah; Singha, Kamini; Bolster, Diogo


    The spatial Markov model (SMM) is an upscaled Lagrangian model that effectively captures anomalous transport across a diverse range of hydrologic systems. The distinct feature of the SMM relative to other random walk models is that successive steps are correlated. To date, with some notable exceptions, the model has primarily been applied to data from high-resolution numerical simulations and correlation effects have been measured from simulated particle trajectories. In real systems such knowledge is practically unattainable and the best one might hope for is breakthrough curves (BTCs) at successive downstream locations. We introduce a novel methodology to quantify velocity correlation from BTC data alone. By discretizing two measured BTCs into a set of arrival times and developing an inverse model, we estimate velocity correlation, thereby enabling parameterization of the SMM in studies where detailed Lagrangian velocity statistics are unavailable. The proposed methodology is applied to two synthetic numerical problems, where we measure all details and thus test the veracity of the approach by comparison of estimated parameters with known simulated values. Our results suggest that our estimated transition probabilities agree with simulated values and using the SMM with this estimated parameterization accurately predicts BTCs downstream. Our methodology naturally allows for estimates of uncertainty by calculating lower and upper bounds of velocity correlation, enabling prediction of a range of BTCs. The measured BTCs fall within the range of predicted BTCs. This novel method to parameterize the SMM from BTC data alone is quite parsimonious, thereby widening the SMM's practical applicability.

  17. Air quality modeling: evaluation of chemical and meteorological parameterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngseob


    The influence of chemical mechanisms and meteorological parameterizations on pollutant concentrations calculated with an air quality model is studied. The influence of the differences between two gas-phase chemical mechanisms on the formation of ozone and aerosols in Europe is low on average. For ozone, the large local differences are mainly due to the uncertainty associated with the kinetics of nitrogen monoxide (NO) oxidation reactions on the one hand and the representation of different pathways for the oxidation of aromatic compounds on the other hand. The aerosol concentrations are mainly influenced by the selection of all major precursors of secondary aerosols and the explicit treatment of chemical regimes corresponding to the nitrogen oxides (NO x ) levels. The influence of the meteorological parameterizations on the concentrations of aerosols and their vertical distribution is evaluated over the Paris region in France by comparison to lidar data. The influence of the parameterization of the dynamics in the atmospheric boundary layer is important; however, it is the use of an urban canopy model that improves significantly the modeling of the pollutant vertical distribution (author) [fr

  18. Parameterized Shower Simulation in Lelaps: a Comparison with Geant4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langeveld, Willy G.J.


    The detector simulation toolkit Lelaps[1] simulates electromagnetic and hadronic showers in calorimetric detector elements of high-energy particle detectors using a parameterization based on the algorithms originally developed by Grindhammer and Peters[2] and Bock et al.[3]. The primary motivations of the present paper are to verify the implementation of the parameterization, to explore regions of energy where the parameterization is valid and to serve as a basis for further improvement of the algorithm. To this end, we compared the Lelaps simulation to a detailed simulation provided by Geant4[4]. A number of different calorimeters, both electromagnetic and hadronic, were implemented in both programs. Longitudinal and radial shower profiles and their fluctuations were obtained from Geant4 over a wide energy range and compared with those obtained from Lelaps. Generally the longitudinal shower profiles are found to be in good agreement in a large part of the energy range, with poorer results at energies below about 300 MeV. Radial profiles agree well in homogeneous detectors, but are somewhat deficient in segmented ones. These deficiencies are discussed.

  19. Climate Impacts of Fire-Induced Land-Surface Changes (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Hao, X.; Qu, J. J.


    One of the consequences of wildfires is the changes in land-surface properties such as removal of vegetation. This will change local and regional climate through modifying the land-air heat and water fluxes. This study investigates mechanism by developing and a parameterization of fire-induced land-surface property changes and applying it to modeling of the climate impacts of large wildfires in the United States. Satellite remote sensing was used to quantitatively evaluate the land-surface changes from large fires provided from the Monitoring Trends in Burning Severity (MTBS) dataset. It was found that the changes in land-surface properties induced by fires are very complex, depending on vegetation type and coverage, climate type, season and time after fires. The changes in LAI are remarkable only if the actual values meet a threshold. Large albedo changes occur in winter for fires in cool climate regions. The signs are opposite between the first post-fire year and the following years. Summer day-time temperature increases after fires, while nigh-time temperature changes in various patterns. The changes are larger in forested lands than shrub / grassland lands. In the parameterization scheme, the detected post-fire changes are decomposed into trends using natural exponential functions and fluctuations of periodic variations with the amplitudes also determined by natural exponential functions. The final algorithm is a combination of the trends, periods, and amplitude functions. This scheme is used with Earth system models to simulate the local and regional climate effects of wildfires.

  20. Compact Spreader Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J. -Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.


    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  1. Compact spreader schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J.-Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C., E-mail:


    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  2. Influences of in-cloud aerosol scavenging parameterizations on aerosol concentrations and wet deposition in ECHAM5-HAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Croft


    Full Text Available A diagnostic cloud nucleation scavenging scheme, which determines stratiform cloud scavenging ratios for both aerosol mass and number distributions, based on cloud droplet, and ice crystal number concentrations, is introduced into the ECHAM5-HAM global climate model. This scheme is coupled with a size-dependent in-cloud impaction scavenging parameterization for both cloud droplet-aerosol, and ice crystal-aerosol collisions. The aerosol mass scavenged in stratiform clouds is found to be primarily (>90% scavenged by cloud nucleation processes for all aerosol species, except for dust (50%. The aerosol number scavenged is primarily (>90% attributed to impaction. 99% of this impaction scavenging occurs in clouds with temperatures less than 273 K. Sensitivity studies are presented, which compare aerosol concentrations, burdens, and deposition for a variety of in-cloud scavenging approaches: prescribed fractions, a more computationally expensive prognostic aerosol cloud processing treatment, and the new diagnostic scheme, also with modified assumptions about in-cloud impaction and nucleation scavenging. Our results show that while uncertainties in the representation of in-cloud scavenging processes can lead to differences in the range of 20–30% for the predicted annual, global mean aerosol mass burdens, and near to 50% for accumulation mode aerosol number burden, the differences in predicted aerosol mass concentrations can be up to one order of magnitude, particularly for regions of the middle troposphere with temperatures below 273 K where mixed and ice phase clouds exist. Different parameterizations for impaction scavenging changed the predicted global, annual mean number removal attributed to ice clouds by seven-fold, and the global, annual dust mass removal attributed to impaction by two orders of magnitude. Closer agreement with observations of black carbon profiles from aircraft (increases near to one order of magnitude for mixed phase clouds

  3. A parameterization method and application in breast tomosynthesis dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xinhua; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob [Division of Diagnostic Imaging Physics and Webster Center for Advanced Research and Education in Radiation, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)


    Purpose: To present a parameterization method based on singular value decomposition (SVD), and to provide analytical parameterization of the mean glandular dose (MGD) conversion factors from eight references for evaluating breast tomosynthesis dose in the Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA) protocol and in the UK, European, and IAEA dosimetry protocols.Methods: MGD conversion factor is usually listed in lookup tables for the factors such as beam quality, breast thickness, breast glandularity, and projection angle. The authors analyzed multiple sets of MGD conversion factors from the Hologic Selenia Dimensions quality control manual and seven previous papers. Each data set was parameterized using a one- to three-dimensional polynomial function of 2–16 terms. Variable substitution was used to improve accuracy. A least-squares fit was conducted using the SVD.Results: The differences between the originally tabulated MGD conversion factors and the results computed using the parameterization algorithms were (a) 0.08%–0.18% on average and 1.31% maximum for the Selenia Dimensions quality control manual, (b) 0.09%–0.66% on average and 2.97% maximum for the published data by Dance et al. [Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1211–1219 (1990); ibid. 45, 3225–3240 (2000); ibid. 54, 4361–4372 (2009); ibid. 56, 453–471 (2011)], (c) 0.74%–0.99% on average and 3.94% maximum for the published data by Sechopoulos et al. [Med. Phys. 34, 221–232 (2007); J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys. 9, 161–171 (2008)], and (d) 0.66%–1.33% on average and 2.72% maximum for the published data by Feng and Sechopoulos [Radiology 263, 35–42 (2012)], excluding one sample in (d) that does not follow the trends in the published data table.Conclusions: A flexible parameterization method is presented in this paper, and was applied to breast tomosynthesis dosimetry. The resultant data offer easy and accurate computations of MGD conversion factors for evaluating mean glandular breast dose in the MQSA

  4. Parameterization of Time-Averaged Suspended Sediment Concentration in the Nearshore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Doug Yoon


    Full Text Available To quantify the effect of wave breaking turbulence on sediment transport in the nearshore, the vertical distribution of time-averaged suspended sediment concentration (SSC in the surf zone was parameterized in terms of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE at different cross-shore locations, including the bar crest, bar trough, and inner surf zone. Using data from a large-scale laboratory experiment, a simple relationship was developed between the time-averaged SSC and the time-averaged TKE. The vertical variation of the time-averaged SSC was fitted to an equation analogous to the turbulent dissipation rate term. At the bar crest, the proposed equation was slightly modified to incorporate the effect of near-bed sediment processes and yielded reasonable agreement. This parameterization yielded the best agreement at the bar trough, with a coefficient of determination R2 ≥ 0.72 above the bottom boundary layer. The time-averaged SSC in the inner surf zone showed good agreement near the bed but poor agreement near the water surface, suggesting that there is a different sedimentation mechanism that controls the SSC in the inner surf zone.

  5. The exploration of nonlinear elasticity and its efficient parameterization for crystalline materials (United States)

    Thomas, John C.; Van der Ven, Anton


    Conventional approaches to analyzing the very large coherency strains that can occur during solid-state phase transformations are founded in linear elasticity and rely on infinitesimal strain metrics. Despite this, there are many technologically important examples where misfit strains of multi-phase mixtures are very large during their synthesis and/or application. In this paper, we present a framework for constructing strain-energy expressions and stress-strain relationships beyond the linear-elastic limit for crystalline solids. This approach utilizes group theoretical concepts to minimize both the number of free parameters in the strain-energy expression and amount of first-principles training data required to parameterize strain-energy models that are invariant to all crystal symmetries. Within this framework, the strain-energy and elastic stiffness can be described to high accuracy in terms of a set of conventional symmetry-adapted finite strain metrics that we define independent of crystal symmetry. As an illustration, we use first-principles electronic structure data to parameterize strain energy polynomials and employ them to explore the strain-energy surfaces of HCP Zr and Mg, as well as several important Zr-H and Mg-Nd phases that are known to precipitate coherently within the HCP matrices of Zr and Mg.

  6. Developmentof improved basal friction parameterizations using ISSM: Preliminary results for Greenland's Jakobshavn Ice Stream (United States)

    Halkides, D. J.; Larour, E.; Morlighem, M.; Seroussi, H.


    In ice flow models, the basal friction law links velocity at the ice-bed interface to drag at the glacial base. Accurate ice stream simulation relies on parameterization of this relationship, but basal drag cannot be measured observationally, remaining a key unknown in ice flow modeling. The Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), developed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in collaboration with UC Irvine, is a state of the art, finite-element model capable of simulating 3-D transient ice flow on an anisotropic mesh and incorporating data assimilation through use of inverse control methods. As part of a larger development effort to improve simulation/understanding of ice sheet evolution in Greenland and Antarctica, we present preliminary results from ISSM for the sensitivity of Greenland's Jakobshavn ice stream to a range of friction law parameterizations, with model-data comparisons for the surface flow field. This work has implications for ice sheet model development and understanding of ice sheet slippage events. This work was performed at JPL under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Modeling, Analysis and Prediction (MAP) Program.

  7. Structural optimization of Ag-Pd clusters based on different potential parameterizations (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Wu, Yiping; Kai, Xiaoming; Wu, Genhua; Chen, Youcun


    The putative stable structures of bimetallic Ag-Pd clusters are investigated. Gupta potential is applied to describe the interatomic interactions in Ag-Pd clusters. Experimental-fitted parameters and density-functional-theory (DFT)-fitted parameters are used to determine the lowest energy structures. Global optimization of Ag mPd n ( m + n = 15) and Ag 3mPd 38-3m ( m = 1-12) clusters is performed using adaptive immune optimization algorithm (AIOA). The growth rules of Ag-Pd clusters for both sets of parameterizations are studied, and the differences of structures and excess energies are compared. With the order parameters adopted to show the atomic distribution in the clusters, it is shown that for both parameterized clusters silver atoms have strong tendencies towards segregating at the surface of the structures. However, for both potentials, the atomic distribution of Ag and Pd atoms in Ag-Pd clusters is different because of the geometrical and symmetrical difference.

  8. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Design of Wing-Body Configuration Using a Hybrid FFD-RBF Parameterization Approach (United States)

    Liu, Yuefeng; Duan, Zhuoyi; Chen, Song


    Aerodynamic shape optimization design aiming at improving the efficiency of an aircraft has always been a challenging task, especially when the configuration is complex. In this paper, a hybrid FFD-RBF surface parameterization approach has been proposed for designing a civil transport wing-body configuration. This approach is simple and efficient, with the FFD technique used for parameterizing the wing shape and the RBF interpolation approach used for handling the wing body junction part updating. Furthermore, combined with Cuckoo Search algorithm and Kriging surrogate model with expected improvement adaptive sampling criterion, an aerodynamic shape optimization design system has been established. Finally, the aerodynamic shape optimization design on DLR F4 wing-body configuration has been carried out as a study case, and the result has shown that the approach proposed in this paper is of good effectiveness.

  9. Model parameterization to simulate and compare the PAR absorption potential of two competing plant species. (United States)

    Bendix, Jörg; Silva, Brenner; Roos, Kristin; Göttlicher, Dietrich Otto; Rollenbeck, Rütger; Nauss, Thomas; Beck, Erwin


    Mountain pastures dominated by the pasture grass Setaria sphacelata in the Andes of southern Ecuador are heavily infested by southern bracken (Pteridium arachnoideum), a major problem for pasture management. Field observations suggest that bracken might outcompete the grass due to its competitive strength with regard to the absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). To understand the PAR absorption potential of both species, the aims of the current paper are to (1) parameterize a radiation scheme of a two-big-leaf model by deriving structural (LAI, leaf angle parameter) and optical (leaf albedo, transmittance) plant traits for average individuals from field surveys, (2) to initialize the properly parameterized radiation scheme with realistic global irradiation conditions of the Rio San Francisco Valley in the Andes of southern Ecuador, and (3) to compare the PAR absorption capabilities of both species under typical local weather conditions. Field data show that bracken reveals a slightly higher average leaf area index (LAI) and more horizontally oriented leaves in comparison to Setaria. Spectrometer measurements reveal that bracken and Setaria are characterized by a similar average leaf absorptance. Simulations with the average diurnal course of incoming solar radiation (1998-2005) and the mean leaf-sun geometry reveal that PAR absorption is fairly equal for both species. However, the comparison of typical clear and overcast days show that two parameters, (1) the relation of incoming diffuse and direct irradiance, and (2) the leaf-sun geometry play a major role for PAR absorption in the two-big-leaf approach: Under cloudy sky conditions (mainly diffuse irradiance), PAR absorption is slightly higher for Setaria while under clear sky conditions (mainly direct irradiance), the average bracken individual is characterized by a higher PAR absorption potential. (approximately 74 MJ m(-2) year(-1)). The latter situation which occurs if the maximum daily

  10. Development of new parameterizations for SOA production from SVOC and IVOC oxidation (United States)

    Lemaire, Vincent; Coll, Isabelle; Camredon, Marie; Aumont, Bernard; Siour, Guillaume


    Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the partially volatile pattern of primary organic aerosol (POA) that is actually associated with organic species of so-called intermediate volatility (IVOCs), and by semi-volatile (SVOCs) species. Indeed, 50% to 75% of the total emitted mass of POA may be present in the atmospheric gas phase in accordance with the thermodynamic properties of its components (Shrivastava et al., 2006). During the processing of the emission plume, this gaseous material will then undergo photochemical oxidation, enhancing the production of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (Robinson et al., 2007; Hodzic et al., 2010; Lee-Taylor et al., 2011). Considering POA as non volatile in Chemistry Transport Models (CTMs) could thus lead to an underestimation of SOA and an overestimation of POA (Aksoyoglu et al., 2011) and bias the temporal formation of the organic aerosol (Kroll et al., 2007; Presto et al., 2012). However, very rare experimental data exist on the fate of these species and their aerosol yield, but all existing studies have shown a significant SOA production (Presto et al., 2009; Miracolo et al., 2010; Lambe et al., 2012). Our works aims at including and testing in the CHIMERE CTM new parameterizations of SOA formation from the oxidation of IVOCs and SVOCs, arising from explicit 0D-model experiments. Our approach is based on the works of Aumont et al., (2013) who used the GECKO-A tool (Generator for Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere) to generate the explicit chemistry and gas-particle partitioning of superior alkanes and their oxidation products. Using this explicit scheme, Aumont et al., (2013) indeed produced 0D simulations of the oxidation of given SVOCs and IVOCs under different initial conditions of organic aerosol mass. We first focused on the chemistry of n-hexadecane. From the 0D-experiments, we tested the influence of the number of first generation surrogate species and the number of generation taken

  11. A hybrid convection scheme for use in non-hydrostatic numerical weather prediction models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Kuell


    Full Text Available The correct representation of convection in numerical weather prediction (NWP models is essential for quantitative precipitation forecasts. Due to its small horizontal scale convection usually has to be parameterized, e.g. by mass flux convection schemes. Classical schemes originally developed for use in coarse grid NWP models assume zero net convective mass flux, because the whole circulation of a convective cell is confined to the local grid column and all convective mass fluxes cancel out. However, in contemporary NWP models with grid sizes of a few kilometers this assumption becomes questionable, because here convection is partially resolved on the grid. To overcome this conceptual problem we propose a hybrid mass flux convection scheme (HYMACS in which only the convective updrafts and downdrafts are parameterized. The generation of the larger scale environmental subsidence, which may cover several grid columns, is transferred to the grid scale equations. This means that the convection scheme now has to generate a net convective mass flux exerting a direct dynamical forcing to the grid scale model via pressure gradient forces. The hybrid convection scheme implemented into the COSMO model of Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD is tested in an idealized simulation of a sea breeze circulation initiating convection in a realistic manner. The results are compared with analogous simulations with the classical Tiedtke and Kain-Fritsch convection schemes.

  12. Importance of the surface size distribution of erodible material: an improvement on the Dust Entrainment And Deposition (DEAD) Model (United States)

    Mokhtari, M.; Gomes, L.; Tulet, P.; Rezoug, T.


    This paper is based on dust aerosol cycle modelling in the atmospheric model ALADIN (Aire Limitée Adaptation dynamique Développement InterNational) coupled with the EXternalised SURFace scheme SURFEX. Its main goal is to create an appropriate mineral dust emission parameterization compatible with the global database of land surface parameters ECOCLIMAP, and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) soil type database in SURFEX. An improvement on the Dust Entrainment And Deposition scheme (DEAD) is proposed in this paper by introducing the geographical variation of surface soil size distribution, the Marticorena and Bergametti (1995) formulation of horizontal saltation flux and the Shao et al. (1996) formulation of sandblasting efficiency α. To show the importance of the modifications introduced in the DEAD, both sensitivity and comparative studies are conducted in 0 dimensions (0-D) and then in 3 dimensions (3-D) between the old DEAD and the new DEAD. The results of the 0-D simulations indicate that the revised DEAD scheme represents the dust source emission better, particularly in the Bodélé depression, and provides a reasonable friction threshold velocity. In 3-D simulations, small differences are found between the DEAD and the revised DEAD for the simulated Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) compared with the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) photometer measurements available in the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA) databases. For the surface concentration, a remarkable improvement is noted for the revised DEAD scheme.

  13. Impact of cloud microphysics and cumulus parameterization on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Oct 9, 2007 ... Sedimentation is treated by partitioning the time averaged flux of pre- cipitation into a grid box between local storage in the box and fall out through the bottom of the box. WSM6 scheme: WSM6 scheme includes vapour, rain, snow, cloud ice, cloud water and graupel in six different arrays. A new method for ...

  14. Impact of cloud microphysics and cumulus parameterization on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The simulated rain water and cloud water mixing ratio were maximum at the position where the vertical velocity and reflectivity has also been maximum. The production of rain water mixing ratio depends on MP schemes as well as CP schemes. Rainfall depends on rain water mixing ratio between 950 and 500 hPa.

  15. 4. Payment Schemes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Electronic Commerce - Payment Schemes. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 6-13. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  16. Link Monotonic Allocation Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.


    A network is a graph where the nodes represent players and the links represent bilateral interaction between the players. A reward game assigns a value to every network on a fixed set of players. An allocation scheme specifies how to distribute the worth of every network among the players. This

  17. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.


    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  18. 4. Payment Schemes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Electronic Commerce - Payment Schemes. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 6-13 ... Author Affiliations. V Rajaraman1. IBM Professor of Information Technology JNCASR Bangalore 560 064, India.

  19. CSR schemes in agribusiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Haas, Rainer; Balzarova, Michaela


    of schemes that can be categorized on focus areas, scales, mechanisms, origins, types and commitment levels. Research limitations/implications – The findings contribute to conceptual and empirical research on existing models to compare and analyse CSR standards. Sampling technique and depth of analysis limit...

  20. Simple monotonic interpolation scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, N.M.


    A procedure for presenting tabular data, such as are contained in the ENDF/B files, that is simpler, more general, and potentially much more compact than the present schemes used with ENDF/B is presented. The method has been successfully used for Bondarenko interpolation in a module of the AMPX system. 1 figure, 1 table

  1. Wind speed dependent size-resolved parameterization for the organic mass fraction of sea spray aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gantt


    Full Text Available For oceans to be a significant source of primary organic aerosol (POA, sea spray aerosol (SSA must be highly enriched with organics relative to the bulk seawater. We propose that organic enrichment at the air-sea interface, chemical composition of seawater, and the aerosol size are three main parameters controlling the organic mass fraction of sea spray aerosol (OMSSA. To test this hypothesis, we developed a new marine POA emission function based on a conceptual relationship between the organic enrichment at the air-sea interface and surface wind speed. The resulting parameterization is explored using aerosol chemical composition and surface wind speed from Atlantic and Pacific coastal stations, and satellite-derived ocean concentrations of chlorophyll-a, dissolved organic carbon, and particulate organic carbon. Of all the parameters examined, a multi-variable logistic regression revealed that the combination of 10 m wind speed and surface chlorophyll-a concentration ([Chl-a] are the most consistent predictors of OMSSA. This relationship, combined with the published aerosol size dependence of OMSSA, resulted in a new parameterization for the organic mass fraction of SSA. Global emissions of marine POA are investigated here by applying this newly-developed relationship to existing sea spray emission functions, satellite-derived [Chl-a], and modeled 10 m winds. Analysis of model simulations shows that global annual submicron marine organic emission associated with sea spray is estimated to be from 2.8 to 5.6 Tg C yr−1. This study provides additional evidence that marine primary organic aerosols are a globally significant source of organics in the atmosphere.

  2. Final Technical Report of ASR project entitled “ARM Observations for the Development and Evaluation of Models and Parameterizations of Cloudy Boundary Layers” (DE-SC0000825)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ping [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States)


    This project aims to elucidate the processes governing boundary layer clouds and improve the treatment of cloud processes in Global Climate Models (GCMs). Specifically, we have made research effort in following areas: (1) Developing novel numerical approach of using multiple scale Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model simulations for boundary layer cloud research; (2) Addressing issues of PDF schemes for parameterizing sub-grid scale cloud radiative properties; (3) Investigating the impact of mesoscale cloud organizations on the evolution of boundary layer clouds; (4) Evaluating parameterizations of the cumulus induced vertical transport; (5) Limited area model (LAM) intercomparison study of TWP-ICE convective case; (6) Investigating convective invigoration processes at shallow cumulus cold poll boundaries; and (7) Investigating vertical transport processes in moist convection.

  3. Assessment of state-of-the-art dust emission scheme in GEOS (United States)

    Darmenov, A.; Liu, X.; Prigent, C.


    The GEOS modeling system has been extended with state-of-the-art parameterization of dust emissions based on the vertical flux formulation described in Kok et al., 2014. The new dust scheme was coupled with the GOCART and MAM aerosol models. In the present study we compared dust emissions, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and radiative fluxes from GEOS experiments with the standard and new dust emissions. AOD from the model experiments were also compared with AERONET and satellite based AOD product. Based on this comparative analysis we concluded that the new parameterization improved the GEOS capability to model dust aerosols originating from African sources, however it led to overestimation of dust emissions from Asian and Middle-Eastern sources. Further regional tuning of key parameters controlling the threshold friction velocity may be required in order to attain more definitive and uniform improvement in the dust modeling skill with the newly implemented dust emissions scheme.

  4. Estimating Discharge, Depth and Bottom Friction in Sand Bed Rivers Using Surface Currents and Water Surface Elevation Observations (United States)

    Simeonov, J.; Czapiga, M. J.; Holland, K. T.


    We developed an inversion model for river bathymetry estimation using measurements of surface currents, water surface elevation slope and shoreline position. The inversion scheme is based on explicit velocity-depth and velocity-slope relationships derived from the along-channel momentum balance and mass conservation. The velocity-depth relationship requires the discharge value to quantitatively relate the depth to the measured velocity field. The ratio of the discharge and the bottom friction enter as a coefficient in the velocity-slope relationship and is determined by minimizing the difference between the predicted and the measured streamwise variation of the total head. Completing the inversion requires an estimate of the bulk friction, which in the case of sand bed rivers is a strong function of the size of dune bedforms. We explored the accuracy of existing and new empirical closures that relate the bulk roughness to parameters such as the median grain size diameter, ratio of shear velocity to sediment fall velocity or the Froude number. For given roughness parameterization, the inversion solution is determined iteratively since the hydraulic roughness depends on the unknown depth. We first test the new hydraulic roughness parameterization using estimates of the Manning roughness in sand bed rivers based on field measurements. The coupled inversion and roughness model is then tested using in situ and remote sensing measurements of the Kootenai River east of Bonners Ferry, ID.

  5. On the assessment of urban land-surface impacts on climate in regional climate model simulations over Central Europe (United States)

    Huszar, Peter; Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomas


    When aiming higher resolution in dynamical downscaling, which is common trend in CORDEX activities, the effects of land use and land use changes are playing increasing role. This is especially true for the urban areas, which in high resolution can occupy significant part of a single gridbox, if not being even bigger in case of big cities or megacities. Moreover, the role of cities will increase in future, as the population within the urban areas is growing faster, with the estimate for Europe of about 84% living in cities. For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of cities and in general the urban surfaces on climate, the surface parameterization in regional climate model RegCM4 has been coupled with the Single Layer Urban Canopy Model (SLUCM), which can be used both in dynamic scale within BATS scheme and in a more detailed SUBBATS scale to treat the surface on a higher resolution subgrid. A set of experiments was performed over the period of 2005-2009 over central Europe, either without considering urban surfaces and with the SLUCM treatment. Results show a statistically significant impact of urbanized surfaces on temperature (up to 1.5 K increase in summer), on the boundary layer height (ZPBL, increases up to 50 m). Additionally, the version of land-surface scheme using CLM is tested and effect of the urban environment, which is included in the CLM scheme, will be assessed. Both versions will be compared and validated using EOBS data.

  6. Aerosol hygroscopic growth parameterization based on a solute specific coefficient (United States)

    Metzger, S.; Steil, B.; Xu, L.; Penner, J. E.; Lelieveld, J.


    Water is a main component of atmospheric aerosols and its amount depends on the particle chemical composition. We introduce a new parameterization for the aerosol hygroscopic growth factor (HGF), based on an empirical relation between water activity (aw) and solute molality (μs) through a single solute specific coefficient νi. Three main advantages are: (1) wide applicability, (2) simplicity and (3) analytical nature. (1) Our approach considers the Kelvin effect and covers ideal solutions at large relative humidity (RH), including CCN activation, as well as concentrated solutions with high ionic strength at low RH such as the relative humidity of deliquescence (RHD). (2) A single νi coefficient suffices to parameterize the HGF for a wide range of particle sizes, from nanometer nucleation mode to micrometer coarse mode particles. (3) In contrast to previous methods, our analytical aw parameterization depends not only on a linear correction factor for the solute molality, instead νi also appears in the exponent in form x · ax. According to our findings, νi can be assumed constant for the entire aw range (0-1). Thus, the νi based method is computationally efficient. In this work we focus on single solute solutions, where νi is pre-determined with the bisection method from our analytical equations using RHD measurements and the saturation molality μssat. The computed aerosol HGF and supersaturation (Köhler-theory) compare well with the results of the thermodynamic reference model E-AIM for the key compounds NaCl and (NH4)2SO4 relevant for CCN modeling and calibration studies. The equations introduced here provide the basis of our revised gas-liquid-solid partitioning model, i.e. version 4 of the EQuilibrium Simplified Aerosol Model (EQSAM4), described in a companion paper.

  7. Model parameterization as method for data analysis in dendroecology (United States)

    Tychkov, Ivan; Shishov, Vladimir; Popkova, Margarita


    There is no argue in usefulness of process-based models in ecological studies. Only limitations is how developed algorithm of model and how it will be applied for research. Simulation of tree-ring growth based on climate provides valuable information of tree-ring growth response on different environmental conditions, but also shares light on species-specifics of tree-ring growth process. Visual parameterization of the Vaganov-Shashkin model, allows to estimate non-linear response of tree-ring growth based on daily climate data: daily temperature, estimated day light and soil moisture. Previous using of the VS-Oscilloscope (a software tool of the visual parameterization) shows a good ability to recreate unique patterns of tree-ring growth for coniferous species in Siberian Russia, USA, China, Mediterranean Spain and Tunisia. But using of the models mostly is one-sided to better understand different tree growth processes, opposite to statistical methods of analysis (e.g. Generalized Linear Models, Mixed Models, Structural Equations.) which can be used for reconstruction and forecast. Usually the models are used either for checking of new hypothesis or quantitative assessment of physiological tree growth data to reveal a growth process mechanisms, while statistical methods used for data mining assessment and as a study tool itself. The high sensitivity of the model's VS-parameters reflects the ability of the model to simulate tree-ring growth and evaluates value of limiting growth climate factors. Precise parameterization of VS-Oscilloscope provides valuable information about growth processes of trees and under what conditions these processes occur (e.g. day of growth season onset, length of season, value of minimal/maximum temperature for tree-ring growth, formation of wide or narrow rings etc.). The work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (RSF # 14-14-00219)

  8. Systematic Parameterization of Lignin for the CHARMM Force Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermaas, Joshua; Petridis, Loukas; Beckham, Gregg; Crowley, Michael


    Plant cell walls have three primary components, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, the latter of which is a recalcitrant, aromatic heteropolymer that provides structure to plants, water and nutrient transport through plant tissues, and a highly effective defense against pathogens. Overcoming the recalcitrance of lignin is key to effective biomass deconstruction, which would in turn enable the use of biomass as a feedstock for industrial processes. Our understanding of lignin structure in the plant cell wall is hampered by the limitations of the available lignin forcefields, which currently only account for a single linkage between lignins and lack explicit parameterization for emerging lignin structures both from natural variants and engineered lignin structures. Since polymerization of lignin occurs via radical intermediates, multiple C-O and C-C linkages have been isolated , and the current force field only represents a small subset of lignin the diverse lignin structures found in plants. In order to take into account the wide range of lignin polymerization chemistries, monomers and dimer combinations of C-, H-, G-, and S-lignins as well as with hydroxycinnamic acid linkages were subjected to extensive quantum mechanical calculations to establish target data from which to build a complete molecular mechanics force field tuned specifically for diverse lignins. This was carried out in a GPU-accelerated global optimization process, whereby all molecules were parameterized simultaneously using the same internal parameter set. By parameterizing lignin specifically, we are able to more accurately represent the interactions and conformations of lignin monomers and dimers relative to a general force field. This new force field will enables computational researchers to study the effects of different linkages on the structure of lignin, as well as construct more accurate plant cell wall models based on observed statistical distributions of lignin that differ between

  9. Performance assessment and parameterization of the SWAP-WOFOST model for peat soil under agricultural use in northern Europe. (United States)

    Bertram, Sascha; Bechtold, Michel; Hendriks, Rob; Piayda, Arndt; Regina, Kristiina; Myllys, Merja; Tiemeyer, Bärbel


    Peat soils form a major share of soil suitable for agriculture in northern Europe. Successful agricultural production depends on hydrological and pedological conditions, local climate and agricultural management. Climate change impact assessment on food production and development of mitigation and adaptation strategies require reliable yield forecasts under given emission scenarios. Coupled soil hydrology - crop growth models, driven by regionalized future climate scenarios are a valuable tool and widely used for this purpose. Parameterization on local peat soil conditions and crop breed or grassland specie performance, however, remains a major challenge. The subject of this study is to evaluate the performance and sensitivity of the SWAP-WOFOST coupled soil hydrology and plant growth model with respect to the application on peat soils under different regional conditions across northern Europe. Further, the parameterization of region-specific crop and grass species is discussed. First results of the model application and parameterization at deep peat sites in southern Finland are presented. The model performed very well in reproducing two years of observed, daily ground water level data on four hydrologically contrasting sites. Naturally dry and wet sites could be modelled with the same performance as sites with active water table management by regulated drains in order to improve peat conservation. A simultaneous multi-site calibration scheme was used to estimate plant growth parameters of the local oat breed. Cross-site validation of the modelled yields against two years of observations proved the robustness of the chosen parameter set and gave no indication of possible overparameterization. This study proves the suitability of the coupled SWAP-WOFOST model for the prediction of crop yields and water table dynamics of peat soils in agricultural use under given climate conditions.

  10. Parameterization models for solar radiation and solar technology applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Samy A.


    Solar radiation is very important for the evaluation and wide use of solar renewable energy systems. The development of calibration procedures for broadband solar radiation photometric instrumentation and the improvement of broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy have been done. An improved diffuse sky reference and photometric calibration and characterization software for outdoor pyranometer calibrations are outlined. Parameterizations for direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation and solar radiation technology are briefly reviewed. The uncertainties for various broadband solar radiations of solar energy and atmospheric effects are discussed. The varying responsivities of solar radiation with meteorological, statistical and climatological parameters and possibility atmospheric conditions was examined

  11. Adapting Parameterized Motions using Iterative Learning and Online Collision Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Johan Sund; Sørensen, Lars Carøe; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh


    Achieving both the flexibility and robustness required to advance the use of robotics in small and medium-sized productions is an essential but difficult task. A fundamental problem is making the robot run blindly without additional sensors while still being robust to uncertainties and variations...... in the assembly processes. In this paper, we address the use of parameterized motions suitable for blind execution and robust to uncertainties in the assembly process. Collisions and incorrect assemblies are detected based on robot motor currents while motion parameters are updated based on Bayesian Optimization...

  12. IR Optics Measurement with Linear Coupling's Action-Angle Parameterization

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yun; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Satogata, Todd; Trbojevic, Dejan


    The interaction region (IP) optics are measured with the two DX/BPMs close to the IPs at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The beta functions at IP are measured with the two eigenmodes' phase advances between the two BPMs. And the beta waists are also determined through the beta functions at the two BPMs. The coupling parameters at the IPs are also given through the linear coupling's action-angle parameterization. All the experimental data are taken during the driving oscillations with the AC dipole. The methods to do these measurements are discussed. And the measurement results during the beta*

  13. On Converting Secret Sharing Scheme to Visual Secret Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daoshun


    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Secret Sharing (SS schemes reconstruct secret exactly the same as the original one but involve complex computation. Visual Secret Sharing (VSS schemes decode the secret without computation, but each share is m times as big as the original and the quality of the reconstructed secret image is reduced. Probabilistic visual secret sharing (Prob.VSS schemes for a binary image use only one subpixel to share the secret image; however the probability of white pixels in a white area is higher than that in a black area in the reconstructed secret image. SS schemes, VSS schemes, and Prob. VSS schemes have various construction methods and advantages. This paper first presents an approach to convert (transform a -SS scheme to a -VSS scheme for greyscale images. The generation of the shadow images (shares is based on Boolean XOR operation. The secret image can be reconstructed directly by performing Boolean OR operation, as in most conventional VSS schemes. Its pixel expansion is significantly smaller than that of VSS schemes. The quality of the reconstructed images, measured by average contrast, is the same as VSS schemes. Then a novel matrix-concatenation approach is used to extend the greyscale -SS scheme to a more general case of greyscale -VSS scheme.

  14. Parameterized finite element analysis of a superplastic forming process, using Ansys®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grebenişan Gavril


    Full Text Available A theoretical and experimental analysis was carried out, after superplastic forming, of Al-Ti-V-based alloy sheets, of hemispherical parts, as the start point of research. Based on the measurements i.e. the quantitative and qualitative determinations of the manufactured parts, work reports have been prepared to contain the magnitude of variations in the thickness of the parts, in cross-section, as well as references to the surface quality and the local thinning of the walls of the part. The experimental study was followed by a parameterized finite elements analysis of the process, using Ansys®, Explicit Dynamics Module, This being for examining the next step of our study, comparing the experimental results with the theoretical analysis, based on two input parameters: and discussing the results, and very necessary, the correlation between input and output parameters, mainly the influence magnitude rate of input parameters on output parameters.

  15. A comparison of sea salt emission parameterizations in northwestern Europe using a chemistry transport model setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Neumann


    Full Text Available Atmospheric sea salt particles affect chemical and physical processes in the atmosphere. These particles provide surface area for condensation and reaction of nitrogen, sulfur, and organic species and are a vehicle for the transport of these species. Additionally, HCl is released from sea salt. Hence, sea salt has a relevant impact on air quality, particularly in coastal regions with high anthropogenic emissions, such as the North Sea region. Therefore, the integration of sea salt emissions in modeling studies in these regions is necessary. However, it was found that sea salt concentrations are not represented with the necessary accuracy in some situations.In this study, three sea salt emission parameterizations depending on different combinations of wind speed, salinity, sea surface temperature, and wave data were implemented and compared: GO03 (Gong, 2003, SP13 (Spada et al., 2013, and OV14 (Ovadnevaite et al., 2014. The aim was to identify the parameterization that most accurately predicts the sea salt mass concentrations at different distances to the source regions. For this purpose, modeled particle sodium concentrations, sodium wet deposition, and aerosol optical depth were evaluated against measurements of these parameters. Each 2-month period in winter and summer 2008 were considered for this purpose. The shortness of these periods limits generalizability of the conclusions on other years.While the GO03 emissions yielded overestimations in the PM10 concentrations at coastal stations and underestimations of those at inland stations, OV14 emissions conversely led to underestimations at coastal stations and overestimations at inland stations. Because of the differently shaped particle size distributions of the GO03 and OV14 emission cases, the deposition velocity of the coarse particles differed between both cases which yielded this distinct behavior at inland and coastal stations. The PM10 concentrations produced by the SP13 emissions

  16. Evaluating cloud processes in large-scale models: Of idealized case studies, parameterization testbeds and single-column modelling on climate time-scales (United States)

    Neggers, Roel


    Boundary-layer schemes have always formed an integral part of General Circulation Models (GCMs) used for numerical weather and climate prediction. The spatial and temporal scales associated with boundary-layer processes and clouds are typically much smaller than those at which GCMs are discretized, which makes their representation through parameterization a necessity. The need for generally applicable boundary-layer parameterizations has motivated many scientific studies, which in effect has created its own active research field in the atmospheric sciences. Of particular interest has been the evaluation of boundary-layer schemes at "process-level". This means that parameterized physics are studied in isolated mode from the larger-scale circulation, using prescribed forcings and excluding any upscale interaction. Although feedbacks are thus prevented, the benefit is an enhanced model transparency, which might aid an investigator in identifying model errors and understanding model behavior. The popularity and success of the process-level approach is demonstrated by the many past and ongoing model inter-comparison studies that have been organized by initiatives such as GCSS/GASS. A red line in the results of these studies is that although most schemes somehow manage to capture first-order aspects of boundary layer cloud fields, there certainly remains room for improvement in many areas. Only too often are boundary layer parameterizations still found to be at the heart of problems in large-scale models, negatively affecting forecast skills of NWP models or causing uncertainty in numerical predictions of future climate. How to break this parameterization "deadlock" remains an open problem. This presentation attempts to give an overview of the various existing methods for the process-level evaluation of boundary-layer physics in large-scale models. This includes i) idealized case studies, ii) longer-term evaluation at permanent meteorological sites (the testbed approach

  17. Beyond Scheme F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C.J.; Fisher, H.; Pepin, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gillmann, R. [Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC (United States)


    Traffic classification techniques were evaluated using data from a 1993 investigation of the traffic flow patterns on I-20 in Georgia. First we improved the data by sifting through the data base, checking against the original video for questionable events and removing and/or repairing questionable events. We used this data base to critique the performance quantitatively of a classification method known as Scheme F. As a context for improving the approach, we show in this paper that scheme F can be represented as a McCullogh-Pitts neural network, oar as an equivalent decomposition of the plane. We found that Scheme F, among other things, severely misrepresents the number of vehicles in Class 3 by labeling them as Class 2. After discussing the basic classification problem in terms of what is measured, and what is the desired prediction goal, we set forth desirable characteristics of the classification scheme and describe a recurrent neural network system that partitions the high dimensional space up into bins for each axle separation. the collection of bin numbers, one for each of the axle separations, specifies a region in the axle space called a hyper-bin. All the vehicles counted that have the same set of in numbers are in the same hyper-bin. The probability of the occurrence of a particular class in that hyper- bin is the relative frequency with which that class occurs in that set of bin numbers. This type of algorithm produces classification results that are much more balanced and uniform with respect to Classes 2 and 3 and Class 10. In particular, the cancellation of errors of classification that occurs is for many applications the ideal classification scenario. The neural network results are presented in the form of a primary classification network and a reclassification network, the performance matrices for which are presented.

  18. Comparing Physics Scheme Performance for a Lake Effect Snowfall Event in Northern Lower Michigan (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew; Arnott, Justin M.


    High resolution forecast models, such as those used to predict severe convective storms, can also be applied to predictions of lake effect snowfall. A high resolution WRF model forecast model is provided to support operations at NWS WFO Gaylord, Michigan, using a 12 ]km and 4 ]km nested configuration. This is comparable to the simulations performed by other NWS WFOs adjacent to the Great Lakes, including offices in the NWS Eastern Region who participate in regional ensemble efforts. Ensemble efforts require diversity in initial conditions and physics configurations to emulate the plausible range of events in order to ascertain the likelihood of different forecast scenarios. In addition to providing probabilistic guidance, individual members can be evaluated to determine whether they appear to be biased in some way, or to better understand how certain physics configurations may impact the resulting forecast. On January 20 ]21, 2011, a lake effect snow event occurred in Northern Lower Michigan, with cooperative observing and CoCoRaHS stations reporting new snow accumulations between 2 and 8 inches and liquid equivalents of 0.1 ]0.25 h. The event of January 21, 2011 was particularly well observed, with numerous surface reports available. It was also well represented by the WRF configuration operated at NWS Gaylord. Given that the default configuration produced a reasonable prediction, it is used here to evaluate the impacts of other physics configurations on the resulting prediction of the primary lake effect band and resulting QPF. Emphasis here is on differences in planetary boundary layer and cloud microphysics parameterizations, given their likely role in determining the evolution of shallow convection and precipitation processes. Results from an ensemble of seven microphysics schemes and three planetary boundary layer schemes are presented to demonstrate variability in forecast evolution, with results used in an attempt to improve the forecasts in the 2011 ]2012

  19. Evaluation of modeled land-atmosphere exchanges with a comprehensive water isotope fractionation scheme in version 4 of the Community Land Model (United States)

    Wong, Tony E.; Nusbaumer, Jesse; Noone, David C.


    All physical process models and field observations are inherently imperfect, so there is a need to both (1) obtain measurements capable of constraining quantities of interest and (2) develop frameworks for assessment in which the desired processes and their uncertainties may be characterized. Incorporation of stable water isotopes into land surface schemes offers a complimentary approach to constrain hydrological processes such as evapotranspiration, and yields acute insight into the hydrological and biogeochemical behaviors of the domain. Here a stable water isotopic scheme in the National Center for Atmospheric Research's version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4) is presented. An overview of the isotopic methods is given. Isotopic model results are compared to available data sets on site-level and global scales for validation. Comparisons of site-level soil moisture and isotope ratios reveal that surface water does not percolate as deeply into the soil as observed in field measurements. The broad success of the new model provides confidence in its use for a range of climate and hydrological studies, while the sensitivity of simulation results to kinetic processes stands as a reminder that new theoretical development and refinement of kinetic effect parameterizations is needed to achieve further improvements.

  20. A parameterized logarithmic image processing method with Laplacian of Gaussian filtering for lung nodule enhancement in chest radiographs. (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; Yao, Liping; Chen, Bao


    The enhancement of lung nodules in chest radiographs (CXRs) plays an important role in the manual as well as computer-aided detection (CADe) lung cancer. In this paper, we proposed a parameterized logarithmic image processing (PLIP) method combined with the Laplacian of a Gaussian (LoG) filter to enhance lung nodules in CXRs. We first applied several LoG filters with varying parameters to an original CXR to enhance the nodule-like structures as well as the edges in the image. We then applied the PLIP model, which can enhance lung nodule images with high contrast and was beneficial in extracting effective features for nodule detection in the CADe scheme. Our method combined the advantages of both the PLIP algorithm and the LoG algorithm, which can enhance lung nodules in chest radiographs with high contrast. To test our nodule enhancement method, we tested a CADe scheme, with a relatively high performance in nodule detection, using a publically available database containing 140 nodules in 140 CXRs enhanced through our nodule enhancement method. The CADe scheme attained a sensitivity of 81 and 70 % with an average of 5.0 frame rate (FP) and 2.0 FP, respectively, in a leave-one-out cross-validation test. By contrast, the CADe scheme based on the original image recorded a sensitivity of 77 and 63 % at 5.0 FP and 2.0 FP, respectively. We introduced the measurement of enhancement by entropy evaluation to objectively assess our method. Experimental results show that the proposed method obtains an effective enhancement of lung nodules in CXRs for both radiologists and CADe schemes.

  1. Scalable Nonlinear Compact Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debojyoti [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Constantinescu, Emil M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Brown, Jed [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)


    In this work, we focus on compact schemes resulting in tridiagonal systems of equations, specifically the fifth-order CRWENO scheme. We propose a scalable implementation of the nonlinear compact schemes by implementing a parallel tridiagonal solver based on the partitioning/substructuring approach. We use an iterative solver for the reduced system of equations; however, we solve this system to machine zero accuracy to ensure that no parallelization errors are introduced. It is possible to achieve machine-zero convergence with few iterations because of the diagonal dominance of the system. The number of iterations is specified a priori instead of a norm-based exit criterion, and collective communications are avoided. The overall algorithm thus involves only point-to-point communication between neighboring processors. Our implementation of the tridiagonal solver differs from and avoids the drawbacks of past efforts in the following ways: it introduces no parallelization-related approximations (multiprocessor solutions are exactly identical to uniprocessor ones), it involves minimal communication, the mathematical complexity is similar to that of the Thomas algorithm on a single processor, and it does not require any communication and computation scheduling.

  2. Comparison of Four Mixed Layer Mesoscale Parameterizations and the Equation for an Arbitrary Tracer (United States)

    Canuto, V. M.; Dubovikov, M. S.


    In this paper we discuss two issues, the inter-comparison of four mixed layer mesoscale parameterizations and the search for the eddy induced velocity for an arbitrary tracer. It must be stressed that our analysis is limited to mixed layer mesoscales since we do not treat sub-mesoscales and small turbulent mixing. As for the first item, since three of the four parameterizations are expressed in terms of a stream function and a residual flux of the RMT formalism (residual mean theory), while the fourth is expressed in terms of vertical and horizontal fluxes, we needed a formalism to connect the two formulations. The standard RMT representation developed for the deep ocean cannot be extended to the mixed layer since its stream function does not vanish at the ocean's surface. We develop a new RMT representation that satisfies the surface boundary condition. As for the general form of the eddy induced velocity for an arbitrary tracer, thus far, it has been assumed that there is only the one that originates from the curl of the stream function. This is because it was assumed that the tracer residual flux is purely diffusive. On the other hand, we show that in the case of an arbitrary tracer, the residual flux has also a skew component that gives rise to an additional bolus velocity. Therefore, instead of only one bolus velocity, there are now two, one coming from the curl of the stream function and other from the skew part of the residual flux. In the buoyancy case, only one bolus velocity contributes to the mean buoyancy equation since the residual flux is indeed only diffusive.

  3. Simulation of Precipitation Extremes Using a Stochastic Convective Parameterization in the NCAR CAM5 Under Different Resolutions (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhang, Guang J.; He, Yu-Jun


    With the incorporation of the Plant-Craig stochastic deep convection scheme into the Zhang-McFarlane deterministic parameterization in the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5), its impact on extreme precipitation at different resolutions (2°, 1°, and 0.5°) is investigated. CAM5 with the stochastic deep convection scheme (experiment (EXP)) simulates the precipitation extreme indices better than the standard version (control). At 2° and 1° resolutions, EXP increases high percentile (>99th) daily precipitation over the United States, Europe, and China, resulting in a better agreement with observations. However, at 0.5° resolution, due to enhanced grid-scale precipitation with increasing resolution, EXP overestimates extreme precipitation over southeastern U.S. and eastern Europe. The reduced biases in EXP at each resolution benefit from a broader probability distribution function of convective precipitation intensity simulated. Among EXP simulations at different resolutions, if the spatial averaging area over which input quantities used in convective closure are spatially averaged in the stochastic convection scheme is comparable, the modeled convective precipitation intensity decreases with increasing resolution, when gridded to the same resolution, while the total precipitation is not sensitive to model resolution, exhibiting some degree of scale-awareness. Sensitivity tests show that for the same resolution, increasing the size of spatial averaging area decreases convective precipitation but increases the grid-scale precipitation.

  4. Development and Exploration of a Regional Stormwater BMP Performance Database to Parameterize an Integrated Decision Support Tool (i-DST) (United States)

    Bell, C.; Li, Y.; Lopez, E.; Hogue, T. S.


    Decision support tools that quantitatively estimate the cost and performance of infrastructure alternatives are valuable for urban planners. Such a tool is needed to aid in planning stormwater projects to meet diverse goals such as the regulation of stormwater runoff and its pollutants, minimization of economic costs, and maximization of environmental and social benefits in the communities served by the infrastructure. This work gives a brief overview of an integrated decision support tool, called i-DST, that is currently being developed to serve this need. This presentation focuses on the development of a default database for the i-DST that parameterizes water quality treatment efficiency of stormwater best management practices (BMPs) by region. Parameterizing the i-DST by region will allow the tool to perform accurate simulations in all parts of the United States. A national dataset of BMP performance is analyzed to determine which of a series of candidate regionalizations explains the most variance in the national dataset. The data used in the regionalization analysis comes from the International Stormwater BMP Database and data gleaned from an ongoing systematic review of peer-reviewed and gray literature. In addition to identifying a regionalization scheme for water quality performance parameters in the i-DST, our review process will also provide example methods and protocols for systematic reviews in the field of Earth Science.

  5. Sensitivity of quantitative precipitation forecasts to boundary layer parameterization: a flash flood case study in the Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zampieri


    Full Text Available The 'Montserrat-2000' severe flash flood event which occurred over Catalonia on 9 and 10 June 2000 is analyzed. Strong precipitation was generated by a mesoscale convective system associated with the development of a cyclone. The location of heavy precipitation depends on the position of the cyclone, which, in turn, is found to be very sensitive to various model characteristics and initial conditions. Numerical simulations of this case study using the hydrostatic BOLAM and the non-hydrostatic MOLOCH models are performed in order to test the effects of different formulations of the boundary layer parameterization: a modified version of the Louis (order 1 model and a custom version of the E-ℓ (order 1.5 model. Both of them require a diagnostic formulation of the mixing length, but the use of the turbulent kinetic energy equation in the E-ℓ model allows to represent turbulence history and non-locality effects and to formulate a more physically based mixing length. The impact of the two schemes is different in the two models. The hydrostatic model, run at 1/5 degree resolution, is less sensitive, but the quantitative precipitation forecast is in any case unsatisfactory in terms of localization and amount. Conversely, the non-hydrostatic model, run at 1/50 degree resolution, is capable of realistically simulate timing, position and amount of precipitation, with the apparently superior results obtained with the E-ℓ parameterization model.

  6. Quantum identification schemes with entanglements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Takashi


    We need secure identification schemes because many situations exist in which a person must be identified. In this paper, we propose three quantum identification schemes with entanglements. First, we propose a quantum one-time pad password scheme. In this scheme, entanglements play the role of a one-time pad password. Next, we propose a quantum identification scheme that requires a trusted authority. Finally, we propose a quantum message authentication scheme that is constructed by combining a different quantum cryptosystem with an ordinary authentication tag

  7. Comparing the effect of low wind spead parameterization on heat fluxes in atmosphere only and coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations (United States)

    Torres, Olivier; Braconnot, Pascale; Marti, Olivier


    The turbulent fluxes across the ocean/atmosphere interface represent one of the principal driving forces of the global atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Representation of these fluxes presents a challenge due to the small scale acting turbulent processes compared to the resolved scales of the models. Beyond this subgrid parameterization issue, a comprehensive understanding of the impact of air-sea interactions on the system is still lacking. We are developing a methodology to investigate how differences in the parameterizations affect the water supply of the atmospheric column in the tropics, the ocean heat content and the equator-pole redistribution of heat and water by the oceanic and atmospheric circulation. We focus on the representation of the latent heat fluxes in the tropics. We investigate how the representation of the heat transfer coefficient in weak winds affect the climate response considering both atmosphere only and ocean-atmosphere coupled simulations with the IPSL climate model. We compare simulations where the only difference is the activation of a function that increases latent heat fluxes during periods of weak wind. This allows us to isolate the behavior of the Pacific warmpool region where low winds occurs frequently. Although the heat transfer coefficients are very similar for a given parameterization between atmosphere only and ocean-atmosphere coupled simulation the surface heat fluxes are very different. We analyze in detail the ocean feedbacks and the role of the latent heat fluxes by looking at the energy transport carried out by the atmosphere considering the divergent part of the moist static energy. Differences appear between the coupled and uncoupled models due to the role of the ocean which dampens a large part of the disturbance caused by the modification of parameterization.

  8. A Solar Radiation Parameterization for Atmospheric Studies. Volume 15 (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Suarez, Max J. (Editor)


    The solar radiation parameterization (CLIRAD-SW) developed at the Goddard Climate and Radiation Branch for application to atmospheric models are described. It includes the absorption by water vapor, O3, O2, CO2, clouds, and aerosols and the scattering by clouds, aerosols, and gases. Depending upon the nature of absorption, different approaches are applied to different absorbers. In the ultraviolet and visible regions, the spectrum is divided into 8 bands, and single O3 absorption coefficient and Rayleigh scattering coefficient are used for each band. In the infrared, the spectrum is divided into 3 bands, and the k-distribution method is applied for water vapor absorption. The flux reduction due to O2 is derived from a simple function, while the flux reduction due to CO2 is derived from precomputed tables. Cloud single-scattering properties are parameterized, separately for liquid drops and ice, as functions of water amount and effective particle size. A maximum-random approximation is adopted for the overlapping of clouds at different heights. Fluxes are computed using the Delta-Eddington approximation.

  9. Sensitivity of liquid clouds to homogenous freezing parameterizations. (United States)

    Herbert, Ross J; Murray, Benjamin J; Dobbie, Steven J; Koop, Thomas


    Water droplets in some clouds can supercool to temperatures where homogeneous ice nucleation becomes the dominant freezing mechanism. In many cloud resolving and mesoscale models, it is assumed that homogeneous ice nucleation in water droplets only occurs below some threshold temperature typically set at -40°C. However, laboratory measurements show that there is a finite rate of nucleation at warmer temperatures. In this study we use a parcel model with detailed microphysics to show that cloud properties can be sensitive to homogeneous ice nucleation as warm as -30°C. Thus, homogeneous ice nucleation may be more important for cloud development, precipitation rates, and key cloud radiative parameters than is often assumed. Furthermore, we show that cloud development is particularly sensitive to the temperature dependence of the nucleation rate. In order to better constrain the parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation laboratory measurements are needed at both high (>-35°C) and low (<-38°C) temperatures. Homogeneous freezing may be significant as warm as -30°CHomogeneous freezing should not be represented by a threshold approximationThere is a need for an improved parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation.

  10. Parameterization of High Resolution Vegetation Characteristics using Remote Sensing Products for the Nakdong River Watershed, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Il Choi


    Full Text Available Mesoscale regional climate models (RCMs, the primary tool for climate predictions, have recently increased in sophistication and are being run at increasingly higher resolutions to be also used in climate impact studies on ecosystems, particularly in agricultural crops. As satellite remote sensing observations of the earth terrestrial surface become available for assimilation in RCMs, it is possible to incorporate complex land surface processes, such as dynamics of state variables for hydrologic, agricultural and ecologic systems at the smaller scales. This study focuses on parameterization of vegetation characteristics specifically designed for high resolution RCM applications using various remote sensing products, such as Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR, Système Pour l’Observation de la Terre-VEGETATION (SPOT-VGT and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. The primary vegetative parameters, such as land surface characteristics (LCC, fractional vegetation cover (FVC, leaf area index (LAI and surface albedo localization factors (SALF, are currently presented over the Nakdong River Watershed domain, Korea, based on 1-km remote sensing satellite data by using the Geographic Information System (GIS software application tools. For future high resolution RCM modeling efforts on climate-crop interactions, this study has constructed the deriving parameters, such as FVC and SALF, following the existing methods and proposed the new interpolation methods to fill missing data with combining the regression equation and the time series trend function for time-variant parameters, such as LAI and NDVI data at 1-km scale.

  11. Development of a PBL Parameterization Scheme for the Tropical Cyclone Model and an Improved Magnetospheric Model for Magic. (United States)


    jM 1.25(W P Il~ II I [ 6 :, LEVd~5 I ~JAMMOR jkppovo reecm * 1 L81 31 042 300 Unicorn Park Drive Wobum, Massachuset 0C601 _ __ _JA YCOR DEVELOPMENT...for the growth 4 of the tropical cyclone, and leads to a gradual shift of the storm center toward the warm ocean. "Test of a Planetary Boundary Layer... growth characteristics because gravity waves and model physics act to smooth them. Besides, random observational errors are not the major problem with

  12. An Improved Single-Channel Method to Retrieve Land Surface Temperature from the Landsat-8 Thermal Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Cristóbal


    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is one of the sources of input data for modeling land surface processes. The Landsat satellite series is the only operational mission with more than 30 years of archived thermal infrared imagery from which we can retrieve LST. Unfortunately, stray light artifacts were observed in Landsat-8 TIRS data, mostly affecting Band 11, currently making the split-window technique impractical for retrieving surface temperature without requiring atmospheric data. In this study, a single-channel methodology to retrieve surface temperature from Landsat TM and ETM+ was improved to retrieve LST from Landsat-8 TIRS Band 10 using near-surface air temperature (Ta and integrated atmospheric column water vapor (w as input data. This improved methodology was parameterized and successfully evaluated with simulated data from a global and robust radiosonde database and validated with in situ data from four flux tower sites under different types of vegetation and snow cover in 44 Landsat-8 scenes. Evaluation results using simulated data showed that the inclusion of Ta together with w within a single-channel scheme improves LST retrieval, yielding lower errors and less bias than models based only on w. The new proposed LST retrieval model, developed with both w and Ta, yielded overall errors on the order of 1 K and a bias of −0.5 K validated against in situ data, providing a better performance than other models parameterized using w and Ta or only w models that yielded higher error and bias.

  13. ESCAP mobile training scheme. (United States)

    Yasas, F M


    In response to a United Nations resolution, the Mobile Training Scheme (MTS) was set up to provide training to the trainers of national cadres engaged in frontline and supervisory tasks in social welfare and rural development. The training is innovative in its being based on an analysis of field realities. The MTS team consisted of a leader, an expert on teaching methods and materials, and an expert on action research and evaluation. The country's trainers from different departments were sent to villages to work for a short period and to report their problems in fulfilling their roles. From these grass roots experiences, they made an analysis of the job, determining what knowledge, attitude and skills it required. Analysis of daily incidents and problems were used to produce indigenous teaching materials drawn from actual field practice. How to consider the problems encountered through government structures for policy making and decisions was also learned. Tasks of the students were to identify the skills needed for role performance by job analysis, daily diaries and project histories; to analyze the particular community by village profiles; to produce indigenous teaching materials; and to practice the role skills by actual role performance. The MTS scheme was tried in Nepal in 1974-75; 3 training programs trained 25 trainers and 51 frontline workers; indigenous teaching materials were created; technical papers written; and consultations were provided. In Afghanistan the scheme was used in 1975-76; 45 participants completed the training; seminars were held; and an ongoing Council was created. It is hoped that the training program will be expanded to other countries.

  14. Bonus Schemes and Trading Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.


    Abstract: Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders’ propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders’ performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold (convex) bonus schemes on traders’ behavior. Traders purchase and sell shares in an experimental stock


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Adam Taheir Mohammed


    Full Text Available In this paper, the parameterization value reduction of soft sets and its algorithm in decision making are studied and described. It is based on parameterization reduction of soft sets. The purpose of this study is to investigate the inherited disadvantages of parameterization reduction of soft sets and its algorithm. The algorithms presented in this study attempt to reduce the value of least parameters from soft set. Through the analysis, two techniques have been described. Through this study, it is found that parameterization reduction of soft sets and its algorithm has yielded a different and inconsistency in suboptimal result.

  16. On the Computation Power of Name Parameterization in Higher-order Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Xu


    Full Text Available Parameterization extends higher-order processes with the capability of abstraction (akin to that in lambda-calculus, and is known to be able to enhance the expressiveness. This paper focuses on the parameterization of names, i.e. a construct that maps a name to a process, in the higher-order setting. We provide two results concerning its computation capacity. First, name parameterization brings up a complete model, in the sense that it can express an elementary interactive model with built-in recursive functions. Second, we compare name parameterization with the well-known pi-calculus, and provide two encodings between them.

  17. Scheme of stepmotor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grashilin, V.A.; Karyshev, Yu.Ya.


    A 6-cycle scheme of step motor is described. The block-diagram and the basic circuit of the step motor control are presented. The step motor control comprises a pulse shaper, electronic commutator and power amplifiers. The step motor supply from 6-cycle electronic commutator provides for higher reliability and accuracy than from 3-cycle commutator. The control of step motor work is realised by the program given by the external source of control signals. Time-dependent diagrams for step motor control are presented. The specifications of the step-motor is given

  18. Winter QPF Sensitivities to Snow Parameterizations and Comparisons to NASA CloudSat Observations (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew; Haynes, John M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Lapenta, William M.


    Steady increases in computing power have allowed for numerical weather prediction models to be initialized and run at high spatial resolution, permitting a transition from larger scale parameterizations of the effects of clouds and precipitation to the simulation of specific microphysical processes and hydrometeor size distributions. Although still relatively coarse in comparison to true cloud resolving models, these high resolution forecasts (on the order of 4 km or less) have demonstrated value in the prediction of severe storm mode and evolution and are being explored for use in winter weather events . Several single-moment bulk water microphysics schemes are available within the latest release of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model suite, including the NASA Goddard Cumulus Ensemble, which incorporate some assumptions in the size distribution of a small number of hydrometeor classes in order to predict their evolution, advection and precipitation within the forecast domain. Although many of these schemes produce similar forecasts of events on the synoptic scale, there are often significant details regarding precipitation and cloud cover, as well as the distribution of water mass among the constituent hydrometeor classes. Unfortunately, validating data for cloud resolving model simulations are sparse. Field campaigns require in-cloud measurements of hydrometeors from aircraft in coordination with extensive and coincident ground based measurements. Radar remote sensing is utilized to detect the spatial coverage and structure of precipitation. Here, two radar systems characterize the structure of winter precipitation for comparison to equivalent features within a forecast model: a 3 GHz, Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) based in Omaha, Nebraska, and the 94 GHz NASA CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar, a spaceborne instrument and member of the afternoon or "A-Train" of polar orbiting satellites tasked with cataloguing global cloud

  19. Using Intel Xeon Phi to accelerate the WRF TEMF planetary boundary layer scheme (United States)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen


    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is designed for numerical weather prediction and atmospheric research. The WRF software infrastructure consists of several components such as dynamic solvers and physics schemes. Numerical models are used to resolve the large-scale flow. However, subgrid-scale parameterizations are for an estimation of small-scale properties (e.g., boundary layer turbulence and convection, clouds, radiation). Those have a significant influence on the resolved scale due to the complex nonlinear nature of the atmosphere. For the cloudy planetary boundary layer (PBL), it is fundamental to parameterize vertical turbulent fluxes and subgrid-scale condensation in a realistic manner. A parameterization based on the Total Energy - Mass Flux (TEMF) that unifies turbulence and moist convection components produces a better result that the other PBL schemes. For that reason, the TEMF scheme is chosen as the PBL scheme we optimized for Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC), which ushers in a new era of supercomputing speed, performance, and compatibility. It allows the developers to run code at trillions of calculations per second using the familiar programming model. In this paper, we present our optimization results for TEMF planetary boundary layer scheme. The optimizations that were performed were quite generic in nature. Those optimizations included vectorization of the code to utilize vector units inside each CPU. Furthermore, memory access was improved by scalarizing some of the intermediate arrays. The results show that the optimization improved MIC performance by 14.8x. Furthermore, the optimizations increased CPU performance by 2.6x compared to the original multi-threaded code on quad core Intel Xeon E5-2603 running at 1.8 GHz. Compared to the optimized code running on a single CPU socket the optimized MIC code is 6.2x faster.

  20. Packet reversed packet combining scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.


    The packet combining scheme is a well defined simple error correction scheme with erroneous copies at the receiver. It offers higher throughput combined with ARQ protocols in networks than that of basic ARQ protocols. But packet combining scheme fails to correct errors when the errors occur in the same bit locations of two erroneous copies. In the present work, we propose a scheme that will correct error if the errors occur at the same bit location of the erroneous copies. The proposed scheme when combined with ARQ protocol will offer higher throughput. (author)

  1. Surface thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Moliner, F.


    Basic thermodynamics of a system consisting of two bulk phases with an interface. Solid surfaces: general. Discussion of experimental data on surface tension and related concepts. Adsorption thermodynamics in the Gibbsian scheme. Adsorption on inert solid adsorbents. Systems with electrical charges: chemistry and thermodynamics of imperfect crystals. Thermodynamics of charged surfaces. Simple models of charge transfer chemisorption. Adsorption heat and related concepts. Surface phase transitions

  2. Evaluating the importance of characterizing soil structure and horizons in parameterizing a hydrologic process model (United States)

    Mirus, Benjamin B.


    Incorporating the influence of soil structure and horizons into parameterizations of distributed surface water/groundwater models remains a challenge. Often, only a single soil unit is employed, and soil-hydraulic properties are assigned based on textural classification, without evaluating the potential impact of these simplifications. This study uses a distributed physics-based model to assess the influence of soil horizons and structure on effective parameterization. This paper tests the viability of two established and widely used hydrogeologic methods for simulating runoff and variably saturated flow through layered soils: (1) accounting for vertical heterogeneity by combining hydrostratigraphic units with contrasting hydraulic properties into homogeneous, anisotropic units and (2) use of established pedotransfer functions based on soil texture alone to estimate water retention and conductivity, without accounting for the influence of pedon structures and hysteresis. The viability of this latter method for capturing the seasonal transition from runoff-dominated to evapotranspiration-dominated regimes is also tested here. For cases tested here, event-based simulations using simplified vertical heterogeneity did not capture the state-dependent anisotropy and complex combinations of runoff generation mechanisms resulting from permeability contrasts in layered hillslopes with complex topography. Continuous simulations using pedotransfer functions that do not account for the influence of soil structure and hysteresis generally over-predicted runoff, leading to propagation of substantial water balance errors. Analysis suggests that identifying a dominant hydropedological unit provides the most acceptable simplification of subsurface layering and that modified pedotransfer functions with steeper soil-water retention curves might adequately capture the influence of soil structure and hysteresis on hydrologic response in headwater catchments.

  3. Adjusted optimal power flow solutions via parameterized formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyano, C.F. [Queensland University of Technology, Engineering Systems, 2 George St., Garden Points, Brisbane, 4000 QLD (Australia); Salgado, R.S. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, CTC/EEL/LABSPOT/Florianopolis (88040-900) SC (Brazil)


    This work proposes a parameterized formulation of the optimal power flow (OPF) problem, which is aimed at preventing the divergence of the OPF iterative process. A parameter, whose function is to adjust the power demand and/or operational limits in case of absence of feasible solutions, is added to the objective function of the original optimization problem. This modified problem is solved through the nonlinear version of the predictor-corrector interior point method. Besides indicating the potential reasons for non-convergence of the iterative process, the proposed methodology also provides the possible actions that could be taken to determine an operational solution. Numerical results obtained with test systems of different sizes illustrate the application of the proposed strategy. (author)

  4. A stratiform cloud parameterization for General Circulation Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghan, S.J.; Leung, L.R.; Chuang, C.C.; Penner, J.E.; McCaa, J.


    The crude treatment of clouds in General Circulation Models (GCMs) is widely recognized as a major limitation in the application of these models to predictions of global climate change. The purpose of this project is to develop a paxameterization for stratiform clouds in GCMs that expresses stratiform clouds in terms of bulk microphysical properties and their subgrid variability. In this parameterization, precipitating cloud species are distinguished from non-precipitating species, and the liquid phase is distinguished from the ice phase. The size of the non-precipitating cloud particles (which influences both the cloud radiative properties and the conversion of non-precipitating cloud species to precipitating species) is determined by predicting both the mass and number concentrations of each species

  5. A stratiform cloud parameterization for general circulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghan, S.J.; Leung, L.R.; Chuang, C.C.; Penner, J.E.; McCaa, J.


    The crude treatment of clouds in general circulation models (GCMs) is widely recognized as a major limitation in applying these models to predictions of global climate change. The purpose of this project is to develop in GCMs a stratiform cloud parameterization that expresses clouds in terms of bulk microphysical properties and their subgrid variability. Various clouds variables and their interactions are summarized. Precipitating cloud species are distinguished from non-precipitating species, and the liquid phase is distinguished from the ice phase. The size of the non-precipitating cloud particles (which influences both the cloud radiative properties and the conversion of non-precipitating cloud species to precipitating species) is determined by predicting both the mass and number concentrations of each species

  6. Parameterization of ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields (United States)

    Doyle, Barney L.


    A MS Excel program has been written that calculates ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different power functions of the arguments. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles, minimum yields, effects on half-angles and minimum yields of amorphous overlayers. The program can calculate these half-angles and minimum yields for axes and [h k l] planes up to (5 5 5). The program is open source and available at

  7. Systematic Parameterization, Storage, and Representation of Volumetric DICOM Data. (United States)

    Fischer, Felix; Selver, M Alper; Gezer, Sinem; Dicle, Oğuz; Hillen, Walter

    Tomographic medical imaging systems produce hundreds to thousands of slices, enabling three-dimensional (3D) analysis. Radiologists process these images through various tools and techniques in order to generate 3D renderings for various applications, such as surgical planning, medical education, and volumetric measurements. To save and store these visualizations, current systems use snapshots or video exporting, which prevents further optimizations and requires the storage of significant additional data. The Grayscale Softcopy Presentation State extension of the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard resolves this issue for two-dimensional (2D) data by introducing an extensive set of parameters, namely 2D Presentation States (2DPR), that describe how an image should be displayed. 2DPR allows storing these parameters instead of storing parameter applied images, which cause unnecessary duplication of the image data. Since there is currently no corresponding extension for 3D data, in this study, a DICOM-compliant object called 3D presentation states (3DPR) is proposed for the parameterization and storage of 3D medical volumes. To accomplish this, the 3D medical visualization process is divided into four tasks, namely pre-processing, segmentation, post-processing, and rendering. The important parameters of each task are determined. Special focus is given to the compression of segmented data, parameterization of the rendering process, and DICOM-compliant implementation of the 3DPR object. The use of 3DPR was tested in a radiology department on three clinical cases, which require multiple segmentations and visualizations during the workflow of radiologists. The results show that 3DPR can effectively simplify the workload of physicians by directly regenerating 3D renderings without repeating intermediate tasks, increase efficiency by preserving all user interactions, and provide efficient storage as well as transfer of visualized data.

  8. Parameterization of cosmological scale factor during inflationary times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahba, R.R.


    The inflationary period is modeled by generating a cosmological function, lambda(t), that depends on a period of exponential growth followed by a period of exponential decay. The model is equivalent to a single thermodynamic phase change and exhibits all the required features of an inflationary period such as exponential growth of the scale factor plus a natural relaxation (graceful exit) of lambda to the present day cosmological constant. After constraining the model to conditions imposed, by the inflationary hypothesis, a numerical computation is performed over the time period from the Planck time to the beginning of the radiation era. As a result of the constraints on the model, the presence of a very large negative Planckian cosmological constant was found. It was also found that the present-day value of this function, albeit small, is nevertheless positive. Using this model, the growth of the cosmological scale factor R(lambda) was found as a parameterized function of the cosmological function. It is shown that the numerical integration is greatly simplified if the multivalued function is solved. Not only does this greatly simplify the calculation, it shows that the parameterization of the scale factor in terms of the cosmological function is useful. Results are presented in a series of graphs. How the model could be related to either a Grand Unified theory or a quantum mechanical model of inflation in terms of the rate of production and decay of a (massive) X particle created by the initial instability of the vacuum at the planck time is discussed. It is further suggested that the cosmological function provides direct information about the decay rate (and hence the mass) of this X particle

  9. Parameterizing sequence alignment with an explicit evolutionary model. (United States)

    Rivas, Elena; Eddy, Sean R


    Inference of sequence homology is inherently an evolutionary question, dependent upon evolutionary divergence. However, the insertion and deletion penalties in the most widely used methods for inferring homology by sequence alignment, including BLAST and profile hidden Markov models (profile HMMs), are not based on any explicitly time-dependent evolutionary model. Using one fixed score system (BLOSUM62 with some gap open/extend costs, for example) corresponds to making an unrealistic assumption that all sequence relationships have diverged by the same time. Adoption of explicit time-dependent evolutionary models for scoring insertions and deletions in sequence alignments has been hindered by algorithmic complexity and technical difficulty. We identify and implement several probabilistic evolutionary models compatible with the affine-cost insertion/deletion model used in standard pairwise sequence alignment. Assuming an affine gap cost imposes important restrictions on the realism of the evolutionary models compatible with it, as single insertion events with geometrically distributed lengths do not result in geometrically distributed insert lengths at finite times. Nevertheless, we identify one evolutionary model compatible with symmetric pair HMMs that are the basis for Smith-Waterman pairwise alignment, and two evolutionary models compatible with standard profile-based alignment. We test different aspects of the performance of these "optimized branch length" models, including alignment accuracy and homology coverage (discrimination of residues in a homologous region from nonhomologous flanking residues). We test on benchmarks of both global homologies (full length sequence homologs) and local homologies (homologous subsequences embedded in nonhomologous sequence). Contrary to our expectations, we find that for global homologies a single long branch parameterization suffices both for distant and close homologous relationships. In contrast, we do see an advantage in

  10. Multiscale parameterization of LIDAR elevations for reducing complexity in hydraulic models of coastal urban areas (United States)

    Cheung, Sweungwon; Slatton, K. Clint; Cho, Hyun-Chong; Dean, Robert G.


    Airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) technology now makes it possible to sample the Earth's surface with point spacings well below 1 m. It is, however, time consuming, costly, and technically challenging to directly use very high resolution LIDAR data for hydraulic modeling because of the computational requirements associated with solving fluid dynamics equations over complex boundary conditions in large data sets. For high relief terrain and urban areas, using coarse digital elevation models (DEMs) can cause significant degradation in hydraulic modeling, particularly when artificial obstructions, such as buildings, mask spatial correlations between terrain points. In this paper we present a strategy to reduce the computational complexity in the estimation of surface water discharge through a decomposition of the DEM data, wherein features have different characteristic spatial frequencies. Though the optimal DEM scale for a particular application will ultimately be decided by the user's tolerance for error, we present guidelines to choose a proper scale by balancing computer memory usage and accuracy. We also suggest a method to parameterize man-made structures, such as buildings in hydraulic modeling, to efficiently and accurately account for their effects on surface water discharge.

  11. Impact of Parameterized Lee Wave Drag on the Energy Budget of an Eddying Global Ocean Model (United States)


    of Mexico and other regions in Fig. 2b of Arbic et al. (2010) relative to their Fig. 2a. In subsequent versions of HY- COM simulations with embedded...use of the leap- frog time-stepping scheme (Griffies et al., 2000), it is an unmeasured source of dissi- pation. An associated imbalance in surface...Molines, J.-M., New , A.L., 2001. Circulation characteristics in three eddy- permitting models of the North Atlantic. Progr. Oceanogr. 48, 123–161

  12. Parameterization of dust emissions in the global atmospheric chemistry-climate model EMAC: impact of nudging and soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Astitha


    Full Text Available Airborne desert dust influences radiative transfer, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, as well as nutrient transport and deposition. It directly and indirectly affects climate on regional and global scales. Two versions of a parameterization scheme to compute desert dust emissions are incorporated into the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy2.41 Atmospheric Chemistry. One uses a globally uniform soil particle size distribution, whereas the other explicitly accounts for different soil textures worldwide. We have tested these two versions and investigated the sensitivity to input parameters, using remote sensing data from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET and dust concentrations and deposition measurements from the AeroCom dust benchmark database (and others. The two versions are shown to produce similar atmospheric dust loads in the N-African region, while they deviate in the Asian, Middle Eastern and S-American regions. The dust outflow from Africa over the Atlantic Ocean is accurately simulated by both schemes, in magnitude, location and seasonality. Approximately 70% of the modelled annual deposition data and 70–75% of the modelled monthly aerosol optical depth (AOD in the Atlantic Ocean stations lay in the range 0.5 to 2 times the observations for all simulations. The two versions have similar performance, even though the total annual source differs by ~50%, which underscores the importance of transport and deposition processes (being the same for both versions. Even though the explicit soil particle size distribution is considered more realistic, the simpler scheme appears to perform better in several locations. This paper discusses the differences between the two versions of the dust emission scheme, focusing on their limitations and strengths in describing the global dust cycle and suggests possible future improvements.

  13. Modeling canopy-induced turbulence in the Earth system: a unified parameterization of turbulent exchange within plant canopies and the roughness sublayer (CLM-ml v0) (United States)

    Bonan, Gordon B.; Patton, Edward G.; Harman, Ian N.; Oleson, Keith W.; Finnigan, John J.; Lu, Yaqiong; Burakowski, Elizabeth A.


    Land surface models used in climate models neglect the roughness sublayer and parameterize within-canopy turbulence in an ad hoc manner. We implemented a roughness sublayer turbulence parameterization in a multilayer canopy model (CLM-ml v0) to test if this theory provides a tractable parameterization extending from the ground through the canopy and the roughness sublayer. We compared the canopy model with the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) at seven forest, two grassland, and three cropland AmeriFlux sites over a range of canopy heights, leaf area indexes, and climates. CLM4.5 has pronounced biases during summer months at forest sites in midday latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, gross primary production, nighttime friction velocity, and the radiative temperature diurnal range. The new canopy model reduces these biases by introducing new physics. Advances in modeling stomatal conductance and canopy physiology beyond what is in CLM4.5 substantially improve model performance at the forest sites. The signature of the roughness sublayer is most evident in nighttime friction velocity and the diurnal cycle of radiative temperature, but is also seen in sensible heat flux. Within-canopy temperature profiles are markedly different compared with profiles obtained using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, and the roughness sublayer produces cooler daytime and warmer nighttime temperatures. The herbaceous sites also show model improvements, but the improvements are related less systematically to the roughness sublayer parameterization in these canopies. The multilayer canopy with the roughness sublayer turbulence improves simulations compared with CLM4.5 while also advancing the theoretical basis for surface flux parameterizations.

  14. Impact of buildings on surface solar radiation over urban Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Bin; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Gu, Yu; He, Cenlin; Lee, Wee-Liang; Chang, Xing; Li, Qinbin; Wang, Shuxiao; Tseng, Hsien-Liang R.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Hao, Jiming


    The rugged surface of an urban area due to varying buildings can interact with solar beams and affect both the magnitude and spatiotemporal distribution of surface solar fluxes. Here we systematically examine the impact of buildings on downward surface solar fluxes over urban Beijing by using a 3-D radiation parameterization that accounts for 3-D building structures vs. the conventional plane-parallel scheme. We find that the resulting downward surface solar flux deviations between the 3-D and the plane-parallel schemes are generally ±1–10 W m-2 at 800 m grid resolution and within ±1 W m-2 at 4 km resolution. Pairs of positive–negative flux deviations on different sides of buildings are resolved at 800 m resolution, while they offset each other at 4 km resolution. Flux deviations from the unobstructed horizontal surface at 4 km resolution are positive around noon but negative in the early morning and late afternoon. The corresponding deviations at 800 m resolution, in contrast, show diurnal variations that are strongly dependent on the location of the grids relative to the buildings. Both the magnitude and spatiotemporal variations of flux deviations are largely dominated by the direct flux. Furthermore, we find that flux deviations can potentially be an order of magnitude larger by using a finer grid resolution. Atmospheric aerosols can reduce the magnitude of downward surface solar flux deviations by 10–65 %, while the surface albedo generally has a rather moderate impact on flux deviations. The results imply that the effect of buildings on downward surface solar fluxes may not be critically significant in mesoscale atmospheric models with a grid resolution of 4 km or coarser. However, the effect can play a crucial role in meso-urban atmospheric models as well as microscale urban dispersion models with resolutions of 1 m to 1 km.

  15. Implementation of non-local boundary layer schemes in the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System and its impact on simulated mesoscale circulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez, I.; Ronda, R.J.; Caselles, V.; Estrela, M.J.


    This paper proposes the implementation of different non-local Planetary Boundary Layer schemes within the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) model. The two selected PBL parameterizations are the Medium-Range Forecast (MRF) PBL and its updated version, known as the Yonsei University (YSU)

  16. Impact of an improved shortwave radiation scheme in the MAECHAM5 General Circulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Morcrette


    Full Text Available In order to improve the representation of ozone absorption in the stratosphere of the MAECHAM5 general circulation model, the spectral resolution of the shortwave radiation parameterization used in the model has been increased from 4 to 6 bands. Two 20-years simulations with the general circulation model have been performed, one with the standard and the other with the newly introduced parameterization respectively, to evaluate the temperature and dynamical changes arising from the two different representations of the shortwave radiative transfer. In the simulation with the increased spectral resolution in the radiation parameterization, a significant warming of almost the entire model domain is reported. At the summer stratopause the temperature increase is about 6 K and alleviates the cold bias present in the model when the standard radiation scheme is used. These general circulation model results are consistent both with previous validation of the radiation scheme and with the offline clear-sky comparison performed in the current work with a discrete ordinate 4 stream scattering line by line radiative transfer model. The offline validation shows a substantial reduction of the daily averaged shortwave heating rate bias (1–2 K/day cooling that occurs for the standard radiation parameterization in the upper stratosphere, present under a range of atmospheric conditions. Therefore, the 6 band shortwave radiation parameterization is considered to be better suited for the representation of the ozone absorption in the stratosphere than the 4 band parameterization. Concerning the dynamical response in the general circulation model, it is found that the reported warming at the summer stratopause induces stronger zonal mean zonal winds in the middle atmosphere. These stronger zonal mean zonal winds thereafter appear to produce a dynamical feedback that results in a dynamical warming (cooling of the polar winter (summer mesosphere, caused by an

  17. Reintroducing radiometric surface temperature into the Penman-Monteith formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallick, Kaniska; Bøgh, Eva; Trebs, Ivonne


    Here we demonstrate a novel method to physically integrate radiometric surface temperature (TR) into the Penman-Monteith (PM) formulation for estimating the terrestrial sensible and latent heat fluxes (H and λE) in the framework of a modified Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC). It combi......Here we demonstrate a novel method to physically integrate radiometric surface temperature (TR) into the Penman-Monteith (PM) formulation for estimating the terrestrial sensible and latent heat fluxes (H and λE) in the framework of a modified Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC......). It combines TR data with standard energy balance closure models for deriving a hybrid scheme that does not require parameterization of the surface (or stomatal) and aerodynamic conductances (gS and gB). STIC is formed by the simultaneous solution of four state equations and it uses TR as an additional data...... source for retrieving the “near surface” moisture availability (M) and the Priestley-Taylor coefficient (α). The performance of STIC is tested using high-temporal resolution TR observations collected from different international surface energy flux experiments in conjunction with corresponding net...

  18. Distance parameterization for efficient seismic history matching with the ensemble Kalman Filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, O.; Arts, R.


    The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), in combination with travel-time parameterization, provides a robust and flexible method for quantitative multi-model history matching to time-lapse seismic data. A disadvantage of the parameterization in terms of travel-times is that it requires simulation of

  19. Evaluating the effect of Tikhonov regularization schemes on predictions in a variable‐density groundwater model (United States)

    White, Jeremy T.; Langevin, Christian D.; Hughes, Joseph D.


    Calibration of highly‐parameterized numerical models typically requires explicit Tikhonovtype regularization to stabilize the inversion process. This regularization can take the form of a preferred parameter values scheme or preferred relations between parameters, such as the preferred equality scheme. The resulting parameter distributions calibrate the model to a user‐defined acceptable level of model‐to‐measurement misfit, and also minimize regularization penalties on the total objective function. To evaluate the potential impact of these two regularization schemes on model predictive ability, a dataset generated from a synthetic model was used to calibrate a highly-parameterized variable‐density SEAWAT model. The key prediction is the length of time a synthetic pumping well will produce potable water. A bi‐objective Pareto analysis was used to explicitly characterize the relation between two competing objective function components: measurement error and regularization error. Results of the Pareto analysis indicate that both types of regularization schemes affect the predictive ability of the calibrated model.

  20. Natural Ocean Carbon Cycle Sensitivity to Parameterizations of the Recycling in a Climate Model (United States)

    Romanou, A.; Romanski, J.; Gregg, W. W.


    Sensitivities of the oceanic biological pump within the GISS (Goddard Institute for Space Studies ) climate modeling system are explored here. Results are presented from twin control simulations of the air-sea CO2 gas exchange using two different ocean models coupled to the same atmosphere. The two ocean models (Russell ocean model and Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model, HYCOM) use different vertical coordinate systems, and therefore different representations of column physics. Both variants of the GISS climate model are coupled to the same ocean biogeochemistry module (the NASA Ocean Biogeochemistry Model, NOBM), which computes prognostic distributions for biotic and abiotic fields that influence the air-sea flux of CO2 and the deep ocean carbon transport and storage. In particular, the model differences due to remineralization rate changes are compared to differences attributed to physical processes modeled differently in the two ocean models such as ventilation, mixing, eddy stirring and vertical advection. GISSEH(GISSER) is found to underestimate mixed layer depth compared to observations by about 55% (10 %) in the Southern Ocean and overestimate it by about 17% (underestimate by 2%) in the northern high latitudes. Everywhere else in the global ocean, the two models underestimate the surface mixing by about 12-34 %, which prevents deep nutrients from reaching the surface and promoting primary production there. Consequently, carbon export is reduced because of reduced production at the surface. Furthermore, carbon export is particularly sensitive to remineralization rate changes in the frontal regions of the subtropical gyres and at the Equator and this sensitivity in the model is much higher than the sensitivity to physical processes such as vertical mixing, vertical advection and mesoscale eddy transport. At depth, GISSER, which has a significant warm bias, remineralizes nutrients and carbon faster thereby producing more nutrients and carbon at depth, which

  1. Solid, liquid, and interfacial properties of TiAl alloys: parameterization of a new modified embedded atom method model. (United States)

    Sun, Shoutian; Ramachandran, Bala Ramu; Wick, Collin D


    New interatomic potentials for pure Ti and Al, and binary TiAl were developed utilizing the second nearest neighbour modified embedded-atom method (MEAM) formalism. The potentials were parameterized to reproduce multiple properties spanning bulk solids, solid surfaces, solid/liquid phase changes, and liquid interfacial properties. This was carried out using a newly developed optimization procedure that combined the simple minimization of a fitness function with a genetic algorithm to efficiently span the parameter space. The resulting MEAM potentials gave good agreement with experimental and DFT solid and liquid properties, and reproduced the melting points for Ti, Al, and TiAl. However, the surface tensions from the model consistently underestimated experimental values. Liquid TiAl's surface was found to be mostly covered with Al atoms, showing that Al has a significant propensity for the liquid/air interface.

  2. Implementation of a gust front head collapse scheme in the WRF numerical model (United States)

    Lompar, Miloš; Ćurić, Mladjen; Romanic, Djordje


    Gust fronts are thunderstorm-related phenomena usually associated with severe winds which are of great importance in theoretical meteorology, weather forecasting, cloud dynamics and precipitation, and wind engineering. An important feature of gust fronts demonstrated through both theoretical and observational studies is the periodic collapse and rebuild of the gust front head. This cyclic behavior of gust fronts results in periodic forcing of vertical velocity ahead of the parent thunderstorm, which consequently influences the storm dynamics and microphysics. This paper introduces the first gust front pulsation parameterization scheme in the WRF-ARW model (Weather Research and Forecasting-Advanced Research WRF). The influence of this new scheme on model performances is tested through investigation of the characteristics of an idealized supercell cumulonimbus cloud, as well as studying a real case of thunderstorms above the United Arab Emirates. In the ideal case, WRF with the gust front scheme produced more precipitation and showed different time evolution of mixing ratios of cloud water and rain, whereas the mixing ratios of ice and graupel are almost unchanged when compared to the default WRF run without the parameterization of gust front pulsation. The included parameterization did not disturb the general characteristics of thunderstorm cloud, such as the location of updraft and downdrafts, and the overall shape of the cloud. New cloud cells in front of the parent thunderstorm are also evident in both ideal and real cases due to the included forcing of vertical velocity caused by the periodic collapse of the gust front head. Despite some differences between the two WRF simulations and satellite observations, the inclusion of the gust front parameterization scheme produced more cumuliform clouds and seem to match better with real observations. Both WRF simulations gave poor results when it comes to matching the maximum composite radar reflectivity from radar

  3. Roles of Urban Tree Canopy and Buildings in Urban Heat Island Effects: Parameterization and Preliminary Results (United States)

    Loughner, Christopher P.; Allen, Dale J.; Zhang, Da-Lin; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Landry, Laura


    Urban heat island (UHI) effects can strengthen heat waves and air pollution episodes. In this study, the dampening impact of urban trees on the UHI during an extreme heat wave in the Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan area is examined by incorporating trees, soil, and grass into the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model and an urban canopy model (WRF-UCM). By parameterizing the effects of these natural surfaces alongside roadways and buildings, the modified WRF-UCM is used to investigate how urban trees, soil, and grass dampen the UHI. The modified model was run with 50% tree cover over urban roads and a 10% decrease in the width of urban streets to make space for soil and grass alongside the roads and buildings. Results show that, averaged over all urban areas, the added vegetation decreases surface air temperature in urban street canyons by 4.1 K and road-surface and building-wall temperatures by 15.4 and 8.9 K, respectively, as a result of tree shading and evapotranspiration. These temperature changes propagate downwind and alter the temperature gradient associated with the Chesapeake Bay breeze and, therefore, alter the strength of the bay breeze. The impact of building height on the UHI shows that decreasing commercial building heights by 8 m and residential building heights by 2.5 m results in up to 0.4-K higher daytime surface and near-surface air temperatures because of less building shading and up to 1.2-K lower nighttime temperatures because of less longwave radiative trapping in urban street canyons.

  4. Transmission usage cost allocation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El Ela, A.A.; El-Sehiemy, R.A.


    This paper presents different suggested transmission usage cost allocation (TCA) schemes to the system individuals. Different independent system operator (ISO) visions are presented using the proportional rata and flow-based TCA methods. There are two proposed flow-based TCA schemes (FTCA). The first FTCA scheme generalizes the equivalent bilateral exchanges (EBE) concepts for lossy networks through two-stage procedure. The second FTCA scheme is based on the modified sensitivity factors (MSF). These factors are developed from the actual measurements of power flows in transmission lines and the power injections at different buses. The proposed schemes exhibit desirable apportioning properties and are easy to implement and understand. Case studies for different loading conditions are carried out to show the capability of the proposed schemes for solving the TCA problem. (author)

  5. Assessing ocean vertical mixing schemes for the study of climate change (United States)

    Howard, A. M.; Lindo, F.; Fells, J.; Tulsee, V.; Cheng, Y.; Canuto, V.


    Climate change is a burning issue of our time. It is critical to know the consequences of choosing "business as usual" vs. mitigating our emissions for impacts e.g. ecosystem disruption, sea-level rise, floods and droughts. To make predictions we must model realistically each component of the climate system. The ocean must be modeled carefully as it plays a critical role, including transporting heat and storing heat and dissolved carbon dioxide. Modeling the ocean realistically in turn requires physically based parameterizations of key processes in it that cannot be explicitly represented in a global climate model. One such process is vertical mixing. The turbulence group at NASA-GISS has developed a comprehensive new vertical mixing scheme (GISSVM) based on turbulence theory, including surface convection and wind shear, interior waves and double-diffusion, and bottom tides. The GISSVM is tested in stand-alone ocean simulations before being used in coupled climate models. It is also being upgraded to more faithfully represent the physical processes. To help assess mixing schemes, students use data from NASA-GISS to create visualizations and calculate statistics including mean bias and rms differences and correlations of fields. These are created and programmed with MATLAB. Results with the commonly used KPP mixing scheme and the present GISSVM and candidate improved variants of GISSVM will be compared between stand-alone ocean models and coupled models and observations. This project introduces students to modeling of a complex system, an important theme in contemporary science and helps them gain a better appreciation of climate science and a new perspective on it. They also gain familiarity with MATLAB, a widely used tool, and develop skills in writing and understanding programs. Moreover they contribute to the advancement of science by providing information that will help guide the improvement of the GISSVM and hence of ocean and climate models and ultimately our

  6. Improving the Representation of Snow Crystal Properties with a Single-Moment Mircophysics Scheme (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Petersen, Walter A.; Case, Jonathan L.; Demek, Scott R.


    Single-moment microphysics schemes are utilized in an increasing number of applications and are widely available within numerical modeling packages, often executed in near real-time to aid in the issuance of weather forecasts and advisories. In order to simulate cloud microphysical and precipitation processes, a number of assumptions are made within these schemes. Snow crystals are often assumed to be spherical and of uniform density, and their size distribution intercept may be fixed to simplify calculation of the remaining parameters. Recently, the Canadian CloudSat/CALIPSO Validation Project (C3VP) provided aircraft observations of snow crystal size distributions and environmental state variables, sampling widespread snowfall associated with a passing extratropical cyclone on 22 January 2007. Aircraft instrumentation was supplemented by comparable surface estimations and sampling by two radars: the C-band, dual-polarimetric radar in King City, Ontario and the NASA CloudSat 94 GHz Cloud Profiling Radar. As radar systems respond to both hydrometeor mass and size distribution, they provide value when assessing the accuracy of cloud characteristics as simulated by a forecast model. However, simulation of the 94 GHz radar signal requires special attention, as radar backscatter is sensitive to the assumed crystal shape. Observations obtained during the 22 January 2007 event are used to validate assumptions of density and size distribution within the NASA Goddard six-class single-moment microphysics scheme. Two high resolution forecasts are performed on a 9-3-1 km grid, with C3VP-based alternative parameterizations incorporated and examined for improvement. In order to apply the CloudSat 94 GHz radar to model validation, the single scattering characteristics of various crystal types are used and demonstrate that the assumption of Mie spheres is insufficient for representing CloudSat reflectivity derived from winter precipitation. Furthermore, snow density and size

  7. Effect of numerical dispersion as a source of structural noise in the calibration of a highly parameterized saltwater intrusion model (United States)

    Langevin, Christian D.; Hughes, Joseph D.


    A model with a small amount of numerical dispersion was used to represent saltwater 7 intrusion in a homogeneous aquifer for a 10-year historical calibration period with one 8 groundwater withdrawal location followed by a 10-year prediction period with two groundwater 9 withdrawal locations. Time-varying groundwater concentrations at arbitrary locations in this low-10 dispersion model were then used as observations to calibrate a model with a greater amount of 11 numerical dispersion. The low-dispersion model was solved using a Total Variation Diminishing 12 numerical scheme; an implicit finite difference scheme with upstream weighting was used for 13 the calibration simulations. Calibration focused on estimating a three-dimensional hydraulic 14 conductivity field that was parameterized using a regular grid of pilot points in each layer and a 15 smoothness constraint. Other model parameters (dispersivity, porosity, recharge, etc.) were 16 fixed at the known values. The discrepancy between observed and simulated concentrations 17 (due solely to numerical dispersion) was reduced by adjusting hydraulic conductivity through the 18 calibration process. Within the transition zone, hydraulic conductivity tended to be lower than 19 the true value for the calibration runs tested. The calibration process introduced lower hydraulic 20 conductivity values to compensate for numerical dispersion and improve the match between 21 observed and simulated concentration breakthrough curves at monitoring locations. 22 Concentrations were underpredicted at both groundwater withdrawal locations during the 10-23 year prediction period.