WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface ozone depletion

  1. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  2. Revisiting Antarctic Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Tritscher, Ines; Müller, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic ozone depletion is known for almost three decades and it has been well settled that it is caused by chlorine catalysed ozone depletion inside the polar vortex. However, there are still some details, which need to be clarified. In particular, there is a current debate on the relative importance of liquid aerosol and crystalline NAT and ice particles for chlorine activation. Particles have a threefold impact on polar chlorine chemistry, temporary removal of HNO3 from the gas-phase (uptake), permanent removal of HNO3 from the atmosphere (denitrification), and chlorine activation through heterogeneous reactions. We have performed simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) employing a recently developed algorithm for saturation-dependent NAT nucleation for the Antarctic winters 2011 and 2012. The simulation results are compared with different satellite observations. With the help of these simulations, we investigate the role of the different processes responsible for chlorine activation and ozone depletion. Especially the sensitivity with respect to the particle type has been investigated. If temperatures are artificially forced to only allow cold binary liquid aerosol, the simulation still shows significant chlorine activation and ozone depletion. The results of the 3-D Chemical Transport Model CLaMS simulations differ from purely Lagrangian longtime trajectory box model simulations which indicates the importance of mixing processes.

  3. Ozone-depleting Substances (ODS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This site includes all of the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) recognized by the Montreal Protocol. The data include ozone depletion potentials (ODP), global warming...

  4. Response of Antarctic sea surface temperature and sea ice to ozone depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, D.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Kostov, Y.; Marshall, J.; Seviour, W.; Waugh, D.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of the Antarctic ozone hole extends all the way from the stratosphere through the troposphere down to the surface, with clear signatures on surface winds, and SST during summer. In this talk we discuss the impact of these changes on the ocean circulation and sea ice state. We are notably motivated by the observed cooling of the surface Southern Ocean and associated increase in Antarctic sea ice extent since the 1970s. These trends are not reproduced by CMIP5 climate models, and the underlying mechanism at work in nature and the models remain unexplained. Did the ozone hole contribute to the observed trends?Here, we review recent advances toward answering these issues using "abrupt ozone depletion" experiments. The ocean and sea ice response is rather complex, comprising two timescales: a fast ( 1-2y) cooling of the surface ocean and sea ice cover increase, followed by a slower warming trend, which, depending on models, flip the sign of the SST and sea ice responses on decadal timescale. Although the basic mechanism seems robust, comparison across climate models reveal large uncertainties in the timescales and amplitude of the response to the extent that even the sign of the ocean and sea ice response to ozone hole and recovery remains unconstrained. After briefly describing the dynamics and thermodynamics behind the two-timescale response, we will discuss the main sources of uncertainties in the modeled response, namely cloud effects and air-sea heat exchanges, surface wind stress response and ocean eddy transports. Finally, we will consider the implications of our results on the ability of coupled climate models to reproduce observed Southern Ocean changes.

  5. Ozone depletion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, F.M.; Chang, J.S.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Penner, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Models of stratospheric chemistry have been primarily directed toward an understanding of the behavior of stratospheric ozone. Initially this interest reflected the diagnostic role of ozone in the understanding of atmospheric transport processes. More recently, interest in stratospheric ozone has arisen from concern that human activities might affect the amount of stratospheric ozone, thereby affecting the ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface and perhaps also affecting the climate with various potentially severe consequences for human welfare. This concern has inspired a substantial effort to develop both diagnostic and prognostic models of stratospheric ozone. During the past decade, several chemical agents have been determined to have potentially significant impacts on stratospheric ozone if they are released to the atmosphere in large quantities. These include oxides of nitrogen, oxides of hydrogen, chlorofluorocarbons, bromine compounds, fluorine compounds and carbon dioxide. In order to assess the potential impact of the perturbations caused by these chemicals, mathematical models have been developed to handle the complex coupling between chemical, radiative, and dynamical processes. Basic concepts in stratospheric modeling are reviewed

  6. Issues in Stratospheric Ozone Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Steven Andrew

    Following the announcement of the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1985 there have arisen a multitude of questions pertaining to the nature and consequences of polar ozone depletion. This thesis addresses several of these specific questions, using both computer models of chemical kinetics and the Earth's radiation field as well as laboratory kinetic experiments. A coupled chemical kinetic-radiative numerical model was developed to assist in the analysis of in situ field measurements of several radical and neutral species in the polar and mid-latitude lower stratosphere. Modeling was used in the analysis of enhanced polar ClO, mid-latitude diurnal variation of ClO, and simultaneous measurements of OH, HO_2, H_2 O and O_3. Most importantly, such modeling was instrumental in establishing the link between the observed ClO and BrO concentrations in the Antarctic polar vortex and the observed rate of ozone depletion. The principal medical concern of stratospheric ozone depletion is that ozone loss will lead to the enhancement of ground-level UV-B radiation. Global ozone climatology (40^circS to 50^ circN latitude) was incorporated into a radiation field model to calculate the biologically accumulated dosage (BAD) of UV-B radiation, integrated over days, months, and years. The slope of the annual BAD as a function of latitude was found to correspond to epidemiological data for non-melanoma skin cancers for 30^circ -50^circN. Various ozone loss scenarios were investigated. It was found that a small ozone loss in the tropics can provide as much additional biologically effective UV-B as a much larger ozone loss at higher latitudes. Also, for ozone depletions of > 5%, the BAD of UV-B increases exponentially with decreasing ozone levels. An important key player in determining whether polar ozone depletion can propagate into the populated mid-latitudes is chlorine nitrate, ClONO_2 . As yet this molecule is only indirectly accounted for in computer models and field

  7. Ozone depletion potentials of halocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karol, I.L.; Kiselev, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of ozone depletion potential (ODP) is widely used in the evaluation of numerous halocarbons and of their replacements for effects on ozone, but the methods, model assumptions and conditions of ODP calculation have not been analyzed adequately. In this paper, a model study of effects on ozone after the instantaneous releases of various amounts of CH 3 CCl 3 and of CHF 2 Cl(HCFC-22) in the several conditions of the background atmosphere are presented, aimed to understand the main connections of ODP values with the methods of their calculations. To facilitate the ODP computation in numerous versions for long after the releases, the above rather short-lived gases have been used. The variation of released gas global mass from 1 Mt to 1 Gt leads to ODP value increase atmosphere. The same variations are analyzed for the CFC-free atmosphere of 1960s conditions for the anthropogenically loaded atmosphere in the 21st century according to the known IPCC- A scenario (business as usual). Recommendations of proper ways of ODP calculations are proposed for practically important cases

  8. Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    2010-01-01

    My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…

  9. Ozone depletion following future volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Klobas, J.; Wilmouth, David M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Anderson, James G.; Salawitch, Ross J.

    2017-07-01

    While explosive volcanic eruptions cause ozone loss in the current atmosphere due to an enhancement in the availability of reactive chlorine following the stratospheric injection of sulfur, future eruptions are expected to increase total column ozone as halogen loading approaches preindustrial levels. The timing of this shift in the impact of major volcanic eruptions on the thickness of the ozone layer is poorly known. Modeling four possible climate futures, we show that scenarios with the smallest increase in greenhouse gas concentrations lead to the greatest risk to ozone from heterogeneous chemical processing following future eruptions. We also show that the presence in the stratosphere of bromine from natural, very short-lived biogenic compounds is critically important for determining whether future eruptions will lead to ozone depletion. If volcanic eruptions inject hydrogen halides into the stratosphere, an effect not considered in current ozone assessments, potentially profound reductions in column ozone would result.

  10. Ozone depleting substances management inventory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Ivan Romero Rodríguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: The care of the ozone layer is an activity that contributes to the planet's environmental stability. For this reason, the Montreal Protocol is created to control the emission of substances that deplete the ozone layer and reduce its production from an organizational point of view. However, it is also necessary to have control of those that are already circulating and those present in the equipment that cannot be replaced yet because of the context of the companies that keep it. Generally, the control mechanisms for classifying the type of substances, equipment and companies that own them, are carried in physical files, spreadsheets and text documents, which makes it difficult to control and manage the data stored in them. Method: The objective of this research is to computerize the process of control of substances that deplete the ozone layer. An evaluation and description of all process to manage Ozone-Depleting Substances (ODS, and its alternatives, is done. For computerization, the agile development methodology SCRUM is used, and for the technological solution tools and free open source technologies are used. Result: As a result of the research, a computer tool was developed that automates the process of control and management of substances that exhaust the ozone layer and its alternatives. Conclusions: The developed computer tool allows to control and manage the ozone-depleting substances and the equipment that use them. It also manages the substances that arise as alternatives to be used for the protection of the ozone layer.

  11. The depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabogal Nelson

    2000-01-01

    The protection of the Earth's ozone layer is of the highest importance to mankind. The dangers of its destruction are by now well known. The depletion of that layer has reached record levels. The Antarctic ozone hole covered this year a record area. The ozone layer is predicted to begin recovery in the next one or two decades and should be restored to pre-1980 levels by 2050. This is the achievement of the regime established by the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The regime established by these two agreements has been revised, and made more effective in London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Vienna (1995), and Beijing (1999)

  12. Ozone depletion, greenhouse effect and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adzersen, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    After describing the causes and effects of ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect, the author discusses the alternative offered by the nuclear industry. In his opinion, a worldwide energy strategy of risk minimisation will not be possible unless efficient energy use is introduced immediately, efficiently and on a reliable basis. Atomic energy is not viewed as an acceptable means of preventing the threatening climate change. (DG) [de

  13. Potential For Stratospheric Ozone Depletion During Carboniferous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, M.; Goldstein, A. H.

    Methyl bromide (CH3Br) constitutes the largest source of bromine atoms to the strato- sphere whereas methyl chloride (CH3Cl) is the most abundant halocarbon in the tro- posphere. Both gases play an important role in stratospheric ozone depletion. For in- stance, Br coupled reactions are responsible for 30 to 50 % of total ozone loss in the polar vortex. Currently, the largest natural sources of CH3Br and CH3Cl appear to be biological production in the oceans, inorganic production during biomass burning and plant production in salt marsh ecosystems. Variations of paleofluxes of CH3Br and CH3Cl can be estimated by analyses of oceanic paleoproductivity, stratigraphic analyses of frequency and distribution of fossil charcoal indicating the occurrence of wildfires, and/or by paleoreconstruction indicating the extent of salt marshes. Dur- ing the lower Carboniferous time (Tournaisian-Visean), the southern margin of the Laurasian continent was characterized by charcoal deposits. Estimation on frequency of charcoal layers indicates that wildfires occur in a range of 3-35 years (Falcon-Lang 2000). This suggests that biomass burning could be an important source of CH3Br and CH3Cl during Tournaisian-Viesan time. During Tounaisian and until Merame- cian carbon and oxygen isotope records have short term oscillations (Bruckschen et al. 1999, Mii et al. 1999). Chesterian time (mid- Carboniferous) is marked by an in- crease in delta18O values ( ~ 2 permil) and an increase of glacial deposit frequency suggesting lower temperatures. The occurrence of glacial deposits over the paleopole suggests polar conditions and the associated special features of polar mete- orology such as strong circumpolar wind in the stratosphere (polar vortex) and polar stratospheric clouds. Thus, conditions leading to polar statospheric ozone depletion can be found. Simultaneously an increase in delta13C values is documented. We interpret the positive shift in delta13C as a result of higher bioproductivity

  14. Utilization of Alternate Propellants to Reduce Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, David

    1994-01-01

    There is continuing concern about the depletion of the ozone layer. Recently it has been determined that effluents from rockets exhausts contain chemical species that can be classified as Potentially Ozone Reactive Chemicals (PORCs...

  15. Producing, Importing, and Exporting Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview page provides links to information on producing, importing, and exporting ozone-depleting substances, including information about the HCFC allowance system, importing, labeling, recordkeeping and reporting.

  16. Importance of energetic solar protons in ozone depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, J A.E.; Scourfield, M W.J. [Natal Univ., Durban (South Africa). Space Physics Research Inst.

    1991-07-11

    CHLORINE-catalysed depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer has commanded considerable attention since 1985, when Farman et al. observed a decrease of 50% in the total column ozone over Antarctica in the austral spring. Here we examine the depletion of stratospheric ozone caused by the reaction of ozone with nitric oxide generated by energetic solar protons, associated with solar flares. During large solar flares in March 1989, satellite observations indicated that total column ozone was depleted by {approx} 9% over {approx} 20% of the total area between the South Pole and latitude 70{sup o}S. Chlorine-catalysed ozone depletion takes place over a much larger area, but our results indicate that the influence of solar protons on atmospheric ozone concentrations should not be ignored. (author).

  17. Importance of energetic solar protons in ozone depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, J.A.E.; Scourfield, M.W.J.

    1991-01-01

    CHLORINE-catalysed depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer has commanded considerable attention since 1985, when Farman et al. observed a decrease of 50% in the total column ozone over Antarctica in the austral spring. Here we examine the depletion of stratospheric ozone caused by the reaction of ozone with nitric oxide generated by energetic solar protons, associated with solar flares. During large solar flares in March 1989, satellite observations indicated that total column ozone was depleted by ∼ 9% over ∼ 20% of the total area between the South Pole and latitude 70 o S. Chlorine-catalysed ozone depletion takes place over a much larger area, but our results indicate that the influence of solar protons on atmospheric ozone concentrations should not be ignored. (author)

  18. Effect of greenhouse gas emissions on stratospheric ozone depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velders GJM; LLO

    1997-01-01

    The depletion of the ozone layer is caused mainly by the increase in emissions of chlorine- and bromine-containing compounds like CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform and methyl bromide. Emissions of greenhouse gases can affect the depletion of the ozone layer through atmospheric

  19. International aspects of restrictions of ozone-depleting substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, S.C.

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes international efforts to protect stratospheric ozone. Also included in this report is a discussion of activities in other countries to meet restrictions in the production and use of ozone-depleting substances. Finally, there is a brief presentation of trade and international competitiveness issues relating to the transition to alternatives for the regulated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons. The stratosphere knows no international borders. Just as the impact of reduced stratospheric ozone will be felt internationally, so protection of the ozone layer is properly an international effort. Unilateral action, even by a country that produces and used large quantities of ozone-depleting substances, will not remedy the problem of ozone depletion if other countries do not follow suit. 32 refs., 7 tabs.

  20. Future emission scenarios for chemicals that may deplete stratospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammitt, J.K; Camm, Frank; Mooz, W.E.; Wolf, K.A.; Bamezai, Anil; Connel, P.S.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Scenarios are developed for long-term future emissions of seven of the most important manmade chemicals that may deplete ozone and the corresponding effect on stratospheric ozone concentrations is calculated using a one-dimensional atmospheric model. The scenarios are based on detailed analysis of the markets for products that use these chemicals and span a central 90% probability interval for the chemicals joint effect on calculated ozone abundance, assuming no additional regulations. (author). 22 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Ozone Layer Depletion: A Review | Eze | Nigerian Journal of Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the future behaviour of Ozone will also be affected by the changing atmospheric abundances of methane, nitrous oxide, water vapour, sulphate aerosol, and changing climate. KEY WORDS: Ozone Layer Depletion, Bioeffects, Protection. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences Vol.4(1) 2005: 67-71 ...

  2. From ozone depletion to biological UV damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamm, E; Thomalla, E; Koepke, P [Munich Univ. (Germany). Meteorological Inst.

    1996-12-31

    Based on the ozone data from the Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeissenberg (MOHP: 47.8 deg N, 11.01 deg E) and corresponding mean atmospheric conditions, high resolution UV spectra are calculated with a complex radiation transfer model STAR. Biologically weighted UV spectra are investigated as integrated irradiances (dose rates) for maximum zenith angles and as daily integrals for selected days of the year. Ozone variation and uncertainty of action spectra are investigated

  3. From ozone depletion to biological UV damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamm, E.; Thomalla, E.; Koepke, P. [Munich Univ. (Germany). Meteorological Inst.

    1995-12-31

    Based on the ozone data from the Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeissenberg (MOHP: 47.8 deg N, 11.01 deg E) and corresponding mean atmospheric conditions, high resolution UV spectra are calculated with a complex radiation transfer model STAR. Biologically weighted UV spectra are investigated as integrated irradiances (dose rates) for maximum zenith angles and as daily integrals for selected days of the year. Ozone variation and uncertainty of action spectra are investigated

  4. OZONE DEPLETING SUBSTANCES ELIMINATION MANAGEMENT: THE SUCCESS STORY OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Matlievska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Man, with its activities, produces and uses substances that have negative impact on the environment and the human health, and can cause an economic damage. Consequently, they have a great impact on quality of life. Among the most harmful chemicals are Ozone Depleting Substances that are subject of regulation with international conventions. This Paper supports the fact that each country has to undertake national efforts for ozone depleting substances reduction and elimination. In that respect, the general objective of the Paper is to present the Macedonian unique experience regarding its efforts to reduce or eliminate these substances. The following two aspects were subject to the research: national legislation which regulates the Ozone Depleting Substances import and export as well as the implementation of the projects that resulted with the elimination of Ozone Depleting Substances quantities in the period 1995 – 2010. The research outcomes confirm the starting research hypothesis i.e. that with adequately created and implemented national action, the amount of Ozone Depleting Substances consumption can dramatically fall.

  5. Implications of stratospheric ozone depletion upon plant production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teramura, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    An increase in the amount of UV-B radiation reaching the earth's surface is identified as the major factor of concern to result from stratospheric ozone depletion. UV radiation is believed to have wide ranging effects on plant physiology and biochemistry. In screening studies of > 300 species and cultivars, > 50% have shown sensitivity to UV radiation. The most sensitive plant families appear to be Leguminosae, Cucurbitaceae and Cruciferae. The need for a better understanding of the effects of UV radiation on crop plant physiology and particularly of the repair and protective mechanisms developed by some species is stressed. This paper was presented at a colloquium on Implications of global climate changes on horticultural cropping practices and production in developing countries held at the 86th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Horticultural Science at Tulsa, Oklahoma, on 2 Aug. 1989

  6. Ozone depletion, related UVB changes and increased skin cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. P.

    1998-03-01

    Stratospheric ozone at middle latitudes shows a seasonal variation of about +/-20%, a quasi-biennial oscillation of 1-10% range and a long-term variation in which the level was almost steady up to about 1979 and declined thereafter to the present day by about 10%. These variations are expected to be reflected in solar UVB observed at the ground, but in an opposite direction. Thus UVB should have had a long-term increase of about 10-20%, which should cause an increase in skin cancer incidence of about 20-40%. Skin cancer incidence has increased all over the world, e.g. about 90% in USA during 1974-1990. It is popularly believed that this increase in skin cancer incidence is related to the recent ozone depletion. This seems to be incorrect, for two reasons. Firstly, the observed skin cancer increase is too large (90%) compared with the expected value (40%) from ozone depletion. Secondly, cancer does not develop immediately after exposure to solar UVB. The sunburns may occur within hours; but cancer development and detection may take years, even decades. Hence the observed skin cancer increase since 1974 (no data available for earlier periods) must have occurred due to exposure to solar UVB in the 1950s and 1960s, when there was no ozone depletion. Thus, the skin cancer increase must be attributed to harmful solar UVB levels existing even in the 1960s, accentuated later not by ozone depletion (which started only much later, by 1979) but by other causes, such as a longer human life span, better screening, increasing tendencies of sunbathing at beaches, etc., in affluent societies. On the other hand, the recent ozone depletion and the associated UVB increases will certainly take their toll; only that the effects will not be noticed now but years or decades from now. The concern for the future expressed in the Montreal Protocol for reducing ozone depletion by controlling CFC production is certainly justified, especially because increased UVB is harmful to animal and

  7. Impact and mitigation of stratospheric ozone depletion by chemical rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcdonald, A.J.

    1992-03-01

    The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) conducted a workshop in conjunction with the 1991 AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference in Sacramento, California, to assess the impact of chemical rocket propulsion on the environment. The workshop included recognized experts from the fields of atmospheric physics and chemistry, solid rocket propulsion, liquid rocket propulsion, government, and environmental agencies, and representatives from several responsible environmental organizations. The conclusion from this workshop relative to stratospheric ozone depletion was that neither solid nor liquid rocket launchers have a significant impact on stratospheric ozone depletion, and that there is no real significant difference between the two

  8. 77 FR 74381 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone Depleting Substances-Fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone Depleting Substances--Fire Suppression... a companion proposed rule issuing listings for three fire suppressants under EPA's Significant New... companion proposed rule issuing listings for three fire suppressants under EPA's Significant New...

  9. Depletion of ozone layer and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kripke, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    A decrease in food supply, rather than an increase in cancers, could turn out to be the greatest danger from the loss of the Earth's ozone shield says the author. This could result from alterations in plants and animals that are more sensitive than humans to increased levels of ultraviolet radiation. Increasing ambient ultraviolet radiation within a short time would exert dramatic selective pressure on all living organisms, but the global consequences of such an occurrence cannot be predicted. Common skin cancer is the best understood link with ultraviolet radiation. In fact, the link is so straightforward that precise calculations are possible: a 1% decrease in ozone equals a 2% increase in ultraviolet radiation, which translates into a 3 to 6% increase in common skin cancers in the US. If the immune system is damaged, the body cannot survive the continual onslaught of infectious agents present in the environment. People's willingness to protect themselves against sunlight exposure has been dictated by fashion. The fashionability of hats and sunglasses is beneficial for reducing the risk of cataracts; on the other hand, the fashionability of sun-tans has probably contributed to the rising incidence of skin cancer among Caucasians. The best remedy she advises is to avoid overexposure to sunlight

  10. Bromine measurements in ozone depleted air over the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Neuman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In situ measurements of ozone, photochemically active bromine compounds, and other trace gases over the Arctic Ocean in April 2008 are used to examine the chemistry and geographical extent of ozone depletion in the arctic marine boundary layer (MBL. Data were obtained from the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC study and the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS study. Fast (1 s and sensitive (detection limits at the low pptv level measurements of BrCl and BrO were obtained from three different chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS instruments, and soluble bromide was measured with a mist chamber. The CIMS instruments also detected Br2. Subsequent laboratory studies showed that HOBr rapidly converts to Br2 on the Teflon instrument inlets. This detected Br2 is identified as active bromine and represents a lower limit of the sum HOBr + Br2. The measured active bromine is shown to likely be HOBr during daytime flights in the arctic. In the MBL over the Arctic Ocean, soluble bromide and active bromine were consistently elevated and ozone was depleted. Ozone depletion and active bromine enhancement were confined to the MBL that was capped by a temperature inversion at 200–500 m altitude. In ozone-depleted air, BrO rarely exceeded 10 pptv and was always substantially lower than soluble bromide that was as high as 40 pptv. BrCl was rarely enhanced above the 2 pptv detection limit, either in the MBL, over Alaska, or in the arctic free troposphere.

  11. Ozone Sensitivity to Varying Greenhouse Gases and Ozone-Depleting Substances in CCMI-1 Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Olaf; Stone, Kane A.; Schofield, Robyn; Akiyoshi, Hideharu; Yamashita, Yousuke; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Sudo, Kengo; Plummer, David A.; Scinocca, John; hide

    2018-01-01

    Ozone fields simulated for the first phase of the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI-1) will be used as forcing data in the 6th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Here we assess, using reference and sensitivity simulations produced for CCMI-1, the suitability of CCMI-1 model results for this process, investigating the degree of consistency amongst models regarding their responses to variations in individual forcings. We consider the influences of methane, nitrous oxide, a combination of chlorinated or brominated ozone-depleting substances, and a combination of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. We find varying degrees of consistency in the models' responses in ozone to these individual forcings, including some considerable disagreement. In particular, the response of total-column ozone to these forcings is less consistent across the multi-model ensemble than profile comparisons. We analyse how stratospheric age of air, a commonly used diagnostic of stratospheric transport, responds to the forcings. For this diagnostic we find some salient differences in model behaviour, which may explain some of the findings for ozone. The findings imply that the ozone fields derived from CCMI-1 are subject to considerable uncertainties regarding the impacts of these anthropogenic forcings. We offer some thoughts on how to best approach the problem of generating a consensus ozone database from a multi-model ensemble such as CCMI-1.

  12. Ozone sensitivity to varying greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting substances in CCMI-1 simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Morgenstern

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone fields simulated for the first phase of the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI-1 will be used as forcing data in the 6th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Here we assess, using reference and sensitivity simulations produced for CCMI-1, the suitability of CCMI-1 model results for this process, investigating the degree of consistency amongst models regarding their responses to variations in individual forcings. We consider the influences of methane, nitrous oxide, a combination of chlorinated or brominated ozone-depleting substances, and a combination of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. We find varying degrees of consistency in the models' responses in ozone to these individual forcings, including some considerable disagreement. In particular, the response of total-column ozone to these forcings is less consistent across the multi-model ensemble than profile comparisons. We analyse how stratospheric age of air, a commonly used diagnostic of stratospheric transport, responds to the forcings. For this diagnostic we find some salient differences in model behaviour, which may explain some of the findings for ozone. The findings imply that the ozone fields derived from CCMI-1 are subject to considerable uncertainties regarding the impacts of these anthropogenic forcings. We offer some thoughts on how to best approach the problem of generating a consensus ozone database from a multi-model ensemble such as CCMI-1.

  13. Estimation of surface UV levels based on Meteor-3/TOMS ozone data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, Y A [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation); Geogdzhaev, I V [Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khattatov, V U [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The major consequence of ozone layer depletion for the environment is an increase of harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the Earth surface and in the upper ocean. This implies the importance of environmental UV monitoring. Since the direct global monitoring is not currently possible, indirect estimations of surface UV levels may be used based on satellite ozone data (Madronich, S. 1992). Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on board the METEOR-3 satellite provided regular set of data for such estimates. During the time of its operation (August, 1991 - December, 1994) the instrument registered several ozone hole events over Antarctica, when ozone levels dropped by as much as 60 % from their unperturbed values. Probably even more alarming ozone depletions were observed over highly populated regions of middle latitudes of northern hemisphere. Radiative transfer modeling was used to convert METEOR-3/TOMS daily ozone values into regional and global maps of biologically active UV. Calculations demonstrate the effect on surface UV levels produced by ozone hole over Antarctica and ozone depletions over the territory of Russia (March, 1994). UV contour lines deviate from the normal appearance which is determined by growing southward solar elevation. UV contour lines are almost perpendicular to the ozone ones in the ozone depletions areas. The 30 % ozone depletion, over Siberia caused more than 30 % increase in noontime erythemal UV levels, which is equivalent to 10-15 degrees southward latitude displacement. Higher UV radiation increases were found in ozone hole over South America (October 1992) equivalent to about 20 degrees southward displacement

  14. Estimation of surface UV levels based on Meteor-3/TOMS ozone data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, Y.A. [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation); Geogdzhaev, I.V. [Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khattatov, V.U. [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The major consequence of ozone layer depletion for the environment is an increase of harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the Earth surface and in the upper ocean. This implies the importance of environmental UV monitoring. Since the direct global monitoring is not currently possible, indirect estimations of surface UV levels may be used based on satellite ozone data (Madronich, S. 1992). Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on board the METEOR-3 satellite provided regular set of data for such estimates. During the time of its operation (August, 1991 - December, 1994) the instrument registered several ozone hole events over Antarctica, when ozone levels dropped by as much as 60 % from their unperturbed values. Probably even more alarming ozone depletions were observed over highly populated regions of middle latitudes of northern hemisphere. Radiative transfer modeling was used to convert METEOR-3/TOMS daily ozone values into regional and global maps of biologically active UV. Calculations demonstrate the effect on surface UV levels produced by ozone hole over Antarctica and ozone depletions over the territory of Russia (March, 1994). UV contour lines deviate from the normal appearance which is determined by growing southward solar elevation. UV contour lines are almost perpendicular to the ozone ones in the ozone depletions areas. The 30 % ozone depletion, over Siberia caused more than 30 % increase in noontime erythemal UV levels, which is equivalent to 10-15 degrees southward latitude displacement. Higher UV radiation increases were found in ozone hole over South America (October 1992) equivalent to about 20 degrees southward displacement

  15. A Two-Timescale Response to Ozone Depletion: Importance of the Background State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seviour, W.; Waugh, D.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2015-12-01

    It has been recently suggested that the response of Southern Ocean sea-ice extent to stratospheric ozone depletion is time-dependent; that the ocean surface initially cools due to enhanced northward Ekman drift caused by a poleward shift in the eddy-driven jet, and then warms after some time due to upwelling of warm waters from below the mixed layer. It is therefore possible that ozone depletion could act to favor a short-term increase in sea-ice extent. However, many uncertainties remain in understanding this mechanism, with different models showing widely differing time-scales and magnitudes of the response. Here, we analyze an ensemble of coupled model simulations with a step-function ozone perturbation. The two-timescale response is present with an approximately 30 year initial cooling period. The response is further shown to be highly dependent upon the background ocean temperature and salinity stratification, which is influenced by both natural internal variability and the isopycnal eddy mixing parameterization. It is suggested that the majority of inter-model differences in the Southern Ocean response to ozone depletion is caused by differences in stratification.

  16. Climate change, ozone depletion and the impact on ultraviolet exposure of human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffey, Brian

    2004-01-01

    For 30 years there has been concern that anthropogenic damage to the Earth's stratospheric ozone layer will lead to an increase of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the Earth's surface, with a consequent adverse impact on human health, especially to the skin. More recently, there has been an increased awareness of the interactions between ozone depletion and climate change (global warming), which could also impact on human exposure to terrestrial UV. The most serious effect of changing UV exposure of human skin is the potential rise in incidence of skin cancers. Risk estimates of this disease associated with ozone depletion suggest that an additional peak incidence of 5000 cases of skin cancer per year in the UK would occur around the mid-part of this century. Climate change, which is predicted to lead to an increased frequency of extreme temperature events and high summer temperatures, will become more frequent in the UK. This could impact on human UV exposure by encouraging people to spend more time in the sun. Whilst future social trends remain uncertain, it is likely that over this century behaviour associated with climate change, rather than ozone depletion, will be the largest determinant of sun exposure, and consequent impact on skin cancer, of the UK population. (topical review)

  17. Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Plummer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-the-art chemistry climate model coupled to a three-dimensional ocean model is used to produce three experiments, all seamlessly covering the period 1950–2100, forced by different combinations of long-lived Greenhouse Gases (GHGs and Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs. The experiments are designed to quantify the separate effects of GHGs and ODSs on the evolution of ozone, as well as the extent to which these effects are independent of each other, by alternately holding one set of these two forcings constant in combination with a third experiment where both ODSs and GHGs vary. We estimate that up to the year 2000 the net decrease in the column amount of ozone above 20 hPa is approximately 75% of the decrease that can be attributed to ODSs due to the offsetting effects of cooling by increased CO2. Over the 21st century, as ODSs decrease, continued cooling from CO2 is projected to account for more than 50% of the projected increase in ozone above 20 hPa. Changes in ozone below 20 hPa show a redistribution of ozone from tropical to extra-tropical latitudes with an increase in the Brewer-Dobson circulation. In addition to a latitudinal redistribution of ozone, we find that the globally averaged column amount of ozone below 20 hPa decreases over the 21st century, which significantly mitigates the effect of upper stratospheric cooling on total column ozone. Analysis by linear regression shows that the recovery of ozone from the effects of ODSs generally follows the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine levels, with the exception of the lower polar stratosphere where recovery of ozone in the second half of the 21st century is slower than would be indicated by the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine concentrations. These results also reveal the degree to which GHG-related effects mute the chemical effects of N2O on ozone in the standard future scenario used for the WMO Ozone Assessment. Increases in the

  18. The Potential for Ozone Depletion in Solid Rocket Motor Plumes by Heterogeneous Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanning-Lee, M

    1996-01-01

    ... (hydroxylated alumina), respectively, over the temperature range -60 to 200 degrees C. This work addresses the potential for stratospheric ozone depletion by launch vehicle solid rocket motor exhaust...

  19. Is There Evidence that Mid-Latitude Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Occurs in Conjunction with North American Monsoon Convection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenlof, K. H.; Ray, E. A.; Portmann, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    A recent study suggests that during the period of the summertime North American Monsoon (NAM), ozone depletion could occur as a result of catalytic ozone destruction associated with the cold and wet conditions caused by overshooting convection. Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) water vapor measurements do show that the NAM region is wetter than other parts of the globe in regards to both the mean and extremes. However, definitive evidence of ozone depletion occurring in that region has not been presented. In this study, we examine coincident measurements of water vapor, ozone, and tropospheric tracers from aircraft data taken during the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) aircraft campaign looking specifically for ozone depletion in regions identified as impacted by overshooting convection. Although we do find evidence of lower ozone values in air impacted by convective overshoots, using tropospheric tracers we attribute those observations to input of tropospheric air rather than catalytic ozone destruction. Additionally, we explore the consequences of these lower ozone values on surface UV, and conclude that there is minimal impact on the UV index.

  20. Ozone-depleting-substance control and phase-out plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Brown, M.J.

    1994-07-01

    Title VI of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires regulation of the use and disposal of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) (e.g., Halon, Freon). Several important federal regulations have been promulgated that affect the use of such substances at the Hanford Site. On April 23, 1993, Executive Order (EO) 12843, Procurement Requirements and Policies for Federal Agencies for Ozone-Depleting Substances (EPA 1993) was issued for Federal facilities to conform to the new US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations implementing the Clean Air Act of 1963 (CAA), Section 613, as amended. To implement the requirements of Title VI the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), issued a directive to the Hanford Site contractors on May 25, 1994 (Wisness 1994). The directive assigns Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) the lead in coordinating the development of a sitewide comprehensive implementation plan to be drafted by July 29, 1994 and completed by September 30, 1994. The implementation plan will address several areas where immediate compliance action is required. It will identify all current uses of ODSs and inventories, document the remaining useful life of equipment that contains ODS chemicals, provide a phase-out schedule, and provide a strategy that will be implemented consistently by all the Hanford Site contractors. This plan also addresses the critical and required elements of Federal regulations, the EO, and US Department of Energy (DOE) guidance. This plan is intended to establish a sitewide management system to address the clean air requirements

  1. International regime formation: Ozone depletion and global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busmann, N.E.

    1994-03-01

    Two theoretical perspectives, neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism, dominate in international relations. An assessment is made of whether these perspectives provide compelling explanations of why a regime with specific targets and timetables was formed for ozone depletion, while a regime with such specificity was not formed for global climate change. In so doing, the assumptions underlying neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism are examined. A preliminary assessment is offered of the policymaking and institutional bargaining process. Patterns of interstate behavior are evolving toward broader forms of cooperation, at least with regard to global environmental issues, although this process is both slow and cautious. State coalitions on specific issues are not yet powerful enough to create a strong community of states in which states are willing to devolve power to international institutions. It is shown that regime analysis is a useful analytic framework, but it should not be mistaken for theory. Regime analysis provides an organizational framework offering a set of questions regarding the principles and norms that govern cooperation and conflict in an issue area, and whether forces independent of states exist which affect the scope of state behavior. An examination of both neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism, embodied by four approaches to regime formation, demonstrates that neither has sufficient scope to account for contextual dynamics in either the ozone depletion or global climate change regime formation processes. 261 refs

  2. A new approach to Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, R. W.; Daniel, J. S.; Yu, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) is given by the time integrated global ozone loss of an ozone depleting substance (ODS) relative to a reference ODS (usually CFC-11). The ODP is used by the Montreal Protocol (and subsequent amendments) to inform policy decisions on the production of ODSs. Since the early 1990s, ODPs have usually been estimated using an approximate formulism that utilizes the lifetime and the fractional release factor of the ODS. This has the advantage that it can utilize measured concentrations of the ODSs to estimate their fractional release factors. However, there is a strong correlation between stratospheric lifetimes and fractional release factors of ODSs and that this can introduce uncertainties into ODP calculations when the terms are estimated independently. Instead, we show that the ODP is proportional to the average global ozone loss per equivalent chlorine molecule released in the stratosphere by the ODS loss process (which we call the Γ factor) and, importantly, this ratio varies only over a relatively small range ( 0.3-1.5) for ODPs with stratospheric lifetimes of 20 to more than 1,000 years. The Γ factor varies smoothly with stratospheric lifetime for ODSs with loss processes dominated by photolysis and is larger for long-lived species, while stratospheric OH loss processes produce relatively small Γs that are nearly independent of stratospheric lifetime. The fractional release approach does not accurately capture these relationships. We propose a new formulation that takes advantage of this smooth variation by parameterizing the Γ factor using ozone changes computed using the chemical climate model CESM-WACCM and the NOCAR two-dimensional model. We show that while the absolute Γ's vary between WACCM and NOCAR models, much of the difference is removed for the Γ/ΓCFC-11 ratio that is used in the ODP formula. This parameterized method simplifies the computation of ODPs while providing enhanced accuracy compared to the

  3. Ozone-layer depletion and the fate of CFs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghauri, B.

    1998-01-01

    The ozone layer of the stratosphere, centred at an altitude of about 25 km from the earth's surface, plays the role of absorbing ultraviolet rays contained in solar light. The known harmful effects per unit dose of the shorter wavelengths, UV-C and UV-B, are greater than those of the longer wavelength, UV-A. The UV-B radiation is the most carcinogenic part of the solar UV spectrum reaching the earth's surface. Ozone layer is being destroyed rapidly by refrigerant gases released on the Earth. As a result, the global environment and our livelihood are being seriously threatened., The destruction of the ozone layer allows more damaging ultraviolet rays to reach the earth. Ultraviolet rays cause an increase in such illnesses as skin cancer and cataract, and may even seriously affect the ecosystem. Therefore, processing refrigerant gases without discharging these into the atmosphere is now a global issue. To solve the issue, CFCs must be reprocessed for reuse by recovery and reclamation, or else we should destruct it to fluoro carbons, with recovery reclamation of fluoro carbons. This paper gives an account of the international initiatives for protection of the ozone layer and present status of the various measures taken, including substitutes for the damaging fluoro-carbons, recovery reclamation of fluoro-carbons. (author)

  4. The Effects of Volcano-Induced Ozone Depletion on Short-lived Climate Forcing in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P. L.

    2012-12-01

    Photodissociation of oxygen maintains the stratopause ~50°C warmer than the tropopause. Photodissociation of ozone warms the lower stratosphere, preventing most of this high-energy DNA-damaging solar radiation from reaching the troposphere. Ozone depletion allows more UV energy to reach the lower troposphere causing photodissociation of anthropogenic ozone and nitrogen dioxide. UV energy also penetrates the ocean >10 m where it is absorbed more efficiently than infrared radiation that barely penetrates the surface. Manmade chlorofluorocarbons caused ozone depletion from 1965 to 1994 with slow recovery predicted over the next 50+ years. But the lowest levels of ozone followed the eruptions of Pinatubo (1991 VEI=6), Eyjafjallajökull (2010 VEI=4), and Grímsvötn (2011 VEI=4). Each of the relatively small, basaltic eruptions in Iceland caused more ozone depletion than the long-term effects of chlorofluorocarbons, although total ozone appears to return to pre-eruption levels within a decade. Ozone depletion by 20% increases energy flux thru the lowermost troposphere by 0.7 W m-2 for overhead sun causing temperatures in the lower stratosphere to drop >2°C since 1958 in steps after the 3 largest volcanic eruptions: Agung 1963, El Chichón 1982, and Pinatubo. Temperatures at the surface increased primarily in the regions and at the times of the greatest observed ozone depletion. The greatest warming observed was along the Western Antarctic Peninsula (65.4°S) where minimum temperatures rose 6.7°C from 1951 to 2003 while maximum temperatures remained relatively constant. Minimum total column ozone in September-October was 40-56% lower than in 1972 almost every year since 1987, strongly anti-correlated with observed minimum temperatures. Sea ice decreased 10%, 7 ice shelves separated, 87% of the glaciers retreated and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current warmed. Elsewhere under the ozone hole, warming of continental Antarctica was limited by the high albedo (0.86) of

  5. Future heat waves and surface ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Tebaldi, Claudia; Tilmes, Simone; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Bates, Susan; Pendergrass, Angeline; Lombardozzi, Danica

    2018-06-01

    A global Earth system model is used to study the relationship between heat waves and surface ozone levels over land areas around the world that could experience either large decreases or little change in future ozone precursor emissions. The model is driven by emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone precursors from a medium-high emission scenario (Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0–RCP6.0) and is compared to an experiment with anthropogenic ozone precursor emissions fixed at 2005 levels. With ongoing increases in greenhouse gases and corresponding increases in average temperature in both experiments, heat waves are projected to become more intense over most global land areas (greater maximum temperatures during heat waves). However, surface ozone concentrations on future heat wave days decrease proportionately more than on non-heat wave days in areas where ozone precursors are prescribed to decrease in RCP6.0 (e.g. most of North America and Europe), while surface ozone concentrations in heat waves increase in areas where ozone precursors either increase or have little change (e.g. central Asia, the Mideast, northern Africa). In the stabilized ozone precursor experiment, surface ozone concentrations increase on future heat wave days compared to non-heat wave days in most regions except in areas where there is ozone suppression that contributes to decreases in ozone in future heat waves. This is likely associated with effects of changes in isoprene emissions at high temperatures (e.g. west coast and southeastern North America, eastern Europe).

  6. The potential importance of frost flowers, recycling on snow, and open leads for ozone depletion events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Piot

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We present model studies with the one-dimensional model MISTRA to investigate the potential role of frost flowers, recycling on snow, and open leads in the depletion of tropospheric ozone in the Arctic spring. In our model, we assumed frost flower aerosols to be the major source of bromine. We show that a major ozone depletion event can be satisfactorily reproduced only if the recycling on snow of deposited bromine into gas phase bromine is assumed. In the model, this cycling is more efficient than the bromine explosion process and maintains sufficiently high levels of bromine to deplete ozone down to few nmol mol−1 within four days. We assessed the influence of different surface combinations (open lead/frost flowers on the chemistry in the model. Results showed noticeable modifications affecting the composition of aerosols and the deposition velocities. A model run with a series of coupled frost flower fields and open leads, separated by large areas of snow, showed results comparable with field observations. In addition, we studied the effects of modified temperature of either the frost flower field or the ambient airmass. A warmer frost flower field increases the relative humidity and the aerosol deposition rate. The deposition/re-emission process gains in importance, inducing more reactive bromine in the gas phase, and a stronger ozone depletion. A decrease of 1K in airmass temperature shows in our model that the aerosol uptake capacities of all gas phase species substantially increases, leading to enhanced uptake of acids from the gas phase. Consequently, the so-called bromine explosion accelerated and O3 mixing ratios decreased. In our model representation, variations in wind speed affected the aerosol source function and influenced the amount of bromine in the atmosphere and thus the ozone depletion strength. Recent studies have suggested the important role of the precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3

  7. Environment and health: 3. Ozone depletion and ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Gruijl, F.R.; Van der Leun, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation from the sun is responsible for a variety of familiar photochemical reactions, including photochemical smog, bleaching of paints and decay of plastics. Conjugated bonds in organic molecules such as proteins and DNA absorb the UV radiation, which can damage these molecules. By a fortunate evolutionary event, the oxygen produced by photosynthesis forms a filter in the outer reaches of our atmosphere that absorbs the most energetic and harmful UV radiation, with wavelengths below 240 nm (in the UVC band [wavelength 100-280 nm]). In the process, the oxygen molecules split up and recombine to form ozone (Fig. 1). This ratified ozone layer (spread out between 10 and 50 Ion in the stratosphere but only 3 mm thick were it compressed at ground level) in turn efficiently absorbs UV radiation of higher wavelengths (tip to about 310 nm). A part of the UV radiation in the UVB band (wavelength 280-315 nm) still reaches ground level and is absorbed in sufficient amounts to have deleterious effects on cells. The less energetic radiation in the UVA band (wavelength 315-400 nm, bordering the visible band [wavelength 400-800 nm]) is not absorbed by ozone and reaches ground level without much attenuation through a clear atmosphere (i.e., no clouds, no air pollution). Although not completely innocuous, the UVA radiation in sunlight is much less photochemically active and therefore generally less harmful than UVB radiation. Life on earth has adapted itself to the UV stress, particularly UVB stress, fbr example by forming protective UV-absorbing surface layers, by repairing cell damage or by replacing damaged cells entirely. Human skin shows all of these adaptive features. Our eyes are less well adapted, but dicy, are shielded by the brows and by squinting. (author)

  8. Automotive industry program and strategy for control of ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pound, F.R.; Stirling, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper outlines the program status and strategy for the short and long term periods for ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases from both stationary sources in manufacturing plants and mobile sources in motor vehicles. 5 refs

  9. Ozone depletion in the interstitial air of the seasonal snowpack in northern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momoko Nakayama

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To examine the behaviour of ozone (O3 in the seasonal snowpack, measurements were taken of O3 and CO2 in the interstitial air on Rishiri Island, which is located in northern Japan, during the 2010/11 winter season. Exhibiting variation on timescales ranging from several minutes to several days, the atmospheric O3 in the surface air generally increased from December (38 ppb to April (52 ppb. The ozone mixing ratio sharply decreased below the snow surface. Whereas the CO2 data in the interstitial air indicated that a rapid exchange between the snow and the atmosphere occurred intermittently, the O3 mixing ratio remained low and constant (<5 ppb in the snowpack interior. The vertical profile of the O3 mixing ratio indicates that the e-folding lifetime of the O3 loss reaction was 5.0±2.3 minutes during the day and 10.0±6.3 minutes at night, suggesting photochemical O3 depletion occurred during the daytime. Kinetic experiments using ambient (maritime air and snow indicate that the photochemical O3 loss is proportional to the solar radiation and that the O3 loss rate decreases as dawn approaches during the night. The result of the kinetic experiments using artificial O3 in the pure air and snow suggests the important role of gaseous species in the ambient air towards O3 depletion.

  10. Presence of stratospheric humidity in the ozone column depletion on the west coast of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, M. Luis; Gutierrez, O. Luis; Morales, S. Luis; Universidad de Chile, Santiago; Torres, C. Arnaldo

    2006-01-01

    The ozone column depletion over the western coast of South America has been previously explained, based on the existence of winds in the area of the depletion, which cause compression and thinning of the ozone layer. However, the presence of humidity and methane transported by these winds to the stratosphere where the ozone depletion is present gives evidence that these compounds also participate in the depletion of the ozone layer. These two compounds, humidity and methane, are analysed during the ozone depletion of January, 1998. It is observed that when humidity presents fluctuations, ozone has fluctuations too. A maximum of humidity corresponds to a minimum of ozone, but there is a shift in altitude between them. This shift is observed in the stratosphere and upper troposphere and corresponds to approximately 500 m. It is important to point out that during this event El Nino was present and the sources of methane are the Amazon forest and the Pacific Ocean. The data for this study was obtained from NASA and HALOE

  11. Sensitivity of the Reaction Mechanism of the Ozone Depletion Events during the Arctic Spring on the Initial Atmospheric Composition of the Troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Cao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ozone depletion events (ODEs during the Arctic spring have been investigated since the 1980s. It was found that the depletion of ozone is highly associated with the release of halogens, especially bromine containing compounds. These compounds originate from various substrates such as the ice/snow-covered surfaces in Arctic. In the present study, the dependence of the mixing ratios of ozone and principal bromine species during ODEs on the initial composition of the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer was investigated by using a concentration sensitivity analysis. This analysis was performed by implementing a reaction mechanism representing the ozone depletion and halogen release in the box model KINAL (KInetic aNALysis of reaction mechanics. The ratios between the relative change of the mixing ratios of particular species such as ozone and the variation in the initial concentration of each atmospheric component were calculated, which indicate the relative importance of each initial species in the chemical kinetic system. The results of the computations show that the impact of various chemical species is different for ozone and bromine containing compounds during the depletion of ozone. It was found that CH3CHO critically controls the time scale of the complete removal of ozone. However, the rate of the ozone loss and the maximum values of bromine species are only slightly influenced by the initial value of CH3CHO. In addition, according to the concentration sensitivity analysis, the reduction of initial Br2 was found to cause a significant retardant of the ODE while the initial mixing ratio of HBr exerts minor influence on both ozone and bromine species. In addition, it is also interesting to note that the increase of C2H2 would significantly raise the amount of HOBr and Br in the atmosphere while the ozone depletion is hardly changed.

  12. A Two-Timescale Response of the Southern Ocean to Ozone Depletion: Importance of the Background State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seviour, W.; Waugh, D.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2016-02-01

    It has been recently suggested that the response of Southern Ocean sea-ice extent to stratospheric ozone depletion is time-dependent; that the ocean surface initially cools due to enhanced northward Ekman drift caused by a poleward shift in the eddy-driven jet, and then warms after some time due to upwelling of warm waters from below the mixed layer. It is therefore possible that ozone depletion could act to favor a short-term increase in sea-ice extent. However, many uncertainties remain in understanding this mechanism, with different models showing widely differing time-scales and magnitudes of the response. Here, we analyze an ensemble of coupled model simulations with a step-function ozone perturbation. The two-timescale response is present with an approximately 30 year initial cooling period. The response is further shown to be highly dependent upon the background ocean temperature and salinity stratification, which is influenced by both natural internal variability and the isopycnal eddy mixing parameterization. It is suggested that the majority of inter-model differences in the Southern Ocean response to ozone depletion are caused by differences in stratification.

  13. Biological UV-doses and the effect on an ozone layer depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlback, A.; Henriksen, T.

    1988-08-01

    Effective UV-doses were calculated based on the integrated product of the biological action spectrum and the solar radiation. The calculations included absorption and scattering of UV-radiation in the atmosphere, both for normal ozone conditions as well as for a depleted ozone layer. The effective annual UV-dose increases by approximately 4% per degree of latitude towards the equator. An ozone depletion of 1% increases the annual UV-dose by approximately 1% at 60 o N. A large depletion of 50% over Scandinavia (60 o N) would give this region an effective UV-dose similar to that obtained, with normal ozone conditions, at a latitude of 40 o N (California or the Mediterranean countries). The Antarctic ozone hole increases the annual UV-dose by 20 to 25% which is a similar increase as that attained by moving 5 to 6 degrees of latitude nearer the equator. The annual UV-dose on higher latitudes is mainly determined by the summer values of ozone. Both the ozone values and the effective UV-doses vary from one year to another (within ±4%). No positive or negative trend is observed for Scandinavia from 1978 to 1988

  14. Ozone Depletion in Tropospheric Volcanic Plumes: From Halogen-Poor to Halogen-Rich Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjarda J. Roberts

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic halogen emissions to the troposphere undergo a rapid plume chemistry that destroys ozone. Quantifying the impact of volcanic halogens on tropospheric ozone is challenging, only a few observations exist. This study presents measurements of ozone in volcanic plumes from Kīlauea (HI, USA, a low halogen emitter. The results are combined with published data from high halogen emitters (Mt Etna, Italy; Mt Redoubt, AK, USA to identify controls on plume processes. Ozone was measured during periods of relatively sustained Kīlauea plume exposure, using an Aeroqual instrument deployed alongside Multi-Gas SO2 and H2S sensors. Interferences were accounted for in data post-processing. The volcanic H2S/SO2 molar ratio was quantified as 0.03. At Halema‘uma‘u crater-rim, ozone was close to ambient in the emission plume (at 10 ppmv SO2. Measurements in grounding plume (at 5 ppmv SO2 about 10 km downwind of Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō showed just slight ozone depletion. These Kīlauea observations contrast with substantial ozone depletion reported at Mt Etna and Mt Redoubt. Analysis of the combined data from these three volcanoes identifies the emitted Br/S as a strong but non-linear control on the rate of ozone depletion. Model simulations of the volcanic plume chemistry highlight that the proportion of HBr converted into reactive bromine is a key control on the efficiency of ozone depletion. This underlines the importance of chemistry in the very near-source plume on the fate and atmospheric impacts of volcanic emissions to the troposphere.

  15. Simulation of Halocarbon Production and Emissions and Effects on Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes; Ellis

    1997-09-01

    / This paper describes an integrated model that simulates future halocarbon production/emissions and potential ozone depletion. Applications and historical production levels for various halocarbons are discussed first. A framework is then presented for modeling future halocarbon impacts incorporating differences in underlying demands, applications, regulatory mandates, and environmental characteristics. The model is used to simulate the potential impacts of several prominent issues relating to halocarbon production, regulation, and environmental interactions, notably: changes in agricultural methyl bromide use, increases in effectiveness of bromine for ozone depletion, modifications to the elimination schedule for HCFCs, short-term expansion of CFC demand in low use compliance countries, and delays in Russian Federation compliance. Individually, each issue does not unequivocally represent a significant likely increase in long-term atmospheric halogen loading and stratospheric ozone depletion. In combination, however, these impacts could increase peak halogen concentrations and long-term integral halogen loading, resulting in higher levels of stratospheric ozone depletion and longer exposure to increased levels of UV radiation.KEY WORDS: Halocarbons; Ozone depletion; Montreal Protocol; Integrated assessment

  16. Terrestrial ozone depletion due to a Milky Way gamma-ray burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian C.

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are short, incredibly powerful astrophysical events which produce a flux of radiation detectable across the observable universe. A GRB within our own galaxy could cause major damage to the Earth's biosphere. Rate estimates suggest that at least one GRB has occurred within a dangerous range (about 2 kpc) in the last billion years. The gamma radiation from such a burst would quickly deplete much of the Earth's protective ozone layer, allowing an increase in solar UVB radiation reaching the surface. This radiation is harmful to life, causing sunburn and damaging DNA. In addition, NO 2 produced in the atmosphere would cause a decrease in visible sunlight reaching the surface and could cause global cooling. Nitric acid rain could stress portions of the biosphere, but the increased nitrate deposition could be helpful to land plants. We have used a two-dimensional atmospheric model to investigate the effects on the Earth's atmosphere of a GRB. We have simulated bursts delivering a range of fluences, at various latitudes, at the equinoxes and solstices, and at different times of day. We have computed DNA damage caused by increased solar UVB radiation, reduction in solar visible light due to NO 2 opacity; and deposition of nitrates through rainout of HNO 3 . For a "typical" burst in the last billion years, we find globally averaged ozone depletion up to 38%. Localized depletion reaches as much as 74%. Significant global depletion (at least 10%) persists up to about 7 years after the burst. Our results depend strongly on time of year and latitude over which the burst occurs. We find DNA damage of up to 16 times the normal annual global average, with greatest damage occurring at low to mid latitudes. We find reductions in visible sunlight of a few percent, primarily in the polar regions. Nitrate deposition similar to or slightly greater than that currently caused by lightning is also observed. We find support in our results for the hypothesis that the

  17. Persistent polar depletion of stratospheric ozone and emergent mechanisms of ultraviolet radiation-mediated health dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugo, Mark A; Han, Fengxiang; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2012-01-01

    Year 2011 noted the first definable ozone "hole" in the Arctic region, serving as an indicator to the continued threat of dangerous ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure caused by the deterioration of stratospheric ozone in the northern hemisphere. Despite mandates of the Montreal Protocol to phase out the production of ozone-depleting chemicals (ODCs), the relative stability of ODCs validates popular notions of persistent stratospheric ozone for several decades. Moreover, increased UVR exposure through stratospheric ozone depletion is occurring within a larger context of physiologic stress and climate change across the biosphere. In this review, we provide commentaries on stratospheric ozone depletion with relative comparisons between the well-known Antarctic ozone hole and the newly defined ozone hole in the Arctic. Compared with the Antarctic region, the increased UVR exposure in the Northern Hemisphere poses a threat to denser human populations across North America, Europe, and Asia. In this context, we discuss emerging targets of UVR exposure that can potentially offset normal biologic rhythms in terms of taxonomically conserved photoperiod-dependent seasonal signaling and entrainment of circadian clocks. Consequences of seasonal shifts during critical life history stages can alter fitness and condition, whereas circadian disruption is increasingly becoming associated as a causal link to increased carcinogenesis. We further review the significance of genomic alterations via UVR-induced modulations of phase I and II transcription factors located in skin cells, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2), with emphasis on mechanism that can lead to metabolic shifts and cancer. Although concern for adverse health consequences due to increased UVR exposure are longstanding, recent advances in biochemical research suggest that AhR and Nrf2 transcriptional regulators are likely targets for UVR

  18. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels that regularly informs the Parties (countries) to the Montreal Protocol on the effects of ozone depletion and the consequences of climate change interactions with respect to human health, animals, plants, bi...

  19. Student Teacher Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Describes the results of a survey designed to ascertain details of student teachers' knowledge and misconceptions about the greenhouse effect, acid rain, and ozone layer depletion. Results indicate familiarity with the issues but little understanding of the concepts involved and many commonly held misconceptions. (JRH)

  20. Turkish Primary Science Teacher Candidates' Understandings of Global Warming and Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Fatma Aggul; Yalcin, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore Turkish primary science teacher candidates' understanding of global warming and ozone layer depletion. In the study, as the research approach the survey method was used. The sample consisted of one hundred eighty nine third grade science teacher candidates. Data was collected using the tool developed by the…

  1. Selecting corporate political tactics: The Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getz, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines factors influencing the choice of one set of tactics over others. The case of ozone depletion is used as the research context, and the data are drawn from US companies having a stake in this issue. A model is developed which suggests that a firm's choice of political tactics (dependent variable) is dependent on the targets of political activity and the nature of the issue of concern (independent variables), and a variety of organizational and industry factors (moderating variables). The paradigm of agency is used to systematically assess the relative importance of these factors. To test the relevance of the model, an empirical study was done. The case of the Montreal protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer was chosen as a setting; and 551 firms directly affected by policy intended to protect the ozone layer were surveyed. There were 151 usable responses. Generally, the findings were consistent with the model

  2. Early work on the stratospheric ozone depletion-CFC issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, M.

    2012-12-01

    I became involved with the atmospheric chemistry of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) shortly after joining Sherry Rowland's research group at the University of California, Irvine, in 1973. CFCs had been detected in the troposphere by James Lovelock in 1971, and the question we set out to answer was the fate of these compounds of industrial origin in the environment, as well as possibly identifying any consequences of their accumulation in the atmosphere. After examining many potential sinks for these compounds we realized that because of their unusual stability the most likely destruction process was photolysis in the stratosphere. I carried out measurements of the absorption spectra of these compounds in the near ultraviolet; previous work involved only spectra in the far ultraviolet, not relevant for atmospheric chemistry. The results indicated that photolysis would take place in the upper stratosphere. I subsequently carried out calculations using one-dimensional atmospheric models to estimate their atmospheric residence times, which turned out to be many decades. We realized that the chlorine atoms generated by photolysis of the CFCs would participate in a catalytic chain reaction that would efficiently destroy ozone. Furthermore, we estimated that the amount of CFCs produced industrially was comparable to the amount of nitric oxide produced naturally in the stratosphere by the decomposition of nitrous oxide; work by Paul Crutzen and Harold Johnston had indicated that the abundance of ozone in the stratosphere was controlled by nitric oxide. We then formulated the hypothesis that the continued release of CFCs to the environment posed a threat to the stability of the ozone layer, and published our results in the journal Nature in 1974. The publication was noticed almost exclusively by the community of experts in stratospheric chemistry, and hence Sherry Rowland and I decided at that time that it was our responsibility to communicate this finding to society at large

  3. Improvements in Total Column Ozone in GEOSCCM and Comparisons with a New Ozone-Depleting Substances Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Luke D.; Douglass, Anne R.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of ozone is examined in the latest version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM) using old and new ozone-depleting substances (ODS) scenarios. This version of GEOSCCM includes a representation of the quasi-biennial oscillation, a more realistic implementation of ozone chemistry at high solar zenith angles, an improved air/sea roughness parameterization, and an extra 5 parts per trillion of CH3Br to account for brominated very short-lived substances. Together these additions improve the representation of ozone compared to observations. This improved version of GEOSCCM was used to simulate the ozone evolution for the A1 2010 and the newStratosphere-troposphere Processes and their Role in Climate (SPARC) 2013 ODS scenario derived using the SPARC Lifetimes Report 2013. This new ODS scenario results in a maximum Cltot increase of 65 parts per trillion by volume (pptv), decreasing slightly to 60 pptv by 2100. Approximately 72% of the increase is due to the longer lifetime of CFC-11. The quasi-global (60degS-60degN) total column ozone difference is relatively small and less than 1Dobson unit on average and consistent with the 3-4% larger 2050-2080 average Cly in the new SPARC 2013 scenario. Over high latitudes, this small change in Cly compared to the relatively large natural variabilitymakes it not possible to discern a significant impact on ozone in the second half of the 21st century in a single set of simulations.

  4. The consequences for human health of stratospheric ozone depletion in association with other environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, R M; Norval, M; Neale, R E; Young, A R; de Gruijl, F R; Takizawa, Y; van der Leun, J C

    2015-01-01

    Due to the implementation of the Montreal Protocol, which has limited, and is now probably reversing, the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, only modest increases in solar UV-B radiation at the surface of the Earth have occurred. For many fair-skinned populations, changing behaviour with regard to exposure to the sun over the past half century - more time in the sun, less clothing cover (more skin exposed), and preference for a tan - has probably contributed more to greater levels of exposure to UV-B radiation than ozone depletion. Exposure to UV-B radiation has both adverse and beneficial effects on human health. This report focuses on an assessment of the evidence regarding these outcomes that has been published since our previous report in 2010. The skin and eyes are the organs exposed to solar UV radiation. Excessive solar irradiation causes skin cancer, including cutaneous malignant melanoma and the non-melanoma skin cancers, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, and contributes to the development of other rare skin cancers such as Merkel cell carcinoma. Although the incidence of melanoma continues to increase in many countries, in some locations, primarily those with strong sun protection programmes, incidence has stabilised or decreased over the past 5 years, particularly in younger age-groups. However, the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancers is still increasing in most locations. Exposure of the skin to the sun also induces systemic immune suppression that may have adverse effects on health, such as through the reactivation of latent viral infections, but also beneficial effects through suppression of autoimmune reactivity. Solar UV-B radiation damages the eyes, causing cataracts and pterygium. UV-B irradiation of the skin is the main source of vitamin D in many geographic locations. Vitamin D plays a critical role in the maintenance of calcium homeostasis in the body; severe deficiency causes the bone diseases, rickets in children

  5. Precipitation of salts in freezing seawater and ozone depletion events: a status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, S.; Marion, G. M.; von Glasow, R.; Voisin, D.; Bouchez, J.; Savarino, J.

    2008-12-01

    In springtime, the polar marine boundary layer exhibits drastic ozone depletion events (ODEs), associated with elevated bromine oxide (BrO) mixing ratios. The current interpretation of this peculiar chemistry requires the existence of acid and bromide-enriched surfaces to heterogeneously promote and sustain ODEs. Sander et al. (2006) have proposed that calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation in any seawater-derived medium could potentially decrease its alkalinity, making it easier for atmospheric acids such as HNO3 and H2SO4 to acidify it. We performed simulations using the state-of-the-art FREZCHEM model, capable of handling the thermodynamics of concentrated electrolyte solutions, to try to reproduce their results, and found that when ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) rather than calcite (CaCO3) precipitates, there is no such effect on alkalinity. Given that ikaite has recently been identified in Antarctic brines (Dieckmann et al., 2008), our results show that great caution should be exercised when using the results of Sander et al. (2006), and reveal the urgent need of laboratory investigations on the actual link(s) between bromine activation and the pH of the surfaces on which it is supposed to take place at subzero temperature. In addition, the evolution of the Cl/Br ratio in the brine during freezing was computed using FREZCHEM, taking into account Br substitutions in Cl-containing salts.

  6. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    When considering the effects of climate change, it has become clear that processes resulting in changes in stratospheric ozone are more complex than previously believed. As a result of this, human health and environmental issues will be longer-lasting and more regionally variable. Like the other Panels, the EEAP produces a detailed report every four years; the most recent was published as a series of seven papers in 2015 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2015, 14, 1-184). In the years in between, the EEAP produces less detailed and shorter Progress Reports of the relevant scientific findings. The most recent of these was for 2015 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2016, 15, 141-147). The present Progress Report for 2016 assesses some of the highlights and new insights with regard to the interactive nature of the direct and indirect effects of UV radiation, atmospheric processes, and climate change. The report is also published in (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2017, DOI: 10.1039/c7pp90001e). The more detailed Quadrennial Assessment will be made available in 2018. The Parties to the Montreal Protocol are informed by three Panels of experts. One of these is the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP), which deals with two focal issues. The first focus is the effects on increased UV radiation on human health, animals, plants, biogeochemistry, air quality, and materials. The second focus is on interactions between UV radiation and global climate change and how these may

  7. Characteristics of tropospheric ozone depletion events in the Arctic spring: analysis of the ARCTAS, ARCPAC, and ARCIONS measurements and satellite BrO observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-H. Koo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Arctic ozone depletion events (ODEs are caused by halogen catalyzed ozone loss. In situ chemistry, advection of ozone-poor air mass, and vertical mixing in the lower troposphere are important factors affecting ODEs. To better characterize the ODEs, we analyze the combined set of surface, ozonesonde, and aircraft in situ measurements of ozone and bromine compounds during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS, the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC, and the Arctic Intensive Ozonesonde Network Study (ARCIONS experiments (April 2008. Tropospheric BrO columns retrieved from satellite measurements and back trajectory calculations are also used to investigate the characteristics of observed ODEs. In situ observations from these field experiments are inadequate to validate tropospheric BrO columns derived from satellite measurements. In view of this difficulty, we construct an ensemble of tropospheric column BrO estimates from two satellite (OMI and GOME-2 measurements and with three independent methods of calculating stratospheric BrO columns. Furthermore, we select analysis methods that do not depend on the absolute magnitude of column BrO, such as time-lagged correlation analysis of ozone and tropospheric column BrO, to understand characteristics of ODEs. Time-lagged correlation analysis between in situ (surface and ozonesonde measurements of ozone and satellite derived tropospheric BrO columns indicates that the ODEs are due to either local halogen-driven ozone loss or short-range (∼1 day transport from nearby regions with ozone depletion. The effect of in situ ozone loss is also evident in the diurnal variation difference between low (10th and 25th percentiles and higher percentiles of surface ozone concentrations at Alert, Canada. Aircraft observations indicate low-ozone air mass transported from adjacent high-BrO regions. Correlation analyses of ozone

  8. Vertical structure of Antarctic tropospheric ozone depletion events: characteristics and broader implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Jones

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The majority of tropospheric ozone depletion event (ODE studies have focussed on time-series measurements, with comparatively few studies of the vertical component. Those that exist have almost exclusively used free-flying balloon-borne ozonesondes and almost all have been conducted in the Arctic. Here we use measurements from two separate Antarctic field experiments to examine the vertical profile of ozone during Antarctic ODEs. We use tethersonde data to probe details in the lowest few hundred meters and find considerable structure in the profiles associated with complex atmospheric layering. The profiles were all measured at wind speeds less than 7 ms−1, and on each occasion the lowest inversion height lay between 10 m and 40 m. We also use data from a free-flying ozonesonde study to select events where ozone depletion was recorded at altitudes >1 km above ground level. Using ERA-40 meteorological charts, we find that on every occasion the high altitude depletion was preceded by an atmospheric low pressure system. An examination of limited published ozonesonde data from other Antarctic stations shows this to be a consistent feature. Given the link between BrO and ODEs, we also examine ground-based and satellite BrO measurements and find a strong association between atmospheric low pressure systems and enhanced BrO that must arise in the troposphere. The results suggest that, in Antarctica, such depressions are responsible for driving high altitude ODEs and for generating the large-scale BrO clouds observed from satellites. In the Arctic, the prevailing meteorology differs from that in Antarctica, but, while a less common effect, major low pressure systems in the Arctic can also generate BrO clouds. Such depressions thus appear to be fundamental when considering the broader influence of ODEs, certainly in Antarctica, such as halogen export and the radiative influence of ozone-depleted air masses.

  9. Influence of the stratospheric humidity and methane on the ozone column depletion over the western side of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, L.; Morales, L.; Cordero, R.R.

    2009-01-01

    The ozone column depletion over the western side of South America has been previously explained as a consequence of winds in the area of the depletion, which lead to the compression and thinning of the ozone layer. However, humidity and methane (originated in the Amazon forest and the Pacific Ocean) transported by these winds toward the stratosphere may also have a role in the ozone depletion. Oxidation of methane generates additional humidity, which in turn reacts with ozone, destroying it. Humidity and methane levels were measured by NASA and HALOE during an ozone depletion event (January 1998) that occurred along with El Nino. By analyzing these measurements, we found that, at different altitudes, changes in the humidity seem to be associated with changes in the ozone such that an increment of humidity may lead to an ozone depletion. Moreover, we found that during the event, the sum 2CH4+H2O was roughly constant only at altitudes lower than 50 km; the ratio CH4/H2O exhibited an exponential decay with the altitude that may allow assessing the generation mechanism of stratospheric humidity from methane.

  10. Precipitation of salts in freezing seawater and ozone depletion events: a status report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Morin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In springtime, the polar marine boundary layer exhibits drastic ozone depletion events (ODEs, associated with elevated bromine oxide (BrO mixing ratios. The current interpretation of this peculiar chemistry requires the existence of acid and bromide-enriched surfaces to heterogeneously promote and sustain ODEs. Sander et al. (2006 have proposed that calcium carbonate (CaCO3 precipitation in any seawater-derived medium could potentially decrease its alkalinity, making it easier for atmospheric acids such as HNO3 and H2SO4 to acidify it. We performed simulations using the state-of-the-art FREZCHEM model, capable of handling the thermodynamics of concentrated electrolyte solutions, to try to reproduce their results, and found that when ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O rather than calcite (CaCO3 precipitates, there is no such effect on alkalinity. Given that ikaite has recently been identified in Antarctic brines (Dieckmann et al., 2008, our results show that great caution should be exercised when using the results of Sander et al. (2006, and reveal the urgent need of laboratory investigations on the actual link(s between bromine activation and the pH of the surfaces on which it is supposed to take place at subzero temperature. In addition, the evolution of the Cl/Br ratio in the brine during freezing was computed using FREZCHEM, taking into account Br substitutions in Cl–containing salts.

  11. Synchronous volcanic eruptions and abrupt climate change ∼17.7 ka plausibly linked by stratospheric ozone depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Joseph R; Burke, Andrea; Dunbar, Nelia W; Köhler, Peter; Thomas, Jennie L; Arienzo, Monica M; Chellman, Nathan J; Maselli, Olivia J; Sigl, Michael; Adkins, Jess F; Baggenstos, Daniel; Burkhart, John F; Brook, Edward J; Buizert, Christo; Cole-Dai, Jihong; Fudge, T J; Knorr, Gregor; Graf, Hans-F; Grieman, Mackenzie M; Iverson, Nels; McGwire, Kenneth C; Mulvaney, Robert; Paris, Guillaume; Rhodes, Rachael H; Saltzman, Eric S; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder; Taylor, Kendrick C; Winckler, Gisela

    2017-09-19

    Glacial-state greenhouse gas concentrations and Southern Hemisphere climate conditions persisted until ∼17.7 ka, when a nearly synchronous acceleration in deglaciation was recorded in paleoclimate proxies in large parts of the Southern Hemisphere, with many changes ascribed to a sudden poleward shift in the Southern Hemisphere westerlies and subsequent climate impacts. We used high-resolution chemical measurements in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide, Byrd, and other ice cores to document a unique, ∼192-y series of halogen-rich volcanic eruptions exactly at the start of accelerated deglaciation, with tephra identifying the nearby Mount Takahe volcano as the source. Extensive fallout from these massive eruptions has been found >2,800 km from Mount Takahe. Sulfur isotope anomalies and marked decreases in ice core bromine consistent with increased surface UV radiation indicate that the eruptions led to stratospheric ozone depletion. Rather than a highly improbable coincidence, circulation and climate changes extending from the Antarctic Peninsula to the subtropics-similar to those associated with modern stratospheric ozone depletion over Antarctica-plausibly link the Mount Takahe eruptions to the onset of accelerated Southern Hemisphere deglaciation ∼17.7 ka.

  12. Vortex-averaged Arctic ozone depletion in the winter 2002/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Christensen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A total ozone depletion of 68±7 Dobson units between 380 and 525K from 10 December 2002 to 10 March 2003 is derived from ozone sonde data by the vortex-average method, taking into account both diabatic descent of the air masses and transport of air into the vortex. When the vortex is divided into three equal-area regions, the results are 85±9DU for the collar region (closest to the edge, 52±5DU for the vortex centre and 68±7DU for the middle region in between centre and collar. Our results compare well with other studies: We find good agreement with ozone loss deduced from SAOZ data, with results inferred from POAM III observations and with results from tracer-tracer correlations using HF as the long-lived tracer. We find a higher ozone loss than that deduced by tracer-tracer correlations using CH4. We have made a careful comparison with Match results: The results were recalculated using a common time period, vortex edge definition and height interval. The two methods generally compare very well, except at the 475K level which exhibits an unexplained discrepancy.

  13. Polar boundary layer bromine explosion and ozone depletion events in the chemistry-climate model EMAC v2.52: implementation and evaluation of AirSnow algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Stefanie; Sinnhuber, Björn-Martin

    2018-03-01

    Ozone depletion events (ODEs) in the polar boundary layer have been observed frequently during springtime. They are related to events of boundary layer enhancement of bromine. Consequently, increased amounts of boundary layer volume mixing ratio (VMR) and vertical column densities (VCDs) of BrO have been observed by in situ observation, ground-based as well as airborne remote sensing, and from satellites. These so-called bromine explosion (BE) events have been discussed serving as a source of tropospheric BrO at high latitudes, which has been underestimated in global models so far. We have implemented a treatment of bromine release and recycling on sea-ice- and snow-covered surfaces in the global chemistry-climate model EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) based on the scheme of Toyota et al. (2011). In this scheme, dry deposition fluxes of HBr, HOBr, and BrNO3 over ice- and snow-covered surfaces are recycled into Br2 fluxes. In addition, dry deposition of O3, dependent on temperature and sunlight, triggers a Br2 release from surfaces associated with first-year sea ice. Many aspects of observed bromine enhancements and associated episodes of near-complete depletion of boundary layer ozone, both in the Arctic and in the Antarctic, are reproduced by this relatively simple approach. We present first results from our global model studies extending over a full annual cycle, including comparisons with Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite BrO VCDs and surface ozone observations.

  14. Mid-latitude Ozone Depletion Events Caused by Halogens from the Great Salt Lake in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibiger, D. L.; Goldberger, L.; Womack, C.; McDuffie, E. E.; Dube, W. P.; Franchin, A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Thornton, J. A.; Brown, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Halogens are highly reactive chemicals and play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. They can be involved in many cycles which influence the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere, including through destruction of ozone (O3). While the influence of halogens on O3 is well documented in the arctic, there are very few observations of O3 depletion driven by halogens in the mid-latitudes. To date, the most comprehensive study observed co-occurring plumes of BrO and depleted O3 near the Dead Sea in 1997. During the Utah Wintertime Fine Particulate Study (UWFPS) in winter 2017, simultaneous measurements of a comprehensive suite of halogen measurements by I- chemical ionization mass spectrometry and O3 from cavity ring-down spectroscopy, both at 1-second time resolution, were taken on a NOAA Twin Otter Aircraft over the Great Salt Lake and in the surrounding valleys. Many O3 depletion events were observed over the lake with O3 values sometimes below the instrument detection limit of 0.5 ppbv. Corresponding increases in BrO and/or ClO were observed. Many of these events were caused by extremely high levels of halogens (up to 1 ppmv Cl2) emitted from the U.S. Magnesium plant on the edge of the lake. The O3 depletion caused by U.S. Magnesium was usually isolated to a distinct vertical layer, but in other cases O3 depletion was vertically mixed and the origin of halogen activation was not immediately clear. The most complete O3 depletion was observed over the lake, but there were smaller events of a few ppbv observed in the adjacent valleys, including the highly populated Salt Lake Valley, with corresponding plumes of BrO and ClO, due to transport from the lake. Additionally, meteorology played a role in the observed O3 depletion. The strongest O3 depletion was observed during inversion events, when there is a low boundary layer and little mixing out of the air above the lake. During non-inversion conditions, only small depletions were observed, covering a much smaller

  15. Solar ultraviolet radiation and ozone depletion-driven climate change: effects on terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornman, J F; Barnes, P W; Robinson, S A; Ballaré, C L; Flint, S D; Caldwell, M M

    2015-01-01

    In this assessment we summarise advances in our knowledge of how UV-B radiation (280-315 nm), together with other climate change factors, influence terrestrial organisms and ecosystems. We identify key uncertainties and knowledge gaps that limit our ability to fully evaluate the interactive effects of ozone depletion and climate change on these systems. We also evaluate the biological consequences of the way in which stratospheric ozone depletion has contributed to climate change in the Southern Hemisphere. Since the last assessment, several new findings or insights have emerged or been strengthened. These include: (1) the increasing recognition that UV-B radiation has specific regulatory roles in plant growth and development that in turn can have beneficial consequences for plant productivity via effects on plant hardiness, enhanced plant resistance to herbivores and pathogens, and improved quality of agricultural products with subsequent implications for food security; (2) UV-B radiation together with UV-A (315-400 nm) and visible (400-700 nm) radiation are significant drivers of decomposition of plant litter in globally important arid and semi-arid ecosystems, such as grasslands and deserts. This occurs through the process of photodegradation, which has implications for nutrient cycling and carbon storage, although considerable uncertainty exists in quantifying its regional and global biogeochemical significance; (3) UV radiation can contribute to climate change via its stimulation of volatile organic compounds from plants, plant litter and soils, although the magnitude, rates and spatial patterns of these emissions remain highly uncertain at present. UV-induced release of carbon from plant litter and soils may also contribute to global warming; and (4) depletion of ozone in the Southern Hemisphere modifies climate directly via effects on seasonal weather patterns (precipitation and wind) and these in turn have been linked to changes in the growth of plants

  16. Effect of solar radiation on surface ozone in Cairo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizk, H F.S. [National Research Centre, Air Pollution Research Dept., Cairo (Egypt)

    1992-04-01

    Measurements of surface ozone content over an urban area in Cairo were conducted during a year, May 1989 to April 1990, while solar radiation at the same area was measured. Low and high concentrations of ozone are compared with those recommended by the WHO expert committee regarding the daily cycle of ozone concentration. 15 refs.

  17. Ozone and nitrogen oxides in surface air in Russia: TROICA experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratova, N.; Elansky, N.; Belikov, I.; Shumskiy, R.

    2009-04-01

    The results of measurements of surface ozone and nitrogen oxides concentrations over the continental regions of Russia are discussed. The measurements were done during 10 TROICA experiments (Transcontinental Observations Into the Chemistry of the Atmosphere). The TROICA experiment started in 1995. By the present moment ten expeditions along the Trans-Siberian railroad from Moscow to Vladivostok (around 9300 km) are carried out. We separate data sets into unpolluted and polluted areas to study temporal and spatial features. Moreover we analyzed cities (more then 100 cities). About 50% of all data corresponds to unpolluted conditions. The data collected are used in an analysis of the physical and chemical processes occurring over continental Russia. In this work the estimations of seasonal and daily ozone and NOx distribution were made. The seasonal distribution of ozone for TROICA experiments concentration considerably differs from ozone distribution at Mace Head (Ireland) and Hohenpeissenberg (Germany) stations and well agrees with the ozone distribution at Zotino (Russia, East Siberia). The same concerns also a daily variability. The ozone concentration gradient is presented. Ozone concentration gradually increases in the eastward direction. Its result of the air transport from polluted regions of Europe and ozone depletions, oxidations of CH4 in Siberia, forest fires in Siberia and around Baikal Lake, regional transport of burning products from Northern China. Significant factor of ozone increasing is stratospheric-tropospheric exchange. It appears in TROICA-3 experiment. During several hours ozone concentration was more then 60 ppbv. The areas of photochemical ozone generation in polluted air are also detected. We estimate anthropogenic and natural factors, which are responsible for sharp ozone concentration increasing. Acknowledgments. The work was supported by International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) under contract No. 2770 and by Russian Basic

  18. A Model of the Effect of Ozone Depletion on Lower-Stratospheric Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Mark A.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Gupta, Mohan L.; Nielsen, J. Eric; Pawson, Steven

    2005-01-01

    We have run two twenty-year integrations of a global circulation model using 1978-1980 and 1998-2000 monthly mean ozone climatologies. The ozone climatology is used solely in the radiation scheme of the model. Several key differences between the model runs will be presented. The temperature and potential vorticity (PV) structure of the lower stratosphere, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere, is significantly changed using the 1998-2000 ozone climatology. In the Southern Hemisphere summer, the lapse rate and PV-defined polar tropopauses are both at altitudes on the order of several hundred meters greater than the 1978-1980 climatological run. The 380 K potential temperature surf= is likewise at a greater altitude. The mass of the extratropical lowermost stratosphere (between the tropopause and 380 K surface) remains unchanged. The altitude differences are not observed in the Northern Hemisphere. The different ozone fields do not produce a significant change in the annual extratropical stratosphere-troposphere exchange of mass although slight variations in the spatial distribution of the exchange exist. We are also investigating a delay in the breakup of the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex due to the differing ozone climatologies.

  19. Atmospheric lifetimes and Ozone Depletion Potentials of trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropylene and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene in a three-dimensional model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. O. Patten

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The chloroalkenes trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropylene (tCFP and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene (tDCE have been proposed as candidate replacements for other compounds in current use that cause concerns regarding potential environmental effects including destruction of stratospheric ozone. Because tCFP and tDCE contain chlorine atoms, the effects of these short-lived compounds on stratospheric ozone must be established. In this study, we derive the atmospheric lifetimes and Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs for tCFP and for tDCE assuming emissions from land surfaces at latitudes 30° N to 60° N using the MOZART 3 three-dimensional model of atmospheric chemistry and physics. 53% of the ozone loss due to tCFP and 98% of the ozone loss due to tDCE take place in the troposphere, rather than in the stratosphere as generally expected from longer-lived chlorocarbons. The atmospheric lifetime of tCFP against chemical reaction is 40.4 days, and its ODP is quite small at 0.00034. The tDCE atmospheric lifetime is 12.7 days, and its ODP is 0.00024, which is the lowest ODP found for any chlorocarbon we have studied. Our study suggests that chlorine from tCFP and tDCE are unlikely to affect ozone at quantities likely to be emitted to the atmosphere.

  20. Depletion of the ozone layer: consequences for non-infectious human diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentham, G.

    1993-01-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion threatens to increase exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation which is known to be a factor in a number of diseases. There is little doubt that cumulative exposure to UV radiation is important in the aetiology of non-melanoma skin cancers. Evidence is also strong for a link with cutaneous malignant melanoma, although here it appears to be intermittent intense exposure that is most damaging. More controversial is the view that exposure to solar radiation is a significant factor in ocular damage, particularly in the formation of cataracts. Earlier studies pointing to such an effect have been criticized and alternative aetiological hypotheses have been proposed. However, other studies do show an effect of UV exposure on cortical cataract. Concern is also growing that UV may be capable of activating viruses and have immunological effects that might exacerbate infectious disease. Very worrying is the possibility that UV exposure can activate the human immunodeficiency virus which might accelerate the onset AIDS. Any such health effects that have been observed in human populations are the result of exposure to existing, naturally occurring levels of UV radiation. There is, therefore, great concern about the possible exacerbation of these impacts as a result of increased exposure to UV radiation associated with stratospheric ozone depletion. However, any assessment of the nature and scale of such impacts on human health has to deal with several major problems and these are the focus of this paper. There are uncertainties about recent trends in stratospheric ozone and problems in the prediction of future changes

  1. Effects of ozone-vegetation coupling on surface ozone air quality via biogeochemical and meteorological feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Mehliyar; Tai, Amos P. K.; Lombardozzi, Danica; Martin, Maria Val

    2017-02-01

    Tropospheric ozone is one of the most hazardous air pollutants as it harms both human health and plant productivity. Foliage uptake of ozone via dry deposition damages photosynthesis and causes stomatal closure. These foliage changes could lead to a cascade of biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects that not only modulate the carbon cycle, regional hydrometeorology and climate, but also cause feedbacks onto surface ozone concentration itself. In this study, we implement a semi-empirical parameterization of ozone damage on vegetation in the Community Earth System Model to enable online ozone-vegetation coupling, so that for the first time ecosystem structure and ozone concentration can coevolve in fully coupled land-atmosphere simulations. With ozone-vegetation coupling, present-day surface ozone is simulated to be higher by up to 4-6 ppbv over Europe, North America and China. Reduced dry deposition velocity following ozone damage contributes to ˜ 40-100 % of those increases, constituting a significant positive biogeochemical feedback on ozone air quality. Enhanced biogenic isoprene emission is found to contribute to most of the remaining increases, and is driven mainly by higher vegetation temperature that results from lower transpiration rate. This isoprene-driven pathway represents an indirect, positive meteorological feedback. The reduction in both dry deposition and transpiration is mostly associated with reduced stomatal conductance following ozone damage, whereas the modification of photosynthesis and further changes in ecosystem productivity are found to play a smaller role in contributing to the ozone-vegetation feedbacks. Our results highlight the need to consider two-way ozone-vegetation coupling in Earth system models to derive a more complete understanding and yield more reliable future predictions of ozone air quality.

  2. Fate of Chloromethanes in the Atmospheric Environment: Implications for Human Health, Ozone Formation and Depletion, and Global Warming Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2017-09-21

    Among the halogenated hydrocarbons, chloromethanes (i.e., methyl chloride, CH₃Cl; methylene chloride, CH₂Cl₂; chloroform, CHCl₃; and carbon tetrachloride, CCl₄) play a vital role due to their extensive uses as solvents and chemical intermediates. This article aims to review their main chemical/physical properties and commercial/industrial uses, as well as the environment and health hazards posed by them and their toxic decomposition products. The environmental properties (including atmospheric lifetime, radiative efficiency, ozone depletion potential, global warming potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, and surface mixing ratio) of these chlorinated methanes are also reviewed. In addition, this paper further discusses their atmospheric fates and human health implications because they are apt to reside in the lower atmosphere when released into the environment. According to the atmospheric degradation mechanism, their toxic degradation products in the troposphere include hydrogen chloride (HCl), carbon monoxide (CO), chlorine (Cl₂), formyl chloride (HCOCl), carbonyl chloride (COCl₂), and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). Among them, COCl₂ (also called phosgene) is a powerful irritating gas, which is easily hydrolyzed or thermally decomposed to form hydrogen chloride.

  3. Fate of Chloromethanes in the Atmospheric Environment: Implications for Human Health, Ozone Formation and Depletion, and Global Warming Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2017-01-01

    Among the halogenated hydrocarbons, chloromethanes (i.e., methyl chloride, CH3Cl; methylene chloride, CH2Cl2; chloroform, CHCl3; and carbon tetrachloride, CCl4) play a vital role due to their extensive uses as solvents and chemical intermediates. This article aims to review their main chemical/physical properties and commercial/industrial uses, as well as the environment and health hazards posed by them and their toxic decomposition products. The environmental properties (including atmospheric lifetime, radiative efficiency, ozone depletion potential, global warming potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, and surface mixing ratio) of these chlorinated methanes are also reviewed. In addition, this paper further discusses their atmospheric fates and human health implications because they are apt to reside in the lower atmosphere when released into the environment. According to the atmospheric degradation mechanism, their toxic degradation products in the troposphere include hydrogen chloride (HCl), carbon monoxide (CO), chlorine (Cl2), formyl chloride (HCOCl), carbonyl chloride (COCl2), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Among them, COCl2 (also called phosgene) is a powerful irritating gas, which is easily hydrolyzed or thermally decomposed to form hydrogen chloride. PMID:29051455

  4. The role of bromine and chlorine chemistry for arctic ozone depletion events in Ny-Ålesund and comparison with model calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martinez

    Full Text Available During the Arctic Tropospheric Ozone Chemistry (ARCTOC campaigns at Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, the role of halogens in the depletion of boundary layer ozone was investigated. In spring 1995 and 1996 up to 30 ppt bromine monoxide were found whenever ozone decreased from normal levels of about 40 ppb. Those main trace gases and others were specifically followed in the UV-VIS spectral region by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS along light paths running between 20 and 475 m a.s.l.. The daily variation of peroxy radicals closely followed the ozone photolysis rate J(O3(O1D in the absence of ozone depletion most of the time. However, during low ozone events this close correlation was no longer found because the measurement of radicals by chemical amplification (CA turned out to be sensitive to peroxy radicals and ClOx. Large CA signals at night can sometimes definitely be assigned to ClOx and reached up to 2 ppt. Total bromine and iodine were both stripped quantitatively from air by active charcoal traps and measured after neutron activation of the samples. Total bromine increased from background levels of about 15 ppt to a maximum of 90 ppt during an event of complete ozone depletion. For the spring season a strong source of bromine is identified in the pack ice region according to back trajectories. Though biogenic emission sources cannot be completely ruled out, a primary activation of halogenides by various oxidants seems to initiate an efficient autocatalytic process, mainly driven by ozone and light, on ice and perhaps on aerosols. Halogenides residing on pack ice surfaces are continuously oxidised by hypohalogenous acids releasing bromine and chlorine into the air. During transport and especially above open water this air mixes with upper layer pristine air. As large quantities of bromine, often in the form of BrO, have been observed at polar sunrise also around Antarctica, its release

  5. The role of bromine and chlorine chemistry for arctic ozone depletion events in Ny-Ålesund and comparison with model calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martinez

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available During the Arctic Tropospheric Ozone Chemistry (ARCTOC campaigns at Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, the role of halogens in the depletion of boundary layer ozone was investigated. In spring 1995 and 1996 up to 30 ppt bromine monoxide were found whenever ozone decreased from normal levels of about 40 ppb. Those main trace gases and others were specifically followed in the UV-VIS spectral region by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS along light paths running between 20 and 475 m a.s.l.. The daily variation of peroxy radicals closely followed the ozone photolysis rate J(O3(O1D in the absence of ozone depletion most of the time. However, during low ozone events this close correlation was no longer found because the measurement of radicals by chemical amplification (CA turned out to be sensitive to peroxy radicals and ClOx. Large CA signals at night can sometimes definitely be assigned to ClOx and reached up to 2 ppt. Total bromine and iodine were both stripped quantitatively from air by active charcoal traps and measured after neutron activation of the samples. Total bromine increased from background levels of about 15 ppt to a maximum of 90 ppt during an event of complete ozone depletion. For the spring season a strong source of bromine is identified in the pack ice region according to back trajectories. Though biogenic emission sources cannot be completely ruled out, a primary activation of halogenides by various oxidants seems to initiate an efficient autocatalytic process, mainly driven by ozone and light, on ice and perhaps on aerosols. Halogenides residing on pack ice surfaces are continuously oxidised by hypohalogenous acids releasing bromine and chlorine into the air. During transport and especially above open water this air mixes with upper layer pristine air. As large quantities of bromine, often in the form of BrO, have been observed at polar sunrise also around Antarctica, its release seems to be a natural phenomenon. The

  6. Variability of surface ozone with cloud coverage over Kolkata, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Critical analysis of experimental surface ozone data and cloud coverage is reported over Kolkata during the period January 2011 to December 2011. Significant relationship between these two parameters is observed. Analysis shows that the trend of surface ozone concentration and cloud coverage follow opposite ...

  7. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, Daniil; Guerra, Vasco; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine

    2013-10-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1-5 Torr and discharge currents ˜40-120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O_3^{*} , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O_3^{*} is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O2(a 1Δg) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established.

  8. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinov, Daniil; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine; Guerra, Vasco

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1–5 Torr and discharge currents ∼40–120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O 3 * , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O 3 * is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established. (paper)

  9. Future stratospheric ozone depletion will affect a subarctic dwarf shrub ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, Ulf

    1997-02-01

    The stratospheric ozone depletion and the concomitant increase in ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation is of global concern due to the effects of UV-B on living organisms. To investigate the effects of increased levels of UV-B, a field irradiation system was established at a subarctic dwarf shrub heath in Northern Sweden (68 deg N). An ozone depletion of 15% under clear sky conditions was simulated over a naturally growing ecosystem. The response of both individual components and processes was studied to reveal changes in ecosystem structure and function. Species with different life strategies (evergreen or deciduous) responded differently both in magnitude and direction. The evergreen species were more responsive to UV-B regarding shoot growth, which could be due to cumulative effects in long-lived tissues, since the retardation in relative growth increased over time of exposure. Leaves of evergreen species became thicker under enhanced UV-B, while leaves of deciduous species became thinner. Decomposition studies (laboratory and in situ) showed that indirect effects of UV-B, due to changes in leaf tissue chemistry affected microbial activity and slowed down the decomposition rate. More directly, UV-B decreased the abundance of some fungal species and hence the composition of species. However, no altered decomposition rate was found when decomposition progressed under high UV-B even if the microorganisms were fewer. This could be due to the increased direct photo degradation of litter that compensates for lower microbial activity. The decomposition rate is therefore strongly dependent on the interception of UV-B at the litter layer. This research has shown that ecosystem components and processes are affected in a number of ways and that there are indications of changes in species composition in a long-term perspective due to differences in responsiveness between the different species. 128 refs, 7 figs

  10. Power and knowledge in international environmental politics: The case of stratospheric ozone depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litfin, K.T.

    1992-01-01

    Most analyses of science in world politics suffer from the modern misreading of the relationship between knowledge and power. The availability of scientific knowledge to the relevant decision makers was a necessary condition for the negotiation of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, but it was far from being a sufficient one. The power of science was a function of the political context in which it was debated, a context which was defined substantially by the discovery of the Antarctic ozone 'hole.' The prominence of knowledge-based power in at least some situations means that conventional materialist notions of power should be expanded to include a more discursive and productive conception of power. Environmental problems are not merely physical events, but informational phenomena. A case study methodology is used to develop an interactive conception of power and knowledge. A detailed study of the Montreal Protocol is offered, as well as less detailed studies of the international policy processes for acid rain and global climate change

  11. Effects of Greenhouse Gas Increase and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion on Stratospheric Mean Age of Air in 1960-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Newman, Paul; Pawson, Steven; Perlwitz, Judith

    2018-01-01

    The relative impacts of greenhouse gas (GHG) increase and stratospheric ozone depletion on stratospheric mean age of air in the 1960-2010 period are quantified using the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-�Climate Model. The experiment compares controlled simulations using a coupled atmosphere-�ocean version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-�Climate Model, in which either GHGs or ozone depleting substances, or both factors evolve over time. The model results show that GHGs and ozone-depleting substances have about equal contributions to the simulated mean age decrease, but GHG increases account for about two thirds of the enhanced strength of the lower stratospheric residual circulation. It is also found that both the acceleration of the diabatic circulation and the decrease of the mean age difference between downwelling and upwelling regions are mainly caused by GHG forcing. The results show that ozone depletion causes an increase in the mean age of air in the Antarctic summer lower stratosphere through two processes: (1) a seasonal delay in the Antarctic polar vortex breakup that inhibits young midlatitude air from mixing with the older air inside the vortex, and (2) enhanced Antarctic downwelling that brings older air from middle and upper stratosphere into the lower stratosphere.

  12. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. Danish consumption and emissions, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander Poulsen, T. (PlanMiljoe (Denmark))

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this project was to map the 2006 consumption of newly produced industrial ozone-depleting substances and the consumption and actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF{sub 6}. The evaluation was made in accordance with the IPCC guidelines and following the method employed in previous evaluations. (BA)

  13. Responses of Surface Ozone Air Quality to Anthropogenic Nitrogen Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Zhao, Y.; Tai, A. P. K.; Chen, Y.; Pan, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Human activities have substantially increased atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen to the Earth's surface, inducing unintentional effects on ecosystems with complex environmental and climate consequences. One consequence remaining unexplored is how surface air quality might respond to the enhanced nitrogen deposition through surface-atmosphere exchange. We combine a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and a global land model (Community Land Model) to address this issue with a focus on ozone pollution in the Northern Hemisphere. We consider three processes that are important for surface ozone and can be perturbed by addition of atmospheric deposited nitrogen: emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone dry deposition, and soil nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. We find that present-day anthropogenic nitrogen deposition (65 Tg N a-1 to the land), through enhancing plant growth (represented as increases in vegetation leaf area index (LAI) in the model), could increase surface ozone from increased biogenic VOC emissions, but could also decrease ozone due to higher ozone dry deposition velocities. Meanwhile, deposited anthropogenic nitrogen to soil enhances soil NOx emissions. The overall effect on summer mean surface ozone concentrations show general increases over the globe (up to 1.5-2.3 ppbv over the western US and South Asia), except for some regions with high anthropogenic NOx emissions (0.5-1.0 ppbv decreases over the eastern US, Western Europe, and North China). We compare the surface ozone changes with those driven by the past 20-year climate and historical land use changes. We find that the impacts from anthropogenic nitrogen deposition can be comparable to the climate and land use driven surface ozone changes at regional scales, and partly offset the surface ozone reductions due to land use changes reported in previous studies. Our study emphasizes the complexity of biosphere-atmosphere interactions, which can have important

  14. Ozone Transport Aloft Drives Surface Ozone Maxima Across the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCuren, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    A persistent layer of polluted air in the lower free troposphere over the Mojave Desert (California and Nevada) drives spring and summer surface ozone maxima as deep afternoon mixing delivers ozone and ozone precursors to surface measurement sites 200 km or more downwind of the mountains that separate the deserts from the heavily populated coastal areas of California. Pollutants in this elevated layer derive from California source regions (the Los Angeles megacity region and the intensive agricultural region of the San Joaquin Valley), and from long-range transport from Asia. Recognition of this poorly studied persistent layer explains and expands the significance of previously published reports of ozone and other pollutants observed in and over the Mojave Desert, resolves an apparent paradox in the timing of ozone peaks due to transport from the upwind basins, and provides a new perspective on the long-range downwind impacts of megacity pollution plumes.

  15. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6. Danish consumption and emissions, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander Poulsen, T. [PlanMiljoe (Denmark)

    2006-05-19

    The objective of this project was to map the 2004 consumption of newly produced industrial ozone-depleting substances and the consumption and actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF6. The evaluation was made in accordance with the IPCC guidelines, and following the method employed in previous evaluations and it covers the net consumption of ozone-depleting substances. The term 'net consumption' is understood as the amount of imported goods in bulk or drums, less any re-export of substances as raw materials. Ozone-depleting substances contained in finished products that are imported and exported are not included in the evaluation. This delimitation is in full compliance with international guidelines. The evaluation does not account for the consumption of ozone-depleting substances used as raw material in the production of other substances, such as tetra chloromethane, and which are not subsequently emitted to the atmosphere. The information on consumption has been gathered from importers, suppliers and enterprise end-users (usually purchasing departments), and Statistics Denmark. This method of data gathering means that the information gathered is about the quantities of substances traded. Purchase and sales figures are used as an expression of consumption. This approach is considered to be suitable and adequate for the present purpose, since experience from previous projects shows that a levelling out occurs with time and that the substances sold/purchased are consumed within a relatively small time horizon. None of the substances covered here are produced in Denmark. Furthermore, ozone-depleting substances are treated at chemical waste processing plants in Denmark. Treatment and destruction data was gathered for the evaluation, but in line with all previous evaluations it has not been accounted for in the consumption figures. (BA)

  16. Polar boundary layer bromine explosion and ozone depletion events in the chemistry–climate model EMAC v2.52: implementation and evaluation of AirSnow algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Falk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone depletion events (ODEs in the polar boundary layer have been observed frequently during springtime. They are related to events of boundary layer enhancement of bromine. Consequently, increased amounts of boundary layer volume mixing ratio (VMR and vertical column densities (VCDs of BrO have been observed by in situ observation, ground-based as well as airborne remote sensing, and from satellites. These so-called bromine explosion (BE events have been discussed serving as a source of tropospheric BrO at high latitudes, which has been underestimated in global models so far. We have implemented a treatment of bromine release and recycling on sea-ice- and snow-covered surfaces in the global chemistry–climate model EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry based on the scheme of Toyota et al. (2011. In this scheme, dry deposition fluxes of HBr, HOBr, and BrNO3 over ice- and snow-covered surfaces are recycled into Br2 fluxes. In addition, dry deposition of O3, dependent on temperature and sunlight, triggers a Br2 release from surfaces associated with first-year sea ice. Many aspects of observed bromine enhancements and associated episodes of near-complete depletion of boundary layer ozone, both in the Arctic and in the Antarctic, are reproduced by this relatively simple approach. We present first results from our global model studies extending over a full annual cycle, including comparisons with Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME satellite BrO VCDs and surface ozone observations.

  17. From aggregative adsorption to surface depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rother, Gernot; Müter, Dirk; Bock, Henry

    2017-01-01

    Adsorption of a short-chain nonionic amphiphile (C6E3) at the surface of mesoporous silica glass (CPG) was studied by a combination of adsorption measurements and mesoscale simulations. Adsorption measurements covering a wide composition range of the C6E3 + water system show that no adsorption...... occurs up to the critical micelle concentration, at which a sharp increase of adsorption is observed that is attributed to ad-micelle formation at the pore walls. Intriguingly, as the concentration is increased further, the surface excess of the amphiphile begins to decrease and eventually becomes...

  18. Nicotiana tabacum as model for ozone - plant surface reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jud, Werner; Fischer, Lukas; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Tissier, Alain; Canaval, Eva; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations are considered a toxic threat to plants, responsible for global crop losses with associated economic costs of several billion dollars per year. The ensuing injuries have been related to the uptake of ozone through the stomatal pores and oxidative effects damaging the internal leaf tissue. A striking question of current research is the environment and plant specific partitioning of ozone loss between gas phase, stomatal or plant surface sink terms. Here we show results from ozone fumigation experiments using various Nicotiana Tabacum varieties, whose surfaces are covered with different amounts of unsaturated diterpenoids exuded by their glandular trichomes. Exposure to elevated ozone levels (50 to 150 ppbv) for 5 to 15 hours in an exceptionally clean cuvette system did neither result in a reduction of photosynthesis nor caused any visible leaf damage. Both these ozone induced stress effects have been observed previously in ozone fumigation experiments with the ozone sensitive tobacco line Bel-W3. In our case ozone fumigation was accompanied by a continuous release of oxygenated volatile organic compounds, which could be clearly associated to their condensed phase precursors for the first time. Gas phase reactions of ozone were avoided by choosing a high enough gas exchange rate of the plant cuvette system. In the case of the Ambalema variety, that is known to exude only the diterpenoid cis-abienol, ozone fumigation experiments yield the volatiles formaldehyde and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK). The latter could be unequivocally separated from isomeric methacrolein (MACR) by the aid of a Selective Reagent Ion Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (SRI-ToF-MS), which was switched every six minutes from H3O+ to NO+ primary ion mode and vice versa. Consistent with the picture of an ozone protection mechanism caused by reactive diterpenoids at the leaf surface are the results from dark-light experiments. The ozone loss obtained from the

  19. Effects of Greenhouse Gas Increase and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion on Stratospheric Mean Age of Air in 1960-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Newman, P. A.; Pawson, S.; Perlwitz, J.

    2017-12-01

    The strength of the stratospheric Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) in a changing climate has been extensively studied, but the relative importance of greenhouse gas (GHG) increases and stratospheric ozone depletion in driving the BDC changes remains uncertain. This study separates the impacts of GHG and stratospheric ozone forcings on stratospheric mean age of air in the 1960-2010 period using the Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS) Chemistry-Climate Model (CCM). The experiment compares a set of controlled simulations using a coupled atmosphere-ocean version of the GEOS CCM, in which either GHGs, or stratospheric ozone, or both factors evolve over time. The model results show that GHGs and stratospheric ozone have about equal contributions to the simulated mean age decrease. It is also found that GHG increases account for about two thirds of the enhanced strength of the lower stratospheric residual circulation. The results show that ozone depletion causes an increase in the mean age of air in the Antarctic summer lower stratosphere through two processes: 1) a seasonal delay in the Antarctic polar vortex breakup, that inhibits young mid-latitude air from mixing with the older air inside the vortex; and 2) enhanced Antarctic downwelling, that brings older air from middle and upper stratosphere into the lower stratosphere.

  20. ROLE OF NUCLEONIC FERMI SURFACE DEPLETION IN NEUTRON STAR COOLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, J. M.; Zuo, W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lombardo, U. [Universita di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN), Catania I-95123 (Italy); Zhang, H. F. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-01-20

    The Fermi surface depletion of beta-stable nuclear matter is calculated to study its effects on several physical properties that determine the neutron star (NS) thermal evolution. The neutron and proton Z factors measuring the corresponding Fermi surface depletions are calculated within the Brueckner–Hartree–Fock approach, employing the AV18 two-body force supplemented by a microscopic three-body force. Neutrino emissivity, heat capacity, and in particular neutron {sup 3}PF{sub 2} superfluidity, turn out to be reduced, especially at high baryonic density, to such an extent that the cooling rates of young NSs are significantly slowed.

  1. The dynamics of ozone generation and mode transition in air surface micro-discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Tetsuji; Zimmermann, Julia L; Morfill, Gregor E; Sakiyama, Yukinori; Graves, David B

    2012-01-01

    We present the transient, dynamic behavior of ozone production in surface micro-discharge (SMD) plasma in ambient air. Ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy at 254 nm was used to measure the time development of ozone density in a confined volume. We observed that ozone density increases monotonically over 1000 ppm for at least a few minutes when the input power is lower than ∼0.1 W/cm 2 . Interestingly, when input power is higher than ∼0.1 W/cm 2 , ozone density starts to decrease in a few tens of seconds at a constant power density, showing a peak ozone density. A model calculation suggests that the ozone depletion at higher power density is caused by quenching reactions with nitrogen oxides that are in turn created by vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules reacting with O atoms. The observed mode transition is significantly different from classical ozone reactors in that the transition takes place over time at a constant power. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between time-averaged ozone density and the inactivation rate of Escherichia coli on adjacent agar plates, suggesting that ozone plays a key role in inactivating bacteria under the conditions considered here. (paper)

  2. Coincident Observations of Surface Ozone and NMVOCs over Abu Dhabi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Naveed; Majeed, Tariq; Iqbal, Mazhar; Tarasick, David; Davies, Jonathan; Riemer, Daniel; Apel, Eric

    2016-07-01

    The vertical profiles of ozone are measured coincidently with non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) at the meteorological site located at the Abu Dhabi international airport (latitude 24.45N; longitude 54.22E) during the years 2012 - 2014. Some of the profiles show elevated surface ozone >95 ppbv during the winter months (December, January and February). The ground-level NMVOCs obtained from the gas chromatography-flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry system also show elevated values of acetylene, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, benzene, and toluene. NMVOCs and ozone abundances in other seasons are much lower than the values in winter season. NMVOCs are emitted from an extensive number of sources in urban environments including fuel production, distribution, and consumption, and serve as precursor of ozone. Transport sources contribute a substantial portion of the NMVOC burden to the urban atmosphere in developed regions. Abu Dhabi is located at the edge of the Arabian Gulf and is highly affected by emissions from petrochemical industries in the neighboring Gulf region. The preliminary results indicate that wintertime enhancement in ozone is associated with large values of NMVOCs at Abu Dhabi. The domestic production of surface ozone is estimated from the combination of oxygen recombination and NMVOCs and compared with the data. It is estimated that about 40-50% of ozone in Abu Dhabi is transported from the neighbouring petrochemical industries. We will present ozone sounding and NMVOCs data and our model estimates of surface ozone, including a discussion on the high levels of the tropospheric ozone responsible for contaminating the air quality in the UAE. This work is supported by National Research Foundation, UAE.

  3. Variability of ozone depleting substances as an indication of emissions in the Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Chung; Lai, Cheng-Hsun; Wang, Chieh-Heng; Liu, Ying; Shao, Min; Zhang, Yuanhang; Wang, Jia-Lin

    The continued production and consumption of five major chlorocarbons, i.e., CFC-11 (CCl 3F), CFC-12 (CCl 2F 2), CFC-113 (CCl 2FCClF 2), CH 3CCl 3, and CCl 4, as allowed by developing nations including China under the Montreal Protocol, were assessed by a method employing concentration variability. Measurements of the five ozone depleting substances (ODS) were measured in downtown Guangzhou and a rural site in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China by both in situ and flask measurements. In order to post a contrast to PRD with a referencing environment of minimal emissions, in situ measurements were also conducted in Taipei, Taiwan, where a decade long phase-out of CFCs has been implemented. In general, the variability of chlorocarbons in the PRD sites was significantly greater than that of Taipei. While the abundance of the five ODSs in Taipei was relatively uniform with a relative standard deviation (RSD) varying between 3% and 16%, their variability in PRD with the exception of CFC-113 was significantly more pronounced, clearly indicating the significant usage of ODSs. The variability of CFC-113 in both cities, however, was nearly indiscernible from the instrumental precision, suggesting little usage of CFC-113 in China. Methyl chloroform in Guangzhou exhibited a strong link to solvent evaporation as it showed a tight correlation with ambient toluene. Alarmingly, CCl 4 was the most variable of the five major chlorocarbons in Guangzhou, which should arouse a serious concern for public health due to its carcinogenicity.

  4. Effects of ozone depletion and UV-B radiation on humans and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, K.R. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Centre for Toxicology

    2008-03-15

    This paper summarized current research related to the effects of ultraviolet (UV-B) radiation on human health and the environment. Effects included direct responses in human as well as effects on biogeochemistry and the environmental cycling of substances. UV radiation has many harmful effects on the skin, eyes, and immune systems of humans. Skin cancer is a leading cause of death among fair-skinned populations exposed to UV radiation. The role of UV radiation in cataract formation was discussed, as well as issues related to the suppression of immune responses. The link between sunlight exposure and vitamin D levels in human populations was examined. The effects of UV radiation on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems were reviewed. Issues related to biogeochemistry and atmospheric processes were discussed. The review suggested that changes in the intensity of solar UV radiation due to ozone depletion will have important repercussions for all organisms on the planet. It was concluded that the combined effects of UV-B radiation and climate change will not be easy to predict. 201 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Detectability of the impacts of ozone-depleting substances and greenhouse gases upon stratospheric ozone accounting for nonlinearities in historical forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandoro, Justin; Solomon, Susan; Santer, Benjamin D.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Mills, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    We perform a formal attribution study of upper- and lower-stratospheric ozone changes using observations together with simulations from the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model. Historical model simulations were used to estimate the zonal-mean response patterns (fingerprints) to combined forcing by ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and well-mixed greenhouse gases (GHGs), as well as to the individual forcing by each factor. Trends in the similarity between the searched-for fingerprints and homogenized observations of stratospheric ozone were compared to trends in pattern similarity between the fingerprints and the internally and naturally generated variability inferred from long control runs. This yields estimated signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios for each of the three fingerprints (ODS, GHG, and ODS + GHG). In both the upper stratosphere (defined in this paper as 1 to 10 hPa) and lower stratosphere (40 to 100 hPa), the spatial fingerprints of the ODS + GHG and ODS-only patterns were consistently detectable not only during the era of maximum ozone depletion but also throughout the observational record (1984-2016). We also develop a fingerprint attribution method to account for forcings whose time evolutions are markedly nonlinear over the observational record. When the nonlinearity of the time evolution of the ODS and ODS + GHG signals is accounted for, we find that the S/N ratios obtained with the stratospheric ODS and ODS + GHG fingerprints are enhanced relative to standard linear trend analysis. Use of the nonlinear signal detection method also reduces the detection time - the estimate of the date at which ODS and GHG impacts on ozone can be formally identified. Furthermore, by explicitly considering nonlinear signal evolution, the complete observational record can be used in the S/N analysis, without applying piecewise linear regression and introducing arbitrary break points. The GHG-driven fingerprint of ozone changes was not statistically identifiable in either

  6. Ozone Decomposition on the Surface of Metal Oxide Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batakliev Todor Todorov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic decomposition of ozone to molecular oxygen over catalytic mixture containing manganese, copper and nickel oxides was investigated in the present work. The catalytic activity was evaluated on the basis of the decomposition coefficient which is proportional to ozone decomposition rate, and it has been already used in other studies for catalytic activity estimation. The reaction was studied in the presence of thermally modified catalytic samples operating at different temperatures and ozone flow rates. The catalyst changes were followed by kinetic methods, surface measurements, temperature programmed reduction and IR-spectroscopy. The phase composition of the metal oxide catalyst was determined by X-ray diffraction. The catalyst mixture has shown high activity in ozone decomposition at wet and dry O3/O2 gas mixtures. The mechanism of catalytic ozone degradation was suggested.

  7. Damages of surface ozone: evidence from agricultural sector in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fujin; McCarl, Bruce A.; Zhou, Xun; Jiang, Fei

    2018-03-01

    This study measures the damages that surface ozone pollution causes within the Chinese agricultural sector under 2014 conditions. It also analyzes the agricultural benefits of ozone reductions. The analysis is done using a partial equilibrium model of China’s agricultural sector. Results indicate that there are substantial, spatially differentiated damages that are greatest in ozone-sensitive crop growing areas with higher ozone concentrations. The estimated damage to China’s agricultural sector range is between CNY 1.6 trillion and 2.2 trillion, which for comparison is about one fifth of 2014 agricultural revenue. When considering concentration reduction we find a 30% ozone reduction yields CNY 678 billion in sectoral benefits. These benefits largely fall to consumers with producers losing as the production gains lead to lower prices.

  8. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. Danish consumption and emissions, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander Poulsen, T. [PlanMiljoe (Denmark)

    2007-06-15

    An evaluation of Danish consumption and emissions of ozone-depleting substances and industrial greenhouse gases has been carried out in continuation of previous evaluations, partly to fulfil Denmark's international obligations to provide information within this area and partly to follow the trend in consumption of ozone-depleting substances as well as the consumption and emissions of HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. The evaluation includes a calculation of actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF{sub 6} for 2006. In this calculation the release from stock of greenhouse gases in products has been taken into account, and adjustments have been made for imports and exports of the greenhouse gases in products. (BA)

  9. Tropospheric jet response to Antarctic ozone depletion: An update with Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seok-Woo; Han, Bo-Reum; Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Kim, Seo-Yeon; Park, Rokjin; Abraham, N. Luke; Akiyoshi, Hideharu; Archibald, Alexander T.; Butchart, N.; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Dameris, Martin; Deushi, Makoto; Dhomse, Sandip S.; Hardiman, Steven C.; Jöckel, Patrick; Kinnison, Douglas; Michou, Martine; Morgenstern, Olaf; O’Connor, Fiona M.; Oman, Luke D.; Plummer, David A.; Pozzer, Andrea; Revell, Laura E.; Rozanov, Eugene; Stenke, Andrea; Stone, Kane; Tilmes, Simone; Yamashita, Yousuke; Zeng, Guang

    2018-05-01

    The Southern Hemisphere (SH) zonal-mean circulation change in response to Antarctic ozone depletion is re-visited by examining a set of the latest model simulations archived for the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) project. All models reasonably well reproduce Antarctic ozone depletion in the late 20th century. The related SH-summer circulation changes, such as a poleward intensification of westerly jet and a poleward expansion of the Hadley cell, are also well captured. All experiments exhibit quantitatively the same multi-model mean trend, irrespective of whether the ocean is coupled or prescribed. Results are also quantitatively similar to those derived from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) high-top model simulations in which the stratospheric ozone is mostly prescribed with monthly- and zonally-averaged values. These results suggest that the ozone-hole-induced SH-summer circulation changes are robust across the models irrespective of the specific chemistry-atmosphere-ocean coupling.

  10. Depletion region surface effects in electron beam induced current measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, Paul M.; Zhitenev, Nikolai B. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Yoon, Heayoung P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Gaury, Benoit [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Maryland NanoCenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2016-09-07

    Electron beam induced current (EBIC) is a powerful characterization technique which offers the high spatial resolution needed to study polycrystalline solar cells. Current models of EBIC assume that excitations in the p-n junction depletion region result in perfect charge collection efficiency. However, we find that in CdTe and Si samples prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, there is a reduced and nonuniform EBIC lineshape for excitations in the depletion region. Motivated by this, we present a model of the EBIC response for excitations in the depletion region which includes the effects of surface recombination from both charge-neutral and charged surfaces. For neutral surfaces, we present a simple analytical formula which describes the numerical data well, while the charged surface response depends qualitatively on the location of the surface Fermi level relative to the bulk Fermi level. We find that the experimental data on FIB-prepared Si solar cells are most consistent with a charged surface and discuss the implications for EBIC experiments on polycrystalline materials.

  11. Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: Database and Metrics Data of Global Surface Ozone Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin G. Schultz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In support of the first Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR a relational database of global surface ozone observations has been developed and populated with hourly measurement data and enhanced metadata. A comprehensive suite of ozone data products including standard statistics, health and vegetation impact metrics, and trend information, are made available through a common data portal and a web interface. These data form the basis of the TOAR analyses focusing on human health, vegetation, and climate relevant ozone issues, which are part of this special feature. Cooperation among many data centers and individual researchers worldwide made it possible to build the world's largest collection of 'in-situ' hourly surface ozone data covering the period from 1970 to 2015. By combining the data from almost 10,000 measurement sites around the world with global metadata information, new analyses of surface ozone have become possible, such as the first globally consistent characterisations of measurement sites as either urban or rural/remote. Exploitation of these global metadata allows for new insights into the global distribution, and seasonal and long-term changes of tropospheric ozone and they enable TOAR to perform the first, globally consistent analysis of present-day ozone concentrations and recent ozone changes with relevance to health, agriculture, and climate. Considerable effort was made to harmonize and synthesize data formats and metadata information from various networks and individual data submissions. Extensive quality control was applied to identify questionable and erroneous data, including changes in apparent instrument offsets or calibrations. Such data were excluded from TOAR data products. Limitations of 'a posteriori' data quality assurance are discussed. As a result of the work presented here, global coverage of surface ozone data for scientific analysis has been significantly extended. Yet, large gaps remain in the surface

  12. Growth of soybean at future tropospheric ozone concentrations decreases canopy evapotranspiration and soil water depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernacchi, Carl J., E-mail: bernacch@illinois.edu [Global Change and Photosynthesis Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Institute for Genomic Biology and Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Leakey, Andrew D.B. [Institute for Genomic Biology and Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Kimball, Bruce A. [USDA-ARS US Arid-Land Agricultural Research Center, 21881 N. Cardon Lane, Maricopa, AZ 85238 (United States); Ort, Donald R. [Global Change and Photosynthesis Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Institute for Genomic Biology and Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Tropospheric ozone is increasing in many agricultural regions resulting in decreased stomatal conductance and overall biomass of sensitive crop species. These physiological effects of ozone forecast changes in evapotranspiration and thus in the terrestrial hydrological cycle, particularly in intercontinental interiors. Soybean plots were fumigated with ozone to achieve concentrations above ambient levels over five growing seasons in open-air field conditions. Mean season increases in ozone concentrations ([O{sub 3}]) varied between growing seasons from 22 to 37% above background concentrations. The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of future [O{sub 3}] on crop ecosystem energy fluxes and water use. Elevated [O{sub 3}] caused decreases in canopy evapotranspiration resulting in decreased water use by as much as 15% in high ozone years and decreased soil water removal. In addition, ozone treatment resulted in increased sensible heat flux in all years indicative of day-time increase in canopy temperature of up to 0.7 deg. C. - Highlights: > Globally, tropospheric ozone is currently and will likely continue to increase into the future. > We examine the impact of elevated ozone on water use by soybean at the SoyFACE research facility. > High ozone grown soybean had reduced rates of evapotranspiration and higher soil moisture. > Increases in ozone have the potential to impact the hydrologic cycle where these crops are grown. - Soybean grown in elevated concentrations of ozone is shown to evapotranspire less water compared with soybean canopies grown under current atmospheric conditions.

  13. Growth of soybean at future tropospheric ozone concentrations decreases canopy evapotranspiration and soil water depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernacchi, Carl J.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Ort, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is increasing in many agricultural regions resulting in decreased stomatal conductance and overall biomass of sensitive crop species. These physiological effects of ozone forecast changes in evapotranspiration and thus in the terrestrial hydrological cycle, particularly in intercontinental interiors. Soybean plots were fumigated with ozone to achieve concentrations above ambient levels over five growing seasons in open-air field conditions. Mean season increases in ozone concentrations ([O 3 ]) varied between growing seasons from 22 to 37% above background concentrations. The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of future [O 3 ] on crop ecosystem energy fluxes and water use. Elevated [O 3 ] caused decreases in canopy evapotranspiration resulting in decreased water use by as much as 15% in high ozone years and decreased soil water removal. In addition, ozone treatment resulted in increased sensible heat flux in all years indicative of day-time increase in canopy temperature of up to 0.7 deg. C. - Highlights: → Globally, tropospheric ozone is currently and will likely continue to increase into the future. → We examine the impact of elevated ozone on water use by soybean at the SoyFACE research facility. → High ozone grown soybean had reduced rates of evapotranspiration and higher soil moisture. → Increases in ozone have the potential to impact the hydrologic cycle where these crops are grown. - Soybean grown in elevated concentrations of ozone is shown to evapotranspire less water compared with soybean canopies grown under current atmospheric conditions.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart A of... - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part...

  15. Derivation of the reduced reaction mechanisms of ozone depletion events in the Arctic spring by using concentration sensitivity analysis and principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ozone depletion events (ODEs in the springtime Arctic have been investigated since the 1980s. It is found that the depletion of ozone is highly associated with an auto-catalytic reaction cycle, which involves mostly the bromine-containing compounds. Moreover, bromide stored in various substrates in the Arctic such as the underlying surface covered by ice and snow can be also activated by the absorbed HOBr. Subsequently, this leads to an explosive increase of the bromine amount in the troposphere, which is called the “bromine explosion mechanism”. In the present study, a reaction scheme representing the chemistry of ozone depletion and halogen release is processed with two different mechanism reduction approaches, namely, the concentration sensitivity analysis and the principal component analysis. In the concentration sensitivity analysis, the interdependence of the mixing ratios of ozone and principal bromine species on the rate of each reaction in the ODE mechanism is identified. Furthermore, the most influential reactions in different time periods of ODEs are also revealed. By removing 11 reactions with the maximum absolute values of sensitivities lower than 10 %, a reduced reaction mechanism of ODEs is derived. The onsets of each time period of ODEs in simulations using the original reaction mechanism and the reduced reaction mechanism are identical while the maximum deviation of the mixing ratio of principal bromine species between different mechanisms is found to be less than 1 %. By performing the principal component analysis on an array of the sensitivity matrices, the dependence of a particular species concentration on a combination of the reaction rates in the mechanism is revealed. Redundant reactions are indicated by principal components corresponding to small eigenvalues and insignificant elements in principal components with large eigenvalues. Through this investigation, aside from the 11 reactions identified as

  16. Stratospheric measurements of ozone-depleting substances and greenhouse gases using AirCores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, Johannes; Leedham Elvidge, Emma; Kaiser, Jan; Sturges, Bill; Heikkinen, Pauli; Laurila, Tuomas; Hatakka, Juha; Kivi, Rigel; Chen, Huilin; Fraser, Paul; van der Veen, Carina; Röckmann, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Retrieving air samples from the stratosphere has previously required aircraft or large balloons, both of which are expensive to operate. The novel "AirCore" technique (Karion et al., 2010) enables stratospheric sampling using weather balloons, which is much more cost effective. AirCores are long (up to 200 m) stainless steel tubes which are placed as a payload on a small balloon, can ascend to over 30 km and fill upon descent, collecting a vertical profile of the atmosphere. Retrieved volumes are much smaller though, which presents a challenge for trace gas analysis. To date, only the more abundant trace gases such as carnon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) have been quantified in AirCores. Halogenated trace gases are also important greenhouse gases and many also deplete stratospheric ozone. Their concentrations are however much lower i.e. typically in the part per trillion (ppt) molar range. We here present the first stratospheric measurements of halocarbons in AirCores obtained using UEA's highly sensitive (detection limits of 0.01-0.1 ppt in 10 ml of air) gas chromatography mass spectrometry system. The analysed air originates from a Stratospheric Air Sub-sampler (Mrozek et al., 2016) which collects AirCore segments after the non-destructive CO2 and CH4 analysis. Successfully measured species include CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CFC-115, H-1211, H-1301, HCFC-22, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-133a, and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). We compare the observed mixing ratios and precisions with data obtained from samples collected during various high-altitude aircraft campaigns between 2009 and 2016 as well as with southern hemisphere tropospheric long-term trends. As part of the ERC-funded EXC3ITE (EXploring stratospheric Composition, Chemistry and Circulation with Innovative Techniques) project more than 40 AirCore flights are planned in the next 3 years with an expanded range of up to 30 gases in order to explore seasonal and interannual variability in the stratosphere

  17. Next Generation Refrigeration Lubricants for Low Global Warming Potential/Low Ozone Depleting Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessell, Edward

    2013-12-31

    The goal of this project is to develop and test new synthetic lubricants that possess high compatibility with new low ozone depleting (LOD) and low global warming potential (LGWP) refrigerants and offer improved lubricity and wear protection over current lubricant technologies. The improved compatibility of the lubricants with the refrigerants, along with improved lubricating properties, will resulted in lower energy consumption and longer service life of the refrigeration systems used in residential, commercial and industrial heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) and refrigeration equipment.

  18. Degradation and toxicity depletion of RB19 anthraquinone dye in water by ozone-based technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, María E; Fiasconaro, María L; Martín, Carlos A

    2017-02-01

    This research investigated the discoloration and mineralization of Reactive Blue 19 (RB19) anthraquinone dye by single ozonation, single UV radiation and ozonation jointed with UV radiation (O 3 /UV). The problem was approached from two points of view: with the objective of color removal or the mineralization of solution. In each case, the optimum operating conditions were different. Ozonation was the most effective treatment for color removal, while the combined O 3 /UV treatment was for mineralization. Major intermediates of the dye degradation were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and a degradation pathway was proposed. In addition, a clear decrease of the toxicity of the dye was achieved at the end of the experiments. The effect of initial dye concentration, pH, ozone dose, and UV radiation on the degradation of the dye and decrease of total organic carbon was investigated, in order to establish the optimal operating conditions to achieve discoloration, mineralization or a combination of both.

  19. Variability of surface ozone with cloud coverage over Kolkata, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    influences the weather and climate of a place, thus acting as an ... earth by absorbing the most energetic part of the ... effect of cloud coverage on the surface ozone over. Kolkata. 2. ..... Burrows W R 1997 CART regression models for predicting.

  20. Trends in total column ozone over Australia and New Zealand and its influence on clear-sky surface erythemal irradiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodeker, G. E.

    1995-01-01

    Australia and New Zealand are two of the countries closest to the Antarctic ozone depletion and may therefore be 'at risk' as a result of the associated increases in surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To investigate the possible impact of mid-latitude ozone decreases on surface erythemal irradiances, monthly mean total ozone has been calculated from daily total ozone mapping spectrometer data for 5 Australian cities (Canberra, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney) and 3 New Zealand cities (Auckland, Christchurch and Wellington) from 1979 to 1992. These values have then been used as inputs to a single layer model to calculate noon clear-sky global UV irradiances and associated erythemal irradiances. In addition, the monthly mean ozone data have been modelled statistically for each location to reveal a long-term linear trend, an annual variation, a Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), a solar cycle component and a semi-annual (6 month) signal. Coefficients from these statistical models have been used to estimate monthly mean ozone and noon clear-sky erythemal irradiances to the year 2000 for each city. It is assumed that the rate of increase of stratospheric chlorine over the remainder of the century will remain constant. Given that there is some evidence that the rate of increase is decreasing, the results present here should be regarded as an upper limit. 33 refs., 7 tabs., 4 figs

  1. Destruction of concentrated chlorofluorocarbons in India demonstrates an effective option to simultaneously curb climate change and ozone depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karstensen, Kåre Helge; Parlikar, Ulhas V.; Ahuja, Deepak; Sharma, Shiv; Chakraborty, Moumita A.; Maurya, Harivansh Prasad; Mallik, Mrinal; Gupta, P.K.; Kamyotra, J.S.; Bala, S.S.; Kapadia, B.V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Chlorofluorocarbons and halons are potent ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases. • No provisions in the Montreal or in Kyoto Protocol to destroy stockpiles of concentrated CFCs. • The UNEP recommends 11 technologies for destruction of concentrated CFCs. • No studies have up to now investigated the potential of using cement kilns in developing countries. • The test demonstrated that the local Indian cement kiln was able to destroy high feeding rates of several concentrated CFC-gases effectively. - Abstract: The Montreal Protocol aims to protect the stratospheric ozone layer by phasing out production of substances that contribute to ozone depletion, currently covering over 200 individual substances. As most of these compounds are synthetic greenhouse gases, there is an opportunity to curb both ozone depletion and climate change simultaneously by requiring Parties of both the Montreal and the Kyoto Protocol to destroy their existing stocks of concentrated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Many emerging countries still possess stocks which need to be destroyed in an environmentally sound manner but costs may be prohibitive. The UNEP Technology and Economic Assessment Panel identified in 2002 eleven destruction technologies which meet the criteria for environmentally sound destruction of chlorofluorocarbons. Cement kilns were among these, but no study has been reported in scientific literature assessing its destruction performance under real developing country conditions up to now. In contrast to incinerators and other treatment techniques, high temperature cement kilns are already in place in virtually every country and can, if found technical feasible, be retrofitted and adapted cost-efficiently to destroy chemicals like CFCs. India has the second largest cement industry in the world and several hazardous waste categories have been tested successfully in recent years. The objective of this study was to carry out the first full scale

  2. New methodology for Ozone Depletion Potentials of short-lived compounds: n-Propyl bromide as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuebbles, Donald J.; Patten, Kenneth O.; Johnson, Matthew T.; Kotamarthi, Rao

    2001-07-01

    A number of the compounds proposed as replacements for substances controlled under the Montreal Protocol have extremely short atmospheric lifetimes, on the order of days to a few months. An important example is n-propyl bromide (also referred to as 1-bromopropane, CH2BrCH2CH3 or simplified as 1-C3H7Br or nPB). This compound, useful as a solvent, has an atmospheric lifetime of less than 20 days due to its reaction with hydroxyl. Because nPB contains bromine, any amount reaching the stratosphere has the potential to affect concentrations of stratospheric ozone. The definition of Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODP) needs to be modified for such short-lived compounds to account for the location and timing of emissions. It is not adequate to treat these chemicals as if they were uniformly emitted at all latitudes and longitudes as normally done for longer-lived gases. Thus, for short-lived compounds, policymakers will need a table of ODP values instead of the single value generally provided in past studies. This study uses the MOZART2 three-dimensional chemical-transport model in combination with studies with our less computationally expensive two-dimensional model to examine potential effects of nPB on stratospheric ozone. Multiple facets of this study examine key questions regarding the amount of bromine reaching the stratosphere following emission of nPB. Our most significant findings from this study for the purposes of short-lived replacement compound ozone effects are summarized as follows. The degradation of nPB produces a significant quantity of bromoacetone which increases the amount of bromine transported to the stratosphere due to nPB. However, much of that effect is not due to bromoacetone itself, but instead to inorganic bromine which is produced from tropospheric oxidation of nPB, bromoacetone, and other degradation products and is transported above the dry and wet deposition processes of the model. The MOZART2 nPB results indicate a minimal correction of the

  3. The impacts of surface ozone pollution on winter wheat productivity in China--An econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fujin; Jiang, Fei; Zhong, Funing; Zhou, Xun; Ding, Aijun

    2016-01-01

    The impact of surface ozone pollution on winter wheat yield is empirically estimated by considering socio-economic and weather determinants. This research is the first to use an economic framework to estimate the ozone impact, and a unique county-level panel is employed to examine the impact of the increasing surface ozone concentration on the productivity of winter wheat in China. In general, the increment of surface ozone concentration during the ozone-sensitive period of winter wheat is determined to be harmful to its yield, and a conservative reduction of ozone pollution could significantly increase China's wheat supply. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Atmospheric chemistry of short-chain haloolefins: photochemical ozone creation potentials (POCPs), global warming potentials (GWPs), and ozone depletion potentials (ODPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, T J; Sulbaek Andersen, M P; Nielsen, O J

    2015-06-01

    Short-chain haloolefins are being introduced as replacements for saturated halocarbons. The unifying chemical feature of haloolefins is the presence of a CC double bond which causes the atmospheric lifetimes to be significantly shorter than for the analogous saturated compounds. We discuss the atmospheric lifetimes, photochemical ozone creation potentials (POCPs), global warming potentials (GWPs), and ozone depletion potentials (ODPs) of haloolefins. The commercially relevant short-chain haloolefins CF3CFCH2 (1234yf), trans-CF3CHCHF (1234ze(Z)), CF3CFCF2 (1216), cis-CF3CHCHCl (1233zd(Z)), and trans-CF3CHCHCl (1233zd(E)) have short atmospheric lifetimes (days to weeks), negligible POCPs, negligible GWPs, and ODPs which do not differ materially from zero. In the concentrations expected in the environment their atmospheric degradation products will have a negligible impact on ecosystems. CF3CFCH2 (1234yf), trans-CF3CHCHF (1234ze(Z)), CF3CFCF2 (1216), cis-CF3CHCHCl (1233zd(Z)), and trans-CF3CHCHCl (1233zd(E)) are environmentally acceptable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ozone Depletion Caused by Rocket Engine Emissions: A Fundamental Limit on the Scale and Viability of Space-Based Geoengineering Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M. N.; Toohey, D.

    2008-12-01

    Emissions from solid and liquid propellant rocket engines reduce global stratospheric ozone levels. Currently ~ one kiloton of payloads are launched into earth orbit annually by the global space industry. Stratospheric ozone depletion from present day launches is a small fraction of the ~ 4% globally averaged ozone loss caused by halogen gases. Thus rocket engine emissions are currently considered a minor, if poorly understood, contributor to ozone depletion. Proposed space-based geoengineering projects designed to mitigate climate change would require order of magnitude increases in the amount of material launched into earth orbit. The increased launches would result in comparable increases in the global ozone depletion caused by rocket emissions. We estimate global ozone loss caused by three space-based geoengineering proposals to mitigate climate change: (1) mirrors, (2) sunshade, and (3) space-based solar power (SSP). The SSP concept does not directly engineer climate, but is touted as a mitigation strategy in that SSP would reduce CO2 emissions. We show that launching the mirrors or sunshade would cause global ozone loss between 2% and 20%. Ozone loss associated with an economically viable SSP system would be at least 0.4% and possibly as large as 3%. It is not clear which, if any, of these levels of ozone loss would be acceptable under the Montreal Protocol. The large uncertainties are mainly caused by a lack of data or validated models regarding liquid propellant rocket engine emissions. Our results offer four main conclusions. (1) The viability of space-based geoengineering schemes could well be undermined by the relatively large ozone depletion that would be caused by the required rocket launches. (2) Analysis of space- based geoengineering schemes should include the difficult tradeoff between the gain of long-term (~ decades) climate control and the loss of short-term (~ years) deep ozone loss. (3) The trade can be properly evaluated only if our

  6. Relative impacts of worldwide tropospheric ozone changes and regional emission modifications on European surface-ozone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szopa, S.; Hauglustaine, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Multi-scale models were applied to assess the surface ozone changes in 2030. Several emission scenarios are considered, ranging from (a) a pessimistic anthropogenic emission increase to (b) an optimistic decrease of emissions, and including (c) a realistic scenario that assumes the implementation of control legislations [CLE]. The two extreme scenarios lead respectively to homogeneous global increase and decrease of surface ozone, whereas low and inhomogeneous changes associated with a slight global increase of ozone are found for the CLE scenario. Over western Europe, for the CLE scenario, the benefit of European emission reduction is significantly counterbalanced by increasing global ozone levels. Considering warmer conditions over Europe and future emission modifications, the human health exposure to surface ozone is found to be significantly worsened. (authors)

  7. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: Progress report, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    When considering the effects of climate change, it has become clear that processes resulting in changes in stratospheric ozone are more complex than previously believed. As a result of this, human health and environmental issues will be longer-lasting and more regionally variable...

  8. Effect of Climate Change on Surface Ozone over North America, Europe, and East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Jordan L.; Prather, Michael J.; Josse, Beatrice; Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Zeng, Guang; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The effect of future climate change on surface ozone over North America, Europe, and East Asia is evaluated using present-day (2000s) and future (2100s) hourly surface ozone simulated by four global models. Future climate follows RCP8.5, while methane and anthropogenic ozone precursors are fixed at year-2000 levels. Climate change shifts the seasonal surface ozone peak to earlier in the year and increases the amplitude of the annual cycle. Increases in mean summertime and high-percentile ozone are generally found in polluted environments, while decreases are found in clean environments. We propose climate change augments the efficiency of precursor emissions to generate surface ozone in polluted regions, thus reducing precursor export to neighboring downwind locations. Even with constant biogenic emissions, climate change causes the largest ozone increases at high percentiles. In most cases, air quality extreme episodes become larger and contain higher ozone levels relative to the rest of the distribution.

  9. Evaluation of The Surface Ozone Concentrations In Greater Cairo Area With Emphasis On Helwan, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.; Kandil, A.T.; Abd Elmaged, S.M.; Mubarak, I.

    2011-01-01

    Various biogenic and anthropogenic sources emit huge quantities of surface ozone. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the surface ozone levels present at Helwan area in order to improve the knowledge and understanding troposphere processes. Surface Ozone has been measured at 2 sites at Helwan; these sites cover the most populated area in Helwan. Ozone concentration is continuously monitored by UV absorption photometry using the equipment O 3 41 M UV Photometric Ozone Analyzer. The daily maximum values of the ozone concentration in the greater Cairo area have approached but did not exceeded the critical levels during the year 2008. Higher ozone concentrations at Helwan are mainly due to the transport of ozone from regions further to the north of greater Cairo and to a lesser extent of ozone locally generated by photochemical smog process. The summer season has the largest diurnal variation, with the tendency of the daily ozone maxima occur in the late afternoon. The night time concentration of ozone was significantly higher at Helwan because there are no fast acting sinks, destroying ozone since the average night time concentration of ozone is maintained at 40 ppb at the site. No correlation between the diurnal total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and the diurnal cumulative ozone concentration was observed during the Khamasin period

  10. Ozone-surface reactions in five homes: surface reaction probabilities, aldehyde yields, and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Morrison, G

    2010-06-01

    Field experiments were conducted in five homes during three seasons (summer 2005, summer 2006 and winter 2007) to quantify ozone-initiated secondary aldehyde yields, surface reaction probabilities, and trends any temporal over a 1.5-year interval. Surfaces examined include living room carpets, bedroom carpets, kitchen floors, kitchen counters, and living room walls. Reaction probabilities for all surfaces for all seasons ranged from 9.4 x 10(-8) to 1.0 x 10(-4). There were no significant temporal trends in reaction probabilities for any surfaces from summer 2005 to summer 2006, nor over the entire 1.5-year period, indicating that it may take significantly longer than this period for surfaces to exhibit any 'ozone aging' or lowering of ozone-surface reactivity. However, all surfaces in three houses exhibited a significant decrease in reaction probabilities from summer 2006 to winter 2007. The total yield of aldehydes for the summer of 2005 were nearly identical to that for summer of 2006, but were significantly higher than for winter 2007. We also observed that older carpets were consistently less reactive than in newer carpets, but that countertops remained consistently reactive, probably because of occupant activities such as cooking and cleaning. Ozone reactions taking place at indoor surfaces significantly influence personal exposure to ozone and volatile reaction products. These field studies show that indoor surfaces only slowly lose their ability to react with ozone over several year time frames, and that this is probably because of a combination of large reservoirs of reactive coatings and periodic additions of reactive coatings in the form of cooking, cleaning, and skin-oil residues. When considering exposure to ozone and its reaction products and in the absence of dramatic changes in occupancy, activities or furnishings, indoor surface reactivity is expected to change very slowly.

  11. Seasonal and spatial variability of surface ozone over China: contributions from background and domestic pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Both observations and a 3-D chemical transport model suggest that surface ozone over populated eastern China features a summertime trough and that the month when surface ozone peaks differs by latitude and region. Source-receptor analysis is used to quantify the contributions of background ozone and Chinese anthropogenic emissions on this variability. Annual mean background ozone over China shows a spatial gradient from 55 ppbv in the northwest to 20 ppbv in the southeast, corresponding with changes in topography and ozone lifetime. Pollution background ozone (annual mean of 12.6 ppbv shows a minimum in the summer and maximum in the spring. On the monthly-mean basis, Chinese pollution ozone (CPO has a peak of 20–25 ppbv in June north of the Yangtze River and in October south of it, which explains the peaks of surface ozone in these months. The summertime trough in surface ozone over eastern China can be explained by the decrease of background ozone from spring to summer (by −15 ppbv regionally averaged over eastern China. Tagged simulations suggest that long-range transport of ozone from northern mid-latitude continents (including Europe and North America reaches a minimum in the summer, whereas ozone from Southeast Asia exhibits a maximum in the summer over eastern China. This contrast in seasonality provides clear evidence that the seasonal switch in monsoonal wind patterns plays a significant role in determining the seasonality of background ozone over China.

  12. The Nature of Relationships among the Components of Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Preservice Science Teachers: "Ozone Layer Depletion" as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Osman N.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among the components of preservice science teachers' (PSTs) pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) involving the topic "ozone layer depletion". An open-ended survey was first administered to 216 PSTs in their final year at the Faculty of Education to determine their subject matter…

  13. A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers' Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Harika Ozge; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test…

  14. Students' Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect, the Societal Consequences of Reducing CO2 Emissions and the Problem of Ozone Layer Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Bjorn; Wallin, Anita

    2000-01-01

    Contributes to the growing body of knowledge about students' conceptions and views of environmental and natural resource issues. Questions 9th and 12th grade Swedish students' understandings of the greenhouse effect, reduction of CO2 emissions, and the depletion of the ozone layer. Observes five models of the greenhouse effect that appear among…

  15. Concept Formation in Environmental Education: 14-Year Olds' Work on the Intensified Greenhouse Effect and the Depletion of the Ozone Layer. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterlind, Karolina

    2005-01-01

    A case study is presented describing the work of three pupils in the upper level of compulsory school. The pupils were learning about the intensified greenhouse effect and the depletion of the ozone layer. In their work, the need for certain domain-specific knowledge becomes apparent; for example, understanding such concepts as photosynthesis,…

  16. Relationship between surface, free tropospheric and total column ozone in 2 contrasting areas in South-Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Combrink, J

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of surface ozone in two contrasting areas of South Africa are compared with free tropospheric and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) total column ozone data. Cape Point is representative of a background monitoring station which...

  17. Effects of black carbon and boundary layer interaction on surface ozone in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinhui; Zhu, Bin; Xiao, Hui; Kang, Hanqing; Pan, Chen; Wang, Dongdong; Wang, Honglei

    2018-05-01

    As an important solar radiation absorbing aerosol, the effect of black carbon (BC) on surface ozone, via reducing photolysis rate, has been widely discussed by offline model studies. However, BC-boundary layer (BL) interactions also influence surface ozone. Using the online model simulations and process analysis, we demonstrate the significant impact of BC-BL interaction on surface ozone in Nanjing. The absorbing effect of BC heats the air above the BL and suppresses and delays the development of the BL, which eventually leads to a change in surface ozone via a change in the contributions from chemical and physical processes (photochemistry, vertical mixing and advection). For chemical processes, the suppression of the BL leads to large amounts of ozone precursors being confined below the BL which has an increased effect on ozone chemical production and offsets the decrease caused by the reduction of the photolysis rate, thus enhancing ozone chemical formation from 10:00 to 12:00 LT. Furthermore, changes in physical processes, especially the vertical mixing process, show a more significant influence on surface ozone. The weakened turbulence, caused by the suppressed BL, entrains much less ozone aloft down to the surface. Finally, summing-up the changes in the processes, surface ozone reduces before noon and the maximum reduction reaches 16.4 ppb at 12:00 LT. In the afternoon, the changes in chemical process are small which inconspicuously influence surface ozone. However, change in the vertical mixing process still influences surface ozone significantly. Due to the delayed development of the BL, there are obvious ozone gradients around the top of BL. Therefore, high concentrations of ozone aloft can still be entrained down to the surface which offsets the reduction of surface ozone. Comparing the changes in the processes, the change in vertical mixing plays the most important role in impacting surface ozone. Our results highlight the great impacts BC

  18. Effects of black carbon and boundary layer interaction on surface ozone in Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As an important solar radiation absorbing aerosol, the effect of black carbon (BC on surface ozone, via reducing photolysis rate, has been widely discussed by offline model studies. However, BC–boundary layer (BL interactions also influence surface ozone. Using the online model simulations and process analysis, we demonstrate the significant impact of BC–BL interaction on surface ozone in Nanjing. The absorbing effect of BC heats the air above the BL and suppresses and delays the development of the BL, which eventually leads to a change in surface ozone via a change in the contributions from chemical and physical processes (photochemistry, vertical mixing and advection. For chemical processes, the suppression of the BL leads to large amounts of ozone precursors being confined below the BL which has an increased effect on ozone chemical production and offsets the decrease caused by the reduction of the photolysis rate, thus enhancing ozone chemical formation from 10:00 to 12:00 LT. Furthermore, changes in physical processes, especially the vertical mixing process, show a more significant influence on surface ozone. The weakened turbulence, caused by the suppressed BL, entrains much less ozone aloft down to the surface. Finally, summing-up the changes in the processes, surface ozone reduces before noon and the maximum reduction reaches 16.4 ppb at 12:00 LT. In the afternoon, the changes in chemical process are small which inconspicuously influence surface ozone. However, change in the vertical mixing process still influences surface ozone significantly. Due to the delayed development of the BL, there are obvious ozone gradients around the top of BL. Therefore, high concentrations of ozone aloft can still be entrained down to the surface which offsets the reduction of surface ozone. Comparing the changes in the processes, the change in vertical mixing plays the most important role in impacting surface ozone. Our results highlight the

  19. The impacts of surface ozone pollution on winter wheat productivity in China – An econometric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Fujin; Jiang, Fei; Zhong, Funing; Zhou, Xun; Ding, Aijun

    2016-01-01

    The impact of surface ozone pollution on winter wheat yield is empirically estimated by considering socio-economic and weather determinants. This research is the first to use an economic framework to estimate the ozone impact, and a unique county-level panel is employed to examine the impact of the increasing surface ozone concentration on the productivity of winter wheat in China. In general, the increment of surface ozone concentration during the ozone-sensitive period of winter wheat is determined to be harmful to its yield, and a conservative reduction of ozone pollution could significantly increase China's wheat supply. - Highlights: • We examine the impacts of the surface ozone exposure on winter wheat yield in China. • An econometric method is used to measure the ozone impacts. • The results conclude that surface ozone is harmful to winter wheat yield in China. • We confirm that stress conditions such as drought and air particles can mitigate the adverse effect of ozone. - Surface ozone pollution is harmful to winter wheat yield in China by considering socio-economic determinants, weather, and other stress conditions like drought and air particles.

  20. Ozone Oxidation of Self-Assembled Monolayers on SiOx-Coated Zinc Selenide Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, T. M.; Ryder, O. S.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    Airborne particles are important for visibility, human health, climate, and atmospheric reactions. Atmospheric particles contain a significant fraction of organics and such compounds present on airborne particles are susceptible to oxidation by atmospheric oxidants, such as OH, ozone, halogen atoms, and nitrogen trioxide. Oxidized organics associated with airborne particles are thought to be polar, hygroscopic species with enhanced cloud-nucleating properties. Oxide layers on silicon, or SiO2-coated substrates, act as models of environmentally relevant surfaces such as dust particles upon which organics adsorb. We have shown previously that ozone oxidation of unsaturated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on silicon attenuated total reflectance (ATR) crystals leads to the formation of carbonyl groups and micron-sized, hydrophobic organic aggregates surrounded by carbon depleted substrate that do not have increased water uptake as previously assumed. Reported here are further ATR-FTIR studies of the oxidation of alkene SAMs on ZnSe and SiO2-coated ZnSe. These substrates have the advantage that they transmit below 1500 cm-1, allowing detection of additional product species. These experiments show that the loss of C=C and formation of carbonyl groups is also accompanied by formation of a peak at 1110 cm-1, attributed to the secondary ozonide. Details concerning the products and mechanism of ozonolysis of alkene SAMs on surfaces based on these new data are presented and the implications for the oxidation of alkenes on airborne dust particles are discussed.

  1. The key role of ozone depleting substances in weakening the Walker Circulation over the second half of the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, K.; Polvani, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely believed that the Walker Circulation will weaken in response to increasing greenhouse gases (GHG) by the end of the 21st century. But over the 20th century, the existence of a statistical significant weakening trends in the observations remains unclear. We here present new modelling evidence showing that Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) may have significantly contributed to the weakening of the Walker Circulation over the years 1955-2005. While the primary impact of increasing ODS has been the formation of the ozone hole, it is perhaps not as widely appreciated that ODS are also powerful greenhouse gases. Using an ensemble of integrations with the the Whole Atmosphere Chemistry Climate Model, we show that the surface warming caused by increasing ODS over the second half of the 20th century causes a statistically significant weakening of the Walker Circulation in the model. In fact, we find that the increase of the other well-mixed GHG alone leads to a strengthening, not a weakening of the Walker Circulation, over that period in our model. When ODS concentrations are held fixed at 1950's levels, the effect of the other GHG is not sufficient, and a warming delay in the eastern tropical Pacific SST leads to an increase in the east-west SST gradient which is accompanied by a strengthening of the Walker Circulation. But, when the forcing from ODS is added in, the additional radiative forcing causes the eastern Pacific to warm faster, and the trend in the Walker Circulation reverses sign and becomes negative over the second half of the 20th century.

  2. Trends in Surface Level Ozone Observations from Human-health Relevant Metrics: Results from the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Z. L.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Doherty, R. M.; Malley, C.; Cooper, O. R.; Pinto, J. P.; Colette, A.; Xu, X.; Simpson, D.; Schultz, M.; Hamad, S.; Moola, R.; Solberg, S.; Feng, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant formed in the atmosphere from precursor species (NOx, VOCs, CH4, CO) that is detrimental to human health and ecosystems. The global Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR) initiative has assembled a global database of surface ozone observations and generated ozone exposure metrics at thousands of measurement sites around the world. This talk will present results from the assessment focused on those indicators most relevant to human health. Specifically, the trends in ozone, comparing different time periods and patterns across regions and among metrics will be addressed. In addition, the fraction of population exposed to high ozone levels and how this has changed between 2000 and 2014 will also be discussed. The core time period analyzed for trends was 2000-2014, selected to include a greater number of sites in East Asia. Negative trends were most commonly observed at many US and some European sites, whereas many sites in East Asia showed positive trends, while sites in Japan showed more of a mix of positive and negative trends. More than half of the sites showed a common direction and significance in the trends for all five human-health relevant metrics. The peak ozone metrics indicate a reduction in exposure to peak levels of ozone related to photochemical episodes in Europe and the US. A considerable number of European countries and states within the US have shown a decrease in population-weighted ozone over time. The 2000-2014 results will be augmented and compared to the trend analysis for additional time periods that cover a greater number of years, but by necessity are based on fewer sites. Trends are found to be statistically significant at a larger fraction of sites with longer time series, compared to the shorter (2000-2014) time series.

  3. Surface ozone concentrations in Europe: Links with the regional-scale atmospheric circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T. D.; Kelly, P. M.; Low, P. S.; Pierce, C. E.

    1992-06-01

    Daily surface ozone observations from 1978 (1976 for some analyses) to 1988 for Bottesford (United Kingdom), Cabauw, Kloosterburen (The Netherlands), Hohenpeissenberg, Neuglobsow, Hamburg, and Arkona (Germany) are used to analyze links between surface ozone variations and the atmospheric circulation. A daily Europe-wide synoptic classification highlights marked differences between surface ozone/meteorology relationships in summer and winter. These relationships are characterized by correlations between daily surface ozone concentrations at each station and a local subregional surface pressure gradient (a wind speed index). Although there are geographical variations, which are explicable in terms of regional climatology, there are distinct annual cycles. In summer, the surface ozone/wind speed relationship exhibits the expected negative sign; however, in winter, the relationship is, in the main, strongly positive, especially at those stations which are more influenced by the vigorous westerlies. Spring and autumn exhibit negative, positive, or transitional (between summer and winter) behavior, depending on geographical position. It is suggested that these relationships reflect the importance of vertical exchange from the free troposphere to the surface in the nonsummer months. Composite surface pressure patterns and surface pressure anomaly (from the long-term mean) patterns associated with high surface ozone concentrations on daily and seasonal time scales are consistent with the surface ozone/wind speed relationships. Moreover, they demonstrate that high surface ozone concentrations, in a climatological time frame, can be associated with mean surface pressure patterns which have a synoptic reality and are robust. Such an approach may be useful in interpreting past variations in surface ozone and may help to isolate the effect of human activity. It is also possible that assessments can be made of the effect of projected future changes in the atmospheric circulation

  4. Semiconductor Sensors Application for Definition of Factor of Ozone Heterogeneous Destruction on Teflon Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya V. Finogenova

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In our paper we present the results of our research, which was carried out by means of semiconductor sensor techniques (SCS, which allowed evaluating heterogeneous death-rate of ozone (γ Teflon surface. When ozone concentration is near to Ambient Air Standard value, γ is assessed to be equal to 6,57*10-7. High technique response provide possibility to determine ozone contents in the air media and the percentage of ozone, decomposed on the communication surfaces and on the surfaces of installation in the low concentration range (1–100 ppb.

  5. Surface ozone in China: present-day distribution and long-term changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Lin, W.; Xu, W.

    2017-12-01

    Reliable knowledge of spatio-temporal variations of surface ozone is highly needed to assess the impacts of ozone on human health, ecosystem and climate. Although regional distributions and trends of surface ozone in European and North American countries have been well characterized, little is known about the variability of surface ozone in many other countries, including China, where emissions of ozone precursors have been changing rapidly in recent decades. Here we present the first comprehensive description of present-day (2013-2017) distribution and long-term changes of surface ozone in mainland China. Recent ozone measurements from China's air quality monitoring network (AQMN) are analyzed to show present-day distributions of a few ozone exposure metrics for urban environment. Long-term measurements of ozone at six background sites, a rural site and an urban are used to study the trends of ozone in background, rural and urban air, respectively. The average levels of ozone at the AQMN sites (mainly urban) are close to those found at many European and North American sites. However, ozone at most of the sites shows very large diurnal and seasonal variations so that ozone nonattainment can occur in many cities, particularly those in the North China Plain (NCP), the south of Northeast China (NEC), the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), the Pearl River Delta (PRD), and the Sichuan Basin-Chongqing region (SCB). In all these regions, particularly in the NCP, the maximum daily 8-h average (MDA8) ozone concentration can significantly exceed the national limit (75 ppb). High annual sum of ozone means over 35 ppb (SOMO35) exist mainly in the NCP, NEC and YRD, with regional averages over 4000 ppb·d. Surface ozone has significantly increased at Waliguan (a baseline site in western China) and Shangdianzi (a background site in the NCP), and decreased in winter and spring at Longfengshan (a background site in Northeast China). No clear trend can be derived from long-term measurements

  6. Impact of East Asian Summer Monsoon on Surface Ozone Pattern in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Wang, Tijian; Huang, Xing; Pu, Xi; Li, Mengmeng; Chen, Pulong; Yang, Xiu-Qun; Wang, Minghuai

    2018-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone plays a key role in regional and global atmospheric and climate systems. In East Asia, ozone can be affected both in concentration level and spatial pattern by typical monsoon climate. This paper uses three different indices to identify the strength of East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and explores the possible impact of EASM intensity on the ozone pattern through synthetic and process analysis. The difference in ozone between three strong and three weak monsoon years was analyzed using the simulations from regional climate model RegCM4-Chem. It was found that EASM intensity can significantly influence the spatial distribution of ozone in the lower troposphere. When EASM is strong, ozone in the eastern part of China (28°N - 42° N) is reduced, but the inverse is detected in the north and south. The surface ozone difference ranges from -7 to 7 ppbv during the 3 months (June to August) of the EASM, with the most obvious difference in August. Difference of the 3 months' average ozone ranges from -3.5 to 4 ppbv. Process analysis shows that the uppermost factor controlling ozone level during summer monsoon seasons is the chemistry process. Interannual variability of EASM can impact the spatial distribution of ozone through wind in the lower troposphere, cloud cover, and downward shortwave radiation, which affect the transport and chemical formation of ozone. The phenomenon should be addressed when considering the interaction between ozone and the climate in East Asia region.

  7. Impacts of Climate Change on Surface Ozone and Intercontinental Ozone Pollution: A Multi-Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, R. M.; Wild, O.; Shindell, D. T.; Zeng, G.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Collins, W. J.; Fiore, A. M.; Stevenson, D. S.; Dentener, F. J.; Schultz, M. G.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The impact of climate change between 2000 and 2095 SRES A2 climates on surface ozone (O)3 and on O3 source-receptor (S-R) relationships is quantified using three coupled climate-chemistry models (CCMs). The CCMs exhibit considerable variability in the spatial extent and location of surface O3 increases that occur within parts of high NOx emission source regions (up to 6 ppbv in the annual average and up to 14 ppbv in the season of maximum O3). In these source regions, all three CCMs show a positive relationship between surface O3 change and temperature change. Sensitivity simulations show that a combination of three individual chemical processes-(i) enhanced PAN decomposition, (ii) higher water vapor concentrations, and (iii) enhanced isoprene emission-largely reproduces the global spatial pattern of annual-mean surface O3 response due to climate change (R2 = 0.52). Changes in climate are found to exert a stronger control on the annual-mean surface O3 response through changes in climate-sensitive O3 chemistry than through changes in transport as evaluated from idealized CO-like tracer concentrations. All three CCMs exhibit a similar spatial pattern of annual-mean surface O3 change to 20% regional O3 precursor emission reductions under future climate compared to the same emission reductions applied under present-day climate. The surface O3 response to emission reductions is larger over the source region and smaller downwind in the future than under present-day conditions. All three CCMs show areas within Europe where regional emission reductions larger than 20% are required to compensate climate change impacts on annual-mean surface O3.

  8. Comparison of autoregressive (AR) strategy with that of regression approach for determining ozone layer depletion as a physical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousufzai, M.A.K; Aansari, M.R.K.; Quamar, J.; Iqbal, J.; Hussain, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This communication presents the development of a comprehensive characterization of ozone layer depletion (OLD) phenomenon as a physical process in the form of mathematical models that comprise the usual regression, multiple or polynomial regression and stochastic strategy. The relevance of these models has been illuminated using predicted values of different parameters under a changing environment. The information obtained from such analysis can be employed to alter the possible factors and variables to achieve optimum performance. This kind of analysis initiates a study towards formulating the phenomenon of OLD as a physical process with special reference to the stratospheric region of Pakistan. The data presented here establishes that the Auto regressive (AR) nature of modeling OLD as a physical process is an appropriate scenario rather than using usual regression. The data reported in literature suggest quantitatively the OLD is occurring in our region. For this purpose we have modeled this phenomenon using the data recorded at the Geophysical Centre Quetta during the period 1960-1999. The predictions made by this analysis are useful for public, private and other relevant organizations. (author)

  9. Tuning Nanocrystal Surface Depletion by Controlling Dopant Distribution as a Route Toward Enhanced Film Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staller, Corey M.; Robinson, Zachary L.; Agrawal, Ankit; Gibbs, Stephen L.; Greenberg, Benjamin L.; Lounis, Sebastien D.; Kortshagen, Uwe R.; Milliron, Delia J.

    2018-05-01

    Electron conduction through bare metal oxide nanocrystal (NC) films is hindered by surface depletion regions resulting from the presence of surface states. We control the radial dopant distribution in tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) NCs as a means to manipulate the NC depletion width. We find in films of ITO NCs of equal overall dopant concentration that those with dopant-enriched surfaces show decreased depletion width and increased conductivity. Variable temperature conductivity data shows electron localization length increases and associated depletion width decreases monotonically with increased density of dopants near the NC surface. We calculate band profiles for NCs of differing radial dopant distributions and, in agreement with variable temperature conductivity fits, find NCs with dopant-enriched surfaces have narrower depletion widths and longer localization lengths than those with dopant-enriched cores. Following amelioration of NC surface depletion by atomic layer deposition of alumina, all films of equal overall dopant concentration have similar conductivity. Variable temperature conductivity measurements on alumina-capped films indicate all films behave as granular metals. Herein, we conclude that dopant-enriched surfaces decrease the near-surface depletion region, which directly increases the electron localization length and conductivity of NC films.

  10. Extreme ozone depletion in the 2010–2011 Arctic winter stratosphere as observed by MIPAS/ENVISAT using a 2-D tomographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Arnone

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of the 2010–2011 Arctic winter stratosphere from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS onboard ENVISAT. Limb sounding infrared measurements were taken by MIPAS during the Northern polar winter and into the subsequent spring, giving a continuous vertically resolved view of the Arctic dynamics, chemistry and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs. We adopted a 2-D tomographic retrieval approach to account for the strong horizontal inhomogeneity of the atmosphere present under vortex conditions, self-consistently comparing 2011 to the 2-D analysis of 2003–2010. Unlike most Arctic winters, 2011 was characterized by a strong stratospheric vortex lasting until early April. Lower stratospheric temperatures persistently remained below the threshold for PSC formation, extending the PSC season up to mid-March, resulting in significant chlorine activation leading to ozone destruction. On 3 January 2011, PSCs were detected up to 30.5 ± 0.9 km altitude, representing the highest PSCs ever reported in the Arctic. Through inspection of MIPAS spectra, 83% of PSCs were identified as supercooled ternary solution (STS or STS mixed with nitric acid trihydrate (NAT, 17% formed mostly by NAT particles, and only two cases by ice. In the lower stratosphere at potential temperature 450 K, vortex average ozone showed a daily depletion rate reaching 100 ppbv day−1. In early April at 18 km altitude, 10% of vortex measurements displayed total depletion of ozone, and vortex average values dropped to 0.6 ppmv. This corresponds to a chemical loss from early winter greater than 80%. Ozone loss was accompanied by activation of ClO, associated depletion of its reservoir ClONO2, and significant denitrification, which further delayed the recovery of ozone in spring. Once the PSC season halted, ClO was reconverted primarily into ClONO2. Compared to MIPAS observed 2003–2010 Arctic average values

  11. Substituting HCFC-22 for HFC-410A: an environmental impact trade-off between the ozone depletion and climate change regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Fang, X.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    After the phase-out of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as ozone-depleting substances pursuant to the requirements of the Montreal Protocol, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are worldwide used as substitutes although the bulk of them are potent greenhouse gases (GHGs). Therefore, the alternation may bring side effect on global climate change. The trade-off of its environmental impacts between the ozone depletion and climate change regimes necessitates a quantification of the past and future consumption and emissions of both the original HCFCs and their alternative HFCs. Now a dilemma arise in China's RAC industry that HCFC-22, which has an ozone-depleting potential (ODP) of 0.055, has been replaced by HFC-410A, which is a blended potent GHG from respective 50% HFC-32 and HFC-125 with a global warming potential (GWP) of 1923.5. Here, we present our results of estimates of consumption and emissions of HCFC-22 and HFC-410A from 1994 to 2050. Historic emissions of HCFC-22 contributed to global total HCFCs by 4.0% (3.0%-5.6%) ODP-weighted. Projection under a baseline scenario shows future accumulative emissions of HFC-410A make up 5.9%-11.0% of global GWP-weighted HFCs emissions, and its annual contribution to national overall CO2 emissions can be 5.5% in 2050. This makes HCFC-22 and HFC-410A emissions of significant importance in ozone depletion and climate change regimes. Two mitigation scenarios were set to assess the mitigation performance under the North America Proposal and an accelerated schedule. In practice of international environmental agreement, "alternative to alternative" should be developed to avoid regrettable alternations.

  12. Uncertainties in models of tropospheric ozone based on Monte Carlo analysis: Tropospheric ozone burdens, atmospheric lifetimes and surface distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derwent, Richard G.; Parrish, David D.; Galbally, Ian E.; Stevenson, David S.; Doherty, Ruth M.; Naik, Vaishali; Young, Paul J.

    2018-05-01

    Recognising that global tropospheric ozone models have many uncertain input parameters, an attempt has been made to employ Monte Carlo sampling to quantify the uncertainties in model output that arise from global tropospheric ozone precursor emissions and from ozone production and destruction in a global Lagrangian chemistry-transport model. Ninety eight quasi-randomly Monte Carlo sampled model runs were completed and the uncertainties were quantified in tropospheric burdens and lifetimes of ozone, carbon monoxide and methane, together with the surface distribution and seasonal cycle in ozone. The results have shown a satisfactory degree of convergence and provide a first estimate of the likely uncertainties in tropospheric ozone model outputs. There are likely to be diminishing returns in carrying out many more Monte Carlo runs in order to refine further these outputs. Uncertainties due to model formulation were separately addressed using the results from 14 Atmospheric Chemistry Coupled Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) chemistry-climate models. The 95% confidence ranges surrounding the ACCMIP model burdens and lifetimes for ozone, carbon monoxide and methane were somewhat smaller than for the Monte Carlo estimates. This reflected the situation where the ACCMIP models used harmonised emissions data and differed only in their meteorological data and model formulations whereas a conscious effort was made to describe the uncertainties in the ozone precursor emissions and in the kinetic and photochemical data in the Monte Carlo runs. Attention was focussed on the model predictions of the ozone seasonal cycles at three marine boundary layer stations: Mace Head, Ireland, Trinidad Head, California and Cape Grim, Tasmania. Despite comprehensively addressing the uncertainties due to global emissions and ozone sources and sinks, none of the Monte Carlo runs were able to generate seasonal cycles that matched the observations at all three MBL stations. Although

  13. Adsorption of aromatic hydrocarbons and ozone at environmental aqueous surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vácha, Robert; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Rezác, Jan; Hobza, Pavel; Jungwirth, Pavel; Valsaraj, Kalliat; Bahr, Stephan; Kempter, Volker

    2008-06-05

    Adsorption of environmentally important aromatic molecules on a water surface is studied by means of classical and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and by reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy. Both techniques show strong activity and orientational preference of these molecules at the surface. Benzene and naphthalene, which bind weakly to water surface with a significant contribution of dispersion interactions, prefer to lie flat on water but retain a large degree of orientational flexibility. Pyridine is more rigid at the surface. It is tilted with the nitrogen end having strong hydrogen bonding interactions with water molecules. The degree of adsorption and orientation of aromatic molecules on aqueous droplets has atmospheric implications for heterogeneous ozonolysis, for which the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics mechanism is discussed. At higher coverages of aromatic molecules the incoming ozone almost does not come into contact with the underlying aqueous phase. This may rationalize the experimental insensitivity of the ozonolysis on the chemical nature of the substrate on which the aromatic molecules adsorb.

  14. Evidence for midwinter chemical ozone destruction over Antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voemel, H. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Hoffmann, D.J.; Oltmans, S.J.; Harris, J.M. [NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Two ozone profiles on June 15 and June 19, obtained over McMurdo, Antartica, showed a strong depletion in stratospheric ozone, and a simultaneous profile of water vapor on June 19 showed the first clear signs of dehydration. The observation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) beginning with the first sounding showing ozone depletion, the indication of rehydration layers, which could be a sign for recent dehydration, and trajectory calculations indicate that the observed low ozone was not the result of transport from lower latitudes. during this time the vortex was strongly distorted, transporting PSC processed air well into sunlit latitudes where photochemical ozone destruction may have occurred. The correlation of ozone depletion and dehydration indicates that water ice PSCs provided the dominant surface for chlorine activation. An analysis of the time when the observed air masses could have formed type II PSCs for the first time limits the time scale for the observed ozone destruction to about 4 days.

  15. Variations of surface ozone concentration across the Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Mohd Talib; Huey, Lim Shun; Juneng, Liew

    2012-12-01

    Hourly air quality data covering the period 2004-2008 was obtained from the Air Quality Division, the Department of Environment (DOE) through long-term monitoring by Alam Sekitar Sdn. Bhd. (ASMA) were analysed to investigate the variations of surface ozone (O3) in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. A total of nine monitoring stations were selected for analysis in this study and the results show that there are distinct seasonal patterns in the surface O3 across the Klang Valley. A high surface O3 concentration is usually observed between January and April, while a low surface O3 concentration is found between June and August. Analysis of daily variations in surface O3 and the precursors - NO, NO2, CO, NMHC and UVb, indicate that the surface O3 photochemistry in this study area exhibits a positive response to the intensity and wavelength in UVb while being influenced by the concentration of NOx, particularly through tritration processes. Although results from our study suggested that NMHCs may influence the maximum O3 concentration, further investigation is required. Wind direction during different monsoons was found to influence the concentration of O3 around the Klang Valley. HYSPLIT back trajectories (-72 h) were used to indicate the air-mass transport patterns on days with high concentrations of surface O3 in the study area. Results show that 47% of the high O3 days was associated with the localized circulation. The remaining 32% and 22% were associated with mid-range and long-range transport across the South China Sea from the northeast.

  16. Surface ozone at Nam Co in the inland Tibetan Plateau: variation, synthesis comparison and regional representativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiufeng; Kang, Shichang; de Foy, Benjamin; Cong, Zhiyuan; Luo, Jiali; Zhang, Lang; Ma, Yaoming; Zhang, Guoshuai; Rupakheti, Dipesh; Zhang, Qianggong

    2017-09-01

    Ozone is an important pollutant and greenhouse gas, and tropospheric ozone variations are generally associated with both natural and anthropogenic processes. As one of the most pristine and inaccessible regions in the world, the Tibetan Plateau has been considered as an ideal region for studying processes of the background atmosphere. Due to the vast area of the Tibetan Plateau, sites in the southern, northern and central regions exhibit different patterns of variation in surface ozone. Here, we present continuous measurements of surface ozone mixing ratios at Nam Co Station over a period of ˜ 5 years (January 2011 to October 2015), which is a background site in the inland Tibetan Plateau. An average surface ozone mixing ratio of 47.6 ± 11.6 ppb (mean ± standard deviation) was recorded, and a large annual cycle was observed with maximum ozone mixing ratios in the spring and minimum ratios during the winter. The diurnal cycle is characterized by a minimum in the early morning and a maximum in the late afternoon. Nam Co Station represents a background region where surface ozone receives negligible local anthropogenic emissions inputs, and the anthropogenic contribution from South Asia in spring and China in summer may affect Nam Co Station occasionally. Surface ozone at Nam Co Station is mainly dominated by natural processes involving photochemical reactions, vertical mixing and downward transport of stratospheric air mass. Model results indicate that the study site is affected differently by the surrounding areas in different seasons: air masses from the southern Tibetan Plateau contribute to the high ozone levels in the spring, and enhanced ozone levels in the summer are associated with air masses from the northern Tibetan Plateau. By comparing measurements at Nam Co Station with those from other sites on the Tibetan Plateau, we aim to expand the understanding of ozone cycles and transport processes over the Tibetan Plateau. This work may provide a

  17. Retrieval of Surface Ozone from UV-MFRSR Irradiances using Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Sun, Z.; Davis, J.; Zempila, M.; Liu, C.; Gao, W.

    2017-12-01

    High concentration of surface ozone is harmful to humans and plants. USDA UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP) uses Ultraviolet (UV) version of Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (UV-MFRSR) to measure direct, diffuse, and total irradiances every three minutes at seven UV channels (i.e. 300, 305, 311, 317, 325, 332, and 368 nm channels with 2 nm full width at half maximum). Based on the wavelength dependency of aerosol optical depths, there have been plenty of literatures exploring retrieval methods of total column ozone from UV-MFRSR measurements. However, few has explored the retrieval of surface ozone. The total column ozone is the integral of the multiplication of ozone concentration (varying by height and time) and cross section (varying by wavelength and temperature) over height. Because of the distinctive values of ozone cross section in the UV region, the irradiances at seven UV channels have the potential to resolve the ozone concentration at multiple vertical layers. If the UV irradiances at multiple time points are considered together, the uncertainty or the vertical resolution of ozone concentrations can be further improved. In this study, the surface ozone amounts at the UVMRP station located at Billings, Oklahoma are estimated from the adjacent (i.e. within 200 miles) US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) surface ozone observations using the spatial analysis technique. Then, the (direct normal) irradiances of UVMRP at one or more time points as inputs and the corresponding estimated surface ozone from EPA as outputs are fed into a pre-trained (dense) deep neural network (DNN) to explore the hidden non-linear relationship between them. This process could improve our understanding of their physical/mathematical relationship. Finally, the optimized DNN is tested with the preserved 5% of the dataset, which are not used during training, to verify the relationship.

  18. Ozone-surface interactions: Investigations of mechanisms, kinetics, mass transport, and implications for indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Glenn Charles [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-12-01

    In this dissertation, results are presented of laboratory investigations and mathematical modeling efforts designed to better understand the interactions of ozone with surfaces. In the laboratory, carpet and duct materials were exposed to ozone and measured ozone uptake kinetics and the ozone induced emissions of volatile organic compounds. To understand the results of the experiments, mathematical methods were developed to describe dynamic indoor aldehyde concentrations, mass transport of reactive species to smooth surfaces, the equivalent reaction probability of whole carpet due to the surface reactivity of fibers and carpet backing, and ozone aging of surfaces. Carpets, separated carpet fibers, and separated carpet backing all tended to release aldehydes when exposed to ozone. Secondary emissions were mostly n-nonanal and several other smaller aldehydes. The pattern of emissions suggested that vegetable oils may be precursors for these oxidized emissions. Several possible precursors and experiments in which linseed and tung oils were tested for their secondary emission potential were discussed. Dynamic emission rates of 2-nonenal from a residential carpet may indicate that intermediate species in the oxidation of conjugated olefins can significantly delay aldehyde emissions and act as reservoir for these compounds. The ozone induced emission rate of 2-nonenal, a very odorous compound, can result in odorous indoor concentrations for several years. Surface ozone reactivity is a key parameter in determining the flux of ozone to a surface, is parameterized by the reaction probability, which is simply the probability that an ozone molecule will be irreversibly consumed when it strikes a surface. In laboratory studies of two residential and two commercial carpets, the ozone reaction probability for carpet fibers, carpet backing and the equivalent reaction probability for whole carpet were determined. Typically reaction probability values for these materials were 10

  19. Some recent results of Russian measurements of surface ozone in Antarctica. A meteorological interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, A.N.; Elokhov, A.S.; Makarov, O.V.; Mokhov, I.I. (Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Atmospheric Physics)

    1993-01-01

    Surface ozone measurements were carried out at Molodezhnaya and Mirny stations in spring 1987-autumn 1988. The data show an annual variation with a summer minimum at 15 ppbv value. The striking feature of the surface ozone record is two types of day-to-day variability. One of the types is characterized by large day-to-day variations with about 10 ppbv magnitude. The likely mechanism of such variations is the vertical transport induced by cyclonic activity. The other type occurs in synoptically quiet periods (frequent in summer) when the day-to-day ozone variations are significant but not so large. The most likely mechanism of these variations is the slope katabatic wind which transports ozone from inside the Antarctic continent. The latitudinal distribution of surface ozone for this period, measured aboard an aircraft, showed a slight increase towards Vostok station. (26 refs., 3 figs.).

  20. Global impacts of surface ozone changes on crop yields and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuwah, C.D.; Noije, van Twan; Vuuren, van Detlef P.; Stehfest, Elke; Hazeleger, Wilco

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to surface ozone has detrimental impacts on vegetation and crop yields. In this study, we estimate ozone impacts on crop production and subsequent impacts on land use in the 2005-2050 period using results of the TM5 atmospheric chemistry and IMAGE integrated assessment model. For the

  1. Global impacts of surface ozone changes on crop yields and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuwah, Clifford; van Noije, Twan; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Stehfest, Elke; Hazeleger, Wilco

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to surface ozone has detrimental impacts on vegetation and crop yields. In this study, we estimate ozone impacts on crop production and subsequent impacts on land use in the 2005-2050 period using results of the TM5 atmospheric chemistry and IMAGE integrated assessment model. For the crops

  2. Effect of ozone concentration on silicon surface passivation by atomic layer deposited Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrow, Guillaume von; Li, Shuo; Putkonen, Matti; Laitinen, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo; Savin, Hele

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The ALD Al 2 O 3 passivation quality can be controlled by the ozone concentration. • Ozone concentration affects the Si/Al 2 O 3 interface charge and defect density. • A surface recombination velocity of 7 cm/s is reached combining ozone and water ALD. • Carbon and hydrogen concentrations correlate with the surface passivation quality. - Abstract: We study the impact of ozone-based Al 2 O 3 Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) on the surface passivation quality of crystalline silicon. We show that the passivation quality strongly depends on the ozone concentration: the higher ozone concentration results in lower interface defect density and thereby improved passivation. In contrast to previous studies, our results reveal that too high interface hydrogen content can be detrimental to the passivation. The interface hydrogen concentration can be optimized by the ozone-based process; however, the use of pure ozone increases the harmful carbon concentration in the film. Here we demonstrate that low carbon and optimal hydrogen concentration can be achieved by a single process combining the water- and ozone-based reactions. This process results in an interface defect density of 2 × 10 11 eV −1 cm −2 , and maximum surface recombination velocities of 7.1 cm/s and 10 cm/s, after annealing and after an additional firing at 800 °C, respectively. In addition, our results suggest that the effective oxide charge density can be optimized in a simple way by varying the ozone concentration and by injecting water to the ozone process.

  3. Recent advances in destruction technology on ozone depleting substances and international activities for technology evaluation. Freon bunkai gijutsu no genjo-to kokusaiteki doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, K [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1992-07-25

    This paper summarizes the current status and the international activities in the technologies to decompose fleon (CFC) which can cause ozone depletion in the stratosphere and global warming. Discussions have been given in Japan on combustion decomposing method as a fleon decomposing technology, which can use generally available incinerators. A plasma decomposition process uses a high-frequency plasma device with an input of 182 kW which can process CFC-12 of 48 kg/h at a decomposition efficiency of 99.99% or higher. A reported catalyst decomposition method uses zeolites, alumina, TiO2-ZrO2-based oxide mixture, and iron oxide carrying activated carbon as catalysts. A super critical water decomposition process is reported capable of decomposing almost completely CFC-11 and CFC-113 at 400[degree]C and 320 or higher atmospheric pressure. The United Nations Environment Programme arranges international cooperations on the stratospheric ozone/fleon problem, and the committee has established an ozone depleting substance (ODS) decomposing technology authorization act. The currently available capacities of decomposing devices are by far lower than the banked ODS amount to be provided to decomposition. 3 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic and Arctic: Responses of plants of polar terrestrial ecosystems to enhanced UV-B, an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozema, Jelte; Boelen, Peter; Blokker, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic has been re-occurring yearly since 1974, leading to enhanced UV-B radiation. Arctic ozone depletion has been observed since 1990. Ozone recovery has been predicted by 2050, but no signs of recovery occur. Here we review responses of polar plants to experimentally varied UV-B through supplementation or exclusion. In supplementation studies comparing ambient and above ambient UV-B, no effect on growth occurred. UV-B-induced DNA damage, as measured in polar bryophytes, is repaired overnight by photoreactivation. With UV exclusion, growth at near ambient may be less than at below ambient UV-B levels, which relates to the UV response curve of polar plants. UV-B screening foils also alter PAR, humidity, and temperature and interactions of UV with environmental factors may occur. Plant phenolics induced by solar UV-B, as in pollen, spores and lignin, may serve as a climate proxy for past UV. Since the Antarctic and Arctic terrestrial ecosystems differ essentially (e.g. higher species diversity and more trophic interactions in the Arctic), generalization of polar plant responses to UV-B needs caution. - Polar plant responses to UV-B may be different in the Arctic than Antarctic regions

  5. Significant increase of surface ozone at a rural site, north of eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone pollution in eastern China has become one of the top environmental issues. Quantifying the temporal trend of surface ozone helps to assess the impacts of the anthropogenic precursor reductions and the likely effects of emission control strategies implemented. In this paper, ozone data collected at the Shangdianzi (SDZ regional atmospheric background station from 2003 to 2015 are presented and analyzed to obtain the variation in the trend of surface ozone in the most polluted region of China, north of eastern China or the North China Plain. A modified Kolmogorov–Zurbenko (KZ filter method was performed on the maximum daily average 8 h (MDA8 concentrations of ozone to separate the contributions of different factors from the variation of surface ozone and remove the influence of meteorological fluctuations on surface ozone. Results reveal that the short-term, seasonal and long-term components of ozone account for 36.4, 57.6 and 2.2 % of the total variance, respectively. The long-term trend indicates that the MDA8 has undergone a significant increase in the period of 2003–2015, with an average rate of 1.13 ± 0.01 ppb year−1 (R2 = 0.92. It is found that meteorological factors did not significantly influence the long-term variation of ozone and the increase may be completely attributed to changes in emissions. Furthermore, there is no significant correlation between the long-term O3 and NO2 trends. This study suggests that emission changes in VOCs might have played a more important role in the observed increase of surface ozone at SDZ.

  6. Direct observation of ozone formation on SiO2 surfaces in O2 discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, D.; Guaitella, O.; Booth, J. P.; Rousseau, A.

    2013-01-01

    Ozone production is studied in a pulsed O2 discharge at pressures in the range 1.3-6.7 mbar. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of O3 and O are measured in the post-discharge using UV absorption spectroscopy and two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence. In a bare silica discharge tube ozone is formed mainly by three-body gas-phase recombination. When the tube surface is covered by a high specific surface silica catalyst heterogeneous formation becomes the main source of ozone. The efficiency of this surface process increases with O2 pressure and is favoured by the presence of OH groups and adsorbed H2O on the surface. At p = 6.7 mbar ozone production accounts for up to 25% of the atomic oxygen losses on the surface.

  7. Direct observation of ozone formation on SiO2 surfaces in O2 discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinov, D; Guaitella, O; Booth, J P; Rousseau, A

    2013-01-01

    Ozone production is studied in a pulsed O 2 discharge at pressures in the range 1.3-6.7 mbar. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of O 3 and O are measured in the post-discharge using UV absorption spectroscopy and two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence. In a bare silica discharge tube ozone is formed mainly by three-body gas-phase recombination. When the tube surface is covered by a high specific surface silica catalyst heterogeneous formation becomes the main source of ozone. The efficiency of this surface process increases with O 2 pressure and is favoured by the presence of OH groups and adsorbed H 2 O on the surface. At p = 6.7 mbar ozone production accounts for up to 25% of the atomic oxygen losses on the surface.

  8. Impact of increased ultraviolet-B radiation stress due to stratospheric ozone depletion on N2 fixation in traditional African commercial legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimphango, S.B.M.; Musil, C.F.; Dakora, F.D.

    2004-01-01

    Reports of diminished nodule formation and nitroge-nase activity in some Asian tropical legumes exposed to above-ambient levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B: 280-315nm) radiation have raised concerns as to the impact of stratospheric ozone depletion on generally poorly developed traditional African farming systems confronted by the high cost and limited availability of chemical fertilisers. These rely on N 2 -fixing legumes as the cheapest source of N for maintaining soil fertility and sustainable yields in the intrinsically infertile and heterogeneous African soils. In view of this, we examined the effects of supplemental UV-B radiation approximating 15% and 25% depletions in the total ozone column on N 2 fixation in eight traditional African commercial legume species representing crop, forest, medicinal, ornamental and pasture categories. In all categories examined, except medicinal, supplemental UV-B had no effect on root non-structural carbohydrates, antho-cyanins and flavonoids, known to signal Rhizobiaceae micro-symbionts and promote nodule formation, or on nodule mass, activity and quantities of N fixed in different plant organs and whole plants. In contrast, in the medicinal category Cyclopia maculata (Honeybush) a slow growing commercially important herbal beverage with naturally high flavonoid concentrations, displayed decreased nodule activity and quantities of N fixed in different plant organs and whole plants with increased UV-B. This study's findings conclude negligible impacts of ozone depletion on nitrogen fixation and soil fertility in most traditional African farming systems, these limited to occasional inhibition of nodule induction in some crops. (author)

  9. A theoretical study on the effect of piezoelectric charges on the surface potential and surface depletion region of ZnO nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purahmad, Mohsen; Stroscio, Michael A; Dutta, Mitra

    2013-01-01

    The electrostatic potential and depletion width in piezoelectric semiconductor nanowires are derived by considering a non-depleted region and a surface depleted region and solving the Poisson equation. By determining the piezoelectric-induced charge density, in terms of equivalent density of charges, the effect of piezoelectric charges on the surface depletion region and the distributed electric potential in nanowire have been investigated. The numerical results demonstrate that the ZnO NWs with a smaller radius have a larger surface depletion region which results in a stronger surface potential and depletion region perturbation by induced piezoelectric charges. (paper)

  10. Report of a large depletion in the ozone layer over southern Brazil and Uruguay by using multi-instrumental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Caroline; Dornelles Bittencourt, Gabriela; Valentin Bageston, José; Kirsch Pinheiro, Damaris; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Bencherif, Hassan; Paes Leme, Neusa; Vaz Peres, Lucas

    2018-03-01

    Ozone is one of the chemical compounds that form part of the atmosphere. It plays a key role in the stratosphere where the ozone layer is located and absorbs large amounts of ultraviolet radiation. However, during austral spring (August-November), there is a massive destruction of the ozone layer, which is known as the Antarctic ozone hole. This phenomenon decreases ozone concentration in that region, which may affect other regions in addition to the polar one. This anomaly may also reach mid-latitudes; hence, it is called the secondary effect of the Antarctic ozone hole. Therefore, this study aims to identify the passage of an ozone secondary effect (OSE) event in the region of the city of Santa Maria - RS (29.68° S, 53.80° W) by means of a multi-instrumental analysis using the satellites TIMED/SABER, AURA/MLS, and OMI-ERS. Measurements were made in São Martinho da Serra/RS - Brazil (29.53° S, 53.85° W) using a sounding balloon and a Brewer Spectrophotometer. In addition, the present study aims to describe and analyse the influence that this stratospheric ozone reduction has on temperatures presented by these instruments, including data collected through the radio occultation technique. The event was first identified by the AURA/MLS satellite on 19 October 2016 over Uruguay. This reduction in ozone concentration was found by comparing the climatology for the years 1996-1998 for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, which is close to Uruguay. This event was already observed in Santa Maria/RS-Brazil on 20 October 2016 as presented by the OMI-ERS satellite and the Brewer Spectrophotometer. Moreover, a significant decrease was reported by the TIMED/SABER satellite in Uruguay. On 21 October, the poor ozone air mass was still over the region of interest, according to the OMI-ERS satellite, data from the sounding balloon launched in Santa Maria/RS-Brazil, and measurements made by the AURA/MLS satellite. Furthermore, the influence of ozone on the stratosphere temperature

  11. Space-Based Diagnosis of Surface Ozone Sensitivity to Anthropogenic Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Randall V.; Fiore, Arlene M.; VanDonkelaar, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    We present a novel capability in satellite remote sensing with implications for air pollution control strategy. We show that the ratio of formaldehyde columns to tropospheric nitrogen dioxide columns is an indicator of the relative sensitivity of surface ozone to emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(x) = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The diagnosis from these space-based observations is highly consistent with current understanding of surface ozone chemistry based on in situ observations. The satellite-derived ratios indicate that surface ozone is more sensitive to emissions of NO(x) than of VOCs throughout most continental regions of the Northern Hemisphere during summer. Exceptions include Los Angeles and industrial areas of Germany. A seasonal transition occurs in the fall when surface ozone becomes less sensitive to NOx and more sensitive to VOCs.

  12. Ozone-Depleting Gases in the Atmosphere: Results From 28 Years of Measurements by the NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, D. F.; Elkins, J. W.; Montzka, S. A.; Butler, J. H.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Mondeel, D. J.; Moore, F. L.; Nance, J. D.; Romashkin, P. A.; Thompson, T. M.

    2005-12-01

    Back in 1978, NOAA/CMDL initiated the weekly filling of flasks at CMDL observatories in Alaska, Hawaii, American Samoa, and Antarctica for analyses of CFC-11, CFC-12 and N2O in the home laboratory. A decade later, each observatory was outfitted with an automated gas chromatograph to make routine, in situ measurements of these three source gases plus methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Both measurement programs are ongoing, having expanded over the years to include methyl halides and substitutes for regulated halocarbons, to presently account for 95% of the total burden of long-lived Cl and Br believed to enter the stratosphere. These long-term monitoring data have been assimilated into temporal records of the global tropospheric burdens of ozone-depleting chlorine and bromine which are critical input to models that predict future trends in stratospheric ozone. Other information pivotal to ozone projections, such as the atmospheric lifetimes of source gases, stratospheric entry values for total chlorine and total bromine, and identification of the stratospheric sink regions for long-lived source gases, has been gained from in situ measurements by NOAA/CMDL instruments aboard NASA high-altitude aircraft (ER-2 and WB-57) and balloons since 1991. Though CMDL's routine monitoring activities provide important historical records of halogenated source gases in the atmosphere, significant inaccuracies in ozone projections may propagate from the uncertain estimates of impending emissions of ozone-depleting gases. Scenarios of future halocarbon emissions require substantial assumptions about past and pending compliance with the Montreal Protocol, and the sizes and release rates of existing global reservoirs (banks) of halocarbons. Recent work by CMDL has focused on quantifying halocarbon bank emission rates in Russia, the USA, and Canada through geographically extensive measurements aboard trains and low-altitude aircraft. The USA and Canada results indicate that

  13. Chromium depletion on the surface of nickel based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dille, E.R.; McDonald, J.L.; Berry, P.

    1988-01-01

    Successful selection of corrosion resistant materials for flue gas desuflurization applications is tricky business at best. Most simulated, accelerated, concentrated corrosion tests try to rank materials to known corrosive condition. If you check the actual data, occasionally you find anomalies such as highly corrosion resistant materials performing below what was expected, while the rest of the group is performing normally. In the field the authors have observed similar results with few acceptable explanations. Recently the authors have found numerous cases of Ni/Cr/Mo alloys with a surface analysis below the ASTM specified range for the element chromium. These surface analysis have been done with a portable X-ray Fluorescent Instrument with the initial results confirmed by an independent laboratory

  14. Ozone time scale decomposition and trend assessment from surface observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boleti, Eirini; Hueglin, Christoph; Takahama, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    Emissions of ozone precursors have been regulated in Europe since around 1990 with control measures primarily targeting to industries and traffic. In order to understand how these measures have affected air quality, it is now important to investigate concentrations of tropospheric ozone in different types of environments, based on their NOx burden, and in different geographic regions. In this study, we analyze high quality data sets for Switzerland (NABEL network) and whole Europe (AirBase) for the last 25 years to calculate long-term trends of ozone concentrations. A sophisticated time scale decomposition method, called the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) (Huang,1998;Wu,2009), is used for decomposition of the different time scales of the variation of ozone, namely the long-term trend, seasonal and short-term variability. This allows subtraction of the seasonal pattern of ozone from the observations and estimation of long-term changes of ozone concentrations with lower uncertainty ranges compared to typical methodologies used. We observe that, despite the implementation of regulations, for most of the measurement sites ozone daily mean values have been increasing until around mid-2000s. Afterwards, we observe a decline or a leveling off in the concentrations; certainly a late effect of limitations in ozone precursor emissions. On the other hand, the peak ozone concentrations have been decreasing for almost all regions. The evolution in the trend exhibits some differences between the different types of measurement. In addition, ozone is known to be strongly affected by meteorology. In the applied approach, some of the meteorological effects are already captured by the seasonal signal and already removed in the de-seasonalized ozone time series. For adjustment of the influence of meteorology on the higher frequency ozone variation, a statistical approach based on Generalized Additive Models (GAM) (Hastie,1990;Wood,2006), which corrects for meteorological

  15. Surface Monitoring Data for PM2.5 and Ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — AIRNOW is an EPA program in collaboration with the States to gather and distribute hourly near-realtime data from several hundred continuous PM2.5 and ozone monitors.

  16. Climate Change Impacts on Projections of Excess Mortality at 2030 using Spatially-Varying Ozone-Temperature Risk Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ander; Reich, Brian J.; Nolte, Christopher G.; Spero, Tanya L.; Hubbell, Bryan; Rappold, Ana G.

    2017-01-01

    We project the change in ozone-related mortality burden attributable to changes in climate between a historical (1995–2005) and near-future (2025–2035) time period while incorporating a nonlinear and synergistic effect of ozone and temperature on mortality. We simulate air quality from climate projections varying only biogenic emissions and holding anthropogenic emissions constant, thus attributing changes in ozone only to changes in climate and independent of changes in air pollutant emissions. We estimate nonlinear, spatially-varying, ozone-temperature risk surfaces for 94 US urban areas using observed data. Using the risk surfaces and climate projections we estimate daily mortality attributable to ozone exceeding 40 ppb (moderate level) and 75 ppb (US ozone NAAQS) for each time period. The average increases in city-specific median April-October ozone and temperature between time periods are 1.02 ppb and 1.94°F; however, the results varied by region. Increases in ozone due to climate change result in an increase in ozone-mortality burden. Mortality attributed to ozone exceeding 40 ppb increases by 7.7% (1.6%, 14.2%). Mortality attributed to ozone exceeding 75 ppb increases by 14.2% (1.6%, 28.9%). The absolute increase in excess ozone mortality is larger for changes in moderate ozone levels, reflecting the larger number of days with moderate ozone levels. PMID:27005744

  17. The historic surface ozone record, 1896-1975, and its relation to modern measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbally, I. E.; Tarasick, D. W.; Stähelin, J.; Wallington, T. J.; Steinbacher, M.; Schultz, M.; Cooper, O. R.

    2017-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a greenhouse gas, a key component of atmospheric chemistry, and is detrimental to human health and plant productivity. The historic surface ozone record 1896-1975 has been constructed from measurements selected for (a) instrumentation whose ozone response can be traced to modern tropospheric ozone measurement standards, (b) samples taken when there is low probability of chemical interference and (c) sampling locations, heights and times when atmospheric mixing will minimise vertical gradients of ozone in the planetary boundary layer above and around the measurement location. Early measurements with the Schönbein filter paper technique cannot be related to modern methods with any degree of confidence. The potassium iodide-arsenite technique used at Montsouris for 1876-1910 is valid for measuring ozone; however, due to the presence of the interfering gases sulfur dioxide, ammonia and nitrogen oxides, the measured ozone concentrations are not representative of the regional atmosphere. The use of these data sets for trend analyses is not recommended. In total, 58 acceptable sets of measurements are currently identified, commencing in Europe in 1896, Greenland in 1932 and globally by the late 1950's. Between 1896 and 1944 there were 21 studies (median duration 5 days) with a median mole fraction of 23 nmol mol-1 (range of study averages 15-62 nmol mol-1). Between 1950 and 1975 there were 37 studies (median duration approx. 21 months) with a median mole fraction of 22 nmol mol-1 (range of study averages 13-49 nmol mol-1), all measured under conditions likely to give ozone mole fractions similar to those in the planetary boundary layer. These time series are matched with modern measurements from the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR) Ozone Database and used to examine changes between the historic and modern observations. These historic ozone levels are higher than previously accepted for surface ozone in the late 19th early 20th Century

  18. Comparison between assimilated and non-assimilated experiments of the MACCii global reanalysis near surface ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikerdekis, Athanasios; Katragou, Eleni; Zanis, Prodromos; Melas, Dimitrios; Eskes, Henk; Flemming, Johannes; Huijnen, Vincent; Inness, Antje; Kapsomenakis, Ioannis; Schultz, Martin; Stein, Olaf; Zerefos, Christos

    2014-05-01

    In this work we evaluate near surface ozone concentrations of the MACCii global reanalysis using measurements from the EMEP and AIRBASE database. The eight-year long reanalysis of atmospheric composition data covering the period 2003-2010 was constructed as part of the FP7-funded Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate project by assimilating satellite data into a global model and data assimilation system (Inness et al., 2013). The study mainly focuses in the differences between the assimilated and the non-assimilated experiments and aims to identify and quantify any improvements achieved by adding data assimilation to the system. Results are analyzed in eight European sub-regions and region-specific Taylor plots illustrate the evaluation and the overall predictive skill of each experiment. The diurnal and annual cycles of near surface ozone are evaluated for both experiments. Furthermore ozone exposure indices for crop growth (AOT40), human health (SOMO35) and the number of days that 8-hour ozone averages exceeded 60ppb and 90ppb have been calculated for each station based on both observed and simulated data. Results indicate mostly improvement of the assimilated experiment with respect to the high near surface ozone concentrations, the diurnal cycle and range and the bias in comparison to the non-assimilated experiment. The limitations of the comparison between assimilated and non-assimilated experiments for near surface ozone are also discussed.

  19. Surface ozone at Nam Co in the inland Tibetan Plateau: variation, synthesis comparison and regional representativeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ozone is an important pollutant and greenhouse gas, and tropospheric ozone variations are generally associated with both natural and anthropogenic processes. As one of the most pristine and inaccessible regions in the world, the Tibetan Plateau has been considered as an ideal region for studying processes of the background atmosphere. Due to the vast area of the Tibetan Plateau, sites in the southern, northern and central regions exhibit different patterns of variation in surface ozone. Here, we present continuous measurements of surface ozone mixing ratios at Nam Co Station over a period of  ∼ 5 years (January 2011 to October 2015, which is a background site in the inland Tibetan Plateau. An average surface ozone mixing ratio of 47.6 ± 11.6 ppb (mean ± standard deviation was recorded, and a large annual cycle was observed with maximum ozone mixing ratios in the spring and minimum ratios during the winter. The diurnal cycle is characterized by a minimum in the early morning and a maximum in the late afternoon. Nam Co Station represents a background region where surface ozone receives negligible local anthropogenic emissions inputs, and the anthropogenic contribution from South Asia in spring and China in summer may affect Nam Co Station occasionally. Surface ozone at Nam Co Station is mainly dominated by natural processes involving photochemical reactions, vertical mixing and downward transport of stratospheric air mass. Model results indicate that the study site is affected differently by the surrounding areas in different seasons: air masses from the southern Tibetan Plateau contribute to the high ozone levels in the spring, and enhanced ozone levels in the summer are associated with air masses from the northern Tibetan Plateau. By comparing measurements at Nam Co Station with those from other sites on the Tibetan Plateau, we aim to expand the understanding of ozone cycles and transport processes over the Tibetan Plateau

  20. Effect of UV/ozone treatment on the nanoscale surface properties of gold implanted polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisić, Danilo; Nenadović, Miloš [INS Vinca, Laboratory of Atomic Physics, University of Belgrade, Mike Alasa 12-14, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Štrbac, Svetlana [ICTM Institute of Electrochemistry, University of Belgrade, Njegoseva 12, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Adnadjević, Borivoj [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Rakočević, Zlatko, E-mail: zlatkora@vinca.rs [INS Vinca, Laboratory of Atomic Physics, University of Belgrade, Mike Alasa 12-14, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-07-01

    The effect of ultraviolet (UV) ozone treatment on the surface properties of gold implanted high density polyethylene (HDPE) was investigated at a nanoscale using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). HDPE samples were modified by the implantation of gold ions at a dose of 5 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}, using energies of 50, 100, 150, and 200 keV, and subsequently treated with UV/ozone. AFM surface topography images revealed that after UV/ozone treatment, the surface roughness of all Au/HDPE samples increased, while Power Spectral Density function increased only for samples implanted using higher energies, with a maximum for 150 keV. The chemical surface composition was homogenous in all cases, which was evidenced by the appearance of single peaks in the histograms obtained from the phase AFM images. For UV/ozone treated samples, the shift of the peaks positions in the histograms to the higher values of the phase lag with respect to untreated ones indicated the decrease of surface hardness. Besides, a significant change of fractal dimension of surface grains is observed after UV/ozone treatment.

  1. Surface ozone variation at Bhubaneswar and intra-corelationship ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    availability of ozone precursors control its forma- tion and decay ... izer and food processing industries along with ther- mal power ... radic growth of different industries such as cement, ...... Miller J, Preston E and Weinstein L 1982 Assessment of ... measurements at urban coastal site Chennai, in India;. J. Hazard. Mater.

  2. Why do models overestimate surface ozone in the Southeast United States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Travis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ozone pollution in the Southeast US involves complex chemistry driven by emissions of anthropogenic nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx  ≡  NO + NO2 and biogenic isoprene. Model estimates of surface ozone concentrations tend to be biased high in the region and this is of concern for designing effective emission control strategies to meet air quality standards. We use detailed chemical observations from the SEAC4RS aircraft campaign in August and September 2013, interpreted with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at 0.25°  ×  0.3125° horizontal resolution, to better understand the factors controlling surface ozone in the Southeast US. We find that the National Emission Inventory (NEI for NOx from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA is too high. This finding is based on SEAC4RS observations of NOx and its oxidation products, surface network observations of nitrate wet deposition fluxes, and OMI satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 columns. Our results indicate that NEI NOx emissions from mobile and industrial sources must be reduced by 30–60 %, dependent on the assumption of the contribution by soil NOx emissions. Upper-tropospheric NO2 from lightning makes a large contribution to satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 that must be accounted for when using these data to estimate surface NOx emissions. We find that only half of isoprene oxidation proceeds by the high-NOx pathway to produce ozone; this fraction is only moderately sensitive to changes in NOx emissions because isoprene and NOx emissions are spatially segregated. GEOS-Chem with reduced NOx emissions provides an unbiased simulation of ozone observations from the aircraft and reproduces the observed ozone production efficiency in the boundary layer as derived from a regression of ozone and NOx oxidation products. However, the model is still biased high by 6 ± 14 ppb relative to observed surface ozone in the Southeast US. Ozonesondes

  3. Why do Models Overestimate Surface Ozone in the Southeastern United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Katherine R.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Fisher, Jenny A.; Kim, Patrick S.; Marais, Eloise A.; Zhu, Lei; Yu, Karen; Miller, Christopher C.; Yantosca, Robert M.; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; Thompson, Anne M.; Wennberg, Paul O.; Crounse, John D.; St Clair, Jason M.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Laughner, Joshua L.; Dibb, Jack E.; Hall, Samuel R.; Ullmann, Kirk; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Pollack, Illana B.; Peischl, Jeff; Neuman, Jonathan A.; Zhou, Xianliang

    2018-01-01

    Ozone pollution in the Southeast US involves complex chemistry driven by emissions of anthropogenic nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx ≡ NO + NO2) and biogenic isoprene. Model estimates of surface ozone concentrations tend to be biased high in the region and this is of concern for designing effective emission control strategies to meet air quality standards. We use detailed chemical observations from the SEAC4RS aircraft campaign in August and September 2013, interpreted with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at 0.25°×0.3125° horizontal resolution, to better understand the factors controlling surface ozone in the Southeast US. We find that the National Emission Inventory (NEI) for NOx from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is too high. This finding is based on SEAC4RS observations of NOx and its oxidation products, surface network observations of nitrate wet deposition fluxes, and OMI satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 columns. Our results indicate that NEI NOx emissions from mobile and industrial sources must be reduced by 30–60%, dependent on the assumption of the contribution by soil NOx emissions. Upper tropospheric NO2 from lightning makes a large contribution to satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 that must be accounted for when using these data to estimate surface NOx emissions. We find that only half of isoprene oxidation proceeds by the high-NOx pathway to produce ozone; this fraction is only moderately sensitive to changes in NOx emissions because isoprene and NOx emissions are spatially segregated. GEOS-Chem with reduced NOx emissions provides an unbiased simulation of ozone observations from the aircraft, and reproduces the observed ozone production efficiency in the boundary layer as derived from a regression of ozone and NOx oxidation products. However, the model is still biased high by 8±13 ppb relative to observed surface ozone in the Southeast US. Ozonesondes launched during midday hours show a 7 ppb ozone decrease

  4. Why do Models Overestimate Surface Ozone in the Southeastern United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Katherine R.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Fisher, Jenny A.; Kim, Patrick S.; Marais, Eloise A.; Zhu, Lei; Yu, Karen; Miller, Christopher C.; Yantosca, Robert M.; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Ozone pollution in the Southeast US involves complex chemistry driven by emissions of anthropogenic nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx = NO + NO2) and biogenic isoprene. Model estimates of surface ozone concentrations tend to be biased high in the region and this is of concern for designing effective emission control strategies to meet air quality standards. We use detailed chemical observations from the SEAC4RS aircraft campaign in August and September 2013, interpreted with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at 0.25 deg. x 0.3125 deg. horizontal resolution, to better understand the factors controlling surface ozone in the Southeast US. We find that the National Emission Inventory (NEI) for NOx from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is too high. This finding is based on SEAC4RS observations of NOx and its oxidation products, surface network observations of nitrate wet deposition fluxes, and OMI satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 columns. Our results indicate that NEI NOx emissions from mobile and industrial sources must be reduced by 30-60%, dependent on the assumption of the contribution by soil NOx emissions. Upper tropospheric NO2 from lightning makes a large contribution to satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 that must be accounted for when using these data to estimate surface NOx emissions. We find that only half of isoprene oxidation proceeds by the high-NOx pathway to produce ozone; this fraction is only moderately sensitive to changes in NOx emissions because isoprene and NOx emissions are spatially segregated. GEOS-Chem with reduced NOx emissions provides an unbiased simulation of ozone observations from the aircraft, and reproduces the observed ozone production efficiency in the boundary layer as derived from a 15 regression of ozone and NOx oxidation products. However, the model is still biased high by 8 +/- 13 ppb relative to observed surface ozone in the Southeast US. Ozonesondes launched during midday hours show a 7 ppb ozone

  5. Preliminary SEM Observations on the Surface of Elastomeric Impression Materials after Immersion or Ozone Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prombonas, Anthony; Yannikakis, Stavros; Karampotsos, Thanasis; Katsarou, Martha-Spyridoula; Drakoulis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Surface integrity of dental elastomeric impression materials that are subjected to disinfection is of major importance for the quality of the final prosthetic restorations. Aim The aim of this qualitative Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) study was to reveal the effects of immersion or ozone disinfection on the surface of four dental elastomeric impression materials. Materials and Methods Four dental elastomeric impression material brands were used (two vinyl polysiloxane silicones, one polyether, and one vinyl polyether silicone). Total of 32 specimens were fabricated, eight from each impression material. Specimens were immersion (0.525% sodium hypochlorite solution or 0.3% benzalkonium chloride solution) or ozone disinfected or served as controls and examined with SEM. Results Surface degradation was observed on several speci-mens disinfected with 0.525% sodium hypochlorite solution. Similar wavy-wrinkling surface structures were observed in almost all specimens, when treated either with 0.3% benzalkonium chloride solution or ozone. Conclusion The SEM images obtained from this study revealed that both immersion disinfectants and ozone show similar impression material surface alterations. Ozone seems to be non-inferior as compared to immersion disinfectants, but superior as to environmental protection. PMID:28208993

  6. Meteorologically-adjusted trend analysis of surface observed ozone at three monitoring sites in Delhi, India: 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, J.; Farooqui, Z.; Guttikunda, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that meteorological parameters have significant impact on surface ozone concentrations. Therefore it is important to remove the effects of meteorology on ozone concentrations to correctly estimate long-term trends in ozone levels due to the alterations in precursor emissions. This is important for the development of effectual control strategies. In this study surface observed ozone trends in New Delhi are analyzed using Komogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter, US EPA ozone adjustment due to weather approach and the classification and regression tree method. The statistical models are applied to the ozone data at three observational sites in New Delhi metropolitan areas, 1) Income Tax Office (ITO) 2) Sirifort and 3) Delhi College of Engineering (DCE). The ITO site is located adjacent to a traffic crossing, Sirifort is an urban site and the DCE site is located in a residential area. The ITO site is also influenced by local industrial emissions. DCE has higher ozone levels than the other two sites. It was found that ITO has lowest ozone concentrations amongst the three sites due to ozone titrating due to industrial and on-road mobile NOx emissions. The statistical methods employed can assess ozone trends at these sites with a high degree of confidence and the results can be used to gauge the effectiveness of control strategies on surface ozone levels in New Delhi.

  7. Description of the surface water filtration and ozone treatment system at the Northeast Fishery Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    A water filtration and ozone disinfection system was installed at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Northeast Fishery Center in Lamar, Pennsylvania to treat a surface water supply that is used to culture sensitive and endangered fish. The treatment system first passes the surface water through dr...

  8. Surface recombination of oxygen atoms in O2 plasma at increased pressure: II. Vibrational temperature and surface production of ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopaev, D. V.; Malykhin, E. M.; Zyryanov, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Ozone production in an oxygen glow discharge in a quartz tube was studied in the pressure range of 10-50 Torr. The O3 density distribution along the tube diameter was measured by UV absorption spectroscopy, and ozone vibrational temperature TV was found comparing the calculated ab initio absorption spectra with the experimental ones. It has been shown that the O3 production mainly occurs on a tube surface whereas ozone is lost in the tube centre where in contrast the electron and oxygen atom densities are maximal. Two models were used to analyse the obtained results. The first one is a kinetic 1D model for the processes occurring near the tube walls with the participation of the main particles: O(3P), O2, O2(1Δg) and O3 molecules in different vibrational states. The agreement of O3 and O(3P) density profiles and TV calculated in the model with observed ones was reached by varying the single model parameter—ozone production probability (\\gamma_{O_{3}}) on the quartz tube surface on the assumption that O3 production occurs mainly in the surface recombination of physisorbed O(3P) and O2. The phenomenological model of the surface processes with the participation of oxygen atoms and molecules including singlet oxygen molecules was also considered to analyse \\gamma_{O_{3}} data obtained in the kinetic model. A good agreement between the experimental data and the data of both models—the kinetic 1D model and the phenomenological surface model—was obtained in the full range of the studied conditions that allowed consideration of the ozone surface production mechanism in more detail. The important role of singlet oxygen in ozone surface production was shown. The O3 surface production rate directly depends on the density of physisorbed oxygen atoms and molecules and can be high with increasing pressure and energy inputted into plasma while simultaneously keeping the surface temperature low enough. Using the special discharge cell design, such an approach opens up the

  9. Surface recombination of oxygen atoms in O2 plasma at increased pressure: II. Vibrational temperature and surface production of ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopaev, D V; Malykhin, E M; Zyryanov, S M

    2011-01-01

    Ozone production in an oxygen glow discharge in a quartz tube was studied in the pressure range of 10-50 Torr. The O 3 density distribution along the tube diameter was measured by UV absorption spectroscopy, and ozone vibrational temperature T V was found comparing the calculated ab initio absorption spectra with the experimental ones. It has been shown that the O 3 production mainly occurs on a tube surface whereas ozone is lost in the tube centre where in contrast the electron and oxygen atom densities are maximal. Two models were used to analyse the obtained results. The first one is a kinetic 1D model for the processes occurring near the tube walls with the participation of the main particles: O( 3 P), O 2 , O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) and O 3 molecules in different vibrational states. The agreement of O 3 and O( 3 P) density profiles and T V calculated in the model with observed ones was reached by varying the single model parameter-ozone production probability (γ O 3 ) on the quartz tube surface on the assumption that O 3 production occurs mainly in the surface recombination of physisorbed O( 3 P) and O 2 . The phenomenological model of the surface processes with the participation of oxygen atoms and molecules including singlet oxygen molecules was also considered to analyse γ O 3 data obtained in the kinetic model. A good agreement between the experimental data and the data of both models-the kinetic 1D model and the phenomenological surface model-was obtained in the full range of the studied conditions that allowed consideration of the ozone surface production mechanism in more detail. The important role of singlet oxygen in ozone surface production was shown. The O 3 surface production rate directly depends on the density of physisorbed oxygen atoms and molecules and can be high with increasing pressure and energy inputted into plasma while simultaneously keeping the surface temperature low enough. Using the special discharge cell design, such an approach opens up

  10. Stratospheric ozone depletion: high arctic tundra plant species from Svalbard are not affected by enhanced UV-B after 7 years of UV-B supplementation in the field.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozema, J.; Boelen, P.; Blokker, P.; Callaghan, T.V.; Solheim, B.; Zielke, M.

    2006-01-01

    The response of tundra plants to enhanced UV-B radiation simulating 15 and 30% ozone depletion was studied at two high arctic sites (Isdammen and Adventdalen, 78° N, Svalbard).The set-up of the UV-B supplementation systems is described, consisting of large and small UV lamp arrays, installed in 1996

  11. Water Reclamation Using a Ceramic Nanofiltration Membrane and Surface Flushing with Ozonated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Anh T.; Okuda, Tetsuji; Takeuchi, Haruka; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Nghiem, Long D.

    2018-01-01

    A new membrane fouling control technique using ozonated water flushing was evaluated for direct nanofiltration (NF) of secondary wastewater effluent using a ceramic NF membrane. Experiments were conducted at a permeate flux of 44 L/m2h to evaluate the ozonated water flushing technique for fouling mitigation. Surface flushing with clean water did not effectively remove foulants from the NF membrane. In contrast, surface flushing with ozonated water (4 mg/L dissolved ozone) could effectively remove most foulants to restore the membrane permeability. This surface flushing technique using ozonated water was able to limit the progression of fouling to 35% in transmembrane pressure increase over five filtration cycles. Results from this study also heighten the need for further development of ceramic NF membrane to ensure adequate removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) for water recycling applications. The ceramic NF membrane used in this study showed approximately 40% TOC rejection, and the rejection of PPCPs was generally low and highly variable. It is expected that the fouling mitigation technique developed here is even more important for ceramic NF membranes with smaller pore size and thus better PPCP rejection. PMID:29671797

  12. Water Reclamation Using a Ceramic Nanofiltration Membrane and Surface Flushing with Ozonated Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Fujioka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A new membrane fouling control technique using ozonated water flushing was evaluated for direct nanofiltration (NF of secondary wastewater effluent using a ceramic NF membrane. Experiments were conducted at a permeate flux of 44 L/m2h to evaluate the ozonated water flushing technique for fouling mitigation. Surface flushing with clean water did not effectively remove foulants from the NF membrane. In contrast, surface flushing with ozonated water (4 mg/L dissolved ozone could effectively remove most foulants to restore the membrane permeability. This surface flushing technique using ozonated water was able to limit the progression of fouling to 35% in transmembrane pressure increase over five filtration cycles. Results from this study also heighten the need for further development of ceramic NF membrane to ensure adequate removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs for water recycling applications. The ceramic NF membrane used in this study showed approximately 40% TOC rejection, and the rejection of PPCPs was generally low and highly variable. It is expected that the fouling mitigation technique developed here is even more important for ceramic NF membranes with smaller pore size and thus better PPCP rejection.

  13. Characterization of surface dielectric barrier discharge influenced by intermediate frequency for ozone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Ayman A.; Ishijima, Tatsuo; Seto, Takafumi; Osawa, Naoki; Wedaa, Hassan; Otani, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the intermediate frequency (1-10 kHz) of the sinusoidal driving voltage on the characteristics of a developed surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD)-based reactor having spikes on its discharge electrode. Moreover, its influence on the production of ozone and nitrogen oxide byproducts is evaluated. The results show that SDBD is operated in the filamentary mode at all the frequencies. Nevertheless, the pulses of the discharge current at high frequencies are much denser and have higher amplitudes than those at low frequencies. The analysis of the power consumed in the reactor shows that a small portion of the input power is dissipated in the dielectric material of SDBD source, whereas the major part of the power is consumed in the plasma discharge. The results of the ozone production show that higher frequencies have a slightly adverse effect on the ozone production at relatively high energy density values, where the ozone concentration is slightly decreased when the frequency is increased at the same energy density. The temperature of the discharge channels and gas is not a crucial factor for the decomposition of ozone in this reactor, while the results of the measurements of nitrogen oxides characteristics indicate that the formation of NO and NO2 has a significant adverse effect on the production efficiency of ozone due to their oxidation to another nitrogen oxides and their catalytic effect.

  14. Characterization of surface dielectric barrier discharge influenced by intermediate frequency for ozone production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaziz, Ayman A; Ishijima, Tatsuo; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio; Osawa, Naoki; Wedaa, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the intermediate frequency (1–10 kHz) of the sinusoidal driving voltage on the characteristics of a developed surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD)-based reactor having spikes on its discharge electrode. Moreover, its influence on the production of ozone and nitrogen oxide byproducts is evaluated. The results show that SDBD is operated in the filamentary mode at all the frequencies. Nevertheless, the pulses of the discharge current at high frequencies are much denser and have higher amplitudes than those at low frequencies. The analysis of the power consumed in the reactor shows that a small portion of the input power is dissipated in the dielectric material of SDBD source, whereas the major part of the power is consumed in the plasma discharge. The results of the ozone production show that higher frequencies have a slightly adverse effect on the ozone production at relatively high energy density values, where the ozone concentration is slightly decreased when the frequency is increased at the same energy density. The temperature of the discharge channels and gas is not a crucial factor for the decomposition of ozone in this reactor, while the results of the measurements of nitrogen oxides characteristics indicate that the formation of NO and NO 2 has a significant adverse effect on the production efficiency of ozone due to their oxidation to another nitrogen oxides and their catalytic effect. (paper)

  15. Experimental study of surface dielectric barrier discharge in air and its ozone production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekárek, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    For surface dielectric barrier discharge in air we studied the effects of frequency of the driving voltage on dissipated power, asymmetry of amplitudes of the discharge voltage, discharge UV emission, ozone production, ozone production of the discharge with TiO 2 and of the discharge in magnetic field. We found that for a particular voltage the dissipated power is higher for the frequency of the driving voltage of 26.3 kHz than for the frequency of 10.9 kHz; peak values of the positive half-periods of the discharge voltage are higher than peak values of the negative half-periods; intensity of the discharge UV emissions for wavelengths of 320-420 nm is for both frequencies a linear function of power; maximum ozone concentration for the frequency of the driving voltage of 26.3 kHz is obtained with smaller power than for the frequency of 10.9 kHz; placement of TiO 2 particles into the discharge chamber increases for both frequencies of the driving voltage maximum ozone concentration produced by the discharge and for the frequency of the driving voltage of 26.3 kHz increases ozone production yield. Finally, there is no observable effect of magnetic field on concentration of ozone produced by the discharge as well as on production yield. (paper)

  16. How to most effectively expand the global surface ozone observing network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Sofen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface ozone observations with modern instrumentation have been made around the world for more than 40 years. Some of these observations have been made as one-off activities with short-term, specific science objectives and some have been made as part of wider networks which have provided a foundational infrastructure of data collection, calibration, quality control, and dissemination. These observations provide a fundamental underpinning to our understanding of tropospheric chemistry, air quality policy, atmosphere–biosphere interactions, etc. brought together eight of these networks to provide a single data set of surface ozone observations. We investigate how representative this combined data set is of global surface ozone using the output from a global atmospheric chemistry model. We estimate that on an area basis, 25 % of the globe is observed (34 % land, 21 % ocean. Whereas Europe and North America have almost complete coverage, other continents, Africa, South America, Australia, and Asia (12–17 % show significant gaps. Antarctica is surprisingly well observed (78 %. Little monitoring occurs over the oceans, with the tropical and southern oceans particularly poorly represented. The surface ozone over key biomes such as tropical forests and savanna is almost completely unmonitored. A chemical cluster analysis suggests that a significant number of observations are made of polluted air masses, but cleaner air masses whether over the land or ocean (especially again in the tropics are significantly under-observed. The current network is unlikely to see the impact of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO but may be capable of detecting other planetary-scale signals. Model assessment and validation activities are hampered by a lack of observations in regions where the models differ substantially, as is the ability to monitor likely changes in surface ozone over the next century. Using our methodology we are able to suggest new

  17. How to most effectively expand the global surface ozone observing network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofen, E. D.; Bowdalo, D.; Evans, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Surface ozone observations with modern instrumentation have been made around the world for more than 40 years. Some of these observations have been made as one-off activities with short-term, specific science objectives and some have been made as part of wider networks which have provided a foundational infrastructure of data collection, calibration, quality control, and dissemination. These observations provide a fundamental underpinning to our understanding of tropospheric chemistry, air quality policy, atmosphere-biosphere interactions, etc. brought together eight of these networks to provide a single data set of surface ozone observations. We investigate how representative this combined data set is of global surface ozone using the output from a global atmospheric chemistry model. We estimate that on an area basis, 25 % of the globe is observed (34 % land, 21 % ocean). Whereas Europe and North America have almost complete coverage, other continents, Africa, South America, Australia, and Asia (12-17 %) show significant gaps. Antarctica is surprisingly well observed (78 %). Little monitoring occurs over the oceans, with the tropical and southern oceans particularly poorly represented. The surface ozone over key biomes such as tropical forests and savanna is almost completely unmonitored. A chemical cluster analysis suggests that a significant number of observations are made of polluted air masses, but cleaner air masses whether over the land or ocean (especially again in the tropics) are significantly under-observed. The current network is unlikely to see the impact of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) but may be capable of detecting other planetary-scale signals. Model assessment and validation activities are hampered by a lack of observations in regions where the models differ substantially, as is the ability to monitor likely changes in surface ozone over the next century. Using our methodology we are able to suggest new sites which would help to close

  18. Lidar Measurements of Tropospheric Ozone in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seabrook Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on differential absorption lidar (DIAL measurements of tropospheric ozone in the Canadian Arctic during springtime. Measurements at Eureka Weather Station revealed that mountains have a significant effect on the vertical structure of ozone above Ellesmere Island. Ozone depletion events were observed when air that had spent significant time near to the frozen surface of the Arctic Ocean reached Eureka. This air arrived at Eureka by flowing over the surrounding mountains. Surface level ozone depletions were not observed during periods when the flow of air from over the sea ice was blocked by mountains. In the case of blocking there was an enhancement in the amount of ozone near the surface as air from the mid troposphere descended in the lee of the mountains. Three case studies will be shown in the presentation, while one is described in this paper.

  19. An Evaluation of C1-C3 Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) Metrics: Lifetimes, Ozone Depletion Potentials, Radiative Efficiencies, Global Warming and Global Temperature Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, J. B.; Papanastasiou, D. K.; Marshall, P.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) have been used as chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) substitutes in a number of applications, e.g. refrigerator and air-conditioning systems. Although HCFCs have lower ozone-depletion potentials (ODPs) compared to CFCs, they are potent greenhouse gases. The twenty-eighth meeting of the parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Kigali, 2016) included a list of 274 HCFCs to be controlled under the Montreal Protocol. However, from this list, only 15 of the HCFCs have values for their atmospheric lifetime, ODP, global warming potential (GWP), and global temperature potential (GTP) that are based on fundamental experimental studies, while 48 are registered compounds. In this work, we present a comprehensive evaluation of the atmospheric lifetimes, ODPs, radiative efficiencies (REs), GWPs, and GTPs for all 274 HCFCs to be included in the Montreal Protocol. Atmospheric lifetimes were estimated based on HCFC reactivity with OH radicals and O(1D), as well as their removal by UV photolysis using structure activity relationships and reactivity trends. ODP values are based on the semi-empirical approach described in the WMO/UNEP ozone assessment. Radiative efficiencies were estimated, based on infrared spectra calculated using theoretical electronic structure methods (Gaussian 09). GWPs and GTPs were calculated relative to CO2 using our estimated atmospheric lifetimes and REs. The details of the methodology will be discussed as well as the associated uncertainties. This study has provided a consistent set of atmospheric metrics for a wide range of HCFCs that support future policy decisions. More accurate metrics for a specific HCFC, if desired, would require fundamental laboratory studies to better define the OH reactivity and infrared absorption spectrum of the compound of interest. Overall, HCFCs within the same family (isomers) show a large ODP, GWP, GTP dependence on the molecular geometry of the isomers. The

  20. Climate change impacts on projections of excess mortality at 2030 using spatially varying ozone-temperature risk surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ander; Reich, Brian J; Nolte, Christopher G; Spero, Tanya L; Hubbell, Bryan; Rappold, Ana G

    2017-01-01

    We project the change in ozone-related mortality burden attributable to changes in climate between a historical (1995-2005) and near-future (2025-2035) time period while incorporating a non-linear and synergistic effect of ozone and temperature on mortality. We simulate air quality from climate projections varying only biogenic emissions and holding anthropogenic emissions constant, thus attributing changes in ozone only to changes in climate and independent of changes in air pollutant emissions. We estimate non-linear, spatially varying, ozone-temperature risk surfaces for 94 US urban areas using observed data. Using the risk surfaces and climate projections we estimate daily mortality attributable to ozone exceeding 40 p.p.b. (moderate level) and 75 p.p.b. (US ozone NAAQS) for each time period. The average increases in city-specific median April-October ozone and temperature between time periods are 1.02 p.p.b. and 1.94 °F; however, the results varied by region. Increases in ozone because of climate change result in an increase in ozone mortality burden. Mortality attributed to ozone exceeding 40 p.p.b. increases by 7.7% (1.6-14.2%). Mortality attributed to ozone exceeding 75 p.p.b. increases by 14.2% (1.6 28.9%). The absolute increase in excess ozone mortality is larger for changes in moderate ozone levels, reflecting the larger number of days with moderate ozone levels.

  1. Chemical Controls of Ozone Dry Deposition to the Sea Surface Microlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, L.; Chance, R.; Tinel, L.; Saint, A.; Sherwen, T.; Loades, D.; Evans, M. J.; Boxhall, P.; Hamilton, J.; Stolle, C.; Wurl, O.; Ribas-Ribas, M.; Pereira, R.

    2017-12-01

    Oceanic dry deposition of atmospheric ozone (O3) is both the largest and most uncertain O3 depositional sink, and is widely acknowledged to be controlled largely by chemical reactions in the sea surface microlayer (SML) involving iodide (I-) and dissolved organic material (DOM). These reactions not only determine how quickly O3 can be removed from the atmosphere, but also result in emissions of trace gases including volatile organic compounds and may constitute a source of secondary organic aerosols to the marine atmosphere. Iodide concentrations at the sea surface vary by approximately an order of magnitude spatially, leading to more than fivefold variation in ozone deposition velocities (and volatile iodine fluxes). Sea-surface temperature is a reasonable predictor of [I-], however two recent parameterisations for surface I- differ by a factor of two at low latitudes. The nature and reactivity of marine DOM to O3 is almost completely unknown, although studies have suggested approximately equivalent chemical control of I- and DOM on ozone deposition. Here we present substantial new measurements of oceanic I- in both bulk seawater and the overlying SML, and show improved estimates of the global sea surface iodide distribution. We also present analyses of water-soluble DOM isolated from the SML and bulk seawater, and corresponding laboratory studies of ozone uptake to bulk and SML seawater, with the aim of characterizing the reactivity of O3 towards marine DOM.

  2. Ozone and meteorological boundary-layer conditions at Summit, Greenland, during 3-21 June 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmig, D.; Boulter, J.; David, D.; Birks, J.W.; Cullen, N.J.; Steffen, K. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences; Johnson, B.J.; Oltmans, S.J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory

    2002-06-01

    The temporal and spatial distributions of boundary-layer ozone were studied during June 2000 at Summit, Greenland, using surface-level measurements and vertical profiling from a tethered balloon platform. Three weeks of continuous ozone surface data, 133 meteorological vertical profile data and 82 ozone vertical profile data sets were collected from the surface to a maximum altitude of 1400 m above ground. The lower atmosphere at Summit was characterized by the prevalence of strong stable conditions with strong surface temperature inversions. These inversions reversed to neutral to slightly unstable conditions between {approx} 9.00 and 18.00 h local time with the formation of shallow mixing heights of {approx} 70-250 m above the surface. The surface ozone mixing ratio ranged from 39 to 68 ppbv and occasionally had rapid changes of up to 20 ppb in 12 h. The diurnal mean ozone mixing ratio showed diurnal trends indicating meteorological and photochemical controls of surface ozone. Vertical profiles were within the range of 37-76 ppb and showed strong stratification in the lower troposphere. A high correlation of high ozone/low water vapor air masses indicated the transport of high tropospheric/low stratospheric air into the lower boundary layer. An {approx} 0.1-3 ppb decline of the ozone mixing ratio towards the surface was frequently observed within the neutrally stable mixed layer during midday hours. These data suggest that the boundary-layer ozone mixing ratio and ozone depletion and deposition to the snowpack are influenced by the boundary-layer ozone mixing ratio and ozone depletion and deposition to the snowpack are influenced by photochemical processes and/or transport phenomena that follow diurnal dependencies. With 37 ppb of ozone being the lowest mixing ratio measured in all data no evidence was seen for the occurrence of ozone depletion episodes similar to those that have been reported within the boundary layer at coastal Arctic sites during springtime

  3. Greenhouse windows are closing;. and the ozone layer is still being depleted. Ozone and climate experts have worked in vain. Die Treibhaus-Fenster schliessen sich. ;. und die Ozonschicht versproedet weiter / Ozon- und Klimaforscher haben vergeblich 'Bringschuld' geleistet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frese, W

    1994-02-14

    Forecast dont change a thing: This is the resumee that Prof. Paul Crutzen, Director of the Mainz Max-Planck-Institut of Chemistry and Prof. Hartmut Grassl, Director of the Hamburg Max-Planck-Institut of Meteorology draw from their many year of public information work for the cause of the ozone layer and the climate. The earth's atmosphere is in greater danger today than ever before: The ground layers are gradually warming up beneath an ozone layer that is steadily getting thinner. The fate of the ozone layer is meanwhile beyond our influence. The climate could still grant us a reprieve if we succeed in containing the temperature rise. Should we fail to make us of this time, the worst of scientists' predictions will come fine. (orig.)

  4. Increasing surface ozone concentrations in the background atmosphere of Southern China, 1994–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone is of great importance with regard to air quality, atmospheric chemistry, and climate change. In this paper we report the first continuous record of surface ozone in the background atmosphere of South China. The data were obtained from 1994 to 2007 at a coastal site in Hong Kong, which is strongly influenced by the outflow of Asian continental air during the winter and the inflow of maritime air from the subtropics in the summer. Three methods are used to derive the rate of change in ozone. A linear fit to the 14-year record shows that the ozone concentration increased by 0.58 ppbv/yr, whereas comparing means in years 1994–2000 and 2001–2007 gives an increase of 0.87 ppbv/yr for a 7-year period. The ozone changes in air masses from various source regions are also examined. Using local wind and carbon monoxide (CO data to filter out local influence, we find that ozone increased by 0.94 ppbv/yr from 1994–2000 to 2001–2007 in air masses from Eastern China, with similar changes in the other two continent-influenced air-mass groups, but no statistically significant change in the marine air. An examination of the nitrogen dioxide (NO2 column obtained from GOME and SCIAMACHY reveals an increase in atmospheric NO2 in China's three fastest developing coastal regions, whereas NO2 in other parts of Asia decreased during the same period, and no obvious trend over the main shipping routes in the South China Sea was indicated. Thus the observed increase in background ozone in Hong Kong is most likely due to the increased emissions of NO2 (and possibly volatile organic compounds (VOCs as well in the upwind coastal regions of mainland China. The CO data at Hok Tsui showed less definitive changes compared to the satellite NO2 column. The increase in background ozone likely made a strong contribution (81% to the rate of increase in "total ozone" at an urban site in Hong Kong

  5. Biocidal action of ozone-treated polystyrene surfaces on vegetative and sporulated bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahfoudh, Ahlem; Barbeau, Jean; Moisan, Michel; Leduc, Annie; Seguin, Jacynthe

    2010-01-01

    Surfaces of materials can be modified to ensure specific interaction features with microorganisms. The current work discloses biocidal properties of polystyrene (PS) Petri-dish surfaces that have been exposed to a dry gaseous-ozone flow. Such treated PS surfaces are able to inactivate various species of vegetative and sporulated bacteria on a relatively short contact time. Denaturation of proteins seems likely based on a significant loss of enzymatic activity of the lysozyme protein. Characterization of these surfaces by atomic-force microscopy (AFM), Fourier-transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals specific structural and chemical modifications as compared to untreated PS. Persistence of the biocidal properties of these treated surfaces is observed. This ozone-induced process is technically simple to achieve and does not require active precursors as in grafting.

  6. Characteristics of surface ozone in Agra, a sub-urban site in Indo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nidhi Verma

    2018-04-09

    Apr 9, 2018 ... In the present study, measurements of surface ozone (O3) and its precursors (NO and NO2) were carried out at a ...... from road traffic in Great Britain; Atmos. Environ. 54 ... L, Doddridge B G and Holben B N 1997 The impact of.

  7. Nocturnal surface ozone enhancement over Portugal during winter: Influence of different atmospheric conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Kulkarni, Pavan S.

    2016-09-24

    Four distinct nocturnal surface ozone (NSO) enhancement events were observed, with NSO concentration exceeding 80μg/m3, at multiple ozone (O3) monitoring stations (32 sites) in January, November and December between year 2000–2010, in Portugal. The reasonable explanation for the observed bimodal pattern of surface ozone with enhanced NSO concentration during nighttime has to be transport processes, as the surface ozone production ceases at nighttime. Simultaneous measurements of O3 at multiple stations during the study period in Portugal suggest that horizontal advection alone cannot explain the observed NSO enhancement. Thus, detailed analysis of the atmospheric conditions, simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, were performed to evaluate the atmospheric mechanisms responsible for NSO enhancement in the region. Simulations revealed that each event occurred as a result of one or the combination of different atmospheric processes such as, passage of a cold front followed by a subsidence zone; passage of a moving surface trough, with associated strong horizontal wind speed and vertical shear; combination of vertical and horizontal transport at the synoptic scale; formation of a low level jet with associated vertical mixing below the jet stream. The study confirmed that large-scale flow pattern resulting in enhanced vertical mixing in the nocturnal boundary layer, plays a key role in the NSO enhancement events, which frequently occur over Portugal during winter months. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  8. Aerosols and surface UV products form Ozone Monitoring Instrument observations: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, O.; Tanskanen, A.; Veihelmann, B.; Ahn, C.; Braak, R.; Bhartia, P.K.; Veefkind, J.P.; Levelt, P.F.

    2007-01-01

    We present an overview of the theoretical and algorithmic aspects of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol and surface UV algorithms. Aerosol properties are derived from two independent algorithms. The nearUV algorithm makes use of OMI observations in the 350-390 nm spectral region to

  9. Surface ozone scenario at Pune and Delhi during the decade of 1990s

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the climate change as one of the green house gases. It comes into direct .... Pune is one of the highly polluted cities in India. The pollution in this ... cities in India. The pollution in this city is caused mainly by numerous industrial and vehicular activities in and around the city area. 3. Data and methodology. Surface ozone ...

  10. Nocturnal surface ozone enhancement over Portugal during winter: Influence of different atmospheric conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Kulkarni, Pavan S.; Dasari, Hari Prasad; Sharma, Ashish; Bortoli, D.; Salgado, Rui; Silva, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Four distinct nocturnal surface ozone (NSO) enhancement events were observed, with NSO concentration exceeding 80μg/m3, at multiple ozone (O3) monitoring stations (32 sites) in January, November and December between year 2000–2010, in Portugal. The reasonable explanation for the observed bimodal pattern of surface ozone with enhanced NSO concentration during nighttime has to be transport processes, as the surface ozone production ceases at nighttime. Simultaneous measurements of O3 at multiple stations during the study period in Portugal suggest that horizontal advection alone cannot explain the observed NSO enhancement. Thus, detailed analysis of the atmospheric conditions, simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, were performed to evaluate the atmospheric mechanisms responsible for NSO enhancement in the region. Simulations revealed that each event occurred as a result of one or the combination of different atmospheric processes such as, passage of a cold front followed by a subsidence zone; passage of a moving surface trough, with associated strong horizontal wind speed and vertical shear; combination of vertical and horizontal transport at the synoptic scale; formation of a low level jet with associated vertical mixing below the jet stream. The study confirmed that large-scale flow pattern resulting in enhanced vertical mixing in the nocturnal boundary layer, plays a key role in the NSO enhancement events, which frequently occur over Portugal during winter months. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  11. The effect of ozone and open air factor on surface-attached and biofilm environmental Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, R; Dunton, P; Tatham, A; Fielding, L

    2013-08-01

    The effects of gaseous ozone and open air factor (OAF) on environmental Listeria monocytogenes attached to three common food contact surfaces were investigated. Listeria monocytogenes on different food contact surfaces was treated with ozone and OAF. Microbiological counts, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were performed. Ozone at 10 ppm gave <1-log reduction when L. monocytogenes was attached to stainless steel, while 45 ppm gave a log reduction of 3.41. OAF gave better log reductions than 10 ppm ozone, but lower log reductions than 45 ppm. Significant differences were found between surfaces. Biofilm organisms were significantly more resistant than those surface attached on stainless steel. SEM and AFM demonstrated different membrane and cell surface modifications following ozone or OAF treatment. The strain used demonstrated higher resistance to ozone than previous studies. This may be due to the fact that it was isolated from a food manufacturing premises that used oxidizing disinfectants. OAF was more effective at reducing the levels of the organism than an ozone concentration of 10 ppm. Pathogen management strategies must account for resistance of environmental strains when validating cleaning and disinfection. OAF has shown potential for surface decontamination compared with ozone. SEM and AFM are valuable tools for determining mechanisms of action of antimicrobial agents. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. The impact of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions on surface ozone concentrations in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ulas; Poupkou, Anastasia; Incecik, Selahattin; Markakis, Konstantinos; Kindap, Tayfun; Unal, Alper; Melas, Dimitros; Yenigun, Orhan; Topcu, Sema; Odman, M Talat; Tayanc, Mete; Guler, Meltem

    2011-03-01

    Surface ozone concentrations at Istanbul during a summer episode in June 2008 were simulated using a high resolution and urban scale modeling system coupling MM5 and CMAQ models with a recently developed anthropogenic emission inventory for the region. Two sets of base runs were performed in order to investigate for the first time the impact of biogenic emissions on ozone concentrations in the Greater Istanbul Area (GIA). The first simulation was performed using only the anthropogenic emissions whereas the second simulation was performed using both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. Biogenic NMVOC emissions were comparable with anthropogenic NMVOC emissions in terms of magnitude. The inclusion of biogenic emissions significantly improved the performance of the model, particularly in reproducing the low night time values as well as the temporal variation of ozone concentrations. Terpene emissions contributed significantly to the destruction of the ozone during nighttime. Biogenic NMVOCs emissions enhanced ozone concentrations in the downwind regions of GIA up to 25ppb. The VOC/NO(x) ratio almost doubled due to the addition of biogenic NMVOCs. Anthropogenic NO(x) and NMVOCs were perturbed by ±30% in another set of simulations to quantify the sensitivity of ozone concentrations to the precursor emissions in the region. The sensitivity runs, as along with the model-calculated ozone-to-reactive nitrogen ratios, pointed NO(x)-sensitive chemistry, particularly in the downwind areas. On the other hand, urban parts of the city responded more to changes in NO(x) due to very high anthropogenic emissions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Using satellite data to guide emission control strategies for surface ozone pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X.; Fiore, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Surface ozone (O3) has adverse effects on public health, agriculture and ecosystems. As a secondary pollutant, ozone is not emitted directly. Ozone forms from two classes of precursors: NOx and VOCs. We use satellite observations of formaldehyde (a marker of VOCs) and NO2 (a marker of NOx) to identify areas which would benefit more from reducing NOx emissions (NOx-limited) versus areas where reducing VOC emissions would lead to lower ozone (VOC-limited). We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to develop a set of threshold values that separate the NOx-limited and VOC-limited conditions. Combining these threshold values with a decadal record of satellite observations, we find that U.S. cities (e.g. New York, Chicago) have shifted from VOC-limited to NOx-limited ozone production regimes in the warm season. This transition reflects the NOx emission controls implemented over the past decade. Increasing NOx sensitivity implies that regional NOx emission control programs will improve O3 air quality more now than it would have a decade ago.

  14. A depleted ozone layer absorbs less UV-B, cooling the ozone layer, increasing the amount of UV-B observed to reach Earth, heating air by dissociating tropospheric and ground-level ozone, and heating oceans very efficiently by penetrating tens of meters into the mixed layer. UV-B is 48 times more energetic ("hotter") than IR absorbed by greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    This new insight into the physics of radiation shows why changes in stratospheric ozone are observed to cause changes in global temperature. By 1970, manufactured CFC gases and ozone depletion began increasing. By 1993, increases in CFCs stopped as mandated by the Montreal Protocol. By 1995, increases in ozone depletion stopped. By 1998, increases in temperature stopped until 2014. Ozone is also depleted by halogen gases emitted from major basaltic lava flows, the largest of which, since 1783, occurred at Bardarbunga in Iceland in 2014, causing 2015 and 2016 to be the hottest years on record. Throughout Earth history, the largest basaltic lava flows were contemporaneous with periods of greatest warming and greatest levels of mass extinctions. Planck's empirical law shows that temperature of matter results from oscillation of all the bonds holding matter together. The higher the temperature, the higher the frequencies and amplitudes of oscillation. Thus, radiation from a nearby hotter body will make the absorbing body hotter than radiation from a cooler body. According to the Planck-Einstein relation, thermal energy (E) in matter and in radiation equals frequency of oscillation (ν) times the Planck constant (h), E=hν—the energy of a frictionless atomic oscillator. Since frequency is observed to be a very broad continuum extending from radio signals through visible light to gamma rays, thermal energy (E=hν) must also be a very broad continuum. Thermal flux cannot be represented properly by a single number of watts per square meter, as commonly assumed throughout the physical sciences, because all frequencies coexist and the number of watts increases with frequency. Thus, UV-B solar radiation is 48 times more energetic than IR terrestrial radiation absorbed by greenhouse gases and can make the absorbing body 48 times hotter. UV-B causes sunburn; no amount of IR can cause sunburn. Furthermore, in a basic experiment, I show that air containing more than 23 times

  15. Impact of chemical lateral boundary conditions in a regional air quality forecast model on surface ozone predictions during stratospheric intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendlebury, Diane; Gravel, Sylvie; Moran, Michael D.; Lupu, Alexandru

    2018-02-01

    A regional air quality forecast model, GEM-MACH, is used to examine the conditions under which a limited-area air quality model can accurately forecast near-surface ozone concentrations during stratospheric intrusions. Periods in 2010 and 2014 with known stratospheric intrusions over North America were modelled using four different ozone lateral boundary conditions obtained from a seasonal climatology, a dynamically-interpolated monthly climatology, global air quality forecasts, and global air quality reanalyses. It is shown that the mean bias and correlation in surface ozone over the course of a season can be improved by using time-varying ozone lateral boundary conditions, particularly through the correct assignment of stratospheric vs. tropospheric ozone along the western lateral boundary (for North America). Part of the improvement in surface ozone forecasts results from improvements in the characterization of near-surface ozone along the lateral boundaries that then directly impact surface locations near the boundaries. However, there is an additional benefit from the correct characterization of the location of the tropopause along the western lateral boundary such that the model can correctly simulate stratospheric intrusions and their associated exchange of ozone from stratosphere to troposphere. Over a three-month period in spring 2010, the mean bias was seen to improve by as much as 5 ppbv and the correlation by 0.1 depending on location, and on the form of the chemical lateral boundary condition.

  16. Surface ozone measurements in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula (Huelva, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnero, Jose A Adame; Bolívar, Juan P; de la Morena, Benito A

    2010-02-01

    Photochemical ozone pollution of the lower troposphere (LT) is a very complex process involving meteorological, topographic emissions and chemical parameters. Ozone is considered the most important air pollutant in rural, suburban and industrial areas of many sites in the world since it strongly affects human health, vegetation and forest ecosystems, and its increase during the last decades has been significant. In addition, ozone is a greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change. For these reasons, it is necessary to carry out investigations that determine the behaviour of ozone at different locations. The aim of this work is to understand the levels and temporal variations of surface ozone in an industrial-urban region of the Southwest Iberian Peninsula. The study is based on ozone hourly data recorded during a 6-year period, 2000 to 2005 at four stations and meteorological data from a coastal station. The stations used were El Arenosillo and Cartaya--both coastal stations, Huelva--an urban site and Valverde--an inland station 50 km away from the coastline. The general characteristics of the ozone series, seasonal and daily ozone cycles as well as number of exceedances of the threshold established in the European Ozone Directive have been calculated and analysed. Analysis of the meteorological data shows that winter-autumn seasons are governed by the movement of synoptic weather systems; however, in the spring-summer seasons, both synoptic and mesoescale conditions exist. Average hourly ozone concentrations range from 78.5 +/- 0.1 microg m(-3) at Valverde to 57.8 +/- 0.2 microg m(-3) at Huelva. Ozone concentrations present a seasonal variability with higher values in summer months, while in wintertime, lower values are recorded. A seasonal daily evolution has also been found with minimum levels around 08:00 UTC, which occurs approximately 1-1.5 h after sunrise, whereas the maximum is reached at about 16:00 UTC. Furthermore, during summer, the maximum value

  17. Health burdens of surface ozone in the UK for a range of future scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Heal, Mathew R.; Heaviside, Clare; Doherty, Ruth M.; Vieno, Massimo; Stevenson, David S.; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to surface ozone (O3), which is influenced by emissions of precursor chemical species, meteorology and population distribution, is associated with excess mortality and respiratory morbidity. In this study, the EMEP-WRF atmospheric chemistry transport model was used to simulate surface O3 concentrations at 5 km horizontal resolution over the British Isles for a baseline year of 2003, for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios for 2030, and for a + 5 °C increase in air temperature on ...

  18. Improve observation-based ground-level ozone spatial distribution by compositing satellite and surface observations: A simulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhong; Wang, Yuhang; Crawford, James; Cheng, Ye; Li, Jianfeng

    2018-05-01

    Obtaining the full spatial coverage of daily surface ozone fields is challenging because of the sparsity of the surface monitoring network and the difficulty in direct satellite retrievals of surface ozone. We propose an indirect satellite retrieval framework to utilize the information from satellite-measured column densities of tropospheric NO2 and CH2O, which are sensitive to the lower troposphere, to derive surface ozone fields. The method is applicable to upcoming geostationary satellites with high-quality NO2 and CH2O measurements. To prove the concept, we conduct a simulation experiment using a 3-D chemical transport model for July 2011 over the eastern US. The results show that a second order regression using both NO2 and CH2O column densities can be an effective predictor for daily maximum 8-h average ozone. Furthermore, this indirect retrieval approach is shown to be complementary to spatial interpolation of surface observations, especially in regions where the surface sites are sparse. Combining column observations of NO2 and CH2O with surface site measurements leads to an improved representation of surface ozone over simple kriging, increasing the R2 value from 0.53 to 0.64 at a surface site distance of 252 km. The improvements are even more significant with larger surface site distances. The simulation experiment suggests that the indirect satellite retrieval technique can potentially be a useful tool to derive the full spatial coverage of daily surface ozone fields if satellite observation uncertainty is moderate.

  19. Effect of ozone concentration on silicon surface passivation by atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastrow, Guillaume von, E-mail: guillaume.von.gastrow@aalto.fi [Aalto University, Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Li, Shuo [Aalto University, Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Putkonen, Matti [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Espoo (Finland); Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, FI-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland); Laitinen, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, FIN-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Savin, Hele [Aalto University, Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivation quality can be controlled by the ozone concentration. • Ozone concentration affects the Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface charge and defect density. • A surface recombination velocity of 7 cm/s is reached combining ozone and water ALD. • Carbon and hydrogen concentrations correlate with the surface passivation quality. - Abstract: We study the impact of ozone-based Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) on the surface passivation quality of crystalline silicon. We show that the passivation quality strongly depends on the ozone concentration: the higher ozone concentration results in lower interface defect density and thereby improved passivation. In contrast to previous studies, our results reveal that too high interface hydrogen content can be detrimental to the passivation. The interface hydrogen concentration can be optimized by the ozone-based process; however, the use of pure ozone increases the harmful carbon concentration in the film. Here we demonstrate that low carbon and optimal hydrogen concentration can be achieved by a single process combining the water- and ozone-based reactions. This process results in an interface defect density of 2 × 10{sup 11} eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, and maximum surface recombination velocities of 7.1 cm/s and 10 cm/s, after annealing and after an additional firing at 800 °C, respectively. In addition, our results suggest that the effective oxide charge density can be optimized in a simple way by varying the ozone concentration and by injecting water to the ozone process.

  20. Sensitivity analysis of surface ozone to emission controls in Beijing and its neighboring area during the 2008 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi; Zhang, Meigen

    2012-01-01

    The regional air quality modeling system RAMS (regional atmospheric modeling system)-CMAQ (community multi-scale air quality modeling system) is applied to analyze temporal and spatial variations in surface ozone concentration over Beijing and its surrounding region from July to October 2008. Comparison of simulated and observed meteorological elements and concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone at one urban site and three rural sites during Olympic Games show that model can generally reproduce the main observed feature of wind, temperature and ozone, but NOx concentration is overestimated. Although ozone concentration decreased during Olympics, high ozone episodes occurred on 24 July and 24 August with concentration of 360 and 245 microg/m3 at Aoyuncun site, respectively. The analysis of sensitive test, with and without emission controls, shows that emission controls could reduce ozone concentration in the afternoon when ozone concentration was highest but increase it at night and in the morning. The evolution of the weather system during the ozone episodes (24 July and 24 August) indicates that hot and dry air and a stable weak pressure field intensified the production of ozone and allowed it to accumulate. Process analysis at the urban site and rural site shows that under favorable weather condition on 24 August, horizontal transport was the main contributor of the rural place and the pollution from the higher layer would be transported to the surface layer. On 24 July, as the wind velocity was smaller, the impact of transport on the rural place was not obvious.

  1. Depletion of barium and radium-226 in Black Sea surface waters over the past thirty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenison Falkner, K.K.; Edmond, J.M.; O'Neill, D.J.; Todd, J.F.; Moore, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    The nearly landlocked waters of the Black Sea support a valuable fishery, but are also particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbance. Here we use dissolved barium and radium-226 as tracers, to investigate the biogeochemical health of the sea. Both elements are brought to surface waters by vertical mixing of deeper, enriched waters, and by rivers; these inputs should ordinarily be balanced by outflow of surface waters at the Bosphorus, and by biologically mediated removal of 226 Ra-bearing barite. We show, however, that surface-water inventories have been substantially depleted over the past few decades: recent (1988-89) barium concentrations were 1.6 times lower than in 1958 and 1967. These observations suggest that steady-state cycling of these elements has been perturbed by increased primary productivity, presumably fuelled by nutrients from industry and agricultural runoff, and to a lesser extent by decreased fluvial sediment loads owing to extensive impoundment of rivers in the region. (author)

  2. Regional trend analysis of surface ozone observations from monitoring networks in eastern North America, Europe and East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K. L.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Cooper, O. R.; Schultz, M.; Wang, T.

    2017-12-01

    Surface ozone is a greenhouse gas and pollutant detrimental to human health and crop and ecosystem productivity. The Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR) is designed to provide the research community with an up-to-date observation-based overview of tropospheric ozone's global distribution and trends. The TOAR Surface Ozone Database contains ozone metrics at thousands of monitoring sites around the world, densely clustered across mid-latitude North America, western Europe and East Asia. Calculating regional ozone trends across these locations is challenging due to the uneven spacing of the monitoring sites across urban and rural areas. To meet this challenge we conducted a spatial and temporal trend analysis of several TOAR ozone metrics across these three regions for summertime (April-September) 2000-2014, using the generalized additive mixed model (GAMM). Our analysis indicates that East Asia has the greatest human and plant exposure to ozone pollution among investigating regions, with increasing ozone levels through 2014. The results also show that ozone mixing ratios continue to decline significantly over eastern North America and Europe, however, there is less evidence for decreases of daytime average ozone at urban sites. The present-day spatial coverage of ozone monitors in East Asia (South Korea and Japan) and eastern North America is adequate for estimating regional trends by simply taking the average of the individual trends at each site. However the European network is more sparsely populated across its northern and eastern regions and therefore a simple average of the individual trends at each site does not yield an accurate regional trend. This analysis demonstrates that the GAMM technique can be used to assess the regional representativeness of existing monitoring networks, indicating those networks for which a regional trend can be obtained by simply averaging the trends of all individual sites and those networks that require a more

  3. 1,2-Dichlorohexafluoro-Cyclobutane (1,2-c-C4F6Cl2, R-316c) a Potent Ozone Depleting Substance and Greenhouse Gas: Atmospheric Loss Processes, Lifetimes, and Ozone Depletion and Global Warming Potentials for the (E) and (Z) stereoisomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Vassileios C.; McGillen, Max R.; Smith, Shona C.; Jubb, Aaron M.; Portmann, Robert W.; Hall, Bradley D.; Fleming, Eric L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Burkholder, James B.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric processing of (E)- and (Z)-1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane (1,2-c-C4F6Cl2, R-316c) was examined in this work as the ozone depleting (ODP) and global warming (GWP) potentials of this proposed replacement compound are presently unknown. The predominant atmospheric loss processes and infrared absorption spectra of the R-316c isomers were measured to provide a basis to evaluate their atmospheric lifetimes and, thus, ODPs and GWPs. UV absorption spectra were measured between 184.95 to 230 nm at temperatures between 214 and 296 K and a parametrization for use in atmospheric modeling is presented. The Cl atom quantum yield in the 193 nm photolysis of R- 316c was measured to be 1.90 +/- 0.27. Hexafluorocyclobutene (c-C4F6) was determined to be a photolysis co-product with molar yields of 0.7 and 1.0 (+/-10%) for (E)- and (Z)-R-316c, respectively. The 296 K total rate coefficient for the O(1D) + R-316c reaction, i.e., O(1D) loss, was measured to be (1.56 +/- 0.11) × 10(exp -10)cu cm/ molecule/s and the reactive rate coefficient, i.e., R-316c loss, was measured to be (1.36 +/- 0.20) × 10(exp -10)cu cm/molecule/s corresponding to a approx. 88% reactive yield. Rate coefficient upper-limits for the OH and O3 reaction with R-316c were determined to be model to be 74.6 +/- 3 and 114.1 +/-10 years, respectively, where the estimated uncertainties are due solely to the uncertainty in the UV absorption spectra. Stratospheric photolysis is the predominant atmospheric loss process for both isomers with the O(1D) reaction making a minor, approx. 2% for the (E) isomer and 7% for the (Z) isomer, contribution to the total atmospheric loss. Ozone depletion potentials for (E)- and (Z)-R-316c were calculated using the 2-D model to be 0.46 and 0.54, respectively. Infrared absorption spectra for (E)- and (Z)-R-316c were measured at 296 K and used to estimate their radiative efficiencies (REs) and GWPs; 100-year time-horizon GWPs of 4160 and 5400 were obtained for (E)- and (Z

  4. Analysis of surface ozone using a recurrent neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancofiore, Fabio; Verdecchia, Marco; Di Carlo, Piero; Tomassetti, Barbara; Aruffo, Eleonora; Busilacchio, Marcella; Bianco, Sebastiano; Di Tommaso, Sinibaldo; Colangeli, Carlo

    2015-05-01

    Hourly concentrations of ozone (O₃) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) have been measured for 16 years, from 1998 to 2013, in a seaside town in central Italy. The seasonal trends of O₃ and NO₂ recorded in this period have been studied. Furthermore, we used the data collected during one year (2005), to define the characteristics of a multiple linear regression model and a neural network model. Both models are used to model the hourly O₃ concentration, using, two scenarios: 1) in the first as inputs, only meteorological parameters and 2) in the second adding photochemical parameters at those of the first scenario. In order to evaluate the performance of the model four statistical criteria are used: correlation coefficient, fractional bias, normalized mean squared error and a factor of two. All the criteria show that the neural network gives better results, compared to the regression model, in all the model scenarios. Predictions of O₃ have been carried out by many authors using a feed forward neural architecture. In this paper we show that a recurrent architecture significantly improves the performances of neural predictors. Using only the meteorological parameters as input, the recurrent architecture shows performance better than the multiple linear regression model that uses meteorological and photochemical data as input, making the neural network model with recurrent architecture a more useful tool in areas where only weather measurements are available. Finally, we used the neural network model to forecast the O₃ hourly concentrations 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h ahead. The performances of the model in predicting O₃ levels are discussed. Emphasis is given to the possibility of using the neural network model in operational ways in areas where only meteorological data are available, in order to predict O₃ also in sites where it has not been measured yet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimal Extraction of Tropospheric Ozone Column by Simultaneous Use of OMI and TES Data and the Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasheri, M. R.; Shirazi, H.

    2015-12-01

    This article aims to increase the accuracy of Ozone data from tropospheric column (TOC) of the OMI and TES satellite instruments. To validate the estimated amount of satellite data, Ozonesonde data is used. The vertical resolution in both instruments in the tropospheric atmosphere decreases so that the degree of freedom signals (DOFS) on the average for TES is reduced to 2 and for OMI is reduced to1. But this decline in accuracy in estimation of tropospheric ozone is more obvious in urban areas so that estimated ozone in both instruments alone in non-urban areas show a high correlation with Ozonesonde. But in urban areas this correlation is significantly reduced, due to the ozone pre-structures and consequently an increase on surface-level ozone in urban areas. In order to improve the accuracy of satellite data, the average tropospheric ozone data from the two instruments were used. The aim is to increase the vertical resolution of ozone profile and the results clearly indicate an increase in correlations, but nevertheless the satellite data have a positive bias towards the earth data. To reduce the bias, with the solar flux and nitrogen dioxide values and surface temperatures are calculated as factors of ozone production on the earth's surface and formation of mathematical equations based on coefficients for each of the mentioned values and multiplication of these coefficients by satellite data and repeated comparison with the values of Ozonesonde, the results showed that bias in urban areas is greatly reduced.

  6. Effects of surface chromium depletion on localized corrosion of alloy 825 as a high-level nuclear waste container material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.S.; Sridhar, N.; Cragnolino, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    Effects of the chromium-depleted, mill-finished surface on the localized corrosion resistance of alloy 825 (UNS N08825) were investigated. Tests were conducted in solutions based on the ground water at Yucca mountain, Nevada, but with a higher concentration of chloride. Results indicated that breakdown (E p ) and repassivation (E rp ) potentials for mill-finished surfaces were more active than those for polished surfaces. Potentiodynamic polarization tests indicated pits could be initiated on the chromium-depleted surface at potentials of 220 mV SCE in a solution containing 1,000 ppm Cl - at 95 C. Potentiostatic tests identified a similar pit initiation potential for the mill-finished surface. However, under longterm potentiostatic tests, a higher potential of 300 mV SCE was needed to sustain stable pit growth beyond the chromium-depleted layer. An increase in surface roughness also was observed to decrease localized corrosion resistance of the material

  7. Characteristics of surface ozone and nitrogen oxides at urban, suburban and rural sites in Ningbo, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lei; Zhang, Huiling; Yu, Jie; He, Mengmeng; Xu, Nengbin; Zhang, Jingjing; Qian, Feizhong; Feng, Jiayong; Xiao, Hang

    2017-05-01

    Surface ozone (O3) is a harmful air pollutant that has attracted growing concern in China. In this study, the mixing ratios of O3 and nitrogen oxides (NOx) at three different sites (urban, suburban and rural) of Ningbo were continuously measured to investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of O3 and its relationships with environmental variables. The diurnal O3 variations were characterized by afternoon maxima (38.7-53.1 ppb on annual average) and early morning minima (11.7-26.2 ppb) at all the three sites. Two seasonal peaks of O3 were observed in spring (April or May) and autumn (October) with minima being observed in winter (December). NOx levels showed generally opposite variations to that of O3 with diurnal and seasonal maxima occurring in morning/evening rush-hours and in winter, respectively. As to the inter-annual variations of air pollutants, generally decreasing and increasing trends were observed in NO and O3 levels, respectively, from 2012 to 2015 at both urban and suburban sites. O3 levels were positively correlated with temperature but negatively correlated with relative humidity and NOx levels. Significant differences in O3 levels were observed for different wind speeds and wind directions (p variation, higher levels of O3 were observed at the suburban and rural sites where less O3 was depleted by NO titration. In contrast, the urban site exhibited lower O3 but higher NOx levels due to the influence of traffic emissions. Larger amplitudes of diurnal and monthly O3 variations were observed at the suburban site than those at the urban and rural sites. In general, the O3 levels at the non-urban sites were more affected by the background transport, while both the local and regional contributions played roles in urban O3 variations. The annual average O3 mixing ratios (22.7-37.7 ppb) in Ningbo were generally similar to those of other regions around the world. However, the recommended air quality standards for O3 were often exceeded during warm

  8. Changes in the surface ozone after the windstorm in 2004, in the High Tatras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bičárová Svetlana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Extreme wind event in November 2004 caused spacious destruction of slope forests in the Tatra National Park, Slovakia. Relevant changes of land cover motivated researchers to investigate damaged forest ecosystem and its response to different environmental conditions. Surface ozone (O3 is a minor but not negligible compound of the ambient air. Control strategies for the reduction of O3 precursor emissions have been applied in Europe during the last two decades. In spite of these reductions, air quality indices for O3 suggest that highland sites are more vulnerable to health and environmental risk than lowlands where mostly emissions from road transport and industry are produced. Both anthropogenic sources and biogenic precursors (BVOC from forest vegetation play a relevant role in the tropospheric photochemistry, especially at mountainous and rural locations. The parameters of air quality are measured at background station Stará Lesná in the High Tatras region since 1992 in frame of an European project EMEP. Long-term data series (1992-2013 of O3 concentrations obtained for site Stará Lesná provide specific opportunity to investigate the response of BVOC reduction on O3 variability after windstorm 2004. Evaluation of these data indicates moderate increase of annual, monthly and hourly O3 means for the period from 2005 to 2013 in comparison with the previous period 1992-2004. Temporal interpolation shows evident changes of O3 concentrations, especially ~30% increase for night hours in spring season and on the contrary ~15% decrease for daylight afternoon hours in summer season. Statistically significant changes were identified for spring months (April and May, 0-6 hours and summer months (July, 12-20 hours. Increasing O3 values in the night may be associated with the absence of BVOC for ozonolysis reaction that is one of the mechanism for O3 depletion. On the other hand, the decline of daylight O3 values in summer suggests lower O3 production

  9. Decadal changes in summertime reactive oxidized nitrogen and surface ozone over the Southeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyi; Mao, Jingqiu; Fiore, Arlene M.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Crounse, John D.; Teng, Alex P.; Wennberg, Paul O.; Lee, Ben H.; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Thornton, Joel A.; Peischl, Jeff; Pollack, Ilana B.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Veres, Patrick; Roberts, James M.; Neuman, J. Andrew; Nowak, John B.; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Fried, Alan; Singh, Hanwant B.; Dibb, Jack; Paulot, Fabien; Horowitz, Larry W.

    2018-02-01

    Widespread efforts to abate ozone (O3) smog have significantly reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) over the past 2 decades in the Southeast US, a place heavily influenced by both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. How reactive nitrogen speciation responds to the reduction in NOx emissions in this region remains to be elucidated. Here we exploit aircraft measurements from ICARTT (July-August 2004), SENEX (June-July 2013), and SEAC4RS (August-September 2013) and long-term ground measurement networks alongside a global chemistry-climate model to examine decadal changes in summertime reactive oxidized nitrogen (RON) and ozone over the Southeast US. We show that our model can reproduce the mean vertical profiles of major RON species and the total (NOy) in both 2004 and 2013. Among the major RON species, nitric acid (HNO3) is dominant (˜ 42-45 %), followed by NOx (31 %), total peroxy nitrates (ΣPNs; 14 %), and total alkyl nitrates (ΣANs; 9-12 %) on a regional scale. We find that most RON species, including NOx, ΣPNs, and HNO3, decline proportionally with decreasing NOx emissions in this region, leading to a similar decline in NOy. This linear response might be in part due to the nearly constant summertime supply of biogenic VOC emissions in this region. Our model captures the observed relative change in RON and surface ozone from 2004 to 2013. Model sensitivity tests indicate that further reductions of NOx emissions will lead to a continued decline in surface ozone and less frequent high-ozone events.

  10. Decadal changes in summertime reactive oxidized nitrogen and surface ozone over the Southeast United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Widespread efforts to abate ozone (O3 smog have significantly reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx over the past 2 decades in the Southeast US, a place heavily influenced by both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. How reactive nitrogen speciation responds to the reduction in NOx emissions in this region remains to be elucidated. Here we exploit aircraft measurements from ICARTT (July–August 2004, SENEX (June–July 2013, and SEAC4RS (August–September 2013 and long-term ground measurement networks alongside a global chemistry–climate model to examine decadal changes in summertime reactive oxidized nitrogen (RON and ozone over the Southeast US. We show that our model can reproduce the mean vertical profiles of major RON species and the total (NOy in both 2004 and 2013. Among the major RON species, nitric acid (HNO3 is dominant (∼ 42–45 %, followed by NOx (31 %, total peroxy nitrates (ΣPNs; 14 %, and total alkyl nitrates (ΣANs; 9–12 % on a regional scale. We find that most RON species, including NOx, ΣPNs, and HNO3, decline proportionally with decreasing NOx emissions in this region, leading to a similar decline in NOy. This linear response might be in part due to the nearly constant summertime supply of biogenic VOC emissions in this region. Our model captures the observed relative change in RON and surface ozone from 2004 to 2013. Model sensitivity tests indicate that further reductions of NOx emissions will lead to a continued decline in surface ozone and less frequent high-ozone events.

  11. Modelled long term trends of surface ozone over South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available focused on SA Highveld, 2006 ? Keeping all CAMx inputs ?standardized?, leaving only meteorology as a variable ? CSIR 2010 Slide 11 CAMx data flow CAMx Met model USGS surface data Emissions Initial & boundary Haze & albedo Photolysis rates...

  12. Investigating ozone-induced decomposition of surface-bound permethrin for conditions in aircraft cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, B K; Wells, J R; Nazaroff, W W

    2010-02-01

    The reaction of ozone with permethrin can potentially form phosgene. Published evidence on ozone levels and permethrin surface concentrations in aircraft cabins indicated that significant phosgene formation might occur in this setting. A derivatization technique was developed to detect phosgene with a lower limit of detection of 2 ppb. Chamber experiments were conducted with permethrin-coated materials (glass, carpet, seat fabric, and plastic) exposed to ozone under cabin-relevant conditions (150 ppb O(3), 4.5/h air exchange rate, means of material-balance modeling indicates that the upper limit on the phosgene level in aircraft cabins resulting from this chemistry is approximately 1 microg/m(3) or approximately 0.3 ppb. It was thus determined that phosgene formation, if it occurs in aircraft cabins, is not likely to exceed relevant, health-based phosgene exposure guidelines. Phosgene formation from ozone-initiated oxidation of permethrin in the aircraft cabin environment, if it occurs, is estimated to generate levels below the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment acute reference exposure level of 4 microg/m(3) or approximately 1 ppb.

  13. Ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} consumption and emissions; Ozonlagsnedbrydende stoffer og drivhusgasserne HFC'er, PFC'er og SF{sub 6}. Forbrug og emissioner 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander Poulsen, T. [Planmiljoe, Veksoe Sjaelland (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the project is to map the 2002 Danish consumption of produced ozone depleting substances and the consumption and actual emission of the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. The inventory is performed, partly according to the guidelines recommended by IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), and partly according to the method that has been used for previous mappings. The mapping is done partly in order to meet Denmark's international commitments to report and partly in order to monitor how the consumption of ozone depleting substances and the emissions of greenhouse gases develop. The mapping of ozone depleting substances includes the net consumption, meaning the amount of the imported raw materials in bulk or in drums minus any re-export of the substances in the form of raw materials. Mapping of the actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} is done in continuation of previous greenhouse gas inventories. The inventory process is continuously improving due to development of international approved guidelines (IPCC) and the production of increasingly detailed data. (BA)

  14. Ozone production using a power modulated surface dielectric barrier discharge in dry synthetic air

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan; Pekárek, S.; Prukner, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2012), s. 743-754 ISSN 0272-4324 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0176 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : ozone * surface DBD * synthetic air * nitrogen oxides * production efficiency Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.728, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/h7p1j46381150510/fulltext.pdf

  15. Influence of Power Modulation on Ozone Production Using an AC Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Oxygen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan; Pekárek, S.; Prukner, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2010), s. 607-617 ISSN 0272-4324 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0176 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Ozone * Surface DBD * Oxygen * Production efficiency Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.798, year: 2010 http://www.springerlink.com/content/28539775w5243513/

  16. Influences of the variation in inflow to East Asia on surface ozone over Japan during 1996–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chatani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Air quality simulations in which the global chemical transport model CHASER and the regional chemical transport model WRF/chem are coupled have been developed to consider the dynamic transport of chemical species across the boundaries of the domain of the regional chemical transport model. The simulation captures the overall seasonal variations of surface ozone, but overestimates its concentration over Japanese populated areas by approximately 20 ppb from summer to early winter. It is deduced that ozone formation around Northeast China and Japan in summer is overestimated in the simulation. On the other hand, the simulation well reproduces the interannual variability and the long-term trend of observed surface ozone over Japan. Sensitivity experiments have been performed to investigate the influence of the variation in inflow to East Asia on the interannual variability and the long-term trend of surface ozone over Japan during 1996–2005. The inflow defined in this paper includes the recirculation of species with sources within the East Asian region as well as the transport of species with sources out of the East Asian region. Results of sensitivity experiments suggest that inflow to East Asia accounts for approximately 30 % of the increasing trend of surface ozone, whereas it has much less influence on the interannual variability of observed surface ozone compared to meteorological processes within East Asia.

  17. Enhanced UV-B radiation alleviates the adverse effects of summer drought in two Mediterranean pines under field conditions [ozone depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petropoulou, Y.; Kyparissis, A.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Manetas, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of enhanced UV-B (290-320 nm) radiation on two native Mediterranean pines (Pinus pinea L., Pinus halepensis Mill.) were recorded during a one-year field study. Plants received ambient or ambient plus supplemental UV-B radiation (simulating a 15% stratospheric ozone depletion over Patras. Greece, 38.3°N. 29.1°E) and only natural precipitation, i.e. they were simultaneously exposed to other natural stresses. particularly water stress during summer. Supplemental UV-B irradiation started in early February, 1993 and up to late June, no effects were observed on growth and photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, as measured by chlorophy II fluorescence induction. Water stress during the summer was manifested in the control plants as a decline in the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence (F v /F m ), the apparent photon yield for oxygen evolution (φ I ) and the photosynthetic capacity at 5% CO 2 (P m ). In addition, a partial needle loss was evident. Under supplemental UV-B radiation, however, the decreases in F v /F m , φ i , and P m . as well as needle losses were significantly less. Soon after the first heavy autumn rains. photosynthetic parameters in both control and UV-B treated plants recovered to similar values. but the transient summer superiority of UV-B irradiated plants resulted in a significant increase in their dry weight measured at plant harvest. during late January. 1994. Plant height. UV-B absorbing compounds, photosynthetic pigments and relative water content measured at late spring. late summer and at plant harvest, were not significantly affected by supplemental UV-B radiation. The results indicate that enhanced UV-B radiation may be beneficial for Mediterranean pines through a partial alleviation of the adverse effects of summer drought. (author)

  18. The effect of ozone on nicotine desorption from model surfaces:evidence for heterogeneous chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Singer, Brett C.; Lee, Sharon K.; Gundel, LaraA.

    2005-05-01

    Assessment of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure using nicotine as a tracer or biomarker is affected by sorption of the alkaloid to indoor surfaces and by its long-term re-emission into the gas phase. However, surface chemical interactions of nicotine have not been sufficiently characterized. Here, the reaction of ozone with nicotine sorbed to Teflon and cotton surfaces was investigated in an environmental chamber by monitoring nicotine desorption over a week following equilibration in dry or humid air (65-70 % RH). The Teflon and cotton surfaces had N{sub 2}-BET surface areas of 0.19 and 1.17 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, and water mass uptakes (at 70 % RH) of 0 and 7.1 % respectively. Compared with dry air baseline levels in the absence of O{sub 3}, gas phase nicotine concentrations decrease, by 2 orders of magnitude for Teflon after 50 h at 20-45 ppb O{sub 3}, and by a factor of 10 for cotton after 100 h with 13-15 ppb O{sub 3}. The ratios of pseudo first-order rate constants for surface reaction (r) to long-term desorption (k) were r/k = 3.5 and 2.0 for Teflon and cotton surfaces, respectively. These results show that surface oxidation was competitive with desorption. Hence, oxidative losses could significantly reduce long-term re-emissions of nicotine from indoor surfaces. Formaldehyde, N-methylformamide, nicotinaldehyde and cotinine were identified as oxidation products, indicating that the pyrrolidinic N was the site of electrophilic attack by O{sub 3}. The presence of water vapor had no effect on the nicotine-O{sub 3} reaction on Teflon surfaces. By contrast, nicotine desorption from cotton in humid air was unaffected by the presence of ozone. These observations are consistent with complete inhibition of ozone-nicotine surface reactions in an aqueous surface film present in cotton but not in Teflon surfaces.

  19. Comparative Analysis of the Surface Ozone Regime Over Russia and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, G. I.; Tarasova, O. A.; Elansky, N. F.; Beloglazov, M. I.

    2004-05-01

    The data of the measurements of the surface ozone concentration (SOC) at several Russian cites, in TROICA expeditions, data of EMEP network as well as the results of LOTOS model application were used to compare the main characteristics of ozone spatial and temporal variability over Russia and Europe. To carry out this investigation the number of new methods of data analysis were developed and applied. Their complex application gave us possibility to separate clearly the contribution of photochemical processes having mainly periodical component (daily and seasonal). Hence more attention could be paid to the dynamical mechanism impacting SOC regime, their spatial and temporal variability including trends estimation. Spectral windowing application to the filtered database of EMEP network showed that among the different processes providing annual and shorter variability the main part (about 40% of dispersion) is governed by local and synoptical scale processes in the range of 2-7 days. At the same time the spatial distribution of these percentage contribution is non-uniform over Europe. One of the important mechanisms providing this type of variability as well as the longer ones is air transport. To study the impact of air transport the correlation fields were calculated for the transport indices using 2D NILU trajectories and SOC at EMEP network. They showed that at the Eastern border of Europe the growth of the westerlies provides not the decrease but the growth of observed SOC. This approach was use to study the features of the zonal and meridianal transport, its seasonal characteristics and annual variability. Moreover at Kislovodsk High Mountain Station the changes of the transport patters can partly explain even observed trend of SOC. Comparison of the regime at the different locations using TROICA data shows that in the most of Russian cities ozone destruction is observed. The generation of the surface ozone is only possible in the cases of combination of

  20. Surface reaction rate and probability of ozone and alpha-terpineol on glass, polyvinyl chloride, and latex paint surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Shi; Morrison, Glenn C

    2011-05-15

    Ozone can react homogeneously with unsaturated organic compounds in buildings to generate undesirable products. However, these reactions can also occur on indoor surfaces, especially for low-volatility organics. Conversion rates of ozone with α-terpineol, a representative low-volatility compound, were quantified on surfaces that mimic indoor substrates. Rates were measured for α-terpineol adsorbed to beads of glass, polyvinylchloride (PVC), and dry latex paint, in a plug flow reactor. A newly defined second-order surface reaction rate coefficient, k(2), was derived from the flow reactor model. The value of k(2) ranged from 0.68 × 10(-14) cm(4)s(-1)molecule(-1) for α-terpineol adsorbed to PVC to 3.17 × 10(-14) cm(4)s(-1)molecule(-1) for glass, but was insensitive to relative humidity. Further, k(2) is only weakly influenced by the adsorbed mass but instead appears to be more strongly related to the interfacial activity α-terpineol. The minimum reaction probability ranged from 3.79 × 10(-6) for glass at 20% RH to 6.75 × 10(-5) for PVC at 50% RH. The combination of high equilibrium surface coverage and high reactivity for α-terpineol suggests that surface conversion rates are fast enough to compete with or even overwhelm other removal mechanisms in buildings such as gas-phase conversion and air exchange.

  1. Evidence for a continuous decline in lower stratospheric ozone offsetting ozone layer recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, William T.; Alsing, Justin; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Staehelin, Johannes; Haigh, Joanna D.; Peter, Thomas; Tummon, Fiona; Stübi, Rene; Stenke, Andrea; Anderson, John; Bourassa, Adam; Davis, Sean M.; Degenstein, Doug; Frith, Stacey; Froidevaux, Lucien; Roth, Chris; Sofieva, Viktoria; Wang, Ray; Wild, Jeannette; Yu, Pengfei; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Rozanov, Eugene V.

    2018-02-01

    Ozone forms in the Earth's atmosphere from the photodissociation of molecular oxygen, primarily in the tropical stratosphere. It is then transported to the extratropics by the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC), forming a protective ozone layer around the globe. Human emissions of halogen-containing ozone-depleting substances (hODSs) led to a decline in stratospheric ozone until they were banned by the Montreal Protocol, and since 1998 ozone in the upper stratosphere is rising again, likely the recovery from halogen-induced losses. Total column measurements of ozone between the Earth's surface and the top of the atmosphere indicate that the ozone layer has stopped declining across the globe, but no clear increase has been observed at latitudes between 60° S and 60° N outside the polar regions (60-90°). Here we report evidence from multiple satellite measurements that ozone in the lower stratosphere between 60° S and 60° N has indeed continued to decline since 1998. We find that, even though upper stratospheric ozone is recovering, the continuing downward trend in the lower stratosphere prevails, resulting in a downward trend in stratospheric column ozone between 60° S and 60° N. We find that total column ozone between 60° S and 60° N appears not to have decreased only because of increases in tropospheric column ozone that compensate for the stratospheric decreases. The reasons for the continued reduction of lower stratospheric ozone are not clear; models do not reproduce these trends, and thus the causes now urgently need to be established.

  2. Evidence for a Continuous Decline in Lower Stratospheric Ozone Offsetting Ozone Layer Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, William T.; Alsing, Justin; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Staehelin, Johannes; Haigh, Joanna D.; Peter, Thomas; Tummon, Fiona; Stuebi, Rene; Stenke, Andrea; Anderson, John; hide

    2018-01-01

    Ozone forms in the Earth's atmosphere from the photodissociation of molecular oxygen, primarily in the tropical stratosphere. It is then transported to the extratropics by the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC), forming a protective "ozone layer" around the globe. Human emissions of halogen-containing ozone-depleting substances (hODSs) led to a decline in stratospheric ozone until they were banned by the Montreal Protocol, and since 1998 ozone in the upper stratosphere is rising again, likely the recovery from halogen-induced losses. Total column measurements of ozone between the Earth's surface and the top of the atmosphere indicate that the ozone layer has stopped declining across the globe, but no clear increase has been observed at latitudes between 60degS and 60degN outside the polar regions (60-90deg). Here we report evidence from multiple satellite measurements that ozone in the lower stratosphere between 60degS and 60degN has indeed continued to decline since 1998. We find that, even though upper stratospheric ozone is recovering, the continuing downward trend in the lower stratosphere prevails, resulting in a downward trend in stratospheric column ozone between 60degS and 60degN. We find that total column ozone between 60degS and 60degN appears not to have decreased only because of increases in tropospheric column ozone that compensate for the stratospheric decreases. The reasons for the continued reduction of lower stratospheric ozone are not clear; models do not reproduce these trends, and thus the causes now urgently need to be established.

  3. Sensitivity analysis of surface ozone to emission controls in Beijing and its neighboring area during the 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Gao; Meigen Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The regional air quality modeling system RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)-CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system) is applied to analyze temporal and spatial variations in surface ozone concentration over Beijing and its surrounding region from July to October 2008.Comparison of simulated and observed meteorological elements and concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone at one urban site and three rural sites during Olympic Games show that model can generally reproduce the main observed feature of wind,temperature and ozone,but NOx concentration is overestimated.Although ozone concentration decreased during Olympics,high ozone episodes occurred on 24 July and 24 August with concentration of 360 and 245 μg/m3 at Aoyuncun site,respectively.The analysis of sensitive test,with and without emission controls,shows that emission controls could reduce ozone concentration in the afternoon when ozone concentration was highest but increase it at night and in the morning.The evolution of the weather system during the ozone episodes (24 July and 24 August) indicates that hot and dry air and a stable weak pressure field intensified the production of ozone and allowed it to accumulate.Process analysis at the urban site and rural site shows that under favorable weather condition on 24 August,horizontal transport was the main contributor of the rural place and the pollution from the higher layer would be transported to the surface layer.On 24 July,as the wind velocity was smaller,the impact of transport on the rural place was not obvious.

  4. Comparison of measured and modeled surface ozone concentrations at two different sites in Europe during the solar eclipse on August 11, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanis, P.; Zerefos, C.S.; Melas, D.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the solar eclipse on 11 August 1999 on surface ozone at two sites, Thessaloniki, Greece (urban site) and Hohenpeissenberg, Germany (elevated rural site) are investigated in this study and compared with model results. The eclipse offered a unique opportunity to test our understanding of tropospheric ozone chemistry and to investigate with a simple photochemical box model the response of surface ozone to changes of solar radiation during a photolytical perturbation such as the solar eclipse. The surface ozone measurements following the eclipse display a decrease of around 10-15 ppbv at the urban station of Eptapyrgio at Thessaloniki while at Hoheneissenberg, the actual ozone data do not show any clear effect of eclipse on surface ozone. For Thessaloniki, the model results suggest that solely photochemistry can account for a significant amount of the observed surface ozone decrease during the eclipse but transport effects mask part of the photochemical effect of eclipse on surface ozone. For Hohenpeissenberg, the box model predicted an ozone decrease, but to the eclipse, of about 2ppbv in relative agreement with the magnitude of the observed ozone decrease from the 2h moving average while at the same time it inhibits the foreseen diurnal ozone increase. However, this modeled ozone decrease during the eclipse is small compared to the diurnal ozone variability due to transport effects, and hence, transport really masks such relative small changes. The different magnitude of the surface ozone decrease between the two sites indicates mainly the role of the NO x levels. Measured and modeled NO and NO 2 concentrations at Hohenpeissenbergy during the eclipse are also compared and indicate that the partitioning of NO and NO 2 in NO x is influenced clearly from the eclipse. This is not observed at Thessaloniki due to local NO x sources. (Author)

  5. Surface ozone seasonality under global change: Influence from dry deposition and isoprene emissions at northern mid-latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, O.; Paulot, F.; Fiore, A. M.; Horowitz, L. W.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.; Correa, G. J. P.; Lin, M.

    2017-12-01

    Identifying the contributions of nonlinear chemistry and transport to observed surface ozone seasonal cycles over land using global models relies on an accurate representation of ozone uptake by vegetation (dry deposition). It is well established that in the absence of ozone precursor emission changes, a warming climate will increase surface ozone in polluted regions, and that a rise in temperature-dependent isoprene emissions would exacerbate this "climate penalty". However, the influence of changes in ozone dry deposition, expected to evolve with climate and land use, is often overlooked in air quality projections. With a new scheme that represents dry deposition within the NOAA GFDL dynamic vegetation land model (LM3) coupled to the NOAA GFDL atmospheric chemistry-climate model (AM3), we simulate the impact of 21st century climate and land use on ozone dry deposition and isoprene emissions. This dry deposition parameterization is a version of the Wesely scheme, but uses parameters explicitly calculated by LM3 that respond to climate and land use (e.g., stomatal conductance, canopy interception of water, leaf area index). The parameterization includes a nonstomatal deposition dependence on humidity. We evaluate climatological present-day seasonal cycles of ozone deposition velocities and abundances with those observed at northern mid-latitude sites. With a set of 2010s and 2090s decadal simulations under a high climate warming scenario (RCP8.5) and a sensitivity simulation with well-mixed greenhouse gases following RCP8.5 but air pollutants held at 2010 levels (RCP8.5_WMGG), we examine changes in surface ozone seasonal cycles. We build on our previous findings, which indicate that strong reductions in anthropogenic NOx emissions under RCP8.5 cause the surface ozone seasonal cycle over the NE USA to reverse, shifting from a summer peak at present to a winter peak by 2100. Under RCP8.5_WMGG, we parse the separate effects of climate and land use on ozone dry

  6. Near-surface hydrogen depletion of diamond-like carbon films produced by direct ion deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwitz, Andreas; Gupta, Prasanth; Mohr, Berit; Hübner, René; Leveneur, Jerome; Zondervan, Albert; Becker, Hans-Werner

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous atomically flat diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were produced by direct ion deposition using a system based on a Penning ion source, butane precursor gas and post acceleration. Hydrogen depth profiles of the DLC coatings were measured with the 15N R-NRA method using the resonant nuclear reaction 1H(15N, αγ)12C (Eres = 6.385 MeV). The films produced at 3.0-10.5 kV acceleration voltage show two main effects. First, compared to average elemental composition of the film, the near-surface region is hydrogen depleted. The increase of the hydrogen concentration by 3% from the near-surface region towards the bulk is attributed to a growth model which favours the formation of sp2 hybridised carbon rich films in the film formation zone. Secondly, the depth at which the maximum hydrogen concentration is measured increases with acceleration voltage and is proportional to the penetration depth of protons produced by the ion source from the precursor gas. The observed effects are explained by a deposition process that takes into account the contributions of ion species, hydrogen effusion and preferential displacement of atoms during direct ion deposition.

  7. Near-surface hydrogen depletion of diamond-like carbon films produced by direct ion deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markwitz, Andreas, E-mail: A.Markwitz@gns.cri.nz [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Gupta, Prasanth [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Mohr, Berit [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Hübner, René [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Leveneur, Jerome; Zondervan, Albert [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Becker, Hans-Werner [RUBION, Ruhr-University Bochum (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Amorphous atomically flat diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were produced by direct ion deposition using a system based on a Penning ion source, butane precursor gas and post acceleration. Hydrogen depth profiles of the DLC coatings were measured with the 15N R-NRA method using the resonant nuclear reaction {sup 1}H({sup 15}N, αγ){sup 12}C (E{sub res} = 6.385 MeV). The films produced at 3.0–10.5 kV acceleration voltage show two main effects. First, compared to average elemental composition of the film, the near-surface region is hydrogen depleted. The increase of the hydrogen concentration by 3% from the near-surface region towards the bulk is attributed to a growth model which favours the formation of sp{sup 2} hybridised carbon rich films in the film formation zone. Secondly, the depth at which the maximum hydrogen concentration is measured increases with acceleration voltage and is proportional to the penetration depth of protons produced by the ion source from the precursor gas. The observed effects are explained by a deposition process that takes into account the contributions of ion species, hydrogen effusion and preferential displacement of atoms during direct ion deposition.

  8. The COST733 circulation type classification software: an example for surface ozone concentrations in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuzere, Matthias; Kassomenos, P.; Philipp, A.

    2011-08-01

    In the framework of the COST733 Action "Harmonisation and Applications of Weather Types Classifications for European Regions" a new circulation type classification software (hereafter, referred to as cost733class software) is developed. The cost733class software contains a variety of (European) classification methods and is flexible towards choice of domain of interest, input variables, time step, number of circulation types, sequencing and (weighted) target variables. This work introduces the capabilities of the cost733class software in which the resulting circulation types (CTs) from various circulation type classifications (CTCs) are applied on observed summer surface ozone concentrations in Central Europe. Firstly, the main characteristics of the CTCs in terms of circulation pattern frequencies are addressed using the baseline COST733 catalogue (cat 2.0), at present the latest product of the new cost733class software. In a second step, the probabilistic Brier skill score is used to quantify the explanatory power of all classifications in terms of the maximum 8 hourly mean ozone concentrations exceeding the 120-μg/m3 threshold; this was based on ozone concentrations from 130 Central European measurement stations. Averaged evaluation results over all stations indicate generally higher performance of CTCs with a higher number of types. Within the subset of methodologies with a similar number of types, the results suggest that the use of CTCs based on optimisation algorithms are performing slightly better than those which are based on other algorithms (predefined thresholds, principal component analysis and leader algorithms). The results are further elaborated by exploring additional capabilities of the cost733class software. Sensitivity experiments are performed using different domain sizes, input variables, seasonally based classifications and multiple-day sequencing. As an illustration, CTCs which are also conditioned towards temperature with various weights

  9. OZONE PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY AND NOX DEPLETION IN AN URBAN PLUME: INTERPRETATION OF FIELD OBSERVATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR EVALUATING O3-NOX-VOC SENSITIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone production efficiency (OPE) can be defined as the number of ozone (O3) molecules photochemically produced by a molecule of NOx (NO + NO2) before it is lost from the NOx - O3 cycle. Here, we consider observational and modeling techniques to evaluate various operational defi...

  10. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of MSIP Ni coating on depleted uranium surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lin; Li Kexue; Wang Qingfu; Wang Xiaohong; Guan Weijun

    2014-01-01

    The Ni film was prepared by magnetron sputtering ion plating to improve the corrosion resistance of depleted uranium. The corrosion resistance of the Ni film was examined by electrochemical corrosion station. The results show that the Ni film corrosion potential is -100.8 mV, whereas it is -641.2 mV for depleted uranium in 50 μg/g KCl solution. The Ni film is a barrier to protect the depleted uranium substrate avoiding the corrosive media attack. The Ni film polarization resistance and impedance are much higher, while the corrosion current density is much lower contrast with depleted uranium. None crack or flake is found through 70 h corrosion. The corrosion resistance and corrosion current keep stable. It is indicated that the corrosion resistance of depleted uranium is effectively improved after deposited Ni film by magnetron sputtering ion plating. (authors)

  11. Monitoring the consequences of decreased ozone protection: The NSF ultraviolet radiation monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of decreased protection from ultraviolet radiation are as troubling as the continuing depletion of stratospheric ozone. Evidence exists to clearly link ozone depletion to changes in the antarctic marine environment. Results of two 1992 papers are summarized here. Enhanced exposure to mid-range UV radiation was found to be affecting marine ecosystems with a recorded 6-12 percent reduction in primary productivity directly related to the ozone layer depletion. In another experiment, a model was developed indicating that the ozone hole could reduce near-surface photosynthesis by as much as 12-15 percent. The NSF UV monitoring system in place for these and other experiments uses a spectroradiometer, making hourly, high-resolution measurements of the distribution of UV surface irradiance

  12. The Impact of Iodide-Mediated Ozone Deposition and Halogen Chemistry on Surface Ozone Concentrations Across the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The air quality of many large coastal areas in the United States is affected by the confluence of polluted urban and relatively clean marine airmasses, each with distinct atmospheric chemistry. In this context, the role of iodide-mediated ozone (O3) deposition over seawater and m...

  13. MILD CHOLESTEROL DEPLETION REDUCES AMYLOID-β PRODUCTION BY IMPAIRING APP TRAFFICKING TO THE CELL SURFACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia-Laguarta, Cristina; Coma, Mireia; Pera, Marta; Clarimón, Jordi; Sereno, Lidia; Agulló, José M.; Molina-Porcel, Laura; Gallardo, Eduard; Deng, Amy; Berezovska, Oksana; Hyman, Bradley T.; Blesa, Rafael; Gómez-Isla, Teresa; Lleó, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that cellular cholesterol levels can modulate the metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) but the underlying mechanism remains controversial. In the current study, we investigate in detail the relationship between cholesterol reduction, APP processing and γ-secretase function in cell culture studies. We found that mild membrane cholesterol reduction led to a decrease in Aβ40 and Aβ42 in different cell types. We did not detect changes in APP intracellular domain or Notch intracellular domain generation. Western blot analyses showed a cholesterol-dependent decrease in the APP C-terminal fragments and cell surface APP. Finally, we applied a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based technique to study APP-Presenilin 1 (PS1) interactions and lipid rafts in intact cells. Our data indicate that cholesterol depletion reduces association of APP into lipid rafts and disrupts APP-PS1 interaction. Taken together, our results suggest that mild membrane cholesterol reduction impacts the cleavage of APP upstream of γ-secretase and appears to be mediated by changes in APP trafficking and partitioning into lipid rafts. PMID:19457132

  14. Understanding Long-Term Variations in Surface Ozone in United States (U.S. National Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah McGlynn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term surface ozone observations at 25 National Park Service sites across the United States were analyzed for processes on varying time scales using a time scale decomposition technique, the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD. Time scales of interest include the seasonal cycle, large-scale climate oscillations, and long-term (>10 years trends. Emission reductions were found to have a greater impact on sites that are nearest major urban areas. Multidecadal trends in surface ozone were increasing at a rate of 0.07 to 0.37 ppbv year−1 before 2004 and decreasing at a rate of −0.08 to −0.60 ppbv year−1 after 2004 for sites in the East, Southern California, and Northwestern Washington. Sites in the Intermountain West did not experience a reversal of trends from positive to negative until the mid- to late 2000s. The magnitude of the annual amplitude (=annual maximum–minimum decreased at eight sites, two in the West, two in the Intermountain West, and four in the East, by 5–20 ppbv and significantly increased at three sites; one in Alaska, one in the West, and one in the Intermountain West, by 3–4 ppbv. Stronger decreases in the annual amplitude occurred at a greater proportion of sites in the East (4/6 sites than in the West/Intermountain West (4/19 sites. The date of annual maximums and/or minimums has changed at 12 sites, occurring 10–60 days earlier in the year. There appeared to be a link between the timing of the annual maximum and the decrease in the annual amplitude, which was hypothesized to be related to a decrease in ozone titration resulting from NOx emission reductions. Furthermore, it was found that a phase shift of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO, from positive to negative, in 1998–1999 resulted in increased occurrences of La Niña-like conditions. This shift had the effect of directing more polluted air masses from East Asia to higher latitudes over the North American continent. The change in the

  15. Efforts to reduce stratospheric ozone loss affect agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weare, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    Research has shown that the increased ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface resulting from stratospheric ozone loss poses a danger to everyone. Concern about ozone loss prompted many nations to ratify the Montreal Protocol, the most comprehensive international environmental agreement ever enacted. Several provisions of this protocol will have substantial, long-term effects on the agricultural industry. Agriculture contributes substantially to ozone depletion, primarily through its use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) for refrigeration in processing, storage and transport of meats and produce. This paper is meant to serve as an overview of the scientific basis for ozone depletion concerns, a description of the current international policy agreement, and the possible consequences of that policy for agriculture. (author)

  16. Impact of climate change on surface ozone and deposition of sulphur and nitrogen in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, J.; Bergstroem, R.; Foltescu, V. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    The potential impact of regional climate change on the distribution and deposition of air pollutants in Europe has been studied using a regional chemistry/transport/deposition model, MATCH. MATCH was set up using meteorological output from two 10-year climate change experiments made with the Rossby Centre regional Atmospheric climate model version 1 (RCA1). RCA1 was forced by boundary conditions from two different global climate models using the IPCC IS92a (business as usual) emission scenario. The global mean warming in both the GCMs was 2.6 K and was reached in the period 2050-2070. Simulations with MATCH indicate substantial potential impact of regional climate change on both deposition of oxidised nitrogen and concentrations of surface ozone. The simulations show a strong increase in surface ozone expressed as AOT40 and mean of daily maximum over southern and central Europe and a decrease in northern Europe. The simulated changes in April-September AOT40 are significant in relation to inter-annual variability over extended areas. Changes in deposition of oxidised nitrogen are much smaller and also less coherent due to the strong inter-annual variability in precipitation in the RCA1 simulations and differences in the regional climate change simulated with RCA1 in the two regional scenarios. Changes in simulated annual deposition are significant in relation to inter-annual variability only over small areas. This indicates that longer simulation periods are necessary to establish changes in deposition. (author)

  17. Impact of climate change on surface ozone and deposition of sulphur and nitrogen in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Joakim; Bergström, Robert; Foltescu, Valentin

    The potential impact of regional climate change on the distribution and deposition of air pollutants in Europe has been studied using a regional chemistry/transport/deposition model, MATCH. MATCH was set up using meteorological output from two 10-year climate change experiments made with the Rossby Centre regional Atmospheric climate model version 1 (RCA1). RCA1 was forced by boundary conditions from two different global climate models using the IPCC IS92a (business as usual) emission scenario. The global mean warming in both the GCMs was 2.6 K and was reached in the period 2050-2070. Simulations with MATCH indicate substantial potential impact of regional climate change on both deposition of oxidised nitrogen and concentrations of surface ozone. The simulations show a strong increase in surface ozone expressed as AOT40 and mean of daily maximum over southern and central Europe and a decrease in northern Europe. The simulated changes in April-September AOT40 are significant in relation to inter-annual variability over extended areas. Changes in deposition of oxidised nitrogen are much smaller and also less coherent due to the strong inter-annual variability in precipitation in the RCA1 simulations and differences in the regional climate change simulated with RCA1 in the two regional scenarios. Changes in simulated annual deposition are significant in relation to inter-annual variability only over small areas. This indicates that longer simulation periods are necessary to establish changes in deposition.

  18. Near-surface ozone content at the Molodezhnaia and Mirnyi Antarctic stations, according to measurements made during spring 1987 to autumn 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, A.N.; Elokhov, A.S. (Rossiiskaia Akademiia Nauk, Institut Fiziki Atmosfery, Moscow (Russian Federation))

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of near-surface ozone measurements at the Molodezhnaia and Mirnyi Antarctic stations, conducted from the spring of 1987 to the autumn of 1988, as well as of measurements by an aircraft flying along the Mirnyi-Vostok-Mirnyi path (one flight). Mechanisms of diurnal, day-to-day, and annual ozone variability are examined. It is found that, during synoptically active periods, the near-surface ozone correlates positively with the temperature above the atmosphere-land boundary layer, while during the synoptically quiet period the ozone concentrations correlate with the direction of the surface katabatic wind. 29 refs.

  19. Mortality tradeoff between air quality and skin cancer from changes in stratospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, Sebastian D.; Keith, David W.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2018-03-01

    Skin cancer mortality resulting from stratospheric ozone depletion has been widely studied. Similarly, there is a deep body of literature on surface ozone and its health impacts, with modeling and observational studies demonstrating that surface ozone concentrations can be increased when stratospheric air mixes to the Earth’s surface. We offer the first quantitative estimate of the trade-off between these two effects, comparing surface air quality benefits and UV-related harms from stratospheric ozone depletion. Applying an idealized ozone loss term in the stratosphere of a chemistry-transport model for modern-day conditions, we find that each Dobson unit of stratospheric ozone depletion results in a net decrease in the global annual mortality rate of ~40 premature deaths per billion population (d/bn/DU). The impacts are spatially heterogeneous in sign and magnitude, composed of a reduction in premature mortality rate due to ozone exposure of ~80 d/bn/DU concentrated in Southeast Asia, and an increase in skin cancer mortality rate of ~40 d/bn/DU, mostly in Western Europe. This is the first study to quantify air quality benefits of stratospheric ozone depletion, and the first to find that marginal decreases in stratospheric ozone around modern-day values could result in a net reduction in global mortality due to competing health impact pathways. This result, which is subject to significant methodological uncertainty, highlights the need to understand the health and environmental trade-offs involved in policy decisions regarding anthropogenic influences on ozone chemistry over the 21st century.

  20. Ozone, Climate, and Global Atmospheric Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an overview of global atmospheric problems relating to ozone depletion and global warming. Provides background information on the composition of the earth's atmosphere and origin of atmospheric ozone. Describes causes, effects, and evidence of ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect. A vignette provides a summary of a 1991 assessment of…

  1. Modelled surface ozone over southern africa during the cross border air pollution impact assessment project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zunckel, M

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available , T.S., Kasibhatla, P., Hao, W., Sistla, G., Mathur, R., Mc Henry, J., 2001. Evaluating the performance of regional-scale photochemical modelling systems: Part II-ozone predictions. Atmospheric Environment 35, 4175e4188. Jenkins, M.J., Clemitshaw, K.... These conditions are favourable to the formation of ozone and suggest that ozone concentrations over southern Africa may be relatively high. Ozone is an important constituent in tropospheric chemistry (Jenkins and Clemitshaw, 2000). It is also associated...

  2. Interactive ozone and methane chemistry in GISS-E2 historical and future climate simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shindell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The new generation GISS climate model includes fully interactive chemistry related to ozone in historical and future simulations, and interactive methane in future simulations. Evaluation of ozone, its tropospheric precursors, and methane shows that the model captures much of the large-scale spatial structure seen in recent observations. While the model is much improved compared with the previous chemistry-climate model, especially for ozone seasonality in the stratosphere, there is still slightly too rapid stratospheric circulation, too little stratosphere-to-troposphere ozone flux in the Southern Hemisphere and an Antarctic ozone hole that is too large and persists too long. Quantitative metrics of spatial and temporal correlations with satellite datasets as well as spatial autocorrelation to examine transport and mixing are presented to document improvements in model skill and provide a benchmark for future evaluations. The difference in radiative forcing (RF calculated using modeled tropospheric ozone versus tropospheric ozone observed by TES is only 0.016 W m−2. Historical 20th Century simulations show a steady increase in whole atmosphere ozone RF through 1970 after which there is a decrease through 2000 due to stratospheric ozone depletion. Ozone forcing increases throughout the 21st century under RCP8.5 owing to a projected recovery of stratospheric ozone depletion and increases in methane, but decreases under RCP4.5 and 2.6 due to reductions in emissions of other ozone precursors. RF from methane is 0.05 to 0.18 W m−2 higher in our model calculations than in the RCP RF estimates. The surface temperature response to ozone through 1970 follows the increase in forcing due to tropospheric ozone. After that time, surface temperatures decrease as ozone RF declines due to stratospheric depletion. The stratospheric ozone depletion also induces substantial changes in surface winds and the Southern Ocean circulation, which may play a role in

  3. Ozone decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batakliev Todor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers. Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a review on kinetics and catalyst characterization which ties together the previously reported results. Noble metals and oxides of transition metals have been found to be the most active substances for ozone decomposition. The high price of precious metals stimulated the use of metal oxide catalysts and particularly the catalysts based on manganese oxide. It has been determined that the kinetics of ozone decomposition is of first order importance. A mechanism of the reaction of catalytic ozone decomposition is discussed, based on detailed spectroscopic investigations of the catalytic surface, showing the existence of peroxide and superoxide surface intermediates

  4. Ultraviolet light and ozone surface modification of poly-alpha α-methylstyrene using electroless nickel plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi Fangting; Sichuan Univ., Chengdu; Li Bo; Liu Yiyang; Chen Sufen; Jiang Bo

    2009-01-01

    The deposition capability of nickel on the surface of poly-α-methylstyrene microspheres was improved by combined treatment of ozone aeration and UV irradiation in aqueous ammonia. Surface properties of the treated film were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) and Fourier transform infrared(FT-TR) measurements. The samples were characterized by SEM. The results indicate that after ultraviolet joint ozone treatment, the surfaces of microspheres were oxidized, and the amine and amide groups are introduced on their surface. The images of SEM show the adhesion between microspheres and nickel-phosphorus films was improved after surface modification. This was attributed to amide which could chemisorb palladium ions to catalyze electroless nickel plating on the pretreated surface of microspheres. (authors)

  5. Impacts of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering on tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lili; Nowack, Peer J.; Tilmes, Simone; Robock, Alan

    2017-10-01

    A range of solar radiation management (SRM) techniques has been proposed to counter anthropogenic climate change. Here, we examine the potential effects of stratospheric sulfate aerosols and solar insolation reduction on tropospheric ozone and ozone at Earth's surface. Ozone is a key air pollutant, which can produce respiratory diseases and crop damage. Using a version of the Community Earth System Model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research that includes comprehensive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, we model both stratospheric sulfur injection and solar irradiance reduction schemes, with the aim of achieving equal levels of surface cooling relative to the Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 scenario. This allows us to compare the impacts of sulfate aerosols and solar dimming on atmospheric ozone concentrations. Despite nearly identical global mean surface temperatures for the two SRM approaches, solar insolation reduction increases global average surface ozone concentrations, while sulfate injection decreases it. A fundamental difference between the two geoengineering schemes is the importance of heterogeneous reactions in the photochemical ozone balance with larger stratospheric sulfate abundance, resulting in increased ozone depletion in mid- and high latitudes. This reduces the net transport of stratospheric ozone into the troposphere and thus is a key driver of the overall decrease in surface ozone. At the same time, the change in stratospheric ozone alters the tropospheric photochemical environment due to enhanced ultraviolet radiation. A shared factor among both SRM scenarios is decreased chemical ozone loss due to reduced tropospheric humidity. Under insolation reduction, this is the dominant factor giving rise to the global surface ozone increase. Regionally, both surface ozone increases and decreases are found for both scenarios; that is, SRM would affect regions of the world differently in terms of air pollution. In conclusion

  6. Impacts of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering on tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A range of solar radiation management (SRM techniques has been proposed to counter anthropogenic climate change. Here, we examine the potential effects of stratospheric sulfate aerosols and solar insolation reduction on tropospheric ozone and ozone at Earth's surface. Ozone is a key air pollutant, which can produce respiratory diseases and crop damage. Using a version of the Community Earth System Model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research that includes comprehensive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, we model both stratospheric sulfur injection and solar irradiance reduction schemes, with the aim of achieving equal levels of surface cooling relative to the Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 scenario. This allows us to compare the impacts of sulfate aerosols and solar dimming on atmospheric ozone concentrations. Despite nearly identical global mean surface temperatures for the two SRM approaches, solar insolation reduction increases global average surface ozone concentrations, while sulfate injection decreases it. A fundamental difference between the two geoengineering schemes is the importance of heterogeneous reactions in the photochemical ozone balance with larger stratospheric sulfate abundance, resulting in increased ozone depletion in mid- and high latitudes. This reduces the net transport of stratospheric ozone into the troposphere and thus is a key driver of the overall decrease in surface ozone. At the same time, the change in stratospheric ozone alters the tropospheric photochemical environment due to enhanced ultraviolet radiation. A shared factor among both SRM scenarios is decreased chemical ozone loss due to reduced tropospheric humidity. Under insolation reduction, this is the dominant factor giving rise to the global surface ozone increase. Regionally, both surface ozone increases and decreases are found for both scenarios; that is, SRM would affect regions of the world differently in terms of air

  7. Application of Fe(II)/peroxymonosulfate for improving ultrafiltration membrane performance in surface water treatment: Comparison with coagulation and ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoxiang; Liang, Heng; Ding, An; Zhu, Xuewu; Tang, Xiaobin; Gan, Zhendong; Xing, Jiajian; Wu, Daoji; Li, Guibai

    2017-11-01

    Coagulation and ozonation have been widely used as pretreatments for ultrafiltration (UF) membrane in drinking water treatment. While beneficial, coagulation or ozonation alone is unable to both efficiently control membrane fouling and product water quality in many cases. Thus, in this study an emerging alternative of ferrous iron/peroxymonosulfate (Fe(II)/PMS), which can act as both an oxidant and a coagulant was employed prior to UF for treatment of natural surface water, and compared with conventional coagulation and ozonation. The results showed that the Fe(II)/PMS-UF system exhibited the best performance for dissolved organic carbon removal, likely due to the dual functions of coagulation and oxidation in the single process. The fluorescent and UV-absorbing organic components were more susceptible to ozonation than Fe(II)/PMS treatment. Fe(II)/PMS and ozonation pretreatments significantly increased the removal efficiency of atrazine, p-chloronitrobenzene and sulfamethazine by 12-76% and 50-94%, respectively, whereas coagulation exerted a minor influence. The Fe(II)/PMS pretreatment also showed the best performance for the reduction of both reversible and irreversible membrane fouling, and the performance was hardly affected by membrane pore size and surface hydrophobicity. In addition, the characterization of hydraulic irreversible organic foulants confirmed its effectiveness. These results demonstrate the potential advantages of applying Fe(II)/PMS as a pretreatment for UF to simultaneously control membrane fouling and improve the permeate quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Field-analysis of potable water quality and ozone efficiency in ozone-assisted biological filtration systems for surface water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanacic, Enisa; Stavrinides, John; McMartin, Dena W

    2016-11-01

    Potable water treatment in small communities is challenging due to a complexity of factors starting with generally poor raw water sources, a smaller tax and consumption base that limit capital and operating funds, and culminating in what is typically a less sophisticated and robust water treatment plant for production and delivery of safe, high quality potable water. The design and optimization of modular ozone-assisted biological filtration systems can address some of these challenges. In surface water treatment, the removal of organic matter (e.g., dissolved organic carbon - DOC), inorganic nutrients and other exposure-related contaminants (e.g., turbidity and dissolved solids) from the raw water source is essential. Thus, a combination of chemical and biological oxidation processes can produce an effective and efficient water treatment plant design that is also affordable and robust. To that end, the ozone-assisted biological filtration water treatment plants in two communities were evaluated to determine the efficacy of oxidation and contaminant removal processes. The results of testing for in-field system performance indicate that plant performance is particularly negatively impacted by high alkalinity, high organics loading, and turbidity. Both bicarbonate and carbonate alkalinity were observed to impede ozone contact and interaction with DOC, resulting in lower than anticipated DOC oxidation efficiency and bioavailability. The ozone dosage at both water treatment plants must be calculated on a more routine basis to better reflect both the raw water DOC concentration and presence of alkalinities to ensure maximized organics oxidation and minimization of trihalomethanes production. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimizing removal of cod from water by catalytic ozonation of cephalexin using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, J.; Amin, N.S.; Zahoor, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to optimize the effect of circulation rates, ozone supply, cephalexin (CEX) concentration, and granular activated carbon (GAC) dose on removal of COD from solution. According to statistical analysis, all of the input variables exerted significant influence on COD removal, however, the effect of interaction variables was not found to be significant on comparative basis. Further, the developed quadratic regression model based on obtained results emphasized the significance of individual terms and little of interaction terms. The values of r/sup 2/ (0.959), adjusted r/sup 2/ (0.902) obtained by analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicates the significance of quadratic model in predicting desired response. The maximum of 70% of COD was removed in these experiments and optimized value according to main effect of variables was 60%. (author)

  10. Impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality in the Seoul metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Ryu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modified local meteorology owing to heterogeneities in the urban–rural surface can affect urban air quality. In this study, the impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality during a high ozone (O3 episode in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, are investigated using a high-resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ. Under fair weather conditions, the temperature excess (urban heat island significantly modifies boundary layer characteristics/structures and local circulations. The modified boundary layer and local circulations result in an increase in O3 levels in the urban area of 16 ppb in the nighttime and 13 ppb in the daytime. Enhanced turbulence in the deep urban boundary layer dilutes pollutants such as NOx, and this contributes to the elevated O3 levels through the reduced O3 destruction by NO in the NOx-rich environment. The advection of O3 precursors over the mountains near Seoul by the prevailing valley-breeze circulation in the mid- to late morning results in the build-up of O3 over the mountains in conjunction with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions there. As the prevailing local circulation in the afternoon changes to urban-breeze circulation, the O3-rich air masses over the mountains are advected over the urban area. The urban-breeze circulation exerts significant influences on not only the advection of O3 but also the chemical production of O3 under the circumstances in which both anthropogenic and biogenic (natural emissions play important roles in O3 formation. As the air masses that are characterized by low NOx and high BVOC levels and long OH chain length are advected over the urban area from the surroundings, the ozone production efficiency increases in the urban area. The relatively strong vertical mixing in the urban boundary layer embedded in the

  11. Productions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Surface Waters from Reactions with Atmospheric Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Frances; Bell, Thomas; Yang, Mingxi

    2017-04-01

    Ozone (O3) is a key atmospheric oxidant, greenhouse gas and air pollutant. In marine environments, some atmospheric ozone is lost by reactions with aqueous compounds (e.g. dissolved organic material, DOM, dimethyl sulfide, DMS, and iodide) near the sea surface. These reactions also lead to formations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Removal of O3 by the ocean remains a large uncertainty in global and regional chemical transport models, hampering coastal air quality forecasts. To better understand the role of the ocean in controlling O3 concentrations in the coastal marine atmosphere, we designed and implemented a series of laboratory experiments whereby ambient surface seawater was bubbled with O3-enriched, VOC-free air in a custom-made glass bubble equilibration system. Gas phase concentrations of a range of VOCs were monitored continuously over the mass range m/z 33 - 137 at the outflow of the bubble equilibrator by a proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Gas phase O3 was also measured at the input and output of the equilibrator to monitor the uptake due to reactions with dissolved compounds in seawater. We observed consistent productions of a variety of VOCs upon reaction with O3, notably isoprene, aldehydes, and ketones. Aqueous DMS is rapidly removed from the reactions with O3. To test the importance of dissolved organic matter precursors, we added increasing (milliliter) volumes of Emiliania huxleyi culture to the equilibrator filled with aged seawater, and observed significant linear increases in gas phase concentrations of a number of VOCs. Reactions between DOM and O3 at the sea-air interface represent a potentially significant source of VOCs in marine air and a sink of atmospheric O3.

  12. Interaction between local and regional pollution during Escompte 2001: impact on surface ozone concentrations (IOP2a and 2b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, F.; Tulet, P.; Rosset, R.

    2005-03-01

    Escompte, a European programme which took place in the Marseille region in June-July 2001, has been designed as an exhaustive database to be used for the development and validation of air pollution models. The air quality Mesoscale NonHydrostatic Chemistry model (Meso-NH-C) is used to simulate 2 days of an Intensive Observation Period (IOP) documented during the Escompte campaign, June 23 and 24, 2001. We first study the synoptic and local meteorological situation on June 23 and 24, using surface and aircraft measurements. Then, we focus on the pollution episode of June 24. This study emphasizes the deep impact of synoptic and local dynamics on observed ozone concentrations. It is shown that ozone levels are due both to regional and local factors, with highlights of the importance of ozone layering. More generally this confirms, even in an otherwise predominant local sea-breeze regime, the need to consider larger scale regional pollutant transport.

  13. Generation of ozone by pulsed corona discharge over water surface in hybrid gas-liquid electrical discharge reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukes, Petr [Department of Pulse Plasma Systems, Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Za Slovankou 3, PO Box 17, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Clupek, Martin [Department of Pulse Plasma Systems, Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Za Slovankou 3, PO Box 17, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Babicky, Vaclav [Department of Pulse Plasma Systems, Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Za Slovankou 3, PO Box 17, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Janda, Vaclav [Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 160 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Sunka, Pavel [Department of Pulse Plasma Systems, Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Za Slovankou 3, PO Box 17, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2005-02-07

    Ozone formation by a pulse positive corona discharge generated in the gas phase between a planar high voltage electrode made from reticulated vitreous carbon and a water surface with an immersed ground stainless steel plate electrode was investigated under various operating conditions. The effects of gas flow rate (0.5-3 litre min{sup -1}), discharge gap spacing (2.5-10 mm), applied input power (2-45 W) and gas composition (oxygen containing argon or nitrogen) on ozone production were determined. Ozone concentration increased with increasing power input and with increasing discharge gap. The production of ozone was significantly affected by the presence of water vapour formed through vaporization of water at the gas-liquid interface by the action of the gas phase discharge. The highest energy efficiency for ozone production was obtained using high voltage pulses of approximately 150 ns duration in Ar/O{sub 2} mixtures with the maximum efficiency (energy yield) of 23 g kW h{sup -1} for 40% argon content.

  14. Generation of ozone by pulsed corona discharge over water surface in hybrid gas-liquid electrical discharge reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukes, Petr; Clupek, Martin; Babicky, Vaclav; Janda, Vaclav; Sunka, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Ozone formation by a pulse positive corona discharge generated in the gas phase between a planar high voltage electrode made from reticulated vitreous carbon and a water surface with an immersed ground stainless steel plate electrode was investigated under various operating conditions. The effects of gas flow rate (0.5-3 litre min -1 ), discharge gap spacing (2.5-10 mm), applied input power (2-45 W) and gas composition (oxygen containing argon or nitrogen) on ozone production were determined. Ozone concentration increased with increasing power input and with increasing discharge gap. The production of ozone was significantly affected by the presence of water vapour formed through vaporization of water at the gas-liquid interface by the action of the gas phase discharge. The highest energy efficiency for ozone production was obtained using high voltage pulses of approximately 150 ns duration in Ar/O 2 mixtures with the maximum efficiency (energy yield) of 23 g kW h -1 for 40% argon content

  15. Reaction of a phospholipid monolayer with gas-phase ozone at the air-water interface: measurement of surface excess and surface pressure in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Katherine C; Rennie, Adrian R; King, Martin D; Hardman, Samantha J O; Lucas, Claire O M; Pfrang, Christian; Hughes, Brian R; Hughes, Arwel V

    2010-11-16

    The reaction between gas-phase ozone and monolayers of the unsaturated lipid 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, POPC, on aqueous solutions has been studied in real time using neutron reflection and surface pressure measurements. The reaction between ozone and lung surfactant, which contains POPC, leads to decreased pulmonary function, but little is known about the changes that occur to the interfacial material as a result of oxidation. The results reveal that the initial reaction of ozone with POPC leads to a rapid increase in surface pressure followed by a slow decrease to very low values. The neutron reflection measurements, performed on an isotopologue of POPC with a selectively deuterated palmitoyl strand, reveal that the reaction leads to loss of this strand from the air-water interface, suggesting either solubilization of the product lipid or degradation of the palmitoyl strand by a reactive species. Reactions of (1)H-POPC on D(2)O reveal that the headgroup region of the lipids in aqueous solution is not dramatically perturbed by the reaction of POPC monolayers with ozone supporting degradation of the palmitoyl strand rather than solubilization. The results are consistent with the reaction of ozone with the oleoyl strand of POPC at the air-water interface leading to the formation of OH radicals. The highly reactive OH radicals produced can then go on to react with the saturated palmitoyl strands leading to the formation of oxidized lipids with shorter alkyl tails.

  16. Oxidative regeneration of toluene-saturated natural zeolite by gaseous ozone: The influence of zeolite chemical surface characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alejandro, Serguei [Laboratorio de Tecnologías Limpias (F. Ingeniería), Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Alonso de Ribera 2850, Concepción (Chile); Núcleo de Energías Renovables (F. Ingeniería), Universidad Católica de Temuco, Rudecindo Ortega 02950, Temuco (Chile); Valdés, Héctor, E-mail: hvaldes@ucsc.cl [Laboratorio de Tecnologías Limpias (F. Ingeniería), Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Alonso de Ribera 2850, Concepción (Chile); Manéro, Marie-Hélène [Université de Toulouse (France); INPT, UPS (France); Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, 4, Allée Emile Monso, F–31030 Toulouse (France); CNRS (France); Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, F–31030 Toulouse (France); Zaror, Claudio A. [Departamento de Ingeniería Química (F. Ingeniería), Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Correo 3, Casilla 160–C (Chile)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Surface acidity of modified natural zeolite is related to its chemical reactivity. • Brønsted acid sites are associated to toluene adsorption. • Lewis acid sites could decompose ozone generating surface active oxygen species. • Infrared spectra evidence active atomic oxygen and oxidation by-product formation. • 2NH4Z1 sample shows the highest reactivity toward adsorbed toluene. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of zeolite chemical surface characteristics on the oxidative regeneration of toluene saturated-zeolite samples is investigated. A Chilean natural zeolite (53% clinoptilolite, 40% mordenite and 7% quartz) was chemically modified by acid treatment with hydrochloric acid and by ion-exchange with ammonium sulphate. Thermal pre-treatments at 623 and 823 K were applied and six zeolite samples with different chemical surface characteristics were generated. Chemical modification of natural zeolite followed by thermal out-gassing allows distinguishing the role of acidic surface sites on the regeneration of exhausted zeolites. An increase in Brønsted acid sites on zeolite surface is observed as a result of ammonium-exchange treatment followed by thermal treatment at 623 K, thus increasing the adsorption capacity toward toluene. High ozone consumption could be associated to a high content of Lewis acid sites, since these could decompose ozone into atomic active oxygen species. Then, surface oxidation reactions could take part among adsorbed toluene at Brønsted acid sites and surface atomic oxygen species, reducing the amount of adsorbed toluene after the regenerative oxidation with ozone. Experimental results show that the presence of adsorbed oxidation by-products has a negative impact on the recovery of zeolite adsorption capacity.

  17. A simple UV-ozone surface treatment to enhance photocatalytic performance of TiO 2 loaded polymer nanofiber membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Dilpazir, S.

    2016-01-29

    Homogeneously dispersed titanium dioxide loaded polyacrylonitrile nanofiber membranes with increased active mass loading, Ti3+ surface defects and hydrophilicity were fabricated by combining electrospinning and UV-ozone surface treatment. The photocatalytic activity improved by a factor of ∼2 and the kinetics of photodegradation switched from pseudo-first order to pseudo-second order with increasing TiO2 content with a maximum rate constant of 20.7 h-1. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  18. Oxidative regeneration of toluene-saturated natural zeolite by gaseous ozone: The influence of zeolite chemical surface characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejandro, Serguei; Valdés, Héctor; Manéro, Marie-Hélène; Zaror, Claudio A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface acidity of modified natural zeolite is related to its chemical reactivity. • Brønsted acid sites are associated to toluene adsorption. • Lewis acid sites could decompose ozone generating surface active oxygen species. • Infrared spectra evidence active atomic oxygen and oxidation by-product formation. • 2NH4Z1 sample shows the highest reactivity toward adsorbed toluene. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of zeolite chemical surface characteristics on the oxidative regeneration of toluene saturated-zeolite samples is investigated. A Chilean natural zeolite (53% clinoptilolite, 40% mordenite and 7% quartz) was chemically modified by acid treatment with hydrochloric acid and by ion-exchange with ammonium sulphate. Thermal pre-treatments at 623 and 823 K were applied and six zeolite samples with different chemical surface characteristics were generated. Chemical modification of natural zeolite followed by thermal out-gassing allows distinguishing the role of acidic surface sites on the regeneration of exhausted zeolites. An increase in Brønsted acid sites on zeolite surface is observed as a result of ammonium-exchange treatment followed by thermal treatment at 623 K, thus increasing the adsorption capacity toward toluene. High ozone consumption could be associated to a high content of Lewis acid sites, since these could decompose ozone into atomic active oxygen species. Then, surface oxidation reactions could take part among adsorbed toluene at Brønsted acid sites and surface atomic oxygen species, reducing the amount of adsorbed toluene after the regenerative oxidation with ozone. Experimental results show that the presence of adsorbed oxidation by-products has a negative impact on the recovery of zeolite adsorption capacity

  19. Changes in local surface structure and Sr depletion in Fe-implanted SrTiO{sub 3} (001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobacheva, O., E-mail: olobache@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada); Yiu, Y.M. [Department of Chemistry, Western University, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada); Chen, N. [Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4 (Canada); Sham, T.K.; Goncharova, L.V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Western University, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Fe ion implantation of SrTiO{sub 3} and post-implantation results in formation of Sr{sub 1-y}Ti{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x+y}O{sub 3-δ} phase. • In Sr{sub 1-y}Ti{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x+y}O{sub 3-δ} phase, Fe assumes Fe{sup 3+} oxidation state in the bulk and Fe{sup 2+} oxidation state in the near surface area. • FEFF9 calculations indicate that Fe ions can substitute both Ti and Sr sites. • Formation of Sr{sub 1-y}Ti{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x+y}O{sub 3-δ} phase is accompanied by Sr depletion in the near surface region. - Abstract: Local surface structure of single crystal strontium titanate SrTiO{sub 3} (001) samples implanted with Fe in the range of concentrations between 2 × 10{sup 14} to 2 × 10{sup 16} Fe/cm{sup 2} at 30 keV has been investigated. In order to facilitate Fe substitution (doping), implanted samples were annealed in oxygen at 350 °C. Sr depletion was observed from the near-surface layers impacted by the ion-implantation process, as revealed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Hydrocarbon contaminations on the surface may contribute to the mechanisms of Sr depletion, which have important implications for Sr(Ti{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x})O{sub 3-δ} materials in gas sensing applications.

  20. Oxygen termination of homoepitaxial diamond surface by ozone and chemical methods: An experimental and theoretical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Javier; Araujo, Daniel; Piñero, José Carlos; Sánchez-Coronilla, Antonio; Blanco, Eduardo; Villar, Pilar; Alcántara, Rodrigo; Montserrat, Josep; Florentin, Matthieu; Eon, David; Pernot, Julien

    2018-03-01

    Phenomena related with the diamond surface of both power electronic and biosensor devices govern their global behaviour. In particular H- or O-terminations lead to wide variations in their characteristics. To study the origins of such aspects in greater depth, different methods to achieve oxygen terminated diamond were investigated following a multi-technique approach. DFT calculations were then performed to understand the different configurations between the C and O atoms. Three methods for O-terminating the diamond surface were performed: two physical methods with ozone at different pressures, and an acid chemical treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, HRTEM, and EELS were used to characterize the oxygenated surface. Periodic-DFT calculations were undertaken to understand the effect of the different ways in which the oxygen atoms are bonded to carbon atoms on the diamond surface. XPS results showed the presence of hydroxyl or ether groups, composed of simple Csbnd O bonds, and the acid treatment resulted in the highest amount of O on the diamond surface. In turn, ellipsometry showed that the different treatments led to the surface having different optical properties, such as a greater refraction index and extinction coefficient in the case of the sample subjected to acid treatment. TEM analysis showed that applying temperature treatment improved the distribution of the oxygen atoms at the interface and that this generates a thinner amount of oxygen at each position and higher interfacial coverage. Finally, DFT calculations showed both an increase in the number of preferential electron transport pathways when π bonds and ether groups appear in the system, and also the presence of states in the middle of the band gap when there are π bonds, Cdbnd C or Cdbnd O.

  1. SMM mesospheric ozone measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, A. C.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective was to understand the secular and seasonal behavior of ozone in the lower mesosphere, 50 to 70 km. This altitude region is important in understanding the factors which determine ozone behavior. A secondary objective is the study of stratospheric ozone in the polar regions. Use is made of results from the SBUV satellite borne instrument. In the Arctic the interaction between chlorine compounds and low molecular weight hydrocarbons is studied. More than 30,000 profiles were obtained using the UVSP instrument on the SMM spacecraft. Several orbits of ozone data per day were obtained allowing study of the current rise in solar activity from the minimum until the present. Analysis of Nimbus 7 SBUV data in Antarctic spring indicates that ozone is depleted within the polar vortex relative to ozone outside the vortex. This depletion confirms the picture of ozone loss at altitudes where polar stratospheric clouds exist. In addition, there is ozone loss above the cloud level indicating that there is another mechanism in addition to ozone loss initiated by heterogeneous chlorine reactions on cloud particles.

  2. Oxidative regeneration of toluene-saturated natural zeolite by gaseous ozone: the influence of zeolite chemical surface characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro, Serguei; Valdés, Héctor; Manéro, Marie-Hélène; Zaror, Claudio A

    2014-06-15

    In this study, the effect of zeolite chemical surface characteristics on the oxidative regeneration of toluene saturated-zeolite samples is investigated. A Chilean natural zeolite (53% clinoptilolite, 40% mordenite and 7% quartz) was chemically modified by acid treatment with hydrochloric acid and by ion-exchange with ammonium sulphate. Thermal pre-treatments at 623 and 823K were applied and six zeolite samples with different chemical surface characteristics were generated. Chemical modification of natural zeolite followed by thermal out-gassing allows distinguishing the role of acidic surface sites on the regeneration of exhausted zeolites. An increase in Brønsted acid sites on zeolite surface is observed as a result of ammonium-exchange treatment followed by thermal treatment at 623K, thus increasing the adsorption capacity toward toluene. High ozone consumption could be associated to a high content of Lewis acid sites, since these could decompose ozone into atomic active oxygen species. Then, surface oxidation reactions could take part among adsorbed toluene at Brønsted acid sites and surface atomic oxygen species, reducing the amount of adsorbed toluene after the regenerative oxidation with ozone. Experimental results show that the presence of adsorbed oxidation by-products has a negative impact on the recovery of zeolite adsorption capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Response of the global surface ozone distribution to Northern Hemisphere sea surface temperature changes: implications for long-range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kan; Liu, Junfeng; Ban-Weiss, George; Zhang, Jiachen; Tao, Wei; Cheng, Yanli; Tao, Shu

    2017-07-01

    The response of surface ozone (O3) concentrations to basin-scale warming and cooling of Northern Hemisphere oceans is investigated using the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Idealized, spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies of ±1 °C are individually superimposed onto the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and North Indian oceans. Our simulations suggest large seasonal and regional variability in surface O3 in response to SST anomalies, especially in the boreal summer. The responses of surface O3 associated with basin-scale SST warming and cooling have similar magnitude but are opposite in sign. Increasing the SST by 1 °C in one of the oceans generally decreases the surface O3 concentrations from 1 to 5 ppbv. With fixed emissions, SST increases in a specific ocean basin in the Northern Hemisphere tend to increase the summertime surface O3 concentrations over upwind regions, accompanied by a widespread reduction over downwind continents. We implement the integrated process rate (IPR) analysis in CESM and find that meteorological O3 transport in response to SST changes is the key process causing surface O3 perturbations in most cases. During the boreal summer, basin-scale SST warming facilitates the vertical transport of O3 to the surface over upwind regions while significantly reducing the vertical transport over downwind continents. This process, as confirmed by tagged CO-like tracers, indicates a considerable suppression of intercontinental O3 transport due to increased tropospheric stability at lower midlatitudes induced by SST changes. Conversely, the responses of chemical O3 production to regional SST warming can exert positive effects on surface O3 levels over highly polluted continents, except South Asia, where intensified cloud loading in response to North Indian SST warming depresses both the surface air temperature and solar radiation, and thus photochemical O3 production. Our findings indicate a robust linkage between basin-scale SST

  4. Response of the global surface ozone distribution to Northern Hemisphere sea surface temperature changes: implications for long-range transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The response of surface ozone (O3 concentrations to basin-scale warming and cooling of Northern Hemisphere oceans is investigated using the Community Earth System Model (CESM. Idealized, spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST anomalies of ±1 °C are individually superimposed onto the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and North Indian oceans. Our simulations suggest large seasonal and regional variability in surface O3 in response to SST anomalies, especially in the boreal summer. The responses of surface O3 associated with basin-scale SST warming and cooling have similar magnitude but are opposite in sign. Increasing the SST by 1 °C in one of the oceans generally decreases the surface O3 concentrations from 1 to 5 ppbv. With fixed emissions, SST increases in a specific ocean basin in the Northern Hemisphere tend to increase the summertime surface O3 concentrations over upwind regions, accompanied by a widespread reduction over downwind continents. We implement the integrated process rate (IPR analysis in CESM and find that meteorological O3 transport in response to SST changes is the key process causing surface O3 perturbations in most cases. During the boreal summer, basin-scale SST warming facilitates the vertical transport of O3 to the surface over upwind regions while significantly reducing the vertical transport over downwind continents. This process, as confirmed by tagged CO-like tracers, indicates a considerable suppression of intercontinental O3 transport due to increased tropospheric stability at lower midlatitudes induced by SST changes. Conversely, the responses of chemical O3 production to regional SST warming can exert positive effects on surface O3 levels over highly polluted continents, except South Asia, where intensified cloud loading in response to North Indian SST warming depresses both the surface air temperature and solar radiation, and thus photochemical O3 production. Our findings indicate a robust linkage

  5. Impact of Future Emissions and Climate Change on Surface Ozone over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C. T.; Westervelt, D. M.; Fiore, A. M.; Rieder, H. E.; Kinney, P.; Wang, S.; Correa, G. J. P.

    2017-12-01

    China's immense ambient air pollution problem and world-leading greenhouse gas emissions place it at the forefront of global efforts to address these related environmental concerns. Here, we analyze the impact of ECLIPSE (Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of Short-Lived Pollutants) future emissions scenarios representative of current legislation (CLE) and maximum technically feasible emissions reductions (MFR) on surface ozone (O3) concentrations over China in the 2030s and 2050s, in the context of a changing climate. We use a suite of simulations performed with the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's AM3 global chemistry-climate model. To estimate the impact of climate change in isolation on Chinese air quality, we hold emissions of air pollutants including O3 precursors fixed at 2015 levels but allow climate (global sea surface temperatures and sea ice cover) to change according to decadal averages for the years 2026-2035 and 2046-2055 from a three-member ensemble of GFDL-CM3 simulations under the RCP8.5 high warming scenario. Evaluation of the present-day simulation (2015 CLE) with observations from 1497 chiefly urban air quality monitoring stations shows that simulated surface O3 is positively biased by 26 ppb on average over the domain of China. Previous studies, however, have shown that the modeled ozone response to changes in NOx emissions over the Eastern United States mirrors the magnitude and structure of observed changes in maximum daily average 8-hour (MDA8) O3 distributions. Therefore, we use the model's simulated changes for the 2030s and 2050s to project changes in policy-relevant MDA8 O3 concentrations. We find an overall increase in MDA8 O3 for CLE scenarios in which emissions of NOx precursors are projected to increase, and under MFR scenarios, an overall decrease, with the highest changes occurring in summertime for both 2030 and 2050 MFR. Under climate change alone, the model simulates a mean summertime decrease of 1.3 ppb

  6. Analysis of observed surface ozone in the dry season over Eastern Thailand during 1997-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assareh, Nosha; Prabamroong, Thayukorn; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan; Theramongkol, Phunsak; Leungsakul, Sirakarn; Mitrjit, Nawarat; Rachiwong, Jintarat

    2016-09-01

    This study analyzed observed surface ozone (O3) in the dry season over a long-term period of 1997-2012 for the eastern region of Thailand and incorporated several technical tools or methods in investigating different aspects of O3. The focus was the urbanized and industrialized coastal areas recently recognized as most O3-polluted areas. It was found that O3 is intensified most in the dry-season months when meteorological conditions are favorable to O3 development. The diurnal variations of O3 and its precursors show the general patterns of urban background. From observational O3 isopleth diagrams and morning ratios of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), the chemical regime of O3 formation was identified as VOC-sensitive, and the degree of VOC sensitivity tends to increase over the years, suggesting emission control on VOC to be suitable for O3 management. Both total oxidant analysis and back-trajectory modeling (together with K-means clustering) indicate the potential role of regional transport or influence in enhancing surface O3 level over the study areas. A meteorological adjustment with generalized linear modeling was performed to statistically exclude meteorological effects on the variability of O3. Local air-mass recirculation factor was included in the modeling to support the coastal application. The derived trends in O3 based on the meteorological adjustment were found to be significantly positive using a Mann-Kendall test with block bootstrapping.

  7. Depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffer, E.; Nifenecker, H.

    2001-02-01

    This document deals with the physical, chemical and radiological properties of the depleted uranium. What is the depleted uranium? Why do the military use depleted uranium and what are the risk for the health? (A.L.B.)

  8. The response of surface ozone to climate change over the Eastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Racherla

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the response of surface ozone (O3 to future climate change in the eastern United States by performing simulations corresponding to present (1990s and future (2050s climates using an integrated model of global climate, tropospheric gas-phase chemistry, and aerosols. A future climate has been imposed using ocean boundary conditions corresponding to the IPCC SRES A2 scenario for the 2050s decade. Present-day anthropogenic emissions and CO2/CH4 mixing ratios have been used in both simulations while climate-sensitive emissions were allowed to vary with the simulated climate. The severity and frequency of O3 episodes in the eastern U.S. increased due to future climate change, primarily as a result of increased O3 chemical production. The 95th percentile O3 mixing ratio increased by 5 ppbv and the largest frequency increase occured in the 80–90 ppbv range; the US EPA's current 8-h ozone primary standard is 80 ppbv. The increased O3 chemical production is due to increases in: 1 natural isoprene emissions; 2 hydroperoxy radical concentrations resulting from increased water vapor concentrations; and, 3 NOx concentrations resulting from reduced PAN. The most substantial and statistically significant (p<0.05 increases in episode frequency occurred over the southeast and midatlantic U.S., largely as a result of 20% higher annual-average natural isoprene emissions. These results suggest a lengthening of the O3 season over the eastern U.S. in a future climate to include late spring and early fall months. Increased chemical production and shorter average lifetime are two consistent features of the seasonal response of surface O3, with increased dry deposition loss rates contributing most to the reduced lifetime in all seasons except summer. Significant interannual variability is observed in the frequency of O3

  9. Characterization of ion distributions near the surface of sodium-containing and sodium-depleted calcium aluminosilicate glass melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrales, Louis R.; Du, Jincheng

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of cation and anion components of sodium containing calcium aluminosilicate glass was studied by classical molecular dynamics simulations in a high temperature melt in the bulk and at the vacuum-melt interface. A significant redistribution of the sodium and non-bridging oxygen ions was observed. Subsequently, a sodium depleted calcium aluminosilicate glass melt was simulated to determine the sensitivity of the redistribution of ions near the vacuum-melt interface to the presence of sodium ions. It is found that the thermodynamic equilibrium condition near a surface favors the enrichment of non-bridging oxygen ions that is closely associated with enrichment of the sodium ions

  10. Modeling and analysis of surface potential of single gate fully depleted SOI MOSFET using 2D-Poisson's equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Prashant; Tyagi, Chandra Shekhar; Srivastav, Nishant

    2016-03-01

    In this paper the analytical solution of the 2D Poisson's equation for single gate Fully Depleted SOI (FDSOI) MOSFET's is derived by using a Green's function solution technique. The surface potential is calculated and the threshold voltage of the device is minimized for the low power consumption. Due to minimization of threshold voltage the short channel effect of device is suppressed and after observation we obtain the device is kink free. The structure and characteristics of SingleGate FDSOI MOSFET were matched by using MathCAD and silvaco respectively.

  11. Unequivocal detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic Ozone Hole through significant increases in atmospheric layers with minimum ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Jos; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    An important new landmark in present day ozone research is presented through MLS satellite observations of significant ozone increases during the ozone hole season that are attributed unequivocally to declining ozone depleting substances. For many decades the Antarctic ozone hole has been the prime example of both the detrimental effects of human activities on our environment as well as how to construct effective and successful environmental policies. Nowadays atmospheric concentrations of ozone depleting substances are on the decline and first signs of recovery of stratospheric ozone and ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole have been observed. The claimed detection of significant recovery, however, is still subject of debate. In this talk we will discuss first current uncertainties in the assessment of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole by using multi-variate regression methods, and, secondly present an alternative approach to identify ozone hole recovery unequivocally. Even though multi-variate regression methods help to reduce uncertainties in estimates of ozone recovery, great care has to be taken in their application due to the existence of uncertainties and degrees of freedom in the choice of independent variables. We show that taking all uncertainties into account in the regressions the formal recovery of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole cannot be established yet, though is likely before the end of the decade (before 2020). Rather than focusing on time and area averages of total ozone columns or ozone profiles, we argue that the time evolution of the probability distribution of vertically resolved ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole contains a better fingerprint for the detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole. The advantages of this method over more tradition methods of trend analyses based on spatio-temporal average ozone are discussed. The 10-year record of MLS satellite measurements of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole shows a

  12. The effect of entrainment through atmospheric boundary layer growth on observed and modeled surface ozone in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, L.; Patton, E. G.; Pfister, G. G.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Flocke, F.; Thompson, A. M.; Stauffer, R. M.; Halliday, H. S.

    2017-06-01

    Ozone concentrations at the Earth's surface are controlled by meteorological and chemical processes and are a function of advection, entrainment, deposition, and net chemical production/loss. The relative contributions of these processes vary in time and space. Understanding the relative importance of these processes controlling surface ozone concentrations is an essential component for designing effective regulatory strategies. Here we focus on the diurnal cycle of entrainment through atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) growth in the Colorado Front Range. Aircraft soundings and surface observations collected in July/August 2014 during the DISCOVER-AQ/FRAPPÉ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality/Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment) campaigns and equivalent data simulated by a regional chemical transport model are analyzed. Entrainment through ABL growth is most important in the early morning, fumigating the surface at a rate of 5 ppbv/h. The fumigation effect weakens near noon and changes sign to become a small dilution effect in the afternoon on the order of -1 ppbv/h. The chemical transport model WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting Model with chemistry) underestimates ozone at all altitudes during this study on the order of 10-15 ppbv. The entrainment through ABL growth is overestimated by the model in the order of 0.6-0.8 ppbv/h. This results from differences in boundary layer growth in the morning and ozone concentration jump across the ABL top in the afternoon. This implicates stronger modeled fumigation in the morning and weaker modeled dilution after 11:00 LT.

  13. Reformulated and alternative fuels: modeled impacts on regional air quality with special emphasis on surface ozone concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Benedikt; Ackermann, Ingmar J; Hass, Heinz

    2002-07-15

    The comprehensive European Air Pollution and Dispersion model system was used to estimate the impacts of the usage of reformulated and alternative fuels on regional air quality with special emphasis on surface ozone concentrations. A severe western European summer smog episode in July 1994 has been used as a reference, and the model predictions have been evaluated for this episode. A forecast simulation for the year 2005 (TREND) has been performed, including the future emission development based on the current legislation and technologies available. The results of the scenario TREND are used as a baseline for the other 2005 fuel scenarios, including fuel reformulation, fuel sulfur content, and compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternative fuel. Compared to the year 1994, significant reductions in episode peak ozone concentrations and ozone grid hours are predicted for the TREND scenario. These reductions are even more pronounced within the investigated alternative and reformulated fuel scenarios. Especially, low sulfur fuels are appropriate for an immediate improvement in air quality, because they effect the emissions of the whole fleet. Furthermore, the simulation results indicate that the introduction of CNG vehicles would also enhance air quality with respect to ozone.

  14. Surface ozone pollution in Poland - observations and modelling support for a two-year assessment 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzewska, Joanna; Kaminski, Jacek W.; Durka, Pawel

    2015-04-01

    The concentrations of near-surface ozone in terms of long term objectives and target values are exceeded at many monitoring sites in Poland. At the request of the Chief Inspectorate of Environmental Protection, an assessment of ozone impact on human health and ecosystems in Poland was undertaken, based on the GEM-AQ model calculations for the period 2012-2013. GEM-AQ (Kaminski et al., 2008) is a comprehensive chemical weather model where air quality processes (chemistry and aerosols) are implemented on-line in the operational weather prediction model developed at Environment Canada (Cote et al., 1998). For this project the model was run in a self-nesting mode with the target grid centered over Poland with the resolution of 5 km. The EMEP emission inventory was refined based on GIS information. Modelling results were evaluated against ozone and NO2 measurements from available monitoring stations in Poland using the DeltaTool developed in the scope of FAIRMODE. We will present exposure levels to high ozone concentrations in terms of number of days with exceeded target values as well as indices AOT40 and SOMO35. Differences between exposure diagnostics in 2012 and 2013 will be discussed.

  15. Long-term trends of surface ozone and its influencing factors at the Mt Waliguan GAW station, China - Part 1: Overall trends and characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wanyun; Lin, Weili; Xu, Xiaobin; Tang, Jie; Huang, Jianqing; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Xiaochun

    2016-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important atmospheric oxidant, greenhouse gas and atmospheric pollutant at the same time. The oxidation capacity of the atmosphere, climate, human and vegetation health can be impacted by the increase of the ozone level. Therefore, long-term determination of trends of baseline ozone is highly needed information for environmental and climate change assessment. So far, studies on the long-term trends of ozone at representative sites are mainly available for European and North American sites. Similar studies are lacking for China and many other developing countries. Measurements of surface ozone were carried out at a baseline Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) station in the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau region (Mt Waliguan, 36°17' N, 100°54' E, 3816 m a.s.l.) for the period of 1994 to 2013. To uncover the variation characteristics, long-term trends and influencing factors of surface ozone at this remote site in western China, a two-part study has been carried out, with this part focusing on the overall characteristics of diurnal, seasonal and long-term variations and the trends of surface ozone. To obtain reliable ozone trends, we performed the Mann-Kendall trend test and the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) analysis on the ozone data. Our results confirm that the mountain-valley breeze plays an important role in the diurnal cycle of surface ozone at Waliguan, resulting in higher ozone values during the night and lower ones during the day, as was previously reported. Systematic diurnal and seasonal variations were found in mountain-valley breezes at the site, which were used in defining season-dependent daytime and nighttime periods for trend calculations. Significant positive trends in surface ozone were detected for both daytime (0.24 ± 0.16 ppbv year-1) and nighttime (0.28 ± 0.17 ppbv year-1). The largest nighttime increasing rate occurred in autumn (0.29 ± 0.11 ppbv year-1), followed by spring (0.24 ± 0.12 ppbv year-1), summer (0.22 ± 0

  16. A Global Ozone Climatology from Ozone Soundings via Trajectory Mapping: A Stratospheric Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. J.; Tarasick, D. W.; Fioletov, V. E.; McLinden, C.; Zhao, T.; Gong, S.; Sioris, G.; Jin, J. J.; Liu, G.; Moeini, O.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores a domain-filling trajectory approach to generate a global ozone climatology from sparse ozonesonde data. Global ozone soundings of 51,898 profiles at 116 stations over 44 years (1965-2008) are used, from which forward and backward trajectories are performed for 4 days, driven by a set of meteorological reanalysis data. Ozone mixing ratios of each sounding from the surface to 26 km altitude are assigned to the entire path along the trajectory. The resulting global ozone climatology is archived monthly for five decades from the 1960s to the 2000s with grids of 5 degree 5 degree 1 km (latitude, longitude, and altitude). It is also archived yearly from 1965 to 2008. This climatology is validated at 20 ozonesonde stations by comparing the actual ozone sounding profile with that found through the trajectories, using the ozone soundings at all the stations except one being tested. The two sets of profiles are in good agreement, both individually with correlation coefficients between 0.975 and 0.998 and root mean square (RMS) differences of 87 to 482 ppbv, and overall with a correlation coefficient of 0.991 and an RMS of 224 ppbv. The ozone climatology is also compared with two sets of satellite data, from the Satellite Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) and the Optical Spectrography and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS). Overall, the ozone climatology compares well with SAGE and OSIRIS data by both seasonal and zonal means. The mean difference is generally under 20 above 15 km. The comparison is better in the northern hemisphere, where there are more ozonesonde stations, than in the southern hemisphere; it is also better in the middle and high latitudes than in the tropics, where assimilated winds are imperfect in some regions. This ozone climatology can capture known features in the stratosphere, as well as seasonal and decadal variations of these features. Furthermore, it provides a wealth of detail about longitudinal variations in the stratosphere such

  17. Optimization of artificial neural network models through genetic algorithms for surface ozone concentration forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, J C M; Gonçalves, B; Azevedo, F G; Carneiro, A P; Rego, N; Assembleia, A J B; Lima, J F B; Silva, P A; Alves, C; Martins, F G

    2012-09-01

    This study proposes three methodologies to define artificial neural network models through genetic algorithms (GAs) to predict the next-day hourly average surface ozone (O(3)) concentrations. GAs were applied to define the activation function in hidden layer and the number of hidden neurons. Two of the methodologies define threshold models, which assume that the behaviour of the dependent variable (O(3) concentrations) changes when it enters in a different regime (two and four regimes were considered in this study). The change from one regime to another depends on a specific value (threshold value) of an explanatory variable (threshold variable), which is also defined by GAs. The predictor variables were the hourly average concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide, nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and O(3) (recorded in the previous day at an urban site with traffic influence) and also meteorological data (hourly averages of temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity and wind speed). The study was performed for the period from May to August 2004. Several models were achieved and only the best model of each methodology was analysed. In threshold models, the variables selected by GAs to define the O(3) regimes were temperature, CO and NO(2) concentrations, due to their importance in O(3) chemistry in an urban atmosphere. In the prediction of O(3) concentrations, the threshold model that considers two regimes was the one that fitted the data most efficiently.

  18. Springtime high surface ozone events over the western United States: Quantifying the role of stratospheric intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, A. M.; Lin, M.; Cooper, O. R.; Horowitz, L. W.; Naik, V.; Levy, H.; Langford, A. O.; Johnson, B. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; Senff, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    As the National Ambient Air Quality (NAAQS) standard for ozone (O_{3}) is lowered, it pushes closer to policy-relevant background levels (O_{3} concentrations that would exist in the absence of North American anthropogenic emissions), making attainment more difficult with local controls. We quantify the Asian and stratospheric components of this North American background, with a primary focus on the western United States. Prior work has identified this region as a hotspot for deep stratospheric intrusions in spring. We conduct global simulations at 200 km and 50 km horizontal resolution with the GFDL AM3 model, including a stratospheric O_{3} tracer and two sensitivity simulations with anthropogenic emissions from Asia and North America turned off. The model is evaluated with a suite of in situ and satellite measurements during the NOAA CalNex campaign (May-June 2010). The model reproduces the principle features in the observed surface to near tropopause distribution of O_{3} along the California coast, including its latitudinal variation and the development of regional high-O_{3} episodes. Four deep tropopause folds are diagnosed and we find that the remnants of these stratospheric intrusions are transported to the surface of Southern California and Western U.S. Rocky Mountains, contributing 10-30 ppbv positive anomalies relative to the simulated campaign mean stratospheric component in the model surface layer. We further examine the contribution of North American background, including its stratospheric and Asian components, to the entire distribution of observed MDA8 O_{3} at 12 high-elevation CASTNet sites in the Mountain West. We find that the stratospheric O_{3} tracer constitutes 50% of the North American background, and can enhance surface maximum daily 8-hour average (MDA8) O_{3} by 20 ppb when observed surface O_{3} is in the range of 60-80 ppbv. Our analysis highlights the potential for natural sources such as deep stratospheric intrusions to contribute

  19. Influence of ozone precursors and particulate matter on the variation of surface ozone at an urban site of Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashima Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurements of surface O3 and its precursors (NO, NO2, CO, CH4 and NMHCs at an urban site of Delhi, India during January 2012 to December 2013 are presented. In the present study, the annual average mixing ratios of surface O3, NO, NO2, CO, CH4 and NMHC were 30 ± 6 ppb, 24 ± 6 ppb, 15 ± 4 ppb, 1.5 ± 0.4 ppm, 2.4 ± 0.4 ppm and 0.4 ± 0.1 ppm, respectively. The maximum average mixing ratios of surface O3, NO and NO2 were observed during the summer, whereas, the minimum average mixing ratios of ambient NO and NO2 were during monsoon seasons. The surface O3, NO and NO2 have shown the prominent diurnal variations during all the seasons at the observational site of Delhi. The result reveals that the surface O3 was negatively correlated with NOx and CO during the study. The linear scatter plot analysis shows that the PM2.5 and PM10 present in the ambient air of Delhi influence the production of surface O3 at observational site.

  20. Areal Measurements of Ozone, Water, and Heat Fluxes Over Land With Different Surface Complexity, Using Aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, Bruce B.

    2001-01-01

    Contemporary models addressing issues of air quality and/or atmospheric deposition continue to exploit air-surface exchange formulations originating from single-tower studies. In reality,these expressions describe situations that are rare in the real world - nearly flat and spatially homogeneous. There have been several theoretical suggestions about how to extend from single-point understanding to areal descriptions, but so far the capability to address the problem experimentally has been limited. In recent years, however, developments in sensing technology have permitted adaptation of eddy-correlation methods to low-flying aircraft in a far more cost-effective manner than previously. A series of field experiments has been conducted, ranging from flat farmland to rolling countryside, employing a recently modified research aircraft operated by the US NationalOceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The results demonstrate the complexity of the spatial heterogeneity question,especially for pollutants (ozone in particular). In general, the uncertainty associated with the adoption of any single-point formulation when describing areal averages is likely to be in the range 10% to 40%. In the case of sensible and latent heat fluxes, the overall behavior is controlled by the amount of energy available. For pollutant deposition, there is no constraint equivalent to the net radiation limitation on convective heat exchange. Consequently, dry deposition rates and air-surface exchange of trace gases in general are especially vulnerable to errors in spatial extrapolation. The results indicate that the susceptibility of dry deposition formulations to terrain complexity depends on the deposition velocity itself. For readily transferred pollutants (such as HNO 3 ), a factor of two error could be involved

  1. The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1: consistent simulation of ozone from the surface to the mesosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jöckel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The new Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy describes atmospheric chemistry and meteorological processes in a modular framework, following strict coding standards. It has been coupled to the ECHAM5 general circulation model, which has been slightly modified for this purpose. A 90-layer model setup up to 0.01 hPa was used at spectral T42 resolution to simulate the lower and middle atmosphere. With the high vertical resolution the model simulates the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. The model meteorology has been tested to check the influence of the changes to ECHAM5 and the radiation interactions with the new representation of atmospheric composition. In the simulations presented here a Newtonian relaxation technique was applied in the tropospheric part of the domain to weakly nudge the model towards the analysed meteorology during the period 1998–2005. This allows an efficient and direct evaluation with satellite and in-situ data. It is shown that the tropospheric wave forcing of the stratosphere in the model suffices to reproduce major stratospheric warming events leading e.g. to the vortex split over Antarctica in 2002. Characteristic features such as dehydration and denitrification caused by the sedimentation of polar stratospheric cloud particles and ozone depletion during winter and spring are simulated well, although ozone loss in the lower polar stratosphere is slightly underestimated. The model realistically simulates stratosphere-troposphere exchange processes as indicated by comparisons with satellite and in situ measurements. The evaluation of tropospheric chemistry presented here focuses on the distributions of ozone, hydroxyl radicals, carbon monoxide and reactive nitrogen compounds. In spite of minor shortcomings, mostly related to the relatively coarse T42 resolution and the neglect of inter-annual changes in biomass burning emissions, the main characteristics of the trace gas distributions are generally reproduced well. The MESSy

  2. Effects of conventional ozonation and electro-peroxone pretreatment of surface water on disinfection by-product formation during subsequent chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuqin; Guo, Di; Yao, Weikun; Wang, Xiaomao; Yang, Hongwei; Xie, Yuefeng F; Komarneni, Sridhar; Yu, Gang; Wang, Yujue

    2018-03-01

    The electro-peroxone (E-peroxone) process is an emerging ozone-based electrochemical advanced oxidation process that combines conventional ozonation with in-situ cathodic hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) production for oxidative water treatment. In this study, the effects of the E-peroxone pretreatment on disinfection by-product (DBP) formation from chlorination of a synthetic surface water were investigated and compared to conventional ozonation. Results show that due to the enhanced transformation of ozone (O 3 ) to hydroxyl radicals (OH) by electro-generated H 2 O 2 , the E-peroxone process considerably enhanced dissolved organic carbon (DOC) abatement and significantly reduced bromate (BrO 3 - ) formation compared to conventional ozonation. However, natural organic matter (NOM) with high UV 254 absorbance, which is the major precursors of chlorination DBPs, was less efficiently abated during the E-peroxone process than conventional ozonation. Consequently, while both conventional ozonation and the E-peroxone process substantially reduced the formation of DBPs (trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids) during post-chlorination, higher DBP concentrations were generally observed during chlorination of the E-peroxone pretreated waters than conventional ozonation treated. In addition, because of conventional ozonation or the E-peroxone treatment, DBPs formed during post-chlorination shifted to more brominated species. The overall yields of brominated DBPs exhibited strong correlations with the bromide concentrations in water. Therefore, while the E-peroxone process can effectively suppress bromide transformation to bromate, it may lead to higher formation of brominated DBPs during post-chlorination compared to conventional ozonation. These results suggest that the E-peroxone process can lead to different DBP formation and speciation during water treatment trains compared to conventional ozonation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of near-surface atmospheric composition on ozone formation in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezina, Elena; Moiseenko, Konstantin; Skorokhod, Andrey; Belikov, Igor; Pankratova, Natalia; Elansky, Nikolai

    2017-04-01

    One of the consequences of the human impact on the atmosphere is increasing in tropospheric ozone concentration, with the highest ozone level being observed in industrially developed and highly populated regions of the world. In these regions, main anthropogenic sources of carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are concentrated. The oxidation of these compounds, when interacting with hydroxyl and nitrogen oxides at rather high temperature and sunlight, leads to ozone formation. CO and CH4 are slowly oxidized in the atmosphere and cause an increase in global and regional background ozone. However, the oxidation of some VOCs occurs during daylight hours and is accompanied by an increase in ozone concentration near VOCs sources, particularly in urban and industrial areas. The contribution of biogenic VOCs to ozone generation is estimated to be from 40 to 70% of the total contribution of all chemical ozone precursors in the troposphere [1], with isoprene playing the main role in ozone formation [2]. The impact of aromatic hydrocarbons to ozone formation is reported to be about 40% of the total ozone generation from the oxidation of anthropogenic VOCs [3]. In this study, the results of VOCs measurements (isoprene, benzene, toluene, phenol, styrene, xylene and propilbenzene) by proton mass spectrometry in different regions of Russia along the Trans-Siberian railway from Moscow to Vladivostok from TROICA-12 campaign on a mobile laboratory in summer 2008 are analyzed. It is shown that the TROICA-12 measurements were carried out mostly in moderately polluted (2≤NOx20 ppb) conditions ( 20 and 2% of measurements, correspondingly). The lower troposphere chemical regime in the campaign is found to be mainly NOx sensitive, both in rural and urban environments, with typical morning NMHC/NOx ratios being well above 20. Hence, ozone production rates are expected to be controlled by regional NOx emissions and their complex interplay with both

  4. The ozone backlash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taubes, G.

    1993-01-01

    While evidence for the role of chlorofluorocarbons in ozone depletion grows stronger, researchers have recently been subjected to vocal public criticism of their theories-and their motives. Their understanding of the mechanisms of ozone destruction-especially the annual ozone hole that appears in the Antarctic-has grown stronger, yet everywhere they go these days, they seem to be confronted by critics attacking their theories as baseless. For instance, Rush Limbaugh, the conservative political talk-show host and now-best-selling author of The Way Things Ought to Be, regularly insists that the theory of ozone depletion by CFCs is a hoax: bladerdash and poppycock. Zoologist Dixy Lee Ray, former governor of the state of Washington and former head of the Atomic Energy Commission, makes the same argument in her book, Trashing the Planet. The Wall Street Journal and National Review have run commentaries by S. Fred Singer, a former chief scientists for the Department of Transportation, purporting to shoot holes in the theory of ozone depletion. Even the June issue of Omni, a magazine with a circulation of more than 1 million that publishes a mixture of science and science fiction, printed a feature article claiming to expose ozone research as a politically motivated scam

  5. WRF-Chem simulated surface ozone over south Asia during the pre-monsoon: effects of emission inventories and chemical mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sharma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate numerical simulations of surface ozone mixing ratios over the south Asian region during the pre-monsoon season, employing three different emission inventories in the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem with the second-generation Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM2 chemical mechanism: the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research – Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (EDGAR-HTAP, the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment phase B (INTEX-B and the Southeast Asia Composition, Cloud, Climate Coupling Regional Study (SEAC4RS. Evaluation of diurnal variability in modelled ozone compared to observational data from 15 monitoring stations across south Asia shows the model ability to reproduce the clean, rural and polluted urban conditions over this region. In contrast to the diurnal average, the modelled ozone mixing ratios during noontime, i.e. hours of intense photochemistry (11:30–16:30 IST – Indian Standard Time – UTC +5:30, are found to differ among the three inventories. This suggests that evaluations of the modelled ozone limited to 24 h average are insufficient to assess uncertainties associated with ozone buildup. HTAP generally shows 10–30 ppbv higher noontime ozone mixing ratios than SEAC4RS and INTEX-B, especially over the north-west Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP, central India and southern India. The HTAP simulation repeated with the alternative Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART chemical mechanism showed even more strongly enhanced surface ozone mixing ratios due to vertical mixing of enhanced ozone that has been produced aloft. Our study indicates the need to also evaluate the O3 precursors across a network of stations and the development of high-resolution regional inventories for the anthropogenic emissions over south Asia accounting for year-to-year changes to further reduce uncertainties in modelled ozone over this region.

  6. WRF-Chem simulated surface ozone over south Asia during the pre-monsoon: effects of emission inventories and chemical mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit; Ojha, Narendra; Pozzer, Andrea; Mar, Kathleen A.; Beig, Gufran; Lelieveld, Jos; Gunthe, Sachin S.

    2017-12-01

    We evaluate numerical simulations of surface ozone mixing ratios over the south Asian region during the pre-monsoon season, employing three different emission inventories in the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) with the second-generation Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM2) chemical mechanism: the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research - Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (EDGAR-HTAP), the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment phase B (INTEX-B) and the Southeast Asia Composition, Cloud, Climate Coupling Regional Study (SEAC4RS). Evaluation of diurnal variability in modelled ozone compared to observational data from 15 monitoring stations across south Asia shows the model ability to reproduce the clean, rural and polluted urban conditions over this region. In contrast to the diurnal average, the modelled ozone mixing ratios during noontime, i.e. hours of intense photochemistry (11:30-16:30 IST - Indian Standard Time - UTC +5:30), are found to differ among the three inventories. This suggests that evaluations of the modelled ozone limited to 24 h average are insufficient to assess uncertainties associated with ozone buildup. HTAP generally shows 10-30 ppbv higher noontime ozone mixing ratios than SEAC4RS and INTEX-B, especially over the north-west Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), central India and southern India. The HTAP simulation repeated with the alternative Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART) chemical mechanism showed even more strongly enhanced surface ozone mixing ratios due to vertical mixing of enhanced ozone that has been produced aloft. Our study indicates the need to also evaluate the O3 precursors across a network of stations and the development of high-resolution regional inventories for the anthropogenic emissions over south Asia accounting for year-to-year changes to further reduce uncertainties in modelled ozone over this region.

  7. Inter-annual variability of surface ozone at coastal (Dumont d'Urville, 2004–2014 and inland (Concordia, 2007–2014 sites in East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Legrand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface ozone has been measured since 2004 at the coastal East Antarctic site of Dumont d'Urville (DDU, and since 2007 at the Concordia station located on the high East Antarctic plateau. This paper discusses long-term changes, seasonal and diurnal cycles, as well as inter-annual summer variability observed at these two East Antarctic sites. At Concordia, near-surface ozone data were complemented by balloon soundings and compared to similar measurements done at the South Pole. The DDU record is compared to those obtained at the coastal site of Syowa, also located in East Antarctica, as well as the coastal sites of Neumayer and Halley, both located on the coast of the Weddell Sea in West Antarctica. Surface ozone mixing ratios exhibit very similar seasonal cycles at Concordia and the South Pole. However, in summer the diurnal cycle of ozone is different at the two sites with a drop of ozone in the afternoon at Concordia but not at the South Pole. The vertical distribution of ozone above the snow surface also differs. When present, the ozone-rich layer located near the ground is better mixed and deeper at Concordia (up to 400 m than at the South Pole during sunlight hours. These differences are related to different solar radiation and wind regimes encountered at these two inland sites. DDU appears to be the coastal site where the impact of the late winter/spring bromine chemistry is the weakest, but where the impact of elevated ozone levels caused by NOx snow emissions from the high Antarctic plateau is the highest. The highest impact of the bromine chemistry is seen at Halley and Neumayer, and to a lesser extent at Syowa. These three sites are only weakly impacted by the NOx chemistry and the net ozone production occurring on the high Antarctic plateau. The differences in late winter/spring are attributed to the abundance of sea ice offshore from the sites, whereas those in summer are related to the topography of East Antarctica that promotes

  8. Spatial-temporal variations in surface ozone over Ushuaia and the Antarctic region: observations from in situ measurements, satellite data, and global models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd; Ashfold, Matthew J; Khan, Md Firoz; Robinson, Andrew D; Bolas, Conor; Latif, Mohd Talib; Wallis, Benjamin M; Mead, Mohammed Iqbal; Hamid, Haris Hafizal Abdul; Harris, Neil R P; Ramly, Zamzam Tuah Ahmad; Lai, Goh Thian; Liew, Ju Neng; Ahamad, Fatimah; Uning, Royston; Samah, Azizan Abu; Maulud, Khairul Nizam; Suparta, Wayan; Zainudin, Siti Khalijah; Wahab, Muhammad Ikram Abdul; Sahani, Mazrura; Müller, Moritz; Yeok, Foong Swee; Rahman, Nasaruddin Abdul; Mujahid, Aazani; Morris, Kenobi Isima; Sasso, Nicholas Dal

    2018-01-01

    The Antarctic continent is known to be an unpopulated region due to its extreme weather and climate conditions. However, the air quality over this continent can be affected by long-lived anthropogenic pollutants from the mainland. The Argentinian region of Ushuaia is often the main source area of accumulated hazardous gases over the Antarctic Peninsula. The main objective of this study is to report the first in situ observations yet known of surface ozone (O 3 ) over Ushuaia, the Drake Passage, and Coastal Antarctic Peninsula (CAP) on board the RV Australis during the Malaysian Antarctic Scientific Expedition Cruise 2016 (MASEC'16). Hourly O 3 data was measured continuously for 23 days using an EcoTech O 3 analyzer. To understand more about the distribution of surface O 3 over the Antarctic, we present the spatial and temporal of surface O 3 of long-term data (2009-2015) obtained online from the World Meteorology Organization of World Data Centre for greenhouse gases (WMO WDCGG). Furthermore, surface O 3 satellite data from the free online NOAA-Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) database and online data assimilation from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF)-Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) were used. The data from both online products are compared to document the data sets and to give an indication of its quality towards in situ data. Finally, we used past carbon monoxide (CO) data as a proxy of surface O 3 formation over Ushuaia and the Antarctic region. Our key findings were that the surface O 3 mixing ratio during MASEC'16 increased from a minimum of 5 ppb to ~ 10-13 ppb approaching the Drake Passage and the Coastal Antarctic Peninsula (CAP) region. The anthropogenic and biogenic O 3 precursors from Ushuaia and the marine region influenced the mixing ratio of surface O 3 over the Drake Passage and CAP region. The past data from WDCGG showed that the annual O 3 cycle has a maximum during the winter of 30 to 35

  9. Exploring the direct impacts of particulate matter and surface ozone on global crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiferl, L. D.; Heald, C. L.

    2016-12-01

    The current era of rising food demand to feed an increasing population along with expansion of industrialization throughout the globe has been accompanied by deteriorating air quality and an enhancement in agricultural activity. Both air quality and the food supply are vitally important to sustaining human enterprise, and understanding the effects air quality may have on agricultural production is critical. Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere decreases the total photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) available to crops through the scattering and absorption of radiation while also increasing the diffuse fraction (DF) of this PAR. Since plants respond positively to a higher DF through the more even distribution of photons to all leaves, the net effect of PM on crop production depends on the magnitudes of these values and the response mechanisms of a specific crop. In contrast, atmospheric ozone always acts to decrease crop production through its phytotoxic properties. While the relationships between ozone and crop production have been readily studied, the effects of PM on crop production and their relative importance compared to ozone is much more uncertain. This study uses the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model linked to the RRTMG radiative transfer model and the DSSAT crop model to explore the impacts of PM and ozone on the globally distributed production of maize, rice, wheat and soybeans. First, we examine how air quality differentially affects total seasonal production by crop and region. Second, we investigate the dependence of simulated production on air quality over different timescales and under varying cloud conditions.

  10. Characteristics of Surface Ozone in Agra, a Sub-urban site in Indo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    65

    Ozone (O3) is a secondary pollutant which has an important effect on air quality, climate. 49 change and atmospheric chemistry (Solomon et al., 2000; Sitch et al., 2007). Depending on its. 50 location in the atmosphere, O3 can influence human health and climate; in the stratosphere, O3. 51 filters out detrimental ultraviolet ...

  11. Characteristics of Surface Ozone in Agra, a Sub-urban site in Indo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    65

    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra. 4. 282110, India ... location in the atmosphere, O3 can influence human health and climate; in the stratosphere, O3. 51 ...... ozone exposure: reconciling science and standard setting in the United States, Europe, and Asia;. 582.

  12. Modelling Distribution Function of Surface Ozone Concentration for Selected Suburban Areas in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Izwan Zariq Mokhtar; Nurul Adyani Ghazali; Muhammad Yazid Nasir; Norhazlina Suhaimi

    2016-01-01

    Ozone is known as an important secondary pollutant in the atmosphere. The aim of this study is to find the best fit distribution for calculating exceedance and return period of ozone based on suburban areas; Perak (AMS1) and Pulau Pinang (AMS2). Three distributions namely Gamma, Rayleigh and Laplace were used to fit 2 years ozone data (2010 and 2011). The parameters were estimated by using Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) in order to plot probability distribution function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF). Four performance indicators were used to find the best distribution namely, normalized absolute error (NAE), prediction accuracy (PA), coefficient of determination (R 2 ) and root mean square error (RMSE). The best distribution to represent ozone concentration at both sites in 2010 and 2011 is Gamma distribution with the smallest error measure (NAE and RMSE) and the highest adequacy measure (PA and R 2 ). For the 2010 data, AMS1 was predicted to exceed 0.1 ppm for 2 days in 2011 with a return period of one occurrence. (author)

  13. Long-term trends of surface ozone and its influencing factors at the Mt. Waliguan GAW station, China - Part 1: Overall trends and characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W. Y.; Lin, W. L.; Xu, X. B.; Tang, J.; Huang, J. Q.; Wu, H.; Zhang, X. C.

    2015-11-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important atmospheric oxidant, greenhouse gas and atmospheric pollutant at the same time. The level of tropospheric ozone, particularly in the surface layer, is impacted by emissions of precursors and is subjected to meteorological conditions. Due its importance, the long-term variation trend of baseline ozone is highly needed for environmental and climate change assessment. So far, studies about the long-term trends of ozone at representative sites are mainly available for European and North American sites. Similar studies are lacking for China, a country with rapid economic growth for recent decades, and many other developing countries. To uncover the long-term characteristics and trends of baseline surface ozone, concentration in western China, measurements at a global baseline Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) station in the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau region (Mt. Waliguan) for the period of 1994 to 2013 were analysed in this study, using a modified Mann-Kendall test and the Hilbert-Huang Transform analysis for the trend and periodicity analysis, respectively. Results reveal higher surface ozone during the night and lower during the day at Waliguan, due to mountain-valley breezes. A seasonal maximum in summer was found, which was probably caused by enhanced stratosphere-to-troposphere exchange events and/or by tropospheric photochemistry. Analysis suggests that there is a season-diurnal cycle in the three-dimensional winds on top of Mt. Waliguan. Season-dependent daytime and nighttime ranges of 6 h were determined based on the season-diurnal cycle in the three-dimensional winds and were used to sort subsets of ozone data for trend analysis. Significant increasing trends in surface ozone were detected for both daytime (1.5-2.7 ppbv 10 a-1) and nighttime (1.3-2.9 ppbv 10 a-1). Autumn and spring revealed the largest increase rates, while summer and winter showed relatively weaker increases. The HHT spectral analysis confirmed the increasing

  14. New ab initio potential surfaces and three-dimensional quantum dynamics for transition state spectroscopy in ozone photodissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Koichi; Morokuma, Keiji; Le Quéré, Frederic; Leforestier, Claude

    1992-04-01

    New ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the ground and B ( 1B 2) states of ozone have been calculated with the CASSCF-SECI/DZP method to describe the three-dimensional photodissociation process. The dissociation energy of the ground state and the vertical barrier height of the B PES are obtained to be 0.88 and 1.34 eV, respectively, in better agreement with the experimental values than the previous calculation. The photodissociation autocorrelation function, calculated on the new B PES, based on exact three-dimensional quantum dynamics, reproduces well the main recurrence feature extracted from the experimental spectra.

  15. Long-term trends of surface ozone and its influencing factors at the Mt Waliguan GAW station, China - Part 2: The roles of anthropogenic emissions and climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wanyun; Xu, Xiaobin; Lin, Meiyun; Lin, Weili; Tarasick, David; Tang, Jie; Ma, Jianzhong; Zheng, Xiangdong

    2018-01-01

    despite ozone increases in eastern China. Analysis of the Trajectory-mapped Ozonesonde data set for the Stratosphere and Troposphere (TOST) and trajectory residence time reveals increases in direct ozone transport from the eastern sector during autumn, which adds to the autumnal ozone increase. We further examine the links of ozone variability at WLG to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM), and the sunspot cycle. Our results suggest that the 2-3-, 3-7-, and 11-year periodicities are linked to the QBO, EASM index, and sunspot cycle, respectively. A multivariate regression analysis is performed to quantify the relative contributions of various factors to surface ozone concentrations at WLG. Through an observational and modelling analysis, this study demonstrates the complex relationships between surface ozone at remote locations and its dynamical and chemical influencing factors.

  16. Our Shrinking Ozone Layer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Depletion of the ozone layer is therefore having significant effects on life on .... but there is always a net balance between the rate of formation and destruction ..... award of Commonwealth Fellowship during the present work and also being an ...

  17. Application of Response Surface Methodology for characterization of ozone production from Multi-Cylinder Reactor in non-thermal plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian See, Tan; Zulazlan Shah Zulkifli, Ahmad; Mook Tzeng, Lim

    2018-04-01

    Ozone is a reactant which can be applied for various environmental treatment processes. It can be generated via atmospheric air non-thermal plasmas when sufficient voltages are applied through a combination of electrodes and dielectric materials. In this study, the concentration of ozone generated via two different configurations of multi-cylinder dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor (3 x 40 mm and 10 x 10 mm) was investigated. The influence of the voltage and the duty cycle to the concentration of ozone generated by each configuration was analysed using response surface methodology. Voltage was identified as significant factor to the ozone production process. However, the regressed model was biased towards one of the configuration, leaving the predicted results of another configuration to be out of range.

  18. Modelling horizontal and vertical concentration profiles of ozone and oxides of nitrogen within high-latitude urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, J.P.; Weston, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Urban ozone concentrations are determined by the balance between ozone destruction, chemical production and supply through advection and turbulent down-mixing from higher levels. At high latitudes, low levels of solar insolation and high horizontal advection speeds reduce the photochemical production and the spatial ozone concentration patterns are largely determined by the reaction of ozone with nitric oxide and dry deposition to the surface. A Lagrangian column model has been developed to simulate the mean (monthly and annual) three-dimensional structure in ozone and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) concentrations in the boundary-layer within and immediately around an urban area. The short-time-scale photochemical processes of ozone and NO x , as well as emissions and deposition to the ground, are simulated. The model has a horizontal resolution of 1x1km and high resolution in the vertical. It has been applied over a 100x100km domain containing the city of Edinburgh (at latitude 56 o N) to simulate the city-scale processes of pollutants. Results are presented, using averaged wind-flow frequencies and appropriate stability conditions, to show the extent of the depletion of ozone by city emissions. The long-term average spatial patterns in the surface ozone and NO x concentrations over the model domain are reproduced quantitatively. The model shows the average surface ozone concentrations in the urban area to be lower than the surrounding rural areas by typically 50% and that the areas experiencing a 20% ozone depletion are generally restricted to within the urban area. The depletion of the ozone concentration to less than 50% of the rural surface values extends only 20m vertically above the urban area. A series of monitoring sites for ozone, nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide on a north-south transect through the city - from an urban, through a semi-rural, to a remote rural location - allows the comparison of modelled with observed data for the mean diurnal cycle of ozone

  19. Chemical and climatic drivers of radiative forcing due to changes in stratospheric and tropospheric ozone over the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Antara; Maycock, Amanda C.; Pyle, John A.

    2018-02-01

    The ozone radiative forcings (RFs) resulting from projected changes in climate, ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), non-methane ozone precursor emissions and methane between the years 2000 and 2100 are calculated using simulations from the UM-UKCA chemistry-climate model (UK Met Office's Unified Model containing the United Kingdom Chemistry and Aerosols sub-model). Projected measures to improve air-quality through reductions in non-methane tropospheric ozone precursor emissions present a co-benefit for climate, with a net global mean ozone RF of -0.09 W m-2. This is opposed by a positive ozone RF of 0.05 W m-2 due to future decreases in ODSs, which is driven by an increase in tropospheric ozone through stratosphere-to-troposphere transport of air containing higher ozone amounts. An increase in methane abundance by more than a factor of 2 (as projected by the RCP8.5 scenario) is found to drive an ozone RF of 0.18 W m-2, which would greatly outweigh the climate benefits of non-methane tropospheric ozone precursor reductions. A small fraction (˜ 15 %) of the ozone RF due to the projected increase in methane results from increases in stratospheric ozone. The sign of the ozone RF due to future changes in climate (including the radiative effects of greenhouse gases, sea surface temperatures and sea ice changes) is shown to be dependent on the greenhouse gas emissions pathway, with a positive RF (0.05 W m-2) for RCP4.5 and a negative RF (-0.07 W m-2) for the RCP8.5 scenario. This dependence arises mainly from differences in the contribution to RF from stratospheric ozone changes. Considering the increases in tropopause height under climate change causes only small differences (≤ |0.02| W m-2) for the stratospheric, tropospheric and whole-atmosphere RFs.

  20. Influence of power supply on the generation of ozone and degradation of phenol in a surface discharge reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yan; Shang, Kefeng; Duan, Lijuan; Li, Yue; An, Jiutao; Zhang, Chunyang; Lu, Na; Wu, Yan; Li, Jie

    2013-01-01

    A surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) reactor was utilized to degrade phenol in water. Different power supplies applied to the DBD reactor affect the discharge modes, the formation of chemically active species and thus the removal efficiency of pollutants. It is thus important to select an optimized power supply for the DBD reactor. In this paper, the influence of the types of power supplies including alternate current (AC) and bipolar pulsed power supply on the ozone generation in a surface discharge reactor was measured. It was found that compared with bipolar pulsed power supply, higher energy efficiency of O 3 generation was obtained when DBD reactor was supplied with 50Hz AC power supply. The highest O 3 generation was approximate 4 mg kJ −1 ; moreover, COD removal efficiency of phenol wastewater reached 52.3% after 3 h treatment under an AC peak voltage of 2.6 kV.

  1. Influence of power supply on the generation of ozone and degradation of phenol in a surface discharge reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Shang, Kefeng; Duan, Lijuan; Li, Yue; An, Jiutao; Zhang, Chunyang; Lu, Na; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan

    2013-03-01

    A surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) reactor was utilized to degrade phenol in water. Different power supplies applied to the DBD reactor affect the discharge modes, the formation of chemically active species and thus the removal efficiency of pollutants. It is thus important to select an optimized power supply for the DBD reactor. In this paper, the influence of the types of power supplies including alternate current (AC) and bipolar pulsed power supply on the ozone generation in a surface discharge reactor was measured. It was found that compared with bipolar pulsed power supply, higher energy efficiency of O3 generation was obtained when DBD reactor was supplied with 50Hz AC power supply. The highest O3 generation was approximate 4 mg kJ-1 moreover, COD removal efficiency of phenol wastewater reached 52.3% after 3 h treatment under an AC peak voltage of 2.6 kV.

  2. Potential energy surface, dipole moment surface and the intensity calculations for the 10 μm, 5 μm and 3 μm bands of ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyansky, Oleg L.; Zobov, Nikolai F.; Mizus, Irina I.; Kyuberis, Aleksandra A.; Lodi, Lorenzo; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2018-05-01

    Monitoring ozone concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere using spectroscopic methods is a major activity which undertaken both from the ground and from space. However there are long-running issues of consistency between measurements made at infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. In addition, key O3 IR bands at 10 μm, 5 μm and 3 μm also yield results which differ by a few percent when used for retrievals. These problems stem from the underlying laboratory measurements of the line intensities. Here we use quantum chemical techniques, first principles electronic structure and variational nuclear-motion calculations, to address this problem. A new high-accuracy ab initio dipole moment surface (DMS) is computed. Several spectroscopically-determined potential energy surfaces (PESs) are constructed by fitting to empirical energy levels in the region below 7000 cm-1 starting from an ab initio PES. Nuclear motion calculations using these new surfaces allow the unambiguous determination of the intensities of 10 μm band transitions, and the computation of the intensities of 10 μm and 5 μm bands within their experimental error. A decrease in intensities within the 3 μm is predicted which appears consistent with atmospheric retrievals. The PES and DMS form a suitable starting point both for the computation of comprehensive ozone line lists and for future calculations of electronic transition intensities.

  3. Spatial and temporal variation of surface ozone, NO and NO₂ at urban, suburban, rural and industrial sites in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-López, D; Adame, J A; Hernández-Ceballos, M A; Vaca, F; De la Morena, B A; Bolívar, J P

    2014-09-01

    Surface ozone is one of the most important photochemical pollutants in the low atmosphere, causing damage to human health, vegetation, materials and climate. The weather (high temperatures and high solar radiation), orography (presence of the Guadalquivir valley) and anthropogenic (the cities of Cádiz, Córdoba, Huelva and Seville and two important industrial complexes) characteristics of the southwestern Iberian Peninsula make this region ideal for the formation and accumulation of ozone. To increase the knowledge of ozone behaviour in this area, the monthly, daily and weekly variations of ozone and its precursors, nitrogen oxides (NO(x) = NO + NO2), were analysed over a 4-year period (2003 to 2006). Using the k-means cluster technique, 12 representative stations of five different areas with different ozone behaviour were selected from a total of 29 monitoring sites. This is the first time that the analysis of these atmospheric pollutants has been carried out for the whole area, allowing therefore a complete understanding of the dynamics and the relationships of these compounds in this region. The results showed an opposite behaviour among ozone and NO and NO2 concentrations in urban and suburban zones, marked by maximums of ozone (minimums NO(x)) in spring and summer and minimums (maximums) in autumn and winter. A seasonal behaviour, with lower amplitude, was also observed in rural and industrial areas for ozone concentrations, with the NO and NO2 concentrations remaining at low and similar values during the year in rural zones due to the absence of emission sources in their surroundings. The daily cycles of ozone in urban, suburban and industrial sites registered a maximum value in the early afternoon (14:00-17:00 UTC) while for NOx two peaks were observed, at 7:00-10:00 UTC and 20:00-22:00. In the case of rural stations, no hourly peak of ozone or NO(x) was registered. The weekend effect was studied by using a statistical contrast tests (Student's t

  4. Electron beam induced Hg desorption and the electronic structure of the Hg depleted surface of Hg1/sub -//sub x/Cd/sub x/Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, C.K.; Friedman, D.J.; Bertness, K.A.; Lindau, I.; Spicer, W.E.; Wilson, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), and angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) were used to study the electron beam induced Hg desorption from a cleaved (110)Hg/sub 1-//sub x/Cd/sub x/Te surface and the electronic structure of the Hg depleted surface. Solid state recrystallized Hg/sub 1-//sub x/Cd/sub x/Te single crystals were used. It was found that the electron beam heating dominated the electron beam induced Hg desorption on Hg/sub 1-//sub x/Cd/sub x/Te. At the electron beam energy used, the electron beam heating extended several thousand angstroms deep. However, the Hg depletion saturated after a few monolayers were depleted of Hg atoms. At the initial stage of Hg loss (only 3%), the surface band bends upward (more p type). The ARPES spectrum showed the loss of some E vs k dispersion after 22% Hg atoms were removed from the surface region, and no dispersion was observed after 43% Hg atoms were removed. These results have important implications on the electronic structure of the surfaces and interfaces of which the stoichiometry is altered

  5. Tropospheric ozone seasonal and long-term variability as seen by lidar and surface measurements at the JPL-Table Mountain Facility, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Granados-Muñoz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A combined surface and tropospheric ozone climatology and interannual variability study was performed for the first time using co-located ozone photometer measurements (2013–2015 and tropospheric ozone differential absorption lidar measurements (2000–2015 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Table Mountain Facility (TMF; elev. 2285 m, in California. The surface time series were investigated both in terms of seasonal and diurnal variability. The observed surface ozone is typical of high-elevation remote sites, with small amplitude of the seasonal and diurnal cycles, and high ozone values, compared to neighboring lower altitude stations representative of urban boundary layer conditions. The ozone mixing ratio ranges from 45 ppbv in the winter morning hours to 65 ppbv in the spring and summer afternoon hours. At the time of the lidar measurements (early night, the seasonal cycle observed at the surface is similar to that observed by lidar between 3.5 and 9 km. Above 9 km, the local tropopause height variation with time and season impacts significantly the ozone lidar observations. The frequent tropopause folds found in the vicinity of TMF (27 % of the time, mostly in winter and spring produce a dual-peak vertical structure in ozone within the fold layer, characterized by higher-than-average values in the bottom half of the fold (12–14 km, and lower-than-averaged values in the top half of the fold (14–18 km. This structure is consistent with the expected origin of the air parcels within the fold, i.e., mid-latitude stratospheric air folding down below the upper tropospheric sub-tropical air. The influence of the tropopause folds extends down to 5 km, increasing the ozone content in the troposphere. No significant signature of interannual variability could be observed on the 2000–2015 de-seasonalized lidar time series, with only a statistically non-significant positive anomaly during the years 2003–2007. Our trend analysis

  6. Potential depletion of surface water in the Colorado River and agricultural drains by groundwater pumping in the Parker-Palo Verde-Cibola area, Arizona and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Heilman, Julian A.

    2013-01-01

    Water use along the lower Colorado River is allocated as “consumptive use,” which is defined to be the amount of water diverted from the river minus the amount that returns to the river. Diversions of water from the river include surface water in canals and water removed from the river by pumping wells in the aquifer connected to the river. A complication in accounting for water pumped by wells occurs if the pumping depletes water in drains and reduces measured return flow in those drains. In that case, consumptive use of water pumped by the wells is accounted for in the reduction of measured return flow. A method is needed to understand where groundwater pumping will deplete water in the river and where it will deplete water in drains. To provide a basis for future accounting for pumped groundwater in the Parker-Palo Verde-Cibola area, a superposition model was constructed. The model consists of three layers of finite-difference cells that cover most of the aquifer in the study area. The model was run repeatedly with each run having a pumping well in a different model cell. The source of pumped water that is depletion of the river, expressed as a fraction of the pumping rate, was computed for all active cells in model layer 1, and maps were constructed to understand where groundwater pumping depletes the river and where it depletes drains. The model results indicate that if one or more drains exist between a pumping well location and the river, nearly all of the depletion will be from drains, and little or no depletion will come from the Colorado River. Results also show that if a well pumps on a side of the river with no drains in the immediate area, depletion will come from the Colorado River. Finally, if a well pumps between the river and drains that parallel the river, a fraction of the pumping will come from the river and the rest will come from the drains. Model results presented in this report may be considered in development or refinement of strategies

  7. Surface Level Ozone and its Adverse Effects on Crops and Forests: A Need for an Interdisciplinary Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar V. Krupa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface level ozone (O3 is clearly a global scale problem with regard to its adverse effects on crops, forests and native, terrestrial plant ecosystems. Photochemists and meteorologists are continuing to define the chemistry and physics of the prevalence of O3 at the ground level. Similarly, plant scientists in the U.S. and Europe have examined the effects of O3 on crops and tree seedlings or saplings through large-scale studies. Examples include the U.S. National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN, the U.S. EPA’s (Environmental Protection Agency’s San Bernardino National Forest Photochemical Oxidant Study, European Open-top Chambers Programme (EOTCP, and several ongoing EU (European Union projects. In addition, there have been studies on mature tree responses through field measurements and by simulation modeling.

  8. Ozone: Good Up High, Bad Nearby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are already under stress from UV radiation. This stress could have adverse consequences for human food supplies from the oceans. What is Being Done About the Depletion of “Good” Ozone? The United States, along with over 180 ...

  9. Theoretical study of ozone adsorption on the surface of Fe, Co and Ni doped boron nitride nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanzadeh, Davood; Askari Ardehjani, Nastaran

    2018-06-01

    In this work, the adsorption of ozone molecule on Fe, Co and Ni doped boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) were investigated using density functional theory. The most stable adsorption configurations, charge transfer and adsorption energy of ozone molecule on pure and doped BNNSs are calculated. It is shown that ozone molecule has no remarkable interaction with pure boron nitride nanosheet, it tends to be chemisorbed on Fe, Co and Ni doped BNNSs with adsorption energy in the range of -249.4 to -686.1 kJ/mol. In all configurations, the adsorption of ozone molecule generates a semiconductor by reducing Eg in the pure and Fe, Co and Ni doped boron nitride nanosheet. It shows that the conductance of BNNSs change over the adsorption of ozone molecule. The obtained results in this study can be used in developing BN-based sheets for ozone molecule removal.

  10. Surface chemistry of a pine-oil cleaner and other terpene mixtures with ozone on vinyl flooring tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jason E; Wells, J Raymond

    2011-04-01

    Indoor environments are dynamic reactors where consumer products (such as cleaning agents, deodorants, and air fresheners) emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can subsequently interact with indoor oxidants such as ozone (O(3)), hydroxyl radicals, and nitrate radicals. Typically, consumer products consist of mixtures of VOCs and semi-VOCs which can react in the gas-phase or on surfaces with these oxidants to generate a variety of oxygenated products. In this study, the reaction of a pine-oil cleaner (POC) with O(3) (100ppb) on a urethane-coated vinyl flooring tile was investigated at 5% and 50% relative humidity. These results were compared to previous α-terpineol+O(3) reactions on glass and vinyl surfaces. Additionally, other terpene and terpene alcohol mixtures were formulated to understand the emission profiles as seen in the POC data. Results showed that the α-terpineol+O(3) reaction products were the prominent species that were also observed in the POC/O(3) surface experiments. Furthermore, α-terpineol+O(3) reactions generate the largest fraction of oxygenated products even in equal mixtures of other terpene alcohols. This finding suggests that the judicial choice of terpene alcohols for inclusion in product formulations may be useful in reducing oxidation product emissions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Disappearing threat to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribbin, J

    1979-02-15

    Concern that human activities might disturb the dynamic natural equilibrium of the ozone layer has stemmed from the fact that this layer plays a key part in the ecology of the earth by absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation which would otherwise penetrate to the ground. Apparently, however, a decline of as much at 15% in total global ozone would have very little effect on climate. A 50% reduction would produce a marked cooling of the stratosphere at 40 km altitude over the tropics, but barely detectable changes in temperature and rainfall in the lower atmosphere. Therefore, biological effects of more uv light at ground level is the only hazard associated with ozone depletion on the scale which might take place.

  12. Evaluation of broadband surface solar irradiance derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, P.; Sneep, M.; Veefkind, J.P.; Stammes, P.; Levelt, P.F.

    2014-01-01

    Surface solar irradiance (SSI) data are important for planning and estimating the production of solar power plants. Long-term high quality surface solar radiation data are needed for monitoring climate change. This paper presents a new surface solar irradiance dataset, the broadband (0.2–4 ?m)

  13. Children's Models of Understanding of Two Major Global Environmental Issues (Ozone Layer and Greenhouse Effect).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Aims to quantify the models that 13- and 14 year-old students hold about the causes of the greenhouse effect and ozone layer depletion. Assesses the prevalence of those ideas that link the two phenomena. Twice as many students think that holes in the ozone layer cause the greenhouse effect than think the greenhouse effect causes ozone depletion.…

  14. Anthropogenous modifications of the atmosphere. The atmospheric ozone threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aimedieu, P.

    1991-01-01

    Ozone role and atmospheric chemistry are first reviewed: chemical reactions and vertical distribution of ozone in the atmosphere. The origins of chlorofluorocarbon air pollution and the role of the various types of CFC on ozone depletion, greenhouse effect, cancer, etc. are then discussed. The political and environmental discussions concerning these phenomena are also reviewed

  15. Bay breeze climatology at two sites along the Chesapeake bay from 1986-2010: Implications for surface ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Ryan M; Thompson, Anne M

    Hourly surface meteorological measurements were coupled with surface ozone (O 3 ) mixing ratio measurements at Hampton, Virginia and Baltimore, Maryland, two sites along the Chesapeake Bay in the Mid-Atlantic United States, to examine the behavior of surface O 3 during bay breeze events and quantify the impact of the bay breeze on local O 3 pollution. Analyses were performed for the months of May through September for the years 1986 to 2010. The years were split into three groups to account for increasingly stringent environmental regulations that reduced regional emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ): 1986-1994, 1995-2002, and 2003-2010. Each day in the 25-year record was marked either as a bay breeze day, a non-bay breeze day, or a rainy/cloudy day based on the meteorological data. Mean eight hour (8-h) averaged surface O 3 values during bay breeze events were 3 to 5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) higher at Hampton and Baltimore than on non-bay breeze days in all year periods. Anomalies from mean surface O 3 were highest in the afternoon at both sites during bay breeze days in the 2003-2010 study period. In conjunction with an overall lowering of baseline O 3 after the 1995-2002 period, the percentage of total exceedances of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 75 ppbv 8-h O 3 standard that occurred on bay breeze days increased at Hampton for 2003-2010, while remaining steady at Baltimore. These results suggest that bay breeze circulations are becoming more important to causing exceedance events at particular sites in the region, and support the hypothesis of Martins et al. (2012) that highly localized meteorology increasingly drives air quality events at Hampton.

  16. Assessing the impact of local meteorological variables on surface ozone in Hong Kong during 2000-2015 using quantile and multiple line regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Fan, Shaojia; Guo, Hai; Gao, Bo; Sun, Jiaren; Chen, Laiguo

    2016-11-01

    The quantile regression (QR) method has been increasingly introduced to atmospheric environmental studies to explore the non-linear relationship between local meteorological conditions and ozone mixing ratios. In this study, we applied QR for the first time, together with multiple linear regression (MLR), to analyze the dominant meteorological parameters influencing the mean, 10th percentile, 90th percentile and 99th percentile of maximum daily 8-h average (MDA8) ozone concentrations in 2000-2015 in Hong Kong. The dominance analysis (DA) was used to assess the relative importance of meteorological variables in the regression models. Results showed that the MLR models worked better at suburban and rural sites than at urban sites, and worked better in winter than in summer. QR models performed better in summer for 99th and 90th percentiles and performed better in autumn and winter for 10th percentile. And QR models also performed better in suburban and rural areas for 10th percentile. The top 3 dominant variables associated with MDA8 ozone concentrations, changing with seasons and regions, were frequently associated with the six meteorological parameters: boundary layer height, humidity, wind direction, surface solar radiation, total cloud cover and sea level pressure. Temperature rarely became a significant variable in any season, which could partly explain the peak of monthly average ozone concentrations in October in Hong Kong. And we found the effect of solar radiation would be enhanced during extremely ozone pollution episodes (i.e., the 99th percentile). Finally, meteorological effects on MDA8 ozone had no significant changes before and after the 2010 Asian Games.

  17. Mechanisms of impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhny, Alexander; Dyominov, Igor

    the expected recovery of the ozone layer here. The difference in the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer at the southern and northern polar latitudes through PCS modification is determined by the difference in temperature regimes of the Polar Regions. The mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the polar ozone by means of modification of sulphate aerosol distribution in the atmosphere has been revealed and investigated, too. Numerical experiments show that enhancement of the surface area density of sulphate aerosol in the stratosphere caused by the growth of the greenhouse gases will reduce significantly the ozone depletion during the Antarctic ozone hole.

  18. Impacts of Brown Carbon from Biomass Burning on Surface UV and Ozone Photochemistry in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jungbin; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Arola, Antti; Torres, Omar; Jethva, Hiren; Andrade, Marcos; Labow, Gordon; Eck, Thomas F.; Li, Zhangqing; Dickerson, Russell R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The spectral dependence of light absorption by atmospheric particulate matter has major implications for air quality and climate forcing, but remains uncertain especially in tropical areas with extensive biomass burning. In the September-October 2007 biomass-burning season in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, we studied light absorbing (chromophoric) organic or brown carbon (BrC) with surface and space-based remote sensing. We found that BrC has negligible absorption at visible wavelengths, but significant absorption and strong spectral dependence at UV wavelengths. Using the ground-based inversion of column effective imaginary refractive index in the range 305368nm, we quantified a strong spectral dependence of absorption by BrC in the UV and diminished ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation reaching the surface. Reduced UV-B means less erythema, plant damage, and slower photolysis rates. We use a photochemical box model to show that relative to black carbon (BC) alone, the combined optical properties of BrC and BC slow the net rate of production of ozone by up to 18 and lead to reduced concentrations of radicals OH, HO2, and RO2 by up to 17, 15, and 14, respectively. The optical properties of BrC aerosol change in subtle ways the generally adverse effects of smoke from biomass burning.

  19. Impacts of brown carbon from biomass burning on surface UV and ozone photochemistry in the Amazon Basin

    KAUST Repository

    Mok, Jungbin

    2016-11-11

    The spectral dependence of light absorption by atmospheric particulate matter has major implications for air quality and climate forcing, but remains uncertain especially in tropical areas with extensive biomass burning. In the September-October 2007 biomass-burning season in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, we studied light absorbing (chromophoric) organic or “brown” carbon (BrC) with surface and space-based remote sensing. We found that BrC has negligible absorption at visible wavelengths, but significant absorption and strong spectral dependence at UV wavelengths. Using the ground-based inversion of column effective imaginary refractive index in the range 305–368 nm, we quantified a strong spectral dependence of absorption by BrC in the UV and diminished ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation reaching the surface. Reduced UV-B means less erythema, plant damage, and slower photolysis rates. We use a photochemical box model to show that relative to black carbon (BC) alone, the combined optical properties of BrC and BC slow the net rate of production of ozone by up to 18% and lead to reduced concentrations of radicals OH, HO2, and RO2 by up to 17%, 15%, and 14%, respectively. The optical properties of BrC aerosol change in subtle ways the generally adverse effects of smoke from biomass burning.

  20. Overview of surface ozone variability in East Asia-North Pacific region during IGAC/APARE (1994--1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, K S; Wang, T J; Wang, T; Tang, J; Kajii, Y; Liu, C M; Shim, S G

    2004-01-01

    Surface ozone (O3) was measured at Oki Island (Japan), Cheju Island (South Korea), Lanyu Island (Taiwan Province, China), Cape D'Aguilar (Hong Kong SAR) and Lin'an, Longfenshan, Waliguan (China mainland) during January 1994--December 1996 as a component of IGAC/APARE (International Global Atmospheric Chemistry/East Asia-North Pacific Regional Experiment). This paper gave a joint discussion on the observational results at these stations over the study region. Investigations showed that the average of surface O3 mixing ratios at the seven sites are 47.9+/-15.8, 48.1+/-17.9, 30.2+/-16.4, 31.6+/-17.5, 36.3+/-17.5, 34.8+/-11.5 and 48.2+/-9.5 ppbv, respectively. Significant diurnal variations of surface O3 have been observed at Oki, Cheju, D'Aguilar, Lin'an and Longfenshan. Their annual averaged diurnal differences range from 8 to 23 ppbv and differ in each season. Surface O3 at Lanyu and Waliguan do not show strong diurnal variability. Seasonal cycles of surface O3 showed difference at the temperate and the subtropical remote sites. Oki has a summer minimum-spring maximum, while Lanyu has a summer minimum-autumn maximum. The suburban sites at D'Aguilar and Lin'an report high-level O3 in autumn and low level O3 in summer. Surface O3 remains-high in autumn and low in winter at the rural site Longfenshan. For the global background station Waliguan, surface O3 exhibits a broad spring-summer maximum and autumn-winter minimum. The backward air trajectories to these sites have shown different pathways of long-range transport of air pollution from East Asia Continent to North Pacific Ocean. Surface O3 was found to be strongly and positively correlated with CO at Oki and Lanyu, especially in spring and autumn, reflecting the substantial photochemical buildup of O3 on a regional scale. It is believed that the regional sources of pollution in East Asia have enhanced the average surface O3 concentrations in the background atmosphere of North Pacific.

  1. Spectral analysis of atmospheric composition: application to surface ozone model–measurement comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Bowdalo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Models of atmospheric composition play an essential role in our scientific understanding of atmospheric processes and in providing policy strategies to deal with societally relevant problems such as climate change, air quality, and ecosystem degradation. The fidelity of these models needs to be assessed against observations to ensure that errors in model formulations are found and that model limitations are understood. A range of approaches are necessary for these comparisons. Here, we apply a spectral analysis methodology for this comparison. We use the Lomb–Scargle periodogram, a method similar to a Fourier transform, but better suited to deal with the gapped data sets typical of observational data. We apply this methodology to long-term hourly ozone observations and the equivalent model (GEOS-Chem output. We show that the spectrally transformed observational data show a distinct power spectrum with regimes indicative of meteorological processes (weather, macroweather and specific peaks observed at the daily and annual timescales together with corresponding harmonic peaks at one-half, one-third, etc., of these frequencies. Model output shows corresponding features. A comparison between the amplitude and phase of these peaks introduces a new comparison methodology between model and measurements. We focus on the amplitude and phase of diurnal and seasonal cycles and present observational/model comparisons and discuss model performance. We find large biases notably for the seasonal cycle in the mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere where the amplitudes are generally overestimated by up to 16 ppbv, and phases are too late on the order of 1–5 months. This spectral methodology can be applied to a range of model–measurement applications and is highly suitable for Multimodel Intercomparison Projects (MIPs.

  2. Reassessment of causes of ozone column variability following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo using a nudged CCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Telford

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The eruption of Mount Pinatubo produced the largest loading of stratospheric sulphate aerosol in the twentieth century. This heated the tropical lower stratosphere, affecting stratospheric circulation, and provided enhanced surface area for heterogeneous chemistry. These factors combined to produce record low values of "global" total ozone column. Though well studied, there remains some uncertainty about the attribution of this low ozone, with contributions from both chemical and dynamical effects. We take a complementary approach to previous studies, nudging the potential temperature and horizontal winds in the new UKCA chemistry climate model to reproduce the atmospheric response and assess the impact on global total ozone. We then combine model runs and observations to distinguish between chemical and dynamical effects. To estimate the effects of increased heterogeneous chemistry on ozone we compare runs with volcanically enhanced and background surface aerosol density. The modelled depletion of global ozone peaks at about 7 DU in early 1993, in good agreement with values obtained from observations. We subtract the modelled aerosol induced ozone loss from the observed ozone record and attribute the remaining variability to `dynamical' effects. The remaining variability is dominated by the QBO. We also examine tropical and mid-latitude ozone, diagnosing contributions from El Niño in the tropics and identifying dynamically driven low ozone in northern mid-latitudes, which we interpret as possible evidence of changes in the QBO. We conclude that, on a global scale, the record lows of extra-polar ozone are produced by the increased heterogeneous chemistry, although there is evidence for dynamics produced low ozone in certain regions, including northern mid-latitudes.

  3. Investigation on the dominant key to achieve superior Ge surface passivation by GeOx based on the ozone oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaolei; Xiang, Jinjuan; Wang, Wenwu; Xiong, Yuhua; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The dominant key to achieve superior Ge passivation by GeO x is investigated. • The interface state density decreases with increasing the GeO x thickness. • The Ge 3+ oxide component is the dominant key to passivate the Ge surface. • The atomic structure at the GeO x /Ge interface is built by XPS. - Abstract: The dominant key to achieve superior Ge surface passivation by GeO x interfacial layer is investigated based on ozone oxidation. The interface state density (D it ) measured from low temperature conduction method is found to decrease with increasing the GeO x thickness (0.26–1.06 nm). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is employed to demonstrate the interfacial structure of GeO x /Ge with different GeO x thicknesses. And the XPS results show that Ge 3+ oxide component is responsible to the decrease of the D it due to the effective passivation of Ge dangling bonds. Therefore, the formation of Ge 3+ component is the dominant key to achieve low D it for Ge gate stacks. Our work confirms that the same physical mechanism determines the Ge surface passivation by the GeO x regardless of the oxidation methods to grow the GeO x interfacial layer. As a result, to explore a growth process that can realize sufficient Ge 3+ component in the GeO x interlayer as thin as possible is important to achieve both equivalent oxide thickness scaling and superior interfacial property simultaneously. This conclusion is helpful to engineer the optimization of the Ge gate stacks.

  4. Coupling aerosol surface and bulk chemistry with a kinetic double layer model (K2-SUB: oxidation of oleic acid by ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pfrang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a kinetic double layer model coupling aerosol surface and bulk chemistry (K2-SUB based on the PRA framework of gas-particle interactions (Pöschl-Rudich-Ammann, 2007. K2-SUB is applied to a popular model system of atmospheric heterogeneous chemistry: the interaction of ozone with oleic acid. We show that our modelling approach allows de-convoluting surface and bulk processes, which has been a controversial topic and remains an important challenge for the understanding and description of atmospheric aerosol transformation. In particular, we demonstrate how a detailed treatment of adsorption and reaction at the surface can be coupled to a description of bulk reaction and transport that is consistent with traditional resistor model formulations.

    From literature data we have derived a consistent set of kinetic parameters that characterise mass transport and chemical reaction of ozone at the surface and in the bulk of oleic acid droplets. Due to the wide range of rate coefficients reported from different experimental studies, the exact proportions between surface and bulk reaction rates remain uncertain. Nevertheless, the model results suggest an important role of chemical reaction in the bulk and an approximate upper limit of ~10−11 cm2 s−1 for the surface reaction rate coefficient. Sensitivity studies show that the surface accommodation coefficient of the gas-phase reactant has a strong non-linear influence on both surface and bulk chemical reactions. We suggest that K2-SUB may be used to design, interpret and analyse future experiments for better discrimination between surface and bulk processes in the oleic acid-ozone system as well as in other heterogeneous reaction systems of atmospheric relevance.

  5. Northern Hemisphere Winter Climate Response to Greenhouse Gas, Ozone, Solar and Volcanic Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, Drew T.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Miller, Ron L.; Rind, David; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) climate/middle atmosphere model has been used to study the impacts of increasing greenhouse gases, polar ozone depletion, volcanic eruptions, and solar cycle variability. We focus on the projection of the induced responses onto Northern Hemisphere winter surface climate. Changes in the model's surface climate take place largely through enhancement of existing variability patterns, with greenhouse gases, polar ozone depletion and volcanic eruptions primarily affecting the Arctic Oscillation (AO) pattern. Perturbations descend from the stratosphere to the surface in the model by altering the propagation of planetary waves coming up from the surface, in accord with observational evidence. Models lacking realistic stratospheric dynamics fail to capture these wave flux changes. The results support the conclusion that the stratosphere plays a crucial role in recent AO trends. We show that in our climate model, while ozone depletion has a significant effect, greenhouse gas forcing is the only one capable of causing the large, sustained increase in the AO observed over recent decades. This suggests that the AO trend, and a concurrent strengthening of the stratospheric vortex over the Arctic, are very likely anthropogenic in origin.

  6. UV and infrared absorption spectra, atmospheric lifetimes, and ozone depletion and global warming potentials for CCl2FCCl2F (CFC-112, CCl3CClF2 (CFC-112a, CCl3CF3 (CFC-113a, and CCl2FCF3 (CFC-114a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Davis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential impact of CCl2FCF3 (CFC-114a and the recently observed CCl2FCCl2F (CFC-112, CCl3CClF2 (CFC-112a, and CCl3CF3 (CFC-113a chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs on stratospheric ozone and climate is presently not well characterized. In this study, the UV absorption spectra of these CFCs were measured between 192.5 and 235 nm over the temperature range 207–323 K. Precise parameterizations of the UV absorption spectra are presented. A 2-D atmospheric model was used to evaluate the CFC atmospheric loss processes, lifetimes, ozone depletion potentials (ODPs, and the associated uncertainty ranges in these metrics due to the kinetic and photochemical uncertainty. The CFCs are primarily removed in the stratosphere by short-wavelength UV photolysis with calculated global annually averaged steady-state lifetimes (years of 63.6 (61.9–64.7, 51.5 (50.0–52.6, 55.4 (54.3–56.3, and 105.3 (102.9–107.4 for CFC-112, CFC-112a, CFC-113a, and CFC-114a, respectively. The range of lifetimes given in parentheses is due to the 2σ uncertainty in the UV absorption spectra and O(1D rate coefficients included in the model calculations. The 2-D model was also used to calculate the CFC ozone depletion potentials (ODPs with values of 0.98, 0.86, 0.73, and 0.72 obtained for CFC-112, CFC-112a, CFC-113a, and CFC-114a, respectively. Using the infrared absorption spectra and lifetimes determined in this work, the CFC global warming potentials (GWPs were estimated to be 4260 (CFC-112, 3330 (CFC-112a, 3650 (CFC-113a, and 6510 (CFC-114a for the 100-year time horizon.

  7. Formaldehyde Column Density Measurements as a Suitable Pathway to Estimate Near-Surface Ozone Tendencies from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jason R.; Crawford, James H.; Fried, Alan; Walega, James; Weinheimer, Andrew; Wisthaler, Armin; Mueller, Markus; Mikoviny, Tomas; Chen, Gao; Shook, Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    In support of future satellite missions that aim to address the current shortcomings in measuring air quality from space, NASA's Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) field campaign was designed to enable exploration of relationships between column measurements of trace species relevant to air quality at high spatial and temporal resolution. In the DISCOVER-AQ data set, a modest correlation (r2 = 0.45) between ozone (O3) and formaldehyde (CH2O) column densities was observed. Further analysis revealed regional variability in the O3-CH2O relationship, with Maryland having a strong relationship when data were viewed temporally and Houston having a strong relationship when data were viewed spatially. These differences in regional behavior are attributed to differences in volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. In Maryland, biogenic VOCs were responsible for approx.28% of CH2O formation within the boundary layer column, causing CH2O to, in general, increase monotonically throughout the day. In Houston, persistent anthropogenic emissions dominated the local hydrocarbon environment, and no discernable diurnal trend in CH2O was observed. Box model simulations suggested that ambient CH2O mixing ratios have a weak diurnal trend (+/-20% throughout the day) due to photochemical effects, and that larger diurnal trends are associated with changes in hydrocarbon precursors. Finally, mathematical relationships were developed from first principles and were able to replicate the different behaviors seen in Maryland and Houston. While studies would be necessary to validate these results and determine the regional applicability of the O3-CH2O relationship, the results presented here provide compelling insight into the ability of future satellite missions to aid in monitoring near-surface air quality.

  8. Kinetics and mechanism of heterogeneous oxidation of sulfur dioxide by ozone on surface of calcium carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Li

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate particles play a key role in the air quality and the global climate, but the heterogeneous formation mechanism of sulfates on surfaces of atmospheric particles is not well established. Carbonates, which act as a reactive component in mineral dust due to their special chemical properties, may contribute significantly to the sulfate formation by heterogeneous processes. This paper presents a study on the oxidation of SO2 by O3 on CaCO3 particles. Using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS, the formation of sulfite and sulfate on the surface was identified, and the roles of O3 and water in oxidation processes were determined. The results showed that in the presence of O3, SO2can be oxidized to sulfate on the surface of CaCO3 particles. The reaction is first order in SO2 and zero order in O3. The reactive uptake coefficient for SO2 [(0.6–9.8×1014 molecule cm-3] oxidation by O3 [(1.2–12×1014 molecule cm-3] was determined to be (1.4±0.3×10-7 using the BET area as the reactive area and (7.7±1.6×10-4 using the geometric area. A two-stage mechanism that involves adsorption of SO2 followed by O3 oxidation is proposed and the adsorption of SO2 on the CaCO3 surface is the rate-determining step. The proposed mechanism can well explain the experiment results. The atmospheric implications were explored based on a box model calculation. It was found that the heterogeneous reaction might be an important pathway for sulfate formation in the atmosphere.

  9. Bromide Sources and Loads in Swiss Surface Waters and Their Relevance for Bromate Formation during Wastewater Ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltermann, Fabian; Abegglen, Christian; Götz, Christian; von Gunten, Urs

    2016-09-20

    Bromide measurements and mass balances in the catchments of major Swiss rivers revealed that chemical industry and municipal waste incinerators are the most important bromide sources and account for ∼50% and ∼20%, respectively, of the ∼2000 tons of bromide discharged in the Rhine river in 2014 in Switzerland. About 100 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) will upgrade their treatment for micropollutant abatement in the future to comply with Swiss regulations. An upgrade with ozonation may lead to unintended bromate formation in bromide-containing wastewaters. Measured bromide concentrations were industry). Wastewater ozonation formed little bromate at specific ozone doses of ≤0.4 mg O3/mg DOC, while the bromate yields were almost linearly correlated to the specific ozone dose for higher ozone doses. Molar bromate yields for typical specific ozone doses in wastewater treatment (0.4-0.6 mg O3/mg DOC) are ≤3%. In a modeled extreme scenario (in which all upgraded WWTPs release 10 μg L(-1) of bromate), bromate concentrations increased by major Swiss rivers and by several micrograms per liter in receiving water bodies with a high fraction of municipal wastewater.

  10. Surface preparation of gold nanostructures on glass by ultraviolet ozone and oxygen plasma for thermal atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, Cady A., E-mail: lancaster@chem.utah.edu; Shumaker-Parry, Jennifer S., E-mail: shumaker-parry@chem.utah.edu

    2016-08-01

    Thin film deposition to create robust plasmonic nanomaterials is a growing area of research. Plasmonic nanomaterials have tunable optical properties and can be used as substrates for surface-enhanced spectroscopies. Due to the surface sensitivity and the dependence of the near-field behavior on structural details, degradation from cleaning or spectroscopic interrogation causes plasmonic nanostructures to lose distinctive localized surface plasmon resonances or exhibit diminished optical near-field enhancements over time. To decrease degradation, conformal thin films of alumina are deposited on nanostructured substrates using atomic layer deposition. While film growth on homogenous surfaces has been studied extensively, atomic layer deposition-based film growth on heterogeneous nanostructured surfaces is not well characterized. In this report, we have evaluated the impact of oxygen plasma and ultraviolet ozone pre-treatments on Au nanoparticle substrates for thin film growth by monitoring changes in plasmonic response and nanostructure morphology. We have found that ultraviolet ozone is more effective than oxygen plasma for cleaning gold nanostructured surfaces, which is in contrast to bulk films of the same material. Our results show that oxygen plasma treatment negatively impacts the nanostructure and alumina coating based on both scanning electron microscopy analysis of morphology and changes in the plasmonic response. - Highlights: • Plasmonic response indicates oxygen plasma damages Au structures and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. • Ultraviolet ozone (UVO) re-activates aged Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-coated Au nanostructures. • UVO treatments do not damage Au or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-coated nanostructures.

  11. The ocean's role in polar climate change: asymmetric Arctic and Antarctic responses to greenhouse gas and ozone forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John; Armour, Kyle C; Scott, Jeffery R; Kostov, Yavor; Hausmann, Ute; Ferreira, David; Shepherd, Theodore G; Bitz, Cecilia M

    2014-07-13

    In recent decades, the Arctic has been warming and sea ice disappearing. By contrast, the Southern Ocean around Antarctica has been (mainly) cooling and sea-ice extent growing. We argue here that interhemispheric asymmetries in the mean ocean circulation, with sinking in the northern North Atlantic and upwelling around Antarctica, strongly influence the sea-surface temperature (SST) response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing, accelerating warming in the Arctic while delaying it in the Antarctic. Furthermore, while the amplitude of GHG forcing has been similar at the poles, significant ozone depletion only occurs over Antarctica. We suggest that the initial response of SST around Antarctica to ozone depletion is one of cooling and only later adds to the GHG-induced warming trend as upwelling of sub-surface warm water associated with stronger surface westerlies impacts surface properties. We organize our discussion around 'climate response functions' (CRFs), i.e. the response of the climate to 'step' changes in anthropogenic forcing in which GHG and/or ozone-hole forcing is abruptly turned on and the transient response of the climate revealed and studied. Convolutions of known or postulated GHG and ozone-hole forcing functions with their respective CRFs then yield the transient forced SST response (implied by linear response theory), providing a context for discussion of the differing warming/cooling trends in the Arctic and Antarctic. We speculate that the period through which we are now passing may be one in which the delayed warming of SST associated with GHG forcing around Antarctica is largely cancelled by the cooling effects associated with the ozone hole. By mid-century, however, ozone-hole effects may instead be adding to GHG warming around Antarctica but with diminished amplitude as the ozone hole heals. The Arctic, meanwhile, responding to GHG forcing but in a manner amplified by ocean heat transport, may continue to warm at an accelerating rate.

  12. Phase space barriers and dividing surfaces in the absence of critical points of the potential energy: Application to roaming in ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauguière, Frédéric A. L., E-mail: frederic.mauguiere@bristol.ac.uk; Collins, Peter, E-mail: peter.collins@bristol.ac.uk; Wiggins, Stephen, E-mail: stephen.wiggins@mac.com [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom); Kramer, Zeb C., E-mail: zebcolterkramer@gmail.com; Ezra, Gregory S., E-mail: gse1@cornell.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Baker Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Carpenter, Barry K., E-mail: carpenterb1@cardiff.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Farantos, Stavros C., E-mail: farantos@iesl.forth.gr [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas, and Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Iraklion 711 10, Crete (Greece)

    2016-02-07

    We examine the phase space structures that govern reaction dynamics in the absence of critical points on the potential energy surface. We show that in the vicinity of hyperbolic invariant tori, it is possible to define phase space dividing surfaces that are analogous to the dividing surfaces governing transition from reactants to products near a critical point of the potential energy surface. We investigate the problem of capture of an atom by a diatomic molecule and show that a normally hyperbolic invariant manifold exists at large atom-diatom distances, away from any critical points on the potential. This normally hyperbolic invariant manifold is the anchor for the construction of a dividing surface in phase space, which defines the outer or loose transition state governing capture dynamics. We present an algorithm for sampling an approximate capture dividing surface, and apply our methods to the recombination of the ozone molecule. We treat both 2 and 3 degrees of freedom models with zero total angular momentum. We have located the normally hyperbolic invariant manifold from which the orbiting (outer) transition state is constructed. This forms the basis for our analysis of trajectories for ozone in general, but with particular emphasis on the roaming trajectories.

  13. Experimental and modelling study of the effect of airflow orientation with respect to strip electrode on ozone production of surface dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikeš, J.; Pekárek, S.; Soukup, I.

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the effect of airflow orientation with respect to the strip active electrode on concentration of ozone and nitrogen dioxide produced in a planar generator based on the surface dielectric barrier discharge. The orientation of the airflow was tested in parallel and perpendicular with respect to the strips. It was found that in the investigated range of average discharge power, the ozone concentration increases approximately by 25% when airflow was oriented in parallel with respect to the strips in comparison with perpendicular orientation of the airflow. Similarly the increase of nitrogen dioxide concentration was observed for parallel orientation of the airflow with respect to the strips in comparison with the perpendicular orientation of the airflow. Within the range of wavelengths from 250 to 1100 nm, the changes of intensities of spectral lines associated with airflow orientation have been observed. A 3D numerical model describing ion trajectories and airflow patterns have also been developed.

  14. A two dimensional analytical modeling of surface potential in triple metal gate (TMG) fully-depleted Recessed-Source/Drain (Re-S/D) SOI MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Anjali; Mishra, Ram Awadh

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, analytical modeling of surface potential is proposed for new Triple Metal Gate (TMG) fully depleted Recessed-Source/Dain Silicon On Insulator (SOI) Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET). The metal with the highest work function is arranged near the source region and the lowest one near the drain. Since Recessed-Source/Drain SOI MOSFET has higher drain current as compared to conventional SOI MOSFET due to large source and drain region. The surface potential model developed by 2D Poisson's equation is verified by comparison to the simulation result of 2-dimensional ATLAS simulator. The model is compared with DMG and SMG devices and analysed for different device parameters. The ratio of metal gate length is varied to optimize the result.

  15. Steady State Sputtering Yields and Surface Compositions of Depleted Uranium and Uranium Carbide bombarded by 30 keV Gallium or 16 keV Cesium Ions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekhaus, W. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Teslich, N. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Weber, P. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-10-23

    Depleted uranium that included carbide inclusions was sputtered with 30-keV gallium ions or 16-kev cesium ions to depths much greater than the ions’ range, i.e. using steady-state sputtering. The recession of both the uranium’s and uranium carbide’s surfaces and the ion corresponding fluences were used to determine the steady-state target sputtering yields of both uranium and uranium carbide, i.e. 6.3 atoms of uranium and 2.4 units of uranium carbide eroded per gallium ion, and 9.9 uranium atoms and 3.65 units of uranium carbide eroded by cesium ions. The steady state surface composition resulting from the simultaneous gallium or cesium implantation and sputter-erosion of uranium and uranium carbide were calculated to be U₈₆Ga₁₄, (UC)₇₀Ga₃₀ and U₈₁Cs₉, (UC)₇₉Cs₂₁, respectively.

  16. Natural emissions under future climate condition and their effects on surface ozone in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Shu, Lei; Wang, Ti-jian; Liu, Qian; Gao, Da; Li, Shu; Zhuang, Bing-liang; Han, Yong; Li, Meng-meng; Chen, Pu-long

    2017-02-01

    The natural emissions of ozone precursors (NOx and VOCs) are sensitive to climate. Future climate change can impact O3 concentrations by perturbing these emissions. To better estimate the variation of natural emissions under different climate conditions and understand its effect on surface O3, we model the present and the future air quality over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region by running different simulations with the aid of the WRF-CALGRID model system that contains a natural emission module. Firstly, we estimate the natural emissions at present and in IPCC A1B scenario. The results show that biogenic VOC emission and soil NOx emission over YRD in 2008 is 657 Gg C and 19.1 Gg N, respectively. According to climate change, these emissions in 2050 will increase by 25.5% and 11.5%, respectively. Secondly, the effects of future natural emissions and meteorology on surface O3 are investigated and compared. It is found that the variations in meteorological fields can significantly alter the spatial distribution of O3 over YRD, with the increases of 5-15 ppb in the north and the decreases of -5 to -15 ppb in the south. However, only approximately 20% of the surface O3 increases caused by climate change can be attributed to the natural emissions, with the highest increment up to 2.4 ppb. Finally, Ra (the ratio of impacts from NOx and VOCs on O3 formation) and H2O2/HNO3 (the ratio between the concentrations of H2O2 and HNO3) are applied to study the O3 sensitivity in YRD. The results show that the transition value of H2O2/HNO3 will turn from 0.3 to 0.5 in 2008 to 0.4-0.8 in 2050. O3 formation in the YRD region will be insensitive to VOCs under future climate condition, implying more NOx need to be cut down. Our findings can help us understand O3 variation trend and put forward the reasonable and effective pollution control policies in these famous polluted areas.

  17. Surface ozone and NOx trends observed over Kannur, a South Indian coastal location of weak industrial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satheesh Mk; T, Nishanth; M, Praseeed K.

    South India is a peninsular region surrounded by the three belts of Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean. Usually, coastal regions experience relatively high air quality compared to that of the interior land masses owing to the abundance of OH over ocean surface which acts as detergent in the atmosphere. Kannur (11.9 N, 75.4E, 5 m AMSL) is a coastal location along the Arabian Sea which is located in the northern district of Kerala State with fairly low industrial activities. A continuous observation of surface ozone (O3), NOx and OX (NO2+ O3) which has been initiated at this coastal site since 2009 reveals the enhancement in the concentrations of these trace species quite significantly. It is observed that surface O3 mixing ratio is increased at a rate of 1.51 ± 0.5 ppbv/year during the four year period from 2009 at Kannur. The enhancement rate in the mixing ratios of NOx is 1.01 ± 0.4 ppbv/year and OX is 1.49±0.42 ppbv/year respectively. The increase of O3 may be attributed due to the increase in methane and non-methane organic emissions from the wet lands and vehicles may enhance O3 production and fairly low rate of change of NO concentration at this site. This paper describes the rate of changes of O3, NOx and OX during the period of observation in detail. Likewise, the increase in nighttime concentrations of O3 and PM10 observed during the festival occasions in the summer month of April in all years is explained. Being a weak industrialized location, the main source of pollution is by vehicular emissions and the increase in these trace gases in the context of rapid enhancement in the number of vehicles is well correlated. These results may be helpful for improving government policies to control the photochemical formation of secondary air pollutants in the rural coastal sites that has a significant influence on the onset of monsoon and the outcome of this study have significant relevance for gradual transformation of pristine locations into polluted

  18. Surface chemical and electronic properties of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3-x} nanoparticles for ozone detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himmerlich, Marcel; Krischok, Stefan [Institut fuer Physik and Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologien, TU Ilmenau, PF 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Wang, Chunyu; Cimalla, Volker; Ambacher, Oliver [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Angewandte Festkoerperphysik, Tullastr. 72, 79108 Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The electrical properties of indium oxide nanoparticle films can be tuned by variation of growth temperature as well as rapid thermal annealing, UV-irradiation and ozone-induced oxidation. The high O{sub 3} sensitivity of indium oxide thin films is strongly linked to their structural and electronic properties. Especially, the alteration of the surface electron accumulation plays an important role in the change of the film resistivity upon O{sub 3} interaction and UV-induced regeneration. We analyse the changes of indium oxide surface properties with respect to varying crystallinity using AFM, XPS and UPS. Compared to stoichiometric In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films, indium oxide nanoparticles exhibit a high oxygen deficiency and hence a high defect density at the nanoparticle surface. After growth, these defects are saturated by hydrocarbons due to the incomplete decomposition of precursors during low temperature MOCVD. The defects and the changed stoichiometry have impact on the surface band alignment. Upon ozone-induced oxidation and UV photoreduction a reversible change in band bending, surface dipole and O adsorption density is found and will be discussed in context with electron transport characteristics and thermal properties.

  19. Now you see it, now you don't: The ozone hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkniss, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    Fragile, rainbow-colored clouds high in the antarctic sky are a beautiful but onerous reminder that all is not well in the universe. To the trained scientist, the clouds foretell the destruction of Antarctic ozone - a gas that protects the Earth from the sun's destructive ultraviolet rays. The author describes the scene while telling of the Dr. Jekyll/Mr. Hyde role that ozone plays in the environment. In the lower atmosphere, ozone is a nasty pollutant. In the upper atmosphere, it shields the Earth's surface from unwanted ultraviolet radiation. A bombshell was dropped in 1985 by the discovery of a large hole in the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere over the entire expanse of Antarctica. The hole later confirmed in other studies, has been appearing each spring and disappearing each summer since 1975. The mass of scientific evidence leaves no doubt that chlorine from chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is responsible for destroying the ozone. He predicts the hole will remain for 50 to 100 years, even if the world were to stop releasing CFCs now, although the size of the hole will wax and wane. Increased ultraviolet radiation resulting from the ozone depletion will cause an increase in skin cancer, cataracts, and infection due to weakened immune systems

  20. Protecting the ozone layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, M; King, K

    1992-06-01

    Stratospheric ozone layer depletion has been recognized as a problem by the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol (MP). The ozone layer shields the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV-B), which is more pronounced at the poles and around the equator. Industrialized countries have contributed significantly to the problem by releasing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons into the atmosphere. The effect of these chemicals, which were known for their inertness, nonflammability, and nontoxicity, was discovered in 1874. Action to deal with the effects of CFCs and halons was initiated in 1985 in a 49-nation UN meeting. 21 nations signed a protocol limiting ozone depleting substances (ODS): CFCs and halons. Schedules were set based on each country's use in 1986; the target phaseout was set for the year 2000. The MP restricts trade in ODSs and weights the impact of substances to reflect the extent of damage; i.e., halons are 10 times more damaging than CFCs. ODS requirements for developing countries were eased to accommodate scarce resources and the small fraction of ODS emissions. An Interim Multilateral Fund under the Montreal Protocol (IMFMP) was established to provide loans to finance the costs to developing countries in meeting global environmental requirements. The IMFMP is administered by the World Bank, the UN Environmental Program, and the UN Development Program. Financing is available to eligible countries who use .3 kg of ODS/person/year. Rapid phaseout in developed countries has occurred due to strong support from industry and a lower than expected cost. Although there are clear advantages to rapid phaseout, there were no incentives included in the MP for rapid phaseout. Some of the difficulties occur because the schedules set minimum targets at the lowest possible cost. Also, costs cannot be minimized by a country-specific and ODS-specific process. The ways to improve implementation in scheduling and

  1. Impacts of brown carbon from biomass burning on surface UV and ozone photochemistry in the Amazon Basin

    KAUST Repository

    Mok, Jungbin; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Arola, Antti; Torres, Omar; Jethva, Hiren; Andrade, Marcos; Labow, Gordon; Eck, Thomas F.; Li, Zhanqing; Dickerson, Russell R.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Osipov, Sergey; Ren, Xinrong

    2016-01-01

    of BrC and BC slow the net rate of production of ozone by up to 18% and lead to reduced concentrations of radicals OH, HO2, and RO2 by up to 17%, 15%, and 14%, respectively. The optical properties of BrC aerosol change in subtle ways the generally

  2. Reductions in bacterial microorganisms by filtration and ozonation of the surface water supply at the USFWS Northeast Fishery Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    A water filtration and ozonation system was recently installed to treat creek water used to culture species of concern at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Northeast Fishery Center, Lamar National Fish Hatchery (NFH). Past experience with fish culture indicates that the following bacterial pathog...

  3. Generation of ozone by pulsed corona discharge over water surface in hybrid gas-liquid electrical discharge reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukeš, Petr; Člupek, Martin; Babický, Václav; Šunka, Pavel; Janda, V.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 3 (2005), s. 409-416 ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/02/1026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Corona discharge * hybrid reactor * ozone * water treatment Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.957, year: 2005

  4. Ozone time scale decomposition and trend assessment from surface observations in National Parks of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, H.; McGlynn, D. F.; Wu, Z.; Sive, B. C.

    2017-12-01

    A time scale decomposition technique, the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD), has been employed to decompose the time scales in long-term ozone measurement data at 24 US National Park Service sites. Time scales of interest include the annual cycle, variability by large scale climate oscillations, and the long-term trend. The implementation of policy regulations was found to have had a greater effect on sites nearest to urban regions. Ozone daily mean values increased until around the late 1990s followed by decreasing trends during the ensuing decades for sites in the East, southern California, and northwestern Washington. Sites in the Midwest did not experience a reversal of trends from positive to negative until the mid- to late 2000s. The magnitude of the annual amplitude decreased for nine sites and increased for three sites. Stronger decreases in the annual amplitude occurred in the East, with more sites in the East experiencing decreases in annual amplitude than in the West. The date of annual ozone peaks and minimums has changed for 12 sites in total, but those with a shift in peak date did not necessarily have a shift in the trough date. There appeared to be a link between peak dates occurring earlier and a decrease in the annual amplitude. This is likely related to a decrease in ozone titration due to NOx emission reductions. Furthermore, it was found that the shift in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) regime from positive to negative in 1998-1999 resulting in an increase in occurrences of La Niña-like conditions had the effect of directing more polluted air masses from East Asia to higher latitudes over North America. This change in PDO regime was likely one main factor causing the increase in ozone concentrations on all time scales at an Alaskan site DENA-HQ.

  5. Intra-urban spatial variability of surface ozone in Riverside, CA: viability and validation of low-cost sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadighi, Kira; Coffey, Evan; Polidori, Andrea; Feenstra, Brandon; Lv, Qin; Henze, Daven K.; Hannigan, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Sensor networks are being more widely used to characterize and understand compounds in the atmosphere like ozone (O3). This study employs a measurement tool, called the U-Pod, constructed at the University of Colorado Boulder, to investigate spatial and temporal variability of O3 in a 200 km2 area of Riverside County near Los Angeles, California. This tool contains low-cost sensors to collect ambient data at non-permanent locations. The U-Pods were calibrated using a pre-deployment field calibration technique; all the U-Pods were collocated with regulatory monitors. After collocation, the U-Pods were deployed in the area mentioned. A subset of pods was deployed at two local regulatory air quality monitoring stations providing validation for the collocation calibration method. Field validation of sensor O3 measurements to minute-resolution reference observations resulted in R2 and root mean squared errors (RMSEs) of 0.95-0.97 and 4.4-5.9 ppbv, respectively. Using the deployment data, ozone concentrations were observed to vary on this small spatial scale. In the analysis based on hourly binned data, the median R2 values between all possible U-Pod pairs varied from 0.52 to 0.86 for ozone during the deployment. The medians of absolute differences were calculated between all possible pod pairs, 21 pairs total. The median values of those median absolute differences for each hour of the day varied between 2.2 and 9.3 ppbv for the ozone deployment. Since median differences between U-Pod concentrations during deployment are larger than the respective root mean square error values, we can conclude that there is spatial variability in this criteria pollutant across the study area. This is important because it means that citizens may be exposed to more, or less, ozone than they would assume based on current regulatory monitoring.

  6. Long-term trends of surface ozone and its influencing factors at the Mt Waliguan GAW station, China – Part 2: The roles of anthropogenic emissions and climate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Xu

    2018-01-01

    summertime ozone measured at WLG shows no significant trend despite ozone increases in eastern China. Analysis of the Trajectory-mapped Ozonesonde data set for the Stratosphere and Troposphere (TOST and trajectory residence time reveals increases in direct ozone transport from the eastern sector during autumn, which adds to the autumnal ozone increase. We further examine the links of ozone variability at WLG to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO, the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM, and the sunspot cycle. Our results suggest that the 2–3-, 3–7-, and 11-year periodicities are linked to the QBO, EASM index, and sunspot cycle, respectively. A multivariate regression analysis is performed to quantify the relative contributions of various factors to surface ozone concentrations at WLG. Through an observational and modelling analysis, this study demonstrates the complex relationships between surface ozone at remote locations and its dynamical and chemical influencing factors.

  7. The effect of surface depletion on the work function of arc-melted dilute solution tungsten-iridium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Cruz, L.A.; Bosch, D.R.; Jacobson, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The requirements of thermionic electrode materials have emphasized the need for substantial improvements in microstructural stability, strength, and creep resistance at service temperature in excess of 2,500K. The present work extends an earlier study of the effective work function trends of a series of dilute solution tungsten, iridium alloys with iridium contents of 1, 3, and 5 wt%. Since the lifetime of candidate electrode materials is an important consideration, the present work attempts to evaluate the repeatability of the work function trends in these alloys. The effective work function was obtained from measurements of the current emitted from the electrode surface under UHV conditions in the temperature range of 1,800-2,500K using a Vacuum Emission Vehicle (VEV). The data generated in this work have been compared with data obtained in earlier studies performed on these alloys. It was found that the magnitude of the effective work function of these alloys was affected by changes in the subsurface iridium concentration. Furthermore, these alloys exhibited a dependence of the work function on temperature, after prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures. Such a temperature dependence can be explained by diffusion-controlled changes in the coverage of an iridium monolayer on the surface. It is proposed that the significant difference in effective work function trends obtained after prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures is a direct consequence of changes in the coverage of an iridium-rich monolayer on the electrode surface. The constitution of such a surface layer, however, would be governed by composition changes in the subsurface regions of the electrode caused thermally-activated transport processes

  8. Ozone modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIllvaine, C M

    1994-07-01

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NO{sub x} concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NO{sub x} coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NO{sub x} ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented.

  9. Ozone modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIllvaine, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NO x concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NO x coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NO x ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented

  10. Reconciliation of Halogen-Induced Ozone Loss with the Total-Column Ozone Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, T. G.; Plummer, D. A.; Scinocca, J. F.; Hegglin, M. I.; Fioletov, V. E.; Reader, M. C.; Remsberg, E.; von Clarmann, T.; Wang, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    The observed depletion of the ozone layer from the 1980s onwards is attributed to halogen source gases emitted by human activities. However, the precision of this attribution is complicated by year-to-year variations in meteorology, that is, dynamical variability, and by changes in tropospheric ozone concentrations. As such, key aspects of the total-column ozone record, which combines changes in both tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, remain unexplained, such as the apparent absence of a decline in total-column ozone levels before 1980, and of any long-term decline in total-column ozone levels in the tropics. Here we use a chemistry-climate model to estimate changes in halogen-induced ozone loss between 1960 and 2010; the model is constrained by observed meteorology to remove the eects of dynamical variability, and driven by emissions of tropospheric ozone precursors to separate out changes in tropospheric ozone. We show that halogen-induced ozone loss closely followed stratospheric halogen loading over the studied period. Pronounced enhancements in ozone loss were apparent in both hemispheres following the volcanic eruptions of El Chichon and, in particular, Mount Pinatubo, which significantly enhanced stratospheric aerosol loads. We further show that approximately 40% of the long-term non-volcanic ozone loss occurred before 1980, and that long-term ozone loss also occurred in the tropical stratosphere. Finally, we show that halogeninduced ozone loss has declined by over 10% since stratospheric halogen loading peaked in the late 1990s, indicating that the recovery of the ozone layer is well underway.

  11. Temperature dependence of bromine activation due to reaction of bromide with ozone in a proxy for organic aerosols and its importance for chemistry in surface snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edebeli, Jacinta; Ammann, Markus; Gilgen, Anina; Trachsel, Jürg; Avak, Sven; Eichler, Anja; Schneebeli, Martin; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    Tropospheric ozone depletion events (ODEs) via halogen activation are observed in both cold and warm climates [1-3]. Very recently, it was suggested that this multiphase halogen activation chemistry dominates in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere [4]. These occurrences beg the question of temperature dependence of halogen activation in sea-salt aerosol, which are often mixtures of sea-salt and organic molecules [3, 5]. With the application of flow-tubes, the aim of this study is to investigate the temperature dependence of bromine activation via ozone interaction in a bromide containing film as a proxy for mixed organic - sea-salt aersol. Citric acid is used in this study as a hygroscopically characterized matrix and a proxy for oxidized organics, which is of relevance to atmospheric chemistry. Here, we present reactive ozone uptake measured between 258 and 289 K. The data show high reproducibility. With available knowledge, we have reproduced the measured uptake with modelled bulk uptake while accounting for temperature dependence of the substrate's properties as diffusivity, viscosity, and gas solubility. This work is part of a cross-disciplinary project with the aim to investigate the impact of metamorphism on impurity location in aging snow and its consequences for chemical reactivity. Metamorphism drastically shapes the structure and physical properties of snow, which has impacts on heat transfer, albedo, and avalanche formation. Such changes can be driven by water vapour fluxes in dry metamorphism with a mass turnover of as much as 60% per day - much greater than previously thought [6]. The consequences for atmospheric science are a current question of research [7]. Here, we show first results of a joint experiment to probe the re-distribution of impurities during snow metamorphism in artificial snow combined with an investigation of the samples structural changes. Future work is planned with the goal to investigate to which extend the observed re

  12. Towards the retrieval of tropospheric ozone with the ozone monitoring instrument (OMI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mielonen, T.; De Haan, J.F.; Van Peet, J.C.A.; Eremenko, M.; Veefkind, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    We have assessed the sensitivity of the operational Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) ozone profile retrieval algorithm to a number of a priori and radiative transfer assumptions. We studied the effect of stray light correction, surface albedo assumptions and a priori ozone profiles on the retrieved

  13. Optical remote measurement of ozone in cirrus clouds; Optische Fernmessung von Ozon in Zirruswolken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichardt, J. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische und Chemische Analytik

    1998-12-31

    The subject of this thesis is theoretical and experimental investigations into the simultaneous optical remote measurement of atmospheric ozone concentration and particle properties. A lidar system was developed that combines the Raman-lidar and the polarization-lidar with the Raman-DIAL technique. An error analysis is given for ozone measurements in clouds. It turns out that the wavelength dependencies of photon multiple scattering and of the particle extinction coefficient necessitate a correction of the measured ozone concentration. To quantify the cloud influence, model calculations based on particle size distributions of spheres are carried out. The most important experimental result of this thesis is the measured evidence of pronounced minima in the ozone distribution in a humid upper troposphere shortly before and during cirrus observation. Good correlation between ozone-depleted altitude ranges and ice clouds is found. This finding is in contrast to ozone profiles measured in a dry and cloud-free troposphere. (orig.) 151 refs.

  14. Chemical and climatic drivers of radiative forcing due to changes in stratospheric and tropospheric ozone over the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Banerjee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The ozone radiative forcings (RFs resulting from projected changes in climate, ozone-depleting substances (ODSs, non-methane ozone precursor emissions and methane between the years 2000 and 2100 are calculated using simulations from the UM-UKCA chemistry–climate model (UK Met Office's Unified Model containing the United Kingdom Chemistry and Aerosols sub-model. Projected measures to improve air-quality through reductions in non-methane tropospheric ozone precursor emissions present a co-benefit for climate, with a net global mean ozone RF of −0.09 W m−2. This is opposed by a positive ozone RF of 0.05 W m−2 due to future decreases in ODSs, which is driven by an increase in tropospheric ozone through stratosphere-to-troposphere transport of air containing higher ozone amounts. An increase in methane abundance by more than a factor of 2 (as projected by the RCP8.5 scenario is found to drive an ozone RF of 0.18 W m−2, which would greatly outweigh the climate benefits of non-methane tropospheric ozone precursor reductions. A small fraction (∼ 15 % of the ozone RF due to the projected increase in methane results from increases in stratospheric ozone. The sign of the ozone RF due to future changes in climate (including the radiative effects of greenhouse gases, sea surface temperatures and sea ice changes is shown to be dependent on the greenhouse gas emissions pathway, with a positive RF (0.05 W m−2 for RCP4.5 and a negative RF (−0.07 W m−2 for the RCP8.5 scenario. This dependence arises mainly from differences in the contribution to RF from stratospheric ozone changes. Considering the increases in tropopause height under climate change causes only small differences (≤ |0.02| W m−2 for the stratospheric, tropospheric and whole-atmosphere RFs.

  15. On-farm irrigation reservoirs for surface water storage in eastern Arkansas: Trends in construction in response to aquifer depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaeger, M. A.; Reba, M. L.; Massey, J. H.; Adviento-Borbe, A.

    2017-12-01

    On-farm surface water storage reservoirs have been constructed to address declines in the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial aquifer, the primary source of irrigation for most of the row crops grown in eastern Arkansas. These reservoirs and their associated infrastructure represent significant investments in financial and natural resources, and may cause producers to incur costs associated with foregone crop production and long-term maintenance. Thus, an analysis of reservoir construction trends in the Grand Prairie Critical Groundwater Area (GPCGA) and Cache River Critical Groundwater Area (CRCGA) was conducted to assist future water management decisions. Between 1996 and 2015, on average, 16 and 4 reservoirs were constructed per year, corresponding to cumulative new reservoir surface areas of 161 and 60 ha yr-1, for the GPCGA and the CRCGA, respectively. In terms of reservoir locations relative to aquifer status, after 1996, 84.5% of 309 total reservoirs constructed in the GPCGA and 91.0% of 78 in the CRCGA were located in areas with remaining saturated aquifer thicknesses of 50% or less. The majority of new reservoirs (74% in the GPCGA and 63% in the CRCGA) were constructed on previously productive cropland. The next most common land use, representing 11% and 15% of new reservoirs constructed in the GPCGA and CRCGA, respectively, was the combination of a field edge and a ditch, stream, or other low-lying area. Less than 10% of post-1996 reservoirs were constructed on predominately low-lying land, and the use of such lands decreased in both critical groundwater areas during the past 20 years. These disparities in reservoir construction rates, locations, and prior land uses is likely due to groundwater declines being first observed in the GPCGA as well as the existence of two large-scale river diversion projects under construction in the GPCGA that feature on-farm storage as a means to offset groundwater use.

  16. Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  17. Impacto del tratamiento con ozono sobre las propiedades superficiales del carbón activado Impact of ozone treatment on activated carbon surface properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Valdés

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El uso conjunto de ozono y carbón activado para tratar efluentes tóxicos ha sido demostrado recientemente. Sin embargo, existen dudas acerca del efecto del ozono sobre las propiedades del carbón activado. En este artículo se presentan resultados sobre la modificación de las propiedades superficiales de un carbón activado comercial por la acción del ozono durante diferentes tiempos de exposición. Las propiedades químicas superficiales del carbón activado fueron evaluadas utilizando las técnicas de neutralización selectiva, desorción térmica programada (DTP y el pH del punto de carga cero. Las características texturales fueron evaluadas mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido. El área superficial aparente, el volumen de microporos y mesoporos fueron obtenidos a partir de las isotermas de adsorción de nitrógeno a 77 K. Las propiedades adsortivas fueron caracterizadas por el índice de adsorción de azul de metileno. Los resultados demuestran que los grupos superficiales oxigenados presentes en el carbón activado se modifican producto del tratamiento con el ozono. A mayores dosis de ozono, el carbón sufre mayor oxidación y se incrementan los grupos ácidos en especial los grupos carboxílicos, mientras que el pH de punto de carga cero disminuye. El área BET, así como el volumen de microporos disminuyen al igual que el poder de adsorción de azul de metileno.The combined use of ozone and activated carbon has recently started to be developed for the treatment of toxic effluents. However, the effect of ozone on the properties of activated carbon is not fully elucidated. A study was undertaken of modifications of the surface properties of a commercial activated carbon produced by its ozonation during different time periods. Surface chemistry of the activated carbon samples was characterized by of selective neutralization, temperature-programmed desorption, and pH of the point of zero charge. Surface area and volume of

  18. Nitrous Oxides Ozone Destructiveness Under Different Climate Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, David R.; McDermid, Sonali P.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and ozone depleting substance as well as a key component of the nitrogen cascade. While emissions scenarios indicating the range of N2O's potential future contributions to radiative forcing are widely available, the impact of these emissions scenarios on future stratospheric ozone depletion is less clear. This is because N2O's ozone destructiveness is partially dependent on tropospheric warming, which affects ozone depletion rates in the stratosphere. Consequently, in order to understand the possible range of stratospheric ozone depletion that N2O could cause over the 21st century, it is important to decouple the greenhouse gas emissions scenarios and compare different emissions trajectories for individual substances (e.g. business-as-usual carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions versus low emissions of N2O). This study is the first to follow such an approach, running a series of experiments using the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Sciences ModelE2 atmospheric sub-model. We anticipate our results to show that stratospheric ozone depletion will be highest in a scenario where CO2 emissions reductions are prioritized over N2O reductions, as this would constrain ozone recovery while doing little to limit stratospheric NOx levels (the breakdown product of N2O that destroys stratospheric ozone). This could not only delay the recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer, but might also prevent a return to pre-1980 global average ozone concentrations, a key goal of the international ozone regime. Accordingly, we think this will highlight the importance of reducing emissions of all major greenhouse gas emissions, including N2O, and not just a singular policy focus on CO2.

  19. Variations of surface ozone at Ieodo Ocean Research Station in the East China Sea and the influence of Asian outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J.; Shin, B.; Lee, M.; Hwang, G.; Kim, J.; Shim, J.; Lee, G.; Shim, C.

    2015-11-01

    Ieodo Ocean Research Station (IORS), a research tower (~ 40 m a.s.l.) for atmospheric and oceanographic observations, is located in the East China Sea (32.07° N, 125.10° E). The IORS is almost equidistant from South Korea, China, and Japan and, therefore, it is an ideal place to observe Asian outflows without local emission effects. The seasonal variation of ozone was distinct, with a minimum in August (37 ppbv) and two peaks in April and October (62 ppbv), and was largely affected by the seasonal wind pattern over east Asia. At IORS, six types of air masses were distinguished with different levels of O3 concentrations by the cluster analysis of backward trajectories. Marine air masses from the Pacific Ocean represent a relatively clean background air with a lowest ozone level of 32 ppbv, which was most frequently observed in summer (July-August). In spring (March-April) and winter (December-February), the influence of Chinese outflows was dominant with higher ozone concentrations of 62 and 49 ppbv, respectively. This study confirms that the influence of Chinese outflows was the main factor determining O3 levels at IORS and its extent was dependent on meteorological state, particularly at a long-term scale.

  20. Impacts of ozone on trees and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felzer, B.S.; Cronina, T.; Melillo, J.M.; Reilly, J.M.; Xiaodong, Wang

    2007-01-01

    In this review article, we explore how surface-level ozone affects trees and crops with special emphasis on consequences for productivity and carbon sequestration. Vegetation exposure to ozone reduces photosynthesis, growth, and other plant functions. Ozone formation in the atmosphere is a product of NO x , which are also a source of nitrogen deposition. Reduced carbon sequestration of temperate forests resulting from ozone is likely offset by increased carbon sequestration from nitrogen fertilization. However, since fertilized crop-lands are generally not nitrogen-limited, capping ozone-polluting substances in the USA, Europe, and China can reduce future crop yield loss substantially. (authors)

  1. Defense meteorological satellite measurements of total ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Ellis, J.S.; Luther, F.M.; Sullivan, R.J.; Weichel, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    A multichannel filter radiometer (MFR) on Defense Meteorological Satellites (DMS) that measured total ozone on a global-scale from March 1977 - February 1980 is described. The total ozone data measured by the MFR were compared with total ozone data taken by surfaced-based Dobson spectrophotometers. When comparisons were made for five months, the Dobson spectrophotometer measured 2-5% more total ozone than the MFR. Comparisons between the Dobson spectrophotometer and the MFR showed a reduced RMS difference as the comparisons were made at closer proximity. A Northern Hemisphere total ozone distribution obtained from MFR data is presented

  2. Impact of the 2008 Global Recession on Air Quality over the United States: Implications for Surface Ozone Levels from Changes in NOx Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Daniel; Pan, Li; Chen, Weiwei; Lamsal, Lok; Lee, Pius; Tang, Youhua; Kim, Hyuncheol; Kondragunta, Shobha; Stajner, Ivanka

    2016-01-01

    Satellite and ground observations detected large variability in nitrogen oxides (NOx) during the 2008 economic recession, but the impact of the recession on air quality has not been quantified. This study combines observed NOx trends and a regional chemical transport model to quantify the impact of the recession on surface ozone (O3) levels over the continental United States. The impact is quantified by simulating O3 concentrations under two emission scenarios: business-as-usual (BAU) and recession. In the BAU case, the emission projection from the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule is used to estimate the would-be NOx emission level in 2011. In the recession case, the actual NO2 trends observed from Air Quality System ground monitors and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on the Aura satellite are used to obtain realistic changes in NOx emissions. The model prediction with the recession effect agrees better with ground O3 observations over time and space than the prediction with the BAU emission. The results show that the recession caused a 12ppbv decrease in surface O3 concentration over the eastern United States, a slight increase (0.51ppbv) over the Rocky Mountain region, and mixed changes in the Pacific West. The gain in air quality benefits during the recession, however, could be quickly offset by the much slower emission reduction rate during the post-recession period.

  3. Ozone mitigation tests at the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.; Collins, J.T.; Pisharody, M.; Job, P.K.; Wang Zhibi.

    1996-09-01

    Ozone is generated in the APS experimental stations whenever the x-ray beam has a chance to interact with air. Ozone concentrations in an experimental station have to be below a certain defined limit (current OSHA regulations specify 0.08 ppm as the maximum limit) before an experimenter can reenter the hutch. This limit is said to be currently under study for a downward adjustment. One method of depleting the ozone generated in an experimental station is mitigation through either adsorption or direct destruction. In recent tests, both methods were tried using commercially available units. Test results and some analytical predictions are presented

  4. Evaluating a Space-Based Indicator of Surface Ozone-NO x -VOC Sensitivity Over Midlatitude Source Regions and Application to Decadal Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaomeng; Fiore, Arlene M; Murray, Lee T; Valin, Lukas C; Lamsal, Lok N; Duncan, Bryan; Boersma, K Folkert; De Smedt, Isabelle; Abad, Gonzalo Gonzalez; Chance, Kelly; Tonnesen, Gail S

    2017-10-16

    Determining effective strategies for mitigating surface ozone (O 3 ) pollution requires knowledge of the relative ambient concentrations of its precursors, NO x , and VOCs. The space-based tropospheric column ratio of formaldehyde to NO 2 (FNR) has been used as an indicator to identify NO x -limited versus NO x -saturated O 3 formation regimes. Quantitative use of this indicator ratio is subject to three major uncertainties: (1) the split between NO x -limited and NO x -saturated conditions may shift in space and time, (2) the ratio of the vertically integrated column may not represent the near-surface environment, and (3) satellite products contain errors. We use the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model to evaluate the quantitative utility of FNR observed from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument over three northern midlatitude source regions. We find that FNR in the model surface layer is a robust predictor of the simulated near-surface O 3 production regime. Extending this surface-based predictor to a column-based FNR requires accounting for differences in the HCHO and NO 2 vertical profiles. We compare four combinations of two OMI HCHO and NO 2 retrievals with modeled FNR. The spatial and temporal correlations between the modeled and satellite-derived FNR vary with the choice of NO 2 product, while the mean offset depends on the choice of HCHO product. Space-based FNR indicates that the spring transition to NO x -limited regimes has shifted at least a month earlier over major cities (e.g., New York, London, and Seoul) between 2005 and 2015. This increase in NO x sensitivity implies that NO x emission controls will improve O 3 air quality more now than it would have a decade ago.

  5. Near-surface depletion of antimony during the growth of GaAsSb and GaAs/GaAsSb nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauko, H.; Helvoort, A. T. J. van, E-mail: a.helvoort@ntnu.no [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Fimland, B. O.; Munshi, A. M. [Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Grieb, T.; Müller, K.; Rosenauer, A. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Universität Bremen, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-10-14

    The near-surface reduction of the Sb mole fraction during the growth of GaAsSb nanowires (NWs) and GaAs NWs with GaAsSb inserts has been studied using quantitative high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). A model for diffusion of Sb in the hexagonal NWs was developed and employed in combination with the quantitative STEM analysis. GaAsSb NWs grown by Ga-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and GaAs/GaAsSb NWs grown by Ga- and Au-assisted MBE were investigated. At the high temperatures employed in the NW growth, As-Sb exchange at and outward diffusion of Sb towards the surface take place, resulting in reduction of the Sb concentration at and near the surface in the GaAsSb NWs and the GaAsSb inserts. In GaAsSb NWs, an increasing near-surface depletion of Sb was observed towards the bottom of the NW due to longer exposure to the As beam flux. In GaAsSb inserts, an increasing change in the Sb concentration profile was observed with increasing post-insert axial GaAs growth time, resulting from a combined effect of radial GaAs overgrowth and diffusion of Sb. The effect of growth temperature on the diffusion of Sb in the GaAsSb inserts was identified. The consequences of these findings for growth optimization and the optoelectronic properties of GaAsSb are discussed.

  6. The possible impact of fluorocarbons and halocarbons on ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    Partial contents: Chemistry-(The production and atmospheric release of fluorocarbons and certain other chlorine compounds, Photochemistry of fluorocarbons); Measurement techniques-(Stratospheric sampling platforms, Methods for measuring fluorocarbons and other halocarbons); Measurements-(Halogenated organic compounds in the troposphere, Stratospheric measurement of oxides of nitrogen, Total ozone trends); Models-(Assessment of the accuracy of atmospheric transport, Model prediction of ozone depletion); Effects-

  7. The effect of SST emissions on the earth's ozone layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, R. C.; Turco, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    The work presented here is directed toward assessment of environmental effects of the supersonic transport (SST). The model used for the purpose includes vertical eddy transport and the photochemistry of the O-H-N system. It is found that the flight altitude has a pronounced effect on ozone depletion. The largest ozone reduction occurs for NO deposition above an altitude of 20 km.

  8. Depletion field focusing in semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.W.J.; Gelder, Van A.P.

    1996-01-01

    We calculate the three-dimensional depletion field profile in a semiconductor, for a planar semiconductor material with a spatially varying potential upon the surface, and for a tip-shaped semiconductor with a constant surface potential. The nonuniform electric field gives rise to focusing or

  9. The ozone hole and the 1995 Nobel prize in chemistry; Trou d`ozone et Prix Nobel 1995 de chimie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, A. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Inst. d`Astronomie et de Geophysique G. Lemaitre

    1996-03-01

    To mark to award of the 1995 Nobel Prize in chemistry to three world renowned atmospheric chemists, this paper recalls the history of scientific progress in stratospheric ozone chemistry. Then it summarizes current knowledge of ozone-layer depletion and its impact on climate, vegetation and human health. (author). 21 refs., 12 figs.

  10. What would have happened to the ozone layer if chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) had not been regulated?

    OpenAIRE

    P. A. Newman; L. D. Oman; A. R. Douglass; E. L. Fleming; S. M. Frith; M. M. Hurwitz; S. R. Kawa; C. H. Jackman; N. A. Krotkov; E. R. Nash; J. E. Nielsen; S. Pawson; R. S. Stolarski; G. J. M. Velders

    2009-01-01

    Ozone depletion by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) was first proposed by Molina and Rowland in their 1974 Nature paper. Since that time, the scientific connection between ozone losses and CFCs and other ozone depleting substances (ODSs) has been firmly established with laboratory measurements, atmospheric observations, and modeling research. This science research led to the implementation of international agreements that largely stopped the production of ODSs. In this study we use a fully-c...

  11. Analysis of Ozone in Cloudy Versus Clear Sky Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strode, Sarah; Douglass, Anne; Ziemke, Jerald

    2016-01-01

    Convection impacts ozone concentrations by transporting ozone vertically and by lofting ozone precursors from the surface, while the clouds and lighting associated with convection affect ozone chemistry. Observations of the above-cloud ozone column (Ziemke et al., 2009) derived from the OMI instrument show geographic variability, and comparison of the above-cloud ozone with all-sky tropospheric ozone columns from OMI indicates important regional differences. We use two global models of atmospheric chemistry, the GMI chemical transport model (CTM) and the GEOS-5 chemistry climate model, to diagnose the contributions of transport and chemistry to observed differences in ozone between areas with and without deep convection, as well as differences in clean versus polluted convective regions. We also investigate how the above-cloud tropospheric ozone from OMI can provide constraints on the relationship between ozone and convection in a free-running climate simulation as well as a CTM.

  12. Optimization of Catalytic Ozonation Process for Formaldehyde Mineralization from Synthetic Wastewater by Fe/MgO Nanoparticles Synthesis by Sol-Gel Method by Response Surface Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorban Asgari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Design experiment stages of formalin mineralization process by center composition design (CCD cause ease of work, reducing the number of samples, increasing the accuracy of optimized conditions and the interaction parameters determined during the process. The aim of this study was optimization of catalytic ozonation process for formaldehyde mineralization from synthetic wastewater by Fe/MgO nanoparticles synthesis by sol-gel method by response surface model. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in a semi-batch reactor, using a RSM by taking 3 factors in the final stage of pH (7-9, reaction time (10-20 min and catalyst dose (1.1-1.3 g/L was investigated. Synthesis of nanoparticles was done by sol-gel method. The results were analyzed by Design Expert 7.0.1 software. Results: The results showed that the process was dependent on the parameters studied and changing each parameter, affected the process efficiency and other parameters. The optimum conditions predicted for the process was 86.51% of mineralization efficiency. Optimum condition included pH=8.82, reaction time of 20 minute and catalyst dose of 1.3 g/L. The correlation coefficient for the process was determined 0.91. Conclusion: Using a statistical model could reduce the number of experiments, the accuracy and the prediction process. The catalytic ozonation process has the ability to remove formaldehyde with high efficiency and the process was environmental friendly.

  13. Seasonal Changes in Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations over South Korea and Its Link to Ozone Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H. C.; Moon, B. K.; Wie, J.

    2017-12-01

    Concentration of tropospheric ozone over South Korea has steadily been on the rise in the last decades, mainly due to rapid industrializing and urbanizing in the Eastern Asia. To identify the characteristics of tropospheric ozone in South Korea, we fitted a sine function to the surface ozone concentration data from 2005 to 2014. Based on fitted sine curves, we analyzed the shifts in the dates on which ozone concentration reached its peak in the calendar year. Ozone monitoring sites can be classified into type types: where the highest annual ozone concentration kept occurring sooner (Esites) and those that kept occurring later (Lsites). The seasonal analysis shows that the surface ozone had increased more rapidly in Esites than in Lsites in the past decade during springtime and vice-versa during summertime. We tried to find the reason for the different seasonal trends with the relationship between ozone and ozone precursors. As a result, it was found that the changes in the ground-level ozone concentration in the spring and summer times are considerably influenced by changes in nitrogen dioxide concentration, and this is closely linked to the destruction (production) process of ozone by nitrogen dioxide in spring (summer). The link between tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide discussed in this study will have to be thoroughly examined through climate-chemistry modeling in the future. Acknowledgements This research was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as "Climate Change Correspondence Program."

  14. Eight years of stratospheric ozone observations at Marambio, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damski, J; Taalas, P [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Section of Ozone and UV Research

    1996-12-31

    In this work behaviour of the stratospheric ozone using the total ozone and ozone sounding measurements from Marambio (64 deg 14`S, 56 deg 37`W) at Antarctic Peninsula has been studied. The effects of depleted stratospheric ozone to the UV-B-radiation are investigated employing a radiative transfer model, and the Marambio total ozone measurements. The levels of UV-B radiation have been studied from the point of the erythemal UV-B-doses on the horizontal human epidermis. The low values of total ozone at Marambio are also reflected to the received UV-doses which have increased roughly 20-80% (compared to long term average) during austral spring and summer. In respective to the total amount of ozone, the model calculations show that during October the UV-B-doses can be at the same level they should be during normal summer

  15. Eight years of stratospheric ozone observations at Marambio, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damski, J.; Taalas, P. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Section of Ozone and UV Research

    1995-12-31

    In this work behaviour of the stratospheric ozone using the total ozone and ozone sounding measurements from Marambio (64 deg 14`S, 56 deg 37`W) at Antarctic Peninsula has been studied. The effects of depleted stratospheric ozone to the UV-B-radiation are investigated employing a radiative transfer model, and the Marambio total ozone measurements. The levels of UV-B radiation have been studied from the point of the erythemal UV-B-doses on the horizontal human epidermis. The low values of total ozone at Marambio are also reflected to the received UV-doses which have increased roughly 20-80% (compared to long term average) during austral spring and summer. In respective to the total amount of ozone, the model calculations show that during October the UV-B-doses can be at the same level they should be during normal summer

  16. Ozone Decline and Recovery: The Significance of Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, N. R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion has been one of the leading environmental issues of the last 40 years. It has required research scientists, industry and government to work together to address it successfully. Steps have been taken to reduce the emissions of ozone depleting substances (ODS) under successive revisions of the measures in the 30 year old Montreal Protocol. These have led to a reduction in atmospheric ODS concentrations and so are expected over time to result in a reduction of chemical ozone depletion by ODS. This 'recovery' is being influenced by a number of other factors (natural variability, climate change, other changes in stratospheric chemistry) which makes it hard to provide good, quantitative estimates of the impact of the recent ODS reductions on stratospheric ozone. In this presentation, I discuss how ozone trends were linked to ODS during the period of ozone depletion and during the recent period of 'recovery', i.e. before and after the peak in atmospheric ODS. It is important to be as rigorous as possible in order to give public confidence in the advice provided through the scientific assessment process. We thus need to be as critical of our analyses of the recent data as possible, even though there is a strong expectation and hope from all sides that stratospheric ozone is recovering. I will describe in outline the main challenges that exist now and looking forward.

  17. Model Calculations of Changes in Tropospheric Ozone Over Europe and the Role of Surface Sources and Aircraft Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hov, Oe [Bergen Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    This conference paper deals with a study of the impact of various sources of NO{sub x} on the ozone production in the free troposphere. A comprehensive two-dimensional zonally averaged chemistry/transport model and a three-dimensional meso-scale chemical transport (MCT) model are used in the study. Using the two-dimensional model, three surches of NO{sub x} in the upper troposphere were examined covering NO{sub x} produced by lightening, NO{sub x} (and NO{sub y}) brought to the upper troposphere from the planetary boundary layer by rapid vertical transport processes, and NO{sub x} emitted from aircraft. 4 refs.

  18. Dobson spectrophotometer ozone measurements during international ozone rocketsonde intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, C. L.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of the total ozone content of the atmosphere, made with seven ground based instruments at a site near Wallops Island, Virginia, are discussed in terms for serving as control values with which the rocketborne sensor data products can be compared. These products are profiles of O3 concentration with altitude. By integrating over the range of altitudes from the surface to the rocket apogee and by appropriately estimating the residual ozone amount from apogee to the top of the atmosphere, a total ozone amount can be computed from the profiles that can be directly compared with the ground based instrumentation results. Dobson spectrophotometers were used for two of the ground-based instruments. Preliminary data collected during the IORI from Dobson spectrophotometers 72 and 38 are presented. The agreement between the two and the variability of total ozone overburden through the experiment period are discussed.

  19. Ozone decay in chemical reactor for ozone-dynamical disintegration of used tyres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golota, V.I.; Manuilenko, O.V.; Taran, G.V.; Dotsenko, Yu.V.; Pismenetskii, A.S.; Zamuriev, A.A.; Benitskaja, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    The ozone decay kinetics in the chemical reactor intended for used tyres disintegration is investigated experimentally and theoretically. Ozone was synthesized in barrierless ozonizers based on the streamer discharge. The chemical reactor for tyres disintegration in the ozone-air environment represents the cylindrical chamber, which feeds from the ozonizer by ozone-air mixture with the specified rate of volume flow, and with known ozone concentration. The output of the used mixture, which rate of volume flow is also known, is carried out through the ozone destructor. As a result of ozone decay in the volume and on the reactor walls, and output of the used mixture from the reactor, the ozone concentration in the reactor depends from time. In the paper, the analytical expression for dependence of ozone concentration in the reactor from time and from the parameters of a problem such as the volumetric feed rate, ozone concentration on the input in the reactor, volume flow rate of the used mixture, the volume of the reactor and the area of its internal surface is obtained. It is shown that experimental results coincide with good accuracy with analytical ones.

  20. Ozone Layer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Contact Us Share Ozone Layer Protection The stratospheric ozone layer is Earth’s “sunscreen” – protecting ... GreenChill Partnership Responsible Appliance Disposal (RAD) Program Ozone Protection vs. Ozone Pollution This website addresses stratospheric ozone ...

  1. Physics of Fresh Produce Safety: Role of Diffusion and Tissue Reaction in Sanitization of Leafy Green Vegetables with Liquid and Gaseous Ozone-Based Sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynkaryk, Mykola V; Pyatkovskyy, Taras; Mohamed, Hussein M; Yousef, Ahmed E; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2015-12-01

    Produce safety has received much recent attention, with the emphasis being largely on discovery of how microbes invade produce. However, the sanitization operation deserves more attention than it has received. The ability of a sanitizer to reach the site of pathogens is a fundamental prerequisite for efficacy. This work addresses the transport processes of ozone (gaseous and liquid) sanitizer for decontamination of leafy greens. The liquid sanitizer was ineffective against Escherichia coli K-12 in situations where air bubbles may be trapped within cavities. A model was developed for diffusion of sanitizer into the interior of produce. The reaction rate of ozone with the surface of a lettuce leaf was determined experimentally and was used in a numerical simulation to evaluate ozone concentrations within the produce and to determine the time required to reach different locations. For aqueous ozone, the penetration depth was limited to several millimeters by ozone self-decomposition due to the significant time required for diffusion. In contrast, gaseous sanitizer was able to reach a depth of 100 mm in several minutes without depletion in the absence of reaction with surfaces. However, when the ozone gas reacted with the produce surface, gas concentration was significantly affected. Simulation data were validated experimentally by measuring ozone concentrations at the bottom of a cylinder made of lettuce leaf. The microbiological test confirmed the relationship between ozone transport, its self-decomposition, reaction with surrounding materials, and the degree of inactivation of E. coli K-12. Our study shows that decontamination of fresh produce, through direct contact with the sanitizer, is more feasible with gaseous than with aqueous sanitizers. Therefore, sanitization during a high-speed washing process is effective only for decontaminating the wash water.

  2. In Brief: Monitoring ozone in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    Qatar is establishing an ozone and pollution monitoring ground station in West Asia, following discussions between the government, the Qatar Foundation, and the United Nations Environment Programme, according to a 19 November announcement. The station will assist in understanding whether the ozone layer is actually recovering after being damaged by ozone-depleting chemicals. Qatar also announced plans to establish a global center of excellence for research and development of ozone and climate-friendly technology, equipment, and appliances. UNEP executive director Achim Steiner said the announcements by Qatar ``will help plug key data gaps relating to information gathering in West Asia and the Gulf to the benefit of the region and the world.''

  3. Options to Accelerate Ozone Recovery: Ozone and Climate Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, E. L.; Daniel, J. S.; Portmann, R. W.; Velders, G. J. M.; Jackman, C. H.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    The humankind or anthropogenic influence on ozone primarily originated from the chlorofluorocarbons and halons (chlorine and bromine). Representatives from governments have met periodically over the years to establish international regulations starting with the Montreal Protocol in 1987, which greatly limited the release of these ozone-depleting substances (DDSs). Two global models have been used to investigate the impact of hypothetical reductions in future emissions of ODSs on total column ozone. The investigations primarily focused on chlorine- and bromine-containing gases, but some computations also included nitrous oxide (N2O). The Montreal Protocol with ODS controls have been so successful that further regulations of chlorine- and bromine-containing gases could have only a fraction of the impact that regulations already in force have had. if all anthropogenic ODS emissions were halted beginning in 2011, ozone is calculated to be higher by about 1-2% during the period 2030-2100 compared to a case of no additional ODS restrictions. Chlorine- and bromine-containing gases and nitrous oxide are also greenhouse gases and lead to warming of the troposphere. Elimination of N 20 emissions would result in a reduction of radiative forcing of 0.23 W/sq m in 2100 than presently computed and destruction of the CFC bank would produce a reduction in radiative forcing of 0.005 W/sq m in 2100. This paper provides a quantitative way to consider future regulations of the CFC bank and N 20 emissions

  4. Substitution of R502 in existing refrigerating, air-conditioning and heat pump systems with refrigerants of low ozone depletion potential in the Federal Republic of Germany; Ersatz von R 502 in bestehenden Kaelte-, Klima- und Waermepumpenanlagen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland durch Kaeltemittel mit geringerem Ozonabbaupotential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The technical basics and the state of engineering for the substitution of R502 in existing refrigeration systems are described and explained. The report contains an overview of the current applications of R502 in the FRG, the presentation and discussion of existing substitutes, the presentation and valuations of research and experiences with the adaptation to alternative refrigerants, the presentation of the required infrastructure and a discussion of the technical feasibility. The conversion of existing systems to refrigerants of lower ozone depletion potential is in conclusion valuated with regard to its technical feasibility, environmental relevance and economic efficiency. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es werden die technischen Grundlagen und der Stand der Technik zum Ersatz von R502 in bestehenden Kaelteanlagen dargestellt und erlaeutert. Der Bericht beinhaltet einen Ueberblick ueber die derzeitige Anwendung von R502 in der BRD, die Vorstellung und Diskussion existierender Ersatzstoffe, die Darstellung und Bewertung der Forschung und Erfahrungen zu Umruestungen auf Ersatzstoffe, die Vorstellung der erforderlichen Infrastruktur und die Diskussion der technischen Durchfuehrbarkeit. Die Umstellung bestehender Anlagen auf Kaeltemittel mit geringerem Ozonabbaupotential wird abschliessend hinsichtlich der technischen Durchfuehrbarkeit, der Umweltrelevanz und der Wirtschaftlichkeit bewertet. (orig.)

  5. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Vasco; Marinov, Daniil; Guaitella, Olivier; Rousseau, Antoine

    2012-10-01

    Ozone kinetics is quite well established at atmospheric pressure, due to the importance of ozone in atmospheric chemistry and to the development of industrial ozone reactors. However, as the pressure is decreased and the dominant three-body reactions lose importance, the main mechanisms involved in the creation and destruction of ozone are still surrounded by important uncertainties. In this work we develop a self-consistent model for a pulsed discharge and its afterglow operating in a Pyrex reactor with inner radius 1 cm, at pressures in the range 1-5 Torr and discharge currents of 40-120 mA. The model couples the electron Boltzmann equation with a system of equations for the time evolution of the heavy particles. The calculations are compared with time-dependent measurements of ozone and atomic oxygen. Parametric studies are performed in order to clarify the role of vibrationally excited ozone in the overall kinetics and to establish the conditions where ozone production on the surface may become important. It is shown that vibrationally excited ozone does play a significant role, by increasing the time constants of ozone formation. Moreover, an upper limit for the ozone formation at the wall in these conditions is set at 10(-4).

  6. Development of Compact Ozonizer with High Ozone Output by Pulsed Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Fumiaki; Ueda, Satoru; Kouno, Kanako; Sakugawa, Takashi; Akiyama, Hidenori; Kinoshita, Youhei

    Conventional ozonizer with a high ozone output using silent or surface discharges needs a cooling system and a dielectric barrier, and therefore becomes a large machine. A compact ozonizer without the cooling system and the dielectric barrier has been developed by using a pulsed power generated discharge. The wire to plane electrodes made of metal have been used. However, the ozone output was low. Here, a compact and high repetition rate pulsed power generator is used as an electric source of a compact ozonizer. The ozone output of 6.1 g/h and the ozone yield of 86 g/kWh are achieved at 500 pulses per second, input average power of 280 W and an air flow rate of 20 L/min.

  7. Surface ozone and carbon monoxide levels observed at Oki, Japan: regional air pollution trends in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Helena Akhter; Suthawaree, Jeeranut; Kato, Shungo; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    2011-03-01

    Simultaneous ground-based measurements of ozone and carbon monoxide were performed at Oki, Japan, from January 2001 to September 2002 in order to investigate the O(3) and CO characteristics and their distributions. The observations revealed that O(3) and CO concentrations were maximum in springtime and minimum in the summer. The monthly averaged concentrations of O(3) and CO were 60 and 234 ppb in spring and 23 and 106 ppb in summer, respectively. Based on direction, 5-day isentropic backward trajectory analysis was carried out to determine the transport path of air masses, preceding their arrival at Oki. Comparison between classified results from present work and results from the year 1994-1996 was carried out. The O(3) and CO concentration results of classified air masses in our analysis show similar concentration trends to previous findings; highest in the WNW/W, lowest in N/NE and medium levels in NW. Moreover, O(3) levels are higher and CO levels are lower in the present study in all categories. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing the impacts of current and future concentrations of surface ozone on crop yield with meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhaozhong; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko

    Meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively assess the effects of rising ozone concentrations ([O 3]) on yield and yield components of major food crops: potato, barley, wheat, rice, bean and soybean in 406 experimental observations. Yield loss of the crops under current and future [O 3] was expressed relative to the yield under base [O 3] (≤26 ppb). With potato, current [O 3] (31-50 ppb) reduced the yield by 5.3%, and it reduced the yield of barley, wheat and rice by 8.9%, 9.7% and 17.5%, respectively. In bean and soybean, the yield losses were 19.0% and 7.7%, respectively. Compared with yield loss at current [O 3], future [O 3] (51-75 ppb) drove a further 10% loss in yield of soybean, wheat and rice, and 20% loss in bean. Mass of individual grain, seed, or tuber was often the major cause of the yield loss at current and future [O 3], whereas other yield components also contributed to the yield loss in some cases. No significant difference was found between the responses in crops grown in pots and those in the ground for any yield parameters. The ameliorating effect of elevated [CO 2] was significant in the yields of wheat and potato, and the individual grain weight in wheat exposed to future [O 3]. These findings confirm the rising [O 3] as a threat to food security for the growing global population in this century.

  9. Ozone adsorption on carbon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassard, Guillaume; Gosselin, Sylvie; Visez, Nicolas; Petitprez, Denis

    2014-05-01

    Carbonaceous particles produced by incomplete combustion or thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. On these particles are adsorbed hundreds of chemical species. Those of great concern to health are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). During atmospheric transport, particulate PAHs react with gaseous oxidants. The induced chemical transformations may change toxicity and hygroscopicity of these potentially inhalable particles. The interaction between ozone and carbon particles has been extensively investigated in literature. However ozone adsorption and surface reaction mechanisms are still ambiguous. Some studies described a fast catalytic decomposition of ozone initiated by an atomic oxygen chemisorption followed by a molecular oxygen release [1-3]. Others suggested a reversible ozone adsorption according to Langmuir-type behaviour [4,5]. The aim of this present study is a better understanding of ozone interaction with carbon surfaces. An aerosol of carbon nanoparticles was generated by flowing synthetic air in a glass tube containing pure carbon (primary particles studied. Accordingly to literature, it has been observed that the number of gas-phase ozone molecules lost per unit particle surface area tends towards a plateau for high ozone concentration suggesting a reversible ozone adsorption according to a Langmuir mechanism. We calculated the initial reaction probability between O3 and carbon particles.An initial uptake coefficient of 1.10-4 was obtained. Similar experiments were realized by selecting the particles size with a differential mobility analyser. We observed a strong size-dependent increase in reactivity with the decrease of particles size. This result is relevant for the health issues. Indeed the smallest particles are most likely to penetrate deep into the lungs. Competitive reactions between ozone and other species like H2O or atomic oxygen were also considered. Oxygen atoms were generated by photolysis of O3

  10. Solar dynamics influence on the atmospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogosheva, T.; Grigorieva, V.; Mendeva, B.; Krastev, D.; Petkov, B.

    2007-01-01

    A response of the atmospheric ozone to the solar dynamics has been studied using the total ozone content data, taken from the satellite experiments GOME on ERS-2 and TOMS-EP together with data obtained from the ground-based spectrophotometer Photon operating in Stara Zagora, Bulgaria during the period 1999-2005. We also use data from surface ozone observations performed in Sofia, Bulgaria. The solar activity was characterized by the sunspot daily numbers W, the solar radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7) and the MgII wing-to-core ratio solar index. The impact of the solar activity on the total ozone has been investigated analysing the ozone response to sharp changes of these parameters. Some of the examined cases showed a positive correlation between the ozone and the solar parameters, however, a negative correlation in other cases was found. There were some cases when the sharp increases of the solar activity did not provoke any ozone changes. The solar radiation changes during an eclipse can be considered a particular case of the solar dynamics as this event causes a sharp change of irradiance within a comparatively short time interval. The results of both - the total and surface ozone measurements carried out during the eclipses on 11 August 1999, 31 May 2003 and 29 March 2006 are presented. It was found that the atmospheric ozone behavior shows strong response to the fast solar radiation changes which take place during solar eclipse. (authors)

  11. What would have happened to the ozone layer if chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs had not been regulated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Newman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone depletion by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs was first proposed by Molina and Rowland in their 1974 Nature paper. Since that time, the scientific connection between ozone losses and CFCs and other ozone depleting substances (ODSs has been firmly established with laboratory measurements, atmospheric observations, and modeling studies. This science research led to the implementation of international agreements that largely stopped the production of ODSs. In this study we use a fully-coupled radiation-chemical-dynamical model to simulate a future world where ODSs were never regulated and ODS production grew at an annual rate of 3%. In this "world avoided" simulation, 17% of the globally-averaged column ozone is destroyed by 2020, and 67% is destroyed by 2065 in comparison to 1980. Large ozone depletions in the polar region become year-round rather than just seasonal as is currently observed in the Antarctic ozone hole. Very large temperature decreases are observed in response to circulation changes and decreased shortwave radiation absorption by ozone. Ozone levels in the tropical lower stratosphere remain constant until about 2053 and then collapse to near zero by 2058 as a result of heterogeneous chemical processes (as currently observed in the Antarctic ozone hole. The tropical cooling that triggers the ozone collapse is caused by an increase of the tropical upwelling. In response to ozone changes, ultraviolet radiation increases, more than doubling the erythemal radiation in the northern summer midlatitudes by 2060.

  12. Multi-model assessment of stratospheric ozone return dates and ozone recovery in CCMVal-2 models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Eyring

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Projections of stratospheric ozone from a suite of chemistry-climate models (CCMs have been analyzed. In addition to a reference simulation where anthropogenic halogenated ozone depleting substances (ODSs and greenhouse gases (GHGs vary with time, sensitivity simulations with either ODS or GHG concentrations fixed at 1960 levels were performed to disaggregate the drivers of projected ozone changes. These simulations were also used to assess the two distinct milestones of ozone returning to historical values (ozone return dates and ozone no longer being influenced by ODSs (full ozone recovery. The date of ozone returning to historical values does not indicate complete recovery from ODSs in most cases, because GHG-induced changes accelerate or decelerate ozone changes in many regions. In the upper stratosphere where CO2-induced stratospheric cooling increases ozone, full ozone recovery is projected to not likely have occurred by 2100 even though ozone returns to its 1980 or even 1960 levels well before (~2025 and 2040, respectively. In contrast, in the tropical lower stratosphere ozone decreases continuously from 1960 to 2100 due to projected increases in tropical upwelling, while by around 2040 it is already very likely that full recovery from the effects of ODSs has occurred, although ODS concentrations are still elevated by this date. In the midlatitude lower stratosphere the evolution differs from that in the tropics, and rather than a steady decrease in ozone, first a decrease in ozone is simulated from 1960 to 2000, which is then followed by a steady increase through the 21st century. Ozone in the midlatitude lower stratosphere returns to 1980 levels by ~2045 in the Northern Hemisphere (NH and by ~2055 in the Southern Hemisphere (SH, and full ozone recovery is likely reached by 2100 in both hemispheres. Overall, in all regions except the tropical lower stratosphere, full ozone recovery from ODSs occurs significantly later than the

  13. Depletion interaction measured by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijting, W.K.; Knoben, W.; Besseling, N.A.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the depletion interaction between stearylated silica surfaces in cyclohexane in the presence of dissolved polydimethylsiloxane by means of colloidal probe atomic force microscopy. We found that the range of the depletion interaction decreases with increasing concentration.

  14. Ozone fumigation under dark/light conditions of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaval, Eva; Jud, Werner; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Norway Spruce (Picea abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent dominating tree species in the northern hemisphere. Thus, the understanding of their ozone sensitivity in the light of the expected increasing ozone levels in the future is of great importance. In our experiments we investigated the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of 3-4 year old Norway Spruce and Scots Pine seedlings under ozone fumigation (50-150 ppbv) and dark/light conditions. For the experiments the plants were placed in a setup with inert materials including a glass cuvette equipped with a turbulent air inlet and sensors for monitoring a large range of meteorological parameters. Typical conditions were 20-25°C and a relative humidity of 70-90 % for both plant species. A fast gas exchange rate was used to minimize reactions of ozone in the gas phase. A Switchable-Reagent-Ion-Time-of-Flight-MS (SRI-ToF-MS) was used to analyze the VOCs at the cuvette outlet in real-time during changing ozone and light levels. The use of H3O+ and NO+ as reagent ions allows the separation of certain isomers (e.g. aldehydes and ketones) due to different reaction pathways depending on the functional groups of the molecules. Within the Picea abies experiments the ozone loss, defined as the difference of the ozone concentration between cuvette inlet and outlet, remained nearly constant at the transition from dark to light. This indicates that a major part of the supplied ozone is depleted non-stomatally. In contrast the ozone loss increased by 50 % at the transition from dark to light conditions within Pinus sylvestris experiments. In this case the stomata represent the dominant loss channel. Since maximally 0.1% of the ozone loss could be explained by gas phase reactions with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, we suggest that ozone reactions on the surface of Picea abies represent the major sink in this case and lead to an light-independent ozone loss. This is supported by the fact that we detected

  15. Characteristics of episodes with extremely low ozone values in the northern middle latitudes 1957−2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Balis

    Full Text Available A number of episodes are observed when the total ozone for 2 to 3 days has fallen below 220 matm-cm in the northern mid- and polar latitudes in autumn. The occurrences of such episodes represent ozone deviations of about one-third from the pre-1976 Oct-Nov-Dec monthly mean! By using primarily quality checked Dobson data, a clear identification was made of more than three dozen short spells with extremely low ozone in the 1957–1978 period. In the following twenty-two years (1979–2000, using mainly TOMS data, one can identify ~ 46 cases with ozone values falling below 220 matm-cm for longer than 1 day, with each time over an area greater than 500,000 km2 . The Ozone Mass Deficiency (O3MD from the pre-1976 average ozone values over the affected area was ~2.8 Mt per day, i.e. four to seven times greater than it would be, assuming only a long-term trend in the Oct-Nov-Dec period. The Extremely Low Ozone (ELO3 events on the day of their appearance over the N. Atlantic/European region contribute to the O3MD by representing 16% of the deficiency due to the Oct-Nov trend in the entire 40–65° N latitudinal belt. The O3MD of the greater pool with low ozone (here taken as <260 matm-cm surrounding the area of the lowest events could contribute on the day of their appearance in Oct-Nov up to 60% and in December, ~30% to the deficiency due to the trend over the entire 40–65° N belt. Analysis of synoptic charts, supported by a backward trajectory on the isentropic surfaces 350 and 380 K, shows that in most of the events, subtropical air masses with low ozone content were transported from the Atlantic toward the UK, Scandinavia, and in many cases, further to the western sub-polar regions of Russia. This transport was sometimes combined with upward motions above a tropospheric anticyclone which lifted low ozone mixing ratios to higher altitudes. The ELO3 events cause a significant deficiency above the tropopause where, in general, the subtropical air is

  16. Ground-Level Ozone Following Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Events: An Additional Biological Hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian C; Goracke, Byron D

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in solar UV radiation at Earth's surface and in the upper levels of the ocean. Other work has also considered the potential impact of nitric acid rainout, concluding that no significant threat is likely. Not yet studied to date is the potential impact of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere following an ionizing radiation event. Ozone is a known irritant to organisms on land and in water and therefore may be a significant additional hazard. Using previously completed atmospheric chemistry modeling, we examined the amount of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere for the case of a gamma-ray burst and found that the values are too small to pose a significant additional threat to the biosphere. These results may be extended to other ionizing radiation events, including supernovae and extreme solar proton events.

  17. Massive global ozone loss predicted following regional nuclear conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Michael J.; Toon, Owen B.; Turco, Richard P.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Garcia, Rolando R.

    2008-01-01

    We use a chemistry-climate model and new estimates of smoke produced by fires in contemporary cities to calculate the impact on stratospheric ozone of a regional nuclear war between developing nuclear states involving 100 Hiroshima-size bombs exploded in cities in the northern subtropics. We find column ozone losses in excess of 20% globally, 25–45% at midlatitudes, and 50–70% at northern high latitudes persisting for 5 years, with substantial losses continuing for 5 additional years. Column ozone amounts remain near or <220 Dobson units at all latitudes even after three years, constituting an extratropical “ozone hole.” The resulting increases in UV radiation could impact the biota significantly, including serious consequences for human health. The primary cause for the dramatic and persistent ozone depletion is heating of the stratosphere by smoke, which strongly absorbs solar radiation. The smoke-laden air rises to the upper stratosphere, where removal mechanisms are slow, so that much of the stratosphere is ultimately heated by the localized smoke injections. Higher stratospheric temperatures accelerate catalytic reaction cycles, particularly those of odd-nitrogen, which destroy ozone. In addition, the strong convection created by rising smoke plumes alters the stratospheric circulation, redistributing ozone and the sources of ozone-depleting gases, including N2O and chlorofluorocarbons. The ozone losses predicted here are significantly greater than previous “nuclear winter/UV spring” calculations, which did not adequately represent stratospheric plume rise. Our results point to previously unrecognized mechanisms for stratospheric ozone depletion. PMID:18391218

  18. Features of ozone intraannual variability in polar regions based on ozone sounding data obtained at the Resolute and Amundsen-Scott stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, A.N.; Sitnov, S.A. (AN SSSR, Institut Fiziki Atmosfery, Moscow (USSR))

    1991-04-01

    Ozone sounding data obtained at the Resolute and Amundsen-Scott stations are used to analyze ozone intraannual variability in Southern and Northern polar regions. For the Arctic, in particular, features associated with winter stratospheric warmings, stratospheric-tropospheric exchange, and the isolated evolution of surface ozone are noted. Correlative connections between ozone and temperature making it possible to concretize ozone variability mechanisms are analyzed. 31 refs.

  19. Reply to "Comment on 'Cosmic-ray-driven reaction and greenhouse effect of halogenated molecules: Culprits for atmospheric ozone depletion and global climate change' by Dana Nuccitelli et al."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Q.-B.

    2014-04-01

    In the Comment by Nuccitelli et al., they make many false and invalid criticisms of the CFC-warming theory in my recent paper, and claim that their anthropogenic forcings including CO2 would provide a better explanation of the observed global mean surface temperature (GMST) data over the past 50 years. First, their arguments for no significant discrepancy between modeled and observed GMST changes and for no pause in recent global warming contradict the widely accepted fact and conclusion that were reported in the recent literature extensively. Second, their criticism that the key data used in my recent paper would be "outdated" and "flawed" is untrue as these data are still used in the recent or current literature including the newest (2013) IPCC Report and there is no considerable difference between the UK Met Office HadRCUT3 and HadRCUT4 GMST datasets. The use of even more recently computer-reconstructed total solar irradiance data (whatever have large uncertainties) for the period prior to 1976 would not change any of the conclusions in my paper, where quantitative analyses were emphasized on the influences of humans and the Sun on global surface temperature after 1970 when direct measurements became available. For the latter, the solar effect has been well shown to play only a negligible role in global surface temperature change since 1970, which is identical to the conclusion made in the 2013 IPCC Report. Third, their argument that the solar effect would not play a major role in the GMST rise of 0.2°C during 1850-1970 even contradicts the data and conclusion presented in a recent paper published in their Skeptical Science by Nuccitelli himself. Fourth, their comments also indicate their lack of understandings of the basic radiation physics of the Earth system as well as of the efficacies of different greenhouse gases in affecting global surface temperature. Their listed "methodological errors" are either trivial or non-existing. Fifth, their assertion that

  20. Ozone damage to crops in southern Africa: An initial modeling study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zunckel, M

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cross Border Impact Assessment Project (CAPIA) was designed to develop an understanding of regional surface ozone concentrations and their potential risk to agriculture in southern Africa. Surface ozone concentrations were estimated using...

  1. Ozone in the atmosphere. Basic principles, natural and human impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabian, Peter [Technical Univ. Munich (Germany). Immission Research; Dameris, Martin [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen-Wessling (Germany). Inst. of Atmospheric Physics

    2014-09-01

    Comprehensive coverage of ozone both in the upper and the lower atmosphere. Essential overview of atmospheric ozone research written by two experienced and acknowledged experts. Numerous qualified references to the scientific literature. Peter Fabian and Martin Dameris provide a concise yet comprehensive overview of established scientific knowledge about ozone in the atmosphere. They present both ozone changes and trends in the stratosphere, as well as the effects of overabundance in the troposphere including the phenomenon of photosmog. Aspects such as photochemistry, atmospheric dynamics and global ozone distribution as well as various techniques for ozone measurement are treated. The authors outline the various causes for ozone depletion, the effects of ozone pollution and the relation to climate change. The book provides a handy reference guide for researchers active in atmospheric ozone research and a useful introduction for advanced students specializing in this field. Non-specialists interested in this field will also profit from reading the book. Peter Fabian can look back on a life-long active career in ozone research, having first gained international recognition for his measurements of the global distribution of halogenated hydrocarbons. He also pioneered photosmog investigations in the metropolitan areas of Munich, Berlin, Athens and Santiago de Chile, and his KROFEX facility provided controlled ozone fumigation of adult tree canopies for biologists to investigate the effects of ozone increases on forests. Besides having published a broad range of scientific articles, he has also been the author or editor of numerous books. From 2002 to 2005 he served the European Geosciences Union (EGU) as their first and Founding President. Martin Dameris is a prominent atmospheric modeler whose interests include the impacts of all kinds of natural and man-made disturbances on the atmospheric system. His scientific work focuses on the connections between ozone and

  2. Ozone in the atmosphere. Basic principles, natural and human impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, Peter; Dameris, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage of ozone both in the upper and the lower atmosphere. Essential overview of atmospheric ozone research written by two experienced and acknowledged experts. Numerous qualified references to the scientific literature. Peter Fabian and Martin Dameris provide a concise yet comprehensive overview of established scientific knowledge about ozone in the atmosphere. They present both ozone changes and trends in the stratosphere, as well as the effects of overabundance in the troposphere including the phenomenon of photosmog. Aspects such as photochemistry, atmospheric dynamics and global ozone distribution as well as various techniques for ozone measurement are treated. The authors outline the various causes for ozone depletion, the effects of ozone pollution and the relation to climate change. The book provides a handy reference guide for researchers active in atmospheric ozone research and a useful introduction for advanced students specializing in this field. Non-specialists interested in this field will also profit from reading the book. Peter Fabian can look back on a life-long active career in ozone research, having first gained international recognition for his measurements of the global distribution of halogenated hydrocarbons. He also pioneered photosmog investigations in the metropolitan areas of Munich, Berlin, Athens and Santiago de Chile, and his KROFEX facility provided controlled ozone fumigation of adult tree canopies for biologists to investigate the effects of ozone increases on forests. Besides having published a broad range of scientific articles, he has also been the author or editor of numerous books. From 2002 to 2005 he served the European Geosciences Union (EGU) as their first and Founding President. Martin Dameris is a prominent atmospheric modeler whose interests include the impacts of all kinds of natural and man-made disturbances on the atmospheric system. His scientific work focuses on the connections between ozone and

  3. Deuterium-depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ion; Steflea, Dumitru; Saros-Rogobete, Irina; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu

    2001-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water represents water that has an isotopic content smaller than 145 ppm D/(D+H) which is the natural isotopic content of water. Deuterium depleted water is produced by vacuum distillation in columns equipped with structured packing made from phosphor bronze or stainless steel. Deuterium-depleted water, the production technique and structured packing are patents of National Institute of Research - Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies at Rm. Valcea. Researches made in the last few years showed the deuterium-depleted water is a biological active product that could have many applications in medicine and agriculture. (authors)

  4. On the role of atmosphere-ocean interactions in the expected long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer caused by greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhny, Alexander; Dyominov, Igor

    It is well known that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere produce a global warming of the troposphere and a global cooling of the stratosphere. The expected stratospheric cooling essentially influences the ozone layer via increased polar stratospheric cloud formation and via temperature dependences of the gas phase reaction rates. One more mechanism of how greenhouse gases influences the ozone layer is enhanced water evaporation from the oceans into the atmosphere because of increasing temperatures of the ocean surface due to greenhouse effect. The subject of this paper is a study of the influence of anthropogenic pollution of the atmosphere by the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and ozone-depleting chlorine and bromine compounds on the expected long-term changes of the ozone layer with taking into account an increase of water vapour content in the atmosphere due to greenhouse effect. The study based on 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the troposphere and stratosphere. The model allows to self-consistently calculating diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the South to North Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds of two types. It was supposed in the model that an increase of the ocean surface temperature caused by greenhouse effect is similar to calculated increase of atmospheric surface temperature. Evaporation rate from the ocean surface was computed in dependence of latitude. The model time-dependent runs were made for the period from 1975 to 2100 using two IPCC scenarios depicting maximum and average expected increases of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The model calculations show that anthropogenic increasing of water vapour abundance in the atmosphere due to heating of the ocean surface caused by greenhouse effect gives a sensible contribution to the expected ozone

  5. Ultraviolet-ozone surface modification for non-wetting hole transport materials based inverted planar perovskite solar cells with efficiency exceeding 18%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiuwen; Ma, Chunqing; Cheng, Yuanhang; Xie, Yue-Min; Yi, Xueping; Gautam, Bhoj; Chen, Shengmei; Li, Ho-Wa; Lee, Chun-Sing; So, Franky; Tsang, Sai-Wing

    2017-08-01

    Non-wetting hole transport materials (HTMs) have great potential in facilitating large-sized perovskite crystal growth and enhancing device stability by opposing moisture ingress, However, the severe non-wetting issue limits the wide application of these materials in low-temperature solution-processed inverted planar perovskite solar cells (PVSCs), and corresponding devices are rarely reported. Here, a facile ultraviolet-ozone (UVO) modification method is demonstrated to overcome this issue. By carefully controlling the UVO modification time, the surface wettability of poly-TPD can be tuned without affecting the bulk properties of the film, hence perovskite films with desired grain size and excellent coverage can be deposited via a one-step spin-coating method. Benefiting from the high-quality perovskite, well-matched energy level alignment and hydrophobic property of poly-TPD, the resulting PVSCs show a champion power conversion efficiency of 18.19% with significantly enhanced stability as compared to the PEDOT:PSS counterparts. Moreover, the UVO modification approach also demonstrates its validity when being extended to other hydrophobic HTMs. This work not only provides a general strategy to broaden the selection pool of HTMs for solution-processed inverted planar PVSCs, but also may triggers the exploration of more advanced strategies to make non-wetting HTMs applicable in solution-processed inverted planar PVSCs.

  6. Evaluation of stratospheric age of air from CF4, C2F6, C3F8, CHF3, HFC-125, HFC-227ea and SF6; implications for the calculations of halocarbon lifetimes, fractional release factors and ozone depletion potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leedham Elvidge, Emma; Bönisch, Harald; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Engel, Andreas; Fraser, Paul J.; Gallacher, Eileen; Langenfelds, Ray; Mühle, Jens; Oram, David E.; Ray, Eric A.; Ridley, Anna R.; Röckmann, Thomas; Sturges, William T.; Weiss, Ray F.; Laube, Johannes C.

    2018-03-01

    In a changing climate, potential stratospheric circulation changes require long-term monitoring. Stratospheric trace gas measurements are often used as a proxy for stratospheric circulation changes via the mean age of air values derived from them. In this study, we investigated five potential age of air tracers - the perfluorocarbons CF4, C2F6 and C3F8 and the hydrofluorocarbons CHF3 (HFC-23) and HFC-125 - and compare them to the traditional tracer SF6 and a (relatively) shorter-lived species, HFC-227ea. A detailed uncertainty analysis was performed on mean ages derived from these new tracers to allow us to confidently compare their efficacy as age tracers to the existing tracer, SF6. Our results showed that uncertainties associated with the mean age derived from these new age tracers are similar to those derived from SF6, suggesting that these alternative compounds are suitable in this respect for use as age tracers. Independent verification of the suitability of these age tracers is provided by a comparison between samples analysed at the University of East Anglia and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. All five tracers give younger mean ages than SF6, a discrepancy that increases with increasing mean age. Our findings qualitatively support recent work that suggests that the stratospheric lifetime of SF6 is significantly less than the previous estimate of 3200 years. The impact of these younger mean ages on three policy-relevant parameters - stratospheric lifetimes, fractional release factors (FRFs) and ozone depletion potentials - is investigated in combination with a recently improved methodology to calculate FRFs. Updates to previous estimations for these parameters are provided.

  7. Effect of operational and water quality parameters on conventional ozonation and the advanced oxidation process O3/H2O2: Kinetics of micropollutant abatement, transformation product and bromate formation in a surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgin, Marc; Borowska, Ewa; Helbing, Jakob; Hollender, Juliane; Kaiser, Hans-Peter; Kienle, Cornelia; McArdell, Christa S; Simon, Eszter; von Gunten, Urs

    2017-10-01

    The efficiency of ozone-based processes under various conditions was studied for the treatment of a surface water (Lake Zürich water, Switzerland) spiked with 19 micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, pesticides, industrial chemical, X-ray contrast medium, sweetener) each at 1 μg L -1 . Two pilot-scale ozonation reactors (4-5 m 3  h -1 ), a 4-chamber reactor and a tubular reactor, were investigated by either conventional ozonation and/or the advanced oxidation process (AOP) O 3 /H 2 O 2 . The effects of selected operational parameters, such as ozone dose (0.5-3 mg L -1 ) and H 2 O 2 dose (O 3 :H 2 O 2  = 1:3-3:1 (mass ratio)), and selected water quality parameters, such as pH (6.5-8.5) and initial bromide concentration (15-200 μg L -1 ), on micropollutant abatement and bromate formation were investigated. Under the studied conditions, compounds with high second-order rate constants k O3 >10 4  M -1  s -1 for their reaction with ozone were well abated (>90%) even for the lowest ozone dose of 0.5 mg L -1 . Conversely, the abatement efficiency of sucralose, which only reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH), varied between 19 and 90%. Generally, the abatement efficiency increased with higher ozone doses and higher pH and lower bromide concentrations. H 2 O 2 addition accelerated the ozone conversion to OH, which enables a faster abatement of ozone-resistant micropollutants. Interestingly, the abatement of micropollutants decreased with higher bromide concentrations during conventional ozonation due to competitive ozone-consuming reactions, except for lamotrigine, due to the suspected reaction of HOBr/OBr - with the primary amine moieties. In addition to the abatement of micropollutants, the evolution of the two main transformation products (TPs) of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and tramadol (TRA), chlorothiazide (CTZ) and tramadol N-oxide (TRA-NOX), respectively, was assessed by chemical analysis and kinetic modeling. Both selected TPs were quickly formed initially

  8. Researchers lack data on trends in UV radiation at Earth's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurer, P.S.

    1993-01-01

    Current anxiety about depletion of stratospheric ozone stems from the expected resulting increase in biologically damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation at Earth's surface. Atmospheric ozone absorbs sunlight with wavelengths shorter than 320 nm--the highest-energy UV-B wavelengths (280-320 nm) that can damage DNA in living systems. But surprisingly, despite firm evidence the ozone layer is being eroded by chlorine and bromine from man-made compounds, very little information exists on how UV light intensity is changing. Solid data from Antarctica reveal that UV radiation soars under the ozone hole, where fully half of the atmospheric ozone is destroyed each spring. But elsewhere on the globe, where ozone has been thinning at a rate of a few percent per decade, the corresponding trends in UV intensity are not at all clear. In the late 1970s and early 1980s the problem of ozone depletion seemed solved. The US had banned the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in aerosols. Model calculations were predicting CFCs would cause only a small loss of ozone by the second half of the 21st century. Costly monitoring of UV radiation commanded little attention. Attitudes began to change with the 1985 discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole. The National Science Foundation (NSF) established UV monitoring stations in the Antarctic in 1988, adding an Alaskan station in 1990. Both the Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have programs in the works that will eventually place monitoring stations across the US, but it will be many years before researchers have access to the kind of extensive database necessary to reliably evaluation long-term trends in UV intensity

  9. Changes in ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madronich, S.; McKenzie, R.L.; Caldwell, M.M.; Bjorn, L.O.

    1995-01-01

    The quality and quantity of UV measurements have increased greatly in the last few years. Variations among measurements from different instruments are diminishing toward the 5 level. Long-term trend detection is still a problem, with little historical data available for baseline estimations. Enhanced UV levels are clearly associated with the antartic springtime ozone reductions. Measurements show that maximum UV levels at the South Pole are reached well before the summer solstice, and DNA-damaging radiation at Palmer Station, Antarctica (64§S) during the springtime ozone depletion can exceed maximum summer values at San Diego, USA (32§N). UV increases al mid-latitudes are smaller. However, increases associated with the record low ozone column of 1992-93 in the Northern Hemisphere are evident when examined on a wavelength-specific basis. Measurements in Argentina, Chile, New Zealand, and Australia show relatively high spheric latitudes, with differences in both stratospheric ozone and tropospheric pollutants likely to be playing a role. Tropospheric ozone and aerosols can reduce global UV-B irradiances appreciably. At some locations, tropospheric pollution has increased since pre-industrial times, leading to decreases in surface UV radiation. However, recent trends in tropospheric pollution probably had only minor effects on UV trends relative to the effect of stratospheric ozone reductions. Global ozone measurements from satellites over the period 1979-1993 imply significant UV-B increases at high and mid-latitudes of both hemispheres, but only small changes in the tropics. Such estimates however assume that cloud cover and tropospheric pollution have remained constant over this time period. Under the current CFC phase-out schedules, global UV levels are predicted to peak around the turn of the century in association with peak loading of chlorine in the stratosphere and the concomitant ozone reductions. The recovery to pre-ozone depletion levels is expected to

  10. Secondary maxima in ozone profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lemoine

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone profiles from balloon soundings as well as SAGEII ozone profiles were used to detect anomalous large ozone concentrations of ozone in the lower stratosphere. These secondary ozone maxima are found to be the result of differential advection of ozone-poor and ozone-rich air associated with Rossby wave breaking events. The frequency and intensity of secondary ozone maxima and their geographical distribution is presented. The occurrence and amplitude of ozone secondary maxima is connected to ozone variability and trend at Uccle and account for a large part of the total ozone and lower stratospheric ozone variability.

  11. Ground-level ozone in China: Distribution and effects on crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoke; Manning, William; Feng Zongwei; Zhu Yongguan

    2007-01-01

    Rapid economic development and an increasing demand for food in China have drawn attention to the role of ozone at pollution levels on crop yields. Some assessments of ozone effects on crop yields have been carried out in China. Determination of ozone distribution by geographical location and resulting crop loss estimations have been made by Chinese investigators and others from abroad. It is evident that surface level ozone levels in China exceed critical levels for occurrence of crop losses. Current levels of information from ozone dose/response studies are limited. Given the size of China, existing ozone monitoring sites are too few to provide enough data to scale ozone distribution to a national level. There are large uncertainties in the database for ozone effects on crop loss and for ozone distribution. Considerable research needs to be done to allow accurate estimation of crop losses caused by ozone in China. - More research is needed to reliably estimate ozone caused crop losses in China

  12. Evaluation of the Effect of Exhausts from Liquid and Solid Rockets on Ozone Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Yoshiki; Ishimaki, Tetsuya

    This paper reports the analytical results of the influences of solid rocket and liquid rocket exhausts on ozone layer. It is worried about that the exhausts from solid propellant rockets cause the ozone depletion in the ozone layer. Some researchers try to develop the analytical model of ozone depletion by rocket exhausts to understand its physical phenomena and to find the effective design of rocket to minimize its effect. However, these models do not include the exhausts from liquid rocket although there are many cases to use solid rocket boosters with a liquid rocket at the same time in practical situations. We constructed combined analytical model include the solid rocket exhausts and liquid rocket exhausts to analyze their effects. From the analytical results, we find that the exhausts from liquid rocket suppress the ozone depletion by solid rocket exhausts.

  13. Kinetics of depletion interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, G.A.; Schoot, van der P.P.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Depletion interactions between colloidal particles dispersed in a fluid medium are effective interactions induced by the presence of other types of colloid. They are not instantaneous but built up in time. We show by means of Brownian dynamics simulations that the static (mean-field) depletion force

  14. Surface ozone in the Colorado northern Front Range and the influence of oil and gas development during FRAPPE/DISCOVER-AQ in summer 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Cheadle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available High mixing ratios of ozone (O3 in the northern Front Range (NFR of Colorado are not limited to the urban Denver area but were also observed in rural areas where oil and gas activity is the primary source of O3 precursors. On individual days, oil and gas O3 precursors can contribute in excess of 30 ppb to O3 growth and can lead to exceedances of the EPA O3 National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Data used in this study were gathered from continuous surface O3 monitors for June–August 2013–2015 as well as additional flask measurements and mobile laboratories that were part of the FRAPPE/DISCOVER-AQ field campaign of July–August 2014. Overall observed O3 levels during the summer of 2014 were lower than in 2013, likely due to cooler and damper weather than an average summer. This study determined the median hourly surface O3 mixing ratio in the NFR on summer days with limited photochemical production to be approximately 45–55 ppb. Mobile laboratory and flask data collected on three days provide representative case studies of different O3 formation environments in and around Greeley, Colorado. Observations of several gases (including methane, ethane, CO, nitrous oxide along with O3 are used to identify sources of O3 precursor emissions. A July 23 survey demonstrated low O3 (45–60 ppb while August 3 and August 13 surveys recorded O3 levels of 75–80 ppb or more. August 3 exemplifies influence of moderate urban and high oil and gas O3 precursor emissions. August 13 demonstrates high oil and gas emissions, low agricultural emissions, and CO measurements that were well correlated with ethane from oil and gas, suggesting an oil and gas related activity as a NOx and O3 precursor source. Low isoprene levels indicated that they were not a significant contributor to O3 precursors measured during the case studies.

  15. TOMS/Earth-Probe Total Ozone Aerosol Index UV-Reflectivity UV-B Erythemal Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 8 daily global gridded data consist of total column ozone, aerosol index, Lambertian effective surface...

  16. Management of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Large stocks of depleted uranium have arisen as a result of enrichment operations, especially in the United States and the Russian Federation. Countries with depleted uranium stocks are interested in assessing strategies for the use and management of depleted uranium. The choice of strategy depends on several factors, including government and business policy, alternative uses available, the economic value of the material, regulatory aspects and disposal options, and international market developments in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report presents the results of a depleted uranium study conducted by an expert group organised jointly by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It contains information on current inventories of depleted uranium, potential future arisings, long term management alternatives, peaceful use options and country programmes. In addition, it explores ideas for international collaboration and identifies key issues for governments and policy makers to consider. (authors)

  17. The Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR): A community-wide effort to quantify tropospheric ozone in a rapidly changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, O. R.; Schultz, M.; Paoletti, E.; Galbally, I. E.; Naja, M. K.; Tarasick, D. W.; Evans, M. J.; Thompson, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a greenhouse gas and pollutant detrimental to human health and crop and ecosystem productivity. Since 1990 a large portion of the anthropogenic emissions that react in the atmosphere to produce ozone has shifted from North America and Europe to Asia. This rapid shift, coupled with limited ozone monitoring in developing nations, left scientists unable to answer the most basic questions: Which regions of the world have the greatest human and plant exposure to ozone pollution? Is ozone continuing to decline in nations with strong emissions controls? To what extent is ozone increasing in the developing world? How can the atmospheric sciences community facilitate access to the ozone metrics necessary for quantifying ozone's impact on human health and crop/ecosystem productivity? To answer these questions the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC) initiated the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR). With over 220 member scientists and air quality specialists from 36 nations, TOAR's mission is to provide the research community with an up-to-date scientific assessment of tropospheric ozone's global distribution and trends from the surface to the tropopause. TOAR has also built the world's largest database of surface ozone observations and generated ozone exposure and dose metrics at thousands of measurement sites around the world, freely accessible for research on the global-scale impact of ozone on climate, human health and crop/ecosystem productivity. Plots of these metrics show the regions of the world with the greatest ozone exposure for humans and crops/ecosystems, at least in areas where observations are available. The results also highlight regions where air quality is improving and where it has degraded. TOAR has also conducted the first intercomparison of tropospheric column ozone from ozonesondes and multiple satellite instruments, which provide similar estimates of the present-day tropospheric ozone burden.

  18. Video-documentation: 'The Pannonic ozon project'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loibl, W.; Cabela, E.; Mayer, H. F.; Schmidt, M.

    1998-07-01

    Goal of the project was the production of a video film as documentation of the Pannonian Ozone Project- POP. The main part of the video describes the POP-model consisting of the modules meteorology, emissions and chemistry, developed during the POP-project. The model considers the European emission patterns of ozone precursors and the actual wind fields. It calculates ozone build up and depletion within air parcels due to emission and weather situation along trajectory routes. Actual ozone concentrations are calculated during model runs simulating the photochemical processes within air parcels moving along 4 day trajectories before reaching the Vienna region. The model computations were validated during extensive ground and aircraft-based measurements of ozone precursors and ozone concentration within the POP study area. Scenario computations were used to determine how much ozone can be reduced in north-eastern Austria by emissions control measures. The video lasts 12:20 minutes and consists of computer animations and life video scenes, presenting the ozone problem in general, the POP model and the model results. The video was produced in co-operation by the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf - Department of Environmental Planning (ARCS) and Joanneum Research - Institute of Informationsystems (JR). ARCS was responsible for idea, concept, storyboard and text while JR was responsible for computer animation and general video production. The speaker text was written with scientific advice by the POP - project partners: Institute of Meteorology and Physics, University of Agricultural Sciences- Vienna, Environment Agency Austria - Air Quality Department, Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf- Environmental Planning Department/System Research Division. The film was produced as German and English version. (author)

  19. What Would Have Happened to the Ozone Layer if Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) had not been Regulated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Oman, L. D.; Douglass, A. R.; Fleming, E. L.; Frith, S. M.; Hurwitz, M. M.; Kawa, S. R.; Jackman, C. H.; Krotkov, N. A.; Nash, E. R.; hide

    2008-01-01

    Ozone depletion by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) was first proposed by Molina and Rowland in their 1974 Nature paper. Since that time, the sci entific connection between ozone losses and CFCs and other ozone depl eting substances (ODSs) has been firmly established with laboratory m easurements, atmospheric observations, and modeling research. This science research led to the implementation of international agreements t hat largely stopped the production of ODSs. In this study we use a fu lly-coupled radiation-chemical-dynamical model to simulate a future world where ODSs were never regulated and ODS production grew at an ann ual rate of 3%. In this "world avoided" simulation 1.7 % of the globa lly-average column ozone is destroyed by 2020, and 67% is destroyed b y 2065 in comparison to 1980. Large ozone depletions in the polar region become year-round rather than just seasonal as is currently observ ed in the Antarctic ozone hole. Very large temperature decreases are observed in response to circulation changes and decreased shortwave radiation absorption by ozone. Ozone levels in the tropical lower strat osphere remain constant until about 2053 and then collapse to near ze ro by 2058 as a result of heterogeneous chemical processes (as curren tly observed in the Antarctic ozone hole). The tropical cooling that triggers the ozone collapse is caused by an increase of the tropical upwelling. In response to ozone changes, ultraviolet radiation increa ses, more than doubling the erythemal radiation in the northern summer midlatitudes by 2060.

  20. The southern ozone hole as observed at Belgrano station

    OpenAIRE

    SILBERGLEIT, VIRGINIA

    2000-01-01

    The thinning of the stratosphere ozone layer in the Antarctic region is studied by considering ground-based observations at Belgrano Station (78.0°S; 38.8°W). Gumbel's first distribution of extreme values is used to evaluate the highest depletion of the Southern ozone hole for the spring months of 1998. According to the present study we predict that the expected largest yearly deviation of the ozone layer density during 1998 would be (109 ± 15)DU. This result agrees remarkably well with the m...

  1. Combined treatment of mezcal vinasses by ozonation and activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-18

    In Mexico, mezcal production generates huge amounts of vinasses (MV) that cause negative environmental impacts. Thus, MV treatment is necessary before discharge to water bodies. Although there is no information for mezcal vinasses, similar effluents have been treated by biological processes (i.e. anaerobic and aerobic) usually complemented by oxidative chemical pretreatments (ozonation) and physico-chemical methods. In this work MV were first ozonated and followed by batch aerobic biological degradation. In the ozonation stage, organic matter removals were 4.5-11 % as COD, whereas the removal of aromatic compounds and phenols were 16-32 % and 48-83 % respectively. In the aerobic post-treatment, COD depletions up to 85 % were achieved; removals in ozone pre-treated vinasses were higher (80 to 85 %) than that of raw vinasse (69 %). It seems that ozonation preferentially attacked the recalcitrant fraction of organic matter present in the vinasses and increased its aerobic biodegradability.

  2. The Antarctic ozone hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Anna E

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid 1970s, the ozone layer over Antarctica has experienced massive destruction during every spring. In this article, we will consider the atmosphere, and what ozone and the ozone layer actually are. We explore the chemistry responsible for the ozone destruction, and learn about why conditions favour ozone destruction over Antarctica. For the historical perspective, the events leading up to the discovery of the 'hole' are presented, as well as the response from the international community and the measures taken to protect the ozone layer now and into the future

  3. Altitude-temporal behaviour of atmospheric ozone, temperature and wind velocity observed at Svalbard

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petkov, B. H.; Vitale, V.; Svendby, T. M.; Hansen, G. H.; Sobolewski, P. S.; Láska, K.; Elster, Josef; Pavlova, K.; Viola, A.; Mazzola, M.; Lupi, A.; Solomatnikova, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 207, JUL 15 (2018), s. 100-110 ISSN 0169-8095 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Arctic atmosphere * Atmospheric ozone * Ozone depletion Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 3.778, year: 2016

  4. Halo Star Lithium Depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Narayanan, Vijay K.

    1999-01-01

    The depletion of lithium during the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence phases of stellar evolution plays a crucial role in the comparison of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis with the abundances observed in halo stars. Previous work has indicated a wide range of possible depletion factors, ranging from minimal in standard (nonrotating) stellar models to as much as an order of magnitude in models that include rotational mixing. Recent progress in the study of the angular momentum evolution of low-mass stars permits the construction of theoretical models capable of reproducing the angular momentum evolution of low-mass open cluster stars. The distribution of initial angular momenta can be inferred from stellar rotation data in young open clusters. In this paper we report on the application of these models to the study of lithium depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A range of initial angular momenta produces a range of lithium depletion factors on the main sequence. Using the distribution of initial conditions inferred from young open clusters leads to a well-defined halo lithium plateau with modest scatter and a small population of outliers. The mass-dependent angular momentum loss law inferred from open cluster studies produces a nearly flat plateau, unlike previous models that exhibited a downward curvature for hotter temperatures in the 7Li-Teff plane. The overall depletion factor for the plateau stars is sensitive primarily to the solar initial angular momentum used in the calibration for the mixing diffusion coefficients. Uncertainties remain in the treatment of the internal angular momentum transport in the models, and the potential impact of these uncertainties on our results is discussed. The 6Li/7Li depletion ratio is also examined. We find that the dispersion in the plateau and the 6Li/7Li depletion ratio scale with the absolute 7Li depletion in the plateau, and we use observational data to set bounds on the 7Li depletion in main-sequence halo

  5. Ozone disintegration kinetics in the reactor for tyres decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golota, V.I.; Manujlen