WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface oxide properties

  1. Oxidative nanopatterning of titanium generates mesoporous surfaces with antimicrobial properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Variola F

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fabio Variola,1,2 Sylvia Francis Zalzal,3 Annie Leduc,3 Jean Barbeau,3 Antonio Nanci31Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 2Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, 3Faculty of Dental Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, CanadaAbstract: Mesoporous surfaces generated by oxidative nanopatterning have the capacity to selectively regulate cell behavior, but their impact on microorganisms has not yet been explored. The main objective of this study was to test the effects of such surfaces on the adherence of two common bacteria and one yeast strain that are responsible for nosocomial infections in clinical settings and biomedical applications. In addition, because surface characteristics are known to affect bacterial adhesion, we further characterized the physicochemical properties of the mesoporous surfaces. Focused ion beam (FIB was used to generate ultrathin sections for elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, nanobeam electron diffraction (NBED, and high-angle annular dark field (HAADF scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM imaging. The adherence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans onto titanium disks with mesoporous and polished surfaces was compared. Disks with the two surfaces side-by-side were also used for direct visual comparison. Qualitative and quantitative results from this study indicate that bacterial adhesion is significantly hindered by the mesoporous surface. In addition, we provide evidence that it alters structural parameters of C. albicans that determine its invasiveness potential, suggesting that microorganisms can sense and respond to the mesoporous surface. Our findings demonstrate the efficiency of a simple chemical oxidative treatment in generating nanotextured surfaces with antimicrobial capacity with potential applications in the implant manufacturing industry and hospital setting

  2. Mechanical Properties of Glass Surfaces Coated with Tin Oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swindlehurst, W. E.; Cantor, B.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of tin oxide coatings on the coefficient of friction and fracture strength of glass surfaces is studied. Experiments were performed partly on commercially treated glass bottles and partly on laboratory prepared microscope slides. Coatings were applied in the laboratory by decomposition...

  3. Intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusius, Johann-Philipp; Hellmann, Robert; Hassel, Egon; Bich, Eckard

    2014-10-28

    A six-dimensional potential energy hypersurface (PES) for two interacting rigid ethylene oxide (C2H4O) molecules was determined from high-level quantum-chemical ab initio calculations. The counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory was utilized to determine interaction energies for 10178 configurations of two molecules. An analytical site-site potential function with 19 sites per ethylene oxide molecule was fitted to the interaction energies and fine tuned to agree with data for the second acoustic virial coefficient from accurate speed of sound measurements. The PES was validated by computing the second virial coefficient, shear viscosity, and thermal conductivity. The values of these properties are substantiated by the best experimental data as they tend to fall within the uncertainty intervals and also obey the experimental temperature functions, except for viscosity, where experimental data are insufficient. Due to the lack of reliable data, especially for the transport properties, our calculated values are currently the most accurate estimates for these properties of ethylene oxide.

  4. Surface electronic and structural properties of nanostructured titanium oxide grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fusi, M.; Maccallini, E.; Caruso, T.; Casari, C. S.; Bassi, A. Li; Bottani, C. E.; Rudolf, P.; Prince, K. C.; Agostino, R. G.

    Titanium oxide nanostructured thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) were here characterized with a multi-technique approach to investigate the relation between surface electronic, structural and morphological properties. Depending on the growth parameters, these films present

  5. Modifying zirconia solid electrolyte surface property to enhance oxide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, B.Y.; Song, S.Y. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Bismuth-strontium-calcium-copper oxide (Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}, BSCCO) is known for its high T{sub c} superconducting behavior and mixed conducting property. The applicability of similar high T{sub c} cuprates for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) application has been studied recently. We investigated the electrochemical behavior of several Ag{vert_bar}BSCCO{vert_bar}10 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ){vert_bar}Ag and Ag{vert_bar}YSZ{vert_bar}Ag cells using complex impedance spectroscopy. A highly uniform and porous microstructure was observed at the interface of the YSZ and BSCCO. The ionic conductivity determined from the Nyquest plots in the temperature range of 200-700{degrees}C agrees with the values reported in the literature. The specific resistance of the BSCCO{vert_bar}YSZ interface was also determined to be lower than those of the conventional manganite electrode, suggesting that BSCCO seems attractive for cathode applications in SOFC.

  6. Surface adhesion properties of graphene and graphene oxide studied by colloid-probe atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yanhuai; Zhang Ping; Ren Huming; Zhuo Qin; Yang Zhongmei; Jiang Xu; Jiang Yong

    2011-01-01

    Surface adhesion properties are important to various applications of graphene-based materials. Atomic force microscopy is powerful to study the adhesion properties of samples by measuring the forces on the colloidal sphere tip as it approaches and retracts from the surface. In this paper we have measured the adhesion force between the colloid probe and the surface of graphene (graphene oxide) nanosheet. The results revealed that the adhesion force on graphene and graphene oxide surface were 66.3 and 170.6 nN, respectively. It was found the adhesion force was mainly determined by the water meniscus, which was related to the surface contact angle of samples.

  7. Electrochemical Properties of High Surface Area Vanadium Oxide Aerogels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dong, Winny

    2001-01-01

    .... Traditional composite electrode structures have prevented truly quantitative analysis of surface area effects in nanoscale battery materials, as well as a study of their innate electrochemical behavior...

  8. Modification of implant material surface properties by means of oxide nano-structured coatings deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonov, Vladimir; Zykova, Anna; Smolik, Jerzy; Rogowska, Renata; Lukyanchenko, Vladimir; Kolesnikov, Dmitrii

    2014-08-01

    The deposition of functional coatings on the metal surface of artificial joints is an effective way of enhancing joint tribological characteristics. It is well-known that nanostructured oxide coatings have specific properties advantageous for future implant applications. In the present study, we measured the high hardness parameters, the adhesion strength and the low friction coefficient of the oxide magnetron sputtered coatings. The corrosion test results show that the oxide coating deposition had improved the corrosion resistance by a factor of ten for both stainless steel and titanium alloy substrates. Moreover, the hydrophilic nature of coated surfaces in comparison with the metal ones was investigated in the tensiometric tests. The surfaces with nanostructured oxide coatings demonstrated improved biocompatibility for in vitro and in vivo tests, attributed to the high dielectric constants and the high values of the surface free energy parameters.

  9. Humidity Sensing Properties of Surface Modified Polyaniline Metal Oxide Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Nagaraju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline- (PANI praseodymium Oxide (Pr2O3 composites have been synthesized by in situ polymerization method with different weight percentages. The synthesized composites have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The temperature dependent conductivity shows that the conductivity is due to the hopping of polarons and bipolarons. These composites show negative thermal coefficient (α behavior as a function of temperature, which is characteristic behavior of semiconducting materials. Sensor studies have been carried out by two-probe method and found that the sensitivity increases with increase in % RH. It is noticed that stability increase is due to the presence of Pr2O3 in polyaniline up to 30 wt%. A fast recovery and response time along with high sensitivity make these composites suitable for humidity sensors.

  10. Local electrical properties of thermally grown oxide films formed on duplex stainless steel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L. Q.; Yang, B. J.; He, J. Y.; Qiao, L. J.

    2018-06-01

    The local electrical properties of thermally grown oxide films formed on ferrite and austenite surfaces of duplex stainless steel at different temperatures were investigated by Current sensing atomic force microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). The current maps and XPS/AES analyses show that the oxide films covering austenite and ferrite surfaces formed at different temperatures exhibit different local electrical characteristics, thickness and composition. The dependence of electrical conductivity of oxide films covering austenite and ferrite surface on the formation temperature is attributed to the film thickness and semiconducting structures, which is intrinsically related to thermodynamics and kinetics process of film grown at different temperature. This is well elucidated by corresponding semiconductor band structures of oxide films formed on austenite and ferrite phases at different temperature.

  11. Mg-Fe-mixed oxides derived from layered double hydroxides: A study of the surface properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković-Nedučin Radmila P.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of surface properties on the selectivity of the synthesized catalysts was studied, considering that their selectivity towards particular hydrocarbons is crucial for their overall activity in the chosen Fischer- -Tropsch reaction. Magnesium- and iron-containing layered double hydroxides (LDH, with the general formula: [Mg1-xFex(OH2](CO3x/2?mH2O, x = = n(Fe/(n(Mg+n(Fe, synthesized with different Mg/Fe ratio and their thermally derived mixed oxides were investigated. Magnesium was chosen because of its basic properties, whereas iron was selected due to its well-known high Fischer-Tropsch activity, redox properties and the ability to form specific active sites in the layered LDH structure required for catalytic application. The thermally less stable multiphase system (synthesized outside the optimal single LDH phase range with additional Fe-phase, having a lower content of surface acid and base active sites, a lower surface area and smaller fraction of smaller mesopores, showed higher selectivity in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The results of this study imply that the metastability of derived multiphase oxides structure has a greater influence on the formation of specific catalyst surface sites than other investigated surface properties.

  12. Surface Properties of PAN-based Carbon Fibers Modified by Electrochemical Oxidization in Organic Electrolyte Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Bo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available PAN-based carbon fibers were modified by electrochemical oxidization using fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether phosphate (O3P, triethanolamine (TEOA and fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether ammonium phosphate (O3PNH4 as organic electrolyte respectively. Titration analysis, single fiber fracture strength measurement and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM were used to evaluate the content of acidic functional group on the surface, mechanical properties and surface morphology of carbon fiber. The optimum process of electrochemical treatment obtained is at 50℃ for 2min and O3PNH4 (5%, mass fraction as the electrolyte with current density of 2A/g. In addition, the surface properties of modified carbon fibers were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and single fiber contact angle test. The results show that the hydrophilic acidic functional groups on the surface of carbon fiber which can enhance the surface energy are increased by the electrochemical oxidation using O3PNH4 as electrolyte, almost without any weakening to the mechanical properties of carbon fiber.

  13. Relationships among surface processing at the nanometer scale, nanostructure and optical properties of thin oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losurdo, Maria

    2004-05-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry is used to study the optical properties of nanostructured semiconductor oxide thin films. Various examples of models for the dielectric function, based on Lorentzian oscillators combined with the Drude model, are given based on the band structure of the analyzed oxide. With this approach, the optical properties of thin films are determined independent of the dielectric functions of the corresponding bulk materials, and correlation between the optical properties and nanostructure of thin films is investigated. In particular, in order to discuss the dependence of optical constants on grain size, CeO{sub 2} nanostructured films are considered and parameterized by two-Lorentzian oscillators or two-Tauc-Lorentz model depending on the nanostructure and oxygen deficiency. The correlation among anisotropy, crystalline fraction and optical properties parameterized by a four-Lorentz oscillator model is discussed for nanocrystalline V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films. Indium tin oxide thin films are discussed as an example of the presence of graded optical properties related to interfacial reactivity activated by processing conditions. Finally, the example of ZnO shows the potential of ellipsometry in discerning crystal and epitaxial film polarity through the analysis of spectra and the detection of surface reactivity of the two polar faces, i.e. Zn-polarity and O-polarity.

  14. Characterization of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) piezoelectric properties for Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosydi Zakaria, Mohd; Johari, Shazlina; Hafiz Ismail, Mohd; Hashim, Uda

    2017-11-01

    In fabricating Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) biosensors device, the substrate is one of important factors that affected to performance device. there are many types of piezoelectric substrate in the markets and the cheapest is zinc Oxide substrate. Zinc Oxide (ZnO) with its unique properties can be used as piezoelectric substrate along with SAW devices for detection of DNA in this research. In this project, ZnO thin film is deposited onto silicon oxide substrate using electron beam evaporation (E-beam) and Sol-Gel technique. Different material structure is used to compare the roughness and best piezoelectric substrate of ZnO thin film. Two different structures of ZnO target which are pellet and granular are used for e-beam deposition and one sol-gel liquid were synthesize and compared. Parameter for thickness of ZnO e-beam deposition is fixed to a 0.1kÅ for both materials structure and sol-gel was coat using spin coat technique. After the process is done, samples are annealed at temperature of 500°C for 2 hours. The structural properties of effect of post annealing using different material structure of ZnO are studied using Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) for surface morphology and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) for phase structure.

  15. Influence of surface oxidation on the radiative properties of ZrB{sub 2}-SiC composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ning, E-mail: lncaep@163.com [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China); Xing, Pifeng; Li, Cui [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China); Wang, Peng [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Jin, Xinxin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150040 (China); Zhang, Xinghong [Science and Technology on Advanced Composites in Special Environments Laboratory, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Surface component affected radiative properties of ZrB{sub 2}-SiC composites significantly. • Emissivity in long-wave range gradually increased with the thickness of oxide scale. • The surface temperature had a little effect on radiative properties of composites. • Influence of surface roughness on emissivity could be negligible. • Covering the surface with glass is a method for improving radiative properties. - Abstract: The spectral emissivities of ZrB{sub 2}-20 vol.% SiC composites with various surface components of ZrB{sub 2}/SiC (ZS1), silica-rich glass (ZS2) and porous zirconia (ZS3) were measured using infrared spectrometer in the wavelength range from 2.5 to 25.0 μm. The relationship between surface oxidation (associated with surface component, thickness of oxide scale, testing temperature as well as roughness) and the radiative properties of ZrB{sub 2}-SiC composites were investigated systematically. Surface component affected the radiative properties of composites significantly. The total emissivity of ZS1 varied from 0.22 to 0.81 accompanied with surface oxidation in the temperature range 300–900 °C. The emissivity of ZS2 was about 1.5 times as that of ZS3 under the same testing conditions. The oxide scale on specimen surface enhanced the radiative properties especially in terms of short-wave range, and the emissivity in the long-wave range gradually increased with the thickness of oxide scale within a certain range. The influence of testing temperature and surface roughness was also investigated. The testing temperature had a little effect on radiative properties, whereas effect of surface roughness could be negligible.

  16. Nano-oxides to improve the surface properties of ceramic tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambaldi, E.; Tucci, A.; Esposito, L.; Naldi, D.; Timellini, G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to realise ceramic tiles with superior surface mechanical characteristics and chemical resistance, by the addition of nano-oxides, such as zirconia and alumina, since such advanced ceramics oxides are well known for their excellent mechanical properties and good resistance to chemical etching. In order to avoid any dangerousness, the nanoparticles were used in form of aqueous suspension and they were sprayed, by airbrush, directly onto the dried ceramic support, before firing. To observe the distribution of the nanoparticles and to optimise the surface treatment, SEM-EDS analyses were carried out on the fired samples. XRD analysis was conducted to assess the phases evolution of the different materials during the firing step. The surface mechanical characteristics of the samples have been evaluated by Vickers hardness and scratch test. In addition, also chemical resistance tests were performed. Microstructural observations allowed to understand how alumina and zirconia nanoparticles acted to improve the surface performances of the modified ceramic tiles. (Author) 20 refs.

  17. Effects of rare earth oxide additive on surface and tribological properties of polyimide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zihe; Wang, Tianchang; Chen, Li; Idziak, Stefan; Huang, Zhaohui; Zhao, Boxin

    2017-09-01

    Rare earth oxide La2O3 microparticles-reinforced polyimide (PI) composites (La-PI-Cs) were fabricated, aiming to improve the tribological property of PI. Surface roughness, surface composition, bulk structure, friction force (Ff) and coefficient of friction (COF) at macro/micro preload, and anti-wear performances of La-PI-Cs were studied and compared with neat PI. With La2O3 microparticles, La-PI-Cs showed larger surface roughness, lower surface energy, and higher hydrophobicity than neat PI, and displayed beneficial layered structure different from the compact structure of PI. Owing to these advantages, La-PI-Cs were found to show a 70% reduction in Ff and COF, and a 30% reduction in wear rate, indicating significantly lowered friction and enhanced anti-wear properties after adding La2O3 microparticles. Our research findings demonstrated an easy and low cost method to fabricate polymer composites with low friction and high wear resistance, and help meet the demanding of polymer composites with high tribological performances in broaden applications.

  18. Defects at oxide surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the basics and characterization of defects at oxide surfaces. It provides a state-of-the-art review of the field, containing information to the various types of surface defects, describes analytical methods to study defects, their chemical activity and the catalytic reactivity of oxides. Numerical simulations of defective structures complete the picture developed. Defects on planar surfaces form the focus of much of the book, although the investigation of powder samples also form an important part. The experimental study of planar surfaces opens the possibility of applying the large armoury of techniques that have been developed over the last half-century to study surfaces in ultra-high vacuum. This enables the acquisition of atomic level data under well-controlled conditions, providing a stringent test of theoretical methods. The latter can then be more reliably applied to systems such as nanoparticles for which accurate methods of characterization of structure and electronic properties ha...

  19. Tuning surface properties of graphene oxide quantum dots by gamma-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shunkai; Liao, Fan, E-mail: fliao@suda.edu.cn; Wang, Tao; Zhu, Lili; Shao, Mingwang, E-mail: mwshao@suda.edu.cn

    2016-07-15

    Gamma-ray irradiation was employed to tune surface properties of graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs), such as functional groups and defect density. The GOQDs were first oxidized under γ-ray irradiation with doses ranging from 0 to 200 kGy, and then reduced under larger irradiation doses from 200 to 400 kGy. In other words, both the defect density and the number of surface functional groups increased first and then decreased along with the increasing irradiation dose. This process was confirmed with UV–visible absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectra and Fourier transform infrared spectra. In order to estimate their π-conjugated content, the GOQDs were served to quench the fluorescence of Rhodamine 6 G. The results showed that there existed a positive relationship between the π-conjugated content and the static quenching coefficient V{sub q}Na, which might have a potential value. - Highlights: • The conjugate extent and hydrophily of GOQDs decreased along with irradiation dose. • Gamma-ray irradiation weakens the quenching effect of GOQDs. • Quenching mechanism is a combination of dynamic and static quenching.

  20. Ab initio intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusius, Johann-Philipp; Hellmann, Robert; Hassel, Egon; Bich, Eckard

    2015-06-28

    We present an analytical intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) for two rigid nitrous oxide (N2O) molecules derived from high-level quantum-chemical ab initio calculations. Interaction energies for 2018 N2O-N2O configurations were computed utilizing the counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the CCSD(T) level of theory using basis sets up to aug-cc-pVQZ supplemented with bond functions. A site-site potential function with seven sites per N2O molecule was fitted to the pair interaction energies. We validated our PES by computing the second virial coefficient as well as shear viscosity and thermal conductivity in the dilute-gas limit. The values of these properties are substantiated by the best experimental data.

  1. Surface-modified reduced graphene oxide electrodes for capacitors by ionic liquids and their electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jieun; Kim, Seok

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Reduced graphene oxide surface was modified by introduction of ionic liquids. • Microstructure and capacitance of modified electrode were dependent on the ionic liquids contents. • Modification gives electrode better charge transport and higher specific capacitance. • Modified electrode showed the better capacitive performance such as rate capability and cycle stability. - Abstract: In this work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/ionic liquids (IL) composites with different weight ratios of IL to rGO were synthesized by a simple method. In these composites, IL contributed to the exfoliation of rGO sheets and to the improvement of the electrochemical properties of the resulting composites by enhancing the ion diffusion and charge transport. The structure of the composites was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. The TEM images showed that IL was coated on the surface of rGO in a translucent manner. The electrochemical analysis of the prepared composites was carried out by performing cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge–discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Among the prepared composites, the one with a weight ratio of rGO to IL of 1:7 showed the highest specific capacitance of 147.5 F g −1 at a scan rate of 10 mV s −1 . In addition, the rate capability and cycle performance of the composites were enhanced compared to pristine rGO. These enhanced properties make the composites suitable as electrode materials for the better performance supercapacitors

  2. Enhanced magnetic properties of Fe soft magnetic composites by surface oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Guoliang; Wu, Chen, E-mail: chen_wu@zju.edu.cn; Yan, Mi, E-mail: mse_yanmi@zju.edu.cn

    2016-02-01

    Fe soft magnetic composites (SMCs) with low core loss were fabricated via surface oxidation of the Fe powders by H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} at elevated temperatures. Surface oxidation prevents magnetic dilution due to the formation of the ferromagnetic iron oxide coating layer, giving rise to high magnetic flux density and effective permeability of the SMCs compared with those fabricated with traditional phosphate coating. Mechanism of the oxidation process has been investigated where Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} forms by reactions of Fe with H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} coating layer tends to convert into γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with increased oxidation temperature and time. By controlling composition of the coating layer, low core loss of 688.9 mW/cm{sup 3} (measured at 50 mT and 100 kHz) and higher effective permeability of 88.3 can be achieved for the Fe SMCs. - Highlights: • Surface oxidation as a new method to fabricate Fe Soft magnetic composite (SMCs). • Oxidation mechanism revealed where Fe reacts with H2O and O2 at high temperatures. • Evolution of the iron oxide coating with growth temperature and time investigated. • The iron oxide insulation coating results in improved magnetic performance.

  3. Surface properties of indium tin oxide treated by Cl2 inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Kongduo; Yang, Xilu; Yan, Hang; Gong, Junyi; Zhong, Shaofeng; Ou, Qiongrong; Liang, Rongqing

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The work function of chlorinated ITO increases initially by up to 1 eV. • The chlorinated ITO keeps an increment of work function of 0.3 eV after 100 days. • The WF decrease curves can be fitted with double exponential functions. • The desorption of unstable Cl in the surface leads to the rapid decrease of WF. • The core levels of In 3d5 and Sn 3d5 and O 1s shift toward higher binding energies. - Abstract: The effects of Cl 2 inductively coupled plasma (ICP) treatment on the time dependence of work function (WF) and surface properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) were investigated. Kelvin probe (KP) measurements show that the WF after Cl 2 ICP treatment is close to 5.9 eV. The WF decrease curve of Cl 2 plasma treated ITO is fitted with double exponential functions with an adjusted R-square of 0.99. The mechanism under the decrease process is discussed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ITO WF decrease after Cl 2 ICP treatment performs much better than that after O 2 ICP treatment and the chlorinated ITO keeps a WF increment of 0.3 eV compared with that without plasma treatment after 100 days. Other properties of chlorinated ITO surface such as morphology and transmittance change slightly. The results are significant for the understanding of degradation of Cl 2 plasma treated ITO and the fabrication of organic semiconductor devices

  4. Surface properties of indium tin oxide treated by Cl{sub 2} inductively coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Kongduo; Yang, Xilu; Yan, Hang; Gong, Junyi; Zhong, Shaofeng [Department of Light Sources and Illuminating Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ou, Qiongrong, E-mail: qrou@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Light Sources and Illuminating Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Engineering Research Center of Advanced Lighting Technology, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200433 (China); Liang, Rongqing [Department of Light Sources and Illuminating Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Engineering Research Center of Advanced Lighting Technology, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The work function of chlorinated ITO increases initially by up to 1 eV. • The chlorinated ITO keeps an increment of work function of 0.3 eV after 100 days. • The WF decrease curves can be fitted with double exponential functions. • The desorption of unstable Cl in the surface leads to the rapid decrease of WF. • The core levels of In 3d5 and Sn 3d5 and O 1s shift toward higher binding energies. - Abstract: The effects of Cl{sub 2} inductively coupled plasma (ICP) treatment on the time dependence of work function (WF) and surface properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) were investigated. Kelvin probe (KP) measurements show that the WF after Cl{sub 2} ICP treatment is close to 5.9 eV. The WF decrease curve of Cl{sub 2} plasma treated ITO is fitted with double exponential functions with an adjusted R-square of 0.99. The mechanism under the decrease process is discussed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ITO WF decrease after Cl{sub 2} ICP treatment performs much better than that after O{sub 2} ICP treatment and the chlorinated ITO keeps a WF increment of 0.3 eV compared with that without plasma treatment after 100 days. Other properties of chlorinated ITO surface such as morphology and transmittance change slightly. The results are significant for the understanding of degradation of Cl{sub 2} plasma treated ITO and the fabrication of organic semiconductor devices.

  5. Conditioning of Si-interfaces by wet-chemical oxidation: Electronic interface properties study by surface photovoltage measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angermann, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Determination of electronic interface properties by contact-less surface photovoltage (SPV) technique. • Systematic correlations of substrate morphology and surface electronic properties. • Optimization of surface pre-treatment for flat, saw damage etched, and textured Si solar cell substrates. • Ultra-thin passivating Si oxide layers with low densities of rechargeable states by wet-chemical oxidation and subsequent annealing. • Environmentally acceptable processes, utilizing hot water, diluted HCl, or ozone low cost alternative to current approaches with concentrated chemicals. • The effect of optimized wet-chemical pre-treatments can be preserved during subsequent layer deposition. - Abstract: The field-modulated surface photovoltage (SPV) method, a very surface sensitive technique, was utilized to determine electronic interface properties on wet-chemically oxidized and etched silicon (Si) interfaces. The influence of preparation-induced surface micro-roughness and un-stoichiometric oxides on the resulting the surface charge, energetic distribution D it (E), and density D it,min of rechargeable states was studied by simultaneous, spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements on polished Si(111) and Si(100) substrates. Based on previous findings and new research, a study of conventional and newly developed wet-chemical oxidation methods was established, correlating the interactions between involved oxidizing and etching solutions and the initial substrate morphology to the final surface conditioning. It is shown, which sequences of wet-chemical oxidation and oxide removal, have to be combined in order to achieve atomically smooth, hydrogen terminated surfaces, as well as ultra-thin oxide layers with low densities of rechargeable states on flat, saw damage etched, and textured Si substrates, as commonly applied in silicon device and solar cell manufacturing. These conventional strategies for wet-chemical pre-treatment are mainly based on

  6. Reversible switching of wetting properties and erasable patterning of polymer surfaces using plasma oxidation and thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Zeeshan; Atay, Ipek; Soydan, Seren; Yagci, M. Baris; Jonáš, Alexandr; Yilgor, Emel; Kiraz, Alper; Yilgor, Iskender

    2018-05-01

    Polymer surfaces reversibly switchable from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic by exposure to oxygen plasma and subsequent thermal treatment are demonstrated. Two inherently different polymers, hydrophobic segmented polydimethylsiloxane-urea copolymer (TPSC) and hydrophilic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) are modified with fumed silica nanoparticles to prepare superhydrophobic surfaces with roughness on nanometer to micrometer scale. Smooth TPSC and PMMA surfaces are also used as control samples. Regardless of their chemical structure and surface topography, all surfaces display completely reversible wetting behavior changing from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and back for many cycles upon plasma oxidation followed by thermal annealing. Influence of plasma power, plasma exposure time, annealing temperature and annealing time on the wetting behavior of polymeric surfaces are investigated. Surface compositions, textures and topographies are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and white light interferometry (WLI), before and after oxidation and thermal annealing. Wetting properties of the surfaces are determined by measuring their static, advancing and receding water contact angle. We conclude that the chemical structure and surface topography of the polymers play a relatively minor role in reversible wetting behavior, where the essential factors are surface oxidation and migration of polymer molecules to the surface upon thermal annealing. Reconfigurable water channels on polymer surfaces are produced by plasma treatment using a mask and thermal annealing cycles. Such patterned reconfigurable hydrophilic regions can find use in surface microfluidics and optofluidics applications.

  7. Surface properties of nanostructured NiO undergoing electrochemical oxidation in 3-methoxy-propionitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, Matteo; Marrani, Andrea Giacomo; Novelli, Vittoria; Awais, Muhammad; Dowling, Denis P.; Vos, Johannes G.; Dini, Danilo

    2017-05-01

    Nanostructured nickel oxide (NiO) was deposited in the configuration of thin film (thickness, l = 2-6 μm) onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates via plasma-assisted rapid discharge sintering (RDS). Electrochemical cycling of RDS NiO in 3-methoxy-propionitrile (3-MPN) revealed two characteristic peaks of NiO oxidation which were associated to the surface-confined redox processes Ni(II) → Ni(III) and Ni(III) → Ni(IV). Grazing angle X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was conducted ex-situ on NiO electrodes in both pristine and oxidized states. Oxidized NiO samples for XPS experiments were obtained in the potentiostatic mode through the polarization of NiO at its two characteristic potentials of oxidation. The XPS analysis allowed to ascertain the electronic structure of the nanoporous NiO framework, and verify the adsorption of perchlorate and chloride anions onto NiO surface due to the compensation of the charge stored in oxidized NiO. XPS also revealed that the spectrum within the region characteristic of Ni 2p ionization does not vary considerably with the state of charge of the nickel centres. This finding is in evident contrast to what has been observed for the same system when it undergoes electrochemical oxidation in aqueous electrolyte.

  8. Fluorescence properties of dansyl groups covalently bonded to the surface of oxidatively functionalized low-density polyethylene film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes-Farley, S. R.; Whitesides, G. M.

    1985-12-01

    Brief oxidation of low-density polyethylene film with chromic acid in aqueous sulfuric acid introduced carboxylic acid and ketone and/or aldehyde groups onto the surface of the film. The carboxylic acid moieties can be used to attach more complex functionality to the polymer surface. We are developing this surface-functionalized polyethylene (named polyethylene carboxylic acid, PE-CO2H, to emphasize the functional group that dominates its surface properties) as a substrate with which to study problems in organic surface chemistry--especially wetting, polymer surface reconstruction, and adhesion--using physical-organic techniques. This document describes the preparation, characterization, and fluorescence properties of derivatives of PE-CO2H in which the Dansyl (5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl) group has been covalently attached by amide links to the surface carbonyl moieties.

  9. Oxide/water interfaces: how the surface chemistry modifies interfacial water properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre; Sprik, Michiel; Sulpizi, Marialore

    2012-01-01

    The organization of water at the interface with silica and alumina oxides is analysed using density functional theory-based molecular dynamics simulation (DFT-MD). The interfacial hydrogen bonding is investigated in detail and related to the chemistry of the oxide surfaces by computing the surface charge density and acidity. We find that water molecules hydrogen-bonded to the surface have different orientations depending on the strength of the hydrogen bonds and use this observation to explain the features in the surface vibrational spectra measured by sum frequency generation spectroscopy. In particular, ‘ice-like’ and ‘liquid-like’ features in these spectra are interpreted as the result of hydrogen bonds of different strengths between surface silanols/aluminols and water. (paper)

  10. Iron oxide surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Gareth S.

    2016-03-01

    The current status of knowledge regarding the surfaces of the iron oxides, magnetite (Fe3O4), maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), haematite (α-Fe2O3), and wüstite (Fe1-xO) is reviewed. The paper starts with a summary of applications where iron oxide surfaces play a major role, including corrosion, catalysis, spintronics, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), biomedicine, photoelectrochemical water splitting and groundwater remediation. The bulk structure and properties are then briefly presented; each compound is based on a close-packed anion lattice, with a different distribution and oxidation state of the Fe cations in interstitial sites. The bulk defect chemistry is dominated by cation vacancies and interstitials (not oxygen vacancies) and this provides the context to understand iron oxide surfaces, which represent the front line in reduction and oxidation processes. Fe diffuses in and out from the bulk in response to the O2 chemical potential, forming sometimes complex intermediate phases at the surface. For example, α-Fe2O3 adopts Fe3O4-like surfaces in reducing conditions, and Fe3O4 adopts Fe1-xO-like structures in further reducing conditions still. It is argued that known bulk defect structures are an excellent starting point in building models for iron oxide surfaces. The atomic-scale structure of the low-index surfaces of iron oxides is the major focus of this review. Fe3O4 is the most studied iron oxide in surface science, primarily because its stability range corresponds nicely to the ultra-high vacuum environment. It is also an electrical conductor, which makes it straightforward to study with the most commonly used surface science methods such as photoemission spectroscopies (XPS, UPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The impact of the surfaces on the measurement of bulk properties such as magnetism, the Verwey transition and the (predicted) half-metallicity is discussed. The best understood iron oxide surface at present is probably Fe3O4(100); the structure is

  11. Effect of ion irradiation on the optical properties and room temperature oxidation of copper surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poperenko, L.V.; Ramadan Shaaban, Essam; Khanh, N.Q.; Stashchuk, V.S.; Vinnichenko, M.V.; Yurgelevich, I.V.; Nosach, D.V.; Lohner, T

    2004-05-01

    Ex situ and in situ spectroellipsometric investigation of room temperature oxidation of ion-implanted copper surface was performed. The ellipsometer is capable to measure simultaneously the ellipsometric parameters {psi} and {delta} at 88 different wavelength values in the range of 280-760 nm within a few minutes in the high precision operation mode using two zone averaging and within a fraction of a second in the one zone operation mode. The native oxide layer formed earlier on the surface of the copper was sputtered off during the aluminum ion implantation. In situ study of the growth of the newly formed native oxide layer on the ion implanted surface was carried out. Ion beam analytical measurements were performed to gain further information on the native oxide layer. The absolute number of the oxygen atoms in the native copper oxide layer was determined. The depth distribution of the implanted aluminum was extracted from Rutherford backscattering spectra. It is found that Al implantation enhanced the oxidation resistance.

  12. Effect of ion irradiation on the optical properties and room temperature oxidation of copper surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poperenko, L.V.; Ramadan Shaaban, Essam; Khanh, N.Q.; Stashchuk, V.S.; Vinnichenko, M.V.; Yurgelevich, I.V.; Nosach, D.V.; Lohner, T.

    2004-01-01

    Ex situ and in situ spectroellipsometric investigation of room temperature oxidation of ion-implanted copper surface was performed. The ellipsometer is capable to measure simultaneously the ellipsometric parameters Ψ and Δ at 88 different wavelength values in the range of 280-760 nm within a few minutes in the high precision operation mode using two zone averaging and within a fraction of a second in the one zone operation mode. The native oxide layer formed earlier on the surface of the copper was sputtered off during the aluminum ion implantation. In situ study of the growth of the newly formed native oxide layer on the ion implanted surface was carried out. Ion beam analytical measurements were performed to gain further information on the native oxide layer. The absolute number of the oxygen atoms in the native copper oxide layer was determined. The depth distribution of the implanted aluminum was extracted from Rutherford backscattering spectra. It is found that Al implantation enhanced the oxidation resistance

  13. Surface properties of nanostructured NiO undergoing electrochemical oxidation in 3-methoxy-propionitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonomo, Matteo [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Marrani, Andrea Giacomo, E-mail: andrea.marrani@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Novelli, Vittoria [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Awais, Muhammad [Department of Industrial Engineering, “King Abdulaziz” University, Rabigh (Saudi Arabia); Solar Energy Conversion Strategic Research Cluster, University College Dublin (UCD), Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Dowling, Denis P. [Solar Energy Conversion Strategic Research Cluster, University College Dublin (UCD), Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University College Dublin (UCD), Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Vos, Johannes G. [School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University (DCU), Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Dini, Danilo [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Solar Energy Conversion Strategic Research Cluster, University College Dublin (UCD), Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • NiO porous thin films were prepared via RDS technique. • NiO electrodes were characterized in a nitrile based electrochemical cell. • NiO electrodes were studied by means of XPS. • The XP spectra excluded the formation of phases other than NiO. • The presence of ClO{sub 4}{sup −} as charge balancing species was evidenced. - Abstract: Nanostructured nickel oxide (NiO) was deposited in the configuration of thin film (thickness, l = 2–6 μm) onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates via plasma-assisted rapid discharge sintering (RDS). Electrochemical cycling of RDS NiO in 3-methoxy-propionitrile (3-MPN) revealed two characteristic peaks of NiO oxidation which were associated to the surface-confined redox processes Ni(II) → Ni(III) and Ni(III) → Ni(IV). Grazing angle X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was conducted ex-situ on NiO electrodes in both pristine and oxidized states. Oxidized NiO samples for XPS experiments were obtained in the potentiostatic mode through the polarization of NiO at its two characteristic potentials of oxidation. The XPS analysis allowed to ascertain the electronic structure of the nanoporous NiO framework, and verify the adsorption of perchlorate and chloride anions onto NiO surface due to the compensation of the charge stored in oxidized NiO. XPS also revealed that the spectrum within the region characteristic of Ni 2p ionization does not vary considerably with the state of charge of the nickel centres. This finding is in evident contrast to what has been observed for the same system when it undergoes electrochemical oxidation in aqueous electrolyte.

  14. Surface properties of nanostructured NiO undergoing electrochemical oxidation in 3-methoxy-propionitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonomo, Matteo; Marrani, Andrea Giacomo; Novelli, Vittoria; Awais, Muhammad; Dowling, Denis P.; Vos, Johannes G.; Dini, Danilo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • NiO porous thin films were prepared via RDS technique. • NiO electrodes were characterized in a nitrile based electrochemical cell. • NiO electrodes were studied by means of XPS. • The XP spectra excluded the formation of phases other than NiO. • The presence of ClO 4 − as charge balancing species was evidenced. - Abstract: Nanostructured nickel oxide (NiO) was deposited in the configuration of thin film (thickness, l = 2–6 μm) onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates via plasma-assisted rapid discharge sintering (RDS). Electrochemical cycling of RDS NiO in 3-methoxy-propionitrile (3-MPN) revealed two characteristic peaks of NiO oxidation which were associated to the surface-confined redox processes Ni(II) → Ni(III) and Ni(III) → Ni(IV). Grazing angle X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was conducted ex-situ on NiO electrodes in both pristine and oxidized states. Oxidized NiO samples for XPS experiments were obtained in the potentiostatic mode through the polarization of NiO at its two characteristic potentials of oxidation. The XPS analysis allowed to ascertain the electronic structure of the nanoporous NiO framework, and verify the adsorption of perchlorate and chloride anions onto NiO surface due to the compensation of the charge stored in oxidized NiO. XPS also revealed that the spectrum within the region characteristic of Ni 2p ionization does not vary considerably with the state of charge of the nickel centres. This finding is in evident contrast to what has been observed for the same system when it undergoes electrochemical oxidation in aqueous electrolyte.

  15. Nano-oxides to improve the surface properties of ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timellini, G.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to realise ceramic tiles with superior surface mechanical characteristics and chemical resistance, by the addition of nano-oxides, such as zirconia and alumina, since such advanced ceramics oxides are well known for their excellent mechanical properties and good resistance to chemical etching. In order to avoid any dangerousness, the nanoparticles were used in form of aqueous suspension and they were sprayed, by airbrush, directly onto the dried ceramic support, before firing. To observe the distribution of the nanoparticles and to optimise the surface treatment, SEM-EDS analyses were carried out on the fired samples. XRD analysis was conducted to assess the phases evolution of the different materials during the firing step. The surface mechanical characteristics of the samples have been evaluated by Vickers’ hardness and scratch test. In addition, also chemical resistance tests were performed. Microstructural observations allowed to understand how alumina and zirconia nanoparticles acted to improve the surface performances of the modified ceramic tiles.

    La finalidad de este trabajo es la de realizar baldosas con mejores características mecánicas superficiales, al incorporar óxidos de partículas nanométricas, como la circona y la alúmina, ya que se sabe que estos óxidos confieren unas propiedades mecánicas excelentes además de una buena resistencia al ataque químico. Para evitar cualquier peligro, las partículas nanométricas se usaron en forma de suspensión acuosa y se pulverizaron, por medio de un aerógrafo, directamente sobre el soporte cerámico seco, antes de la cocción. Para observar la distribución de las partículas nanométricas y para optimizar el tratamiento de la superficie, se realizó unos análisis por MEB-EDS sobre las muestras cocidas. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de difracción de rayos X (DRX para evaluar la evolución de las fases de los distintos materiales durante

  16. Conditioning of Si-interfaces by wet-chemical oxidation: Electronic interface properties study by surface photovoltage measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angermann, Heike, E-mail: angermann@helmholtz-berlin.de

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Determination of electronic interface properties by contact-less surface photovoltage (SPV) technique. • Systematic correlations of substrate morphology and surface electronic properties. • Optimization of surface pre-treatment for flat, saw damage etched, and textured Si solar cell substrates. • Ultra-thin passivating Si oxide layers with low densities of rechargeable states by wet-chemical oxidation and subsequent annealing. • Environmentally acceptable processes, utilizing hot water, diluted HCl, or ozone low cost alternative to current approaches with concentrated chemicals. • The effect of optimized wet-chemical pre-treatments can be preserved during subsequent layer deposition. - Abstract: The field-modulated surface photovoltage (SPV) method, a very surface sensitive technique, was utilized to determine electronic interface properties on wet-chemically oxidized and etched silicon (Si) interfaces. The influence of preparation-induced surface micro-roughness and un-stoichiometric oxides on the resulting the surface charge, energetic distribution D{sub it}(E), and density D{sub it,min} of rechargeable states was studied by simultaneous, spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements on polished Si(111) and Si(100) substrates. Based on previous findings and new research, a study of conventional and newly developed wet-chemical oxidation methods was established, correlating the interactions between involved oxidizing and etching solutions and the initial substrate morphology to the final surface conditioning. It is shown, which sequences of wet-chemical oxidation and oxide removal, have to be combined in order to achieve atomically smooth, hydrogen terminated surfaces, as well as ultra-thin oxide layers with low densities of rechargeable states on flat, saw damage etched, and textured Si substrates, as commonly applied in silicon device and solar cell manufacturing. These conventional strategies for wet-chemical pre-treatment are mainly

  17. Surface chemistry and catalytic properties of VOX/Ti-MCM-41 catalysts for dibenzothiophene oxidation in a biphasic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J.; Chen, L. F.; Wang, J. A.; Manríquez, Ma.; Limas, R.; Schachat, P.; Navarrete, J.; Contreras, J. L.

    2016-08-01

    A series of vanadium oxide supported on Ti-MCM-41 catalysts was synthesized via the incipient impregnation method by varying the vanadia loading from 5 wt% to 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt%. These catalysts were characterized by a variety of advanced techniques for investigating their crystalline structure, textural properties, and surface chemistry information including surface acidity, reducibility, vanadium oxidation states, and morphological features. The catalytic activities of the catalysts were evaluated in a biphasic reaction system for oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of a model diesel containing 300 ppm of dibenzothiophene (DBT) where acetonitrile was used as extraction solvent and H2O2 as oxidant. ODS activity was found to be proportional to the V5+/(V4+ + V5+) values of the catalysts, indicating that the surface vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) was the active phase. Reaction temperature would influence significantly the ODS efficiency; high temperature, i.e., 80 °C, would lead to low ODS reaction due to the partial decomposition of oxidant. All the catalysts contained both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites but the former was predominant. The catalysts with low vanadia loading (5 or 10 wt%V2O5) had many Lewis acid sites and could strongly adsorb DBT molecule via the electron donation/acceptance action which resulted in an inhibition for the reaction of DBT with the surface peroxometallic species. The catalyst with high vanadia loading (25wt%V2O5/Ti-MCM-41) showed the highest catalytic activity and could remove 99.9% of DBT at 60 °C within 60 min.

  18. Structural and surface properties of highly ordered mesoporous magnesium-aluminium composite oxides derived from facile synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Dahai, E-mail: pandahai@foxmail.com; Dong, Zhaoyang; He, Min; Chen, Wei; Chen, Shuwei; Yu, Feng; Fan, Binbin; Cui, Xingyu; Li, Ruifeng, E-mail: rfli@tyut.edu.cn

    2017-01-15

    Highly ordered mesoporous magnesium-aluminium composite oxides (denoted as OMMA-x) with a variety of n{sub Al}/n{sub Mg} ratios have been successfully synthesized via a facile strategy, and a salt effect was proposed to explain the formation mechanism. The incorporation of Mg can significantly improve the structural and surface properties of ordered mesoporous alumina (OMA) material. The resultant OMMA-x exhibited a much more ordered 2-D hexagonal mesostructure, a narrower pore size distribution, a higher specific surface area and pore volume, and a stronger basicity than those of OMA. More importantly, the highly homogeneous incorporation of Mg at the atomic level and the formation of framework Mg−O−Al bonds could effectively suppress the formation of crystalline alumina during the calcination process. As a result, OMMA-x demonstrated a superior thermal stability. For example, the ordered mesostructure of OMMA-8 could be well maintained with a high surface area of 182 m{sup 2}/g even after thermal treatment at 1000 °C. - Graphical abstract: A schematic procedure to illustrate the preparation of highly ordered mesoporous Mg-Al composite oxides (OMMA-x) with highly homogeneously dispersed Mg species and enhanced structural stability. - Highlights: • Mesoporous Mg-Al composite oxides with excellent structural and surface properties. • A highly homogeneous incorporation of Mg into the mesoporous framework of alumina. • A superior structural stability up to 1000 °C coupled with a large surface area. • A salt effect from the addition of Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O to explain the formation mechanism.

  19. Low-temperature aluminum reduction of graphene oxide, electrical properties, surface wettability, and energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dongyun; Yang, Chongyin; Lin, Tianquan; Tang, Yufeng; Zhou, Mi; Zhong, Yajuan; Huang, Fuqiang; Lin, Jianhua

    2012-10-23

    Low-temperature aluminum (Al) reduction is first introduced to reduce graphene oxide (GO) at 100-200 °C in a two-zone furnace. The melted Al metal exhibits an excellent deoxygen ability to produce well-crystallized reduced graphene oxide (RGO) papers with a low O/C ratio of 0.058 (Al-RGO), compared with 0.201 in the thermally reduced one (T-RGO). The Al-RGO papers possess outstanding mechanical flexibility and extremely high electrical conductivities (sheet resistance R(s) ~ 1.75 Ω/sq), compared with 20.12 Ω/sq of T-RGO. More interestingly, very nice hydrophobic nature (90.5°) was observed, significantly superior to the reported chemically or thermally reduced papers. These enhanced properties are attributed to the low oxygen content in the RGO papers. During the aluminum reduction, highly active H atoms from H(2)O reacted with melted Al promise an efficient oxygen removal. This method was also applicable to reduce graphene oxide foams, which were used in the GO/SA (stearic acid) composite as a highly thermally conductive reservoir to hold the phase change material for thermal energy storage. The Al-reduced RGO/SnS(2) composites were further used in an anode material of lithium ion batteries possessing a higher specific capacity. Overall, low-temperature Al reduction is an effective method to prepare highly conductive RGO papers and related composites for flexible energy conversion and storage device applications.

  20. Nanotribological properties of precision-controlled regular nanotexture on H-passivated Si surface by current-induced local anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo Yufei; Zhao Wenjie; Huang Deming; Zhao Fei [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Bai Mingwu [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)], E-mail: mwbai@LZB.ac.cn

    2009-02-15

    Nano-sized textures resulted from localized electrochemical oxidation by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) were fabricated on H-passivated Si surface. In this paper, the fabrication and nanotribological properties of nanotexture by local anodic oxidation (LAO) on H-passivated Si surface are presented. A special attention is paid to find the relation between the size of oxide nanotexture and operational parameters such as tip-sample pulsed bias voltage, pulsewidth, and relative humidity to fabricate oxide nanotexture. The nanotribological properties were investigated by a colloidal probe. The results indicate that the nanotextures exhibited low adhesion and greatly reduced friction force at nanometer scale.

  1. Electronic and Optical Properties of Aluminum Oxide Before and After Surface Reduction by Ar+ Bombardment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tahir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The electronic and optical properties of a-Al2O3 after induced by 3-keV Ar+ sputtering have been studied quantitatively by use of reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS spectra. The band gap values of a-Al2O3 was determined from the onset values of the energy loss spectrum to the background level of REELS spectra as a function of time Ar+ bombardment. The bandgap changes from 8.4 eV before sputtering to 6.2 eV after 4 minutes of sputtering.The optical properties of α-Al2O3 thin films have been determined by comparing the experimental cross section obtained from reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy with the theoretical inelastic scattering cross section, deduced from the simulated energy loss function (ELF by using QUEELS-ε(k-REELS software. The peak assignments are based on ELF and compared with reported data on the electronic structure of α-Al2O3 obtained using different techniques. The results demonstrate that the electronic and optical properties before and after surface reduction will provide further understanding in the fundamental properties of α-Al2O3 which will be useful in the design, modeling and analysis of devices applications performance.

  2. Roles of Bulk and Surface Chemistry in the Oxygen Exchange Kinetics and Related Properties of Mixed Conducting Perovskite Oxide Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola H. Perry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mixed conducting perovskite oxides and related structures serving as electrodes for electrochemical oxygen incorporation and evolution in solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells, respectively, play a significant role in determining the cell efficiency and lifetime. Desired improvements in catalytic activity for rapid surface oxygen exchange, fast bulk transport (electronic and ionic, and thermo-chemo-mechanical stability of oxygen electrodes will require increased understanding of the impact of both bulk and surface chemistry on these properties. This review highlights selected work at the International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (I2CNER, Kyushu University, set in the context of work in the broader community, aiming to characterize and understand relationships between bulk and surface composition and oxygen electrode performance. Insights into aspects of bulk point defect chemistry, electronic structure, crystal structure, and cation choice that impact carrier concentrations and mobilities, surface exchange kinetics, and chemical expansion coefficients are emerging. At the same time, an understanding of the relationship between bulk and surface chemistry is being developed that may assist design of electrodes with more robust surface chemistries, e.g., impurity tolerance or limited surface segregation. Ion scattering techniques (e.g., secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS, or low energy ion scattering spectroscopy, LEIS with high surface sensitivity and increasing lateral resolution are proving useful for measuring surface exchange kinetics, diffusivity, and corresponding outer monolayer chemistry of electrodes exposed to typical operating conditions. Beyond consideration of chemical composition, the use of strain and/or a high density of active interfaces also show promise for enhancing performance.

  3. Surface chemistry and catalytic properties of VOX/Ti-MCM-41 catalysts for dibenzothiophene oxidation in a biphasic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, J.; Chen, L.F.; Wang, J.A.; Manríquez, Ma.; Limas, R.; Schachat, P.; Navarrete, J.; Contreras, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxidative desulfurization of model diesel was tested in a biphasic system. • ODS activity was proportional to the V 5+ /(V 4+ + V 5+ ) values of the catalysts. • Lewis acidity was related to vanadium content and catalytic activity. • 99.9% DBT was oxidized using 25%V 2 O 5 /Ti-MCM-41 at 60 °C within 60 min. - Abstract: A series of vanadium oxide supported on Ti-MCM-41 catalysts was synthesized via the incipient impregnation method by varying the vanadia loading from 5 wt% to 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt%. These catalysts were characterized by a variety of advanced techniques for investigating their crystalline structure, textural properties, and surface chemistry information including surface acidity, reducibility, vanadium oxidation states, and morphological features. The catalytic activities of the catalysts were evaluated in a biphasic reaction system for oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of a model diesel containing 300 ppm of dibenzothiophene (DBT) where acetonitrile was used as extraction solvent and H 2 O 2 as oxidant. ODS activity was found to be proportional to the V 5+ /(V 4+ + V 5+ ) values of the catalysts, indicating that the surface vanadium pentoxide (V 2 O 5 ) was the active phase. Reaction temperature would influence significantly the ODS efficiency; high temperature, i.e., 80 °C, would lead to low ODS reaction due to the partial decomposition of oxidant. All the catalysts contained both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites but the former was predominant. The catalysts with low vanadia loading (5 or 10 wt%V 2 O 5 ) had many Lewis acid sites and could strongly adsorb DBT molecule via the electron donation/acceptance action which resulted in an inhibition for the reaction of DBT with the surface peroxometallic species. The catalyst with high vanadia loading (25wt%V 2 O 5 /Ti-MCM-41) showed the highest catalytic activity and could remove 99.9% of DBT at 60 °C within 60 min.

  4. DC electrical, thermal, and spectroscopic properties of various condensation polyimides containing surface cobalt oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, J. D.; Boggess, R. K.; Horning, L. S.; Taylor, L. T.

    1987-01-01

    Doping polyimides with cobalt ion causes the room temperature direct current electrical resistivity to decrease relative to the polymer alone, the reduction being most pronounced for the air-side of the cobalt modified polyimides. At a constant electrical field, resistivity for the volume, air-side and glass-side modes decreases yet further with an increase in temperature as expected for semiconductors and insulators. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates the air-side of the cobalt modified polyimides is predominantly Co3O4. The bulk resistivity of the air-side and activation energy of conduction for this surface are comparable to high purity sintered Co3O4. Charging characteristics at room temperature indicate a substantial polymer matrix contribution to both the glass-side and volume mode measurements but a negligible contribution to the air-side electrical properties. Volume electrical resistivity for similar additive levels is reduced by increasing the molecular flexibility of the host polymer.

  5. Physicochemical properties and in vitro cytocompatibility of modified titanium surfaces prepared via micro-arc oxidation with different calcium concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Sui-Dan; Zhang, Hui [Guanghua School of Stomatology, Hospital of Stomatology, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Dong, Xu-Dong [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Ning, Cheng-Yun [College of Material Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Fok, Alex S.L. [Minnesota Dental Research Center of Biomaterials and Biomechanics, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414 (United States); Wang, Yan, E-mail: wyan65@163.com [Guanghua School of Stomatology, Hospital of Stomatology, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China)

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • MAO coating improves the surface characteristics and cytocompatibility of titanium. • Composition of MAO coating varies with the electrolyte concentration. • MAO coating properties can be optimized by adjusting the electrolyte concentration. • Higher CA concentration contributes to more favorable MAO coating cytocompatibility. - Abstract: Objective: To explore the effect of calcium concentration in the electrolyte solution on the physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of coatings formed by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) on titanium surfaces. Methods: The surfaces of pure titanium plates were modified by MAO in an electrolytic solution containing calcium acetate (CA; C{sub 4}H{sub 6}CaO{sub 4}) at concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 M and β-glycerophosphate disodium salt pentahydrate (β-GP; C{sub 3}H{sub 7}Na{sub 2}O{sub 6}P·5H{sub 2}O) at a fixed concentration of 0.02 M. Surface topography, elemental characteristics, phase composition, and roughness were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, and a surface roughness tester, respectively. To assess the cytocompatibility and osteoinductivity of the surfaces, MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts were cultured on the surfaces in vitro, and cell morphology, adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation were observed. Results: The porous MAO coating was composed primarily of TiO{sub 2} rutile and anatase. The amount of TiO{sub 2} rutile, the Ca/P ratio, and the surface roughness of the MAO coating increased with increasing CA concentration in the electrolyte solution. Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3}, and CaTiO{sub 3} were formed on MAO-treated surfaces prepared with CA concentrations of 0.2 and 0.3 M. Cell proliferation and differentiation increased with increasing CA concentration, with MC3T3-E1 cells exhibiting favorable morphologies for bone–implant integration. Conclusions: MAO coating improves the surface characteristics and

  6. Physicochemical properties and in vitro cytocompatibility of modified titanium surfaces prepared via micro-arc oxidation with different calcium concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Sui-Dan; Zhang, Hui; Dong, Xu-Dong; Ning, Cheng-Yun; Fok, Alex S.L.; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MAO coating improves the surface characteristics and cytocompatibility of titanium. • Composition of MAO coating varies with the electrolyte concentration. • MAO coating properties can be optimized by adjusting the electrolyte concentration. • Higher CA concentration contributes to more favorable MAO coating cytocompatibility. - Abstract: Objective: To explore the effect of calcium concentration in the electrolyte solution on the physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of coatings formed by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) on titanium surfaces. Methods: The surfaces of pure titanium plates were modified by MAO in an electrolytic solution containing calcium acetate (CA; C 4 H 6 CaO 4 ) at concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 M and β-glycerophosphate disodium salt pentahydrate (β-GP; C 3 H 7 Na 2 O 6 P·5H 2 O) at a fixed concentration of 0.02 M. Surface topography, elemental characteristics, phase composition, and roughness were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, and a surface roughness tester, respectively. To assess the cytocompatibility and osteoinductivity of the surfaces, MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts were cultured on the surfaces in vitro, and cell morphology, adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation were observed. Results: The porous MAO coating was composed primarily of TiO 2 rutile and anatase. The amount of TiO 2 rutile, the Ca/P ratio, and the surface roughness of the MAO coating increased with increasing CA concentration in the electrolyte solution. Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , CaCO 3 , and CaTiO 3 were formed on MAO-treated surfaces prepared with CA concentrations of 0.2 and 0.3 M. Cell proliferation and differentiation increased with increasing CA concentration, with MC3T3-E1 cells exhibiting favorable morphologies for bone–implant integration. Conclusions: MAO coating improves the surface characteristics and cytocompatibility of titanium for osseointegration. Higher CA

  7. High surface area niobium oxides as catalysts for improved hydrogen sorption properties of ball milled MgH2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, V.V.; Rougier, A.; Aymard, L.; Nazri, G.A.; Tarascon, J.-M.

    2008-01-01

    We report, high surface area (up to 200 m 2 /g) nanocrystalline niobium oxide (so called p-Nb 2 O 5 ) synthesized by 'chimie douce' route and its importance in enhancing the hydrogen sorption properties of MgH 2 . p-Nb 2 O 5 induces faster kinetics than commonly used commercial Nb 2 O 5 (c-Nb 2 O 5 ) when ball milled with MgH 2 (named (MgH 2 ) catalyst ) by reducing the time of desorption from 35 min in (MgH 2 ) c-Nb 2 O 5 to 12 min in (MgH 2 ) p-Nb 2 O 5 at 300 deg. C. The BET surface area of as-prepared Nb 2 O 5 was tuned by heat treatment and its effect on sorption properties was studied. Among them, both p-Nb 2 O 5 and Nb 2 O 5 :350 (p-Nb 2 O 5 heated to 350 deg. C with a BET specific surface area of 46 m 2 /g) desorb 5 wt.% within 12 min, exhibiting the best catalytic activity. Furthermore, thanks to the addition of high surface area Nb 2 O 5 , the desorption temperature was successfully lowered down to 200 deg. C, with a significant amount of desorbed hydrogen (4.5 wt.%). In contrast, the composite (MgH 2 ) c-Nb 2 O 5 shows no desorption at this 'low' temperature

  8. Surface properties of calcium and magnesium oxide nanopowders grafted with unsaturated carboxylic acids studied with inverse gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, Magdalena; Krzywania-Kaliszewska, Alicja; Zaborski, Marian

    2012-09-28

    Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) was applied at infinite dilution to evaluate the surface properties of calcium and magnesium oxide nanoparticles and the effect of surface grafted unsaturated carboxylic acid on the nanopowder donor-acceptor characteristics. The dispersive components (γ(s)(D)) of the free energy of the nanopowders were determined by Gray's method, whereas their tendency to undergo specific interactions was estimated based on the electron donor-acceptor approach presented by Papirer. The calcium and magnesium oxide nanoparticles exhibited high surface energies (79 mJ/m² and 74 mJ/m², respectively). Modification of nanopowders with unsaturated carboxylic acids decreased their specific adsorption energy. The lowest value of γ(s)(D) was determined for nanopowders grafted with undecylenic acid, approximately 55 mJ/m². The specific interactions were characterised by the molar free energy (ΔG(A)(SP)) and molar enthalpy (ΔH(A)(SP)) of adsorption as well as the donor and acceptor interaction parameters (K(A), K(D)). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrochemical Characteristics of Layered Transition Metal Oxide Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries: Surface, Bulk Behavior, and Thermal Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chixia; Lin, Feng; Doeff, Marca M

    2018-01-16

    Layered lithium transition metal oxides, in particular, NMCs (LiNi x Co y Mn z O 2 ) represent a family of prominent lithium ion battery cathode materials with the potential to increase energy densities and lifetime, reduce costs, and improve safety for electric vehicles and grid storage. Our work has focused on various strategies to improve performance and to understand the limitations to these strategies, which include altering compositions, utilizing cation substitutions, and charging to higher than usual potentials in cells. Understanding the effects of these strategies on surface and bulk behavior and correlating structure-performance relationships advance our understanding of NMC materials. This also provides information relevant to the efficacy of various approaches toward ensuring reliable operation of these materials in batteries intended for demanding traction and grid storage applications. In this Account, we start by comparing NMCs to the isostructural LiCoO 2 cathode, which is widely used in consumer batteries. Effects of changing the metal content (Ni, Mn, Co) upon structure and performance of NMCs are briefly discussed. Our early work on the effects of partial substitution of Al, Fe, and Ti for Co on the electrochemical and bulk structural properties is then covered. The original aim of this work was to reduce the Co content (and thus the raw materials cost) and to determine the effect of the substitutions on the electrochemical and bulk structural properties. More recently, we have turned to the application of synchrotron and advanced microscopy techniques to understand both bulk and surface characteristics of the NMCs. Via nanoscale-to-macroscale spectroscopy and atomically resolved imaging techniques, we were able to determine that the surfaces of NMC undergo heterogeneous reconstruction from a layered structure to rock salt under a variety of conditions. Interestingly, formation of rock salt also occurs under abuse conditions. The surface

  10. Water resistant surfaces using zinc oxide structured nanorod arrays with switchable wetting property

    OpenAIRE

    Ennaceri, H.; Wang, L.; Erfurt, D.; Riedel, W.; Mangalgiri, G.; Khaldoun, A.; El Kenz, A.; Benyoussef, A.; Ennaoui, A

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an experimental approach for fabricating super hydrophobic coatings based on a dual roughness structure composed of zinc oxide nanorod arrays coated with a sputtered zinc oxide nano layer. The ZnO nanorod arrays were grown by means of a low temperature electrochemical deposition technique 75 C on FTO substrates. The ZnO nanorods show a 002 orientation along the c axis, and have a hexagonal structure, with an average length of 710 nm, and average width of 156 nm. On th...

  11. Surface properties and catalytic performance of Pt/LaSrCoO4 catalysts in the oxidation of hexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhong

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite-type La2 –xSrxCoO4 mixed oxides have been prepared by calcination at various temperatures of precipitates obtained from aqueous solutions in the presence of citric or ethylenediamintetraacetic (EDTA acids, and have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD, surface area (BET measurements, temperature programmed desorption (TPD, temperature programmed reduction (TPR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. These oxides are catalysts for hexane oxidation, with the greatest activity for LaSrCoO4 calcined at 750 C. This has extensive oxygen vacancies and large internal surface area. Pt-modified LaSrCoO4 catalysts are significantly more active than the Pt-free system. Both surface and bulk phases of the preovskitetype oxides contribute to hexane oxidation.

  12. Investigation of the Surface Properties of an Oxide of Interest in the Field of a Conductive Oxide System: Influence of Precursor and Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Gilmar de Almeida

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface properties of commercial TiO2 and samples synthesized by the thermal decomposition procedure using several precursor salts were investigated by a microelectrophoresis technique. The iep was determined as a function of the ionic strength which was controlled with KNO3 or KCl. The experimental results showed: 1 The commercial sample and the ones synthesized from the chloride salt dissolved in HCl 1:1 (v/v show low iep?s due to chloride inclusion; 2 The purification methods explored (oxide suspension at pH~12 and dialysis are inefficient; 3 TiO2 samples synthesized from an organic precursor salt under totally chloride-free conditions furnished an iep of 5.9 in excellent agreement with literature data; 4 Chloride specific adsorption on TiO2 is weak.

  13. A study on surface properties and high temperature oxidation behavior of ion nitrided FC-25 gray cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, In Chang; Son, Kun Su; Yoon, Jae Hong; Cho, Tong Yul; Park, Bong Gyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, In Soo

    2005-01-01

    Surface properties and high temperature oxidation behavior were investigated for FC-25 Gray Cast Iron(GCI) and the ion intrided GCI(N-GCI). The GCI was pre-cleaned to improve hardness to the optimum pre-sputtering parameters with an Ar/H 2 ratio of 1/2, working pressure of 3 torr, working temperature of 550 .deg. C and working time of 1hour. The optimum nitriding conditions for the maximum hardness of 560∼575 Hv were an N 2 /H 2 ratio of 3/1, working pressure of 3 torr, and working temperature of 575 deg. C. The thickness of graphite in the GCI was increased by increasing the working temperature from 525 .deg. C to 595 .deg. C for the nitriding time of 6∼18hrs. XRD patterns showed FeO and Fe 2 O 3 peaks for both the oxidized N-GCI and GCI at temperature of 600 .deg. C and 800 .deg. C under atmospheric environment for both 24 and 60hours. At 800 .deg. C, above the Fe 4 N decomposition temperature of 680 .deg. C, the oxidation rate of N-GCI was greater than that of the GCI. The most abundant nitride, Fe 4 N, was decomposed and the nitrogen gas given off by the decomposition made the protective film porous by degassing through the film. But at 600 .deg. C, below the decomposition temperature, the degree of oxidation of N-GCI was lower than that of the GCI because the nitride film worked as protective barrier for oxidation. Finite element modeling of elastic contact wear problems was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the finite element method to fretting wear problems. The elastic beam problem, with existing solutions, is treated as a numerical example. By introducing a control parameter s, which scaled up the wear constant and scaled down the cycle numbers, the algorithm was shown to greatly reduce the time required for the analysis. The work rate model was adopted in the wear model. In the three-dimensional finite element analysis, a quarterly symmetric model was used to simulate cross tubes contacting at right angles. The wear constant of

  14. Influence of surface properties of filtration-layer metal oxide on ceramic membrane fouling during ultrafiltration of oil/water emulsion

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Dongwei

    2016-04-01

    In this work, ceramic ultrafiltration membranes deposited with different metal oxides (i.e., TiO2, Fe2O3, MnO2, CuO, and CeO2) of around 10 nm in thickness and similar roughness were tested for O/W emulsion treatment. Distinct membrane fouling tendency was observed, which closely correlated to the properties of the filtration-layer metal oxides (i.e. surface hydroxyl groups, hydrophilicity, surface charge, and adhesion energy for oil droplets). In consistent with the distinct bond strength of the surface hydroxyl groups, hydrophilicity of these common metal oxides are quite different. The differences in hydrophilicity consequently lead to different adhesion of these metal oxides towards oil droplets which consists very well with irreversible membrane fouling tendency. In addition, the surface charge of the metal oxide opposite to that of emulsion can help to alleviate irreversible membrane fouling in ultrafiltration. Highly hydrophilic Fe2O3 with lowest fouling tendency could be a potential filtration-layer material for the fabrication/modification of ceramic membranes for O/W emulsion treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study clearly showing the correlations between surface properties of filtration-layer metal oxides and ceramic membrane fouling tendency by O/W emulsion.

  15. Influence of Surface Properties of Filtration-Layer Metal Oxide on Ceramic Membrane Fouling during Ultrafiltration of Oil/Water Emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dongwei; Zhang, Tao; Gutierrez, Leo; Ma, Jun; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2016-05-03

    In this work, ceramic ultrafiltration membranes deposited with different metal oxides (i.e., TiO2, Fe2O3, MnO2, CuO, and CeO2) of around 10 nm in thickness and similar roughness were tested for O/W emulsion treatment. A distinct membrane fouling tendency was observed, which closely correlated to the properties of the filtration-layer metal oxides (i.e., surface hydroxyl groups, hydrophilicity, surface charge, and adhesion energy for oil droplets). Consistent with the distinct bond strength of the surface hydroxyl groups, hydrophilicity of these common metal oxides is quite different. The differences in hydrophilicity consequently lead to different adhesion of these metal oxides toward oil droplets, consistent with the irreversible membrane fouling tendency. In addition, the surface charge of the metal oxide opposite to that of emulsion can help to alleviate irreversible membrane fouling in ultrafiltration. Highly hydrophilic Fe2O3 with the lowest fouling tendency could be a potential filtration-layer material for the fabrication/modification of ceramic membranes for O/W emulsion treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study clearly showing the correlations between surface properties of filtration-layer metal oxides and ceramic membrane fouling tendency by O/W emulsion.

  16. Influence of surface properties of filtration-layer metal oxide on ceramic membrane fouling during ultrafiltration of oil/water emulsion

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Dongwei; Zhang, Tao; Gutierrez, Leo; Ma, Jun; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    In this work, ceramic ultrafiltration membranes deposited with different metal oxides (i.e., TiO2, Fe2O3, MnO2, CuO, and CeO2) of around 10 nm in thickness and similar roughness were tested for O/W emulsion treatment. Distinct membrane fouling tendency was observed, which closely correlated to the properties of the filtration-layer metal oxides (i.e. surface hydroxyl groups, hydrophilicity, surface charge, and adhesion energy for oil droplets). In consistent with the distinct bond strength of the surface hydroxyl groups, hydrophilicity of these common metal oxides are quite different. The differences in hydrophilicity consequently lead to different adhesion of these metal oxides towards oil droplets which consists very well with irreversible membrane fouling tendency. In addition, the surface charge of the metal oxide opposite to that of emulsion can help to alleviate irreversible membrane fouling in ultrafiltration. Highly hydrophilic Fe2O3 with lowest fouling tendency could be a potential filtration-layer material for the fabrication/modification of ceramic membranes for O/W emulsion treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study clearly showing the correlations between surface properties of filtration-layer metal oxides and ceramic membrane fouling tendency by O/W emulsion.

  17. Graphene oxide/carbon nanoparticle thin film based IR detector: Surface properties and device characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Aktar Chowdhury

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the synthesis, characterization, and application of carbon nanoparticles (CNP adorned graphene oxide (GO nanocomposite materials. Here we mainly focus on an emerging topic in modern research field presenting GO-CNP nanocomposite as a infrared (IR radiation detector device. GO-CNP thin film devices were fabricated from liquid phase at ambient condition where no modifying treatments were necessary. It works with no cooling treatment and also for stationary objects. A sharp response of human body IR radiation was detected with time constants of 3 and 36 sec and radiation responsivity was 3 mAW−1. The current also rises for quite a long time before saturation. This work discusses state-of-the-art material developing technique based on near-infrared photon absorption and their use in field deployable instrument for real-world applications. GO-CNP-based thin solid composite films also offer its potentiality to be utilized as p-type absorber material in thin film solar cell, as well.

  18. Graphene oxide/carbon nanoparticle thin film based IR detector: Surface properties and device characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Farzana Aktar [Experimental Physics Division, Atomic Energy Centre, 4, Kazi Nazrul Islam Avenue, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Mohammad Abul [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Uchida, Koji; Tamura, Takahiro; Sugawa, Kosuke; Mochida, Tomoaki; Otsuki, Joe [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kanda Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Mohiuddin, Tariq [Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat (Oman); Boby, Monny Akter [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Alam, Mohammad Sahabul, E-mail: msalam@ksu.edu.sa [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering & King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-10-15

    This work deals with the synthesis, characterization, and application of carbon nanoparticles (CNP) adorned graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite materials. Here we mainly focus on an emerging topic in modern research field presenting GO-CNP nanocomposite as a infrared (IR) radiation detector device. GO-CNP thin film devices were fabricated from liquid phase at ambient condition where no modifying treatments were necessary. It works with no cooling treatment and also for stationary objects. A sharp response of human body IR radiation was detected with time constants of 3 and 36 sec and radiation responsivity was 3 mAW{sup −1}. The current also rises for quite a long time before saturation. This work discusses state-of-the-art material developing technique based on near-infrared photon absorption and their use in field deployable instrument for real-world applications. GO-CNP-based thin solid composite films also offer its potentiality to be utilized as p-type absorber material in thin film solar cell, as well.

  19. Effect of ammonium-salt solutions on the surface properties of carbon fibers in electrochemical anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Xin, E-mail: qx3023@nimte.ac.cn [National Engineering Laboratory of Carbon Fiber Preparation Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wang Xuefei; Ouyang Qin; Chen Yousi; Yan Qing [National Engineering Laboratory of Carbon Fiber Preparation Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Longitudinal grooves on the fiber surface became more well-defined and much deeper after surface treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concentration of oxygen and nitrogen on the fiber surface increased after surface treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The intensity of oxidative reaction varied with the change of ammonium-salt solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The higher the concentration of OH{sup -} ions in the electrolytes, the violent the oxidative reaction happened. - Abstract: The surfaces of polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibers were treated by an electrochemical anodic method. Three different kinds of ammonium-salt solutions namely NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}PO{sub 4} were respectively chosen as the electrolytes. The effect of these electrolytes on the surface structure was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that longitudinal grooves on the fiber surface became more well-defined and much deeper after surface treatment, and the root mean square roughness (RMS) of carbon fiber surface increased from 4.6 nm for untreated fibers to 13.5 nm for treated fibers in (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}PO{sub 4} electrolytes. The concentration of oxygen and nitrogen atomic on the fiber surface increased after surface treatment. The tensile strength of oxidized fibers had an obvious decrease, whereas the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) value of corresponding carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) increased in a large extent. The intensity of oxidative reaction varied with the change of ammonium-salt solutions and electrochemical oxidation in (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}PO{sub 4} electrolyte was of the most violence. The corresponding mechanism was also discussed and the result showed that the higher the concentration of OH{sup -} ions in the electrolytes, the violent the oxidative

  20. Effect of the chemistry and structure of the native oxide surface film on the corrosion properties of commercial AZ31 and AZ61 alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliu, Sebastian, E-mail: sfeliu@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Maffiotte, C. [CIEMAT-DT edificio 30, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Samaniego, A.; Galvan, Juan Carlos [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Barranco, Violeta [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, CSIC, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 3, Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study has been to advance in knowledge of the chemical composition, structure and thickness of the thin native oxide film formed spontaneously in contact with the laboratory atmosphere on the surface of freshly polished commercial AZ31 and AZ61 alloys with a view to furthering the understanding of protection mechanisms. For comparative purposes, and to more fully describe the behaviour of the native oxide film, the external oxide films formed as a result of the manufacturing process (as-received condition) have been characterised. The technique applied in this research to study the thin oxide films (thickness of just a few nanometres) present on the surface of the alloys has basically been XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) in combination with ion sputtering. Corrosion properties of the alloys were studied in 0.6 M NaCl by measuring charge transfer resistance values, which are deduced from EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) measurements after 1 h of exposure. Alloy AZ61 generally showed better corrosion resistance than AZ31, and the freshly polished alloys showed better corrosion resistance than the alloys in as-received condition. This is attributed to a combination of (1) higher thickness of the native oxide film on the AZ61 alloy and (2) greater uniformity of the oxide film in the polished condition. The formation of an additional oxide layer composed by a mixture of spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) and MgO seems to diminish the protective properties of the passive layer on the surface of the alloys in as-received condition.

  1. Effect of the chemistry and structure of the native oxide surface film on the corrosion properties of commercial AZ31 and AZ61 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feliu, Sebastian; Maffiotte, C.; Samaniego, A.; Galvan, Juan Carlos; Barranco, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study has been to advance in knowledge of the chemical composition, structure and thickness of the thin native oxide film formed spontaneously in contact with the laboratory atmosphere on the surface of freshly polished commercial AZ31 and AZ61 alloys with a view to furthering the understanding of protection mechanisms. For comparative purposes, and to more fully describe the behaviour of the native oxide film, the external oxide films formed as a result of the manufacturing process (as-received condition) have been characterised. The technique applied in this research to study the thin oxide films (thickness of just a few nanometres) present on the surface of the alloys has basically been XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) in combination with ion sputtering. Corrosion properties of the alloys were studied in 0.6 M NaCl by measuring charge transfer resistance values, which are deduced from EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) measurements after 1 h of exposure. Alloy AZ61 generally showed better corrosion resistance than AZ31, and the freshly polished alloys showed better corrosion resistance than the alloys in as-received condition. This is attributed to a combination of (1) higher thickness of the native oxide film on the AZ61 alloy and (2) greater uniformity of the oxide film in the polished condition. The formation of an additional oxide layer composed by a mixture of spinel (MgAl 2 O 4 ) and MgO seems to diminish the protective properties of the passive layer on the surface of the alloys in as-received condition.

  2. Diagnostic study of the roughness surface effect of zirconium on the third-order nonlinear-optical properties of thin films based on zinc oxide nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahedi, K.; Addou, M.; El Jouad, M.; Sofiani, Z.; Alaoui Lamrani, M.; El Habbani, T.; Fellahi, N.; Bayoud, S.; Dghoughi, L.; Sahraoui, B.; Essaidi, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and zirconium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Zr) thin films were deposited by reactive chemical pulverization spray pyrolysis technique on heated glass substrates at 500 deg. C using zinc and zirconium chlorides as precursors. Effects of zirconium doping agent and surface roughness on the nonlinear optical properties were investigated in detail using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and third harmonic generation (THG) technique. The best value of nonlinear optical susceptibility χ (3) was obtained from the doped films with less roughness. A strong third order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ (3) = 20.12 x 10 -12 (esu) of the studied films was found for the 3% doped sample.

  3. Properties of InGaAs/GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors modified by surface treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregušová, D., E-mail: Dagmar.Gregusova@savba.sk [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava SK-84104 (Slovakia); Gucmann, F.; Kúdela, R. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava SK-84104 (Slovakia); Mičušík, M. [Polymer Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava SK-84541 (Slovakia); Stoklas, R.; Válik, L. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava SK-84104 (Slovakia); Greguš, J. [Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina, Bratislava SK-84248 (Slovakia); Blaho, M. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava SK-84104 (Slovakia); Kordoš, P. [Institute of Electronics and Photonics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology STU, Ilkovičova 3, Bratislava SK-81219 (Slovakia)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs-based metal oxide semiconductor transistors-MOSHFET. • Thin Al-layer deposited in-situ and oxidize in air – gate insulator. • MOSHFET vs HFET transistor properties, density of traps evaluated. - Abstract: GaAs-based heterostructures exhibit excellent carrier transport properties, mainly the high carrier velocity. An AlGaAs-GaAs heterostructure field-effect transistor (HFET) with an InGaAs channel was prepared using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOVPE). An AlOx layer was formed on the AlGaAs barrier layer by the air-assisted oxidation of a thin Al layer deposited in-situ in an MOVPE reactor immediately after AlGaAs/InGaAs growth. The HFETs and MOSHFETs exhibited a very low trap state density in the order of 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1}. Capacitance measurement yielded no significant difference between the HFET and MOSHFET structures. The formation of an AlOx layer modified the surface by partially eliminating surface states that arise from Ga-and As-based native oxides. The presence of an AlOx layer reflected in a reduced gate leakage current, which was evidenced by the two-terminal transistor measurement. Presented preparation procedure and device properties show great potential of AlGaAs/InGaAs-based MOSHFETs.

  4. Effects of synthesis conditions on structure and surface properties of SmMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} mullite-type oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thampy, Sampreetha; Ibarra, Venessa; Lee, Yun-Ju [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); McCool, Geoffrey [Nanostellar Inc., 3696 Haven Avenue, Redwood City, CA 94063 (United States); Cho, Kyeongjae [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); Hsu, Julia W.P., E-mail: jwhsu@utdallas.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Investigate the effects of calcination temperature and precipitation pH on crystallinity, phase purity, particle size, surface composition, and NO adsorption capacity of SmMn{sub 2}O{sub 5}. • High calcination temperature increases mullite phase purity but decreases specific surface area (SSA). • Mullite phase purity is independent of pH while SSA monotonically increases. • SSA and surface Mn/Sm ratio determine NO uptake. - Abstract: A mixed-phase compound that contains SmMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} mullite-type oxides has been reported to display excellent catalytic activity for nitric oxide (NO) oxidation. Here we investigate the effects of calcination temperature and precipitation pH on structural, physical, chemical, and surface properties of SmMn{sub 2}O{sub 5}. As the calcination temperature increases from 750 °C to 1000 °C, mullite phase purity increases from 74% to 100%, while specific surface area (SSA) decreases from 23.6 m{sup 2}/g to 5.1 m{sup 2}/g with particle size increases correspondingly. Mullite phase purity (87%) is independent of pH between 8.5–10.4, whereas SSA monotonically increases from 12.5 m{sup 2}/g at pH 8.1 to 27.4 m{sup 2}/g at pH 13. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies reveal that the surface Mn/Sm ratio is similar to the bulk value and is unaffected by calcination temperature and pH values up to 10.4, whereas sample precipitated at pH 13 is surface-rich in Sm. NO chemisorption studies show that the SSA and surface Mn/Sm ratio determine NO uptake by SmMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} mullite oxides.

  5. Oxidation of FGD-CaSO{sub 3} and effect on soil chemical properties when applied to the soil surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liming Chen; Cliff Ramsier; Jerry Bigham; Brian Slater; David Kost; Yong Bok Lee; Warren A. Dick [Ohio State University, Wooster, OH (United States). School of Environment and Natural Resources

    2009-07-15

    Use of high-sulfur coal for power generation in the United States requires the removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) produced during burning in order to meet clean air regulations. If SO{sub 2} is removed from the flue gas using a wet scrubber without forced air oxidation, much of the S product created will be sulfite (SO{sub 3}{sup 2-}). Plants take up S in the form of sulfate (SO{sub 2}{sup 2-}). Sulfite may cause damage to plant roots, especially in acid soils. For agricultural uses, it is thought that SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products must first oxidize to SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in soils before crops are planted. However, there is little information about the oxidation of SO{sub 3}{sup 2-} in FGD product to SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} under field conditions. An FGD-CaSO{sub 3} was applied at rates of 0, 1.12, and 3.36 Mg ha{sup -1} to the surface of an agricultural soil (Wooster silt loam, Oxyaquic Fragiudalf). The SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in the surface soil (0-10 cm) was analyzed on days 3, 7, 17, 45, and 61. The distribution of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and Ca in the 0-90 cm soil layer was also determined on day 61. Results indicated that SO{sub 3}{sup 2-} in the FGD-CaSO{sub 3} rapidly oxidized to SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} on the field surface during the first week and much of the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and Ca moved downward into the 0-50 cm soil layer during the experimental period of two months. It is safe to grow plants in soil treated with FGD-CaSO{sub 3} if the application is made at least three days to several weeks before planting. 20 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Modulation of surface structure and catalytic properties of cerium oxide nanoparticles by thermal and microwave synthesis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jian [College of Pharmacy, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Zhou, Lan; Liu, Jie; Yang, Lu; Zou, Ling; Xiang, Junyu; Dong, Shiwu [School of Biomedical Engineering, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Yang, Xiaochao, E-mail: xcyang@tmmu.edu.cn [School of Biomedical Engineering, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • The CNPs synthesized by microwave irradiation have more reactive hot spots than that synthesized by convective heating. • The CNPs synthesized by microwave irradiation exhibited higher SOD activity than that synthesized by convective heating. • The CNPs synthesized by microwave irradiation heating could better protect cells from oxidative stress. - Abstract: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) have been intensively explored for biomedical applications in recent few years due to the versatile enzyme mimetic activities of the nanoparticles. However, the control of CNPs quality through the optimization of synthesis conditions remains largely unexplored as most of the previous studies only focus on utilizing the catalytic activities of the nanoparticles. In the present study, CNPs with size about 5 nm were synthesized by thermal decomposition method using traditional convective heating and recently developed microwave irradiation as heating source. The quality of CNPs synthesized by the two heating manner was evaluated. The CNPs synthesized by convective heating were slightly smaller than that synthesized by microwave irradiation heating. The cores of the CNPs synthesized by the two heating manner have similar crystal structure. While the surface subtle structures of the CNPs synthesized by two heating manner were different. The CNPs synthesized by microwave irradiation have more surface reactive hot spot than that synthesized by convective heating as the nanoparticles responded more actively to the redox environment variation. This difference resulted in the higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic activity of CNPs synthesized by microwave irradiation heating than that of the convective heating. Preliminary experiments indicated that the CNPs synthesized by microwave irradiation heating could better protect cells from oxidative stress due to the higher SOD mimetic activity of the nanoparticles.

  7. Modulation of surface structure and catalytic properties of cerium oxide nanoparticles by thermal and microwave synthesis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jian; Zhou, Lan; Liu, Jie; Yang, Lu; Zou, Ling; Xiang, Junyu; Dong, Shiwu; Yang, Xiaochao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The CNPs synthesized by microwave irradiation have more reactive hot spots than that synthesized by convective heating. • The CNPs synthesized by microwave irradiation exhibited higher SOD activity than that synthesized by convective heating. • The CNPs synthesized by microwave irradiation heating could better protect cells from oxidative stress. - Abstract: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) have been intensively explored for biomedical applications in recent few years due to the versatile enzyme mimetic activities of the nanoparticles. However, the control of CNPs quality through the optimization of synthesis conditions remains largely unexplored as most of the previous studies only focus on utilizing the catalytic activities of the nanoparticles. In the present study, CNPs with size about 5 nm were synthesized by thermal decomposition method using traditional convective heating and recently developed microwave irradiation as heating source. The quality of CNPs synthesized by the two heating manner was evaluated. The CNPs synthesized by convective heating were slightly smaller than that synthesized by microwave irradiation heating. The cores of the CNPs synthesized by the two heating manner have similar crystal structure. While the surface subtle structures of the CNPs synthesized by two heating manner were different. The CNPs synthesized by microwave irradiation have more surface reactive hot spot than that synthesized by convective heating as the nanoparticles responded more actively to the redox environment variation. This difference resulted in the higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic activity of CNPs synthesized by microwave irradiation heating than that of the convective heating. Preliminary experiments indicated that the CNPs synthesized by microwave irradiation heating could better protect cells from oxidative stress due to the higher SOD mimetic activity of the nanoparticles.

  8. Modification of polycarbonate surface in oxidizing plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovtsyn, A. A.; Smirnov, S. A.; Shikova, T. G.; Kholodkov, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    The properties of the surface of the film polycarbonate Lexan 8010 were experimentally studied after treatment in a DC discharge plasma in oxygen and air at pressures of 50-300 Pa and a discharge current of 80 mA. The contact angles of wetting and surface energies are measured. The topography of the surface was investigated by atomic force microscopy. The chemical composition of the surface was determined from the FT-IR spectroscopy data in the variant of total internal reflection, as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Treatment in the oxidizing plasma leads to a change in morphology (average roughness increases), an increase in the surface energy, and the concentration of oxygen-containing groups (hydroxyl groups, carbonyl groups in ketones or aldehydes and in oxyketones) on the surface of the polymer. Possible reasons for the difference in surface properties of polymer under the action of oxygen and air plasma on it are discussed.

  9. Properties of TiO2-based transparent conducting oxide thin films on GaN(0001) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, J.; Nakao, S.; Yamada, N.; Hitosugi, T.; Moriyama, M.; Goshonoo, K.; Hoang, N. L. H.; Hasegawa, T.

    2010-01-01

    Anatase Nb-doped TiO 2 transparent conducting oxide has been formed on GaN(0001) surfaces using a sputtering method. Amorphous films deposited at room temperature were annealed at a substrate temperature of 500 deg. C in vacuum to form single-phase anatase films. Films with a thickness of 170 nm exhibited a resistivity of 8x10 -4 Ω cm with absorptance less than 5% at a wavelength of 460 nm. Furthermore, the refractive index of the Nb-doped TiO 2 was well matched to that of GaN. These findings indicate that Nb-doped TiO 2 is a promising material for use as transparent electrodes in GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs), particularly since reflection at the electrode/GaN boundary can be suppressed, enhancing the external quantum efficiency of blue LEDs.

  10. Average nuclear surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groote, H. von.

    1979-01-01

    The definition of the nuclear surface energy is discussed for semi-infinite matter. This definition is extended also for the case that there is a neutron gas instead of vacuum on the one side of the plane surface. The calculations were performed with the Thomas-Fermi Model of Syler and Blanchard. The parameters of the interaction of this model were determined by a least squares fit to experimental masses. The quality of this fit is discussed with respect to nuclear masses and density distributions. The average surface properties were calculated for different particle asymmetry of the nucleon-matter ranging from symmetry beyond the neutron-drip line until the system no longer can maintain the surface boundary and becomes homogeneous. The results of the calculations are incorporated in the nuclear Droplet Model which then was fitted to experimental masses. (orig.)

  11. Surface chemistry and catalytic properties of VO{sub X}/Ti-MCM-41 catalysts for dibenzothiophene oxidation in a biphasic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, J. [ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional s/n, 07738 Col. Zacatenco, Mexico City (Mexico); Chen, L.F., E-mail: lchen@ipn.mx [ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional s/n, 07738 Col. Zacatenco, Mexico City (Mexico); Wang, J.A.; Manríquez, Ma.; Limas, R. [ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional s/n, 07738 Col. Zacatenco, Mexico City (Mexico); Schachat, P.; Navarrete, J. [Dirección de Investigación, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Lázaro Cárdenas 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico); Contreras, J.L. [Laboratorio de Catálisis y Polímeros, División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-A, Av. San Pablo No. 180, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Oxidative desulfurization of model diesel was tested in a biphasic system. • ODS activity was proportional to the V{sup 5+}/(V{sup 4+} + V{sup 5+}) values of the catalysts. • Lewis acidity was related to vanadium content and catalytic activity. • 99.9% DBT was oxidized using 25%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Ti-MCM-41 at 60 °C within 60 min. - Abstract: A series of vanadium oxide supported on Ti-MCM-41 catalysts was synthesized via the incipient impregnation method by varying the vanadia loading from 5 wt% to 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt%. These catalysts were characterized by a variety of advanced techniques for investigating their crystalline structure, textural properties, and surface chemistry information including surface acidity, reducibility, vanadium oxidation states, and morphological features. The catalytic activities of the catalysts were evaluated in a biphasic reaction system for oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of a model diesel containing 300 ppm of dibenzothiophene (DBT) where acetonitrile was used as extraction solvent and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidant. ODS activity was found to be proportional to the V{sup 5+}/(V{sup 4+} + V{sup 5+}) values of the catalysts, indicating that the surface vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) was the active phase. Reaction temperature would influence significantly the ODS efficiency; high temperature, i.e., 80 °C, would lead to low ODS reaction due to the partial decomposition of oxidant. All the catalysts contained both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites but the former was predominant. The catalysts with low vanadia loading (5 or 10 wt%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) had many Lewis acid sites and could strongly adsorb DBT molecule via the electron donation/acceptance action which resulted in an inhibition for the reaction of DBT with the surface peroxometallic species. The catalyst with high vanadia loading (25wt%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Ti-MCM-41) showed the highest catalytic activity and could remove 99.9% of DBT at 60 °C within 60 min.

  12. Diagnostic study of the roughness surface effect of zirconium on the third-order nonlinear-optical properties of thin films based on zinc oxide nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahedi, K., E-mail: bahedikhadija@yahoo.com [Laboratoire Optoelectronique et Physico-chimie des Materiaux Universite Ibn Tofail, Faculte des Sciences BP 133 Kenitra 14000, Maroc (Morocco); Addou, M.; El Jouad, M.; Sofiani, Z.; Alaoui Lamrani, M.; El Habbani, T.; Fellahi, N.; Bayoud, S.; Dghoughi, L. [Laboratoire Optoelectronique et Physico-chimie des Materiaux Universite Ibn Tofail, Faculte des Sciences BP 133 Kenitra 14000, Maroc (Morocco); Sahraoui, B.; Essaidi, Z. [Laboratoire POMA, UMR CNRS 6136, Universite d' Angers 2, Bd Lavoisier, 49045 France (France)

    2009-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and zirconium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Zr) thin films were deposited by reactive chemical pulverization spray pyrolysis technique on heated glass substrates at 500 deg. C using zinc and zirconium chlorides as precursors. Effects of zirconium doping agent and surface roughness on the nonlinear optical properties were investigated in detail using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and third harmonic generation (THG) technique. The best value of nonlinear optical susceptibility {chi}{sup (3)} was obtained from the doped films with less roughness. A strong third order nonlinear optical susceptibility {chi}{sup (3)} = 20.12 x 10{sup -12} (esu) of the studied films was found for the 3% doped sample.

  13. Investigation of 'surface donors' in Al2O3/AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures: Correlation of electrical, structural, and chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ťapajna, M.; Stoklas, R.; Gregušová, D.; Gucmann, F.; Hušeková, K.; Haščík, Š.; Fröhlich, K.; Tóth, L.; Pécz, B.; Brunner, F.; Kuzmík, J.

    2017-12-01

    III-N surface polarization compensating charge referred here to as 'surface donors' (SD) was analyzed in Al2O3/AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) heterojunctions using scaled oxide films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition at 600 °C. We systematically investigated impact of HCl pre-treatment prior to oxide deposition and post-deposition annealing (PDA) at 700 °C. SD density was reduced down to 1.9 × 1013 cm-2 by skipping HCl pre-treatment step as compared to 3.3 × 1013 cm-2 for structures with HCl pre-treatment followed by PDA. The nature and origin of SD was then analyzed based on the correlation between electrical, micro-structural, and chemical properties of the Al2O3/GaN interfaces with different SD density (NSD). From the comparison between distributions of interface traps of MOS heterojunction with different NSD, it is demonstrated that SD cannot be attributed to interface trapped charge. Instead, variation in the integrity of the GaOx interlayer confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is well correlated with NSD, indicating SD may be formed by border traps at the Al2O3/GaOx interface.

  14. Improvement of optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide layer of GaN-based light-emitting diode by surface plasmon in silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chu-Young; Hong, Sang-Hyun; Park, Seong-Ju

    2015-01-01

    We report on the effect of silver (Ag) nanoparticles on the optical transmittance and electrical conductivity of indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent conducting layer deposited on p-GaN layer of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The sheet resistance of ITO and the series resistance of LEDs were decreased due to the increased electrical conductivity of ITO by Ag nanoparticles, compared with those of the LEDs with a bare ITO only. The ITO transmittance was also improved by localized surface plasmon resonance between the incident light and the randomly distributed Ag nanoparticles on ITO. The optical output power of LEDs with Ag nanoparticles on ITO was increased by 16% at 20 mA of injection current. - Highlights: • We studied the effect of Ag nanoparticles deposited on ITO on the properties of LED. • The optical power of LED and transmittance of ITO were improved by Ag surface plasmon. • The electrical conductivity of ITO was increased by Ag nanoparticles

  15. In-plane conductance of thin films as a probe of surface chemical environment: Adsorbate effects on film electronic properties of indium tin oxide and gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swint, Amy Lynn

    Changes in the in-plane conductance of conductive thin films are observed as a result of chemical adsorption at the surface. Reaction of the indium tin oxide (ITO) surface with Bronsted acids (bases) leads to increases (decreases) in its in-plane conductance as measured by a four-point probe configuration. The conductance varies monotonically with pH suggesting that the degree of surface protonation or hydroxylation controls the surface charge density, which in turn affects the width of the n-type depletion layer, and ultimately the in-plane conductance. Measurements at constant pH with a series of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide species of varying cation size indicate that surface dipoles also affect ITO conductance by modulating the magnitude of the surface polarization. Modulating the double layer with varying aqueous salt solutions also affects ITO conductance, though not to the same degree as strong Bronsted acids and bases. Solvents of varying dielectric constant and proton donating ability (ethanol, dimethylformamide) decrease ITO conductance relative to H2O. In addition, changing solvent gives rise to thermally-derived conductance transients, which result from exothermic solvent mixing. The self-assembly of alkanethiols at the surface increases the conductance of ITO films, most likely through carrier population effects. In all cases examined the combined effects of surface charge, adsorbed dipole layer magnitude and carrier injection are responsible for altering the ITO conductance. Besides being directly applicable to the control of electronic properties, these results also point to the use of four-point probe resistance measurements in condensed phase sensing applications. Ultrasensitive conductance-based gas phase sensing of organothiol adsorption to gold nanowires is accomplished with a limit of detection in the 105 molecule range. Further refinement of the inherently low noise resistance measurement may lead to observation of single adsorption events at

  16. Surface oxide formation during corona discharge treatment of AA 1050 aluminium surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Møller, Per; Kingshott, Peter

    2008-01-01

    process modifies aluminium AA 1050 surface, the oxide growth and resulting corrosion properties. The corona treatment is carried out in atmospheric air. Treated surfaces are characterized using XPS, SEM/EDS, and FIB-FESEM and results suggest that an oxide layer is grown, consisting of mixture of oxide...

  17. In vitro assessment of photocatalytic titanium oxide surface modified stainless steel orthodontic brackets for antiadherent and antibacterial properties against Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Alok Girish; Shetty, Pradeep Chandra; Ramachandra, C S; Bhat, N Sham; Laxmikanth, S M

    2011-11-01

    To assess the antiadherent and antibacterial properties of surface modified stainless steel orthodontic brackets with photocatalytic titanium oxide (TiO(2)) against Lactobacillus acidophilus. This study was done on 120 specimens of stainless steel preadjusted edgewise appliance (PEA) orthodontic brackets. The specimens were divided into four test groups. Each group consisted of 30 specimens. Groups containing uncoated brackets acted as a control group for their respective experimental group containing coated brackets. Surface modification of brackets was carried out by the radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method with photocatalytic TiO(2). Brackets then were subjected to microbiological tests for assessment of the antiadherent and antibacterial properties of photocatalytic TiO(2) coating against L acidophilus. Orthodontic brackets coated with photocatalytic TiO(2) showed an antiadherent effect against L acidophilus compared with uncoated brackets. The bacterial mass that was bound to the TiO(2)-coated brackets was less when compared with the uncoated brackets. Furthermore, TiO(2)-coated brackets had a bactericidal effect on L acidophilus, which causes dental caries. Surface modification of orthodontic brackets with photocatalytic TiO(2) can be used to prevent the accumulation of dental plaque and the development of dental caries during orthodontic treatment.

  18. Effects of charge and surface ligand properties of nanoparticles on oxidative stress and gene expression within the gut of Daphnia magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, Gustavo A.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Torelli, Marco; Murphy, Catherine; Hamers, Robert J.; Orr, Galya; Klaper, Rebecca D.

    2015-05-01

    Concern has been raised regarding the current and future release of engineered nanomaterials into aquatic environments from industry and other sources. However, not all nanomaterials may cause an environ-mental impact and identifying which nanomaterials may be of greatest concern has been difficult. It is thought that the surface groups of a functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) may play a significant role in determining their interactions with aquatic organisms, but the way in which surface properties of NPs impact their toxicity in whole organisms has been minimally explored. A major point of interaction of NPs with aquatic organisms is in the gastrointestinal tract as they ingest particulates from the water column or from the sediment. The main goal of this study was to use model gold NP (AuNPs) to evaluate the potential effects of the different surfaces groups on NPs on the gut of an aquatic model organism, Daphnia magna. In this study, we exposed daphnids to a range of AuNPs concentrations and assessed the impact of AuNP exposure in the daphnid gut by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and expression of genes associated with oxidative stress and general cellular stress: glutathione S-transferase(gst), catalase (cat), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and metallothionein1 (mt1). We found ROS formation and gene expression were impacted by both charge and the specific surface ligand used. We detected some degree of ROS production in all NP exposures, but positively charged AuNPs induced a greater ROS response. Similarly, we observed that, compared to controls, both positively charged AuNPs and only one negatively AuNP impacted expression of genes associated with cellular stress. Finally, ligand-AuNP exposures showed a different toxicity and gene expression profile than the ligand alone, indicating a NP specific effect.

  19. Influence of texture coefficient on surface morphology and sensing properties of W-doped nanocrystalline tin oxide thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manjeet; Kumar, Akshay; Abhyankar, A C

    2015-02-18

    For the first time, a new facile approach based on simple and inexpensive chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) technique is used to deposit Tungsten (W) doped nanocrystalline SnO2 thin films. The textural, optical, structural and sensing properties are investigated by GAXRD, UV spectroscopy, FESEM, AFM, and home-built sensing setup. The gas sensing results indicate that, as compared to pure SnO2, 1 wt % W-doping improves sensitivity along with better response (roughness values of 3.82 eV and 3.01 nm, respectively. Reduction in texture coefficient along highly dense (110) planes with concomitant increase along loosely packed (200) planes is found to have prominent effect on gas sensing properties of W-doped films.

  20. Study on the acid-base surface property of the magnetite graphene oxide and its usage for the removal of radiostrontium from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Li, J.X.; Zhang, S.W.; Ren, X.M.; Sun, Y.B.; Wen, T.; Wang, X.K. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China). Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells

    2013-07-01

    Acid-base titrations of magnetite/graphene oxide (M/GO) and Sr(II) adsorption onto M/GO were operated to investigate surface properties of M/GO and surface complexation bonding interactions between Sr(II) and M/GO. Experimental results showed that Sr(II) adsorption onto M/GO was facilitated by a high pH value and a low ionic strength. Modeling results exhaustively explained the changes of adsorption morphological at different pH and ionic strengths. Thermodynamic parameters ({Delta}H , {Delta}S , and {Delta}G ) calculated from the adsorption isotherms showed the adsorption of Sr(II) onto M/GO composite was an endothermic and spontaneous process. M/GO could be separated by magnetic separation from aqueous solution in large scale. The adsorption performance suggests M/GO could be a promising adsorbent material for the preconcentration and separation of radiostrontium from aqueous solution in radionuclide pollution cleanup. (orig.)

  1. Surface properties of beached plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi N; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K

    2015-07-01

    Studying plastic characteristics in the marine environment is important to better understand interaction between plastics and the environment. In the present study, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyethylene terephalate (PET), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) samples were collected from the coastal environment in order to study their surface properties. Surface properties such as surface functional groups, surface topography, point of zero charge, and color change are important factors that change during degradation. Eroded HDPE demonstrated an altered surface topography and color and new functional groups. Eroded PET surface was uneven, yellow, and occasionally, colonized by microbes. A decrease in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) peaks was observed for eroded PET suggesting that degradation had occurred. For eroded PVC, its surface became more lamellar and a new FTIR peak was observed. These surface properties were obtained due to degradation and could be used to explain the interaction between plastics, microbes, and pollutants.

  2. Synthesis of silver/silver chloride/graphene oxide composite and its surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity and self-cleaning property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Fei, Xiao; Cheng, Xiaonong; Yang, Juan

    2017-09-01

    Recently, silver nanoparticles decorated with graphene and graphene oxide (GO) sheets can be employed as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. However, their SERS activity on macromolecular compound detection is all one-time process. In order to solve this issue and decrease the cost of routine SERS detection, silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) with photocatalytic activity under visible light was introduced. In this study, a novel, simple and clean approach is carried out for synthesis of the Ag/AgCl/GO composite. The Ag/AgCl colloidal solution is obtained by hydrothermal method and then mixed with GO solution to obtain the Ag/AgCl/GO composite using a facile electrostatic self-assembly method. Results showed that the Ag/AgCl/GO composite has the optimized SERS activity to Rhodamine 6G molecules with the maximum enhancement factor value of 3.8×107. Furthermore, the Ag/AgCl particles with high efficient and stable photocatalytic activity under visible light lead to an outstanding self-cleaning property of the Ag/AgCl/GO composite.

  3. Oxidation of Ethylene Carbonate on Li Metal Oxide Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Thomas M.; Giordano, Livia; Castelli, Ivano Eligio

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the reactivity of the cathode surface is of key importance to the development of batteries. Here, density functional theory is applied to investigate the oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte component, ethylene carbonate (EC), on layered LixMO(2) oxide surfaces. We compare...

  4. Surface and Core Electronic Structure of Oxidized Silicon Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor A. Nama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ab initio restricted Hartree-Fock method within the framework of large unit cell formalism is used to simulate silicon nanocrystals between 216 and 1000 atoms (1.6–2.65 nm in diameter that include Bravais and primitive cell multiples. The investigated properties include core and oxidized surface properties. Results revealed that electronic properties converge to some limit as the size of the nanocrystal increases. Increasing the size of the core of a nanocrystal resulted in an increase of the energy gap, valence band width, and cohesive energy. The lattice constant of the core and oxidized surface parts shows a decreasing trend as the nanocrystal increases in a size that converges to 5.28 Ǻ in a good agreement with the experiment. Surface and core convergence to the same lattice constant reflects good adherence of oxide layer at the surface. The core density of states shows highly degenerate states that split at the oxygenated (001-(1×1 surface due to symmetry breaking. The nanocrystal surface shows smaller gap and higher valence and conduction bands when compared to the core part, due to oxygen surface atoms and reduced structural symmetry. The smaller surface energy gap shows that energy gap of the nanocrystal is controlled by the surface part. Unlike the core part, the surface part shows a descending energy gap that proves its obedience to quantum confinement effects. Nanocrystal geometry proved to have some influence on all electronic properties including the energy gap.

  5. Electron donating and acid-base properties of cerium oxide and its mixed oxides with alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugunan, S.; Jalaja, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The electron donating properties of cerium oxide activated at 300, 500 and 800 degC and of its mixed oxides with alumina were examined based on the adsorption of electron acceptors exhibiting different electron affinities. The surface acidity/basicity of the oxides was determined by titrimetry; the H 0,max values are given. The limit of electron transfer from the oxide surface lies within the region of 1.77 and 2.40 eV in terms of the electron affinity of the electron acceptor. Cerium oxide promotes the electron donor nature of alumina while leaving the limit of electron transfer unchanged. 2 tabs., 4 figs., 13 refs

  6. Spectroscopic investigation of oxidized solder surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jenn-Ming; Chang-Chien, Yu-Chien; Huang, Bo-Chang; Chen, Wei-Ting; Shie, Chi-Rung; Hsu, Chuang-Yao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → UV-visible spectroscopy is successfully used to evaluate the degree of discoloring of solders. → The surface oxides of solders can also be identified by UV-visible absorption spectra. → The discoloration of solder surface can be correlated with optical characterization of oxides. → A strategy against discoloring by alloying was also suggested. - Abstract: For further understanding of the discoloration of solder surfaces due to oxidation during the assembly and operation of electronic devices, UV-vis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses were applied to evaluate the degree of discoloring and identify the surface oxides. The decrease in reflectance of the oxidized solder surface is related to SnO whose absorption band is located within the visible region. A trace of P can effectively depress the discoloration of solders under both solid and semi-solid states through the suppression of SnO.

  7. Oxide surfaces and metal/oxide interfaces studied by grazing incidence X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Gilles

    Experimental determinations of the atomic structure of insulating oxide surfaces and metal/oxide interfaces are scarce, because surface science techniques are often limited by the insulating character of the substrate. Grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS), which is not subject to charge effects, can provide very precise information on the atomic structure of oxide surfaces: roughness, relaxation and reconstruction. It is also well adapted to analyze the atomic structure, the registry, the misfit relaxation, elastic or plastic, the growth mode and the morphology of metal/oxide interfaces during their growth, performed in situ. GIXS also allows the analysis of thin films and buried interfaces, in a non-destructive way, yielding the epitaxial relationships, and, by variation of the grazing incidence angle, the lattice parameter relaxation along the growth direction. On semi-coherent interfaces, the existence of an ordered network of interfacial misfit dislocations can be demonstrated, its Burger's vector determined, its ordering during in situ annealing cycles followed, and sometimes even its atomic structure can be addressed. Careful analysis during growth allows the modeling of the dislocation nucleation process. This review emphasizes the new information that GIXS can bring to oxide surfaces and metal/oxide interfaces by comparison with other surface science techniques. The principles of X-ray diffraction by surfaces and interfaces are recalled, together with the advantages and properties of grazing angles. The specific experimental requirements are discussed. Recent results are presented on the determination of the atomic structure of relaxed or reconstructed oxide surfaces. A description of results obtained during the in situ growth of metal on oxide surfaces is also given, as well as investigations of thick metal films on oxide surfaces, with lattice parameter misfit relaxed by an array of dislocations. Recent work performed on oxide thin films having

  8. Atomic profile imaging of ceramic oxide surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.; Peng JuLin; Sellar, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Atomic surface profile imaging is an electron optical technique capable of revealing directly the surface crystallography of ceramic oxides. Use of an image-intensifier with a TV camera allows fluctuations in surface morphology and surface reactivity to be recorded and analyzed using digitized image data. This paper reviews aspects of the electron optical techniques, including interpretations based upon computer-simulation image-matching techniques. An extensive range of applications is then presented for ceramic oxides of commercial interest for advanced materials applications: including uranium oxide (UO 2 ); magnesium and nickel oxide (MgO,NiO); ceramic superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6.7 ); barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ); sapphire (α-A1 2 O 3 ); haematite (α-Fe-2O 3 ); monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic monocrystalline forms of zirconia (ZrO 2 ), lead zirconium titanate (PZT + 6 mol.% NiNbO 3 ) and ZBLAN fluoride glass. Atomic scale detail has been obtained of local structures such as steps associated with vicinal surfaces, facetting parallel to stable low energy crystallographic planes, monolayer formation on certain facets, relaxation and reconstructions, oriented overgrowth of lower oxides, chemical decomposition of complex oxides into component oxides, as well as amorphous coatings. This remarkable variety of observed surface stabilization mechanisms is discussed in terms of novel double-layer electrostatic depolarization mechanisms, as well as classical concepts of the physics and chemistry of surfaces (ionization and affinity energies and work function). 46 refs., 16 figs

  9. Effect of surfactant for magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haracz, S. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89B, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Hilgendorff, M. [Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Physik, Arnimalle 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Rybka, J.D. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89B, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Giersig, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89B, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Physik, Arnimalle 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic behavior of magnetic nanoparticles. • Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles. • Effect of surfactant for magnetic properties. - Abstract: For different medical applications nanoparticles (NPs) with well-defined magnetic properties have to be used. Coating ligand can change the magnetic moment on the surface of nanostructures and therefore the magnetic behavior of the system. Here we investigated magnetic NPs in a size of 13 nm conjugated with four different kinds of surfactants. The surface anisotropy and the magnetic moment of the system were changed due to the presence of the surfactant on the surface of iron oxide NPs.

  10. Physical properties of beryllium oxide - Irradiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elston, J.; Caillat, R.

    1958-01-01

    This work has been carried out in view of determining several physical properties of hot-pressed beryllium oxide under various conditions and the change of these properties after irradiation. Special attention has been paid on to the measurement of the thermal conductivity coefficient and thermal diffusivity coefficient. Several designs for the measurement of the thermal conductivity coefficient have been achieved. They permit its determination between 50 and 300 deg. C, between 400 and 800 deg. C. Some measurements have been made above 1000 deg. C. In order to measure the thermal diffusivity coefficient, we heat a perfectly flat surface of a sample in such a way that the heat flux is modulated (amplitude and frequency being adjustable). The thermal diffusivity coefficient is deduced from the variations of temperature observed on several spots. Tensile strength; compressive strength; expansion coefficient; sound velocity and crystal parameters have been also measured. Some of the measurements have been carried out after neutron irradiation. Some data have been obtained on the change of the properties of beryllium oxide depending on the integrated neutron flux. (author) [fr

  11. CO oxidation on PdO surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirvi, Janne T.; Kinnunen, Toni-Jani J.; Suvanto, Mika

    2010-01-01

    Density functional calculations were performed in order to investigate CO oxidation on two of the most stable bulk PdO surfaces. The most stable PdO(100) surface, with oxygen excess, is inert against CO adsorption, whereas strong adsorption on the stoichiometric PdO(101) surface leads to favorable...... oxidation via the Langmuir–Hinshelwood mechanism. The reaction with a surface oxygen atom has an activation energy of 0.66 eV, which is comparable to the lowest activation energies observed on metallic surfaces. However, the reaction rate may be limited by the coverage of molecular oxygen. Actually...... adsorption, following the Eley–Rideal mechanism and taking advantage of the reaction tunnel provided by the adjacent palladium atom, has an activation energy of only 0.24 eV. The reaction mechanism and activation energy for the palladium activated CO oxidation on the most stable PdO(100)–O surface...

  12. Evidence concerning oxidation as a surface reaction in Baltic amber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    , obtained from pressed amber powder, were subjected to accelerated thermal ageing. Cross-sections of the pellets were analyzed by infrared micro-spectroscopy, in order to identify and quantify changes in chemical properties. The experimental results showed strong oxidation exclusively at the exterior part...... of cross-sections from samples subjected to long-term thermal ageing, confirming that oxidation of Baltic amber starts from the surface....

  13. Quasiparticle Interference on Cubic Perovskite Oxide Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshinori; Shiau, Shiue-Yuan; Chang, Tay-Rong; Chang, Guoqing; Kobayashi, Masaki; Shimizu, Ryota; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Shiraki, Susumu; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Bansil, Arun; Lin, Hsin; Hitosugi, Taro

    2017-08-25

    We report the observation of coherent surface states on cubic perovskite oxide SrVO_{3}(001) thin films through spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy. A direct link between the observed quasiparticle interference patterns and the formation of a d_{xy}-derived surface state is supported by first-principles calculations. We show that the apical oxygens on the topmost VO_{2} plane play a critical role in controlling the coherent surface state via modulating orbital state.

  14. The Impact of Iron Adsorption on the Electronic and Photocatalytic Properties of the Zinc Oxide (0001 Surface: A First-Principles Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingsi Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The structural stability, electronic structure, and optical properties of an iron-adsorbed ZnO (0001 surface with three high-symmetry adsorption sites are investigated with first-principle calculations on the basis of density functional theory and the Hubbard-U method. It is found that the iron adatom in the H3 adsorption site of ZnO (0001 surface has the lowest adsorption energy of −5.665 eV compared with T4 and Top sites. For the Top site, compared with the pristine ZnO (0001 surface, the absorption peak located at 1.17 eV has a red shift, and the elevation of the absorption coefficient is more pronounced in the visible-light region, because the Fe-related levels are introduced in the forbidden band and near the Fermi level. The electrostatic potential computation reveals that the work function of the ZnO (0001 surface is significantly decreased from 2.340 to 1.768 eV when iron is adsorbed on the Top site. Furthermore, the degradation mechanism based on the band structure is analyzed. It can be concluded that the adsorption of iron will promote the separation of photoinduced carriers, thus improving the photocatalytic activity of ZnO (0001 surface. Our study benefits research on the photocatalytic activity of ZnO and the utilization rate of solar energy.

  15. The Impact of Iron Adsorption on the Electronic and Photocatalytic Properties of the Zinc Oxide (0001) Surface: A First-Principles Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jingsi; Wang, Ping; Hua, Chao; Yang, Yintang; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2018-03-12

    The structural stability, electronic structure, and optical properties of an iron-adsorbed ZnO (0001) surface with three high-symmetry adsorption sites are investigated with first-principle calculations on the basis of density functional theory and the Hubbard-U method. It is found that the iron adatom in the H₃ adsorption site of ZnO (0001) surface has the lowest adsorption energy of -5.665 eV compared with T₄ and Top sites. For the Top site, compared with the pristine ZnO (0001) surface, the absorption peak located at 1.17 eV has a red shift, and the elevation of the absorption coefficient is more pronounced in the visible-light region, because the Fe-related levels are introduced in the forbidden band and near the Fermi level. The electrostatic potential computation reveals that the work function of the ZnO (0001) surface is significantly decreased from 2.340 to 1.768 eV when iron is adsorbed on the Top site. Furthermore, the degradation mechanism based on the band structure is analyzed. It can be concluded that the adsorption of iron will promote the separation of photoinduced carriers, thus improving the photocatalytic activity of ZnO (0001) surface. Our study benefits research on the photocatalytic activity of ZnO and the utilization rate of solar energy.

  16. Structural and electronic properties of hydrosilylated silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumer, A.

    2005-11-15

    The structural and electronic properties of alkyl-terminated Si surfaces prepared by thermallyinduced hydrosilylation have been studied in detail in the preceding chapters. Various surfaces have been used for the functionalization ranging from crystalline Si over amorphous hydrogenated Si to nanoscaled materials such as Si nanowires and nanoparticles. In each case, the alkyl-terminated surfaces have been compared to the native oxidized and H-terminated surfaces. (orig.)

  17. Electrochemical properties of the hexacyanoferrate(II)–ruthenium(III) complex immobilized on silica gel surface chemically modified with zirconium(IV) oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panice, Lucimara B.; Oliveira, Elisangela A. de; Filho, Ricardo A.D. Molin; Oliveira, Daniela P. de; Lazarin, Angélica M.; Andreotti, Elza I.S.; Sernaglia, Rosana L.; Gushikem, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The cyano-bridged mixed valence ruthenium composite material was synthesized. • This newly synthesized compound was incorporated into a carbon paste electrode. • The electrode did not show significant changes in response after six months of use. • The modified electrode is very stable and reproducible. • The electrode sensor was successfully applied for ascorbic acid determination. - Abstract: The chemically modified silica gel with zirconium(IV) oxide was used to immobilize the [Fe(CN) 6 ] 4− complex ion initially. The reaction of this material with [Ru(edta)H 2 O] − complex ion formed the immobilized cyano-bridged mixed valence ruthenium complex, (≡Zr) 5 [(edta)RuNCFe(CN) 5 ]. This material was incorporated into a carbon paste electrode and, its electrochemical properties were investigated. However, for an ascorbic acid solution, an enhancement of the anodic peak current was detected due to electrocatalytic oxidation. The electrode presented the same response for at least 150 successive measurements, with a good repeatability. The modified electrode is very stable and reproducible. The sensor was applied for ascorbic acid determination in pharmaceutical preparation with success

  18. Enhanced Microwave Absorption and Surface Wave Attenuation Properties of Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 Fibers/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinrui Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 fibers with a diameter of about 270 nm and a length of about 10 μm were synthesized by a microemulsion-mediated solvothermal method with subsequent heat treatment. The Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 fibers/reduced graphene oxide (RGO composite was prepared by a facile in-situ chemical reduction method. The crystalline structures and morphologies were investigated based on X-ray diffraction patterns and scanning electron microscopy. Magnetization measurements were carried out using a vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature. Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 fibers/RGO composites achieve both a wider and stronger absorption and an adjustable surface wave attenuation compared with Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 fibers, indicating the potential for application as advanced microwave absorbers.

  19. A new approach for enhancement of the corrosion protection properties and interfacial adhesion bonds between the epoxy coating and steel substrate through surface treatment by covalently modified amino functionalized graphene oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parhizkar, N.; Shahrabi, T.; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The steel substrate was treated by a covalently modified amino functionalized graphene oxide (fGO) film. •Deposition of fGO film at the interface of steel and epoxy could effectively improve the adhesion strength and corrosion protection properties. •More stable and stronger interfacial bonds was obtained when treating the interface by fGO film. -- Abstract: This study introduces a novel surface treatment approach of steel substrate by covalent modification of graphene oxide (fGO) nanosheets with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to improve the adhesion and corrosion protection properties of an epoxy coating. The effect of fGO film on the epoxy coating performance was studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Pull-off adhesion, salt spray and cathodic delamination tests. Results revealed that deposition of fGO film on steel surface can effectively improve the adhesion strength and corrosion protection properties and reduce the cathodic delamination rate of the epoxy coating.

  20. Surface chemistry on interstellar oxide grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denison, P.; Williams, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Detailed calculations are made to test the predictions of Duley, Millar and Williams (1978) concerning the chemical reactivity of interstellar oxide grains. A method is established for calculating interaction energies between atoms and the perfect crystal with or without surface vacancy sites. The possibility of reactions between incident atoms and absorbed atoms is investigated. It is concluded that H 2 formation can occur on the perfect crystal surfaces, and that for other diatomic molecules the important formation sites are the Fsub(s)- and V 2- sub(s)-centres. The outline by Duley, Millar and Williams (1979) of interstellar oxide grain growth and destruction is justified by these calculations. (author)

  1. Effect of tungsten doping on catalytic properties of niobium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Franciane P.; Nogueira, Andre E. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Patricio, Patricia S.O., E-mail: patriciapatricio@cefetmg.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica, CEFET, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Luiz C.A. [Departamento de Quimica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    A novel material based on niobia (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) was synthesized to oxidize an organic compound in aqueous medium in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} after chemical modifications. Niobia was modified by doping with tungsten and also treating with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in order to maximize the oxidative properties of this oxide. The analysis of the products from methylene blue dye oxidation with electro spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) showed that the dye was successively oxidized to different intermediate compounds. The successive hydroxylation during this oxidation strongly suggests that highly reactive hydroxyl radicals are generated involving H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on the W-doped niobia grain surface. These results strongly suggest that the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} can regenerate in situ the peroxo group remaining active the system. (author)

  2. Mechanical properties of phosphorene nanoribbons and oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Feng; Chen, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical properties of phosphorene nanoribbons and oxides are investigated by using density functional theory. It is found that the ideal strength of nanoribbon decreases in comparison with that of 2D phosphorene. The Young's modulus of armchair nanoribbon has a remarkable size effect because of the edge relaxations. The analysis of the stress-strain relation indicates that, owing to chemisorbed oxygen atoms, the ideal strength and Young's modulus of 2D phosphorene oxide are greatly reduced along the zigzag direction, especially upon high oxidation ratios. In addition, strain and oxidation have significant impacts on phonon dispersion

  3. Mechanical properties of phosphorene nanoribbons and oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Feng [Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Chen, Xi, E-mail: xichen@columbia.edu [International Center for Applied Mechanics, SV Laboratory, School of Aerospace, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2015-12-21

    Mechanical properties of phosphorene nanoribbons and oxides are investigated by using density functional theory. It is found that the ideal strength of nanoribbon decreases in comparison with that of 2D phosphorene. The Young's modulus of armchair nanoribbon has a remarkable size effect because of the edge relaxations. The analysis of the stress-strain relation indicates that, owing to chemisorbed oxygen atoms, the ideal strength and Young's modulus of 2D phosphorene oxide are greatly reduced along the zigzag direction, especially upon high oxidation ratios. In addition, strain and oxidation have significant impacts on phonon dispersion.

  4. Laser modification of macroscopic properties of metal surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrubiec, Franciszek

    1995-03-01

    Surface laser treatment of metals comprises a number of diversified technological operations out of which the following can be considered the most common: oxidation and rendering surfaces amorphous, surface hardening of steel, modification of selected physical properties of metal surface layers. In the paper basic results of laser treatment of a group of metals used as base materials for electric contacts have been presented. The aim of the study was to test the usability of laser treatment from the viewpoint of requirements imposed on materials for electric contacts. The results presented in the paper refer to two different surface treatment technologies: (1) modification of infusible metal surface layer: tungsten and molybdenum through laser fusing of their surface layer and its crystallization, and (2) modification of surface layer properties of other metals through laser doping of their surface layer with foreign elements. In the paper a number of results of experimental investigations obtained by the team under the author's supervision are presented.

  5. Electron transport properties of indium oxide - indium nitride metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.Y.; Hauguth, S.; Polyakov, V.; Schwierz, F.; Cimalla, V.; Kups, T.; Himmerlich, M.; Schaefer, J.A.; Krischok, S.; Ambacher, O.; Morales, F.M.; Lozano, J.G.; Gonzalez, D.; Lebedev, V.

    2008-01-01

    The structural, chemical and electron transport properties of In 2 O 3 /InN heterostructures and oxidized InN epilayers are reported. It is shown that the accumulation of electrons at the InN surface can be manipulated by the formation of a thin surface oxide layer. The epitaxial In 2 O 3 /InN heterojunctions show an increase in the electron concentration due to the increasing band banding at the heterointerface. The oxidation of InN results in improved transport properties and in a reduction of the sheet carrier concentration of the InN epilayer very likely caused by a passivation of surface donors. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Photoinduced hydrophobic surface of graphene oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoyan; Song Peng; Cui Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) thin films were deposited on transparent conducting oxide substrates and glass slides by spin coating method at room temperature. The wettability of GO thin films before and after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was characterized with water contact angles, which increased from 27.3° to 57.6° after 3 h of irradiation, indicating a photo-induced hydrophobic surface. The UV–vis absorption spectra, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and conductivity measurements of GO films before and after UV irradiation were taken to study the mechanism of photoinduced hydrophobic surface of GO thin films. It is demonstrated that the photoinduced hydrophobic surface is ascribed to the elimination of oxygen-containing functional groups on GO molecules. This work provides a simple strategy to control the wettability properties of GO thin films by UV irradiation. - Highlights: ► Photoinduced hydrophobic surface of graphene oxide thin films has been demonstrated. ► Elimination of oxygen-containing functional groups in graphene oxide achieved by UV irradiation. ► We provide novel strategy to control surface wettability of GO thin films by UV irradiation.

  7. Surface Self-Assembly and Properties of Monolayers Formed by Reverse Poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) Triblock Copolymers with Lengthy Hydrophilic Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villar-Alvarez, Eva; Freire, Adriana Cambón; Blanco, Mateo

    2017-01-01

    for the former at low surface transfer pressures, evolving to continent-like structures first and then dewetted structures as the transfer pressure increases. Conversely, for BO20EO411BO20 and BO21EO385BO21 copolymers micelle formation is noted at lower transfer pressures than the shortest counterparts......, and the formed micelles appear to be elongated, interconnected and with larger thickness. As the transfer pressure increases, attractive micellar interactions are enhanced and then-lead to formation of a dense network of interconnected micelles, first followed by an evolvement to continent-like and dewetted...

  8. Patterning pentacene surfaces by local oxidation nanolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losilla, N.S.; Martinez, J.; Bystrenova, E.; Greco, P.; Biscarini, F.; Garcia, R.

    2010-01-01

    Sequential and parallel local oxidation nanolithographies have been applied to pattern pentacene samples by creating a variety of nanostructures. The sequential local oxidation process is performed with an atomic force microscope and requires the application of a sequence of voltage pulses of 36 V for 1 ms. The parallel local oxidation process is performed by using a conductive and patterned stamp. Then, a voltage pulse is applied between the stamp and the pentacene surface. Patterns formed by arrays of parallel lines covering 1 mm 2 regions and with a periodicity of less than 1 μm have been generated in a few seconds. We also show that the patterns can be used as templates for the deposition of antibodies.

  9. Temperature effect on surface oxidation of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaquilla, I.; Barco, J.L. del; Ferron, J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the first stages of the superficial oxidation of polycrystalline titanium was studied using both Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and emission shreshold (AEAPS). The number of compounds present on the surface was determined by application of the factor analysis technique. Reaction evolution was followed through the relative variation of Auger LMM and LMV transitions which are characteristic of titanium. Also the evolution of the chemical shift was determined by AEAPS. The amount of oxygen on the surface was quantified using transition KLL of oxygen. It was found that superficial oxidation depends on temperature. As much as three different compounds were determined according to substrate temperature and our exposure ranges. (Author). 7 refs., 5 figs

  10. Negative secondary ion emission from oxidized surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnaser, H.; Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H.

    1984-01-01

    The emission of negative secondary ions from 23 elements was studied for 10 keV O 2 + and 10 keV In + impact at an angle of incidence of 45 0 . Partial oxidation of the sample surfaces was achieved by oxygen bombardment and/or by working at a high oxygen partial pressure. It was found that the emission of oxide ions shows an element-characteristic pattern. For the majority of the elements investigated these features are largely invariant against changes of the surface concentration of oxygen. For the others admission of oxygen strongly changes the relative intensities of oxide ions: a strong increase of MO 3 - signals (M stands for the respective element) is accompanied by a decrease of MO - and M - intensities. Different primary species frequently induce changes of both the relative and the absolute negative ion intensities. Carbon - in contrast to all other elements - does not show any detectable oxide ion emission but rather intense cluster ions Csub(n) - (detected up to n=12) whose intensities oscillate in dependence on n. (orig./RK)

  11. Characterization and bulk properties of oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonder, E.; Connolly, T.F.

    1979-06-01

    The bulk properties of oxides are divided into two classes, intrinsic properties which depend solely on the identity of the material, and extrinsic ones, which differ for different samples of the same compound. Sources of tabulated numerical values of intrinsic properties are given and modern developments in information storage and retrieval are discussed. Extrinsic properties are shown to depend on defects and trace impurities in the samples. Techniques of trace impurity analysis are discussed and realistic limits of detection and accuracies are given for routine analyses

  12. SURFACE PROPERTIES AND CATALYTIC PERFORMANCE OF Pt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    various temperatures of precipitates obtained from aqueous solutions in the ... The oxidation reactivity of VOCs is in the following order: alcohols > aldheydes > aromatics ... Specific surface areas (SSA) were calculated by the BET method from ...

  13. Surface Chemistry and Spectroscopy of Chromium in Inorganic Oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Wachs, I.E.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on the surface chemistry and spectroscopy of chromium in inorganic oxides. Characterization of the molecular structures of chromium; Mechanics of hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reactions; Mobility and reactivity on oxidic surfaces.

  14. Reversible Compositional Control of Oxide Surfaces by Electrochemical Potentials

    KAUST Repository

    Mutoro, Eva

    2012-01-05

    Perovskite oxides can exhibit a wide range of interesting characteristics such as being catalytically active and electronically/ionically conducting, and thus, they have been used in a number of solid-state devices such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and sensors. As the surface compositions of perovskites can greatly influence the catalytic properties, knowing and controlling their surface compositions is crucial to enhance device performance. In this study, we demonstrate that the surface strontium (Sr) and cobalt (Co) concentrations of perovskite-based thin films can be controlled reversibly at elevated temperatures by applying small electrical potential biases. The surface compositional changes of La 0.8Sr 0.2CoO 3-δ (LSC 113), (La 0.5Sr 0.5) 2CoO 4±δ (LSC 214), and LSC 214-decorated LSC 113 films (LSC 113/214) were investigated in situ by utilizing synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), where the largest changes of surface Sr were found for the LSC 113/214 surface. These findings offer the potential of reversibly controlling the surface functionality of perovskites. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Surface oxidation phenomena of boride coatings grown on iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbucicchio, M.; Palombarini, G.; Sambogna, G.

    1992-01-01

    Very hard boride coatings are grown on various metals using thermochemical as well as chemical vapour deposition techniques. In this way many surface properties, and in particular the wear resistance, can be considerably improved. Usually, also the corrosion behaviour of the treated components is important. In particular, oxidizing atmospheres are involved in many applications where, therefore, coating-environment interactions can play a relevant role. In a previous work, the early stages of the oxidation of iron borides were studied by treating single phase compacted powders in flowing oxygen at low temperatures (300-450deg C). In the present paper, the attention is addressed to the oxidation of both single phase and polyphase boride coatings thermochemically grown on iron. The single phase boride coatings were constituted by Fe 2 B, while the polyphase coatings were constituted by an inner Fe 2 B layer and an outer FeB-base layer. All the boride layers displayed strong (002) preferred crystallographic orientations. (orig.)

  16. Metal oxide nanostructures and their gas sensing properties: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bo; Meng, Fan-Li; Liu, Jin-Yun; Jin, Zhen; Kong, Ling-Tao; Liu, Jin-Huai

    2012-01-01

    Metal oxide gas sensors are predominant solid-state gas detecting devices for domestic, commercial and industrial applications, which have many advantages such as low cost, easy production, and compact size. However, the performance of such sensors is significantly influenced by the morphology and structure of sensing materials, resulting in a great obstacle for gas sensors based on bulk materials or dense films to achieve highly-sensitive properties. Lots of metal oxide nanostructures have been developed to improve the gas sensing properties such as sensitivity, selectivity, response speed, and so on. Here, we provide a brief overview of metal oxide nanostructures and their gas sensing properties from the aspects of particle size, morphology and doping. When the particle size of metal oxide is close to or less than double thickness of the space-charge layer, the sensitivity of the sensor will increase remarkably, which would be called "small size effect", yet small size of metal oxide nanoparticles will be compactly sintered together during the film coating process which is disadvantage for gas diffusion in them. In view of those reasons, nanostructures with many kinds of shapes such as porous nanotubes, porous nanospheres and so on have been investigated, that not only possessed large surface area and relatively mass reactive sites, but also formed relatively loose film structures which is an advantage for gas diffusion. Besides, doping is also an effective method to decrease particle size and improve gas sensing properties. Therefore, the gas sensing properties of metal oxide nanostructures assembled by nanoparticles are reviewed in this article. The effect of doping is also summarized and finally the perspectives of metal oxide gas sensor are given.

  17. [Corrosion resistant properties of different anodized microtopographies on titanium surfaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangjun, Huo; Li, Xie; Xingye, Tong; Yueting, Wang; Weihua, Guo; Weidong, Tian

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the corrosion resistant properties of titanium samples prepared by anodic oxidation with different surface morphologies. Pure titanium substrates were treated by anodic oxidation to obtain porous titanium films in micron, submicron, and micron-submicron scales. The surface morphologies, coating cross-sectional morphologies, crystalline structures, and surface roughness of these samples were characterized. Electrochemical technique was used to measure the corrosion potential (Ecorr), current density of corrosion (Icorr), and polarization resistance (Rp) of these samples in a simulated body fluid. Pure titanium could be modified to exhibit different surface morphologies by the anodic oxidation technique. The Tafel curve results showed that the technique can improve the corrosion resistance of pure titanium. Furthermore, the corrosion resistance varied with different surface morphologies. The submicron porous surface sample demonstrated the best corrosion resistance, with maximal Ecorr and Rp and minimal Icorr. Anodic oxidation technology can improve the corrosion resistance of pure titanium in a simulated body fluid. The submicron porous surface sample exhibited the best corrosion resistance because of its small surface area and thick barrier layer.

  18. Study on IR Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Deyue; Li, Xiaoxia; Guo, Yuxiang; Zeng, Yurun

    2018-01-01

    Firstly, the reduced graphene oxide was prepared by modified hummer method and characterized. Then, the complex refractive index of reduced graphene oxide in IR band was tested and its IR absorption and radiation properties were researched by correlated calculation. The results show that reduced graphene oxide prepared by hummer method are multilayered graphene with defects and functional groups on its surface. Its absorption in near and far IR bands is strong, but it’s weaker in middle IR band. At the IR atmosphere Window, its normal spectral emissivity decreases with wavelength increasing, and its total normal spectral emissivity in 3 ∼ 5μm and 8 ∼ 14μm are 0.75 and 0.625, respectively. Therefore, reduced graphene oxide can be used as IR absorption and coating materials and have a great potential in microwave and infrared compatible materials.

  19. Correlation between the size and the magnetic properties of Ag2+ clusters loaded on ceria surface and their catalytic performance in the total oxidation of propylene. EPR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hany, Sara; Skaf, Mira; Aouad, Samer; Gennequin, Cédric; Labaki, Madona; Abi-Aad, Edmond; Aboukaïs, Antoine

    2018-03-01

    Three different types of Ag2+ ions ("a", "b", and "c") have been identified and examined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) on 10% wt Ag/CeO2 prepared by impregnation method. One of them, Ag2+(b), behaves differently than the two others, Ag2+(a) and Ag2+(c), under redox atmospheres. The fact that, in reducing conditions (vacuum, propylene, hydrogen, and carbon black), Ag2+(a) and Ag2+(c) species were more easily reduced than Ag2+(b) ones, could not explain the catalytic performance and stability of this latter species compared to the first ones in the reaction of total oxidation of propylene. The EPR technique evidenced that Ag2+(b) species form, upon propene oxidation, a cluster. This cluster is composed of two parallel electron spins (dimer) and three nuclear spins (trimer). It seems that before propylene oxidation, Ag2+(b) clusters were ferromagnetic. This ferromagnetic character of Ag2+(b) species may explain their better catalytic performance, in propylene oxidation, than those of Ag2+(a) and Ag2+(c) ones.

  20. SURFACE PROPERTIES OF ELECTROCHEMICALLY REDUCED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    A viscose rayon based activated carbon cloth (ACC) was electrochemically reduced ..... bath of liquid nitrogen at a temperature of 77 K. ... that above 59,400 c/g extent of oxidation, the ..... ACC react with aldehyde groups to produce ether.

  1. Temperature dependence of nuclear surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campi, X.; Stringari, S.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal properties of nuclear surface are investigated in a semi-infinite medium. Explicit analytical expression are given for the temperature dependence of surface thickness, surface energy and surface free energy. In this model the temperature effects depend critically on the nuclear incompressibility and on the shape of the effective mass at the surface. To illustrate the relevance of these effects we made an estimate of the temperature dependence of the fission barrier height. (orig.)

  2. Oxidation of scandium thin films on tungsten surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodetskij, D.A.; Martynyuk, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    Presence of Sc on the surface of W in amounts larger than a monolayer coverage leads to a decrease of the work function at the initial oxidation stage, which is attributed to oxygen implantation into the surface layer of the metal. A subsequent oxidation is followed by the formation on the surface of a thin oxide layer and an increase of the work function. An increase of the amount of Sc deposited on the surface before the oxidation decreases the work function of the obtained oxide from 5.8 (clean W surface) down to 3.3 eV (thick Sc layer on W)

  3. Electrolysis of water on (oxidized) metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Logadottir, Ashildur; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2005-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations are used as the basis for an analysis of the electrochemical process, where by water is split to form molecular oxygen and hydrogen. We develop a method for obtaining the thermochemistry of the electrochemical water splitting process as a function of the bias...... directly from the electronic structure calculations. We consider electrodes of Pt(111) and Au(111) in detail and then discuss trends for a series of different metals. We show that the difficult step in the water splitting process is the formation of superoxy-type (OOH) species on the surface...... by the splitting of a water molecule on top an adsorbed oxygen atom. One conclusion is that this is only possible on metal surfaces that are (partly) oxidized. We show that the binding energies of the different intermediates are linearly correlated for a number of metals. In a simple analysis, where the linear...

  4. Lunar surface engineering properties experiment definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Goodman, R. E.; Hurlbut, F. C.; Houston, W. N.; Willis, D. R.; Witherspoon, P. A.; Hovland, H. J.

    1971-01-01

    Research on the mechanics of lunar soils and on developing probes to determine the properties of lunar surface materials is summarized. The areas of investigation include the following: soil simulation, soil property determination using an impact penetrometer, soil stabilization using urethane foam or phenolic resin, effects of rolling boulders down lunar slopes, design of borehole jack and its use in determining failure mechanisms and properties of rocks, and development of a permeability probe for measuring fluid flow through porous lunar surface materials.

  5. Bi-template assisted synthesis of mesoporous manganese oxide nanostructures: Tuning properties for efficient CO oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mouni; Basak, Somjyoti; Naskar, Milan Kanti

    2016-02-21

    A simple soft bi-templating process was used for the synthesis of mesoporous manganese oxide nanostructures using KMnO4 as a precursor and polyethylene glycol and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as templates in the presence of benzaldehyde as an organic additive in alkaline media, followed by calcination at 400 °C. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic analysis of the calcined products confirmed the existence of stoichiometric (MnO2 and Mn5O8) and non-stoichiometric mixed phases (MnO2 + Mn5O8) of Mn oxides obtained by tuning the concentration of the additive and the synthesis time. The surface properties of the prepared Mn oxides were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The mesoporosity of the samples was confirmed by N2 adsorption-desorption. Different synthetic conditions resulted in the formation of different morphologies of the Mn oxides (α-MnO2, Mn5O8, and α-MnO2 + Mn5O8), such as nanoparticles, nanorods, and nanowires. The synthesized mesoporous Mn oxide nanostructures were used for the catalytic oxidation of the harmful air pollutant carbon monoxide. The Mn5O8 nanoparticles with the highest Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area and the non-stoichiometric manganese oxide (α-MnO2 + Mn5O8) nanorods with a higher Mn(3+) concentration had the best catalytic efficiency.

  6. First principles studies of complex oxide surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguera, Claudine; Finocchi, Fabio; Goniakowski, Jacek

    2004-01-01

    Oxides enter our everyday life and exhibit an impressive variety of physical and chemical properties. The understanding of their behaviour, which is often determined by the electronic and atomic structures of their surfaces and interfaces, is a key question in many fields, such as geology, environmental chemistry, catalysis, thermal coatings, microelectronics, and bioengineering. In the last decade, first principles methods, mainly those based on the density functional theory, have been frequently applied to study complex oxide surfaces and interfaces, complementing the experimental observations. In this work, we discuss some of these contributions, with emphasis on several issues that are especially important when dealing with oxides: the local electronic structure at interfaces, and its connection with chemical reactivity; the charge redistribution and the bonding variations, in relation to screening properties; and the possibility of bridging the gap between model and real systems by taking into account the chemical environments and the effect of finite temperatures, and by performing simulations on systems of an adequate (large) size

  7. Characterization of the thrombogenic potential of surface oxides on stainless steel for implant purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, C.-C.; Shih, C.-M.; Su, Y.-Y.; Chang, M.-S.; Lin, S.-J.

    2003-01-01

    Marketed stents are manufactured from various metals and passivated with different degrees of surface oxidation. The functional surface oxides on the degree of antithrombotic potential were explored through a canine femoral extracorporeal circuit model. Related properties of these oxide films were studied by open-circuit potential, current density detected at open-circuit potential, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Auger spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy. Experimental evidences showed that blood clot weight after a 30-min follow-up was significantly lower for the stainless steel wire passivated with amorphous oxide (AO) compared to the wire passivated with polycrystalline oxide (PO) or commercial as-received wire coils (AS). Surface characterizations showed that a stable negative current density at open-circuit potential and a significant lower potential were found for the wire surface passivated with AO than for the surface passivated with PO. Time constant of AO is about 25 times larger than that of polycrystalline oxide. Significant difference in oxide grain sizes was found between PO and AO. Surface chemistries revealed by the AES and XPS spectra indicated the presence of a Cr- and oxygen-rich surface oxide for AO, and a Fe-rich and oxygen-lean surface oxide for PO. These remarkable characteristics of AO surface film might have a potential to provide for excellent antithrombotic characteristics for the 316L stainless steel stents

  8. Photocatalysis of Modified Transition Metal Oxide Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzill, Matthias [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2018-02-28

    The goal of this project has been to establish a cause-effect relationship for photocatalytic activity variations of different structures of the same material; and furthermore gain fundamental understanding on modification of photocatalysts by compositional or surface modifications. The reasoning is that gaining atomic scale understanding of how surface and bulk modifications alter the photo reactivity will lead to design principles for next generation photocatalysts. As a prototypical photocatalyst the research focused on TiO2 synthesized in well-defined single crystalline form to enable fundamental characterizations.We have obtained results in the following areas: (a) Preparation of epitaxial anatase TiO2 samples by pulsed laser deposition. (b) Comparison of hydrogen diffusion on different crystallographic surface. (c) Determining the stability of the TiO2(011)-2x1 reconstruction upon interactions with adsorbates. (d) Characterization of adsorption and (thermal and photo) reaction of molecules with nitro-endgroups, (e) Exploring the possibility of modifying planar model photocatalyst surfaces with graphene to enable fundamental studies on reported enhanced photocatalytic activities of graphene modified transition metal oxides, (f) gained fundamental understanding on the role of crystallographic polymorphs of the same material for their photocatalytic activities.

  9. Magnetic properties of partially oxidized Fe films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Miguel Angel; Lopez-Dominguez, Victor; Hernando, Antonio

    Hybrid magnetic nanostructures exhibit appealing properties due to interface and proximity effects. A simple and interesting system of hybrid magnetic nanomaterials are partially oxidized ferromagnetic films. We have fabricated Fe films by thermal evaporation and performed a partial oxidation to magnetite (Fe3O4) by annealing in air at different times and temperatures. The magnetic properties of the films evolve from those of pure metallic iron to pure magnetite, showing intermediate states where the proximity effects control the magnetic behavior. At some stages, the magnetization curves obtained by SQUID and MOKE magnetometry exhibit important differences due to the dissimilar contribution of both phases to the magneto-optical response of the system This work has been supported by the Ministerio Español de Economia y Competitividad (MINECO) MAT2013-48009-C4-1. V.L.D and M.A.G. acknowledges financial support from BBVA foundation.

  10. Surface Preparation and Deposited Gate Oxides for Gallium Nitride Based Metal Oxide Semiconductor Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. McIntyre

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The literature on polar Gallium Nitride (GaN surfaces, surface treatments and gate dielectrics relevant to metal oxide semiconductor devices is reviewed. The significance of the GaN growth technique and growth parameters on the properties of GaN epilayers, the ability to modify GaN surface properties using in situ and ex situ processes and progress on the understanding and performance of GaN metal oxide semiconductor (MOS devices are presented and discussed. Although a reasonably consistent picture is emerging from focused studies on issues covered in each of these topics, future research can achieve a better understanding of the critical oxide-semiconductor interface by probing the connections between these topics. The challenges in analyzing defect concentrations and energies in GaN MOS gate stacks are discussed. Promising gate dielectric deposition techniques such as atomic layer deposition, which is already accepted by the semiconductor industry for silicon CMOS device fabrication, coupled with more advanced physical and electrical characterization methods will likely accelerate the pace of learning required to develop future GaN-based MOS technology.

  11. Surface active monomers synthesis, properties, and application

    CERN Document Server

    Borzenkov, Mykola

    2014-01-01

    This brief includes information on the background?of and development of synthesis of various types of surface active monomers. The authors explain the importance of utilization of surface active monomers for creation of surface active polymers? and the various biomedical applications of such compounds . This brief introduces techniques for the synthesis of novel types of surface active monomers, their colloidal and polymerizable properties and application for needs of medicine and biology.

  12. On the origin of the changes in the opto-electrical properties of boron-doped zinc oxide films after plasma surface treatment for thin-film silicon solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Anh Huy Tuan; Kim, Youngkuk; Lee, Youn-Jung; Hussain, Shahzada Qamar; Nguyen, Cam Phu Thi; Lee, Jaehyung; Yi, Junsin

    2018-03-01

    The modification of the steep and sharp valleys on the surface of the boron-doped zinc oxide (BZO) front electrodes by plasma surface treatment is a critical process for avoiding a significant reduction in the electrical performance of thin-film silicon solar cells. In this work, we report the origin of the changes in the electrical and optical properties of the BZO films that occur after this process. On the basis of an analysis of the chemical states, we found an improvement of the carrier concentration along with the treatment time that was mainly due to an increase of the oxygen vacancy. This indicated a deficiency of the oxygen in the BZO films under argon-ion bombardment. The red-shift of the A1 longitudinal optical mode frequency in the Raman spectra that was attributed to the existence of vacancy point defects within the films also strengthened this argument. The significant reduction of the haze ratio as well as the appearance of interference peaks on the transmittance spectra as the treatment time was increased were mainly due to the smoothing of the film surface, which indicated a degradation of the light-scattering capability of the BZO films. We also observed a gain of the visible-region transmittance that was attributed to the decrease of the thickness of the BZO films after the plasma surface treatment, instead of the crystallinity improvement. On the basis of our findings, we have proposed a further design rule of the BZO front electrodes for thin-film silicon solar cell applications.

  13. Surface composition and surface properties of water hyacinth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surface composition and surface properties of water hyacinth ( Eichhornia ... (2/1, v/v) followed by ethanol, using Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, ... polar organic solvents and non-polar n-alkane hydrocarbons is discussed.

  14. The unusual properties of beryllium surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, R.; Hannon, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Be is a ''marginal metal.'' The stable phase, hcp-Be, has a low Fermi-level density of states and very anisotropic structural and elastic properties, similar to a semiconductor's. At the Be(0001) surface, surface states drastically increase the Fermi-level density of states. The different nature of bonding in bulk-Be and at the Be(0001) surface explains the large outward relaxation. The presence of surface states causes large surface core-level shifts by inducing a higher electrostatic potential in the surface layers and by improving the screening at the surface. The authors experimental and theoretical investigations of atomic vibrations at the Be(0001) surface demonstrate clearly that Be screening of atomic motion by the surface states makes the surface phonon dispersion fundamentally different from that of the bulk. Properties of Be(0001) are so different from those of the bulk that the surface can be considered a new ''phase'' of beryllium with unique electronic and structural characteristics. For comparison they also study Be(11 bar 20), a very open surface without important surface states. Be(11 bar 20) is the only clean s-p metal surface known to reconstruct (1 x 3 missing row reconstruction)

  15. Dielectric properties of lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkova, O. V.; Kibardina, I. N.

    2017-03-01

    Measurements of the dielectric characteristics of lunar soil samples are analyzed in the context of dielectric theory. It has been shown that the real component of the dielectric permittivity and the loss tangent of rocks greatly depend on the frequency of the interacting electromagnetic field and the soil temperature. It follows from the analysis that one should take into account diurnal variations in the lunar surface temperature when interpreting the radar-sounding results, especially for the gigahertz radio range.

  16. Defined wetting properties of optical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felde, Nadja; Coriand, Luisa; Schröder, Sven; Duparré, Angela; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Optical surfaces equipped with specific functional properties have attracted increasing importance over the last decades. In the light of cost reduction, hydrophobic self-cleaning behavior is aspired. On the other side, hydrophilic properties are interesting due to their anti-fog effect. It has become well known that such wetting states are significantly affected by the surface morphology. For optical surfaces, however, this fact poses a problem, as surface roughness can induce light scattering. The generation of optical surfaces with specific wetting properties, hence, requires a profound understanding of the relation between the wetting and the structural surface properties. Thus, our work concentrates on a reliable acquisition of roughness data over a wide spatial frequency range as well as on the comprehensive description of the wetting states, which is needed for the establishment of such correlations. We will present our advanced wetting analysis for nanorough optical surfaces, extended by a vibration-based procedure, which is mainly for understanding and tailoring the wetting behavior of various solid-liquid systems in research and industry. Utilizing the relationships between surface roughness and wetting, it will be demonstrated how different wetting states for hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity can be realized on optical surfaces with minimized scatter losses.

  17. An ab initio study of plutonium oxides surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jomard, G.; Bottin, F.; Amadon, B.

    2007-01-01

    By means of first-principles calculations, we have studied the atomic structure as well as the thermodynamic stability of various plutonium dioxide surfaces in function of their environment (in terms of oxygen partial pressure and temperature). All these simulations have been performed with the ABINIT code. It is well known that DFT fails to describe correctly plutonium-based materials since 5f electrons in such systems are strongly correlated. In order to go beyond DFT, we have treated PuO 2 and β-Pu 2 O 3 in a DFT+U framework. We show that the couple of parameters (U,J) that works well for pure Pu is also well designed for describing ground state (GS) properties of these two oxides. The major improvement with respect with DFT is that we are able to predict an insulating GS in agreement with experiments. The presence of a gap in the DOS (Density of States) of plutonium oxides should play a significant role in the predicted surface reactivity. However, performing DFT+U calculations on surfaces of plutonium oxide from scratch was too ambitious. That is why we decided, as a first step, to study the stability of the (100), (110) and (111) surfaces of PuO 2 in a DFT-GGA framework. For each of these orientations, we considered various terminations. These ab initio results have been introduced in a thermodynamic model which allows us to predict the relative stability of the different terminations as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure (p O 2 ). We conclude that at room temperature and for p O 2 ∼10 atm., the polar O 2 -(100) termination is favoured. The stabilization of such a polar stoichiometric surface is surprising and should be confirmed by DFT+U calculations before any final conclusion. (authors)

  18. Metrology and properties of engineering surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Greenwood, J; Chetwynd, D

    2001-01-01

    Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces provides in a single volume a comprehensive and authoritative treatment of the crucial topics involved in the metrology and properties of engineering surfaces. The subject matter is a central issue in manufacturing technology, since the quality and reliability of manufactured components depend greatly upon the selection and qualities of the appropriate materials as ascertained through measurement. The book can in broad terms be split into two parts; the first deals with the metrology of engineering surfaces and covers the important issues relating to the measurement and characterization of surfaces in both two and three dimensions. This covers topics such as filtering, power spectral densities, autocorrelation functions and the use of Fractals in topography. A significant proportion is dedicated to the calibration of scanning probe microscopes using the latest techniques. The remainder of the book deals with the properties of engineering surfaces and covers a w...

  19. Improved surface hydrophilicity and antifouling property of polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane with poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate grafted graphene oxide nanofillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haidong; Lu, Xiaofei; Lu, Xinglin; Wang, Zhenghui; Ma, Jun; Wang, Panpan

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the GO-g-P(PEGMA) nanoplates were first synthesized by grafting hydrophilic poly (poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) method. A novel polysulfone (PSF) nanocomposite membrane using GO-g-P(PEGMA) nanoplates as nanofillers was fabricated. FTIR, TGA, 1H NMR, GPC and TEM were applied to verify the successful synthesis of the prepared nanoplates, while SEM, AFM, XPS, contact angle goniometry and filtration experiments were used to characterize the fabricated nanocomposite membranes. It was found that the new prepared nanofillers were well dispersed in organic PSF matrix, and the PSF/GO-g-P(PEGMA) nanocomposite membrane showed significant improvements in water flux and flux recovery rate. Based on the results of resistance-in-series model, the nanocomposite membrane exhibited superior resistance to the irreversible fouling. The excellent filtration and antifouling performance are attributed to the segregation of GO-g-P(PEMGA) nanofillers toward the membrane surface and the pore walls. Notably, the blended nanofillers appeared a stable retention in/on nanocomposite membrane after 30 days of washing time. The demonstrated method of synthesis GO-g-P(PEGMA) in this study can also be extended to preparation of other nanocomposite membrane in future.

  20. Effect of flattened surface morphology of anodized aluminum oxide templates on the magnetic properties of nanoporous Co/Pt and Co/Pd thin multilayered films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. N. Anh; Fedotova, J.; Kasiuk, J.; Bayev, V.; Kupreeva, O.; Lazarouk, S.; Manh, D. H.; Vu, D. L.; Chung, S.; Åkerman, J.; Altynov, V.; Maximenko, A.

    2018-01-01

    For the first time, nanoporous Al2O3 templates with smoothed surface relief characterized by flattened interpore areas were used in the fabrication of Co/Pd and Co/Pt multilayers (MLs) with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). Alternating gradient magnetometry (AGM) revealed perfectly conserved PMA in the Co/Pd and Co/Pt porous MLs (antidot arrays) with a ratio of remanent magnetization (Mr) to saturation magnetization (MS) of about 0.99, anisotropy fields (Ha) of up to 2.6 kOe, and a small deviation angle of 8° between the easy magnetization axis and the normal to the film surface. The sufficient magnetic hardening of the porous MLs with enhanced coercive field HC of up to ∼1.9 kOe for Co/Pd and ∼1.5 kOe for Co/Pt MLs, as compared to the continuous reference samples (∼1.5-2 times), is associated with the pinning of the magnetic moments on the nanopore edges. Application of the Stoner-Wohlfarth model for fitting the experimental M/MS(H) curves yielded clear evidence of the predominantly coherent rotation mechanism of magnetization reversal in the porous films.

  1. High temperature oxidation behavior of AISI 304L stainless steel—Effect of surface working operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Swati; Kumar, M. Kiran; Kain, Vivekanand

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Surface working resulted in thinner oxide on the surface. ► Oxides on machined/ground surfaces richer in Cr, higher in specific resistivity. ► Additional ionic transport process at the metal-oxide for ground sample established. ► Presence of fragmented grains and martensite influenced oxide nature/morphology. - Abstract: The oxidation behavior of grade 304L stainless steel (SS) subjected to different surface finishing (machining and grinding) operations was followed in situ by contact electric resistance (CER) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements using controlled distance electrochemistry (CDE) technique in high purity water (conductivity −1 ) at 300 °C and 10 MPa in an autoclave connected to a recirculation loop system. The results highlight the distinct differences in the oxidation behavior of surface worked material as compared to solution annealed material in terms of specific resistivity and low frequency Warburg impedance. The resultant oxide layer was characterized for (a) elemental analyses by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) and (b) morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Oxide layers with higher specific resistivity and chromium content were formed in case of machined and ground conditions. Presence of an additional ionic transport process has also been identified for the ground condition at the metal/oxide interface. These differences in electrochemical properties and distinct morphological features of the oxide layer as a result of surface working were attributed to the prevalence of heavily fragmented grain structure and presence of martensite.

  2. Calculations of oxide formation on low-index Cu surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Xin; Liu, Renlong, E-mail: lrl@cqu.edu.cn, E-mail: henkelman@utexas.edu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Xiao, Penghao; Yang, Sheng-Che; Henkelman, Graeme, E-mail: lrl@cqu.edu.cn, E-mail: henkelman@utexas.edu [Department of Chemistry and the Institute for Computational and Engineering Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-0165 (United States)

    2016-07-28

    Density-functional theory is used to evaluate the mechanism of copper surface oxidation. Reaction pathways of O{sub 2} dissociation on the surface and oxidation of the sub-surface are found on the Cu(100), Cu(110), and Cu(111) facets. At low oxygen coverage, all three surfaces dissociate O{sub 2} spontaneously. As oxygen accumulates on the surfaces, O{sub 2} dissociation becomes more difficult. A bottleneck to further oxidation occurs when the surfaces are saturated with oxygen. The barriers for O{sub 2} dissociation on the O-saturated Cu(100)-c(2×2)-0.5 monolayer (ML) and Cu(100) missing-row structures are 0.97 eV and 0.75 eV, respectively; significantly lower than those have been reported previously. Oxidation of Cu(110)-c(6×2), the most stable (110) surface oxide, has a barrier of 0.72 eV. As the reconstructions grow from step edges, clean Cu(110) surfaces can dissociatively adsorb oxygen until the surface Cu atoms are saturated. After slight rearrangements, these surface areas form a “1 ML” oxide structure which has not been reported in the literature. The barrier for further oxidation of this “1 ML” phase is only 0.31 eV. Finally the oxidized Cu(111) surface has a relatively low reaction energy barrier for O{sub 2} dissociation, even at high oxygen coverage, and allows for facile oxidation of the subsurface by fast O diffusion through the surface oxide. The kinetic mechanisms found provide a qualitative explanation of the observed oxidation of the low-index Cu surfaces.

  3. Microarc Oxidation of Product Surfaces without Using a Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Shatalov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While using an electrochemical method to cover the large-sized work-pieces, units, and products up to 6 м3 by protective coating, there is a certain difficulty to apply traditional anodizing techniques in a plating vat, and it is necessary to find various processing techniques.To use the existing micro-arc oxide coating (MOC methods for work-pieces of various forms and sizes in a plating vat is complicated in case it is required to provide oxide layers in separate places rather than over entire surface of a work-piece. The challenge is to treat flat surfaces in various directions, external and internal surfaces of rotation bodies, profiled surfaces, intersections, closed and through holes, pipes, as well as spline and thread openings for ensuring anti-seize properties in individual or small-scale production to meet technical requirements and operational properties of products.A design of tools to provide MOC-process of all possible surfaces of various engineering box-type products depends on many factors and can be considerably different even when processing the surfaces of the same forms. An attachment to be used is fixed directly on a large-sized design (a work-piece, a product or fastened in the special tool. The features of technological process, design shape, and arrangement of the processed surfaces define a fastening method of the attachment. Therefore it is necessary to pay much attention to a choice of the processing pattern and a design of tools.The Kaluga-branch of Bauman Moscow State Technical University is an original proposer of methods to form MOC-coatings on the separate surfaces of large-sized work-pieces using the moved and stationary electrodes to solve the above listed tasks.The following results of work will have an impact on development of the offered processing methods and their early implementation in real production:1. To provide oxide coatings on the surfaces of large-sized products or assemblies in a single or small

  4. Control of Surface and Edge Oxidation on Phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Kaci L; Wells, Rebekah A; Hu, Jun; Yang, Teng; Dong, Baojuan; Guo, Huaihong; Woomer, Adam H; Druffel, Daniel L; Alabanza, Anginelle; Tománek, David; Warren, Scott C

    2017-03-15

    Phosphorene is emerging as an important two-dimensional semiconductor, but controlling the surface chemistry of phosphorene remains a significant challenge. Here, we show that controlled oxidation of phosphorene determines the composition and spatial distribution of the resulting oxide. We used X-ray photoemission spectroscopy to measure the binding energy shifts that accompany oxidation. We interpreted these spectra by calculating the binding energy shift for 24 likely bonding configurations, including phosphorus oxides and hydroxides located on the basal surface or edges of flakes. After brief exposure to high-purity oxygen or high-purity water vapor at room temperature, we observed phosphorus in the +1 and +2 oxidation states; longer exposures led to a large population of phosphorus in the +3 oxidation state. To provide insight into the spatial distribution of the oxide, transmission electron microscopy was performed at several stages during the oxidation. We found crucial differences between oxygen and water oxidants: while pure oxygen produced an oxide layer on the van der Waals surface, water oxidized the material at pre-existing defects such as edges or steps. We propose a mechanism based on the thermodynamics of electron transfer to interpret these observations. This work opens a route to functionalize the basal surface or edges of two-dimensional (2D) black phosphorus through site-selective chemical reactions and presents the opportunity to explore the synthesis of 2D phosphorene oxide by oxidation.

  5. Atomic Scale Structure-Chemistry Relationships at Oxide Catalyst Surfaces and Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBriarty, Martin E.

    Oxide catalysts are integral to chemical production, fuel refining, and the removal of environmental pollutants. However, the atomic-scale phenomena which lead to the useful reactive properties of catalyst materials are not sufficiently understood. In this work, the tools of surface and interface science and electronic structure theory are applied to investigate the structure and chemical properties of catalytically active particles and ultrathin films supported on oxide single crystals. These studies focus on structure-property relationships in vanadium oxide, tungsten oxide, and mixed V-W oxides on the surfaces of alpha-Al2O3 and alpha-Fe2O 3 (0001)-oriented single crystal substrates, two materials with nearly identical crystal structures but drastically different chemical properties. In situ synchrotron X-ray standing wave (XSW) measurements are sensitive to changes in the atomic-scale geometry of single crystal model catalyst surfaces through chemical reaction cycles, while X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals corresponding chemical changes. Experimental results agree with theoretical calculations of surface structures, allowing for detailed electronic structure investigations and predictions of surface chemical phenomena. The surface configurations and oxidation states of V and W are found to depend on the coverage of each, and reversible structural shifts accompany chemical state changes through reduction-oxidation cycles. Substrate-dependent effects suggest how the choice of oxide support material may affect catalytic behavior. Additionally, the structure and chemistry of W deposited on alpha-Fe 2O3 nanopowders is studied using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements in an attempt to bridge single crystal surface studies with real catalysts. These investigations of catalytically active material surfaces can inform the rational design of new catalysts for more efficient and sustainable chemistry.

  6. Glass science tutorial: Lecture number-sign 1, Chemistry and properties of oxide glasses. Professor William C. LaCourse, Lecturer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1994-10-01

    The tutorial covers the following topics: Definitions and terminology; Introduction to glass structure and properties; The glass transition; Structure/property relationships in oxide glasses; Generalized models for predicting structure/properties; Glass surfaces; Chemical durability; and Mechanical properties

  7. Size-dependent magnetic properties of branchlike nickel oxide nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Branchlike nickel oxide nanocrystals with narrow size distribution are obtained by a solution growth method. The size-dependent of magnetic properties of the nickel oxides were investigated. The results of magnetic characterization indicate that the NiO nanocrystals with size below 12.8 nm show very weak ferromagnetic state at room temperature due to the uncompensated spins. Both of the average blocking temperature (Tb and the irreversible temperature (Tirr increase with the increase of nanoparticle sizes, while both the remnant magnetization and the coercivity at 300 K increase with the decrease of the particle sizes. Moreover, the disappearance of two-magnon (2M band and redshift of one-phonon longitudinal (1LO and two-phonon LO in vibrational properties due to size reduction are observed. Compared to the one with the spherical morphological, it is also found that nano-structured nickel oxides with the branchlike morphology have larger remnant magnetization and the coercivity at 5 K due to their larger surface-to-volume ratio and greater degree of broken symmetry at the surface or the higher proportion of broken bonds.

  8. Effect of CO on surface oxidation of uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Fu, Y.; Xie, R.

    1997-01-01

    The surface reactions of uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 25 and 200 deg C have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS);respectively. Adsorption of carbon monoxide on the surface layer of uranium metal leads to partial reduction of surface oxide and results in U4f photoelectron peak shifting to the lower binding energy. The content of oxygen in the surface oxide is decreased and O1s/O4f ratio decreases with increasing the exposure of carbon monoxide. The investigation indicates the surface layer of uranium metal has resistance to further oxidation in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide. (author)

  9. Ion bombardment effects on surface states in selected oxide systems: rutile and alkaline earth titanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper, the nature of the surface states of n-type TiO 2 and SrTiO 3 is discussed and the role of ion bombardment in modifying the properties of these states is elucidated. Insofar as possible, the interrelationships between oxide nonstoichiometry, surface states, ion bombardment effects and photoelectrolysis are explored

  10. Yttrium ion implantation on the surface properties of magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.M.; Zeng, X.Q.; Wu, G.S.; Yao, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    Owing to their excellent physical and mechanical properties, magnesium and its alloys are receiving more attention. However, their application has been limited to the high reactivity and the poor corrosion resistance. The aim of the study was to investigate the beneficial effects of ion-implanted yttrium using a MEVVA ion implanter on the surface properties of pure magnesium. Isothermal oxidation tests in pure O 2 at 673 and 773 K up to 90 min indicated that the oxidation resistance of magnesium had been significantly improved. Surface morphology of the oxide scale was analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicated that the implanted layer was mainly composed of MgO and Y 2 O 3 , and the implanted layer with a duplex structure could decrease the inward diffusion of oxygen and reduce the outward diffusion of Mg 2+ , which led to improving the oxidation resistance of magnesium. Potentiodynamic polarization curves were used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the implanted magnesium. The results show yttrium implantation could enhance the corrosion resistance of implanted magnesium compared with that of pure magnesium

  11. Excimer laser surface modification: Process and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jervis, T.R.; Nastasi, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hirvonen, J.P. [Technical Research Institute, Espoo (Finland). Metallurgy Lab.

    1992-12-01

    Surface modification can improve materials for structural, tribological, and corrosion applications. Excimer laser light has been shown to provide a rapid means of modifying surfaces through heat treating, surface zone refining, and mixing. Laser pulses at modest power levels can easily melt the surfaces of many materials. Mixing within the molten layer or with the gas ambient may occur, if thermodynamically allowed, followed by rapid solidification. The high temperatures allow the system to overcome kinetic barriers found in some ion mixing experiments. Alternatively, surface zone refinement may result from repeated melting-solidification cycles. Ultraviolet laser light couples energy efficiently to the surface of metallic and ceramic materials. The nature of the modification that follows depends on the properties of the surface and substrate materials. Alloying from both gas and predeposited layer sources has been observed in metals, semiconductors, and ceramics as has surface enrichment of Cr by zone refinement of stainless steel. Rapid solidification after melting often results in the formation of nonequilibrium phases, including amorphous materials. Improved surface properties, including tribology and corrosion resistance, are observed in these materials.

  12. Surface and sub-surface thermal oxidation of thin ruthenium films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coloma Ribera, R.; Kruijs, R. W. E. van de; Yakshin, A. E.; Bijkerk, F. [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Kokke, S.; Zoethout, E. [FOM Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (DIFFER), P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2014-09-29

    A mixed 2D (film) and 3D (nano-column) growth of ruthenium oxide has been experimentally observed for thermally oxidized polycrystalline ruthenium thin films. Furthermore, in situ x-ray reflectivity upon annealing allowed the detection of 2D film growth as two separate layers consisting of low density and high density oxides. Nano-columns grow at the surface of the low density oxide layer, with the growth rate being limited by diffusion of ruthenium through the formed oxide film. Simultaneously, with the growth of the columns, sub-surface high density oxide continues to grow limited by diffusion of oxygen or ruthenium through the oxide film.

  13. Manganese phospate physical chemistry and surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najera R, N.; Romero G, E. T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology for the manganese phosphate (III) synthesis (MnP0 4 H 2 0) from manganese chloride. The physicochemical characterization was carried out by: X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, infrared analysis and thermal gravimetric analysis. The surface characterization is obtained through the determination of surface area, point of zero charge and kinetics of moisture. As a phosphate compound of a metal with low oxidation state is a promising compound for removal pollutants from water and soil, can be used for the potential construction of containment barriers for radioactive wastes. (Author)

  14. Preparation and investigations of thermal properties of copper oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effects of copper oxide, aluminium oxide and graphite on the thermal and structural properties of the organic ... solar energy, and heat regulation of electronics, biomedical ..... We gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by.

  15. Review of Fabrication Methods, Physical Properties, and Applications of Nanostructured Copper Oxides Formed via Electrochemical Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech J. Stepniowski

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Typically, anodic oxidation of metals results in the formation of hexagonally arranged nanoporous or nanotubular oxide, with a specific oxidation state of the transition metal. Recently, the majority of transition metals have been anodized; however, the formation of copper oxides by electrochemical oxidation is yet unexplored and offers numerous, unique properties and applications. Nanowires formed by copper electrochemical oxidation are crystalline and composed of cuprous (CuO or cupric oxide (Cu2O, bringing varied physical and chemical properties to the nanostructured morphology and different band gaps: 1.44 and 2.22 eV, respectively. According to its Pourbaix (potential-pH diagram, the passivity of copper occurs at ambient and alkaline pH. In order to grow oxide nanostructures on copper, alkaline electrolytes like NaOH and KOH are used. To date, no systemic study has yet been reported on the influence of the operating conditions, such as the type of electrolyte, its temperature, and applied potential, on the morphology of the grown nanostructures. However, the numerous reports gathered in this paper will provide a certain view on the matter. After passivation, the formed nanostructures can be also post-treated. Post-treatments employ calcinations or chemical reactions, including the chemical reduction of the grown oxides. Nanostructures made of CuO or Cu2O have a broad range of potential applications. On one hand, with the use of surface morphology, the wetting contact angle is tuned. On the other hand, the chemical composition (pure Cu2O and high surface area make such materials attractive for renewable energy harvesting, including water splitting. While compared to other fabrication techniques, self-organized anodization is a facile, easy to scale-up, time-efficient approach, providing high-aspect ratio one-dimensional (1D nanostructures. Despite these advantages, there are still numerous challenges that have to be faced, including the

  16. Rapid comparison of properties on protein surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sael, Lee; La, David; Li, Bin; Rustamov, Raif; Kihara, Daisuke

    2008-10-01

    The mapping of physicochemical characteristics onto the surface of a protein provides crucial insights into its function and evolution. This information can be further used in the characterization and identification of similarities within protein surface regions. We propose a novel method which quantitatively compares global and local properties on the protein surface. We have tested the method on comparison of electrostatic potentials and hydrophobicity. The method is based on 3D Zernike descriptors, which provides a compact representation of a given property defined on a protein surface. Compactness and rotational invariance of this descriptor enable fast comparison suitable for database searches. The usefulness of this method is exemplified by studying several protein families including globins, thermophilic and mesophilic proteins, and active sites of TIM beta/alpha barrel proteins. In all the cases studied, the descriptor is able to cluster proteins into functionally relevant groups. The proposed approach can also be easily extended to other surface properties. This protein surface-based approach will add a new way of viewing and comparing proteins to conventional methods, which compare proteins in terms of their primary sequence or tertiary structure.

  17. Hydrophobic cotton textile surfaces using an amphiphilic graphene oxide (GO) coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissera, Nadeeka D.; Wijesena, Ruchira N.; Perera, J. Rangana; Nalin de Silva, K.M.; Amaratunge, Gehan A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Different GO dispersions were prepared by sonicating different amounts of GO in water. Degree of exfoliation of these GO sheets in water was analyzed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). • AFM results obtained showed higher the GO concentration on water more the size of GO sheets and lesser the degree of exfoliation. • GO with different amounts was deposited on cotton fabric using simple dyeing method. • High GO loading on cotton increase the surface area coverage of the textile fibers with GO sheets. This led to less edge to mid area ratio of grafted GO sheets. • As contribution of mid area of GO increase on fiber surface cotton fabric becomes more hydrophobic. • Amphiphilic property of GO sheets was used to lower the surface energy of the cotton fibers leading to hydrophobic property. - Abstract: We report for the first time hydrophobic properties on cotton fabric successfully achieved by grafting graphene oxide on the fabric surface, using a dyeing method. Graphite oxide synthesized by oxidizing natural flake graphite employing improved Hummer's method showed an inter layer spacing of ∼1 nm from XRD. Synthesized graphite oxide was exfoliated in water using ultrasound energy to obtain graphene oxide (GO). AFM data obtained for the graphene oxide dispersed in an aqueous medium revealed a non-uniform size distribution. FTIR characterization of the synthesized GO sheets showed both hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups present on the nano sheets giving them an amphiphilic property. GO flakes of different sizes were successfully grafted on to a cotton fabric surface using a dip dry method. Loading different amounts of graphene oxide on the cotton fiber surface allowed the fabric to demonstrate different degrees of hydrophobicity. The highest observed water contact angle was at 143° with the highest loading of graphene oxide. The fabric surfaces grafted with GO also exhibits adhesive type hydrophobicity

  18. Fluorinated cellular polypropylene films with time-invariant excellent surface electret properties by post-treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Zhenlian; Mao Mingjun; Yao Junlan; Zhang Yewen; Xia Zhongfu

    2010-01-01

    In this work, to improve the electret properties of cellular polypropylene films, they were fluorinated and post-treated with nitrous oxide and by isothermal crystallization. Surface electret properties of the samples were investigated by thermally stimulated discharge current measurements, and their compositions and structures were analysed by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy and wide angle x-ray diffraction, respectively. Time-dependent deterioration of surface electret properties was observed for the fluorinated samples without the nitrous oxide post-treatment. However, deterioration did not occur for the fluorinated samples post-treated with nitrous oxide, and time-invariant excellent surface electret properties or deep surface charge traps were obtained by the combined post-treatments of the fluorinated samples with nitrous oxide and by isothermal crystallization. Based on the analyses of composition and structure of the treated samples, the deterioration was clarified to be due to a trace of oxygen in the reactive mixture, which led to the formation of peroxy RO 2 . radicals in the fluorinated surface layer. The time invariability of surface electret properties was owing to the rapid termination of the peroxy RO 2 . radicals by nitrous oxide. And the deep surface charge traps resulted from the isothermal crystallization treatment which led to an increase in the efficient charging interface between the crystallite and amorphous region and its property change.

  19. Surface Properties of TNOs: Preliminary Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonieta Barucci, Maria; Fornasier, S.; Alvarez-Cantal, A.; de Bergh, C.; Merlin, F.; DeMeo, F.; Dumas, C.

    2009-09-01

    An overview of the surface properties based on the last results obtained during the Large Program performed at ESO-VLT (2007-2008) will be presented. Simultaneous high quality visible and near-infrared spectroscopy and photometry have been carried out on 40 objects with various dynamical properties, using FORS1 (V), ISAAC (J) and SINFONI (H+K bands) mounted respectively at UT2, UT1 and UT4 VLT-ESO telescopes (Cerro Paranal, Chile). For spectroscopy we computed the spectral slope for each object and searched for possible rotational inhomogeneities. A few objects show features in their visible spectra such as Eris, whose spectral bands are displaced with respect to pure methane-ice. We identify new faint absorption features on 10199 Chariklo and 42355 Typhon, possibly due to the presence of aqueous altered materials. The H+K band spectroscopy was performed with the new instrument SINFONI which is a 3D integral field spectrometer. While some objects show no diagnostic spectral bands, others reveal surface deposits of ices of H2O, CH3OH, CH4, and N2. To investigate the surface properties of these bodies, a radiative transfer model has been applied to interpret the entire 0.4-2.4 micron spectral region. The diversity of the spectra suggests that these objects represent a substantial range of bulk compositions. These different surface compositions can be diagnostic of original compositional diversity, interior source and/or different evolution with different physical processes affecting the surfaces. A statistical analysis is in progress to investigate the correlation of the TNOs’ surface properties with size and dynamical properties.

  20. Photoelectrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of thermally oxidized copper oxide for efficient solar fuel production

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia Esparza, Angel T.; Limkrailassiri, Kevin; Leroy, Fré dé ric; Rasul, Shahid; Yu, Weili; Lin, Liwei; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    We report the use of a facile and highly scalable synthesis process to control growth products of earth-abundant Cu-based oxides and their application in relevant photoelectrochemical and electrochemical solar fuel generation systems. Characterization of the synthesized Cu(I)/Cu(II) oxides indicates that their surface morphology and chemical composition can be simply tuned by varying two synthesis parameters (time and temperature). UV-Vis spectroscopy and impedance spectroscopy studies are performed to estimate the band structures and electronic properties of these p-type semiconductor materials. Photoelectrodes made of Cu oxides possess favorable energy band structures for production of hydrogen from water; the position of their conduction band is ≈1 V more negative than the water-reduction potential. High acceptor concentrations on the order of 1018-1019 cm-3 are obtained, producing large electric fields at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface and thereby enhancing charge separation. The highly crystalline pristine samples used as photocathodes in photoelectrochemical cells exhibit high photocurrents under AM 1.5G simulated illumination. When the samples are electrochemically reduced under galvanostatic conditions, the co-existence of the oxide with metallic Cu on the surface seems to function as an effective catalyst for the selective electrochemical reduction of CO2. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  1. Regularities of radiation defects build up on oxide materials surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitenbaev, M.I.; Polyakov, A.I.; Tuseev, T.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of experimental data by radiation defects study on different oxide elements (silicon, beryllium, aluminium, rare earth elements) irradiated by the photo-, gamma-, neutron-, alpha- radiation, protons and helium ions show, that gas adsorption process on the surface centers and radiation defects build up in metal oxide correlated between themselves. These processes were described by the equivalent kinetic equations for analysis of radiation defects build up in the different metal oxides. It was revealed in the result of the analysis: number of radiation defects are droningly increasing up to limit value with the treatment temperature growth. Constant of radicals death at ionizing radiation increases as well. Amount of surface defects in different oxides defining absorbing activity of these materials looks as: silicon oxide→beryllium oxide→aluminium oxide. So it was found, that most optimal material for absorbing system preparation is silicon oxide by it power intensity and berylium oxide by it adsorption efficiency

  2. Improvement of biological properties of titanium by anodic oxidation and ultraviolet irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Baoe [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Li, Ying [Stomatological Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Li, Jun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Fu, Xiaolong; Li, Changyi [Stomatological Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Wang, Hongshui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Liu, Shimin [Business School, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Guo, Litong [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Xin, Shigang [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Liang, Chunyong, E-mail: liangchunyong@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Li, Haipeng, E-mail: lhpcx@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Anodic oxidation was applied to produce a homogeneous and uniform array of nanotubes of about 70 nm on the titanium (Ti) surface, and then, the nanotubes were irradiated by ultraviolet. The bioactivity of the Ti surface was evaluated by simulated body fluid soaking test. The biocompatibility was investigated by in vitro cell culture test. The results showed that bone-like apatite was formed on the anodic oxidized and UV irradiated Ti surface, but not on the as-polished Ti surface after immersion in simulated body fluid for two weeks. Cells cultured on the anodic oxidized Ti surface showed enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation, also presented an up-regulated gene expression of osteogenic markers OPG, compared to those cultured on the as-polished Ti surface. After UV irradiation, the cell behaviors were further improved, indicating better biocompatibility of Ti surface. Based on these results, it can be concluded that anodic oxidation improved the biological properties (bioactivity and biocompatibility) of Ti surface, while UV irradiation improved the biocompatibility to a better extent. The improved biological properties were attributed to the nanostructures as well as the enhanced hydrophilicity. Therefore, anodic oxidation combined with UV irradiation can be used to enhance the biological properties of Ti-based implants.

  3. Effect of Ge surface termination on oxidation behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Younghwan; Park, Kibyung; Cho, Yong Soo; Lim, Sangwoo

    2008-09-01

    Sulfur-termination was formed on the Ge(1 0 0) surface using (NH 4) 2S solution. Formation of Ge-S and the oxidation of the S-terminated Ge surface were monitored with multiple internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In the 0.5, 5, or 20% (NH 4) 2S solution, H-termination on the Ge(1 0 0) surface was substituted with S-termination in 1 min. When the S-terminated Ge(1 0 0) surface was exposed in air ambient, the oxidation was retarded for about 3600 min. The preservation time of the oxide layer up to one monolayer of S-terminated Ge(1 0 0) surface was about 120 times longer than for the H-terminated Ge(1 0 0) surface. However, the oxidation of S-terminated Ge(1 0 0) surface drastically increased after the threshold time. There was no significant difference in threshold time between S-terminations formed in 0.5, 5, and 20% (NH 4) 2S solutions. With the surface oxidation, desorption of S on the Ge surface was observed. The desorption behavior of sulfur on the S-terminated Ge(1 0 0) surface was independent of the concentration of the (NH 4) 2S solution that forms S-termination. Non-ideal S-termination on Ge surfaces may be related to drastic oxidation of the Ge surface. Finally, with the desulfurization on the S-terminated Ge(1 0 0) surface, oxide growth is accelerated.

  4. In-vacuum scattered light reduction with black cupric oxide surfaces for sensitive fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrgard, E B; Sitaraman, N; Barry, J F; McCarron, D J; Steinecker, M H; DeMille, D

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a simple and easy method for producing low-reflectivity surfaces that are ultra-high vacuum compatible, may be baked to high temperatures, and are easily applied even on complex surface geometries. Black cupric oxide (CuO) surfaces are chemically grown in minutes on any copper surface, allowing for low-cost, rapid prototyping, and production. The reflective properties are measured to be comparable to commercially available products for creating optically black surfaces. We describe a vacuum apparatus which uses multiple blackened copper surfaces for sensitive, low-background detection of molecules using laser-induced fluorescence.

  5. Tailoring properties of reduced graphene oxide by oxygen plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratowicz, Izabela; Nadolska, Małgorzata; Şahin, Samet; Łapiński, Marcin; Prześniak-Welenc, Marta; Sawczak, Mirosław; Yu, Eileen H.; Sadowski, Wojciech; Żelechowska, Kamila

    2018-05-01

    We report an easily controllable, eco-friendly method for tailoring the properties of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by means of oxygen plasma. The effect of oxygen plasma treatment time (1, 5 and 10 min) on the surface properties of rGO was evaluated. Physicochemical characterization using microscopic, spectroscopic and thermal techniques was performed. The results revealed that different oxygen-containing groups (e.g. carboxyl, hydroxyl) were introduced on the rGO surface enhancing its wettability. Furthermore, upon longer treatment time, other functionalities were created (e.g. quinones, lactones). Moreover, external surface of rGO was partially etched resulting in an increase of the material surface area and porosity. Finally, the oxygen plasma-treated rGO electrodes with bilirubin oxidase were tested for oxygen reduction reaction. The study showed that rGO treated for 10 min exhibited twofold higher current density than untreated rGO. The oxygen plasma treatment may improve the enzyme adsorption on rGO electrodes by introduction of oxygen moieties and increasing the porosity.

  6. Surface properties of functional polymer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Derek

    Polymer surface modification typically involves blending with other polymers or chemical modification of the parent polymer. Such strategies inevitably result in polymer systems that are spatially and chemically heterogeneous, and which exhibit the phenomenon of surface segregation. This work investigates the effects of chain architecture on the surface segregation behavior of such functionally modified polymers using a series of end- and center-fluorinated poly(D,L-lactide). Surface segregation of the fluorinated functional groups was observed in both chain architectures via AMPS and water contact angle. Higher surface segregation was noted for functional groups located at the chain end as opposed to those in the middle of the chain. A self-consistent mean-field lattice theory was used to model the composition depth profiles of functional groups and excellent agreement was found between the model predictions and the experimental AMPS data in both chain architectures. Polymer properties are also in general dependent on both time and temperature, and exhibit a range of relaxation times in response to environmental stimuli. This behavior arises from the characteristic frequencies of molecular motions of the polymer chain and the interrelationship between time and temperature has been widely established for polymer bulk properties. There is evidence that surface properties also respond in a manner that is time and temperature dependent and that this dependence may not be the same as that observed for bulk properties. AMPS and water contact angle experiments were used to investigate the surface reorganization behavior of functional groups using a series of anionically synthesized end-fluorinated and end-carboxylated poly(styrene). It was found that both types of functional end-groups reorganized upon a change in the polarity of the surface environment in order to minimize the surface free energy. ADXPS and contact angle results suggest that the reorganization depth was

  7. Variation on wettability of anodic zirconium oxide nanotube surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lu-Ning; Shen, Chen; Shinbine, Alyssa; Luo, Jing-Li

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of fabrication conditions and environmental conditions, such as anodization voltage and aging period, on the wetting of zirconium dioxide nanotube (ZrNT) surfaces. Comparing with intact zirconium foil, which was inherently less hydrophilic, possessing an approximate contact angle of 60–70°, the as-formed ZrNT surfaces were much hydrophilic with an approximate contact angle of 18°. However, the hydrophilicity of the surfaces exhibited a decrease when the nanotubular opening diameters decreased while maintaining the nanotubular layer thickness. This phenomenon was attributed to the balance of capillary force and force generated by compressed air in the ZrNTs. The annealing treatment further increased the hydrophilic property of the ZrNTs. In addition, it was found that the wettability of ZrNTs, when aged in air over a period of 105 days, demonstrated a decrease in hydrophilic characteristics and exhibited, to some extent, an increase in hydrophobic characteristics. It was believed that the surface wettability was able to be changed due to the decreasing content of hydroxyl groups in ambient atmosphere. This work can provide guidelines for improving the structural and environmental conditions responsible for changing surface wettability of ZrNT surfaces for biomedical application. - Highlights: ► Wettability of zirconium oxide nanotubes (ZrNTs) was observed and characterized. ► Increasing of nanotubular diameter decreased the hydrophilicity of ZrNTs. ► Annealing processes enhanced the hydrophilicity of ZrNTs. ► Long term aging resulted in the hydrophobicity of ZrNTs

  8. Surface active properties of lipid nanocapsules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia R A Mouzouvi

    Full Text Available Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs are biomimetic nanocarriers used for the encapsulation of a broad variety of active ingredients. Similar to surface active compounds, LNCs contain both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts in their structure. Moreover, the components of LNCs, macrogol 15 hydroxystearate (MHS and lecithin, are known for their surface active properties. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate the capability of the LNCs to decrease surface tension using two techniques: drop tensiometry and the Wilhelmy plate method. LNCs with diameters ranging from 30 to 100 nm were successfully obtained using a phase inversion technique. The LNCs' properties, such as size and zeta potential, depend on the composition. LNCs exhibit a lower limiting surface tension compared to MHS (34.8-35.0 mN/m and 37.7-38.8 mN/m, respectively, as confirmed by both drop tensiometry and the Wilhelmy plate method. LNCs have exhibited a saturated interfacial concentration (SIC that was 10-fold higher than the critical micellar concentration (CMC of MHS or the SIC of binary and ternary mixtures of LNC ingredients. The SIC of the LNC formulations depended on the mass mixing ratio of the MHS/triglycerides but not on the presence of lecithin. The CMC/SIC values measured by the Wilhelmy plate method were higher than those obtained using drop tensiometry because of the longer duration of the tensiometry measurement. In conclusion, the surfactant-like properties of the LNCs offer new possibilities for medical and pharmaceutical applications.

  9. Oxidation and photo-oxidation of water on TiO2 surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valdes, A.; Qu, Z.W.; Kroes, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    The oxidation and photo-oxidation of water on the rutile TiO2(110) surface is investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We investigate the relative stability of different surface terminations of TiO2 interacting with H2O and analyze the overpotential needed for the electrol...

  10. Characterizing the statistical properties of protein surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Ji Hyun; Bitbol, Anne-Florence; Bialek, William

    Proteins and their interactions form the body of the signaling transduction pathway in many living systems. In order to ensure the accuracy as well as the specificity of signaling, it is crucial that proteins recognize their correct interaction partners. How difficult, then, is it for a protein to discriminate its correct interaction partner(s) from the possibly large set of other proteins it may encounter in the cell? An important ingredient of recognition is shape complementarity. The ensemble of protein shapes should be constrained by the need for maintaining functional interactions while avoiding spurious ones. To address this aspect of protein recognition, we consider the ensemble of proteins in terms of the shapes of their surfaces. We take into account the high-resolution structures of E.coli non-DNA-binding cytoplasmic proteins, retrieved from the Protein Data Bank. We aim to characterize the statistical properties of the protein surfaces at two levels: First, we study the intrinsic dimensionality at the level of the ensemble of the surface objects. Second, at the level of the individual surfaces, we determine the scale of shape variation. We further discuss how the dimensionality of the shape space is linked to the statistical properties of individual protein surfaces. Jhb and WB acknowledge support from National Science Foundation Grants PHY-1305525 and PHY-1521553. AFB acknowledges support from the Human Frontier Science Program.

  11. Mechanical properties of ion implanted ceramic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis investigates the mechanisms by which ion implantation can affect those surface mechanical properties of ceramics relevant to their tribological behaviour, specifically hardness and indentation fracture. A range of model materials (including single crystal Si, SiC, A1 2 0 3 , Mg0 and soda-lime-silica glass) have been implanted with a variety of ion species and at a range of ion energies. Significant changes have been found in both low-load microhardness and indentation fracture behaviour. The changes in hardness have been correlated with the evolution of an increasingly damaged and eventually amorphous thin surface layer together with the operation of radiation-, solid-solution- and precipitation-hardening mechanisms. Compressive surface stresses have been shown to be responsible for the observed changes in identation fracture behaviour. In addition, the levels of surface stress present have been correlated with the structure of the surface layer and a simple quantitative model proposed to explain the observed stress-relief upon amorphisation. Finally, the effects of ion implantation upon a range of polycrystalline ceramic materials has been investigated and the observed properties modifications compared and contrasted to those found for the model single crystal materials. (author)

  12. Welcome to Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard

    2013-11-01

    I am delighted to welcome readers to this inaugural issue of Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties (STMP). In these days of citation indexes and academic reviews, it is a tough, and maybe a brave, job to start a new journal. But the subject area has never been more active and we are seeing genuine breakthroughs in the use of surfaces to control functional performance. Most manufactured parts rely on some form of control of their surface characteristics. The surface is usually defined as that feature on a component or device, which interacts with either the environment in which it is housed (or in which the device operates), or with another surface. The surface topography and material characteristics of a part can affect how fluids interact with it, how the part looks and feels and how two bearing parts will slide together. The need to control, and hence measure, surface features is becoming increasingly important as we move into a miniaturized world. Surface features can become the dominant functional features of a part and may become large in comparison to the overall size of an object. Research into surface texture measurement and characterization has been carried out for over a century and is now more active than ever, especially as new areal surface texture specification standards begin to be introduced. The range of disciplines for which the function of a surface relates to its topography is very diverse; from metal sheet manufacturing to art restoration, from plastic electronics to forensics. Until now, there has been no obvious publishing venue to bring together all these applications with the underlying research and theory, or to unite those working in academia with engineering and industry. Hence the creation of Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties . STMP will publish the best work being done across this broad discipline in one journal, helping researchers to share common themes and highlighting and promoting the extraordinary benefits this

  13. Modelling of low energy ion sputtering from oxide surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubart, T; Nyberg, T; Berg, S

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this work is to present a way to estimate the values of surface binding energy for oxides. This is done by fitting results from the binary collisions approximation code Tridyn with data from the reactive sputtering processing curves, as well as the elemental composition obtained from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Oxide targets of Al, Ti, V, Nb and Ta are studied. The obtained surface binding energies are then used to predict the partial sputtering yields. Anomalously high sputtering yield is observed for the TiO 2 target. This is attributed to the high sputtering yield of Ti lower oxides. Such an effect is not observed for the other studied metals. XPS measurement of the oxide targets confirms the formation of suboxides during ion bombardment as well as an oxygen deficient surface in the steady state. These effects are confirmed from the processing curves from the oxide targets showing an elevated sputtering rate in pure argon.

  14. Optimum deposition, structure, and properties of tantalum oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.C.

    1985-01-01

    Amorphous, ductile, and uniform Ta 2 O 5 films that acted as diffusion barriers were developed by sputter depositing Ta metal on Al single crystals (99.99%) and subsequently anodizing these thin films. The morphology, microstructure, composition and properties were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, surface and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and fluorescence. Superior corrosion resistance in a water saturated Cl 2 atmosphere was provided by Ta 2 O 5 coating on Al single crystal substrates but not on Al alloys. The strong Ta-O bond, the non-porous nature of the film and good adhesion to the substrate are attributed to the outstanding corrosion resistance of these oxide coatings. Al alloy surfaces are not protected, since the anodic film formed over grain boundaries, processing lines and emergent precipitates is poorly adherent, thus providing loci for corrosion. These problems were eliminated by casting a 400 A layer of tantalum oxyhydroxide polymer from ethanol solution onto Al substrate and curing to a Ta 2 O 5 layer that effectively resisted attack by wet Cl 2 . The mechanical properties of Ta 2 O 5 films on Al alloys were studied at various pH's by in-situ fatigue loading coupled with electrochemical measurements of corrosion potential and corrosion current. These results indicate the fatigue resistance of this oxide film effectively protects the underlying metal from strong HCl solution attack. The very unusual ductility and high corrosion resistance of Ta 2 O 5 films could be related to the graphite-like structure that exists in the amorphous state of this oxide

  15. Fenton Redox Chemistry : Arsenite Oxidation by Metallic Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borges Freitas, S.C.; Van Halem, D.; Badruzzaman, A.B.M.; Van der Meer, W.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Pre-oxidation of As(III) is necessary in arsenic removal processes in order to increase its efficiency. Therefore, the Fenton Redox Chemistry is defined by catalytic activation of H2O2 and currently common used for its redox oxidative properties. In this study the effect of H2O2 production catalysed

  16. Thermal Treatment of Cerium Oxide and Its Properties: Adsorption Ability versus Degradation Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Janoš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide belongs to the most important heterogeneous catalysts, but its applicability as so-called reactive sorbent for the degradation of toxic chemicals was only recently discovered. For these purposes, cerium oxide is prepared by precipitation of insoluble cerium salts (carbonates with a subsequent thermal decomposition. Properties of cerium oxide prepared from the carbonate precursor are strongly affected by the temperature during the calcination. Main physicochemical properties of cerium oxide (specific surface area, crystallinity, and surface chemistry were examined in dependence on the calcination temperature. As the adsorptive properties of CeO2 are undoubtedly of great importance in the abovementioned applications, the adsorption ability was studied using an azo dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7 as a model compound. The highest sorption efficiency towards AO7 exhibited sorbents prepared at temperatures below 700°C, which was attributed mainly to the presence of hydroxyl groups on the oxide surface. A strong correlation was found between an adsorption efficiency of cerium oxides and their degradation efficiency for organophosphate pesticide parathion methyl. The >Ce–OH groups on the sorbent surface are responsible for the dye binding by the surface-complexation mechanism, and probably also for the nucleophilic cleavage of the P–O–aryl bond in the pesticide molecule.

  17. Surface-Controlled Metal Oxide Resistive Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Ke, Jr-Jian

    2015-10-28

    To explore the surface effect on resistive random-access memory (ReRAM), the impact of surface roughness on the characteristics of ZnO ReRAM were studied. The thickness-independent resistance and the higher switching probability of ZnO ReRAM with rough surfaces indicate the importance of surface oxygen chemisorption on the switching process. Furthermore, the improvements in switching probability, switching voltage and resistance distribution observed for ReRAM with rough surfaces can be attributed to the stable oxygen adatoms under various ambience conditions. The findings validate the surface-controlled stability and uniformity of ReRAM and can serve as the guideline for developing practical device applications.

  18. Methanol Oxidation on Model Elemental and Bimetallic Transition Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tritsaris, G. A.; Rossmeisl, J.

    2012-01-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells are a key enabling technology for clean energy conversion. Using density functional theory calculations, we study the methanol oxidation reaction on model electrodes. We discuss trends in reactivity for a set of monometallic and bimetallic transition metal surfaces, flat...... sites on the surface and to screen for novel bimetallic surfaces of enhanced activity. We suggest platinum copper surfaces as promising anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells....

  19. Surface modification of indium tin oxide for direct writing of silver nanoparticulate ink micropatterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vunnam, Swathi; Ankireddy, Krishnamraju; Kellar, Jon; Cross, William

    2013-01-01

    Surface treatment techniques were deployed to alter the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) samples to attain a favorable interface between printed nano-inks and ITO surface. Surface free energy components of treated ITO substrates were calculated for each treatment using the van Oss–Chaudhury–Good method. The surface treatments of ITO changed the Lifshitz–van der Waals and Lewis acid–base components, and contact angle hysteresis significantly. Among all the surface treatments, air plasma treated samples showed high polar in nature, whereas dodecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayer treated sample showed the lowest. In addition to the polarity and homogeneity, the surface roughness of the ITO was studied with respect to the surface treatment. Silver nanoparticulate ink was printed on treated ITO surfaces using aerosol jet printing system. Printed silver nano-ink line width and morphology strongly depended on the surface treatment of the ITO, ink properties and printing parameters. - Highlights: ► Surface treatments on indium tin oxide (ITO) altered its surface free energy. ► Surface free energies were studied in terms of acid–base components. ► ITO surface morphology and roughness were changed with the surface treatment. ► Silver ink was printed on treated ITO samples using aerosol jet printing system. ► Line widths of printed patterns clearly depended on the surface free energy of ITO

  20. Surface modification of indium tin oxide for direct writing of silver nanoparticulate ink micropatterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vunnam, Swathi, E-mail: swathi.vunnam@mines.sdsmt.edu [Nanoscience and Nanoengineering Department, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD-57701 (United States); Ankireddy, Krishnamraju; Kellar, Jon; Cross, William [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD-57701 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Surface treatment techniques were deployed to alter the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) samples to attain a favorable interface between printed nano-inks and ITO surface. Surface free energy components of treated ITO substrates were calculated for each treatment using the van Oss–Chaudhury–Good method. The surface treatments of ITO changed the Lifshitz–van der Waals and Lewis acid–base components, and contact angle hysteresis significantly. Among all the surface treatments, air plasma treated samples showed high polar in nature, whereas dodecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayer treated sample showed the lowest. In addition to the polarity and homogeneity, the surface roughness of the ITO was studied with respect to the surface treatment. Silver nanoparticulate ink was printed on treated ITO surfaces using aerosol jet printing system. Printed silver nano-ink line width and morphology strongly depended on the surface treatment of the ITO, ink properties and printing parameters. - Highlights: ► Surface treatments on indium tin oxide (ITO) altered its surface free energy. ► Surface free energies were studied in terms of acid–base components. ► ITO surface morphology and roughness were changed with the surface treatment. ► Silver ink was printed on treated ITO samples using aerosol jet printing system. ► Line widths of printed patterns clearly depended on the surface free energy of ITO.

  1. Optical properties and electronic transitions of zinc oxide, ferric oxide, cerium oxide, and samarium oxide in the ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauly, N; Yubero, F; Espinós, J P

    2017-01-01

    Optical properties and electronic transitions of four oxides, namely zinc oxide, ferric oxide, cerium oxide, and samarium oxide, are determined in the ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy using primary electron energies in the range 0.3-2.0 ke...

  2. Mechanism and Thermochemistry of Coal Char Oxidation and Desorption of Surface Oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Gianluca; Causà, Mauro; Lacovig, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the coal char combustion by a combination of thermochemical and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. Thermoanalytical methods (differential thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, and temperature-programmed desorption) are used to identify...... the key reactive steps that occur upon oxidation and heating of coal char (chemisorption, structural rearrangement and switchover of surface oxides, and desorption) and their energetics. XPS is used to reveal the chemical nature of the surface oxides that populate the char surface and to monitor...... functionalities prevail. The rearrangement of epoxy during preoxidation goes together with activation of the more stable and less reactive carbon sites. Results are in good agreement with semi-lumped kinetic models of carbon oxidation, which include (1) formation of "metastable" surface oxides, (2) complex...

  3. Influence of substrate preparation on the shaping of the topography of the surface of nanoceramic oxide layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Marek; Kubica, Marek

    2014-02-01

    The paper discusses the shaping mechanism and changes occurring in the structure and topography of the surface of nanoceramic oxide layers during their formation. The paper presents the influence of substrate preparation on the surface topography of oxide layers. The layers were produced via hard anodizing on the EN AW-5251 aluminum alloy. The layers obtained were subjected to microscope examinations, image and chemical composition analyses, and stereometric examinations. Heredity of substrate properties in the topography of the surface of nanoceramic oxide layers formed as a result of electrochemical oxidation has been shown.

  4. Effect of partial oxygen pressure on physicochemical properties of Kh18N10T steel at isothermal oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, V.N.; Oshe, E.K.; Fokin, M.N.; Bogdanova, S.V.; Loskutov, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Auger-electron spectroscopy, photoelectric polarization, conductometry methods have been used to analyze chemical and defect composition of surface oxide layers, formed on stainless steel Kh18N10T in vacuum (10 -9 - 10 -2 torr) and at temperatures 593-673 K. The boundary conditions of manifestation of extermal behaviour of the dependence of the surface oxide growth rate at isothermal oxidation of this steel are determined. The relation between passivation properties of the surface oxide and the magnitude of the edge angle of the surface wetting with molten tin is revealed

  5. Recent progress in the development and understanding of silicon surface passivation by aluminum oxide for photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, G.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the recent years, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the unique silicon surface passivation properties of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) films including its underlying mechanisms. Containing a high fixed negative charge density located close to the Si interface, Al2O3 provides a

  6. Small Punch Tests at Oxide Scales Surface of Structural Steel and Low Silicon Steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, J.; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Horský, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 82, 3-4 (2014), s. 297-310 ISSN 0030-770X Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Small punch * Oxide scales * X-ray diffraction * Mechanical properties Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2014

  7. Surface Embedded Metal Oxide Sensors (SEMOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper Lebæk; Talat Ali, Syed; Pleth Nielsen, Lars

    SEMOS is a joint project between Aalborg University, Danish Technological Institute and Danish Technical University in which micro temperature sensors and metal oxide-based gas sensors are developed and tested in a simulated fuel cell environment as well as in actual working fuel cells. Initially......, sensors for measuring the temperatures in an operating HT-PEM (High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cell are developed for detecting in-plane temperature variations. 5 different tracks for embedded thermal sensors are investigated. The fuel cell MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly) is quite...... complex and sensors are not easily implemented in the construction. Hence sensor interface and sensor position must therefore be chosen carefully in order to make the sensors as non-intrusive as possible. Metal Oxide Sensors (MOX) for measuring H2, O2 and CO concentration in a fuel cell environment...

  8. Interaction of ammonia with semiconducting oxide surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Sandeep; Sahoo, Suman Kalyan; Majumder, Chiranjib

    2018-04-01

    Using density functional theory (DFT) we have investigated the adsorption of NH3 molecule on the rutile SnO2(110) and mixed Sn0.5Ti0.5O2(110) surfaces. NH3 molecule gets absorbed on the 5-coordinated Sn atom (Sn5c) of the surface in tilted mode having an additional hydrogen bond with nearby surface bridged oxygen (Obr) atom. After adsorption, 3a1 molecular orbital of ammonia undergo significant dispersal as it donates its electron to surface atoms. The adsorption energy is found to be 1.4-1.6eV. Inclusion of Ti atoms in the SnO2 lattice leads to decrease in the adsorption energy value.

  9. Surface-Controlled Metal Oxide Resistive Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Ke, Jr-Jian; Namura, Kyoko; Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon; Ho, Chin-Hsiang; Minamitake, Haruhiko; Wei, Tzu-Chiao; Tsai, Dung-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Ho; Suzuki, Motofumi; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    be attributed to the stable oxygen adatoms under various ambience conditions. The findings validate the surface-controlled stability and uniformity of ReRAM and can serve as the guideline for developing practical device applications.

  10. Theoretical studies of positron states and annihilation characteristics at the oxidized Cu(100) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazleev, N. G. [Department of Physics, Box 19059, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington Texas 76019 (United States) and Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kremlevskaya18, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Weiss, A. H. [Department of Physics, Box 19059, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington Texas 76019 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    In this work we present the results of theoretical studies of positron surface and bulk states and annihilation probabilities of surface-trapped positrons with relevant core electrons at the oxidized Cu(100) surface under conditions of high oxygen coverage. An ab-initio study of the electronic properties of the Cu(100) missing row reconstructed surface at various on surface and sub-surface oxygen coverages has been performed on the basis of the density functional theory (DFT) using the Dmol3 code and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Surface structures in calculations have been constructed by adding oxygen atoms to various surface hollow and sub-surface octahedral sites of the 0.5 monolayer (ML) missing row reconstructed phase of the Cu(100) surface with oxygen coverages ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 ML. The charge redistribution at the surface and variations in atomic structure and chemical composition of the topmost layers associated with oxidation and surface reconstruction have been found to affect the spatial extent and localization of the positron surface state wave function and annihilation probabilities of surface trapped positrons with relevant core electrons. Theoretical results are compared with experimental data obtained from studies of oxidation of the Cu(100) surface using positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES). It has been shown that positron annihilation probabilities with Cu 3s and 3p core electrons decrease when total (on-surface and sub-surface) oxygen coverage of the Cu(100) surface increases up to 1 ML. The calculations show that for high oxygen coverage when total oxygen coverage is 1. 5 ML the positron is not bound to the surface.

  11. Thermodynamic properties of water solvating biomolecular surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyden, Matthias

    Changes in the potential energy and entropy of water molecules hydrating biomolecular interfaces play a significant role for biomolecular solubility and association. Free energy perturbation and thermodynamic integration methods allow calculations of free energy differences between two states from simulations. However, these methods are computationally demanding and do not provide insights into individual thermodynamic contributions, i.e. changes in the solvent energy or entropy. Here, we employ methods to spatially resolve distributions of hydration water thermodynamic properties in the vicinity of biomolecular surfaces. This allows direct insights into thermodynamic signatures of the hydration of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solvent accessible sites of proteins and small molecules and comparisons to ideal model surfaces. We correlate dynamic properties of hydration water molecules, i.e. translational and rotational mobility, to their thermodynamics. The latter can be used as a guide to extract thermodynamic information from experimental measurements of site-resolved water dynamics. Further, we study energy-entropy compensations of water at different hydration sites of biomolecular surfaces. This work is supported by the Cluster of Excellence RESOLV (EXC 1069) funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  12. Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.

  13. Measuring Forces between Oxide Surfaces Using the Atomic Force Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Guldberg; Høj, Jakob Weiland

    1996-01-01

    The interactions between colloidal particles play a major role in processing of ceramics, especially in casting processes. With the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) it is possible to measure the inter-action force between a small oxide particle (a few micron) and a surface as function of surface...

  14. Fractional surface termination of diamond by electrochemical oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, René; Obloh, Harald; Tokuda, Norio; Yang, Nianjun; Nebel, Christoph E

    2012-01-10

    The crystalline form of sp(3)-hybridized carbon, diamond, offers various electrolyte-stable surface terminations. The H-termination-selective attachment of nitrophenyl diazonium, imaged by AFM, shows that electrochemical oxidation can control the fractional hydrogen/oxygen surface termination of diamond on the nanometer scale. This is of particular interest for all applications relying on interfacial electrochemistry, especially for biointerfaces.

  15. Effect of Surface Treatment on the Properties of Wool Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, C. W.; Yuen, C. W. M.; Chan, C. K.; Lau, M. P.

    Wool fiber is commonly used in textile industry, however, it has some technical problems which affect the quality and performance of the finished products such as felting shrinkage, handle, lustre, pilling, and dyeability. These problems may be attributed mainly in the presence of wool scales on the fiber surface. Recently, chemical treatments such as oxidation and reduction are the commonly used descaling methods in the industry. However, as a result of the pollution caused by various chemical treatments, physical treatment such as low temperature plasma (LTP) treatment has been introduced recently because it is similarly capable of achieving a comparable descaling effect. Most of the discussions on the applications of LTP treatment on wool fiber were focused on applying this technique for improving the surface wettability and shrink resistance. Meanwhile, little discussion has been made on the mechanical properties, thermal properties, and the air permeability. In this paper, wool fabric was treated with LTP treatment with the use of a non-polymerizing gas, namely oxygen. After the LTP treatment, the fabrics low-stress mechanical properties, air permeability, and thermal properties were evaluated and discussed.

  16. Ni-doped (CeO{sub 2−δ})–YSZ mesoarchitectured with nanocrystalline framework: the effect of thermal treatment on structure, surface chemistry and catalytic properties in the partial oxidation of methane (CPOM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somacescu, Simona, E-mail: ssimona@icf.ro [Romanian Academy, “Ilie Murgulescu” Institute of Physical Chemistry (Romania); Florea, Mihaela [University of Bucharest, Department of Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry and Catalysis, Faculty of Chemistry (Romania); Osiceanu, Petre; Calderon-Moreno, Jose Maria [Romanian Academy, “Ilie Murgulescu” Institute of Physical Chemistry (Romania); Ghica, Corneliu [National Institute of Materials Physics (Romania); Serra, Jose Manuel [Universidad Politécnica de Valencia - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto de Tecnología Química (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    Ni-doped (CeO{sub 2−δ})–YSZ (5 mol% Ni oxide, 10 mol% ceria) mesoarchitectures (MA) with nanocrystalline framework have been synthesized by an original, facile and cheap approach based on Triton X100 nonionic surfactant as template and water as solvent at a strong basic pH value. Following the hydrothermal treatment under autogenous pressure (∼18 bars), Ni, Ce, Y, and Zr were well ordered as MA with nanocrystalline framework, assuring thermal stability. A comprehensive investigation of structure, texture, morphology, and surface chemistry was performed by means of a variety of complementary techniques (X-Ray Diffraction, XRD; Raman Spectroscopy, RS; Brunauer—Emmett—Teller, BET; Temperature—Programmed Reduction, TPR; Transmission Electron Microscopy, TEM and DF-STEM; X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, XPS; Catalytic activity and selectivity). N{sub 2} sorption measurements highlighted that the mesoporous structure is formed at 600 °C and remains stable at 800 °C. At 900 °C, the MA collapses, favoring the formation of macropores. The XRD and Raman Spectroscopy of all samples showed the presence of a pure, single phase with fluorite-type structure. At 900 °C, an increased tetragonal distortion of the cubic lattice was observed. The surface chemistry probed by XPS exhibits a mixture of oxidation states (Ce{sup 3+} + Ce{sup 4+}) with high percentage of Ce{sup 3+} valence state ∼35 % and (Ni{sup 3+} and Ni{sup 2+}) oxidation states induced by the thermal treatment. These nanoparticles assembled into MA show high stability and selectivity over time in catalytic partial oxidation of methane (CPOM). These promising performances suggest an interesting prospect for introduction as anode within IT-SOFC assemblies.Graphical Abstract.

  17. Ni-doped (CeO2−δ)–YSZ mesoarchitectured with nanocrystalline framework: the effect of thermal treatment on structure, surface chemistry and catalytic properties in the partial oxidation of methane (CPOM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somacescu, Simona; Florea, Mihaela; Osiceanu, Petre; Calderon-Moreno, Jose Maria; Ghica, Corneliu; Serra, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Ni-doped (CeO 2−δ )–YSZ (5 mol% Ni oxide, 10 mol% ceria) mesoarchitectures (MA) with nanocrystalline framework have been synthesized by an original, facile and cheap approach based on Triton X100 nonionic surfactant as template and water as solvent at a strong basic pH value. Following the hydrothermal treatment under autogenous pressure (∼18 bars), Ni, Ce, Y, and Zr were well ordered as MA with nanocrystalline framework, assuring thermal stability. A comprehensive investigation of structure, texture, morphology, and surface chemistry was performed by means of a variety of complementary techniques (X-Ray Diffraction, XRD; Raman Spectroscopy, RS; Brunauer—Emmett—Teller, BET; Temperature—Programmed Reduction, TPR; Transmission Electron Microscopy, TEM and DF-STEM; X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, XPS; Catalytic activity and selectivity). N 2 sorption measurements highlighted that the mesoporous structure is formed at 600 °C and remains stable at 800 °C. At 900 °C, the MA collapses, favoring the formation of macropores. The XRD and Raman Spectroscopy of all samples showed the presence of a pure, single phase with fluorite-type structure. At 900 °C, an increased tetragonal distortion of the cubic lattice was observed. The surface chemistry probed by XPS exhibits a mixture of oxidation states (Ce 3+  + Ce 4+ ) with high percentage of Ce 3+ valence state ∼35 % and (Ni 3+ and Ni 2+ ) oxidation states induced by the thermal treatment. These nanoparticles assembled into MA show high stability and selectivity over time in catalytic partial oxidation of methane (CPOM). These promising performances suggest an interesting prospect for introduction as anode within IT-SOFC assemblies.Graphical Abstract

  18. Heterogeneous nucleation of calcium oxalate on native oxide surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, L.; Pattillo, M.J.; Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.

    1994-04-01

    The aqueous deposition of calcium oxalate onto colloidal oxides has been studied as a model system for understanding heterogeneous nucleation processes of importance in biomimetic synthesis of ceramic thin films. Calcium oxalate nucleation has been monitored by measuring induction times for nucleation using Constant Composition techniques and by measuring nucleation densities on extended oxide surfaces using an atomic force microscope. Results show that the dependence of calcium oxalate nucleation on solution supersaturation fits the functional form predicted by classical nucleation theories. Anionic surfaces appear to promote nucleation better than cationic surfaces, lowering the effective energy barrier to heterogeneous nucleation

  19. Characterisation and surface reactions of iron oxides and fluorapatite in aqueous suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Jarlbring, Mathias

    2004-01-01

    The final objective of this study is to produce chemical models of flotation- like systems, including oxidation products of magnetite (maghemite and hematite) together with apatite. This is started by investigating the acid base properties, surface complexation and surface characteristics of the systems hematite-H+ and maghemite-H+ (paper I), fluorapatite-OH- (paper II) and a mixed system of maghemite-fluorapatite-OH- (paper III). Synthetic minerals were prepared and characterised with BET, S...

  20. Surface properties of copper based cermet materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinea, M.; Vladuta, C.; Bogatu, C.; Duta, A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the characterization of the surface properties of copper based cermets obtained by two different techniques: spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) and electrodeposition. Copper acetate was used as precursor of Cu/CuO x cermet. The surface morphology was tailored by adding copolymers of maleic anhydride with controlled hydrophobia. The films morphology of Cu/CuO x was assessed using contact angle measurements and AFM analysis. The porous structures obtained via SPD lead to higher liquid adsorption rate than the electrodeposited films. A highly polar liquid - water is recommended as testing liquid in contact angle measurements, for estimating the porosity of copper based cermets, while glycerol can be used to distinguish among ionic and metal predominant structures. Thus, contact angle measurements can be used for a primary evaluation of the films morphology and, on the other hand, of the ratio between the cermet components

  1. Layer Dependence of Graphene for Oxidation Resistance of Cu Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-qing Song; Xiao-ping Wang

    2017-01-01

    We studied the oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu surface and its layer dependence by directly growing monolayer graphene with different multilayer structures coexisted,diminishing the influence induced by residue and transfer technology.It is found that the Cu surface coated with the monolayer graphene demonstrate tremendous difference in oxidation pattern and oxidation rate,compared to that coated with the bilayer graphene,which is considered to be originated from the strain-induced linear oxidation channel in monolayer graphene and the intersection of easily-oxidized directions in each layer of bilayer graphene,respectively.We reveal that the defects on the graphene basal plane but not the boundaries are the main oxidation channel for Cu surface under graphene protection.Our finding indicates that compared to putting forth efforts to improve the quality of monolayer graphene by reducing defects,depositing multilayer graphene directly on metal is a simple and effective way to enhance the oxidation resistance of graphene-coated metals.

  2. Indium-tin oxide surface treatments: Effects on the performance of liquid crystal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahmen, A.; Romdhane, F.F.; Ben Ouada, H.; Gharbi, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the effect of indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate cleaning on the surface properties. Wettability technique was used to measure the contact angle and the surface energy of the different treated ITO substrates. It is found that treatment with the methanol without dehydration gives the lowest water contact angle (most hydrophilic surface) and the highest surface energy compared to other solvents. This result was confirmed by impedance measurements performed on nematic liquid crystal cells with ITO electrodes. Indeed, we check the decrease of ionic entities in the interface ITO/liquid crystal. The polarity and dielectric parameters of the used solvents explain the obtained results

  3. Indium-tin oxide surface treatments: Effects on the performance of liquid crystal devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abderrahmen, A. [Laboratoire de physique et chimie des interfaces, Faculte des sciences, 5000, Monastir (Tunisia)]. E-mail: asma_abderrahmen@yahoo.fr; Romdhane, F.F. [Laboratoire de la matiere molle, Faculte des sciences, Tunis (Tunisia); Ben Ouada, H. [Laboratoire de physique et chimie des interfaces, Faculte des sciences, 5000, Monastir (Tunisia); Gharbi, A. [Laboratoire de la matiere molle, Faculte des sciences, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2006-03-15

    In this work, we investigate the effect of indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate cleaning on the surface properties. Wettability technique was used to measure the contact angle and the surface energy of the different treated ITO substrates. It is found that treatment with the methanol without dehydration gives the lowest water contact angle (most hydrophilic surface) and the highest surface energy compared to other solvents. This result was confirmed by impedance measurements performed on nematic liquid crystal cells with ITO electrodes. Indeed, we check the decrease of ionic entities in the interface ITO/liquid crystal. The polarity and dielectric parameters of the used solvents explain the obtained results.

  4. Volcano Relations for Oxidation of Hydrogen Halides over Rutile Oxide Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftelund, Anja; Man, Isabela C.; Hansen, Heine A.

    2012-01-01

    over a range of different rutile oxide surfaces. Based on the scaling relations, two descriptors are identified that describe the reactions uniquely. By combining scaling with the micro-kinetic model, activity volcanoes for the three different oxidation reactions are derived. It is found...

  5. Effect of surface oxidation on the nm-scale wear behavior of a metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, A.; Louzguine-Luzguin, D. V.; Sharma, P.; Inoue, A.; Shluger, A.; Fecht, H.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Metallic glasses are good candidates for applications in micromechanical systems. With size reduction of mechanical components into the micrometer and submicrometer range, the native surface oxide layer starts playing an important role in contact mechanical applications of metallic glasses. We use atomic force microscopy to investigate the wear behavior of the Ni 62 Nb 38 metallic glass with a native oxide layer and with an oxide grown after annealing in air. After the annealing, the wear rate is found to have significantly decreased. Also the dependency of the specific wear on the velocity is found to be linear in the case of the as spun sample while it follows a power law in the case of the sample annealed in air. We discuss these results in relation to the friction behavior and properties of the surface oxide layer obtained on the same alloy.

  6. Altering the structure and properties of iron oxide nanoparticles and graphene oxide/iron oxide composites by urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naghdi, Samira [Physics department, Bu-Ali Sina University, 65174 Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 446-701 Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Kyong Yop, E-mail: rheeky@khu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 446-701 Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Jaleh, Babak [Physics department, Bu-Ali Sina University, 65174 Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Park, Soo Jin [Chemistry, Colloge of Natural Science, Inha University, 402-751 Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were directly grown on graphene oxide (GO) using a facile microwave assistant method. • The effect of urea concentration on Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles and GO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite was examined. • Increasing urea concentration altered the morphology and decreased the particle size. • The increased concentration of urea induced a larger surface area with more active sites in the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. • The increase in urea concentration led to decreased thermal stability of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. - Abstract: Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were grown on graphene oxide (GO) using a simple microwave-assisted method. The effects of urea concentration on Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles and GO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite were examined. The as-prepared samples were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were uniformly developed on GO sheets. The results showed that urea affects both Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} morphology and particle size. In the absence of urea, the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures exhibited a rod-like morphology. However, increasing urea concentration altered the morphology and decreased the particle size. The Raman results of GO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed that the intensity ratio of D band to G band (I{sub D}/I{sub G}) was decreased by addition of urea, indicating that urea can preserve the GO sheets during synthesis of the composite from exposing more defects. The surface area and thermal stability of GO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were compared using the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method and thermal gravimetric analysis, respectively. The results showed that the increased concentration of urea induced a larger surface area with more active sites in the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. However, the increase in urea

  7. Plasma surface oxidation of 316L stainless steel for improving adhesion strength of silicone rubber coating to metal substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latifi, Afrooz, E-mail: afroozlatifi@yahoo.com [Department of Biomaterials, Biomedical Engineering Faculty, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Imani, Mohammad [Novel Drug Delivery Systems Dept., Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965/115, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorasani, Mohammad Taghi [Biomaterials Dept., Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965/159, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Daliri Joupari, Morteza [Animal and Marine Biotechnology Dept., National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, P.O. Box 14965/161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Stainless steel 316L was surface modified by plasma surface oxidation (PSO) and silicone rubber (SR) coating. • On the PSO substrates, concentration of oxide species was increased ca. 2.5 times comparing to non-PSO substrates. • The surface wettability was improved to 12.5°, in terms of water contact angle, after PSO. • Adhesion strength of SR coating on the PSO substrates was improved by more than two times comparing to non-PSO ones. • After pull-off test, the fractured area patterns for SR coating were dependent on the type of surface modifications received. - Abstract: Stainless steel 316L is one of the most widely used materials for fabricating of biomedical devices hence, improving its surface properties is still of great interest and challenging in biomaterial sciences. Plasma oxidation, in comparison to the conventional chemical or mechanical methods, is one of the most efficient methods recently used for surface treatment of biomaterials. Here, stainless steel specimens were surface oxidized by radio-frequency plasma irradiation operating at 34 MHz under pure oxygen atmosphere. Surface chemical composition of the samples was significantly changed after plasma oxidation by appearance of the chromium and iron oxides on the plasma-oxidized surface. A wettable surface, possessing high surface energy (83.19 mN m{sup −1}), was observed after plasma oxidation. Upon completion of the surface modification process, silicone rubber was spray coated on the plasma-treated stainless steel surface. Morphology of the silicone rubber coating was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A uniform coating was formed on the oxidized surface with no delamination at polymer–metal interface. Pull-off tests showed the lowest adhesion strength of coating to substrate (0.12 MPa) for untreated specimens and the highest (0.89 MPa) for plasma-oxidized ones.

  8. Structural and Electrochemical Properties of Lithium Nickel Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-bong Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available LiNiO2 thin films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering. The microstructure of the films was determined by X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties were investigated with a battery cycler using coin-type half-cells. The LiNiO2 thin films annealed below 500°C had the surface carbonate. The results suggest that surface carbonate interrupted the Li intercalation and deintercalation during charge/discharge. Although the annealing process enhanced the crystallization of LiNiO2, the capacity did not increase. When the annealing temperature was increased to 600°C, the FeCrNiO4 oxide phase was generated and the discharge capacity decreased due to an oxygen deficiency in the LiNiO2 thin film. The ZrO2-coated LiNiO2 thin film provided an improved discharge capacity compared to bare LiNiO2 thin film suggesting that the improved electrochemical characteristic may be attributed to the inhibition of surface carbonate by ZrO2 coating layer.

  9. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Diamond. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2000, 84, 5160−5163. (31) Ownby, P. D.; Yang, X.; Liu, J. Calculated X-Ray-Diffraction Data for Diamond Polytypes. J. Am. Ceram...Surfaces from Ab-Initio Calculations . Phys. Rev. B 1995, 51, 14669−14685. (39) Ferrari, A. C.; Robertson, J. Raman Spectroscopy of Amorphous, Nanostructured...Y.; Takami, S.; Kubo , M.; Belosludov, R. V.; Miyamoto, A.; Imamura, A.; Gamo, M. N.; Ando, T. First-Principle Study on Reactions of Diamond (100

  10. Effects of surface crystallization and oxidation in nanocrystalline FeNbCuSiB(P) ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butvinová, B., E-mail: beata.butvinova@savba.sk [Institute of Physics SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Butvin, P. [Institute of Physics SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Brzózka, K. [Department of Physics, University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Krasickiego 54, 26-600 Radom (Poland); Kuzminski, M. [Institute of Physics PAS, Al. Lotnikow 36/42, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Maťko, I.; Švec Sr, P. [Institute of Physics SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Chromčíková, M. [Institute of Inorg. Chem. SAS, Centrum VILA, Študentská 2, 911 50 Trenčín (Slovakia)

    2017-02-15

    Si-poor Fe{sub 74}Nb{sub 3}Cu{sub 1}Si{sub 8}B{sub 14−x}P{sub x}, (x=0, 3) nanocrystalline ribbon-form alloys often form surfaces, which exert in-plane force on underlying ribbon interior when nanocrystallized in even modest presence of oxygen. Mostly unwanted hard-ribbon-axis magnetic anisotropy is standard result. Essential sources of the surface-caused stress have been sought and influence of P instead of B substitution on this effect was studied too. Preferred surface crystallization (PSC) was found to be the major reason. However P substitution suppresses PSC and promotes Fe-oxide formation, which eases the stress, softens the surfaces and provides different annealing evolution of surface properties. - Highlights: • Ar anneal of low-Si FeNbCuBSi ribbons produce surfaces that stress ribbon interior. • The stress comes mainly from preferred crystallization of surfaces. • Partial substitution of B by P changes annealing evolution of surface properties. • Without P, more crystalline surfaces significantly reduce ribbon's elasticity. • P suppresses surface crystallinity, promotes oxides and reduces mutual stress.

  11. Surface modification, characterization and adsorptive properties of a coconut activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Xincheng [Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, CAF, National Engineering Lab. for Biomass Chemical Utilization, Key and Open Lab. of Forest Chemical Engineering, SFA, Key Lab. of Biomass Energy and Material, Jiangsu Province, Suojin wucun 16, Nanjing 210042 (China); Jiang Jianchun, E-mail: lhs_ac2011@yahoo.cn [Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, CAF, National Engineering Lab. for Biomass Chemical Utilization, Key and Open Lab. of Forest Chemical Engineering, SFA, Key Lab. of Biomass Energy and Material, Jiangsu Province, Suojin wucun 16, Nanjing 210042 (China); Sun Kang; Xie Xinping; Hu Yiming [Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, CAF, National Engineering Lab. for Biomass Chemical Utilization, Key and Open Lab. of Forest Chemical Engineering, SFA, Key Lab. of Biomass Energy and Material, Jiangsu Province, Suojin wucun 16, Nanjing 210042 (China)

    2012-08-01

    A coconut activated carbon was modified using chemical methods. Different concentration of nitric acid oxidation of the conventional sample produced samples with weakly acidic functional groups. The oxidized samples were characterized by scanning electron micrograph, nitrogen absorption-desorption, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy, Bothem method, pH titration, adsorption capacity of sodium and formaldehyde, and the adsorption mechanism of activated carbons was investigated. The results showed that BET surface area and pore volume of activated carbons were decreased after oxidization process, while acidic functional groups were increased. The surface morphology of oxidized carbons looked clean and eroded which was caused by oxidization of nitric acid. The oxidized carbons showed high adsorption capacity of sodium and formaldehyde, and chemical properties of activated carbon played an important role in adsorption of metal ions and organic pollutants.

  12. Surfaces and Interfaces of Magnetoelectric Oxide Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shi

    Magnetoelectric materials Cr2O3, hexagonal LuFeO 3 and YbFeO3 are studied in this thesis. The surface of chromia (Cr2O3) has a surface electronic structure distinct from the bulk. Our work shows that placing a Cr2O3 single crystal into a single domain state will result in net Cr2O 3 spin polarization at the boundary, even in the presence of a gold overlayer. From the Cr 2p3/2 X-ray magnetic circular dichroism signal, there is clear evidence of interface polarization with overlayers of both Pd and Pt on chromia. Cobalt thin films on Cr2O3(0001) show larger magnetic contrast in magnetic force microscopy indicating enhancement of perpendicular anisotropy induced by Cr2O3. The interfacial charge transfer between mechanically exfoliated few-layer graphene and Cr2O3(0001) surfaces has been investigated showing hole doping of few-layer graphene. Density functional theory calculations furthermore confirm the p-type nature of the graphene on top of chromia, and suggest that the chromia is able to induce a significant carrier spin polarization in the graphene layer. The surface termination and the nominal valence states for hexagonal LuFeO3 thin films were characterized. The stable surface terminates in a Fe-O layer. This is consistent wit the results of density functional calculations. The structural transition at about 1000 °C, from the hexagonal to the orthorhombic phase of LuFeO3, has been investigated in thin films of LuFeO3. The electronic structure for the conduction bands of both hexagonal and orthorhombic LuFeO3 thin films have been measured. Dramatic differences in both the spectral features and the linear dichroism are observed. We have also studied the ferrimagnetism in h-YbFeO3 by measuring the magnetization of Fe and Yb separately. The results directly show antialignment of magnetization of Yb and Fe ions in h-YbFeO3 at low temperature, with an exchange field on Yb of about 17 kOe. All ferrimagnets, by default, are magnetoelectrics. These findings directly

  13. Graphene Oxide flakes: methods and techniques for properties at interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Paola, Zuppella; Sara, Zuccon; Marco, Nardello; Jody, Corso Alain; Simone, Silvestrini; Michele, Maggini; Guglielmina, Pelizzo Maria

    2014-01-01

    Graphene Oxide and reduced Graphene Oxide are intriguing materials for photonics and electronic devices both for intrinsic characteristics and as precursors for the synthesis of graphene. Whatever the application and the engineering purpose, a fine control of the chemical and physical properties is required since the performances of graphene based systems depend on the reduction state of Graphene Oxide and can be strongly affected by interfaces interactions and neighboring effects. Then, a me...

  14. Novel exchange mechanisms in the surface diffusion of oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Duncan J; Lavrentiev, Mikhail Yu; Harding, John H; Allan, Neil L; Purton, John A

    2004-01-01

    We use temperature-accelerated dynamics to show the importance of exchange mechanisms in surface diffusion and growth of simple oxides. Such mechanisms can dominate transport processes both on terraces and steps for both homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial growth. We suggest that the mixing inevitable when an exchange mechanism is present must be considered when attempts are made to grow sharp interfaces in oxide nanostructures. (letter to the editor)

  15. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces based on metal oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xue-Mei; Cui, Jin-Feng; Sun, Han-Xue; Liang, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Zhao-Qi; An, Jin; Yang, Bao-Ping; La, Pei-Qing; Li, An

    2014-06-01

    A novel method for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was developed by facile coating various metal oxide nanoparticles, including ZnO, Al2O3 and Fe3O4, on various substrates followed by treatment with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a model, the changes in the surface chemical composition and crystalline structures of the metal oxide nanoparticles by PDMS treatment were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results show that the combination of the improved surface roughness generated from of the nanoparticles aggregation with the low surface-energy of silicon-coating originated from the thermal pyrolysis of PDMS would be responsible for the surface superhydrophobicity. By a simple dip-coating method, we show that the metal oxide nanoparticles can be easily coated onto the surfaces of various textural and dimensional substrates, including glass slide, paper, fabric or sponge, for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces for different purpose. The present strategy may provide an inexpensive and new route to surperhydrophobic surfaces, which would be of technological significance for various practical applications especially for separation of oils or organic contaminates from water.

  16. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces based on metal oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Xue-Mei; Cui, Jin-Feng; Sun, Han-Xue; Liang, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Zhao-Qi; An, Jin; Yang, Bao-Ping; La, Pei-Qing; Li, An

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was developed by facile coating various metal oxide nanoparticles, including ZnO, Al 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 , on various substrates followed by treatment with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a model, the changes in the surface chemical composition and crystalline structures of the metal oxide nanoparticles by PDMS treatment were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results show that the combination of the improved surface roughness generated from of the nanoparticles aggregation with the low surface-energy of silicon-coating originated from the thermal pyrolysis of PDMS would be responsible for the surface superhydrophobicity. By a simple dip-coating method, we show that the metal oxide nanoparticles can be easily coated onto the surfaces of various textural and dimensional substrates, including glass slide, paper, fabric or sponge, for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces for different purpose. The present strategy may provide an inexpensive and new route to surperhydrophobic surfaces, which would be of technological significance for various practical applications especially for separation of oils or organic contaminates from water.

  17. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces based on metal oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Xue-Mei; Cui, Jin-Feng; Sun, Han-Xue; Liang, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Zhao-Qi; An, Jin; Yang, Bao-Ping; La, Pei-Qing; Li, An, E-mail: lian2010@lut.cn

    2014-06-01

    A novel method for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was developed by facile coating various metal oxide nanoparticles, including ZnO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, on various substrates followed by treatment with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a model, the changes in the surface chemical composition and crystalline structures of the metal oxide nanoparticles by PDMS treatment were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results show that the combination of the improved surface roughness generated from of the nanoparticles aggregation with the low surface-energy of silicon-coating originated from the thermal pyrolysis of PDMS would be responsible for the surface superhydrophobicity. By a simple dip-coating method, we show that the metal oxide nanoparticles can be easily coated onto the surfaces of various textural and dimensional substrates, including glass slide, paper, fabric or sponge, for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces for different purpose. The present strategy may provide an inexpensive and new route to surperhydrophobic surfaces, which would be of technological significance for various practical applications especially for separation of oils or organic contaminates from water.

  18. Surface characterization of low-temperature grown yttrium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Mirosław; Lisowski, Wojciech; Pisarek, Marcin; Nikiforow, Kostiantyn; Jablonski, Aleksander

    2018-04-01

    The step-by-step growth of yttrium oxide layer was controlled in situ using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The O/Y atomic concentration (AC) ratio in the surface layer of finally oxidized Y substrate was found to be equal to 1.48. The as-grown yttrium oxide layers were then analyzed ex situ using combination of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), elastic-peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to characterize their surface chemical composition, electron transport phenomena and surface morphology. Prior to EPES measurements, the Y oxide surface was pre-sputtered by 3 kV argon ions, and the resulting AES-derived composition was found to be Y0.383O0.465C0.152 (O/Y AC ratio of 1.21). The SEM images revealed different surface morphology of sample before and after Ar sputtering. The oxide precipitates were observed on the top of un-sputtered Y oxide layer, whereas the oxide growth at the Ar ion-sputtered surface proceeded along defects lines normal to the layer plane. The inelastic mean free path (IMFP) characterizing electron transport was evaluated as a function of energy in the range of 0.5-2 keV from the EPES method. Two reference materials (Ni and Au) were used in these measurements. Experimental IMFPs determined for the Y0.383O0.465C0.152 and Y2O3 surface compositions, λ, were uncorrected for surface excitations and approximated by the simple function λ = kEp at electron energies E between 500 eV and 2000 eV, where k and p were fitted parameters. These values were also compared with IMFPs resulting from the TPP-2 M predictive equation for both oxide compositions. The fitted functions were found to be reasonably consistent with the measured and predicted IMFPs. In both cases, the average value of the mean percentage deviation from the fits varied between 5% and 37%. The IMFPs measured for Y0.383O0.465C0.152 surface composition were found to be similar to the IMFPs for Y2O3.

  19. Surface Passivation of CIGS Solar Cells Using Gallium Oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Garud, Siddhartha

    2018-02-27

    This work proposes gallium oxide grown by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition, as a surface passivation material at the CdS buffer interface of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells. In preliminary experiments, a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure is used to compare aluminium oxide, gallium oxide, and hafnium oxide as passivation layers at the CIGS-CdS interface. The findings suggest that gallium oxide on CIGS may show a density of positive charges and qualitatively, the least interface trap density. Subsequent solar cell results with an estimated 0.5 nm passivation layer show an substantial absolute improvement of 56 mV in open-circuit voltage (VOC), 1 mA cm−2 in short-circuit current density (JSC), and 2.6% in overall efficiency as compared to a reference (with the reference showing 8.5% under AM 1.5G).

  20. Surface and conductivity properties of imidazoles solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogalski, Marek; Domanska, Urszula; Czyrny, Dagmara; Dyczko, Dagmara

    2002-01-01

    The surface tension, σ, of the solutions of benzimidazole, 2-phenylimidazole and 2,4,5-triphenylimidazole in water, or water + 10 mol% of acetonitrile, or in other solvents as well as the solubilities and conductivity of benzimidazole and 2-phenylimidazole in water in function of concentration at 298.15 K were measured. The enthalpy of fusion, or solid-solid phase transition and the melting temperatures were determined for the substances under study by the scanning calorimetry (DSC). These solutions exhibit, in a wide range of concentrations, the normal linear, or parabolic decreasing dependencies and the maximum of surface tension at very low concentrations and show the S-shaped dependencies, being in function of the initial sample, never reported before. The results were confirmed by the conductivity measurements. The results were interpreted in terms of the changing structure of the interface. It was concluded that the observed phenomena were caused by an induced nucleation of benzimidazole, 2-phenylimidazole and especially by 2,4,5-triphenylimidazole by columnar discotic structures due to the initial concentration. The surface properties of these solutions reflect the interactions of hydrophobic parts of the guest molecules adsorbed at the interface, as a result of the hydrogen bonded structure of the solution

  1. A TPD-MS study of glassy carbon surfaces oxidized by CO2 and O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILA D. LAUSEVIC

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The temperature-programmed desorption (TPD method combined with mass spectrometric (MS analysis has been applied to investigate the surface properties of carbon materials. The apparatus consisting of a temperature-programmed furnace and a quadrupole mass spectrometer was constructed in order to characterize the surface of differently treated glassy carbon samples. In this work, samples of glassy carbon exposed to air, CO2 and O2 were examined. The desorption of H2O, CO and CO2, as major products, indicated the presence of different oxide groups. The amount of these groups for all samples was calculated. It is concluded that oxidation affects the nature and the amount of the surface oxide groups and contributes to their increased stability.

  2. An evaluation of the effect of surface chromium concentration on the oxidation of a stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobb, R.C.; Evans, H.E.

    1983-01-01

    Short-term oxidation tests have been performed at 850 deg C in a CO 2 -based atmosphere on 20Cr-25Ni-Nb-stabilized steels previously exposed to dynamic vacuum at 1000 deg C. This pre-treatment preferentially removes chromium from the metal surface and is always detrimental to the oxidation properties. It is shown that porous, iron-rich oxides initially form on specimens with surface chromium concentrations 18.5 w/o chromium, a protective surface layer is produced. It is suggested that the transition between these extremes is determined by nucleation conditions and, in the present steels, it is shown how the metal grain size plays a significant role. (author)

  3. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of neodymium oxide doped ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The dielectric and electromechanical properties of lead zirconate titanate [Pb(Zr, Ti)O3] ceramic added with neodymium oxide have been systematically studied employing the vector impedance spectroscopic. (VIS) technique. The specimens were prepared using the mixed oxide route by adding different mol% of.

  4. Electronic properties of thermally formed thin iron oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielant, J.; Goossens, V.; Hausbrand, R.; Terryn, H.

    2007-01-01

    The oxide layer, present between an organic coating and the substrate, guarantees adhesion of the coating and plays a determinating role in the delamination rate of the organic coating. The purpose of this study is to compare the resistive and semiconducting properties of thermal oxides formed on steel in two different atmospheres at 250 deg. C: an oxygen rich atmosphere, air, and an oxygen deficient atmosphere, N 2 . In N 2 , a magnetite layer grows while in air a duplex oxide film forms composed by an inner magnetite layer and a thin outer hematite scale. The heat treatment for different amounts of time at high temperature was used as method to sample the thickness variation and change in electronic and semiconducting properties of the thermal oxide layers. Firstly, linear voltammetric measurements were performed to have a first insight in the electrochemical behavior of the thermal oxides in a borate buffer solution. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the same buffer combined with the Mott-Schottky analysis were used to determine the semiconducting properties of the thermal oxides. By spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively, the thickness and roughness of the oxide layers were determined supporting the physical interpretation of the voltammetric and EIS data. These measurements clearly showed that oxide layers with different constitution, oxide resistance, flatband potential and doping concentration can be grown by changing the atmosphere

  5. Influence of ionizing radiation on the catalytic properties of oxide catalysts tested by hydrogen peroxide decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucka, V.

    1987-01-01

    Results of a study of some physical and catalytic properties of different oxide catalysts as affected by ionizing radiation (γ, n, e - ) and tested by the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solution are presented in this paper. The oxidation state of the active component present on the catalyst surface was found to be one of the most sensitive properties to the ionizing radiation. Changes of this state induced by γ-irradiation were found to be positive in most cases; electron pre-irradiation of the oxides leads, as a rule, to negative effects and the effects of neutron irradiation may be positive or negative. On the other hand, changes in the catalytic activity of the oxides after γ-or electron-irradiation seem to be mostly negative and positive, respectively; the effects of fast neutrons seem to vary here. Neither quantitative or qualitative correlation was found between the radiation-induced changes in these two quantities. The results give evidence that ionizing radiation principally affects the surface concentration of the catalytic sites. Both the character and magnitude of the changes in surface oxidation abilities and in catalytic activities of the oxide catalysts seem to be dependent upon the actual state of the catalyst surface. (author)

  6. Effects of atomic oxygen irradiation on the surface properties of phenolphthalein poly(ether sulfone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Xianqiang; Li Yan; Wang Qihua; Sun Xiaojun

    2009-01-01

    To study the effects of low earth orbit environment on the surface properties of polymers, phenolphthalein poly(ether sulfone) (PES-C) blocks were irradiated by atomic oxygen in a ground-based simulation system. The surface properties of the pristine and irradiated blocks were studied by attenuated total-reflection FTIR (FTIR-ATR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that atomic oxygen irradiation induced the destruction of PES-C molecular chains, including the scission and oxidation of PES-C molecular chains, as evidenced by FTIR and XPS results. The scission of PES-C molecular chains decreased the relative concentration of C in the surface, while the oxidation increased the relative concentration of O in the surface. The changes in surface chemical structure and composition also changed the surface morphology of the block, which shifted from smooth structure before irradiation to 'carpet-like' structure after irradiation

  7. Mechanical tearing of graphene on an oxidizing metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Lijin; Gupta, Aparna; Shaina, P R; Jaiswal, Manu; Gupta, Nandita Das

    2015-01-01

    Graphene, the thinnest possible anticorrosion and gas-permeation barrier, is poised to transform the protective coatings industry for a variety of surface applications. In this work, we have studied the structural changes of graphene when the underlying copper surface undergoes oxidation upon heating. Single-layer graphene directly grown on a copper surface by chemical vapour deposition was annealed under ambient atmosphere conditions up to 400 °C. The onset temperature of the surface oxidation of copper is found to be higher for graphene-coated foils. Parallel arrays of graphene nanoripples are a ubiquitous feature of pristine graphene on copper, and we demonstrate that these form crucial sites for the onset of the oxidation of copper, particularly for ∼0.3–0.4 μm ripple widths. In these regions, the oxidation proceeds along the length of the nanoripples, resulting in the formation of parallel stripes of oxidized copper regions. We demonstrate from temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy that the primary defect formation process in graphene involves boundary-type defects rather than vacancy or sp"3-type defects. This observation is consistent with a mechanical tearing process that splits graphene into small polycrystalline domains. The size of these is estimated to be sub-50 nm. (paper)

  8. Mechanical tearing of graphene on an oxidizing metal surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Lijin; Gupta, Aparna; Shaina, P R; Das Gupta, Nandita; Jaiswal, Manu

    2015-12-11

    Graphene, the thinnest possible anticorrosion and gas-permeation barrier, is poised to transform the protective coatings industry for a variety of surface applications. In this work, we have studied the structural changes of graphene when the underlying copper surface undergoes oxidation upon heating. Single-layer graphene directly grown on a copper surface by chemical vapour deposition was annealed under ambient atmosphere conditions up to 400 °C. The onset temperature of the surface oxidation of copper is found to be higher for graphene-coated foils. Parallel arrays of graphene nanoripples are a ubiquitous feature of pristine graphene on copper, and we demonstrate that these form crucial sites for the onset of the oxidation of copper, particularly for ∼0.3-0.4 μm ripple widths. In these regions, the oxidation proceeds along the length of the nanoripples, resulting in the formation of parallel stripes of oxidized copper regions. We demonstrate from temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy that the primary defect formation process in graphene involves boundary-type defects rather than vacancy or sp(3)-type defects. This observation is consistent with a mechanical tearing process that splits graphene into small polycrystalline domains. The size of these is estimated to be sub-50 nm.

  9. Surface chemistry and bonding configuration of ultrananocrystalline diamond surfaces and their effects on nanotribological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumant, A. V.; Grierson, D. S.; Carpick, R. W.; Gerbi, J. E.; Carlisle, J. A.; Auciello, O.

    2007-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of surface composition and nanotribology for ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) surfaces, including the influence of film nucleation on these properties. We describe a methodology to characterize the underside of the films as revealed by sacrificial etching of the underlying substrate. This enables the study of the morphology and composition resulting from the nucleation and initial growth of the films, as well as the characterization of nanotribological properties which are relevant for applications including micro-/nanoelectromechanical systems. We study the surface chemistry, bonding configuration, and nanotribological properties of both the topside and the underside of the film with synchrotron-based x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy to identify the bonding state of the carbon atoms, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the surface chemical composition, Auger electron spectroscopy to further verify the composition and bonding configuration, and quantitative atomic force microscopy to study the nanoscale topography and nanotribological properties. The films were grown on SiO 2 after mechanically polishing the surface with detonation synthesized nanodiamond powder, followed by ultrasonication in a methanol solution containing additional nanodiamond powder. The sp 2 fraction, morphology, and chemistry of the as-etched underside are distinct from the topside, exhibiting a higher sp 2 fraction, some oxidized carbon, and a smoother morphology. The nanoscale single-asperity work of adhesion between a diamond nanotip and the as-etched UNCD underside is far lower than for a silicon-silicon interface (59.2±2 vs 826±186 mJ/m 2 , respectively). Exposure to atomic hydrogen dramatically reduces nanoscale adhesion to 10.2±0.4 mJ/m 2 , at the level of van der Waals' interactions and consistent with recent ab initio calculations. Friction is substantially reduced as well, demonstrating a direct link between the

  10. Surface and sub-surface thermal oxidation of ruthenium thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coloma Ribera, R.; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Zoethout, E.; Yakshin, Andrey; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    For next generation Extreme UV photolithography, multilayer coatings may require protective capping layers against surface contamination. Ruthenium, as a low-oxidation metal, is often used as a reference material. The oxidation behaviour of Ru thin films has been studied using X-ray reflectometry

  11. Investigation of the Si(111) surface in uhv: oxidation and the effect of surface phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tom, H.W.K.; Zhu, X.D.; Shen, Y.R.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1984-06-01

    We have studied the initial stages of oxidation, the segregation of phosphorus, and the effect of phosphorus on oxidation of the Si(111) 7 x 7 surface using optical second-harmonic generation. We have also observed a (√3 x √3)R30 0 LEED pattern for P on Si

  12. Optoelectronic properties of expanding thermal plasma deposited textured zinc oxide : effect of aluminum doping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, R.; Kieft, E.R.; Linden, J.L.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films exhibiting a rough surface morphol. are deposited on glass substrates utilizing expanding thermal plasma. Spectroscopic ellipsometry is used to evaluate optical and electronic film properties. The presence of aluminum donors in doped films is confirmed by a shift in

  13. Literature review on the properties of cuprous oxide Cu{sub 2}O and the process of copper oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzhavyi, P. A.; Johansson, B. (Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-10-15

    The purpose of the present review is to provide a reference guide to the most recent data on the properties of copper(I) oxide as well as on the atomic processes involved in the initial stages of oxidation of copper. The data on the structure of surfaces, as obtained from atomic-resolution microscopy studies (for example, STM) or from first-principles calculations, are reviewed. Information of this kind may be useful for understanding the atomic mechanisms of corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking of copper

  14. Literature review on the properties of cuprous oxide Cu2O and the process of copper oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzhavyi, P. A.; Johansson, B.

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of the present review is to provide a reference guide to the most recent data on the properties of copper(I) oxide as well as on the atomic processes involved in the initial stages of oxidation of copper. The data on the structure of surfaces, as obtained from atomic-resolution microscopy studies (for example, STM) or from first-principles calculations, are reviewed. Information of this kind may be useful for understanding the atomic mechanisms of corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking of copper

  15. Adsorption properties versus oxidation states of rutile TiO2(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Umberto; Hammer, Bjørk

    2011-01-01

    Using density functional theory we have studied the adsorption properties of different atoms and molecules deposited on a stoichiometric, reduced, and oxidized rutile TiO2(110) surface. Depending on the oxidation state of the surface, electrons can flow from or to the substrate and, therefore...... of the charge flow depends on the oxidation state of the rutile surface and on the adsorption site. Generally, the charging effect leads to more stable complexes. However, the increase in the binding energy of the adsorbates is highly dependent on the electronic states of the surface prior to the adsorption...... event. In this work we have analyzed in details these mechanisms and we have also established a direct correlation between the enhanced binding energy of the adsorbates and the induced gap states...

  16. Effect of surface physical and chemical properties on interaction and annihilation mechanisms of positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'danskij, V.I.; Levin, B.M.; Shantarovich, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of positron use is illustrated, to investigate physical and chemical properties of the surface, by a number of effects found by the authors while studying the interaction and annihilation of β + -decay positrons in highly-dispersed heterogeneous systems positronium formation and ortho-para conversion close to the surface of metal particles in a dielectric matrix, postronium oxidation by proton centers on the surface of an aluminosilicate catalyst). The ways, new in the main, are revealed to study the properties of the surface by the technique of monochromatic positron beams of low energy

  17. Effect of process parameters on surface oxides on chromium-alloyed steel powder during sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasoglou, D.; Hryha, E.; Nyborg, L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of chromium in the PM steel industry today puts high demands on the choice and control of the atmosphere during the sintering process due to its high affinity to oxygen. Particular attention is required in order to control the surface chemistry of the powder which in turn is the key factor for the successful sintering and production of PM parts. Different atmosphere compositions, heating rates and green densities were employed while performing sintering trials on water atomized steel powder pre-alloyed with 3 wt.% Cr in order to evaluate the effect on surface chemical reactions. Fracture surfaces of sintered samples were examined using high resolution scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray microanalysis. The investigation was complemented with thermogravimetric (TG) studies. Reaction products in particulate form containing strong-oxide forming elements such as Cr, Si and Mn were formed during sintering for all conditions. Processing in vacuum results in intensive inter-particle neck development during the heating stage and consequently in the excessive enclosure of surface oxide which is reflected in less good final mechanical properties. Enhanced oxide reduction was observed in samples processed in hydrogen-containing atmospheres independent of the actual content in the range of 3–10 vol.%. An optimum heating rate was required for balancing reduction/oxidation processes. A simple model for the enclosure and growth of oxide inclusions during the sinter-neck development is proposed. The obtained results show that significant reduction of the oxygen content can be achieved by adjusting the atmosphere purity/composition. - Highlights: ► A local atmosphere microclimate is very important for sintering of PM steels. ► High risk of surface oxide enclosure between 800 and 1000 °C. ► Coalescence and agglomeration of enclosed oxides take place during sintering. ► The effect of different process parameters on the oxide reduction is examined. ► A

  18. Topological properties and functionalities in oxide thin films and interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Masaki; Kawasaki, Masashi

    2018-04-01

    As symbolized by the Nobel Prize in Physics 2016, ‘topology’ has been recognized as an essential standpoint to understand and control the physics of condensed matter. This concept may be spreading even into application areas such as novel electronics. In this trend, there has been reported a number of studies for oxide films and heterostructures with topologically non-trivial electronic or magnetic states. In this review, we overview the trends of new topological properties and functionalities in oxide materials by sorting out a number of examples. The technological advances in oxide film growth achieved over the last few decades are now opening the door for harnessing novel topological properties.

  19. Interactions of Graphene Oxide Nanomaterials with Natural Organic Matter and Metal Oxide Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interactions of graphene oxide (GO) with silica surfaces were investigated using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Both GO deposition and release were monitored on silica- and poly-l-lysine (PLL) coated surfaces as a function of GO concentration a...

  20. Surface chemistry and cytotoxicity of reactively sputtered tantalum oxide films on NiTi plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, K. [Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Department of Physics & Energy, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Kolaj-Robin, O.; Belochapkine, S.; Laffir, F. [Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Gandhi, A.A. [Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Department of Physics & Energy, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Tofail, S.A.M., E-mail: tofail.syed@ul.ie [Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Department of Physics & Energy, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland)

    2015-08-31

    NiTi, an equiatomic alloy containing nickel and titanium, exhibits unique properties such as shape memory effect and superelasticity. NiTi also forms a spontaneous protective titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) layer that allows its use in biomedical applications. Despite the widely perceived biocompatibility there remain some concerns about the sustainability of the alloy's biocompatibility due to the defects in the TiO{sub 2} protective layer and the presence of high amount of sub-surface Ni, which can give allergic reactions. Many surface treatments have been investigated to try to improve both the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of this layer. For such purposes, we have sputter deposited tantalum (Ta) oxide thin films onto the surface of the NiTi alloy. Despite being one of the promising metals for biomedical applications, Ta, and its various oxides and their interactions with cells have received relatively less attention. The oxidation chemistry, crystal structure, morphology and biocompatibility of these films have been investigated. In general, reactive sputtering especially in the presence of a low oxygen mixture yields a thicker film with better control of the film quality. The sputtering power influenced the surface oxidation states of Ta. Both microscopic and quantitative cytotoxicity measurements show that Ta films on NiTi are biocompatible with little to no variation in cytotoxic response when the surface oxidation state of Ta changes. - Highlights: • Reactive sputtering in low oxygen mixture yields thicker better quality films. • Sputtering power influenced surface oxidation states of Ta. • Cytotoxicity measurements show Ta films on NiTi are biocompatible. • Little to no variation in cytotoxic response when oxidation state changes.

  1. Surface State Capture Cross-Section at the Interface between Silicon and Hafnium Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chien Chiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interfacial properties between silicon and hafnium oxide (HfO2 are explored by the gated-diode method and the subthreshold measurement. The density of interface-trapped charges, the current induced by surface defect centers, the surface recombination velocity, and the surface state capture cross-section are obtained in this work. Among the interfacial properties, the surface state capture cross-section is approximately constant even if the postdeposition annealing condition is changed. This effective capture cross-section of surface states is about 2.4 × 10−15 cm2, which may be an inherent nature in the HfO2/Si interface.

  2. The early stages of oxidation of magnesium single crystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, B.E.; Schweizer, E.; Koetz, R.; Bradshaw, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    The early stages of oxidation of Mg(001) and Mg(100) single crystal surfaces at 300 K have been investigated by LEED, ELS, work function and ellipsometric measurements. A sharp decrease in work function on both surfaces during the first 12 L exposure indicates the incorporation of oxygen in the earliest stages of the interaction. The incorporated oxygen on Mg(001) gives rise to a broadening of the integral order LEED spots for an exposure 3 L. (orig.)

  3. Size- and shape-dependent surface thermodynamic properties of nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qingshan; Xue, Yongqiang; Cui, Zixiang

    2018-05-01

    As the fundamental properties, the surface thermodynamic properties of nanocrystals play a key role in the physical and chemical changes. However, it remains ambiguous about the quantitative influence regularities of size and shape on the surface thermodynamic properties of nanocrystals. Thus by introducing interface variables into the Gibbs energy and combining Young-Laplace equation, relations between the surface thermodynamic properties (surface Gibbs energy, surface enthalpy, surface entropy, surface energy and surface heat capacity), respectively, and size of nanocrystals with different shapes were derived. Theoretical estimations of the orders of the surface thermodynamic properties of nanocrystals agree with available experimental values. Calculated results of the surface thermodynamic properties of Au, Bi and Al nanocrystals suggest that when r > 10 nm, the surface thermodynamic properties linearly vary with the reciprocal of particle size, and when r < 10 nm, the effect of particle size on the surface thermodynamic properties becomes greater and deviates from linear variation. For nanocrystals with identical equivalent diameter, the more the shape deviates from sphere, the larger the surface thermodynamic properties (absolute value) are.

  4. Surface effects in metal oxide-based nanodevices

    KAUST Repository

    Lien, Der Hsien

    2015-10-29

    As devices shrink to the nanoscale, surface-to-volume ratio increases and the surface-environment interaction becomes a major factor for affecting device performance. The variation of electronic properties, including the surface band bending, gas chemisorption or photodesorption, native surface defects, and surface roughness, is called "surface effects". Such effects are ambiguous because they can be either negative or beneficial effects, depending on the environmental conditions and device application. This review provides an introduction to the surface effects on different types of nanodevices, offering the solutions to respond to their benefits and negative effects and provides an outlook on further applications regarding the surface effect. This review is beneficial for designing nano-enabled photodetectors, harsh electronics, memories, sensors and transistors via surface engineering.

  5. Surface effects in metal oxide-based nanodevices

    KAUST Repository

    Lien, Der Hsien; Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon; Ke, Jr Jian; Kang, Chen Fang; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    As devices shrink to the nanoscale, surface-to-volume ratio increases and the surface-environment interaction becomes a major factor for affecting device performance. The variation of electronic properties, including the surface band bending, gas chemisorption or photodesorption, native surface defects, and surface roughness, is called "surface effects". Such effects are ambiguous because they can be either negative or beneficial effects, depending on the environmental conditions and device application. This review provides an introduction to the surface effects on different types of nanodevices, offering the solutions to respond to their benefits and negative effects and provides an outlook on further applications regarding the surface effect. This review is beneficial for designing nano-enabled photodetectors, harsh electronics, memories, sensors and transistors via surface engineering.

  6. About the optical properties of oxidized black silicon structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincik, E.; Brunner, R.; Kobayashi, H.; Mikula, M.; Kučera, M.; Švec, P.; Greguš, J.; Vojtek, P.; Zábudlá, Z.; Imamura, K.; Zahoran, M.

    2017-02-01

    The paper deals with the optical and morphological properties of thermally oxidized black silicon (OBSi) nano-crystalline specimens produced by the surface structure chemical transfer method (SSCT). This method can produce a nano-crystalline Si black color layer on c-Si with a range of thickness of ∼50 nm to ∼300 nm by the contact of c-Si immersed in chemical solutions HF + H2O2 with a catalytic mesh. We present and discuss mainly the photoluminescence properties of both polished c-Si and OBSi structures, respectively. The similar photoluminescence (PL) behaviors recorded at liquid helium (6 K) and room temperatures on both polished crystalline Si and OBSi samples, respectively, indicate the similar origin of recorded luminescence light. As the positions of PL maxima of OBSi structures are mainly related to the size of Si nanocrystallites and SiO(x), we therefore suppose that the size of the dominant parts of the luminated OBSi nanostructure is pre-determined by the used polishing Si procedure, and/or the distribution function of the number of formed crystallites on their size is very similar. The blue shift of both PL spectra reaching almost value of 0.40 eV observed after the decrease of the sample temperature to 6 K we relate also with the change of the semiconductor band gap width.

  7. Trends in Metal Oxide Stability for Nanorods, Nanotubes, and Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowbray, Duncan; Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Vallejo, Federico Calle

    2011-01-01

    The formation energies of nanostructures play an important role in determining their properties, including their catalytic activity. For the case of 15 different rutile and 8 different perovskite metal oxides, we used density functional theory (DFT) to calculate the formation energies of (2,2) na...

  8. Surface functionalization of dopamine coated iron oxide nanoparticles for various surface functionalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, Jennifer; Xu, Yaolin; Lovas, Kira [Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa , AL 35487 (United States); Qin, Ying [Alabama Innovation and Mentoring of Entrepreneurs, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Bao, Yuping, E-mail: ybao@eng.ua.edu [Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa , AL 35487 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We present effective conjugation of four small molecules (glutathione, cysteine, lysine, and Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane) onto dopamine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Conjugation of these molecules could improve the surface functionality of nanoparticles for more neutral surface charge at physiological pH and potentially reduce non-specific adsorption of proteins to nanoparticles surfaces. The success of conjugation was evaluated with dynamic light scattering by measuring the surface charge changes and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for surface chemistry analysis. The stability of dopamine-coated nanoparticles and the ability of conjugated nanoparticles to reduce the formation of protein corona were evaluated by measuring the size and charge of the nanoparticles in biological medium. This facile conjugation method opens up possibilities for attaching various surface functionalities onto iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces for biomedical applications.

  9. Surface functionalization of dopamine coated iron oxide nanoparticles for various surface functionalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, Jennifer; Xu, Yaolin; Lovas, Kira; Qin, Ying; Bao, Yuping

    2017-01-01

    We present effective conjugation of four small molecules (glutathione, cysteine, lysine, and Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane) onto dopamine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Conjugation of these molecules could improve the surface functionality of nanoparticles for more neutral surface charge at physiological pH and potentially reduce non-specific adsorption of proteins to nanoparticles surfaces. The success of conjugation was evaluated with dynamic light scattering by measuring the surface charge changes and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for surface chemistry analysis. The stability of dopamine-coated nanoparticles and the ability of conjugated nanoparticles to reduce the formation of protein corona were evaluated by measuring the size and charge of the nanoparticles in biological medium. This facile conjugation method opens up possibilities for attaching various surface functionalities onto iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces for biomedical applications.

  10. Ultrasmall iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications: improving the colloidal and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costo, Rocio; Bello, Valentina; Robic, Caroline; Port, Marc; Marco, Jose F; Puerto Morales, M; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino

    2012-01-10

    A considerable increase in the saturation magnetization, M(s) (40%), and initial susceptibility of ultrasmall (<5 nm) iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by laser pyrolysis was obtained through an optimized acid treatment. Moreover, a significant enhancement in the colloidal properties, such as smaller aggregate sizes in aqueous media and increased surface charge densities, was found after this chemical protocol. The results are consistent with a reduction in nanoparticle surface disorder induced by a dissolution-recrystallization mechanism.

  11. Optical properties of tetrapod nanostructured zinc oxide by chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate by thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD) technique. This work studies the effects of annealing temperature ranging from 100–500 ºC towards its physical and optical properties. FESEM images showed that the structural properties of tetrapod nanostructured ...

  12. Deposition of heated whey proteins on a chromium oxide surface.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, Th.; Verheul, M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Kruif, de C.G.

    1996-01-01

    Whey protein solutions were given different heat treatments after which their deposition on a chromium oxide surface (the outer layer of stainless steel) was measured by reflectometry. The deposition was studied under controlled flow conditions by using a stagnation point flow configuration. The

  13. Ceramic coated Y1 magnesium alloy surfaces by microarc oxidation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The magnesium alloys occupy an important place in marine applications, but their poor corrosion resistance, wear resistance, hardness and so on, have limited their application. To meet these defects, some techniques are developed. Microarc oxidation is a one such recently developed surface treatment technology under ...

  14. Effect of the number of iron oxide nanoparticle layers on the magnetic properties of nanocomposite LbL assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, Ilker; Tozkoparan, Onur; German, Sergey V.; Markin, Alexey V.; Yildirim, Oguz; Khomutov, Gennady B.; Gorin, Dmitry A.; Venig, Sergey B.; Elerman, Yalcin

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous colloidal suspension of iron oxide nanoparticles has been synthesized. Z-potential of iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized by citric acid was −35±3 mV. Iron oxide nanoparticles have been characterized by the light scattering method and transmission electron microscopy. The polyelectrolyte/iron oxide nanoparticle thin films with different numbers of iron oxide nanoparticle layers have been prepared on the surface of silicon substrates via the layer-by-layer assembly technique. The physical properties and chemical composition of nanocomposite thin films have been studied by atomic force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, magnetization measurements, Raman spectroscopy. Using the analysis of experimental data it was established, that the magnetic properties of nanocomposite films depended on the number of iron oxide nanoparticle layers, the size of iron oxide nanoparticle aggregates, the distance between aggregates, and the chemical composition of iron oxide nanoparticles embedded into the nanocomposite films. The magnetic permeability of nanocomposite coatings has been calculated. The magnetic permeability values depend on the number of iron oxide nanoparticle layers in nanocomposite film. - Highlights: ► The magnetic properties of nanocomposite films depended on the number of iron oxide nanoparticle layers. ► The iron oxide nanoparticle phase in nanocomposite coatings is a mixture of magnetite and maghemite phases. ► The magnetite and maghemite phases depend on a number of iron oxide nanoparticle layers because the iron oxide nanoparticles are oxidized from magnetite to maghemite.

  15. Metal/metal-oxide interfaces: A surface science approach to the study of adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peden, C.H.F.; Kidd, K.B.; Shinn, N.D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-5800 (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Metal-oxide/metal interfaces play an important role, for example, in the joining of an oxide ceramic to a metal for sealing applications. In order to probe the chemical and physical properties of such an interface, we have performed Auger electron spectroscopic (AES) and temperature programed desorption (TPD) experiments on a model system composed of very thin films of Cr, Fe, Ni, or Cu evaporated onto a very thin thermally grown oxide on a W single crystal. Monolayer films of Fe and Cr were found (by AES) to completely wet the oxide surface upon deposition, and were stable up to temperatures at which the films desorbed ({approx}1300 K). In contrast, monolayer Ni and Cu films formed three-dimensional islands exposing the oxidized W surface either upon annealing (Ni) or even upon room-temperature deposition (Cu). The relative interfacial interaction between the overlayer metal and the oxide, as assessed by TPD, increases in the series Cu{lt}Ni{lt}Fe{lt}Cr. This trend follows the heats of formation of the various oxides of these metals.

  16. Ozone Oxidation of Self-Assembled Monolayers on SiOx-Coated Zinc Selenide Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, T. M.; Ryder, O. S.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    Airborne particles are important for visibility, human health, climate, and atmospheric reactions. Atmospheric particles contain a significant fraction of organics and such compounds present on airborne particles are susceptible to oxidation by atmospheric oxidants, such as OH, ozone, halogen atoms, and nitrogen trioxide. Oxidized organics associated with airborne particles are thought to be polar, hygroscopic species with enhanced cloud-nucleating properties. Oxide layers on silicon, or SiO2-coated substrates, act as models of environmentally relevant surfaces such as dust particles upon which organics adsorb. We have shown previously that ozone oxidation of unsaturated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on silicon attenuated total reflectance (ATR) crystals leads to the formation of carbonyl groups and micron-sized, hydrophobic organic aggregates surrounded by carbon depleted substrate that do not have increased water uptake as previously assumed. Reported here are further ATR-FTIR studies of the oxidation of alkene SAMs on ZnSe and SiO2-coated ZnSe. These substrates have the advantage that they transmit below 1500 cm-1, allowing detection of additional product species. These experiments show that the loss of C=C and formation of carbonyl groups is also accompanied by formation of a peak at 1110 cm-1, attributed to the secondary ozonide. Details concerning the products and mechanism of ozonolysis of alkene SAMs on surfaces based on these new data are presented and the implications for the oxidation of alkenes on airborne dust particles are discussed.

  17. Physics and Chemistry on Well-Defined Semiconductor and Oxide Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peijun

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and other surface spectroscopic techniques have been employed to investigate the following two classes of surface/interface phenomena on well-defined semiconductor and oxide surfaces: (i) the fundamental physical and chemical processes involved in gas-solid interaction on silicon single crystal surfaces, and (ii) the physical and chemical properties of metal-oxide interfaces. The particular systems reported in this dissertation are: NH_3, PH_3 and B_ {10}H_{14} on Si(111)-(7 x 7); NH_3 on Si(100) -(2 x 1); atomic H on Si(111)-(7 x 7) and boron-modified Si(111); Al on Al_2O_3 and Sn on SiO_2.. On silicon surfaces, the surface dangling bonds function as the primary adsorption sites where surface chemical processes take place. The unambiguous identification of surface species by vibrational spectroscopy allows the elementary steps involved in these surface chemical processes to be followed on a molecular level. For adsorbate molecules such as NH_3 and PH_3, the nature of the initial low temperature (100 -300 K) adsorption is found to be dissociative, while that for B_{10}H_ {14} is non-dissociative. This has been deduced based upon the presence (or absence) of specific characteristic vibrational mode(s) on surface. By following the evolution of surface species as a function of temperature, the elementary steps leading to silicon nitride thin film growth and doping of silicon are elucidated. In the case of NH_3 on Si(111)-(7 x 7) and Si(100)-(2 x 1), a detailed understanding on the role of substrate surface structure in controlling the surface reactivity has been gained on the basis of a Si adatom backbond-strain relief mechanism on the Si(111) -(7 x 7). The electronic modification to Si(111) surface by subsurface boron doping has been shown to quench its surface chemistry, even for the most aggressive atomic H. This discovery is potentially meaningful to the technology of gas-phase silicon etching. The

  18. Indium tin oxide surface smoothing by gas cluster ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Song, J H; Choi, W K

    2002-01-01

    CO sub 2 cluster ions are irradiated at the acceleration voltage of 25 kV to remove hillocks on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces and thus to attain highly smooth surfaces. CO sub 2 monomer ions are also bombarded on the ITO surfaces at the same acceleration voltage to compare sputtering phenomena. From the atomic force microscope results, the irradiation of monomer ions makes the hillocks sharper and the surfaces rougher from 1.31 to 1.6 nm in roughness. On the other hand, the irradiation of CO sub 2 cluster ions reduces the height of hillocks and planarize the ITO surfaces as smooth as 0.92 nm in roughness. This discrepancy could be explained by large lateral sputtering yield of the cluster ions and re-deposition of sputtered particles by the impact of the cluster ions on surfaces.

  19. Physicochemical and Electrical Properties of Praseodymium Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ferro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The industrial research is continuously looking for novelties that could improve the applied processes, increasing the yields, lowering the costs, or improving the performances. In industrial electrochemistry, one more aspect is the stability of electrode materials, which is generally balanced by the catalytic activity: the higher the latter, the lower the former. A compromise has to be found, and an optimization is often the result of new ideas that completely change the way of thinking. Praseodymium-oxide-based cathodes have been proved to be quite interesting devices: the hydrogen evolution reaction is guaranteed by the presence of a noble metal (platinum and/or rhodium, while the stability and poisoning resistance seem to be strongly improved by the presence of lanthanide oxides.

  20. Graphene oxide-modified ZnO particles: synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong LL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Linlin Zhong, Kyusik Yun Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea Abstract: Nanosized ZnO particles with diameters of 15 nm were prepared with a solution precipitation method at low cost and high yield. The synthesis of the particles was functionalized by the organic solvent dimethylformamide, and the particles were covalently bonded to the surface of graphene oxide. The morphology of the graphene oxide sheets and ZnO particles was confirmed with field emission scanning electron microscopy and biological atomic force microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to analyze the physical and chemical properties of the ZnO/graphene oxide composites that differed from those of the individual components. Enhanced electrochemical properties were detected with cyclic voltammetry, with a redox peak of the composites at 0.025 mV. Excellent antibacterial activity of ZnO/graphene oxide composites was observed with a microdilution method in which minimum inhibitory concentrations of 6.25 µg/mL for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, 12.5 µg/mL for Bacillus subtilis, and 25 µg/mL for Enterococcus faecalis. After further study of the antibacterial mechanism, we concluded that a vast number of reactive oxygen species formed on the surface of composites, improving antibacterial properties. Keywords: graphene oxide, ZnO, characterization, antibacterial property

  1. Oxidation of clean silicon surfaces studied by four-point probe surface conductance measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Leth; Grey, Francois; Aono, M.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated how the conductance of Si(100)-(2 x 1) and Si(111)-(7 x 7) surfaces change during exposure to molecular oxygen. A monotonic decrease in conductance is seen as the (100) surfaces oxidizes. In contract to a prior study, we propose that this change is caused by a decrease in sur...

  2. Improving the corrosion properties of magnesium AZ31 alloy GTA weld metal using microarc oxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Siva Prasad; M.Ashfaq; N.Kishore Babu; A.Sreekanth; K.Sivaprasad; V.Muthupandi

    2017-01-01

    In this work,the morphology,phase composition,and corrosion properties of microarc oxidized (MAO) gas tungsten arc (GTA) weldments of AZ31 alloy were investigated.Autogenous gas tungsten arc welds were made as full penetration bead-on-plate welding under the alternating-current mode.A uniform oxide layer was developed on the surface of the specimens with MAO treatment in silicate-based alkaline electrolytes for different oxidation times.The corrosion behavior of the samples was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.The oxide film improved the corrosion resistance substantially compared to the uncoated specimens.The sample coated for 10 min exhibited better corrosion properties.The corrosion resistance of the coatings was concluded to strongly depend on the morphology,whereas the phase composition and thickness were concluded to only slightly affect the corrosion resistance.

  3. Thermal and Physical Properties of Plutonium Dioxide Produced from the Oxidation of Metal: a Data Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne, David M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-13

    The ARIES Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory removes plutonium metal from decommissioned nuclear weapons, and converts it to plutonium dioxide in a specially-designed Direct Metal Oxidation furnace. The plutonium dioxide is analyzed for specific surface area, particle size distribution, and moisture content. The purpose of these analyses is to certify that the plutonium dioxide powder meets or exceeds the specifications of the end-user, and the specifications for the packaging and transport of nuclear materials. Analytical results from plutonium dioxide from ARIES development activities, from ARIES production activities, from muffle furnace oxidation of metal, and from metal that was oxidized over a lengthy time interval in air at room temperature, are presented. The processes studied produce plutonium dioxide powder with distinct differences in measured properties, indicating the significant influence of oxidation conditions on physical properties.

  4. Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopic studies of oxide surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadesalingam, Manori

    2005-03-01

    Defects on oxide surfaces are well known to play a key role in catalysis. TiO2, MgO, SiO2 surfaces were investigated using Time-Of-Flight Positron induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (TOF-PAES). Previous work in bulk materials has demonstrated that positrons are particularly sensitive to charged defects. In PAES energetic electron emission results from Auger transitions initiated by annihilation of core electrons with positrons trapped in an image-potential well at the surface. Annealed samples in O2 environment show a strong Auger peak of Oxygen. The implication of these results will be discussed

  5. Oxidation-reduction induced roughening of platinum (111) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, H.; Nagy, Z.

    1993-06-01

    Platinum (111) single crystal surface was roughened by repeated cycles of oxidation and reduction to study dynamic evolution of surface roughening. The interface roughens progressively upon repeated cycles. The measured width of the interface was fit to an assumed pow law, W ∼t β , with β = 0.38(1). The results are compared with a simulation based on a random growth model. The fraction of the singly stepped surface apparently saturates to 0. 25 monolayer, which explains the apparent saturation to a steady roughness observed in previous studies

  6. Structure and properties of tempo-oxidized cotton fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanovic Jovana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of the catalytic oxidation using water soluble and stable nitroxyl radical 2,2´,6,6´-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO on structure and properties of cotton fibers was studied. In particular, the selective TEMPO-mediated oxidation has become very interesting way for introduction of functional groups into cellulose fibers with the aim to obtain oxycellulose fibers with specific properties. Unmodified and modified fibers were characterized in terms of weight loss values, introduced functional groups and crystallinity index. Also, oxidized fibers were characterized in terms of the sorption, morphological, and physico-mechanical properties. The TEMPO-oxidized cotton fibers show a minimum increase of fineness (from 1.32 to 1.28 dtex and increase of crystallinity index (up to 91.9%, while the tensile strength of fibers decreases (up to 10.82 cN/tex. By the TEMPO-mediated oxidation of cotton fibers significant amount of carboxyl groups (up to 0.795 mmol/g cell can be introduced into cellulose fibers. Introduced hydrophilic carboxyl groups increases the sorption properties of oxidized fibers, that can be used directly or for further chemical modification.

  7. Determination of the specific surface energy of oxides and glasses in the solid-state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andryushechkin, S.; Karpman, M.

    2000-01-01

    The production and application of coatings on glasses are used widely in technology. The coatings on glass are used for the regulation of optical, decorative, conducting and other technological and physical properties of glass. In particular, it is important to mention the application of glass fibres for the development of composite materials. However, the specific surface energy of glass and, consequently, its adhesion characteristics are relatively low. The values of these characteristics can be changed by the application of different metallic and nonmetallic coatings is characterised by high surface energy. To produce metallic coatings with the required adhesion strength of glass, it is necessary to have information on the specific surface energy of inorganic glass of different chemical composition. The determination of the relationships between the properties and composition of glass is one of the fundamental problems. At present, a large amount of investigations have been carried out into the investigations of the properties of glass in relation to its composition. However, the problem of establishment of relationships between the properties and composition of glass are especially difficult when examining multicomponent systems (technical glass). It is therefore, in to analyse in each case the properties of not the entire system has a whole but the variation of the properties with temperature of the individual components included in the system, the subsequent application of the additivity principle. The large majority of the glasses represent combinations of oxides of the elements of groups I-III and oxides of the transition metals, forming the mixtures, solid solutions of chemical compounds in the glass production process. Thus, analysis of the characteristics of oxides of the alkali, alkali-earth and transition metals makes it possible to obtain initial data for the evaluation of the surface energy, density, molecular mass of glass containing these oxides

  8. Low-temperature oxidation effects on the morphological and structural properties of hexagonal Zn nano disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, R.; Villa S, G.; Rosales D, J. [Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Jocotitlan, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco Km 44.8, Jocotitlan, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vigueras S, E.; Hernandez L, S. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Laboratorio de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados, Paseo Colon esquina Paseo Tollocan, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Acuna, P. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Programa de Doctorado en Ciencia de Materiales, Paseo Colon esquina Paseo Tollocan, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Argueta V, A.; Colin B, N., E-mail: lorr810813@gmail.com [Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Jocotitlan, Programa de Ingenieria Mecatronica, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco Km 44.8, Jocotitlan, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-11-01

    Ambient-atmosphere oxidation in the temperature range of 90-450 degrees Celsius was performed over Zn films composed by well-faceted hexagonal nano disks, which were deposited by thermal evaporation. Morphological and structural properties of oxidized Zn nano disks were studied by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering measurements. It was found that Zn nano disks keep its original shape only when they are annealed at 90 or 150 degrees Celsius. Smooth oxidation occurred only on the rectangular faces of Zn nano disks heated at 150 degrees Celsius. Thermal oxidation at 250 degrees Celsius favored growth of Zn O nano needles over the surface of the Zn nano disks. Hexagonal-shape of Zn nano disks was transformed completely into a complex morphology composed by different shaped particles, with further increase in oxidation temperature to 450 degrees Celsius. (Author)

  9. Low-temperature oxidation effects on the morphological and structural properties of hexagonal Zn nano disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, R.; Villa S, G.; Rosales D, J.; Vigueras S, E.; Hernandez L, S.; Acuna, P.; Argueta V, A.; Colin B, N.

    2017-01-01

    Ambient-atmosphere oxidation in the temperature range of 90-450 degrees Celsius was performed over Zn films composed by well-faceted hexagonal nano disks, which were deposited by thermal evaporation. Morphological and structural properties of oxidized Zn nano disks were studied by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering measurements. It was found that Zn nano disks keep its original shape only when they are annealed at 90 or 150 degrees Celsius. Smooth oxidation occurred only on the rectangular faces of Zn nano disks heated at 150 degrees Celsius. Thermal oxidation at 250 degrees Celsius favored growth of Zn O nano needles over the surface of the Zn nano disks. Hexagonal-shape of Zn nano disks was transformed completely into a complex morphology composed by different shaped particles, with further increase in oxidation temperature to 450 degrees Celsius. (Author)

  10. Surface Characterization and Electrochemical Oxidation of Metal Doped Uranium Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeongmook; Kim, Jandee; Youn, Young-Sang; Kim, Jong-Goo; Ha, Yeong-Keong; Kim, Jong-Yun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Trivalent element in UO{sub 2} matrix makes the oxygen vacancy from loss of oxygen for charge compensation. Tetravalent element alters lattice parameter of UO{sub 2} due to diameter difference between the tetravalent element and replaced U. These structural changes have significant effect on not only relevant fuel performance but also the kinetics of fuel oxidation. Park and Olander explained the stabilization of Ln (III)-doped UO{sub 2} against oxidation based on oxygen potential calculations. In this work, we have been investigated the effect of Gd{sup 3+} and Th{sup 4+} doping on the UO{sub 2} structure with Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction to characterize the surface structure of nuclear fuel material. For Gd doped UO{sub 2}, its electrochemical oxidation behaviors are also investigated. The Gd and Th doped uranium dioxide solid solution pellets with various doping level were investigated by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, electrochemical experiments to investigate surface structure and electro chemical oxidation behaviors. The lattice parameter evaluated from XRD spectra indicated the formation of solid solutions. Raman spectra showed the existence of the oxygen vacancy. SEM images showed the grain structure on the surface of Gd doped uranium dioxide depending on doping level and oxygen-to-metal ratio.

  11. High-Resolution Electron Energy Loss Studies of Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Nitric Oxide, and Nitrous Oxide Adsorption on Germanium Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entringer, Anthony G.

    compounds Mg _2Sn, Mg_2Ge and Mg _2Si were detected at 29, 32, and 40 meV, respectively. The native oxide of all three show a dominant Mg-O mode at 80 meV. Probable Sn-O, Ge-O, and Si-O modes are also identified. Complete removal of the oxide layer was accomplished only on the Mg_2 Si surface but resulted in no noticeable change in the energy of the surface phonon. Results are compared to the known bulk optical properties of these compounds.

  12. Properties of perovskites and other oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, K Alex

    2010-01-01

    In this book some 50 papers published by K A Muller as author or co-author over several decades, amplified by more recent work mainly by T W Kool with collaborators, are reproduced. The main subject is Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) applied to the study of perovskites and other oxides with related subjects. This wealth of papers is organized into eleven chapters, each with an introductory text written in the light of current understanding. The contributions of the first author on structural phase transitions have been immense, and because K A Muller and J C Fayet have published a review

  13. Recent progress on magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, surface functional strategies and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Wu, Zhaohui; Yu, Taekyung; Jiang, Changzhong; Kim, Woo-Sik

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the recent development and various strategies in the preparation, microstructure, and magnetic properties of bare and surface functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs); their corresponding biological application was also discussed. In order to implement the practical in vivo or in vitro applications, the IONPs must have combined properties of high magnetic saturation, stability, biocompatibility, and interactive functions at the surface. Moreover, the surface of IONPs could be modified by organic materials or inorganic materials, such as polymers, biomolecules, silica, metals, etc. The new functionalized strategies, problems and major challenges, along with the current directions for the synthesis, surface functionalization and bioapplication of IONPs, are considered. Finally, some future trends and the prospects in these research areas are also discussed. PMID:27877761

  14. Macromolecular surface design: photopatterning of functional stable nitrile oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Ozcan; Glassner, Mathias; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Welle, Alexander; Trouillet, Vanessa; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2015-05-04

    The efficient trapping of photogenerated thioaldehydes with functional shelf-stable nitrile oxides in a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition is a novel and versatile photochemical strategy for polymer end-group functionalization and surface modification under mild and equimolar conditions. The modular ligation in solution was followed in detail by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to analyze the functionalized surfaces, whereas time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) confirmed the spatial control of the surface functionalization using a micropatterned shadow mask. Polymer brushes were grown from the surface in a spatially confined regime by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) as confirmed by TOF-SIMS, XPS as well as ellipsometry. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Zinc (hydr)oxide/graphite oxide/AuNPs composites: role of surface features in H₂S reactive adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakoudakis, Dimitrios A; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2014-12-15

    Zinc hydroxide/graphite oxide/AuNPs composites with various levels of complexity were synthesized using an in situ precipitation method. Then they were used as H2S adsorbents in visible light. The materials' surfaces were characterized before and after H2S adsorption by various physical and chemical methods (XRD, FTIR, thermal analysis, potentiometric titration, adsorption of nitrogen and SEM/EDX). Significant differences in surface features and synergistic effects were found depending on the materials' composition. Addition of graphite oxide and the deposition of gold nanoparticles resulted in a marked increase in the adsorption capacity in comparison with that on the zinc hydroxide and zinc hydroxide/AuNP. Addition of AuNPs to zinc hydroxide led to a crystalline ZnO/AuNP composite while the zinc hydroxide/graphite oxide/AuNP composite was amorphous. The ZnOH/GO/AuNPs composite exhibited the greatest H2S adsorption capacity due to the increased number of OH terminal groups and the conductive properties of GO that facilitated the electron transfer and consequently the formation of superoxide ions promoting oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. AuNPs present in the composite increased the conductivity, helped with electron transfer to oxygen, and prevented the fast recombination of the electrons and holes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Surface oxidation of porous ZrB2-SiC ceramic composites by continuous-wave ytterbium fibre laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmod, Dayang Salyani Abang; Glandut, Nicolas; Khan, Amir Azam; Labbe, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface oxidation of ZrB 2 -SiC ceramic composites by Yb-fibre laser. • Round spiral laser pattern created for the surface oxidation. • Presence of laser-formed oxide scale and unaffected beneath regions. • Crazed but uncracked surface oxide. • A dense glassy SiO 2 -rich layer exhibited enhances oxidation resistance. - Abstract: Surface treatment of ceramic substrates by a laser beam can allow to incorporate interesting properties to these ceramics. In the present work, surface oxidation of ca. 30% porous ZrB 2 -SiC ceramic composites by using an ytterbium fibre laser was conducted. Oxidation of ceramic substrates through this process under ambient conditions has certain advantages compared to the classical oxidation method. A particular spiral laser pattern was created in order to produce an oxidized structure on ZrB 2 -SiC porous substrates. The laser parameters were as follows i.e., laser power of 50, 60 and 70 W, a beam diameter of 1.25 mm, velocity of 2 mm/s, acceleration and deceleration of 1 mm/s 2 . The microstructural and morphological changes in the laser-treated region was examined using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. At laser power of 70 W, the sample exhibits uniform oxidation. It revealed that the very porous bulk beneath remained unaffected and unoxidized because this laser-formed oxide scale protects the substrate from oxidation. The presence of oxidized and unaffected regions indicated a high degree of heat localization. The dense glassy SiO 2 -rich layer prevents the inward oxygen diffusion into the inner bulk hence enhances the oxidation resistance.

  17. Universality in Oxygen Evolution Electrocatalysis on Oxide Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Man, Isabela Costinela; Su, Hai-Yan; Vallejo, Federico Calle

    2011-01-01

    with the computational standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) model. We showed that by the discovery of a universal scaling relation between the adsorption energies of HOO* vs HO*, it is possible to analyze the reaction free energy diagrams of all the oxides in a general way. This gave rise to an activity volcano......Trends in electrocatalytic activity of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are investigated on the basis of a large database of HO* and HOO* adsorption energies on oxide surfaces. The theoretical overpotential was calculated by applying standard density functional theory in combination...

  18. Influence of Rare Earth Doping on the Structural and Catalytic Properties of Nanostructured Tin Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Adeilton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNanoparticles of tin oxide, doped with Ce and Y, were prepared using the polymeric precursor method. The structural variations of the tin oxide nanoparticles were characterized by means of nitrogen physisorption, carbon dioxide chemisorption, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The synthesized samples, undoped and doped with the rare earths, were used to promote the ethanol steam reforming reaction. The SnO2-based nanoparticles were shown to be active catalysts for the ethanol steam reforming. The surface properties, such as surface area, basicity/base strength distribution, and catalytic activity/selectivity, were influenced by the rare earth doping of SnO2and also by the annealing temperatures. Doping led to chemical and micro-structural variations at the surface of the SnO2particles. Changes in the catalytic properties of the samples, such as selectivity toward ethylene, may be ascribed to different dopings and annealing temperatures.

  19. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of magnesium and its alloys: Mechanism, properties and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Barati Darband

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Plasma Electrolyte Oxidation (PEO process has increasingly been employed to improve magnesium surface properties by fabrication of an MgO-based coating. Originating from conventional anodizing procedures, this high-voltage process produces an adhesive ceramic film on the surface. The present article provides a comprehensive review around mechanisms of PEO coatings fabrication and their different properties. Due to complexity of PEO coatings formation, a complete explanation regarding fabrication mechanisms of PEO coatings has not yet been proposed; however, the most important advancements in the field of fabrication mechanisms of PEO coatings were gathered in this work. Mechanisms of PEO coatings fabrication on magnesium were reviewed considering voltage–time plots, optical spectrometry, acoustic emission spectrometry and electronic properties of the ceramic film. Afterwards, the coatings properties, affecting parameters and improvement strategies were discussed. In addition, corrosion resistance of coatings, important factors in corrosion resistance and methods for corrosion resistance improvement were considered. Tribological properties (important factors and improvement methods of coatings were also studied. Since magnesium and its alloys are broadly used in biological applications, the biological properties of PEO coatings, important factors in their biological performance and existing methods for improvement of coatings were explained. Addition of ceramic based nanoparticles and formation of nanocomposite coatings may considerably influence properties of plasma electrolyte oxidation coatings. Nanocomposite coatings properties and nanoparticles adsorption mechanisms were included in a separate sector. Another method to improve coatings properties is formation of hybrid coatings on PEO coatings which was discussed in the end.

  20. Graphene oxide decorated electrospun gelatin nanofibers: Fabrication, properties and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalaja, K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India); Sreehari, V.S. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Bhopal, Bhauri, Madhya Pradesh 462066 (India); Kumar, P.R. Anil [Tissue culture laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); Nirmala, R. James, E-mail: nirmala@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India)

    2016-07-01

    Gelatin nanofiber fabricated by electrospinning process is found to mimic the complex structural and functional properties of natural extracellular matrix for tissue regeneration. In order to improve the physico-chemical and biological properties of the nanofibers, graphene oxide is incorporated in the gelatin to form graphene oxide decorated gelatin nanofibers. The current research effort is focussed on the fabrication and evaluation of physico-chemical and biological properties of graphene oxide-gelatin composite nanofibers. The presence of graphene oxide in the nanofibers was established by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We report the effect of incorporation of graphene oxide on the mechanical, thermal and biological performance of the gelatin nanofibers. The tensile strength of gelatin nanofibers was increased from 8.29 ± 0.53 MPa to 21 ± 2.03 MPa after the incorporation of GO. In order to improve the water resistance of nanofibers, natural based cross-linking agent, namely, dextran aldehyde was employed. The cross-linked composite nanofibers showed further increase in the tensile strength up to 56.4 ± 2.03 MPa. Graphene oxide incorporated gelatin nanofibers are evaluated for bacterial activity against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria and cyto compatibility using mouse fibroblast cells (L-929 cells). The results indicate that the graphene oxide incorporated gelatin nanofibers do not prevent bacterial growth, nevertheless support the L-929 cell adhesion and proliferation. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide nano reinforced gelatin nanofibers are fabricated by electrospinning. • Graphene oxide (0.5%) loading resulted in increased tensile strength. • GO/gelatin nanofibers are cross-linked with dextran aldehyde. • Composite nanofibers favoured adhesion of L-929 cells. • GO/gelatin mats do not prevent bacterial growth.

  1. Opposing effects of humidity on rhodochrosite surface oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Chongzheng; Tang, Yuanzhi; Wang, Haitao; Martin, Scot T

    2015-03-03

    Rhodochrosite (MnCO3) is a model mineral representing carbonate aerosol particles containing redox-active elements that can influence particle surface reconstruction in humid air, thereby affecting the heterogeneous transformation of important atmospheric constituents such as nitric oxides, sulfur dioxides, and organic acids. Using in situ atomic force microscopy, we show that the surface reconstruction of rhodochrosite in humid oxygen leads to the formation and growth of oxide nanostructures. The oxidative reconstruction consists of two consecutive processes with distinctive time scales, including a long waiting period corresponding to slow nucleation and a rapid expansion phase corresponding to fast growth. By varying the relative humidity from 55 to 78%, we further show that increasing humidity has opposing effects on the two processes, accelerating nucleation from 2.8(±0.2) × 10(-3) to 3.0(±0.2) × 10(-2) h(-1) but decelerating growth from 7.5(±0.3) × 10(-3) to 3.1(±0.1) × 10(-3) μm(2) h(-1). Through quantitative analysis, we propose that nanostructure nucleation is controlled by rhodochrosite surface dissolution, similar to the dissolution-precipitation mechanism proposed for carbonate mineral surface reconstruction in aqueous solution. To explain nanostructure growth in humid oxygen, a new Cabrera-Mott mechanism involving electron tunneling and solid-state diffusion is proposed.

  2. Surface molecular aggregation structure and surface physicochemical properties of poly(fluoroalkyl acrylate) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, K; Yamaguchi, H; Takahara, A; Kobayashi, M; Morita, M

    2008-01-01

    Effect of side chain length on the molecular aggregation states and surface properties of poly(fluoroalkyl acrylate)s [PFA-C y , where y is fluoromethylene number in R f group] thin films were systematically investigated. Spin-coated PFA-C y thin films were characterized by static and dynamic contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and grazing- incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD). The receding contact angles showed small values for PFA-C y with short side chain (y≤6) and increased above y≥8. GIXD revealed that fluoroalkyl side chain of PFA-C y with y≥8 was crystallized and formed ordered structures at the surface region as well as bulk one. These results suggest that water repellent mechanism of PFA-C y can be attributed to the presence of highly ordered fluoroalkyl side chains at the outermost surfaces. The results of XPS in the dry and hydrated states and contact angle measurement in water support the mechanism of lowering contact angle for water by exposure of carbonyl group to the water interface through reorientation of short fluoroalkyl chains. The surface nanotextured PFA-C 8 through imprinting of anodic aluminum oxide mold showed extremely high hydrophobicity as well as high oleophobicity

  3. Effect of surface oxidation on thermomechanical behavior of NiTi shape memory alloy wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ching Wei; Mahmud, Abdus Samad

    2017-12-01

    Nickel titanium (NiTi) alloy is a unique alloy that exhibits special behavior that recovers fully its shape after being deformed to beyond elastic region. However, this alloy is sensitive to any changes of its composition and introduction of inclusion in its matrix. Heat treatment of NiTi shape memory alloy to above 600 °C leads to the formation of the titanium oxide (TiO2) layer. Titanium oxide is a ceramic material that does not exhibit shape memory behaviors and possess different mechanical properties than that of NiTi alloy, thus disturbs the shape memory behavior of the alloy. In this work, the effect of formation of TiO2 surface oxide layer towards the thermal phase transformation and stress-induced deformation behaviors of the NiTi alloy were studied. The NiTi wire with composition of Ti-50.6 at% Ni was subjected to thermal oxidation at 600 °C to 900 °C for 30 and 60 minutes. The formation of the surface oxide layers was characterized by using the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The effect of surface oxide layers with different thickness towards the thermal phase transformation behavior was studied by using the Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The effect of surface oxidation towards the stress-induced deformation behavior was studied through the tensile deformation test. The stress-induced deformation behavior and the shape memory recovery of the NiTi wire under tensile deformation were found to be affected marginally by the formation of thick TiO2 layer.

  4. The Infulence of Microarc Oxidation Method Modes on the Properties of Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Y. Dudareva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental studies of the properties of the hardened surface layer, developed by the microarc oxidation method (MAO on the surface of Al-Si ingots from AK12D alloy have been presented here. The effect of concentration of the electrolyte components on the properties of the MAO coating, such as microhardness, thickness, porosity have been studied. The corresponding regression equations to estimate the influence of the process parameters on the quality of the developed MAO-layer, have been set up.

  5. Mechanism of glucose electrochemical oxidation on gold surface

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro; La Mantia, Fabio; Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    The complex oxidation of glucose at the surface of gold electrodes was studied in detail in different conditions of pH, buffer and halide concentration. As observed in previous studies, an oxidative current peak occurs during the cathodic sweep showing a highly linear dependence on glucose concentration, when other electrolyte conditions are unchanged. The effect of the different conditions on the intensity of this peak has stressed the limitations of the previously proposed mechanisms. A mechanism able to explain the presence of this oxidative peak was proposed. The mechanism takes into account ion-sorption and electrochemical adsorption of OH-, buffer species (K2HPO4/KH2PO4) and halides. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanism of glucose electrochemical oxidation on gold surface

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2010-08-01

    The complex oxidation of glucose at the surface of gold electrodes was studied in detail in different conditions of pH, buffer and halide concentration. As observed in previous studies, an oxidative current peak occurs during the cathodic sweep showing a highly linear dependence on glucose concentration, when other electrolyte conditions are unchanged. The effect of the different conditions on the intensity of this peak has stressed the limitations of the previously proposed mechanisms. A mechanism able to explain the presence of this oxidative peak was proposed. The mechanism takes into account ion-sorption and electrochemical adsorption of OH-, buffer species (K2HPO4/KH2PO4) and halides. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis of ultrasmall Li-Mn spinel oxides exhibiting unusual ion exchange, electrochemical, and catalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yumi; Kuroda, Yoshiyuki; Uematsu, Tsubasa; Oshikawa, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Suzuki, Kosuke; Hibino, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2015-10-01

    The efficient surface reaction and rapid ion diffusion of nanocrystalline metal oxides have prompted considerable research interest for the development of high functional materials. Herein, we present a novel low-temperature method to synthesize ultrasmall nanocrystalline spinel oxides by controlling the hydration of coexisting metal cations in an organic solvent. This method selectively led to Li-Mn spinel oxides by tuning the hydration of Li+ ions under mild reaction conditions (i.e., low temperature and short reaction time). These particles exhibited an ultrasmall crystallite size of 2.3 nm and a large specific surface area of 371 ± 15 m2 g-1. They exhibited unique properties such as unusual topotactic Li+/H+ ion exchange, high-rate discharge ability, and high catalytic performance for several aerobic oxidation reactions, by creating surface phenomena throughout the particles. These properties differed significantly from those of Li-Mn spinel oxides obtained by conventional solid-state methods.

  8. Synthesis of ultrasmall Li–Mn spinel oxides exhibiting unusual ion exchange, electrochemical, and catalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yumi; Kuroda, Yoshiyuki; Uematsu, Tsubasa; Oshikawa, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Suzuki, Kosuke; Hibino, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2015-01-01

    The efficient surface reaction and rapid ion diffusion of nanocrystalline metal oxides have prompted considerable research interest for the development of high functional materials. Herein, we present a novel low-temperature method to synthesize ultrasmall nanocrystalline spinel oxides by controlling the hydration of coexisting metal cations in an organic solvent. This method selectively led to Li–Mn spinel oxides by tuning the hydration of Li+ ions under mild reaction conditions (i.e., low temperature and short reaction time). These particles exhibited an ultrasmall crystallite size of 2.3 nm and a large specific surface area of 371 ± 15 m2 g−1. They exhibited unique properties such as unusual topotactic Li+/H+ ion exchange, high-rate discharge ability, and high catalytic performance for several aerobic oxidation reactions, by creating surface phenomena throughout the particles. These properties differed significantly from those of Li–Mn spinel oxides obtained by conventional solid-state methods. PMID:26456216

  9. Effect of nitrogen doping on wetting and photoactive properties of laser processed zinc oxide-graphene oxide nanocomposite layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    György, E., E-mail: egyorgy@icmab.es [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona (CSIC-ICMAB), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P. O. Box MG 36, 76900 Bucharest V (Romania); Pérez del Pino, A. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona (CSIC-ICMAB), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Logofatu, C. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P. O. Box MG. 7, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Duta, A.; Isac, L. [Transilvania University of Brasov, Research Centre for Renewable Energy Systems and Recycling, Eroilor 29, 500036, Brasov (Romania)

    2014-07-14

    Zinc oxide-graphene oxide nanocomposite layers were submitted to laser irradiation in air or controlled nitrogen atmosphere using a frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG (λ = 266 nm, τ{sub FWHM} ≅ 3 ns, ν = 10 Hz) laser source. The experiments were performed in air at atmospheric pressure or in nitrogen at a pressure of 2 × 10{sup 4} Pa. The effect of the irradiation conditions, incident laser fluence value, and number of subsequent laser pulses on the surface morphology of the composite material was systematically investigated. The obtained results reveal that nitrogen incorporation improves significantly the wetting and photoactive properties of the laser processed layers. The kinetics of water contact angle variation when the samples are submitted to laser irradiation in nitrogen are faster than that of the samples irradiated in air, the surfaces becoming super-hydrophilic under UV light irradiation.

  10. Electronic and elemental properties of the Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 surface and grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, Richard; Shao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Wei; Mitzi, David B.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray and femtosecond UV photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry and photoluminescence imaging were used to investigate the electronic and elemental properties of the CZTS,Se surface and its oxides. Oxide removal reveals a very Cu poor and Zn rich surface relative to bulk composition. O and Na are observed at the surface and throughout the bulk. Upward bending of the valence bands indicates the presence of negative charge in the surface region and the Fermi level is found near the band gap center. The presence of point defects and the impact of these findings on grain boundary properties will be described

  11. Electronic and elemental properties of the Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 surface and grain boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Richard; Shao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Wei; Mitzi, David B.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray and femtosecond UV photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry and photoluminescence imaging were used to investigate the electronic and elemental properties of the CZTS,Se surface and its oxides. Oxide removal reveals a very Cu poor and Zn rich surface relative to bulk composition. O and Na are observed at the surface and throughout the bulk. Upward bending of the valence bands indicates the presence of negative charge in the surface region and the Fermi level is found near the band gap center. The presence of point defects and the impact of these findings on grain boundary properties will be described.

  12. Properties of Spray Pyrolysied Copper Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Roy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper oxide (CuO thin films were deposited on well cleaned glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique (SPT from cupric acetate (Cu(CH3COO2.H2O precursor solutions of 0.05 – 0.15 M molar concentrations (MC at a substrate temperature of 350 °C and at an air pressure of 1 bar. Effect of varying MC on the surface morphology, structural optical and electrical properties of CuO thin films were investigated. XRD patterns of the prepared films revealed the formation of CuO thin films having monoclinic structure with the main CuO (111 orientation and crystalline size ranging from 8.02 to 9.05 nm was observed. The optical transmission of the film was found to decrease with the increase of MC. The optical band gap of the thin films for 0.10 M was fond to be 1.60 eV. The room temperature electrical resistivity varies from 31 and 24 ohm.cm for the films grown with MC of 0.05 and 0.10 M respectively. The change in resistivity of the films was studied with respect to the change in temperature was shown that semiconductor nature is present. This information is expected to underlie the successful development of CuO films for solar windows and other semi-conductor applications including gas sensors.

  13. Catalytic properties and biomedical applications of cerium oxide nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Walkey, Carl D.; Das, Soumen C.; Seal, Sudipta; Erlichman, Joseph S.; Heckman, Karin L.; Ghibelli, Lina; Traversa, Enrico; McGinnis, James F.; Self, William Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) have shown promise as catalytic antioxidants in the test tube, cell culture models and animal models of disease. However given the reactivity that is well established at the surface of these nanoparticles, the biological utilization of nanoceria as a therapeutic still poses many challenges. Moreover the form that these particles take in a biological environment, such as the changes that can occur due to a protein corona, are not well established. This review aims to summarize the existing literature on biological use of nanoceria, and to raise questions about what further study is needed to apply this interesting catalytic material to biomedical applications. These questions include: 1) How does preparation, exposure dose, route and experimental model influence the reported effects of nanoceria in animal studies? 2) What are the considerations to develop nanoceria as a therapeutic agent in regards to these parameters? 3) What biological targets of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are relevant to this targeting, and how do these properties also influence the safety of these nanomaterials?

  14. Catalytic properties and biomedical applications of cerium oxide nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Walkey, Carl D.

    2014-11-10

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) have shown promise as catalytic antioxidants in the test tube, cell culture models and animal models of disease. However given the reactivity that is well established at the surface of these nanoparticles, the biological utilization of nanoceria as a therapeutic still poses many challenges. Moreover the form that these particles take in a biological environment, such as the changes that can occur due to a protein corona, are not well established. This review aims to summarize the existing literature on biological use of nanoceria, and to raise questions about what further study is needed to apply this interesting catalytic material to biomedical applications. These questions include: 1) How does preparation, exposure dose, route and experimental model influence the reported effects of nanoceria in animal studies? 2) What are the considerations to develop nanoceria as a therapeutic agent in regards to these parameters? 3) What biological targets of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are relevant to this targeting, and how do these properties also influence the safety of these nanomaterials?

  15. Surface elastic properties in silicon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Claudio; Giordano, Stefano; Colombo, Luciano

    2017-09-01

    The elastic behavior of the external surface of a solid body plays a key role in nanomechanical phenomena. While bulk elasticity enjoys the benefits of a robust theoretical understanding, many surface elasticity features remain unexplored: some of them are here addressed by blending together continuum elasticity and atomistic simulations. A suitable readdressing of the surface elasticity theory allows to write the balance equations in arbitrary curvilinear coordinates and to investigate the dependence of the surface elastic parameters on the mean and Gaussian curvatures of the surface. In particular, we predict the radial strain induced by surface effects in spherical and cylindrical silicon nanoparticles and provide evidence that the surface parameters are nearly independent of curvatures and, therefore, of the surface conformation.

  16. Designing porous metallic glass compact enclosed with surface iron oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Young; Park, Hae Jin; Hong, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Young Seok; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Naesung [Hybrid Materials Center (HMC), Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Yongho [Graphene Research Institute (GRI) & HMC, Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Man, E-mail: jinman_park@hotmail.com [Global Technology Center, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd, 129 Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Buem, E-mail: kbkim@sejong.ac.kr [Hybrid Materials Center (HMC), Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • Porous metallic glass compact was developed using electro-discharge sintering process. • Uniform PMGC can only be achieved when low electrical input energy was applied. • Functional iron-oxides were formed on the surface of PMGCs by hydrothermal technique. - Abstract: Porous metallic glass compact (PMGC) using electro-discharge sintering (EDS) process of gas atomized Zr{sub 41.2}Ti{sub 13.8}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 22.5} metallic glass powder was developed. The formation of uniform PMGC can only be achieved when low electrical input energy was applied. Functional iron-oxides were formed on the surface of PMGCs by hydrothermal technique. This finding suggests that PMGC can be applied in the new area such as catalyst via hydrothermal technique and offer a promising guideline for using the metallic glasses as a potential functional application.

  17. Band energy control of molybdenum oxide by surface hydration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Keith T., E-mail: k.t.butler@bath.ac.uk; Walsh, Aron [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Crespo-Otero, Rachel [School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Buckeridge, John; Scanlon, David O. [University College London, Kathleen Lonsdale Materials Chemistry, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Bovill, Edward; Lidzey, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-07

    The application of oxide buffer layers for improved carrier extraction is ubiquitous in organic electronics. However, the performance is highly susceptible to processing conditions. Notably, the interface stability and electronic structure is extremely sensitive to the uptake of ambient water. In this study we use density functional theory calculations to asses the effects of adsorbed water on the electronic structure of MoO{sub x}, in the context of polymer-fullerene solar cells based on PCDTBT. We obtain excellent agreement with experimental values of the ionization potential for pristine MoO{sub 3} (010). We find that IP and EA values can vary by as much as 2.5 eV depending on the oxidation state of the surface and that adsorbed water can either increase or decrease the IP and EA depending on the concentration of surface water.

  18. Enhancement of nitric oxide release and hemocompatibility by surface chirality of D-tartaric acid grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Honghong; Wang, Ke; Fan, Yonghong; Pan, Xiaxin; Huang, Nan; Weng, Yajun

    2017-12-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) generation from endogenous NO-donors catalyzed by diselenide modified biomaterials has been reported. Here we reported surface chirality by L-tartaric acid and D-tartaric acid grafting on the outermost showed a significant impact on diselenide modified biomaterials, which modulated protein adsorption, NO release and anti-platelet adhesion properties. D-tartaric acid grafted surface showed more blood protein adsorption than that of L-surfaces by QCM analysis, however, ELISA analysis disclosed less fibrinogen denatured on the D surfaces. Due to the surface ratio of selenium decreasing, NO release catalyzed by L-tartaric acid grafting on the outermost significantly decreased in comparison to that of only selenocystamine immobilized surfaces. While NO release catalyzed by D-tartaric acid grafting on the outermost didn't decrease and was similar with that of selenocystamine immobilized surfaces. Surface chirality combined with NO release had synergetic effects on platelet adhesion, and it showed the lowest number of platelets adhered on the D-tartaric acid grafted surfaces. Thus surface chirality from D-tartaric acid grafting enhanced hemocompatibility of the surface in this study. Our work provides new insights into engineering novel blood contacting biomaterials by taking into account surface chirality.

  19. Surface electrical properties of stainless steel fibres: An AFM-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Jun; D’Haese, Cécile; Nysten, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface electrical conductivity of stainless steel fibre is measured and mapped by CS-AFM. • Surface potential of stainless steel fibre is measured and mapped by KPFM. • Surface electronic properties are governed by the chromium oxide passivation layer. • Electron tunnelling through the passivation layer is the dominant mechanisms for conduction. - Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) electrical modes were used to study the surface electrical properties of stainless steel fibres. The surface electrical conductivity was studied by current sensing AFM and I–V spectroscopy. Kelvin probe force microscopy was used to measure the surface contact potential. The oxide film, known as passivation layer, covering the fibre surface gives rise to the observation of an apparently semiconducting behaviour. The passivation layer generally exhibits a p-type semiconducting behaviour, which is attributed to the predominant formation of chromium oxide on the surface of the stainless steel fibres. At the nanoscale, different behaviours are observed from points to points, which may be attributed to local variations of the chemical composition and/or thickness of the passivation layer. I–V curves are well fitted with an electron tunnelling model, indicating that electron tunnelling may be the predominant mechanism for electron transport

  20. Structural, optical, morphological and dielectric properties of cerium oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabaharan, Devadoss Mangalam Durai Manoharadoss; Sadaiyandi, Karuppasamy; Mahendran, Manickam; Sagadevan, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Cerium oxide (CeO 2 ) nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation method. The average crystallite size of cerium oxide nanoparticles was calculated from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and found to be 11 nm. The FT-IR spectrum clearly indicated the strong presence of cerium oxide nanoparticles. Raman spectrum confirmed the cubic nature of the cerium oxide nanoparticles. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the nanoparticles agglomerated forming spherical-shaped particles. The Transmission Electron Microscopic (TEM) analysis confirmed the prepared cerium oxide nanoparticles with the particle size being found to be 16 nm. The optical absorption spectrum showed a blue shift by the cerium oxide nanoparticles due to the quantum confinement effect. The dielectric properties of cerium oxide nanoparticles were studied for different frequencies at different temperatures. The dielectric constant and the dielectric loss of the cerium oxide nanoparticles decreased with increase in frequency. The AC electrical conductivity study revealed that the conduction depended on both the frequency and the temperature. (author)

  1. Structural, optical, morphological and dielectric properties of cerium oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabaharan, Devadoss Mangalam Durai Manoharadoss [Department of Physics, NPR College of Engineering and Technology, Natham, Dindigul, Tamil Nadu (India); Sadaiyandi, Karuppasamy [Department of Physics, Alagappa Government Arts College, Karaikudi, Sivaganga, Tamil Nadu (India); Mahendran, Manickam [Department of Physics, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai, Tamil Nadu (India); Sagadevan, Suresh, E-mail: duraiphysics2011@gmail.com [Department of Physics, AMET University (India)

    2016-03-15

    Cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation method. The average crystallite size of cerium oxide nanoparticles was calculated from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and found to be 11 nm. The FT-IR spectrum clearly indicated the strong presence of cerium oxide nanoparticles. Raman spectrum confirmed the cubic nature of the cerium oxide nanoparticles. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the nanoparticles agglomerated forming spherical-shaped particles. The Transmission Electron Microscopic (TEM) analysis confirmed the prepared cerium oxide nanoparticles with the particle size being found to be 16 nm. The optical absorption spectrum showed a blue shift by the cerium oxide nanoparticles due to the quantum confinement effect. The dielectric properties of cerium oxide nanoparticles were studied for different frequencies at different temperatures. The dielectric constant and the dielectric loss of the cerium oxide nanoparticles decreased with increase in frequency. The AC electrical conductivity study revealed that the conduction depended on both the frequency and the temperature. (author)

  2. Nano- and Micro-Scale Oxidative Patterning of Titanium Implant Surfaces for Improved Surface Wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-hye; Son, Jun Sik; Choi, Seok Hwa; Kim, Kyo-han; Kwon, Tae-yub

    2016-02-01

    A simple and scalable surface modification treatment is demonstrated, in which nano- and microscale features are introduced into the surface of titanium (Ti) substrates by means of a novel and eco-friendly oxidative aqueous solution composed of hydrogen peroxide (H202) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). By immersing mirror-polished Ti discs in an aqueous mixture of 30 wt% H2O2/5 wt% NaHCO3 at 23 +/- 3 degrees C for 4 h, it was confirmed that this mixture is capable of generating microscale topographies on Ti surfaces. It also simultaneously formed nanochannels that were regularly arranged in a comb-like pattern on the Ti surface, thus forming a hierarchical surface structure. Further, these nano/micro-textured Ti surfaces showed great surface roughness and excellent wettability when compared with control Ti surfaces. This study demonstrates that a H2O2/NaHCO3 mixture can be effectively utilized to create reproducible nano/microscale topographies on Ti implant surfaces, thus providing an economical new oxidative solution that may be used effectively and safely as a Ti surface modification treatment.

  3. Surface energy for electroluminescent polymers and indium-tin-oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Zhiyou; Yin Sheng; Liu Chen; Zhong Youxin; Zhang Wuxing; Shi Dufang; Wang Chang'an

    2003-01-01

    The contact angles on the thin films of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) and indium-tin-oxide (ITO) were measured by the sessile-drop technique. The surface energies of the films were calculated using the Owens-Wendt (OW) and van Oss-Chaudhury-Good (vOCG) approaches. The overall total surface energies of MEH-PPV and the as-received ITO were 30.75 and 30.07 mJ/m 2 , respectively. Both approaches yielded almost the same surface energies. The surface energies were mainly contributed from the dispersion interactions or Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) interactions for both MEH-PPV and ITO. The changes in the contact angles and surface energies of the ITO films, due to different solvent cleaning processes and oxygen plasma treatments, were analyzed. Experimental results revealed that the total surface energy of the ITO films increased after various cleaning processes. In comparison with different solvents used in this study, we found that methanol is an effective solvent for ITO cleaning, as a higher surface energy was observed. ITO films treated with oxygen plasma showed the highest surface energy. This work demonstrated that contact angle measurement is a useful method to diagnose the cleaning effect on ITO films

  4. Studies of surface states in zinc oxide nanopowders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Raul Mugabe

    The surface of ZnO semiconductor nanosystems is a key performance-defining factor in numerous applications. In this work we present experimental results for the surface defect-related properties of ZnO nanoscale systems. Surface photovoltage spectroscopy was used to determine the defect level energies within the band gap, the conduction vs. valence band nature of the defect-related transitions, and to probe key dynamic parameters of the surface on a number of commercially available ZnO nanopowders. In our experimental setup, surface photovoltage characterization is conducted in high vacuum in tandem with in situ oxygen remote plasma treatments. Surface photovoltage investigations of the as-received and plasma-processed samples revealed a number of common spectral features related to surface states. Furthermore, we observed significant plasma-induced changes in the surface defect properties. Ex situ positron annihilation and photoluminescence measurements were performed on the studied samples and correlated with surface photovoltage results. The average positron lifetimes were found to be substantially longer than in a bulk single crystalline sample, which is consistent with the model of grains with defect-rich surface and subsurface layers. Compression of the powders into pellets yielded reduction of the average positron lifetimes. Surface photovoltage, positron annihilation, and photoluminescence spectra consistently showed sample-to-sample differences due to the variation in the overall quality of the nanopowders, which partially obscures observation of the scaling effects. However, the results demonstrated that our approach is efficient in detecting specific surface states in nanoscale ZnO specimens and in elucidating their nature.

  5. Interaction of dimethylamine with clean and partially oxidized copper surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber, J. A.; Rogers, J. W.; Banse, B. A.; Koel, B. E.

    1990-05-01

    The interaction of dimethylamine (DMA) with partially oxidized polycrystalline copper [Cu(poly)] and clean and partially oxidized Cu(110) between 110 and 500 K has been examined using electron stimulated desorption (ESD), high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). ESD mass spectra of the DMA adsorbed on O/Cu(poly) between 112 and 230 K consistently display peaks at 44 amu [(CH 3) 2N] + and 46 amu [(CH 3) 2NH-H] +, but no significant parent peak at 45 amu [(CH 3) 2NH] +, even though this last feature is prominent in the gas-phase mass spectrum. OH - is not observed at temperatures below 184 K and the yield at higher temperatures is much less than that of O +. HREELS of DMA on clean and oxygen covered Cu(110) obtained at temperatures between 100 and 320 K show characteristic vibrational spectra for molecular DMA and no OH(a) vibrational modes. TPD results show that the desorption profiles of all the major peaks in the DMA mass spectrum follow that of the parent peak with no evidence for production of H 2O. The ESD, HREELS and TPD results all indicate that DMA is molecularly and reversibly adsorbed, with no significant formation of surface hydroxyl species. The results indicate that preferential adsorption of amines from amine/epoxy mixtures onto metal oxide surfaces could passivate the surface and prevent subsequent bonding to the epoxy resin.

  6. Properties of Co-deposited indium tin oxide and zinc oxide films using a bipolar pulse power supply and a dual magnetron sputter source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Man-Soo; Seob Jeong, Heui; Kim, Won Mok; Seo, Yong Woon

    2003-01-01

    Multilayer coatings consisting of metal layers sandwiched between transparent conducting oxide layers are widely used for flat panel display electrodes and electromagnetic shield coatings for plasma displays, due to their high electrical conductivity and light transmittance. The electrical and optical properties of these multilayer films depend largely on the surface characteristics of the transparent conducting oxide thin films. A smoother surface on the transparent conducting oxide thin films makes it easier for the metal layer to form a continuous film, thus resulting in a higher conductivity and visible light transmittance. Indium tin oxide (ITO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) films were co-deposited using a dual magnetron sputter and a bipolar pulse power supply to decrease the surface roughness of the transparent conducting oxide films. The symmetric pulse mode of the power supply was used to simultaneously sputter an In 2 O 3 (90 wt %) : SnO 2 (10 wt %) target and a ZnO target. We varied the duty of the pulses to control the ratio of ITO : ZnO in the thin films. The electrical and optical properties of the films were studied, and special attention was paid to the surface roughness and the crystallinity of the films. By co-depositing ITO and ZnO at a pulse duty ratio of ITO:ZnO=45:45 using a dual magnetron sputter and a bipolar pulse power supply, we were able to obtain amorphous transparent conducting oxide films with a very smooth surface which had a Zn-rich buffer layer under a In-rich surface layer. All of the films exhibited typical electrical and optical properties of transparent conducting oxide films deposited at room temperature

  7. Powder processing of high Tc oxide superconductors and their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajpei, A.C.; Upadhyaya, G.S.

    1992-01-01

    Powder processing of ceramics is an established technology and in the area of high T c superconductors, its importance is felt even more significantly. The present monograph is an attempt in this direction to explore the perspectives and practice of powder processing routes towards control and optimization of the microstructure and pertinent properties of high T c oxide superconductors. The monograph consists of 6 chapters. After a very brief introduction (Chapter 1), Chapter 2 describes various classes of high T c oxide superconductors and their phase equilibria. Chapter 3 highlights the preparation of oxide superconductor powders through various routes and details their subtle distinctions. Chapter 4 briefly covers characterisation of the oxide superconductors, laying emphasis on the process-analysis and microstructure. Chapter 5 describes in detail various fabrication techniques for bulk superconductors through the powder routes. The last Chapter (Chapter 6) describing properties of bulk oxide superconductors, discusses the role of subtituents, compositional variations and processing methods on such properties. References are given at the end of each chapter. (orig.)

  8. Temperature-dependent electrical property transition of graphene oxide paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xingyi; Jiang Pingkai; Zhi Chunyi; Golberg, Dmitri; Bando, Yoshio; Tanaka, Toshikatsu

    2012-01-01

    Reduction of graphene oxide is primarily important because different reduction methods may result in graphene with totally different properties. For systematically exploring the reduction of graphene oxide, studies of the temperature-dependent electrical properties of graphene oxide (GO) are urgently required. In this work, for the first time, broadband dielectric spectroscopy was used to carry out an in situ investigation on the transition of the electrical properties of GO paper from −40 to 150 °C. The results clearly reveal a very interesting four-stage transition of electrical properties of GO paper with increasing temperature: insulator below 10 °C (stage 1), semiconductor at between 10 and 90 °C (stage 2), insulator at between 90 and 100 °C (stage 3), and semiconductor again at above 100 °C (stage 4). Subsequently, the transition mechanism was discussed in combination with detailed dielectric properties, microstructure and thermogravimetric analyses. It is suggested that the temperature-dependent transition of electronic properties of GO is closely associated with the ion mobility, water molecules removal and the reduction of GO in the GO paper. Most importantly, the present work clearly demonstrates the reduction of GO paper starts at above 100 °C. (paper)

  9. Fundamental Material Properties Underlying Solid Oxide Electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hansen, Karin Vels; Holtappels, Peter

    2012-01-01

    , and the electrochemical reactions take place at elevated temperatures from 300 and up to 1000 C. This has as consequence that the region around the threephase- boundary (TPB), where the electron conducting electrode, the electrolyte and the gas phase reactants meet, is the region where the electrochemical processes take...... place. The length of the TPB is a key factor even though the width and depth of the zone, in which the rate limiting reactions take place, may vary depending of the degree of the electrode materials ability to conduct both electrons and ions, i.e. the TPB zone volume depends on how good a mixed ionic...... in the TPB region. Also, segregations to the surfaces and interfaces of the electrode materials, which may affect the electrode reaction mechanism, are very dependent on the exact history of fabrication and operation. The positive effects of even small concentrations of nanoparticles in the electrodes may...

  10. Exploring routes to tailor the physical and chemical properties of oxides via doping: an STM study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilius, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Doping opens fascinating possibilities for tailoring the electronic, optical, magnetic, and chemical properties of oxides. The dopants perturb the intrinsic behavior of the material by generating charge centers for electron transfer into adsorbates, by inducing new energy levels for electronic and optical excitations, and by altering the surface morphology and hence the adsorption and reactivity pattern. Despite a vivid scientific interest, knowledge on doped oxides is limited when compared to semiconductors, which reflects the higher complexity and the insulating nature of many oxides. In fact, atomic-scale studies, aiming at a mechanistic understanding of dopant-related processes, are still scarce.In this article, we review our scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments on thin, crystalline oxide films with a defined doping level. We demonstrate how the impurities alter the surface morphology and produce cationic/anionic vacancies in order to keep the system charge neutral. We discuss how individual dopants can be visualized in the lattice, even if they reside in subsurface layers. By means of STM-conductance and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we determine the electronic impact of dopants, including the energies of their eigen states and local band-bending effects in the host oxide. Electronic transitions between dopant-induced gap states give rise to new optical modes, as detected with STM luminescence spectroscopy. From a chemical perspective, dopants are introduced to improve the redox potential of oxide materials. Electron transfer from Mo-donors, for example, alters the growth behavior of gold and activates O 2 molecules on a wide-gap CaO surface. Such results demonstrate the enormous potential of doped oxides in heterogeneous catalysis. Our experiments address the issue of doping from a fundamental viewpoint, posing questions on the lattice position, charge state, and electron-transfer potential of the impurity ions. Whether doped oxides are

  11. Exploring routes to tailor the physical and chemical properties of oxides via doping: an STM study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilius, Niklas

    2015-08-01

    Doping opens fascinating possibilities for tailoring the electronic, optical, magnetic, and chemical properties of oxides. The dopants perturb the intrinsic behavior of the material by generating charge centers for electron transfer into adsorbates, by inducing new energy levels for electronic and optical excitations, and by altering the surface morphology and hence the adsorption and reactivity pattern. Despite a vivid scientific interest, knowledge on doped oxides is limited when compared to semiconductors, which reflects the higher complexity and the insulating nature of many oxides. In fact, atomic-scale studies, aiming at a mechanistic understanding of dopant-related processes, are still scarce. In this article, we review our scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments on thin, crystalline oxide films with a defined doping level. We demonstrate how the impurities alter the surface morphology and produce cationic/anionic vacancies in order to keep the system charge neutral. We discuss how individual dopants can be visualized in the lattice, even if they reside in subsurface layers. By means of STM-conductance and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we determine the electronic impact of dopants, including the energies of their eigen states and local band-bending effects in the host oxide. Electronic transitions between dopant-induced gap states give rise to new optical modes, as detected with STM luminescence spectroscopy. From a chemical perspective, dopants are introduced to improve the redox potential of oxide materials. Electron transfer from Mo-donors, for example, alters the growth behavior of gold and activates O2 molecules on a wide-gap CaO surface. Such results demonstrate the enormous potential of doped oxides in heterogeneous catalysis. Our experiments address the issue of doping from a fundamental viewpoint, posing questions on the lattice position, charge state, and electron-transfer potential of the impurity ions. Whether doped oxides are

  12. Effect Of Ethylene Oxide, Autoclave and Ultra Violet Sterilizations On Surface Topography Of Pet Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem DUZYER

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to investigate the effects of different sterilization methods on electrospun polyester. Ethylene oxide (EO, autoclave (AU and ultraviolet (UV sterilization methods were applied to electrospun fibers produced from polyethylene terephthalate (PET solutions with concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 wt.%. The surface characteristics of the fibers were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM, atomic force microscope (AFM, surface pore size studies and contact angle measurements. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC tests were carried out to characterize the thermal properties. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR tests were performed to analyze the micro structural properties. SEM studies showed that different sterilization methods made significant changes on the surfaces of the fibers depending on the PET concentration. Although the effects were decreased with the increasing polymer concentration, the fiber structure was damaged especially with the EO sterilization. The contact angle values were decreased with the UV sterilization method the most.

  13. Construction of an interatomic potential for zinc oxide surfaces by high-dimensional neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artrith, Nongnuch; Morawietz, Tobias; Behler, Joerg [Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Chemie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a technologically important material with many applications, e.g. in heterogeneous catalysis. For theoretical studies of the structural properties of ZnO surfaces, defects, and crystal structures it is necessary to simulate large systems over long time-scales with sufficient accuracy. Often, the required system size is not accessible by computationally rather demanding density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. Recently, artificial Neural Networks (NN) trained to first principles data have shown to provide accurate potential-energy surfaces (PESs) for condensed systems. We present the construction and analysis of a NN PES for ZnO. The structural and energetic properties of bulk ZnO and ZnO surfaces are investigated using this potential and compared to DFT calculations.

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Some Properties of Native and Oxidized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to produce native starches from cassava, yam and rice, and to modify a portion of the native starches by oxidation and compare their properties. The modification process was carried out by treating the native starches with food grade sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The proximate, swelling index and ...

  15. Surface Properties of Titanium dioxide and its Structural Modifications by Reactions with Transition Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpegamage, Sandamali

    Surfaces of metal oxides play a vital role in many technologically important applications. The surfaces of titanium dioxide, in particular, show quite promising properties that can be utilized in solid-state gas sensing and photocatalysis applications. In the first part of this dissertation we investigate these properties of TiO2 surfaces through a vigorous surface scientific approach. In the second part, we investigate the possibilities of modifying the TiO2 surfaces by depositing multi-component transition metal oxide monolayers so that the properties of bare TiO2 surface can be influenced in a beneficial way. For instance, via formation of new surface sites or cations that have different valance states, the chemisorption and catalytic properties can be modified. We use sophisticated experimental surface science techniques that are compatible with ultra-high vacuum technology for surface characterization. All the experimental results, except for the photocatalysis experiments, were compared to and verified by supporting DFT-based theoretical results produced by our theory collaborators. TiO2 based solid-state gas sensors have been used before for detecting trace amounts of explosives such as 2,4-dinitrololuene (DNT), a toxic decomposition product of the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) that have very low vapor pressure. However, the adsorption, desorption and reaction mechanism were not well- understood. Here, we investigate 2,4-DNT adsorption on rutile-TiO2(110) surface in order to gain insight about these mechanisms in an atomistic level and we propose an efficient way of desorbing DNT from the surface through UV-light induced photoreactions. TiO2 exists in different polymorphs and the photocatalytic activity differs from one polymorph to another. Rutile and anatase are the most famous forms of TiO2 in photocatalysis and anatase is known to show higher activity than rutile. The photoactivity also varies depending on the surface orientation for the same

  16. Experimental study on surface properties of the PMMA used in high power spark gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ruoyu; Wu, Jiawei; Ding, Weidong; Liu, Yunfei; Gou, Yang

    2017-10-01

    This paper studies the surface properties of the Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) insulator samples used in high power spark gaps. Experiments on surface morphology, surface profile, surface chemical composition and surface leakage current were performed. Metal particles ejected in tangent direction of discharge spots were researched on the sample surface. Three kinds of distinct bands were found on the surface after 1500 shots: colorless and transparent sinking band, black band, and grey powdered coating band. The thickness of the coating band was tens of microns and the maximum radial erosion rate was about 10 μm/C. Surface content analysis indicated that the powdered coating was a mixture of decomposed insulator material and electrode material oxides. In addition, leakage current significantly depended on water content in the chamber and presented an U-shape curve distribution along the insulator surface, in keeping with the amount of powdered coating due to shock waves. Possible reasons of the surface property changes were discussed. Electroconductive oxides of low valence states of Cu and W produced by the reactions between electrode materials and arc plasmas were considered to be the cause of dielectric performance degradation.

  17. Surface modification of promising cerium oxide nanoparticles for nanomedicine applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nanda, Himansu Sekhar

    2016-11-14

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) or nanoceria have emerged as a potential nanomedicine for the treatment of several diseases such as cancer. CNPs have a natural tendency to aggregate or agglomerate in their bare state, which leads to sedimentation in a biological environment. Since the natural biological environment is essentially aqueous, nanoparticle surface modification using suitable biocompatible hydrophilic chemical moieties is highly desirable to create effective aqueous dispersions. In this report, (6-{2-[2-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-ethoxy]-ethoxy}-hexyl)triethoxysilane was used as a functional, biocompatible organosilane to modify the surface of CNPs to produce promising nanoparticles which open substantial therapeutic avenues. The surface modified nanoparticles were produced in situ via an ammonia-induced ethylene glycol-assisted precipitation method and were characterized using complimentary characterization techniques. The interaction between the functional moiety and the nanoparticle was studied using powerful cross polarization/magic angle sample spinning solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The surface-modified nanoparticles were extremely small and demonstrated a significant improvement in aqueous dispersibility. Moreover, the existence of a strong ionic coordination between the functional moiety and the surface of the nanoparticle was realised, indicating that the surface modified nanoceria are stable and that the nanoparticles should demonstrate an enhanced circulation time in a biological environment. The surface modification approach should be promising for the production of CNPs for nanomedicine applications. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Properties of Polydisperse Tin-doped Dysprosium and Indium Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinovskaya Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the complex permittivity, diffuse-reflectance, and characteristics of crystal lattices of tin-doped indium and dysprosium oxides are presented. Using the methods of spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis, it is shown that doping of indium oxide with tin results in a significant increase of the components of the indium oxide complex permittivity and an appearance of the plasma resonance in its diffuse-reflectance spectra. This indicates the appearance of charge carriers with the concentration of more than 1021 cm−3 in the materials. On the other hand, doping of the dysprosium oxide with the same amount of tin has no effect on its optical and electromagnetic properties.

  19. Effect of Leaf Surface Chemical Properties on Efficacy of Sanitizer for Rotavirus Inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzawa, Miyu; Ku, Kang-Mo; Palma-Salgado, Sindy Paola; Nagasaka, Kenya; Feng, Hao; Juvik, John A.; Sano, Daisuke; Shisler, Joanna L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of sanitizers is essential for produce safety. However, little is known about how sanitizer efficacy varies with respect to the chemical surface properties of produce. To answer this question, the disinfection efficacies of an oxidant-based sanitizer and a new surfactant-based sanitizer for porcine rotavirus (PRV) strain OSU were examined. PRV was attached to the leaf surfaces of two kale cultivars with high epicuticular wax contents and one cultivar of endive with a low epicuticular wax content and then treated with each sanitizer. The efficacy of the oxidant-based sanitizer correlated with leaf wax content as evidenced by the 1-log10 PRV disinfection on endive surfaces (low wax content) and 3-log10 disinfection of the cultivars with higher wax contents. In contrast, the surfactant-based sanitizer showed similar PRV disinfection efficacies (up to 3 log10) that were independent of leaf wax content. A statistical difference was observed with the disinfection efficacies of the oxidant-based sanitizer for suspended and attached PRV, while the surfactant-based sanitizer showed similar PRV disinfection efficacies. Significant reductions in the entry and replication of PRV were observed after treatment with either disinfectant. Moreover, the oxidant-based-sanitizer-treated PRV showed sialic acid-specific binding to the host cells, whereas the surfactant-based sanitizer increased the nonspecific binding of PRV to the host cells. These findings suggest that the surface properties of fresh produce may affect the efficacy of virus disinfection, implying that food sanitizers should be carefully selected for the different surface characteristics of fresh produce. IMPORTANCE Food sanitizer efficacies are affected by the surface properties of vegetables. This study evaluated the disinfection efficacies of two food sanitizers, an oxidant-based sanitizer and a surfactant-based sanitizer, on porcine rotavirus strain OSU adhering to the leaf epicuticular surfaces of

  20. THE SURFACE BEHAVIOUR AND CATALYTIC PROPERTIES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the K2NiF4 structure were prepared by the polyglycol gel method and used as ... oxides (NO) are the most important contaminants in motor vehicle exhaust gases ... GHSV (gas hour space velocity) = 12000 h-1, at a specific temperature in the ...

  1. Influence of the nanotube oxidation on the rheological and electrical properties of CNT/HDPE composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella, E-mail: mrnobile@unisa.it; Somma, Elvira; Valentino, Olga; Neitzert, Heinz-Christoph [Department of Industrial Engineering – DIIn - Università di Salerno Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132 - 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Simon, George [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2016-05-18

    Rheological and electrical properties of nanocomposites based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and high density polyethylene (HDPE), prepared by melt mixing in a micro-twin screw extruder, have been investigated. The effect of MWNT concentration (0.5 and 2.5 wt %) and nanotube surface treatment (oxidative treatment in a tubular furnace at 500°C for 1 hr in a 95% nitrogen, 5% oxygen atmosphere) has been analyzed. It has been found that the sample conductivity with oxidation of the nanotubes decreases more than 2 orders of magnitude. Scanning electron microscopy showed good adhesion and dispersion of nanotubes in the matrix, independently of the surface treatment. Electrical and rheological measurements revealed that the oxidative treatment, causing some reduction of the MWNT quality, decreases the efficiency of the nanotube matrix interaction.

  2. Effects of plasma electrolytic oxidation process on the mechanical properties of additively manufactured porous biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgin Karaji, Zahra; Hedayati, Reza; Pouran, Behdad; Apachitei, Iulian; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2017-07-01

    Metallic porous biomaterials are recently attracting more attention thanks to the additive manufacturing techniques which help produce more complex structures as compared to conventional techniques. On the other hand, bio-functional surfaces on metallic biomaterials such as titanium and its alloys are necessary to enhance the biological interactions with the host tissue. This study discusses the effect of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO), as a surface modification technique to produce bio-functional layers, on the mechanical properties of additively manufactured Ti6Al4V scaffolds based on the cubic unit cell. For this purpose, the PEO process with two different oxidation times was applied on scaffolds with four different values of relative density. The effects of the PEO process were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), optical microscopy as well as static and dynamic (fatigue) mechanical testing under compression. SEM results indicated pore formation on the surface of the scaffolds after oxidation with a thickness of 4.85±0.36μm of the oxide layer after 2min and 9.04±2.27μm after 5min oxidation (based on optical images). The static test results showed the high effect of relative density of porous structure on its mechanical properties. However, oxidation did not influence most of the mechanical properties such as maximum stress, yield stress, plateau stress, and energy absorption, although its effect on the elastic modulus was considerable. Under fatigue loading, none of the scaffolds failed even after 10 6 loading cycles at 70% of their yield stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Composition-structure-property relation of oxide glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Christian

    also increases such properties. Yet, these rules are not strictly followed even for the simplest binary oxide glasses, such as alkali silicates, borates and phosphates. In this thesis it is argued that the missing link between composition and properties is the glass structure. Structural models...... are proposed based on topological selection rules and experimentally verified. The relation between structure and properties is evaluated using topological constraint theory, which in its essence is a theory that quantifies the two intuitions of the glass scientist. The end result is a quantitative model...

  4. Tantalum surface oxidation: Bond relaxation, energy entrapment, and electron polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yongling [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies (Ministry of Education), Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Thin Film Materials and Devices, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Bo, Maolin [Yangtze Normal University, College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Chongqing 408100 (China); Wang, Yan [School of Information and Electronic Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Hunan 411201 (China); Liu, Yonghui [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies (Ministry of Education), Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Thin Film Materials and Devices, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Sun, Chang Q. [NOVITAS, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Huang, Yongli, E-mail: huangyongli@xtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies (Ministry of Education), Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Thin Film Materials and Devices, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Graphical abstract: The bond, electron and energy relaxation result in core level energy shift, local densification, quantum entrapment and electron polarization of bonding electrons. - Highlights: • Increasing the oxygen coverage lowers the adsorption energy associated with lattice reconstruction. • Electrons transfer from Ta surface atoms to sp-hydrated oxygen, creating dipole moment that decreases the work function. • Oxygen chemisorption modified valence density-of-state (DOS) for Ta with four excessive DOS features: O−Ta bonding, O{sup 2−} lone pairs, Ta+ electron holes, and the lone-pair polarized Ta dipoles. • The bond, electron and energy relaxation between surface undercoordinated atoms are responsible for core level energy shift, local densification, quantum entrapment and electron polarization of bonding electrons. - Abstract: A combination of photoelectron spectrometric analysis and density functional theory calculations has enabled reconciliation of the bond-energy-electron relaxation for the Ta(100, 110, 111) surfaces chemisorbed with oxygen at different coverages. Results show that increasing oxygen coverage lowers the adsorption energy associated with lattice reconstruction. Valence electrons transfer from Ta surface atoms to oxygen to create four excessive DOS features in terms of O−Ta bonding, lone pairs of oxygen, Ta{sup +} electron holes, and polarized Ta dipoles. Oxidation proceeds in the following dynamics: oxygen gets electrons from two neighboring Ta atoms left behind Ta{sup +}; the sp{sup 3}-orbital hybridization takes place with additional two electron lone pairs, the lone pairs polarize the other two Ta neighbors becoming dipoles. X-ray photoelectron spectral analysis results in the 4f binding energy of an isolated Ta atom and its shift upon bond formation and oxidation. Exercises provide not only a promising numerical approach for the quantitative information about the bond and electronic behavior but also consistent

  5. Surface oxidization-reduction reactions in Columbia Plateau basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.F.; Yee, A.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented which define principal oxidation-reduction reactions expected between ground water and iron in the Umtanum and Cohassett basalt flows of south central Washington. Data include kinetics of aqueous iron speciation, rates of O 2 uptake and nature of oxyhydroxide precipitates. Such data are important in predicting behavior of radionuclides in basalt aquifers including determination of valence states, speciation, solubility, sorption, and coprecipitation on iron oxyhydroxide substrates and colloids. Analyses of the basalt by XPS indicates that ferrous iron is oxidized to ferric iron on the surface and that the total iron decreases as a function of pH during experimental weathering. Iron oxyhydroxide phases did not form surface coating on basalt surfaces but rather nucleated as separate plases in solution. No significant increases in Cs or Sr sorption were observed with increased weathering of the basalt. Concurrent increases in Fe(II) and decreases in Fe(III) in slightly to moderately acid solutions indicated continued oxidization of ferrous iron in the basalt. At neutral to basic pH, Fe(II) was strongly sorbed onto the basalt surface (Kd = 6.5 x 10 -3 1 x m 2 ) resulting in low dissolved concentrations even under anoxic conditions. The rate of O 2 uptake increased with decreasing pH. Diffusion rates (-- 10 -14 cm 2 x s -1 ), calculated using a one-dimensional analytical model, indicate grain boundary diffusion. Comparisons of Eh values calculated by Pt electrode, dissolved O 2 and Fe(II)/Fe(III) measurements showed considerable divergence, with the ferric-ferrous couple being the preferred method of estimating Eh

  6. Tantalum surface oxidation: Bond relaxation, energy entrapment, and electron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yongling; Bo, Maolin; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yonghui; Sun, Chang Q.; Huang, Yongli

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The bond, electron and energy relaxation result in core level energy shift, local densification, quantum entrapment and electron polarization of bonding electrons. - Highlights: • Increasing the oxygen coverage lowers the adsorption energy associated with lattice reconstruction. • Electrons transfer from Ta surface atoms to sp-hydrated oxygen, creating dipole moment that decreases the work function. • Oxygen chemisorption modified valence density-of-state (DOS) for Ta with four excessive DOS features: O−Ta bonding, O"2"− lone pairs, Ta+ electron holes, and the lone-pair polarized Ta dipoles. • The bond, electron and energy relaxation between surface undercoordinated atoms are responsible for core level energy shift, local densification, quantum entrapment and electron polarization of bonding electrons. - Abstract: A combination of photoelectron spectrometric analysis and density functional theory calculations has enabled reconciliation of the bond-energy-electron relaxation for the Ta(100, 110, 111) surfaces chemisorbed with oxygen at different coverages. Results show that increasing oxygen coverage lowers the adsorption energy associated with lattice reconstruction. Valence electrons transfer from Ta surface atoms to oxygen to create four excessive DOS features in terms of O−Ta bonding, lone pairs of oxygen, Ta"+ electron holes, and polarized Ta dipoles. Oxidation proceeds in the following dynamics: oxygen gets electrons from two neighboring Ta atoms left behind Ta"+; the sp"3-orbital hybridization takes place with additional two electron lone pairs, the lone pairs polarize the other two Ta neighbors becoming dipoles. X-ray photoelectron spectral analysis results in the 4f binding energy of an isolated Ta atom and its shift upon bond formation and oxidation. Exercises provide not only a promising numerical approach for the quantitative information about the bond and electronic behavior but also consistent insight into the

  7. Enhanced biogenic emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide following surface biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iris C.; Levine, Joel S.; Poth, Mark A.; Riggan, Philip J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent measurements indicate significantly enhanced biogenic soil emissions of both nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) following surface burning. These enhanced fluxes persisted for at least six months following the burn. Simultaneous measurements indicate enhanced levels of exchangeable ammonium in the soil following the burn. Biomass burning is known to be an instantaneous source of NO and N2O resulting from high-temperature combustion. Now it is found that biomass burning also results in significantly enhanced biogenic emissions of these gases, which persist for months following the burn.

  8. An ab initio study of plutonium oxides surfaces; Etude ab initio des surfaces d'oxydes de Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jomard, G.; Bottin, F.; Amadon, B

    2007-07-01

    By means of first-principles calculations, we have studied the atomic structure as well as the thermodynamic stability of various plutonium dioxide surfaces in function of their environment (in terms of oxygen partial pressure and temperature). All these simulations have been performed with the ABINIT code. It is well known that DFT fails to describe correctly plutonium-based materials since 5f electrons in such systems are strongly correlated. In order to go beyond DFT, we have treated PuO{sub 2} and {beta}-Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} in a DFT+U framework. We show that the couple of parameters (U,J) that works well for pure Pu is also well designed for describing ground state (GS) properties of these two oxides. The major improvement with respect with DFT is that we are able to predict an insulating GS in agreement with experiments. The presence of a gap in the DOS (Density of States) of plutonium oxides should play a significant role in the predicted surface reactivity. However, performing DFT+U calculations on surfaces of plutonium oxide from scratch was too ambitious. That is why we decided, as a first step, to study the stability of the (100), (110) and (111) surfaces of PuO{sub 2} in a DFT-GGA framework. For each of these orientations, we considered various terminations. These ab initio results have been introduced in a thermodynamic model which allows us to predict the relative stability of the different terminations as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure (p{sub O{sub 2}}). We conclude that at room temperature and for p{sub O{sub 2}}{approx}10 atm., the polar O{sub 2}-(100) termination is favoured. The stabilization of such a polar stoichiometric surface is surprising and should be confirmed by DFT+U calculations before any final conclusion. (authors)

  9. Influence of oxidation temperature on the interfacial properties of n-type 4H-SiC MOS capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Yifan; Lv, Hongliang [School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Key Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, Xi’an 710071 (China); Song, Qingwen, E-mail: qwsong@xidian.edu.cn [School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Key Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, Xi’an 710071 (China); School of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Tang, Xiaoyan, E-mail: xytang@xidian.edu.cn [School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Key Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, Xi’an 710071 (China); Xiao, Li; Wang, Liangyong; Tang, Guangming [Zhongxing Telecommunication Equipment Corporation, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Zhang, Yimen; Zhang, Yuming [School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Key Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, Xi’an 710071 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • Effect of oxidation temperature on interfacial properties of SiO{sub 2}/SiC is investigated. • Raising the oxidation temperature effectively decreases the density of NITs and N{sub eff}. • The higher oxidation temperature reduces the surface RMS roughness of the grow SiO{sub 2}. • SIMS and XPS results reveal the improvement mechanism of high temperature oxidation. - Abstract: The effect of oxidation temperature on interfacial properties of n-type 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors has been systematically investigated. Thermal dry oxidation process with three different oxidation temperatures 1200 °C, 1300 °C and 1350 °C were employed to grow SiO{sub 2} dielectric, following by the standard post-oxidation annealing (POA) in NO ambience at 1175 °C for 2 h. The root mean square (RMS) roughness measured by Atomic Force Microscopy for the thermally grown SiO{sub 2} before POA process is reduced with increasing the oxidation temperature, obtaining an atomically flat surface with a RMS of 0.157 nm from the sample oxidized at 1350 °C. Several kinds of electrical measurements were used to evaluate the densities of near interface traps and effective fixed dielectric charge for the samples, exhibiting a trend reduced with increasing the oxidation temperature. The interface state density of 3 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}eV{sup −1} at 0.2 eV from the conduction band edge was achieved from conductance method measurement for the sample oxidized at 1350 °C. The results from Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy demonstrate that high oxidation temperature can reduce the width of transition layer, the excess Si and silicon suboxide compositions near the interface, leading to effective improvement of the interfacial properties.

  10. Fabrication of ultra-thin cerium oxide layers on Ru(0001) single crystal surfaces. Scanning tunneling microscopic and photoelectron spectroscopic studies on growth, structure and properties; Herstellung ultraduenner Ceroxidschichten auf Ru(0001)-Einkristallflaechen. Rastertunnelmikroskopische und photoelektronenspektroskopische Untersuchungen zu Wachstum, Struktur und Eigenschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchtaoui, Mustapha

    2016-12-07

    The thesis at hand aims at a study of structure and properties of well-defined ultrathin CeO{sub 2} films supported on Ru(0001). Such systems may serve as model systems in heterogenous catalysis. The epitaxial growth of ceria films on Ru(0001) surface has been achieved by electron beam evaporation of metal Cer at low background oxygen pressure of 10{sup -6} mbar under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions at room temperature. Cerium oxide qualifies for proper oxygen-storage in oxidation reactions, and hence it widely used in heterogenous catalysis. The oxidation begins with the adsorption of CO on the CeO{sub 2}(111) surface, and it ends with participation of lattice oxygen leading to vacancy formation and CO{sub 2} desorption. We investigate the geometric structure by means of scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction. The coverage of 2.5 monolayers (ML) was sufficient to cover the substrate almost completely. We further analysed the interaction of CO with the CeO{sub 2}/Ru(0001) and the Pt/CeO{sub 2}/Ru(0001) systems. During the interaction process the ratio of Ce{sup 4+} and Ce{sup 3+} changes significantly. This ratio change as well as the effect of Pt evaporated onto the surface with respect to the reducibility of CeO{sub 2}/Ru(0001) in CO environment has been studied by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and it has been confirmed with thermal desorption spectroscopy. It is revealed that the Pt-Nanoparticles with a height from 7.15 Aa to 9.73 Aa clearly enhances the reducibility of CeO{sub 2}.

  11. Probing Anisotropic Surface Properties of Molybdenite by Direct Force Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Qingxia; Xu, Zhenghe; Zeng, Hongbo

    2015-10-27

    Probing anisotropic surface properties of layer-type mineral is fundamentally important in understanding its surface charge and wettability for a variety of applications. In this study, the surface properties of the face and the edge surfaces of natural molybdenite (MoS2) were investigated by direct surface force measurements using atomic force microscope (AFM). The interaction forces between the AFM tip (Si3N4) and face or edge surface of molybdenite were measured in 10 mM NaCl solutions at various pHs. The force profiles were well-fitted with classical DLVO (Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek) theory to determine the surface potentials of the face and the edge surfaces of molybdenite. The surface potentials of both the face and edge surfaces become more negative with increasing pH. At neutral and alkaline conditions, the edge surface exhibits more negative surface potential than the face surface, which is possibly due to molybdate and hydromolybdate ions on the edge surface. The point of zero charge (PZC) of the edge surface was determined around pH 3 while PZC of the face surface was not observed in the range of pH 3-11. The interaction forces between octadecyltrichlorosilane-treated AFM tip (OTS-tip) and face or edge surface of molybdenite were also measured at various pHs to study the wettability of molybdenite surfaces. An attractive force between the OTS-tip and the face surface was detected. The force profiles were well-fitted by considering DLVO forces and additional hydrophobic force. Our results suggest the hydrophobic feature of the face surface of molybdenite. In contrast, no attractive force between the OTS-tip and the edge surface was detected. This is the first study in directly measuring surface charge and wettability of the pristine face and edge surfaces of molybdenite through surface force measurements.

  12. Initial oxidation processes of Si(001) surfaces by supersonic O2 molecular beams. Different oxidation mechanisms for clean and partially-oxidized surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka

    2002-01-01

    Potential energy barriers for dissociative chemisorption of O 2 molecules on Si(001) clean surfaces were investigated using supersonic O 2 molecular beams and photoemission spectroscopy. Relative initial sticking probabilities of O 2 molecules and the saturated oxygen amount on the Si(001) surface were measured as a function of incident energy of O 2 molecules. Although the probability was independent on the incident energy in the region larger than 1 eV, the saturated oxygen amount was dependent on the incident energy without energy thresholds. An Si-2p photoemission spectrum of the Si(001) surface oxidized by thermal O 2 gas revealed the oxygen insertion into dimer backbond sites. These facts indicate that a reaction path of the oxygen insertion into dimer backbonds through bridge sites is open for the clean surface oxidation, and the direct chemisorption probability at the backbonds is negligibly small comparing with that at the bridge sites. (author)

  13. Effect of surface oxide on the melting behavior of lead-free solder nanowires and nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Fan; Rajathurai, Karunaharan; Cui, Qingzhou; Zhou, Guangwen; NkengforAcha, Irene; Gu Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    Lead-free nanosolders have shown promise in nanowire and nanoelectronics assembly. Among various important parameters, melting is the most fundamental property affecting the assembly process. Here we report that the melting behavior of tin and tin/silver nanowires and nanorods can be significantly affected by the surface oxide of nanosolders. By controlling the nanosolder reflow atmosphere using a flux, the surface oxide of the nanowires/nanorods can be effectively removed and complete nanosolder melting can be achieved. The complete melting of the nanosolders leads to the formation of nanoscale to microscale spherical solder balls, followed by Ostwald ripening phenomenon. The contact angle of the microscale solder balls formed on Si substrate was measured by direct electron microscopic imaging. These results provide new insights into micro- and nanoscale phase transition and liquid droplet coalescence from nanowires/nanorods to spheroids, and are relevant to nanoscale assembly and smaller ball grid array formation.

  14. Effects of prior surface damage on high-temperature oxidation of Fe-, Ni-, and Co-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Lowe, Tracie M [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Multi-component metallic alloys have been developed to withstand high-temperature service in corrosive environments. Some of these applications, like exhaust valve seats in internal combustion engines, must also resist sliding, impact, and abrasion. The conjoint effects of temperature, oxidation, and mechanical contact can result in accelerated wear and the formation of complex surface layers whose properties differ from those of the base metal and the oxide scale that forms in the absence of mechanical contact. The authors have investigated the effects of prior surface damage, produced by scratch tests, on the localized reformation of oxide layers. Three high-performance commercial alloys, based on iron, nickel, and cobalt, were used as model materials. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to determine their static oxidation rates at elevated temperature (850o C). A micro-abrasion, ball-cratering technique was used to measure oxide layer thickness and to compare it with TGA results. By using taper-sectioning techniques and energy-dispersive elemental mapping, a comparison was made between oxide compositions grown on non-damaged surfaces and oxides that formed on grooves produced by a diamond stylus. Microindentation and scratch hardness data revealed the effects of high temperature exposure on both the substrate hardness and the nature of oxide scale disruption. There were significant differences in elemental distribution between statically-formed oxides and those that formed on scratched regions

  15. The electronic properties of mixed metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cussen, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    The properties of Fe and Mn in a variety of perovskite-related crystal structures have been studied by X-ray and neutron diffraction, magnetometry, high resolution electron microscopy and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The structure of Sr 2 FeTaO 6 is of the GdFeO 3 type with a disordered arrangement of Fe and Ta over the octahedrally coordinated sites in contrast to the partial ordering, 0.795(6)Fe/0.205(6)Sb, observed in Sr 2 FeSbO 6 . Sr 2 FeTaO 6 is a spin glass below 23 K whereas Sr 2 FeSbO 6 forms a type I antiferromagnetically ordered phase below T N = 37(2) K with an ordered moment of 3.06(9) μ B Fe -1 at 1.5 K on the Fe-rich site. Susceptibility measurements in the magnetically dilute series Sr 2 Fe 1-x Ga x TaO 6 indicate that magnetic ordering in these Fe 3+ perovskites is partially controlled by next-nearest-neighbour superexchange. A new 15R perovskite structure containing face-sharing dimers of octahedra linked to one another by vertices or bridging octahedra has been - found for the composition SrMn 0.915(5) Fe 0.085(5) O 2.979(3) . The Mn 4+ cations align antiferromagnetically below T N = 220(5) K showing an ordered moment of 2.25(3) μ B at 3 K. The Fe cations remain disordered to 3 K. This composition forms a 6-layered hexagonal perovskite in the temperature range 1200 6 Mn 4 MO 15 (M = Cu, Zn) form pseudo 1-dimensional phases related to Ba 6 Ni 5 O 15 . The trigonal prismatic sites in this structure are preferentially occupied by Zn/Cu; the latter is displaced from the centre of the trigonal prism to give pseudo square-planar coordination. At 1.7 K antiferromagnetic superexchange within a highly frustrated crystal structure leads to a magnetic structure exhibiting rotation of 120 deg. between spins in neighbouring chains. The magnetic moments refined to 0.7(1) and 0.6(1) μ B per octahedral site in the Cu and Zn compounds respectively. The magnetic susceptibilities have been rationalised in terms of 1-dimensional ordering of the octahedrally

  16. Structure and nano-mechanical characteristics of surface oxide layers on a metallic glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, A; Qin, C L; Gu, L; González, S; Shluger, A; Fecht, H-J; Louzguine-Luzgin, D V; Inoue, A

    2011-03-04

    Owing to their low elastic moduli, high specific strength and excellent processing characteristics in the undercooled liquid state, metallic glasses are promising materials for applications in micromechanical systems. With miniaturization of metallic mechanical components down to the micrometer scale, the importance of a native oxide layer on a glass surface is increasing. In this work we use TEM and XPS to characterize the structure and properties of the native oxide layer grown on Ni(62)Nb(38) metallic glass and their evolution after annealing in air. The thickness of the oxide layer almost doubled after annealing. In both cases the oxide layer is amorphous and consists predominantly of Nb oxide. We investigate the friction behavior at low loads and in ambient conditions (i.e. at T = 295 K and 60% air humidity) of both as-cast and annealed samples by friction force microscopy. After annealing the friction coefficient is found to have significantly increased. We attribute this effect to the increase of the mechanical stability of the oxide layer upon annealing.

  17. Electrochemical Properties of Alkanethiol Monolayers Adsorbed on Nanoporous Au Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Yeon Yi; Seo, Bora; Kim, Jong Won

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the electrochemical properties of alkanethiol monolayers adsorbed on NPG surfaces by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and the results are compared to those on flat Au surfaces. The reductive desorption of alkanethiols on NPG surfaces is observed in more negative potential regions than that on flat Au surfaces due the stronger S-Au interaction on NPG surfaces. While the electron transfer through alkanethiol monolayers on flat Au surfaces occurs via a tunneling process through the monolayer films, the redox species can permeate through the monolayers on NPG surfaces to transfer the electrons to the Au surfaces. The results presented here will help to elucidate the intrinsic electrochemical properties of alkanethiol monolayers adsorbed on curved Au surfaces, particularly on the surface of AuNPs. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of thiolate molecules on Au surfaces have been the subject of intensive research for the last few decades due to their unique physical and chemical properties. The well-organized surface structures of thiolate SAMs with various end-group functionalities can be further utilized for many applications in biology and nanotechnology. In addition to the practical applications, SAMs of thiolate molecules on Au surfaces also provide unique opportunities to address fundamental issues in surface chemistry such as self-organized surface structures, electron transfer behaviors, and moleculesubstrate interactions. Although there have been numerous reports on the fundamental physical and chemical properties of thiolate SAMs on Au surfaces, most of them were investigated on flat Au surfaces, typically on well-defined Au(111) surfaces

  18. Ozone Decomposition on the Surface of Metal Oxide Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batakliev Todor Todorov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic decomposition of ozone to molecular oxygen over catalytic mixture containing manganese, copper and nickel oxides was investigated in the present work. The catalytic activity was evaluated on the basis of the decomposition coefficient which is proportional to ozone decomposition rate, and it has been already used in other studies for catalytic activity estimation. The reaction was studied in the presence of thermally modified catalytic samples operating at different temperatures and ozone flow rates. The catalyst changes were followed by kinetic methods, surface measurements, temperature programmed reduction and IR-spectroscopy. The phase composition of the metal oxide catalyst was determined by X-ray diffraction. The catalyst mixture has shown high activity in ozone decomposition at wet and dry O3/O2 gas mixtures. The mechanism of catalytic ozone degradation was suggested.

  19. Surface Interrogation Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy for a Photoelectrochemical Reaction: Water Oxidation on a Hematite Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Young; Ahn, Hyun S; Bard, Allen J

    2018-03-06

    To understand the pathway of a photoelectrochemical (PEC) reaction, quantitative knowledge of reaction intermediates is important. We describe here surface interrogation scanning electrochemical microscopy for this purpose (PEC SI-SECM), where a light pulse to a photoactive semiconductor film at a given potential generates intermediates that are then analyzed by a tip generated titrant at known times after the light pulse. The improvements were demonstrated for photoelectrochemical water oxidation (oxygen evolution) reaction on a hematite surface. The density of photoactive sites, proposed to be Fe 4+ species, on a hematite surface was successfully quantified, and the photoelectrochemical water oxidation reaction dynamics were elucidated by time-dependent redox titration experiments. The new configuration of PEC SI-SECM should find expanded usage to understand and investigate more complicated PEC reactions with other materials.

  20. Antifouling polymer brushes displaying antithrombogenic surface properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Sheikh, S.; Blaszykowski, C.; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Fedorov, K.; Thompson, M.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2016), s. 1179-1185 ISSN 1525-7797 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-09368Y; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21545 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer brushes * surface characterization * antifouling surfaces Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.246, year: 2016

  1. Influence of corrosive solutions on microhardness and chemistry of magnesium oxide /001/ surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, H.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses and hardness experiments were conducted on cleaved magnesium oxide /001/ surfaces. The magnesium oxide bulk crystals were cleaved to specimen size along the /001/ surface, and indentations were made on the cleaved surface in corrosive solutions containing HCl, NaOH, or HNO3 and in water without exposing the specimen to any other environment. The results indicated that chloride (such as MgCl2) and sodium films are formed on the magnesium oxide surface as a result of interactions between an HCl-containing solution and a cleaved magnesium oxide surface. The chloride films soften the magnesium oxide surface. In this case microhardness is strongly influenced by the pH value of the solution. The lower the pH, the lower the microhardness. Sodium films, which are formed on the magnesium oxide surface exposed to an NaOH containing solution, do not soften the magnesium oxide surface.

  2. Mechanical properties of bioplastics cassava starch film with Zinc Oxide nanofiller as reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harunsyah; Yunus, M.; Fauzan, Reza

    2017-06-01

    This study focuses on investigating the influence of zinc oxide nanofiller on the mechanical properties of bioplastic cassava starch films. Bioplastic cassava starch film-based zinc oxide reinforced composite biopolymeric films were prepared by casting technique. The content of zinc oxide in the bioplastic films was varied from 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0% (w/w) by weight of starch. Surface morphologies of the composites bioplastic films were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM).The result showed that the Tensile strength (TS) was improved significantly with the additional of zinc oxide but the elongation at break (EB %) of the composites was decreased. The maximum tensile strength obtained was 22.30 kgf / mm on the additional of zinc oxide by 0.6% and plastilizer by 25%. Based on data of FTIR, the produced film plastic did not change the group function and it can be concluded that theinteraction in film plastic produced was only a physical interaction. Biodegradable plastic film based on cassava starch-zinc oxide and plasticizer glycerol showed that interesting mechanical properties being transparent, clear, homogeneous, flexible, and easily handled.

  3. Adsorption of CO, CO2, H2, and H2O on titania surfaces with different oxidation states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raupp, G.B.; Dumesic, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The adsorptive properties of titania surfaces with different oxidation states were proved by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of CO, H 2 , CO 2 , and H 2 O. Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that vacuum annealing an oxidized titanium foil at temperatures from 300 to 800 K was an effective means of systematically varying the average surface oxidation state from Ti 4+ to Ti 2+ . Carbon monoxide weakly adsorbed (desorption energy of 44-49 kJ x mol -1 ) in a carbonyl fashion on coordinatively unsaturated cation sites. Titania surfaces were inert with respect to H 2 adsorption and dissociation. Carbon dioxide adsorbed in a linear molecular fashion. Water adsorbed both molecularly and dissociatively. Results are discussed in terms of the role of titania oxidation state in CO hydrogenation over titania-supported metal catalysts. 74 references, 7 figures

  4. Metal Oxide Nano structures: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, L. H.; Patil, D. S.; Yang, J.; Xiao, J.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, nano structured materials have attracted wide attention due to their fascinating optical and electrical properties, which make these materials potentially suitable for applications in electronics, optics, photonics, and sensors. Some metal oxides show a wide variety of morphologies such as nano wires, nano rods, nano tubes, nano rings, and nano belts. Synthesis and investigation of these metal-oxide nano structures are beneficial not only for understanding the fundamental phenomena in low dimensional systems, but also for developing new-generation nano devices with high performance.

  5. Vanadium Doped Tungsten Oxide Material - Electrical Physical and Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishkin N. Y.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrical physical and sensing (to VOCs and inorganic gases properties of vanadium doped tungsten oxide in the regions of phase transition temperature were investigated. Vanadium oxide (II dimerization was observed in the doped material, corresponding to new phase transition. The extreme sensitivity and selectivity to chemically active gases and vapors in small concentrations: CO, NOx, NH3 acetone, ethanol near phase transitions temperature was found. Sensor elements were manufactured for the quantitative detection (close to 1 ppm of alcohol and ammonia.

  6. Sputtered indium-tin oxide/cadmium telluride junctions and cadmium telluride surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courreges, F.G.; Fahrenbruch, A.L.; Bube, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The properties of indium-tin oxide (ITO)/CdTe junction solar cells prepared by rf sputtering of ITO on P-doped CdTe single-crystal substrates have been investigated through measurements of the electrical and photovoltaic properties of ITO/CdTe and In/CdTe junctions, and of electron beam induced currents (EBIC) in ITO/CdTe junctions. In addition, surface properties of CdTe related to the sputtering process were investigated as a function of sputter etching and thermal oxidation using the techniques of surface photovoltage and photoluminescence. ITO/CdTe cells prepared by this sputtering method consist of an n + -ITO/n-CdTe/p-CdTe buried homojunction with about a 1-μm-thick n-type CdTe layer formed by heating of the surface of the CdTe during sputtering. Solar efficiencies up to 8% have been observed with V/sub 0c/=0.82 V and J/sub s/c=14.5 mA/cm 2 . The chief degradation mechanism involves a decrease in V/sub 0c/ with a transformation of the buried homojunction structure to an actual ITO/CdTe heterojunction

  7. Physiochemical and optical properties of chitosan based graphene oxide bionanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Koh, Joonseok

    2014-09-01

    In the present investigation an ecofriendly approach and a simple homogeneous solution casting method led to the development of biodegradable chitosan/graphene oxide bionanocomposites. The formation of bionanocomposite was confirmed by UV-vis, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, and further evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The circular dichroism (CD) study of chitosan/graphene oxide revealed that the intensity of the negative transition band at wavelength of 200-222 nm decreased with the different pH of chitosan/graphene oxide solutions. It was also found that the pH conditions affect the interaction between chitosan and graphene oxide. Optical properties of chitosan/graphene oxide are evaluated by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy which showed blue shift at excitation wavelength of 255 nm compared to graphene oxide. These results strongly suggest that the bionanocomposite materials may open new vistas in biotechnological, biosensor and biomedical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Preferred hydride growth orientations on oxide-coated gadolinium surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamar, G.M.; Schweke, D.; Kimmel, G.; Mintz, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The preferred hydride growth orientations on gadolinium metal coated by a thin oxide layer are presented. ► A preferred growth of the (1 0 0) h plane of the face centered cubic (FCC) GdH 2 is observed for the hydride spots forming below the oxidation layer. ► A change to the (1 1 1) h plane of the cubic hydride dominates for the hydride's Growth Centers. ► The texture change is attributed to the surface normal compressive stress component exerted by the oxidation layer on the developing hydride. - Abstract: The initial development of hydrides on polycrystalline gadolinium (Gd), as on some other hydride forming metals, is characterized by two sequential steps. The first step involves the rapid formation of a dense pattern of small hydride spots (referred to as the “small family” of hydrides) below the native oxidation layer. The second stage takes place when some of the “small family” nucleants (referred to as “growth centers”, GCs) break the oxide layer, leading to their rapid growth and finally to the massive hydriding of the sample. In the present study, the texture of the two hydride families was studied, by combining X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis with a microscopic analysis of the hydride, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It has been observed that for the “small family”, a preferred growth of the (1 0 0) h plane of the cubic GdH 2 takes place, whereas for the GCs, a change to the (1 1 1) h plane of the cubic hydride dominates. These preferred growth orientations were analyzed by their structure relation with the (0 0 .1) m basal plane of the Gd metal. It has been concluded that the above texture change is due to the surface normal compressive stress component exerted by the oxidation overlayer on the developing hydride, preventing the (0 0 .1) m ||(1 1 1) h growth orientation. This stress is relieved upon the rupture of that overlayer and the development of the GCs, leading to

  9. Design, development and applications of novel techniques for studying surface mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1989-01-01

    Research is reviewed for the adhesion, friction, and micromechanical properties of materials and examples of the results presented. The ceramic and metallic materials studied include silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, and iron-base amorphous alloys. The design and operation of a torsion balance adapted for study of adhesion from the Cavendish balance are discussed first. The pull-off force (adhesion) and shear force (friction) required to break the interfacial junctions between contacting surfaces of the materials were examined at various temperatures in a vacuum. The surface chemistry of the materials was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Properties and environmental conditions of the surface regions which affect adhesion and friction-such as surface segregation, composition, crystal structure, surface chemistry, and temperature were also studied.

  10. Surface modification and characterization of indium-tin oxide for organic light-emitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Z Y; Jiang, Y D

    2006-10-15

    In this work, we used different treatment methods (ultrasonic degreasing, hydrochloric acid treatment, and oxygen plasma) to modify the surfaces of indium-tin oxide (ITO) substrates for organic light-emitting devices. The surface properties of treated ITO substrates were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), sheet resistance, contact angle, and surface energy measurements. Experimental results show that the ITO surface properties are closely related to the treatment methods, and the oxygen plasma is more efficient than the other treatments since it brings about smoother surfaces, lower sheet resistance, higher work function, and higher surface energy and polarity of the ITO substrate. Moreover, polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells (PLECs) with differently treated ITO substrates as device electrodes were fabricated and characterized. It is found that surface treatments of ITO substrates have a certain degree of influence upon the injection current, brightness, and efficiency, but hardly upon the turn-on voltages of current injection and light emission, which are in agreement with the measured optical energy gap of the electroluminescent polymer. The oxygen plasma treatment on the ITO substrate yields the best performance of PLECs, due to the improvement of interface formation and electrical contact of the ITO substrate with the polymer blend in the PLECs.

  11. Insights into the Surface Reactivity of Cermet and Perovskite Electrodes in Oxidizing, Reducing, and Humid Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloukis, Fotios; Papazisi, Kalliopi M; Dintzer, Thierry; Papaefthimiou, Vasiliki; Saveleva, Viktoriia A; Balomenou, Stella P; Tsiplakides, Dimitrios; Bournel, Fabrice; Gallet, Jean-Jacques; Zafeiratos, Spyridon

    2017-08-02

    Understanding the surface chemistry of electrode materials under gas environments is important in order to control their performance during electrochemical and catalytic applications. This work compares the surface reactivity of Ni/YSZ and La 0.75 Sr 0.25 Cr 0.9 Fe 0.1 O 3 , which are commonly used types of electrodes in solid oxide electrochemical devices. In situ synchrotron-based near-ambient pressure photoemission and absorption spectroscopy experiments, assisted by theoretical spectral simulations and combined with microscopy and electrochemical measurements, are used to monitor the effect of the gas atmosphere on the chemical state, the morphology, and the electrical conductivity of the electrodes. It is shown that the surface of both electrode types readjusts fast to the reactive gas atmosphere and their surface composition is notably modified. In the case of Ni/YSZ, this is followed by evident changes in the oxidation state of nickel, while for La 0.75 Sr 0.25 Cr 0.9 Fe 0.1 O 3 , a fine adjustment of the Cr valence and strong Sr segregation is observed. An important difference between the two electrodes is their capacity to maintain adsorbed hydroxyl groups on their surface, which is expected to be critical for the electrocatalytic properties of the materials. The insight gained from the surface analysis may serve as a paradigm for understanding the effect of the gas environment on the electrochemical performance and the electrical conductivity of the electrodes.

  12. Photocatalytic oxidation of NOx gases using TiO2: a surface spectroscopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.S.; Janes, P.A.; Jones, N.G.; Nicholson, J.A.; Hallam, K.R.; Allen, G.C.

    2002-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy were used to study surface reactions between nitrogen oxides and TiO 2 on surfaces. - The bandgap of solid-state TiO 2 (3.2 eV) enables it to be a useful photocatalyst in the ultraviolet (λ 2 surface in the presence of sunlight therefore enables the removal of harmful NO x gases from the atmosphere by oxidation to nitrates. These properties, in addition to the whiteness, relative cheapness and non-toxicity, make TiO 2 ideal for the many de-NOX catalysts that are currently being commercially exploited both in the UK and Japan for concrete paving materials in inner cities. There is need, however, for further academic understanding of the surface reactions involved. Hence, we have used surface specific techniques, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, to investigate the NO x adsorbate reaction at the TiO 2 substrate surface

  13. Characterization of SCC crack tips and surface oxide layers in alloy 600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Katsuhiko; Fukuya, Koji [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of primary water stress corrosion cracking (SCC), direct observation of microstructures of SCC crack tips and surface oxide layers in alloy 600 were carried out. A focused-ion beam (FIB) micro-processing technique was applied to prepare electron transparent foils including the crack tip and the surface oxide layer without any damage to those microstructures. Transmission electron microscopy and analysis were used to characterize the crack tips and surface oxide layers. Cr-rich oxides and a metal-Ni phase were identified in the crack tips and grain boundaries ahead of the crack tips independent of dissolved hydrogen concentrations. >From the fact that the Cr-rich oxides and metal-Ni phase were observed in the inner surface oxide layer, the same oxidation mechanism as the surface is proposed for the crack tip region and internal oxidation accompanying selective Cr oxidation is suggested as the mechanism. (author)

  14. Sintering of uranium oxide of high specific surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel, Alain; Francois, Bernard; Delmas, Roger; Caillat, Roger

    1959-01-01

    The extent to which a uranium oxide powder deriving from ammonium uranate or uranium peroxide lends itself to the sintering process depends largely on its specific surface area. When this is greater than 5 m 2 / g there is an optimum temperature for sintering in hydrogen. This temperature becomes less as the specific area of the powder is greater. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 249, p. 1045-1047, sitting of 21 September 1959 [fr

  15. Carbon monoxide oxidation on bimetallic Ru/Au(111 surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROLF-JÜRGEN BEHM

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical deposition of Ru on Au(111 was performed in 0.5 M H2SO4+10-4 M RuCl3 . The obtained bimetallic Ru/Au(111 surfaces were character-ised by cyclic voltammetry and in situ STM in 0.5 MH2SO4. The Ru deposit consists of nanoscale islands, which merge with increasing coverage. Two different types of bimetallic Ru/Au(111 surfaces with respect to the distribution of Ru islands over the Au(111 substrate surface were obtained. When the deposition was performed at potentials more positive than the range of Au(111 reconstruction, homogeneous nucleation occured resulting in a random distribution of Ru islands. When the deposition was performed on reconstructed Au(111 at low overpotentials, selective nucleation occured resulting in the replication of the Au(111 reconstruction. Only at higher deposition overpotentials, can multilayer deposits be formed, which exhibit a very rough surface morphology. The electrocatalytic activity of such structurally well defined Ru/Au(111 bimetallic surfaces was studied towards CO oxidation with the Ru coverage ranging from submonolayer to several monolayer. COstripping commences at about 0.2 Vand occurs over a broad potential range. The observed influence of the Ru structure on the CO stripping voltammetry is explained by local variations in the COadsorption energy, caused by differences in the local Ru structure and by effects induced by the Au(111 substrate.

  16. Kinetics and mechanism of heterogeneous oxidation of sulfur dioxide by ozone on surface of calcium carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Li

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate particles play a key role in the air quality and the global climate, but the heterogeneous formation mechanism of sulfates on surfaces of atmospheric particles is not well established. Carbonates, which act as a reactive component in mineral dust due to their special chemical properties, may contribute significantly to the sulfate formation by heterogeneous processes. This paper presents a study on the oxidation of SO2 by O3 on CaCO3 particles. Using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS, the formation of sulfite and sulfate on the surface was identified, and the roles of O3 and water in oxidation processes were determined. The results showed that in the presence of O3, SO2can be oxidized to sulfate on the surface of CaCO3 particles. The reaction is first order in SO2 and zero order in O3. The reactive uptake coefficient for SO2 [(0.6–9.8×1014 molecule cm-3] oxidation by O3 [(1.2–12×1014 molecule cm-3] was determined to be (1.4±0.3×10-7 using the BET area as the reactive area and (7.7±1.6×10-4 using the geometric area. A two-stage mechanism that involves adsorption of SO2 followed by O3 oxidation is proposed and the adsorption of SO2 on the CaCO3 surface is the rate-determining step. The proposed mechanism can well explain the experiment results. The atmospheric implications were explored based on a box model calculation. It was found that the heterogeneous reaction might be an important pathway for sulfate formation in the atmosphere.

  17. Role of surface chemistry in modified ACF (activated carbon fiber)-catalyzed peroxymonosulfate oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shiying, E-mail: ysy@ouc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology, Ministry of Education, Qingdao 266100 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Geological Engineering (MEGE), Qingdao 266100 (China); Li, Lei [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Xiao, Tuo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); China City Environment Protection Engineering Limited Company, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zheng, Di; Zhang, Yitao [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • ACF can efficiently activate peroxymonosulfate to degrade organic pollutants. • Basic functional groups may mainly increase the adsorption capacity of ACF. • C1, N1, N2 have promoting effect on the ACF catalyzed PMS oxidation. • Modification by heat after nitric acid is also a way of ACF regeneration. - Abstract: A commercial activated carbon fiber (ACF-0) was modified by three different methods: nitration treatment (ACF-N), heat treatment (ACF-H) and heat treatment after nitration (ACF-NH), and the effects of textural and chemical properties on the ability of the metal-free ACF-catalyzed peroxymonosulfate (PMS) oxidation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5), an azo dye being difficultly adsorbed onto ACF, in aqueous solution were investigated in this work. Surface density of functional groups, surface area changes, surface morphology and the chemical state inside ACF samples were characterized by Boehm titration, N{sub 2} adsorption, scanning electron microscopy in couple with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. XPS spectra deconvolution was applied to figure out the importance of surface nitrogen-containing function groups. We found that π-π, pyridine and amine have promoting effect on the catalytic oxidation while the −NO{sub 2} has inhibitory effect on the ACF/PMS systems for RB5 destroy. Sustainability and renewability of the typical ACF-NH for catalytic oxidation of RB5 were also discussed in detail. Information about our conclusions are useful to control and improve the performance of ACF-catalyzed PMS oxidation for organic pollutants in wastewater treatment.

  18. Bioactivity and corrosion properties of novel coatings containing strontium by micro-arc oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Kuan-Chen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lee, Tzer-Min, E-mail: tmlee@mail.ncku.edu.t [Institute of Oral Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lui, Truan-Sheng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: The dental implant of titanium could be modified by anodic oxidation. It was found that incorporation of strontium ions into the matrix increase the bone formation. In this study, we try to investigate the effect of corrosion property and bioactivity on coatings containing strontium by anodic oxidation. The results suggest that coatings containing strontium on titanium by anodic oxidation has the potential to show the stability and bioactivity in the clinical use. - Abstract: Pure titanium (Ti) and titanium alloys are considered as bio-inert materials in clinical use. Bioactivity is the ability to induce bone-like apatite on the material surface. The micro-arc oxidation (MAO) technique is an effective method for improving the surface properties of titanium. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactivity and corrosion behavior of MAO coatings containing strontium, which is beneficial for biological performance. The bioactivity of materials was evaluated based on the ability to induce a bond-like apatite layer on the surface in simulated body fluid (SBF), as proposed by Kokubo et al. After the materials were soaked in SBF for 1 day, precipitates formed on the surface of MAO coating. The surface of MAO coatings was completely covered with precipitates after 7 days. The precipitates, which were found to be composed of fiber structures, were identified as the apatite phase using thin film X-ray diffraction (TF-XRD). The results show that MAO coatings containing strontium can induce the formation of an apatite layer on their surface. In the potentiodynamic test, MAO coatings exhibited a more noble corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) than that of titanium in SBF. In the passive region, the current density of MAO coatings was lower than that of titanium. All findings in this study indicated that MAO coatings containing strontium have good bioactivity and corrosion resistance for clinical applications.

  19. Bioactivity and corrosion properties of novel coatings containing strontium by micro-arc oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, Kuan-Chen; Lee, Tzer-Min; Lui, Truan-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: The dental implant of titanium could be modified by anodic oxidation. It was found that incorporation of strontium ions into the matrix increase the bone formation. In this study, we try to investigate the effect of corrosion property and bioactivity on coatings containing strontium by anodic oxidation. The results suggest that coatings containing strontium on titanium by anodic oxidation has the potential to show the stability and bioactivity in the clinical use. - Abstract: Pure titanium (Ti) and titanium alloys are considered as bio-inert materials in clinical use. Bioactivity is the ability to induce bone-like apatite on the material surface. The micro-arc oxidation (MAO) technique is an effective method for improving the surface properties of titanium. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactivity and corrosion behavior of MAO coatings containing strontium, which is beneficial for biological performance. The bioactivity of materials was evaluated based on the ability to induce a bond-like apatite layer on the surface in simulated body fluid (SBF), as proposed by Kokubo et al. After the materials were soaked in SBF for 1 day, precipitates formed on the surface of MAO coating. The surface of MAO coatings was completely covered with precipitates after 7 days. The precipitates, which were found to be composed of fiber structures, were identified as the apatite phase using thin film X-ray diffraction (TF-XRD). The results show that MAO coatings containing strontium can induce the formation of an apatite layer on their surface. In the potentiodynamic test, MAO coatings exhibited a more noble corrosion potential (E corr ) than that of titanium in SBF. In the passive region, the current density of MAO coatings was lower than that of titanium. All findings in this study indicated that MAO coatings containing strontium have good bioactivity and corrosion resistance for clinical applications.

  20. Tuning antimicrobial properties of biomimetic nanopatterned surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Martyna; Gambacorta, Francesca; Divan, Ralu; Aranson, Igor S; Sokolov, Andrey; Noirot, Philippe; Laible, Philip D

    2018-04-05

    Nature has amassed an impressive array of structures that afford protection from microbial colonization/infection when displayed on the exterior surfaces of organisms. Here, controlled variation of the features of mimetics derived from etched silicon allows for tuning of their antimicrobial efficacy. Materials with nanopillars up to 7 μm in length are extremely effective against a wide range of microbial species and exceed the performance of natural surfaces; in contrast, materials with shorter/blunter nanopillars (<2 μm) selectively killed specific species. Using a combination of microscopies, the mechanisms by which bacteria are killed are demonstrated, emphasizing the dependence upon pillar density and tip geometry. Additionally, real-time imaging reveals how cells are immobilized and killed rapidly. Generic or selective protection from microbial colonization could be conferred to surfaces [for, e.g., internal medicine, implants (joint, dental, and cosmetic), food preparation, and the agricultural industry] patterned with these materials as coatings.

  1. Fabrication of long-term stable superoleophobic surface based on copper oxide/cobalt oxide with micro-nanoscale hierarchical roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthwal, Sumit; Lim, Si-Hyung

    2015-02-01

    We have demonstrated a simple and cost-effective technique for the large-area fabrication of a superoleophobic surface using copper as a substrate. The whole process included three simple steps: First, the copper substrate was oxidized under hot alkaline conditions to fabricate flower-like copper oxide microspheres by heating at a particular temperature for an interval of time. Second, the copper-oxide-covered copper substrate was further heated in a solution of cobalt nitrate and ammonium nitrate in the presence of an ammonia solution to fabricate cobalt oxide nanostructures. We applied this second step to increase the surface roughness because it is an important criterion for improved superoleophobicity. Finally, to reduce the surface energy of the fabricated structures, the surfaces were chemically modified with perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane. Contact-angle measurements indicate that the micro-nano binary (MNB) hierarchical structures fabricated on the copper substrate became super-repellent toward a broad range of liquids with surface tension in the range of 21.5-72 mN/m. In an attempt to significantly improve the superoleophobic property of the surface, we also examined and compared the role of nanostructures in MNB hierarchical structures with only micro-fabricated surfaces. The fabricated MNB hierarchical structures also displays thermal stability and excellent long-term stability after exposure in air for more than 9 months. Our method might provide a general route toward the preparation of novel hierarchical films on metal substrates for various industrial applications.

  2. Composition and physical properties of Enceladus' surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.H.; Clark, R.N.; Buratti, B.J.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Barnes, J.W.; Mastrapa, R.M.E.; Bauer, J.; Newman, S.; Momary, T.; Baines, K.H.; Bellucci, G.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Combes, M.; Coradini, A.; Drossart, P.; Formisano, V.; Jaumann, R.; Langavin, Y.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Nelson, R.M.; Nicholson, P.D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Observations of Saturn's satellite Enceladus using Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer instrument were obtained during three flybys of Enceladus in 2005. Enceladus' surface is composed mostly of nearly pure water ice except near its south pole, where there are light organics, CO2, and amorphous and crystalline water ice, particularly in the region dubbed the "tiger stripes." An upper limit of 5 precipitable nanometers is derived for CO in the atmospheric column above Enceladus, and 2% for NH 3 in global surface deposits. Upper limits of 140 kelvin (for a filled pixel) are derived for the temperatures in the tiger stripes.

  3. Surface properties of semi-infinite Fermi systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campi, X.; Stringari, S.

    1979-10-01

    A functional relation between the kinetic energy density and the total density is used to analyse the surface properties of semi-infinite Fermi systems. One find an explicit expression for the surface thickness in which the role of the infinite matter compressibility, binding energy and non-locality effects is clearly shown. The method, which holds both for nuclear and electronic systems (liquid metals), yields a very simple relation between the surface thickness and the surface energy

  4. Studies of physicochemical properties of graphite oxide and thermally exfoliated/reduced graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drewniak Sabina Elżbieta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experimental research studies was to determine some electrical properties of graphite oxide and thermally exfoliated/reduced graphene oxide. The authors tried to interpret the obtained physicochemical results. For that purpose, both resistance measurements and investigation studies were carried out in order to characterize the samples. The resistance was measured at various temperatures in the course of composition changes of gas atmospheres (which surround the samples. The studies were also supported by such methods as: scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Raman spectroscopy (RS, atomic force microscopy (AFM and thermogravimetry (TG. Moreover, during the experiments also the elemental analyses (EA of the tested samples (graphite oxide and thermally exfoliated/reduced graphene oxide were performed.

  5. Adsorption Properties of the Cu(115) Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godowski, P. J.; Groso, A.; Hoffmann, S. V.

    2010-01-01

    The interfaces: K/Cu(115) and CO/Cu(115) have been characterized using surface sensitive techniques, including low energy electron diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy. K adatoms show tendency to occupy the sites close to the step edges. At low temperature (near 125 K), after completion of ...

  6. Wetting Properties of Molecularly Rough Surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Martin; Malijevský, Alexandr; Lísal, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 143, č. 10 (2015), s. 104701 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09914S; GA MŠk LH12020 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : contant-angle * solid-surface * dynamics Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.894, year: 2015

  7. A novel Graphene Oxide film: Synthesis and Dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canimkurbey, Betul; San, Sait Eren; Yasin, Muhammad; Köse, Muhammet Erkan

    In this work, we used Hummers method to synthesize Graphene Oxide (GO) and its parallel plate impedance spectroscopic technique to investigate dielectric properties. Graphene Oxide films were coated using drop casting method on ITO substrate. To analyze film morphology, atomic force microscopy was used. Dielectrics measurements of the samples were performed using impedance analyzer (HP-4194) in frequency range (100 Hz to 10MHz) at different temperatures. It was observed that the films' AC conductivity σac varied with angular frequency, ω as ωS, with Sdirect current (DC) and Correlated Barrier Hopping (CBH) conductivity mechanisms at low and high frequency ranges, respectively. Using solution processed Graphene Oxide will provide potential for organic electronic applications through its photon absorption and transmittance capability in the visible range and excellent electrical parameters.

  8. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Graphene Oxide/Copper Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HONG Qi-hu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide/copper (GO/Cu composites were successfully synthesized through the ball milling and vacuum hot press sintering process. The morphologies of the mixture powders, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of GO/Cu composites were investigated by OM, SEM, XRD, hardness tester and electronic universal testing machine, respectively. The results show that the GO/Cu composites are compact. Graphene oxide with flake morphology is uniformly dispersed and well consolidated with copper matrix. When the mass fraction of graphene oxide is 0.5%, the microhardness and compress strength at RT reach up to 63HV and 276MPa, increased by 8.6% and 28%, respectively. The strengthening mechanism is load transfer effect, dislocation strengthening and fine crystal reinforcing.

  9. Energetic Surface Smoothing of Complex Metal-Oxide Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willmott, P.R.; Herger, R.; Schlepuetz, C.M.; Martoccia, D.; Patterson, B.D.

    2006-01-01

    A novel energetic smoothing mechanism in the growth of complex metal-oxide thin films is reported from in situ kinetic studies of pulsed laser deposition of La 1-x Sr x MnO 3 on SrTiO 3 , using x-ray reflectivity. Below 50% monolayer coverage, prompt insertion of energetic impinging species into small-diameter islands causes them to break up to form daughter islands. This smoothing mechanism therefore inhibits the formation of large-diameter 2D islands and the seeding of 3D growth. Above 50% coverage, islands begin to coalesce and their breakup is thereby suppressed. The energy of the incident flux is instead rechanneled into enhanced surface diffusion, which leads to an increase in the effective surface temperature of ΔT≅500 K. These results have important implications on optimal conditions for nanoscale device fabrication using these materials

  10. Suppression of Magnetoresistance in Thin WTe2 Flakes by Surface Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, John M; Shen, Jie; Kumaravadivel, Piranavan; Pang, Yuan; Xie, Yujun; Pan, Grace A; Li, Min; Altman, Eric I; Lu, Li; Cha, Judy J

    2017-07-12

    Recent renewed interest in layered transition metal dichalcogenides stems from the exotic electronic phases predicted and observed in the single- and few-layer limit. Realizing these electronic phases requires preserving the desired transport properties down to a monolayer, which is challenging. Surface oxides are known to impart Fermi level pinning or degrade the mobility on a number of different systems, including transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. Semimetallic WTe 2 exhibits large magnetoresistance due to electron-hole compensation; thus, Fermi level pinning in thin WTe 2 flakes could break the electron-hole balance and suppress the large magnetoresistance. We show that WTe 2 develops an ∼2 nm thick amorphous surface oxide, which shifts the Fermi level by ∼300 meV at the WTe 2 surface. We also observe a dramatic suppression of the magnetoresistance for thin flakes. However, due to the semimetallic nature of WTe 2 , the effects of Fermi level pinning are well screened and are not the dominant cause for the suppression of magnetoresistance, supported by fitting a two-band model to the transport data, which showed the electron and hole carrier densities are balanced down to ∼13 nm. However, the fitting shows a significant decrease of the mobilities of both electrons and holes. We attribute this to the disorder introduced by the amorphous surface oxide layer. Thus, the decrease of mobility is the dominant factor in the suppression of magnetoresistance for thin WTe 2 flakes. Our study highlights the critical need to investigate often unanticipated and sometimes unavoidable extrinsic surface effects on the transport properties of layered dichalcogenides and other 2D materials.

  11. Mechanical properties of melt-derived erbium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, A.D.; Blacic, M.J.; Platero, M.; Romero, R.S.; McClellan, K.J.; Petrovic, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Erbium oxide (Er 2 O 3 ) is a rare earth oxide that is chemically and thermally stable and has a melting point of 2,430 C. There is relatively little information available regarding single crystal growth of erbia or the properties of erbia. In this study, erbia single crystals have been grown in a Xenon Optical Floating Zone Unit (XeOFZ) capable of melting materials at temperatures up to 3,000 C. Erbia was melt synthesized in the XeOFZ unit in a container less fashion, proving for little chance of contamination. Crystals were grown in compressed air and in reducing atmospheres. A recurring problem with melt synthesis of erbia is the appearance of flakes at the edges of the melt zone during growth; these flakes disrupt the growth process. The processing details and an initial survey of the physical properties of erbia single crystals is discussed

  12. Effect of graphene oxide nanoplatelets on electrochemical properties of steel substrate in saline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, A.U.; Mittal, Vikas; Mishra, Brajendra

    2015-01-01

    There has been increased interest in using graphene oxide (GO) in various industrial applications such as working fluids, lubricants, oil and gas fields, heavy metal removal from water, anticorrosion paints and coatings etc. We studied electrochemical properties of steel in the presence of suspended GO in saline media. GO suspension has been characterized using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). We measured the effect of the GO concentration (0–15 ppm) on electrochemical properties of steel using different techniques: open circuit potential (OCP), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance (LPR) and potentiodynamic (PD) methods. Results indicate that the suppression of corrosion is directly proportional to increasing GO concentrations in saline environments. Surface morphology of corroded samples was examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Identification of the elements at accumulated layer was estimated from peaks of energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and XRD. Increased protection abilities with increasing GO concentration have been attributed to the domination of salt layer presence at the surface of steel which occurs via precipitation of sodium chloride. Surface analysis confirm that there is no direct effect of GO on the protection behavior of steel. The presence of GO in the solution can enhance the precipitation of NaCl due to the decreased solubility NaCl which further slows down the corrosion. The pourbaix diagram shows that GO forms an anionic compound with sodium which may enhance the precipitation at working electrode. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Electrochemical properties of steel in saline media containing nano graphene oxide. • Effect of concentration of graphene oxide on electrochemical properties. • Mechanism of corrosion reduction due to the presence of graphene oxide

  13. Electronic structure and dynamics of ordered clusters with ME or RE ions on oxide surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulagin, N.A., E-mail: nkulagin@bestnet.kharkov.u [Kharkiv National University for Radio Electronics, Avenue Shakespeare 6-48, 61045 Kharkiv (Ukraine)

    2011-03-15

    Selected data of ab initio simulation of the electronic structure and spectral properties of either cluster with ions of iron, rare earth or actinium group elements have been presented here. Appearance of doped Cr{sup +4} ions in oxides, Cu{sup +2} in HTSC, Nd{sup +2} in solids has been discussed. Analysis of experimental data for plasma created ordered structures of crystallites with size of about 10{sup -9} m on surface of separate oxides are given, too. Change in the spectroscopic properties of clusters and nano-structures on surface of strontium titanate crystals discussed shortly using the X-ray line spectroscopy experimental results. - Research highlights: External influence and variation of technology induce changes in valence of nl ions in compounds. Wave function of cluster presented as anti-symmetrical set of ions wave functions. The main equation describes the self-consistent field depending on state of all electrons of cluster. Level scheme of Cr{sup 4+} ions in octo- and tetra-site corresponds to doped oxides spectra after treatment. Plasma treatment effects in appearance of systems of unit crystallites with size of about 10{sup -6}-10{sup -9} m.

  14. Electronic structure and dynamics of ordered clusters with ME or RE ions on oxide surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulagin, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Selected data of ab initio simulation of the electronic structure and spectral properties of either cluster with ions of iron, rare earth or actinium group elements have been presented here. Appearance of doped Cr +4 ions in oxides, Cu +2 in HTSC, Nd +2 in solids has been discussed. Analysis of experimental data for plasma created ordered structures of crystallites with size of about 10 -9 m on surface of separate oxides are given, too. Change in the spectroscopic properties of clusters and nano-structures on surface of strontium titanate crystals discussed shortly using the X-ray line spectroscopy experimental results. - Research highlights: → External influence and variation of technology induce changes in valence of nl ions in compounds. → Wave function of cluster presented as anti-symmetrical set of ions wave functions. → The main equation describes the self-consistent field depending on state of all electrons of cluster. → Level scheme of Cr 4+ ions in octo- and tetra-site corresponds to doped oxides spectra after treatment. → Plasma treatment effects in appearance of systems of unit crystallites with size of about 10 -6 -10 -9 m.

  15. Evolution of Near-Surface Internal and External Oxide Morphology During High-Temperature Selective Oxidation of Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Mary E.; Webler, Bryan A.

    2018-05-01

    In this work we examine some observations made using high-temperature confocal scanning laser microscopy (HT-CSLM) during selective oxidation experiments. A plain carbon steel and advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) were selectively oxidized at high temperature (850-900°C) in either low oxygen or water vapor atmospheres. Surface evolution, including thermal grooving along grain boundaries and oxide growth, was viewed in situ during heating. Experiments investigated the influence of the microstructure and oxidizing atmosphere on selective oxidation behavior. Sequences of CSLM still frames collected during the experiment were processed with ImageJ to obtain histograms that showed a general darkening trend indicative of oxidation over time with all samples. Additional ex situ scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis supported in situ observations. Distinct oxidation behavior was observed for each case. Segregation, grain orientation, and extent of internal oxidation were all found to strongly influence surface evolution.

  16. Analysis of thermodynamic properties for high-temperature superconducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwah, S.S.; Shanker, J.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of thermodynamic properties such as specific heat, Debye temperature, Einstein temperature, thermal expansion coefficient, bulk modulus, and Grueneisen parameter is performed for rare-earth-based, Tl-based, and Bi-based superconducting copper oxides. Values of thermodynamic parameters are calculated and reported. The relationship between the Debye temperature and the superconducting transition temperature is used to estimate the values of T c using the interaction parameters from Ginzburg. (orig.)

  17. Incorporation of polydimethylsiloxane with reduced graphene oxide and zinc oxide for tensile and electrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danial, N. S.; Ramli, Muhammad. M.; Halin, D. S. C.; Hong, H. C.; Isa, S. Salwa M.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Anhar, N. A. M.; Talip, L. F. A.; Mazlan, N. S.

    2017-09-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is an organosilicon polymer that is commonly used to incorporate with other fillers. PDMS in high viscous liquid form is mechanically stirred with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and mixed with zinc oxide (ZnO) with specific ratio, thus rendering into two types of samples. The mechanical and electrical properties of both samples are characterized. The result shows that PDMS sample with 50 mg rGO has the highest tensile strength with the value of 9.1 MPa. For electrical properties, sample with the lowest resistance is PDMS with 50 mg rGO and ZnO with the value of l.67×l05 Ω. This experiment shows the significant role of conductive fillers like rGO and ZnO incorporated in polymeric material such as PDMS to improve its electrical properties.

  18. Sputtering properties of tungsten 'fuzzy' surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, D.; Baldwin, M.J.; Doerner, R.P.; Yu, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Sputtering yields of He-induced W 'fuzzy' surfaces bombarded by Ar have been measured in the linear divertor plasma simulator PISCES-B. It is found that the sputtering yield of a fuzzy surface, Y fuzzy , decreases with increasing fuzzy layer thickness, L, and saturates at ∼10% of that of a smooth surface, Y smooth , at L > 1 μm. The reduction in the sputtering yield is suspected to be due mainly to the porous structure of fuzz, since the ratio, Y fuzzy /Y smooth follows (1 - p fuzz ), where p fuzz is the fuzz porosity. Further, Y fuzzy /Y smooth is observed to increase with incident ion energy, E i . This may be explained by an energy dependent change in the angular distribution of sputtered W atoms, since at lower E i , the angular distribution is observed to become more butterfly-shaped. That is, a larger fraction of sputtered W atoms can line-of-sight deposit/stick onto neighboring fuzz nanostructures for lower E i butterfly distributions, resulting in lower ratio of Y fuzzy /Y smooth .

  19. The surface oxide as a source of oxygen on Rh(1 1 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, E. [Department of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Institute of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden)]. E-mail: edvin.lundgren@sljus.lu.se; Gustafson, J. [Department of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Institute of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Resta, A. [Department of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Institute of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Weissenrieder, J. [Department of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Institute of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Mikkelsen, A. [Department of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Institute of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Andersen, J.N. [Department of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Institute of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Koehler, L. [Institut fuer Materialphysik and Centre for Computational Materials Science, Universitaet Wien, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Kresse, G. [Institut fuer Materialphysik and Centre for Computational Materials Science, Universitaet Wien, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Klikovits, J. [Institut fuer Allgemeine Physik, Technische Universitaet Wien, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Biederman, A. [Institut fuer Allgemeine Physik, Technische Universitaet Wien, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Schmid, M. [Institut fuer Allgemeine Physik, Technische Universitaet Wien, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Varga, P. [Institut fuer Allgemeine Physik, Technische Universitaet Wien, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2005-06-15

    The reduction of a thin surface oxide on the Rh(1 1 1) surface by CO is studied in situ by photoemission spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and density functional theory. CO molecules are found not to adsorb on the surface oxide at a sample temperature of 100 K, in contrast to on the clean and chemisorbed oxygen covered surface. Despite this behavior, the surface oxide may still be reduced by CO, albeit in a significantly different fashion as compared to the reduction of a phase containing only chemisorbed on surface oxygen. The experimental observations combined with theoretical considerations concerning the stability of the surface oxide, result in a model of the reduction process at these pressures suggesting that the surface oxide behaves as a source of oxygen for the CO-oxidation reaction.

  20. Low temperature self-cleaning properties of superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fajun; Shen, Taohua; Li, Changquan; Li, Wen; Yan, Guilong

    2014-10-01

    Outdoor surfaces are usually dirty surfaces. Ice accretion on outdoor surfaces could lead to serious accidents. In the present work, the superhydrophobic surface based on 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-Perfluorodecanethiol (PFDT) modified Ag/PDMS composite was prepared to investigate the anti-icing property and self-cleaning property at temperatures below freezing point. The superhydrophobic surface was deliberately polluted with activated carbon before testing. It was observed that water droplet picked up dusts on the cold superhydrophobic surface and took it away without freezing at a measuring temperature of -10 °C. While on a smooth PFDT surface and a rough surface base on Ag/PDMS composite without PFDT modification, water droplets accumulated and then froze quickly at the same temperature. However, at even lower temperature of -12 °C, the superhydrophobic surface could not prevent the surface water from icing. In addition, it was observed that the frost layer condensed from the moisture pay an important role in determining the low temperature self-cleaning properties of a superhydrophobic surface.

  1. Morphology, structural and optical properties of iron oxide thin film photoanodes in photoelectrochemical cell: Effect of electrochemical oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maabong, Kelebogile; Machatine, Augusto G.; Hu, Yelin; Braun, Artur; Nambala, Fred J.; Diale, Mmantsae

    2016-01-01

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) is a promising semiconductor as photoanode in solar hydrogen production from photoelectrolysis of water due to its appropriate band gap, low cost and high electrochemical stability in aqueous caustic electrolytes. Operation of such photoanode in a biased photoelectrochemical cell constitutes an anodization with consequent redox reactions at the electrode surface. α-Fe2O3 thin film photoanodes were prepared by simple and inexpensive dip coating method on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate, annealed in air at 500 °C for 2 h, then electrochemically oxidized (anodized) in 1 M KOH at 500 mV for 1 min in dark and light conditions. Changes in structural properties and morphology of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles films were investigated by XRD, Raman spectroscopy and a high resolution FE-SEM. The average grain size was observed to increase from 57 nm for pristine samples to 73 and 77 nm for anodized samples in dark and light respectively. Broadening and red shift in Raman spectra in anodized samples may be attributed to lattice expansion upon oxidation. The UV-visible measurements revealed enhanced absorption in the photoanodes after the treatment. The findings suggest that the anodization of the photoelectrode in a biased cell causes not only changes of the molecular structure at the surface, but also changes in the crystallographic structure which can be detected with x-ray diffractometry.

  2. Morphology, structural and optical properties of iron oxide thin film photoanodes in photoelectrochemical cell: Effect of electrochemical oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maabong, Kelebogile; Machatine, Augusto G.; Hu, Yelin; Braun, Artur; Nambala, Fred J.; Diale, Mmantsae

    2016-01-01

    Hematite (α-Fe_2O_3) is a promising semiconductor as photoanode in solar hydrogen production from photoelectrolysis of water due to its appropriate band gap, low cost and high electrochemical stability in aqueous caustic electrolytes. Operation of such photoanode in a biased photoelectrochemical cell constitutes an anodization with consequent redox reactions at the electrode surface. α-Fe_2O_3 thin film photoanodes were prepared by simple and inexpensive dip coating method on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate, annealed in air at 500 °C for 2 h, then electrochemically oxidized (anodized) in 1 M KOH at 500 mV for 1 min in dark and light conditions. Changes in structural properties and morphology of α-Fe_2O_3 nanoparticles films were investigated by XRD, Raman spectroscopy and a high resolution FE-SEM. The average grain size was observed to increase from ~57 nm for pristine samples to 73 and 77 nm for anodized samples in dark and light respectively. Broadening and red shift in Raman spectra in anodized samples may be attributed to lattice expansion upon oxidation. The UV–visible measurements revealed enhanced absorption in the photoanodes after the treatment. The findings suggest that the anodization of the photoelectrode in a biased cell causes not only changes of the molecular structure at the surface, but also changes in the crystallographic structure which can be detected with x-ray diffractometry.

  3. Morphology, structural and optical properties of iron oxide thin film photoanodes in photoelectrochemical cell: Effect of electrochemical oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maabong, Kelebogile [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Laboratory of High Ceramics, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Department of Physics, University of Botswana, Private Bag 002, Gaborone (Botswana); Machatine, Augusto G. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Hu, Yelin [Laboratory of High Ceramics, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, EPFL, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Braun, Artur [Laboratory of High Ceramics, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Nambala, Fred J. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); University of Zambia, Box 32379, Great East Road Campus, Lusaka (Zambia); Diale, Mmantsae, E-mail: mmantsae.diale@up.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Laboratory of High Ceramics, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland)

    2016-01-01

    Hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is a promising semiconductor as photoanode in solar hydrogen production from photoelectrolysis of water due to its appropriate band gap, low cost and high electrochemical stability in aqueous caustic electrolytes. Operation of such photoanode in a biased photoelectrochemical cell constitutes an anodization with consequent redox reactions at the electrode surface. α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film photoanodes were prepared by simple and inexpensive dip coating method on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate, annealed in air at 500 °C for 2 h, then electrochemically oxidized (anodized) in 1 M KOH at 500 mV for 1 min in dark and light conditions. Changes in structural properties and morphology of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles films were investigated by XRD, Raman spectroscopy and a high resolution FE-SEM. The average grain size was observed to increase from ~57 nm for pristine samples to 73 and 77 nm for anodized samples in dark and light respectively. Broadening and red shift in Raman spectra in anodized samples may be attributed to lattice expansion upon oxidation. The UV–visible measurements revealed enhanced absorption in the photoanodes after the treatment. The findings suggest that the anodization of the photoelectrode in a biased cell causes not only changes of the molecular structure at the surface, but also changes in the crystallographic structure which can be detected with x-ray diffractometry.

  4. Processing surface sizing starch using oxidation, enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrasonic treatment methods--Preparation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Tobias; Kiessler, Birgit; Radosta, Sylvia; Arndt, Tiemo

    2016-03-15

    The surface application of starch is a well-established method for increasing paper strength. In surface sizing, a solution of degraded starch is applied to the paper. Two procedures have proved valuable for starch degradation in the paper mill: enzymatic and thermo-oxidative degradation. The objective of this study was to determine achievable efficiencies of cavitation in preparing degraded starch for surface application on paper. It was found that ultrasonic-assisted starch degradation can provide a starch solution that is suitable for surface sizing. The molecular composition of starch solutions prepared by ultrasonic treatment differed from that of starch solutions degraded by enzymes or by thermo-oxidation. Compared to commercial degradation processes, this resulted in intensified film formation and in greater penetration during surface sizing and ultimately in a higher starch content of the paper. Paper sized with ultrasonically treated starch solutions show the same strength properties compared to commercially sized paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Surface morphology, structural and electrical properties of RF ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    5

    electrical properties of RF sputtered ITO thin films deposited onto Si(100). .... scanning electron microscopy (SEM) surface images are shown along with the cross- ..... annealing effect”, J. of Alloys and Compounds 509, (2011) 6072-6076.

  6. Pseudopotentials for calculating the bulk and surface properties of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    A survey is presented describing research in condensed matter physics using pseudopotentials to calculate electronic, structural, and vibrational properties of solids. Semiconductors are emphasized, and both bulk and surface calculations are discussed. (author) [pt

  7. Rapid Surface Oxidation as a Source of Surface Degradation Factor for Bi 2 Se 3

    KAUST Repository

    Kong, Desheng

    2011-06-28

    Bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) is a topological insulator with metallic surface states (SS) residing in a large bulk bandgap. In experiments, synthesized Bi2Se3 is often heavily n-type doped due to selenium vacancies. Furthermore, it is discovered from experiments on bulk single crystals that Bi2Se3 gets additional n-type doping after exposure to the atmosphere, thereby reducing the relative contribution of SS in total conductivity. In this article, transport measurements on Bi2Se3 nanoribbons provide additional evidence of such environmental doping process. Systematic surface composition analyses by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal fast formation and continuous growth of native oxide on Bi2Se3 under ambient conditions. In addition to n-type doping at the surface, such surface oxidation is likely the material origin of the degradation of topological SS. Appropriate surface passivation or encapsulation may be required to probe topological SS of Bi2Se3 by transport measurements. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  8. Methane oxidation and methane fluxes in the ocean surface layer and deep anoxic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, B. B.; Kilpatrick, K. A.; Novelli, P. C.; Scranton, M. I.

    1987-01-01

    Measured biological oxidation rates of methane in near-surface waters of the Cariaco Basin are compared with the diffusional fluxes computed from concentration gradients of methane in the surface layer. Methane fluxes and oxidation rates were investigated in surface waters, at the oxic/anoxic interface, and in deep anoxic waters. It is shown that the surface-waters oxidation of methane is a mechanism which modulates the flux of methane from marine waters to the atmosphere.

  9. Effect of a surface oxide-dispersion-strengthened layer on mechanical strength of zircaloy-4 tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Il Jung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS layer was formed on Zircaloy-4 tubes by a laser beam scanning process to increase mechanical strength. Laser beam was used to scan the yttrium oxide (Y2O3–coated Zircaloy-4 tube to induce the penetration of Y2O3 particles into Zircaloy-4. Laser surface treatment resulted in the formation of an ODS layer as well as microstructural phase transformation at the surface of the tube. The mechanical strength of Zircaloy-4 increased with the formation of the ODS layer. The ring-tensile strength of Zircaloy-4 increased from 790 to 870 MPa at room temperature, from 500 to 575 MPa at 380°C, and from 385 to 470 MPa at 500°C. Strengthening became more effective as the test temperature increased. It was noted that brittle fracture occurred at room temperature, which was not observed at elevated temperatures. Resistance to dynamic high-temperature bursting improved. The burst temperature increased from 760 to 830°C at a heating rate of 5°C/s and internal pressure of 8.3 MPa. The burst opening was also smaller than those in fresh Zircaloy-4 tubes. This method is expected to enhance the safety of Zr fuel cladding tubes owing to the improvement of their mechanical properties. Keywords: Laser Surface Treatment, Microstructure, Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Alloy, Tensile Strength, Zirconium Alloy

  10. Significant electrical control of amorphous oxide thin film transistors by an ultrathin Ti surface polarity modifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Byungsu [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Display Co. Ltd., Tangjeong, Chungcheongnam-Do 336-741 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yonghyuk; Shin, Seokyoon [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Heeyoung [Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyungtak, E-mail: hseo@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 443-739 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyeongtag, E-mail: hjeon@hanyang.ac.kr [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-27

    We demonstrate an enhanced electrical stability through a Ti oxide (TiO{sub x}) layer on the amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) back-channel; this layer acts as a surface polarity modifier. Ultrathin Ti deposited on the a-IGZO existed as a TiO{sub x} thin film, resulting in oxygen cross-binding with a-IGZO surface. The electrical properties of a-IGZO thin film transistors (TFTs) with TiO{sub x} depend on the surface polarity change and electronic band structure evolution. This result indicates that TiO{sub x} on the back-channel serves as not only a passivation layer protecting the channel from ambient molecules or process variables but also a control layer of TFT device parameters.

  11. Iron oxide and hydroxide precipitation from ferrous solutions and its relevance to Martian surface mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey-Dowty, J.; Moskowitz, B.; Crerar, D.; Hargraves, R.; Tanenbaum, L.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were performed to examine if the ubiquitousness of a weak magnetic component in all Martian surface fines tested with the Viking Landers can be attributed to ferric iron precipitation in aqueous solution under oxidizing conditions at neutral pH. Ferrous solutions were mixed in deionized water and various minerals were added to separate liquid samples. The iron-bearing additives included hematite, goethite, magnetite, maghemite, lepidocrocite and potassium bromide blank at varying concentrations. IR spectroscopic scans were made to identify any precipitates resulting from bubbling oxygen throughout the solutions; the magnetic properties of the precipitates were also examined. The data indicated that the lepidocrocite may have been preferentially precipitated, then aged to maghemite. The process would account for the presumed thin residue of maghemite on the present Martian surface, long after abundant liquid water on the Martian surface vanished.

  12. Iron oxide and hydroxide precipitation from ferrous solutions and its relevance to Martian surface mineralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posey-Dowty, J.; Moskowitz, B.; Crerar, D.; Hargraves, R.; Tanenbaum, L.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were performed to examine if the ubiquitousness of a weak magnetic component in all Martian surface fines tested with the Viking Landers can be attributed to ferric iron precipitation in aqueous solution under oxidizing conditions at neutral pH. Ferrous solutions were mixed in deionized water and various minerals were added to separate liquid samples. The iron-bearing additives included hematite, goethite, magnetite, maghemite, lepidocrocite and potassium bromide blank at varying concentrations. IR spectroscopic scans were made to identify any precipitates resulting from bubbling oxygen throughout the solutions; the magnetic properties of the precipitates were also examined. The data indicated that the lepidocrocite may have been preferentially precipitated, then aged to maghemite. The process would account for the presumed thin residue of maghemite on the present Martian surface, long after abundant liquid water on the Martian surface vanished. 40 references

  13. Effect of TEMPO-oxidization and rapid cooling on thermo-structural properties of nanocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhd Haniffa, Mhd Abd Cader; Ching, Yern Chee; Chuah, Cheng Hock; Yong Ching, Kuan; Nazri, Nik; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Nai-Shang, Liou

    2017-10-01

    Recently, surface functionality and thermal property of the green nanomaterials have received wide attention in numerous applications. In this study, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was used to prepare the nanocrystalline celluloses (NCCs) using acid hydrolysis method. The NCCs was treated with TEMPO [(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxy radical]-oxidation to prepare TEMPO-oxidized NCCs. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) also prepared from MCC using TEMPO-oxidation. The effects of rapid cooling and chemical treatments on the thermo-structural property studies of the prepared nanocelluloses were investigated through FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetric (TGA-DTG), and XRD. A posteriori knowledge of the FTIR and TGA-DTG analysis revealed that the rapid cooling treatment enhanced the hydrogen bond energy and thermal stability of the TEMPO-oxidized NCC compared to other nanocelluloses. XRD analysis exhibits the effect of rapid cooling on pseudo 2 I helical conformation. This was the first investigation performed on the effect of rapid cooling on structural properties of the nanocellulose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnetic and surface properties of Fe-Nb (Mo, V)-Cu-B-Si ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butvinova, B.; Butvin, P.; Svec, P. Sr.; Matko, I.; Svec, P.; Janickovic, D.; Kadlecikova, M.

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly quenched Finemet (FeNbCuBSi) ribbons prepared by planar flow casting of the melt are very variable to obtain very good soft-magnetic properties. An appropriate thermal treatment leading to ultra-fine grain structure enables to attain such properties as desired for practical use. Increasing Fe percentage to the detriment of non-magnetic components lifts saturation induction above 1.3 T, preserves low coercivity and makes the alloy even cheaper to suit its mass production for use in power electronics. Apart from the plenty of benefits the ribbons show some risks. One of them is macroscopic heterogeneity, which often manifests via differences between surfaces and interior of a ribbon [3]. The surfaces squeeze (by in-plane force) the interior of many such ribbons and if engaged in magnetoelastic interaction, the force affects the resulting magnetic anisotropy [4]. Current research shows that changes of hysteresis loop shape come rather from surface crystallization and not from oxides namely in positively magnetostrictive alloys FeNbCuBSi known as low- Si Finemets. The object of this work is to verify whether the substitution of another element instead of Nb (usually incorporated as the grain-growth blocker) can change surface properties and affects the resulting magnetic properties. We chose V and Mo instead of Nb. Oxides, oxyhydroxides and a possible squeezing layer was looked for after higher temperature annealing which ensures partially nanocrystalline structure. (authors)

  15. Design and development of anisotropic inorganic/polystyrene nanocomposites by surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Xiao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Research Center for Translational Medicine, East Hospital, the Institute for Biomedical Engineering & Nano Science, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092 (China); Huang, Shiming [Department of Physics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Yilong, E-mail: yilongwang@tongji.edu.cn [Research Center for Translational Medicine, East Hospital, the Institute for Biomedical Engineering & Nano Science, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shi, Donglu, E-mail: shid@ucmail.uc.edu [Research Center for Translational Medicine, East Hospital, the Institute for Biomedical Engineering & Nano Science, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092 (China); The Materials Science and Engineering Program, College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Anisotropic yolk/shell or Janus inorganic/polystyrene nanocomposites were prepared by combining miniemulsion polymerization and sol–gel reaction. The morphologies of the anisotropic composites were found to be greatly influenced by surface modification of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle seeds. Two different types of the oleic acid modified ZnO nanoparticles (OA-ZnO) were prepared by post-treatment of commercial ZnO powder and homemade OA-ZnO nanoparticles. The morphologies and properties of the nanocomposites were investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). It was found that both post-treated OA-ZnO and in-situ prepared OA-ZnO nanoparticles resulted in the yolk–shell and Janus structure nanocomposites, but with varied size and morphology. These nanocomposites showed stable and strong fluorescence by introducing quantum dots as the co-seeds. The fluorescent anisotropic nanocomposites were decorated separately with surface carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. These composites with unique anisotropic properties will have high potential in biomedical applications, particularly in bio-detection. - Graphical abstract: Design and development of anisotropic inorganic/polystyrene nanocomposites by surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Non-magnetic anisotropic yolk/shell or Janus nanocomposites are prepared and characterized. • Different surface modification of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles results in varied morphology and size of the final product. • Fluorescent anisotropic nanocomposites embodying quantum dots are an ideal candidate for bio-detection applications.

  16. Modeling the Acid-Base Properties of Montmorillonite Edge Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournassat, Christophe; Davis, James A; Chiaberge, Christophe; Grangeon, Sylvain; Bourg, Ian C

    2016-12-20

    The surface reactivity of clay minerals remains challenging to characterize because of a duality of adsorption surfaces and mechanisms that does not exist in the case of simple oxide surfaces: edge surfaces of clay minerals have a variable proton surface charge arising from hydroxyl functional groups, whereas basal surfaces have a permanent negative charge arising from isomorphic substitutions. Hence, the relationship between surface charge and surface potential on edge surfaces cannot be described using the Gouy-Chapman relation, because of a spillover of negative electrostatic potential from the basal surface onto the edge surface. While surface complexation models can be modified to account for these features, a predictive fit of experimental data was not possible until recently, because of uncertainty regarding the densities and intrinsic pK a values of edge functional groups. Here, we reexamine this problem in light of new knowledge on intrinsic pK a values obtained over the past decade using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, and we propose a new formalism to describe edge functional groups. Our simulation results yield reasonable predictions of the best available experimental acid-base titration data.

  17. Tailoring Silica Surface Properties by Plasma Polymerization for Elastomer Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, M.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Datta, Rabin; Talma, Auke; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; van Ooij, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    The surface properties of reinforcing fillers are a crucial factor for dispersion and filler–polymer interaction in rubber compounds, as they strongly influence the final vulcanized properties of the rubber article. Silica is gaining more and more importance as reinforcing filler for rubbers, as it

  18. Tailoring Silica Surface Properties by Plasma Polymerization for Elastomer Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, M.; Dierkes, W.K.; Datta, R.N.; Talma, A.G.; Noordermeer, J.W.M.; van Ooij, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    The surface properties of reinforcing fillers are a crucial factor for dispersion and filler–polymer interaction in rubber compounds, as they strongly influence the final vulcanized properties of the rubber article. Silica is gaining more and more importance as reinforcing filler for rubbers, as it

  19. Laser alloying of aluminium to improve surface properties - MSSA 2010

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available and microstructure of the surface without affecting the bulk properties of the material. The process involves melting the substrate surface and injecting the powder of the alloying material into the melt pool. Process parameters such as laser power, beam spot size...

  20. Influence of gaseous annealing environment on the properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, R.X.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.; Djurisic, A.B.; Ling, C.C.; Li, S.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of postannealing in different gaseous environments on the optical properties of indiu-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on glass substrates using e-beam evaporation has been systematically investigated. It is found that the annealing conditions affect the optical and electrical properties of the films. Atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to obtain information on the chemical state and crystallization of the films. These data suggest that the chemical states and surface morphology of the ITO film are strongly influenced by the gaseous environment during the annealing process. The XPS data indicate that the observed variations in the optical transmittance can be explained by oxygen incorporation into the film, decomposition of the indium oxide phases, as well as the removal of metallic In

  1. Electronic structures near surfaces of perovskite type oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Toru

    2005-01-01

    This work is intended to draw attention to the origin of the electronic structures near surfaces of perovskite type oxides. Deep states were observed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopic measurements. The film thickness dependent electronic structures near surfaces of (Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 )TiO 3 thin films were observed. As for the 117-308 nm thick (Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 )TiO 3 films, deep states were lying at 0.20, 0.55, and 0.85 eV below the quasi-fermi level, respectively. However, as for the 40 nm thick (Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 )TiO 3 film, the states were overlapped. The A-site doping affected electronic structures near surfaces of SrTiO 3 single crystals. No evolution of deep states in non-doped SrTiO 3 single crystal was observed. However, the evolution of deep states in La-doped SrTiO 3 single crystal was observed

  2. Zinc oxide nanostructures: new properties for advances applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupan, Oleg; Chow, Lee; Pauporte, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide is a material which exhibits a variety of new properties at nanometer dimensions. Various synthesis techniques have been carried out to provide growth of nanowires, nanorods, nanorings, nanosprings, and nanobelts of ZnO under various conditions. These nanostructures show that ZnO possesses probably the richest family of nanoarchitectures among all materials, including their structures and properties. Such nanoarchitectures are potential building blocks for novel applications in optoelectronics, sensors, photovoltaic and nano-biomedical sciences. This work presents a review of various nano architectures of ZnO grown by the electrochemical, hydrothermal and solid-vapor phase techniques and their properties. The possible applications of ZnO nanowires as sensors, nano-DSSC, photodetectors and nano-LEDs will be presented.

  3. Surface properties and microporosity of polyhydroxybutyrate under scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raouf, A.A.; Samsudin, A.R.; Samian, R.; Akool, K.; Abdullah, N.

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the surface properties especially surface porosity of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) using scanning electron microscopy. PHB granules were sprinkled on the double-sided sticky tape attached on a SEM aluminium stub and sputtered with gold (10nm thickness) in a Polaron SC515 Coater, following which the samples were placed into the SEM specimen chamber for viewing and recording. Scanning electron micrographs with different magnification of PHB surface revealed multiple pores with different sizes. (Author)

  4. Structural evolution and optical properties of oxidized ZnS microrods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trung, D.Q. [Advanced Institute for Science and Technology (AIST), Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), Hanoi 10000 (Viet Nam); Quang Ninh University of Industry, Yen Tho-Dong Trieu District, Quang Ninh Province (Viet Nam); Thang, P.T.; Hung, N.D. [Advanced Institute for Science and Technology (AIST), Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), Hanoi 10000 (Viet Nam); Huy, P.T., E-mail: huy.phamthanh@hust.edu.vn [Advanced Institute for Science and Technology (AIST), Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), Hanoi 10000 (Viet Nam)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we present a simple and versatile way to growth and modify photoemission of high quality ZnS microrods by thermal evaporation method in combination with post oxidation in oxygen environment. The as-grown ZnS microrods show strong near edge luminescence doublets at room temperature indicating the high crystalline quality. Using ultrahigh-resolution scanning electron microscope integrated with energy microanalysis and cathodoluminescence capacity we elucidate the effect of oxidation temperature on microstructure surface, chemical composition and emission spectra of ZnS microrods. Under appropriate oxidation condition, the initial high quality ZnS microrods can be converted into ZnS/ZnO microrod heterostructures or optically active porous ZnO microrods. More particularly, we demonstrate that the emission wavelength of an oxygen-related defect could be tuned in between optical band-gap of ZnS and ZnO upon increasing the oxidation temperature. This research introduces a simple approach to synthesize and tune optical property of high quality ZnS crystals. - Highlights: • High quality optically defect free ZnS microrods were synthesized in large scale. • The structural evolution and changes in optical emission upon oxidation were disclosed. • Luminescence of oxygen-related defect can be tuned using oxidation temperature. • The initial ZnS microrods can be converted into ZnS/ZnO heterostructure. • Porous ZnO microrods with negligible defect emissions were achieved.

  5. Effect of Acid Oxidation on the Dispersion Property of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, P. S.; Ismail, A. F.; Aziz, M.

    2009-06-01

    A means of dispersion of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) via mixed acid (HNO3 and H2SO4) oxidation with different treatment durations was investigated through the solubility study of the treated carbon nanotubes in some common solvents. Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) characterization of the reaction products revealed that the surface of MWCNTs was successfully functionalized with surface acidic groups. The acid-base titration demonstrated that the amount of surface acidic groups increased in parallel with the refluxing duration. The acid modified MWCNTs were found to be well dispersed in polar solvents, such as ethanol and water due to the presence of the hydrophilic acid functional groups on the surface of raw MWCNTs. Such chemical modification of carbon nanotube properties will pave the way towards the realistic applications in the nanotechnology world.

  6. Influence of Surface Coating of Magnetic Nanoparticles on Mechanical Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarar, Ecem; Karakas, Gizem; Rende, Deniz; Ozisik, Rahmi; Malta, Seyda

    Polymer nanocomposites have emerged as promising materials due to improved properties when compared with conventional bulk polymers. Nanofillers are natural or synthetic organic/inorganic particles that are less than 100 nm in at least one dimension. Even the addition of trace amounts of nanofillers to polymers may lad to unique combinations of properties. Among variety of inorganic nanofillers, iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles are of great interest due to their unique physical and chemical properties, such as low toxicity, biocompatibility, large magnetization and conductivity, owing to their extremely small size and large specific surface area. In this study, approximately 8-10 nm magnetic nanoparticles coated with either citric acid or oleic acid are synthesized and blended with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). The hydrophobicity/hydrophillicity of the polymer and the surface coating on the iron oxide nanoparticles are exploited to control the dispersion state of nanoparticles, and the effect of dispersion on mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposite are investigated via experimental methods such as dynamic mechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. This material is based upon work partially supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1538730 and TUBITAK 112M666.

  7. Green approach for preparation of reduced graphene oxide decorated with gold nanoparticles and its optical and catalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šimšíková, M., E-mail: michaela.simsikova@ceitec.vutbr.cz [CEITEC BUT, Brno University of Technology, Technická 10, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Bartoš, M. [CEITEC BUT, Brno University of Technology, Technická 10, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Institute of Physical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Keša, P. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, P.J. Šafárik University, Šrobárova 2, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Department of Biophysics, Institute of Experimental Physics, SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia); Šikola, T. [CEITEC BUT, Brno University of Technology, Technická 10, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Institute of Physical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2016-07-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was reduced and modified by gold nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of green tea. Successful formation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on graphene oxide surface was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared analyses (FT-IR) have been used to demonstrate the behavior of complex of reduced graphene oxide with gold nanoparticles (rGO-AuNPs), the removal of oxygen-containing groups from the graphene, and subsequent formation of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). We also demonstrated the change of optical properties of GO after the reduction and formation of gold nanoparticles on its surface by UV–vis spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The positive impact of rGO-AuNPs composite on safranin T reduction in the presence of NaBH{sub 4} without light irradiation was examined, as well. The dye decolorization was observed within 60 min which highlights the exceptional catalytic potential of the rGO-AuNPs. - Highlights: • Reduction of GO was performed by an environmentally friendly approach. • Gold nanoparticles were prepared by self-assembly on the graphene oxide surface. • Surface properties were enhanced after the formation of gold nanoparticles. • Optical properties have been changed after the graphene reduction and formation of gold nanoparticles. • The decolorization of safranin T was observed within 60 min.

  8. Green approach for preparation of reduced graphene oxide decorated with gold nanoparticles and its optical and catalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šimšíková, M.; Bartoš, M.; Keša, P.; Šikola, T.

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was reduced and modified by gold nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of green tea. Successful formation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on graphene oxide surface was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared analyses (FT-IR) have been used to demonstrate the behavior of complex of reduced graphene oxide with gold nanoparticles (rGO-AuNPs), the removal of oxygen-containing groups from the graphene, and subsequent formation of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). We also demonstrated the change of optical properties of GO after the reduction and formation of gold nanoparticles on its surface by UV–vis spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The positive impact of rGO-AuNPs composite on safranin T reduction in the presence of NaBH_4 without light irradiation was examined, as well. The dye decolorization was observed within 60 min which highlights the exceptional catalytic potential of the rGO-AuNPs. - Highlights: • Reduction of GO was performed by an environmentally friendly approach. • Gold nanoparticles were prepared by self-assembly on the graphene oxide surface. • Surface properties were enhanced after the formation of gold nanoparticles. • Optical properties have been changed after the graphene reduction and formation of gold nanoparticles. • The decolorization of safranin T was observed within 60 min.

  9. Effects of interfacial Fe electronic structures on magnetic and electronic transport properties in oxide/NiFe/oxide heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qianqian; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Jing-Yan; Yang, Meiyin; Li, Xu-Jing; Jiang, Shao-Long; Liu, Yi-Wei; Cao, Yi; Wu, Zheng-Long; Feng, Chun; Ding, Lei; Yu, Guang-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The magnetic and transport properties of oxide/NiFe/oxide films were studied. • The oxide (SiO 2 , MgO and HfO 2 ) has different elemental electronegativity. • Redox reaction at different NiFe/oxide interface is dependent on the oxide layer. • Different interfacial electronic structures shown by XPS influence the properties. - Abstract: We report that the magnetic and electronic transport properties in oxide/NiFe(2 nm)/oxide film (oxide = SiO 2 , MgO or HfO 2 ) are strongly influenced by the electronic structure of NiFe/oxide interface. Magnetic measurements show that there exist magnetic dead layers in the SiO 2 sandwiched film and MgO sandwiched film, whereas there is no magnetic dead layer in the HfO 2 sandwiched film. Furthermore, in the ultrathin SiO 2 sandwiched film no magnetoresistance (MR) is detected, while in the ultrathin MgO sandwiched film and HfO 2 sandwiched film the MR ratios reach 0.35% and 0.88%, respectively. The investigation by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the distinct interfacial redox reactions, which are dependent on the oxide layers, lead to the variation of magnetic and transport properties in different oxide/NiFe/oxide heterostructures

  10. Spectra investigation on surface characteristics of graphene oxide nanosheets treated with tartaric, malic and oxalic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xiyao; Yan, Manqing; Bi, Hong

    2014-01-24

    The surface characteristics of graphene oxide nanosheets (GO) treated respectively with tartaric acid, malic acid and oxalic acid, have been investigated by mainly using optical spectroscopic methods including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption and Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, the electrochemical property of the products has also been studied. The data revealed that oxygen-containing groups such as OH, COOH and CO on the GO surface have been almost removed and thus reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (RGN) were obtained. Interestingly, the number of sp(2) domains of RGN increases as treated by tartaric acidsurface conjugated degree alteration. We claim that the difference in both SH and IC among these acids is the main reason for the diverse surface characteristics as well as the improved Cs of the RGN. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Using surfaces, ligands, and dimensionality to obtain desired nanostructure properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Prashant; Singh, Vivek; Ding, Yuchen

    2014-03-01

    Nanostructured materials are intensively investigated to obtain material properties different from their bulk counterparts. It has been demonstrated that nanoscaled semiconductor can have interesting size, shape and morphology dependent optoelectronic properties. But the effect of surfaces, ligands and dimensionality (0D quantum dots to 2D nanosheets) has been largely unexplored. Here, we will show how tuning the surface and dimensionality can affect the electronic states of the semiconductor, and how these states can play an important role in their fundamental photophysical properties or thermal transport. Using the specific case for silicon, we will show how ``new'' surface states in small uniform can lead to light absorption/emission without phonon assistance, while hindering the phonon-drag of charge carriers leading to low Seebeck coefficient for thermoelectric applications. These measurements will shed light on designing appropriate surface, size, and dimensionality for desired applications of nanostructured films.

  12. Oleophobic properties of the step-and-terrace sapphire surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muslimov, A. E., E-mail: amuslimov@mail.ru; Butashin, A. V.; Kanevsky, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Research Center “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Sapphire is widely used in production of optical windows for various devices due to its mechanical and optical properties. However, during operation the surface can be affected by fats, oils, and other organic contaminations. Therefore, it is important to improve the oleophobic properties of sapphire windows. In this study, we investigate the interaction of a supersmooth sapphire surface with oleic acid droplets, which imitate human finger printing. It is established that chemical–mechanical polishing with additional annealing in air, which leads to the formation of an atomically smooth sapphire surface, makes it possible to significantly improve the oleophobic properties of the surface. The results are analyzed using the Ventsel–Deryagin homogeneous wetting model.

  13. Effect of surface stress state on dissolution property of Alloy 690 in simulated primary water condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Mo; Shim, Hee-Sang; Lee, Eun Hee; Seo, Myung Ji; Han, Jung Ho; Hur, Do Haeng

    2014-01-01

    The dissolution control of nickel is important to reduce the radioactive dose rate and deterioration of fuel performance in the operation of nuclear power plants (PWR). The corrosion properties are affected by the metal surface residual stress introduced in manufacture process such as work hardening. This work studied the effect of surface modification on the release rate of Alloy 690, nickel-base alloy for a steam generator tube, in the test condition of simulated primary water chemistry in PWRs. The surface stress modification was applied by the electro-polishing and shot peening method. Shot peening process was applied using ceramic beads with different intensities through the variation of air pressure. The corrosion release tests performed at 330degC with LiOH 2 ppm and H 3 BO 4 1200 ppm, DH(dissolved hydrogen) 35 cc/kg (STP) and about 20 ppb of DO(dissolved oxygen) condition. The corrosion release rate was evaluated by a gravimetric analysis method and the surface analysed by SEM and optical microscope. The surface residual stress was measured by an X-ray diffractometer, and the distribution of stress state was evaluated by a micro-hardness tester. The metal ion release rate of alloy 690 was evaluated from the influence of the stress state on the metal surface. The oxide property and structure was affected by the residual stress in the oxide layer. (author)

  14. Anticoagulation and endothelial cell behaviors of heparin-loaded graphene oxide coating on titanium surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Chang-Jiang, E-mail: panchangjiang@hyit.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huai' an 223003 (China); Pang, Li-Qun [Department of General Surgery, Huai' an First People' s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Huai' an 223300 (China); Gao, Fei [Zhejiang Zylox Medical Devices Co., Ltd., Hangzhou 310000 (China); Wang, Ya-Nan; Liu, Tao; Ye, Wei; Hou, Yan-Hua [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huai' an 223003 (China)

    2016-06-01

    Owing to its unique physical and chemical properties, graphene oxide (GO) has attracted tremendous interest in many fields including biomaterials and biomedicine. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the endothelial cell behaviors and anticoagulation of heparin-loaded GO coating on the titanium surface. To this end, the titanium surface was firstly covered by the polydopamine coating followed by the deposition of the GO coating. Heparin was finally loaded on the GO coating to improve the blood compatibility. The results of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that the heparin-loaded GO coating was successfully created on the titanium surface. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicated that a relative uniform GO coating consisting of multilayer GO sheets was formed on the substrate. The hydrophilicity of the titanium surface was enhanced after the deposition of GO and further improved significantly by the loading heparin. The GO coating can enhance the endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation as compared with polydopamine coating and the blank titanium. Loading heparin on the GO coating can significantly reduce the platelet adhesion and prolong the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) while not influence the endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation. Therefore, the heparin-loaded GO coating can simultaneously enhance the cytocompatibility to endothelial cells and blood compatibility of biomaterials. Because the polydopamine coating can be easily prepared on most of biomaterials including polymer, ceramics and metal, thus the approach of the present study may open up a new window of promising an effective and efficient way to promote endothelialization and improve the blood compatibility of blood-contact biomedical devices such as intravascular stents. - Highlights: • Heparin-loaded graphene oxide coating was

  15. Enhanced mechanical properties and increased corrosion resistance of a biodegradable magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Leon; Koo, Youngmi; Neralla, Sudheer; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method was developed to control corrosion, porosity, and mechanical property. • Mechanical properties of PEO-coated AZ31 alloys were affected by the different electrolyte. • Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of PEO-coated AZ31 alloys were compared with uncoated one. - Abstract: We report the enhanced mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating in NaOH, Na_2SiO_3, KF and NaH_2PO_4·2H_2O containing electrolytes. Mechanical properties including wear resistance, surface hardness and elastic modulus were increased for PEO-coated AZ31 Mg alloys (PEO-AZ31). DC polarization in Hank's solution indicating that the corrosion resistance significantly increased for PEO-coating in KF-contained electrolyte. Based on these results, the PEO coating method shows promising potential for use in biodegradable implant applications where tunable corrosion and mechanical properties are needed.

  16. Physicochemical properties of nanocomposite: Hydroxyapatite in reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, A; Mangamma, G; Sairam, T N; Subramanian, S; Kalavathi, S; Kamruddin, M; Dash, S

    2017-07-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) based nanocomposites have gained considerable attention in the field of material science due to their excellent physicochemical and biological properties. Incorporation of nanomaterials into GO sheets prevents the formation of π-π stacking bond thereby giving rise to composites that show the improved properties compared to their individual counterparts. In this work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) - hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanocomposites were synthesized by ultrasonic method. Increasing the c/a ratio of HAP in the diffraction pattern of rGO/HAP nanocomposites indicates the c-axis oriented grown HAP nanorods interacting with rGO layers. Shift in wavenumber (15cm -1 ) and increase of full width at half maximum (45cm -1 ) of G band in Raman spectra of the rGO/HAP nanocomposites are observed and attributed to the tensile strain induced due to the intercalated HAP nanorods between the rGO layers. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and phase imaging studies revealed the intercalation of HAP nanorod with diameter 30nm and length 110-120nm in rGO sheets was clearly perceived along with improved elasticity compared to pristine HAP. 13 C-NMR results proved the synergistic interaction between both components in rGO/HAP nanocomposite. The novel properties observed and the microscopic mechanism responsible for this are a result of the structural modification in rGO layers brought about by the intercalation of HAP nanorods. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Ultrasonic impact treatment of CoCrMo alloy: Surface composition and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenakin, S.P., E-mail: chenakin@list.ru; Filatova, V.S.; Makeeva, I.N.; Vasylyev, M.A.

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • Ultrasonic impact treatment in air enhances oxidation of CoCrMo alloy. • Impact treatment promotes segregation and accumulation of carbon on the surface. • Intense deformation brings about partial dissolution of carbides. • Impact-induced fcc-to-hcp transformation and hardening of the alloy. • Impact treatment improves corrosion properties of the alloy. - Abstract: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray diffraction were employed to study the effect of intense mechanical treatment on the surface chemical state, composition and structure of a commercial biomedical CoCrMo alloy (‘Bondi-Loy’). The ultrasonic impact treatment of the alloy in air with duration up to 30 s was found to cause the deformation-enhanced oxidation and deformation-induced surface segregation of the components and impurities from the bulk. The compositionally inhomogeneous mixed oxide layer formed under impact treatment was composed mainly of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and silicon oxide with admixture of CoO, MoO{sub 2}, MoO{sub 3} and iron oxide/hydroxide, the latter being transferred onto the alloy surface from the steel pin. The impact treatment promoted a progressive accumulation of carbon on the alloy surface due to its deformation-induced segregation from the bulk and deformation-induced uptake of hydrocarbons from the ambient; concurrently, the dissolution/refinement of carbides originally present in the as-cast CoCrMo alloy occurred. The impact treatment gave rise to a two-fold increase in the volume fraction of the martensitic hcp ε-phase, a 30% increase in the surface microhardness and improved resistance to corrosion in the solution of artificial saliva compared to the as-polished alloy.

  18. Increased electrochemical properties of ruthenium oxide and graphene/ruthenium oxide hybrid dispersed by polyvinylpyrrolidone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yao; Zhang, Xiong; Zhang, Dacheng; Ma, Yanwei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A good dispersion of RuO 2 and graphene/RuO 2 is obtained by polyvinylpyrrolidone. ► PVP as a dispersant also can prevent the formation of metal Ru in graphene/RuO 2 . ► The max capacitances of the hybrid and RuO 2 reach 435 and 597 F g −1 at 0.2 A g −1 . ► The hybrid shows the best rate capability of 39% at 50 A g −1 . - Abstract: Ruthenium oxide has been prepared by a sol–gel method. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as an excellent polymeric dispersant is adopted to prevent aggregation of ruthenium oxide. In order to enhance the rate capability of ruthenium oxide, graphene with residual oxygen functional groups as a 2D support has been merged into ruthenium oxide. These oxygen functional groups not only favor to form stable few layers of graphene colloids, but also offer the sites to anchor ruthenium oxide nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction infers that PVP can also hinder the partial formation of Ru by blocking the direct contact between the Ru 3+ and the graphene in the sol–gel synthesis of the hybrids. The ruthenium oxide and the graphene/ruthenium oxide hybrids dispersed by PVP have superior electrochemical properties due to good dispersing and protecting ability of PVP. Especially, the hybrids using PVP exhibit the best rate capability, indicating that the composites possess an advanced structure of combining sheets and particles in nano-scale.

  19. Effect of dynamic surface polarization on the oxidative stability of solvents in nonaqueous Li-O 2 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetan, Abhishek; Pitsch, Heinz; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian

    2017-09-01

    Polarization-induced renormalization of the frontier energy levels of interacting molecules and surfaces can cause significant shifts in the excitation and transport behavior of electrons. This phenomenon is crucial in determining the oxidative stability of nonaqueous electrolytes in high-energy density electrochemical systems such as the Li-O2 battery. On the basis of partially self-consistent first-principles Sc G W0 calculations, we systematically study how the electronic energy levels of four commonly used solvent molecules, namely, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), dimethoxyethane (DME), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and acetonitrile (ACN), renormalize when physisorbed on the different stable surfaces of Li2O2 , the main discharge product. Using band level alignment arguments, we propose that the difference between the solvent's highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level and the surface's valence-band maximum (VBM) is a refined metric of oxidative stability. This metric and a previously used descriptor, solvent's gas phase HOMO level, agree quite well for physisorbed cases on pristine surfaces where ACN is oxidatively most stable followed by DME, THF, and DMSO. However, this effect is intrinsically linked to the surface chemistry of the solvent's interaction with the surface states and defects, and depends strongly on their nature. We conclusively show that the propensity of solvent molecules to oxidize will be significantly higher on Li2O2 surfaces with defects as compared to pristine surfaces. This suggests that the oxidative stability of a solvent is dynamic and is a strong function of surface electronic properties. Thus, while gas phase HOMO levels could be used for preliminary solvent candidate screening, a more refined picture of solvent stability requires mapping out the solvent stability as a function of the state of the surface under operating conditions.

  20. Attenuation of the in vitro neurotoxicity of 316L SS by graphene oxide surface coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasnim, Nishat; Kumar, Alok; Joddar, Binata

    2017-01-01

    A persistent theme in biomaterials research comprises of surface engineering and modification of bare metallic substrates for improved cellular response and biocompatibility. Graphene Oxide (GO), a derivative of graphene, has outstanding chemical and mechanical properties; its large surface to volume ratio, ease of surface modification and processing make GO an attractive coating material. GO-coatings have been extensively studied as biosensors. Further owing to its surface nano-architecture, GO-coated surfaces promote cell adhesion and growth, making it suitable for tissue engineering applications. The need to improve the long-term durability and therapeutic effectiveness of commercially available bare 316L stainless steel (SS) surfaces led us to adopt a polymer-free approach which is cost-effective and scalable. GO was immobilized on to 316L SS utilizing amide linkage, to generate a strongly adherent uniform coating with surface roughness. GO-coated 316L SS surfaces showed increased hydrophilicity and biocompatibility with SHSY-5Y neuronal cells, which proliferated well and showed decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) expression. In contrast, cells did not adhere to bare uncoated 316L SS meshes nor maintain viability when cultured in the vicinity of bare meshes. Therefore the combination of the improved surface properties and biocompatibility implies that GO-coating can be utilized to overcome pertinent limitations of bare metallic 316L SS implant surfaces, especially SS neural electrodes. Also, the procedure for making GO-based protective coatings can be applied to numerous other implants where the development of such protective films is necessary. - Highlights: • GO was immobilized on to 316L SS utilizing carbodiimide chemistry to generate a strong adherent uniform nano coating. • GO-modified surfaces showed increased hydrophilicity and biocompatibility with SH5YSY cells cultured atop these surfaces. • Proliferation and alignment of the cells with the

  1. Attenuation of the in vitro neurotoxicity of 316L SS by graphene oxide surface coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnim, Nishat; Kumar, Alok; Joddar, Binata, E-mail: bjoddar@utep.edu

    2017-04-01

    A persistent theme in biomaterials research comprises of surface engineering and modification of bare metallic substrates for improved cellular response and biocompatibility. Graphene Oxide (GO), a derivative of graphene, has outstanding chemical and mechanical properties; its large surface to volume ratio, ease of surface modification and processing make GO an attractive coating material. GO-coatings have been extensively studied as biosensors. Further owing to its surface nano-architecture, GO-coated surfaces promote cell adhesion and growth, making it suitable for tissue engineering applications. The need to improve the long-term durability and therapeutic effectiveness of commercially available bare 316L stainless steel (SS) surfaces led us to adopt a polymer-free approach which is cost-effective and scalable. GO was immobilized on to 316L SS utilizing amide linkage, to generate a strongly adherent uniform coating with surface roughness. GO-coated 316L SS surfaces showed increased hydrophilicity and biocompatibility with SHSY-5Y neuronal cells, which proliferated well and showed decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) expression. In contrast, cells did not adhere to bare uncoated 316L SS meshes nor maintain viability when cultured in the vicinity of bare meshes. Therefore the combination of the improved surface properties and biocompatibility implies that GO-coating can be utilized to overcome pertinent limitations of bare metallic 316L SS implant surfaces, especially SS neural electrodes. Also, the procedure for making GO-based protective coatings can be applied to numerous other implants where the development of such protective films is necessary. - Highlights: • GO was immobilized on to 316L SS utilizing carbodiimide chemistry to generate a strong adherent uniform nano coating. • GO-modified surfaces showed increased hydrophilicity and biocompatibility with SH5YSY cells cultured atop these surfaces. • Proliferation and alignment of the cells with the

  2. PEGylated graphene oxide elicits strong immunological responses despite surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Nana; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Wang, Shuang; Luan, Binquan; Yue, Hua; Xi, Xiaobo; Du, Jing; Yang, Zaixing; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Ruhong; Ma, Guanghui

    2017-02-01

    Engineered nanomaterials promise to transform medicine at the bio-nano interface. However, it is important to elucidate how synthetic nanomaterials interact with critical biological systems before such products can be safely utilized in humans. Past evidence suggests that polyethylene glycol-functionalized (PEGylated) nanomaterials are largely biocompatible and elicit less dramatic immune responses than their pristine counterparts. We here report results that contradict these findings. We find that PEGylated graphene oxide nanosheets (nGO-PEGs) stimulate potent cytokine responses in peritoneal macrophages, despite not being internalized. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations support a mechanism by which nGO-PEGs preferentially adsorb onto and/or partially insert into cell membranes, thereby amplifying interactions with stimulatory surface receptors. Further experiments demonstrate that nGO-PEG indeed provokes cytokine secretion by enhancing integrin β8-related signalling pathways. The present results inform that surface passivation does not always prevent immunological reactions to 2D nanomaterials but also suggest applications for PEGylated nanomaterials wherein immune stimulation is desired.

  3. Structural, optical and dielectric properties of graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Richa; Khan, Shakeel

    2018-05-01

    The Modified Hummers method has been used to synthesize Graphene oxide nanoparticles. Microstructural analyses were carried out by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Optical properties were studied by UV-visible spectroscopy in the range of 200-700 nm. The energy band gap was calculated with the help of Tauc relation. The frequency dependence of dielectric constant and dielectric loss were studied over a range of the frequency 75Hz to 5MHz at room temperature. The dispersion in dielectric constant can be explained with the help of Maxwell-Wagner model in studied nanoparticles.

  4. Nitrous oxide: Saturation properties and the phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, A.G.M.; Lobo, L.Q.

    2009-01-01

    The experimental values of the coordinates of the triple point and of the critical point of nitrous oxide registered in the literature were assessed and those judged as most reliable have been selected. Empirical equations have been found for the vapour pressure, sublimation and fusion curves. The virial coefficients and saturation properties as functions of temperature along the equilibrium curves are described by reduced equations. They were used in arriving at the molar enthalpies at the triple point and the normal boiling temperature. Equations for the sublimation and fusion curves resulting from the exactly integrated Clapeyron equation compare favourably with the results from the empirical treatment and the experimental data.

  5. Synergistic Effect of Superhydrophobicity and Oxidized Layers on Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum Alloy Surface Textured by Nanosecond Laser Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinovich, Ludmila B; Emelyanenko, Alexandre M; Modestov, Alexander D; Domantovsky, Alexandr G; Emelyanenko, Kirill A

    2015-09-02

    We report a new efficient method for fabricating a superhydrophobic oxidized surface of aluminum alloys with enhanced resistance to pitting corrosion in sodium chloride solutions. The developed coatings are considered very prospective materials for the automotive industry, shipbuilding, aviation, construction, and medicine. The method is based on nanosecond laser treatment of the surface followed by chemisorption of a hydrophobic agent to achieve the superhydrophobic state of the alloy surface. We have shown that the surface texturing used to fabricate multimodal roughness of the surface may be simultaneously used for modifying the physicochemical properties of the thick surface layer of the substrate itself. Electrochemical and wetting experiments demonstrated that the superhydrophobic state of the metal surface inhibits corrosion processes in chloride solutions for a few days. However, during long-term contact of a superhydrophobic coating with a solution, the wetted area of the coating is subjected to corrosion processes due to the formation of defects. In contrast, the combination of an oxide layer with good barrier properties and the superhydrophobic state of the coating provides remarkable corrosion resistance. The mechanisms for enhancing corrosion protective properties are discussed.

  6. Effects of concentration of Ag nanoparticles on surface structure and in vitro biological responses of oxide layer on pure titanium via plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ki Ryong; Kim, Yeon Sung; Kim, Gye Won [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 425-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hae Woong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Young Gun, E-mail: younggun@ynu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Hyuk, E-mail: dhshin@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 425-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Ag nanoparticles were embedded into the oxide surface without any compositional changes. • Oxide layer from the electrolyte with 0.1 g/l Ag nanoparticles could disinfect all bacteria. • With increasing Ag nanoparticles, bone-forming ability and cell proliferation rate decrease. - Abstract: This study was to investigate how Ag nanoparticles with various concentrations affect the surface structure and in vitro biological properties of oxide layers on the pure titanium produced by a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process. For this aim, PEO processes were carried out at an AC current density of 100 mA/cm{sup 2} for 300 s in potassium pyrophosphate (K{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}) electrolytes containing 0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 g/l Ag nanoparticles. Structural investigations using scanning electron microscopy evidenced that the oxide layers showed the successful incorporation of Ag nanoparticles, and the topographical deformation of the porous surface was found when the concentration of Ag nanoparticles was more than 0.1 g/l. Based on the anti-bacterial activity of all oxide layers, the Ag nanoparticles uniformly spread were of considerable importance in triggering the disinfection of E. coli bacteria. The bone forming abilities and cell (MC3T3-E1) proliferation rates of oxide layers produced in electrolytes containing 0 and 0.1 g/l Ag nanoparticles were higher than those containing 0.3 and 0.5 g/l Ag nanoparticles. Consequently, the oxide layer on pure titanium via PEO process in the electrolyte with 0.1 g/l Ag nanoparticles exhibited better the bioactivity accompanying the anti-bacterial activity.

  7. Influence of the biological conditions in the surface magnetic properties of nanocrystalline CoFeCrSiB ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fal-Miyar, V.; Cerdeira, M.A.; Garcia, J.A.; Tejedor, M.; Potatov, A.P.; Pierna, A.R.; Marzo, F.F.; Vara, G.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the result of a study of the influence of the biological conditions on the surface magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Co 64.5 Fe 2.5 Cr 3 B 15 Si 15 ribbons are presented and discussed. After the biological treatment the results show that, in the longitudinal direction, there is a hardening of the magnetic behavior and in the transverse direction the magnetization takes place in two steps. The surface saturation magnetization decreases in the treated samples. These results are explained considering the presence of magnetic oxides and non-conducting oxides on the surface of the treated samples

  8. Oxygen Reduction Kinetics Enhancement on a Heterostructured Oxide Surface for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Crumlin, Ethan J.

    2010-11-04

    Heterostructured interfaces of oxides, which can exhibit transport and reactivity characteristics remarkably different from those of bulk oxides, are interesting systems to explore in search of highly active cathodes for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, we show that the ORR of ∼85 nm thick La0.8Sr0.2CoO3-δ (LSC113) films prepared by pulsed laser deposition on (001)-oriented yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates is dramatically enhanced (∼3-4 orders of magnitude above bulk LSC113) by surface decorations of (La 0.5Sr0.5)2CoO4±δ (LSC214) with coverage in the range from ∼0.1 to ∼15 nm. Their surface and atomic structures were characterized by atomic force, scanning electron, and scanning transmission electron microscopy, and the ORR kinetics were determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Although the mechanism for ORR enhancement is not yet fully understood, our results to date show that the observed ORR enhancement can be attributed to highly active interfacial LSC113/LSC214 regions, which were shown to be atomically sharp. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  9. Oxygen Reduction Kinetics Enhancement on a Heterostructured Oxide Surface for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Crumlin, Ethan J.; Mutoro, Eva; Ahn, Sung-Jin; la O’ , Gerardo Jose; Leonard, Donovan N.; Borisevich, Albina; Biegalski, Michael D.; Christen, Hans M.; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Heterostructured interfaces of oxides, which can exhibit transport and reactivity characteristics remarkably different from those of bulk oxides, are interesting systems to explore in search of highly active cathodes for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, we show that the ORR of ∼85 nm thick La0.8Sr0.2CoO3-δ (LSC113) films prepared by pulsed laser deposition on (001)-oriented yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates is dramatically enhanced (∼3-4 orders of magnitude above bulk LSC113) by surface decorations of (La 0.5Sr0.5)2CoO4±δ (LSC214) with coverage in the range from ∼0.1 to ∼15 nm. Their surface and atomic structures were characterized by atomic force, scanning electron, and scanning transmission electron microscopy, and the ORR kinetics were determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Although the mechanism for ORR enhancement is not yet fully understood, our results to date show that the observed ORR enhancement can be attributed to highly active interfacial LSC113/LSC214 regions, which were shown to be atomically sharp. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. Factors influencing the cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles: particle size and surface charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, M; Kim, M K; Cho, H J; Lee, J A; Yu, J; Chung, H E; Choi, S J

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle is one of the most important materials in diverse applications, since it has UV light absorption, antimicrobial, catalytic, semi-conducting, and magnetic properties. However, there is little information about the toxicological effects of ZnO nanoparticles with respect to physicochemical properties. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the relationships between cytotoxicity and physicochemical properties of ZnO nanoparticle such as particle size and surface charge in human lung cells. Two different sizes of ZnO nanoparticles (20 and 70 nm) were prepared with positive (+) or negative (-) charge, and then, cytotoxicity of different ZnO nanoparticles was evaluated by measuring cell proliferation in short-term and long-term, membrane integrity, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results demonstrated that smaller particles exhibited high cytotoxic effects compared to larger particles in terms of inhibition of cell proliferation, membrane damage, and ROS generation. In addition, positively charged ZnO showed greater ROS production than ZnO with negative charge. These findings suggest that the cytoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles are strongly affected by their particle size and surface charge, highlighting the role of the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles to understand and predict their potential adverse effects on human.

  11. Factors influencing the cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles: particle size and surface charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, M; Kim, M K; Cho, H J; Lee, J A; Yu, J; Chung, H E; Choi, S J, E-mail: sjchoi@swu.ac.kr [Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul Women' s University, 126 Gongneung 2-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-774 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-06

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle is one of the most important materials in diverse applications, since it has UV light absorption, antimicrobial, catalytic, semi-conducting, and magnetic properties. However, there is little information about the toxicological effects of ZnO nanoparticles with respect to physicochemical properties. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the relationships between cytotoxicity and physicochemical properties of ZnO nanoparticle such as particle size and surface charge in human lung cells. Two different sizes of ZnO nanoparticles (20 and 70 nm) were prepared with positive (+) or negative (-) charge, and then, cytotoxicity of different ZnO nanoparticles was evaluated by measuring cell proliferation in short-term and long-term, membrane integrity, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results demonstrated that smaller particles exhibited high cytotoxic effects compared to larger particles in terms of inhibition of cell proliferation, membrane damage, and ROS generation. In addition, positively charged ZnO showed greater ROS production than ZnO with negative charge. These findings suggest that the cytoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles are strongly affected by their particle size and surface charge, highlighting the role of the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles to understand and predict their potential adverse effects on human.

  12. Iron-oxide colloidal nanoclusters: from fundamental physical properties to diagnosis and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulou, Athanasia; Brintakis, Konstantinos; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Angelakeris, Mavroeidis; Vasilakaki, Marianna; Trohidou, Kalliopi; Douvalis, Alexios P.; Psycharakis, Stylianos; Ranella, Anthi; Manna, Liberato; Lappas, Alexandros

    2014-03-01

    Research on magnetic nanocrystals attracts wide-spread interest because of their challenging fundamental properties, but it is also driven by problems of practical importance to the society, ranging from electronics (e.g. magnetic recording) to biomedicine. In that respect, iron oxides are model functional materials as they adopt a variety of oxidation states and coordinations that facilitate their use. We show that a promising way to engineer further their technological potential in diagnosis and therapy is the assembly of primary nanocrystals into larger colloidal entities, possibly with increased structural complexity. In this context, elevated-temperature nanochemistry (c.f. based on a polyol approach) permitted us to develop size-tunable, low-cytotoxicity iron-oxide nanoclusters, entailing iso-oriented nanocrystals, with enhanced magnetization. Experimental (magnetometry, electron microscopy, Mössbauer and NMR spectroscopies) results supported by Monte Carlo simulations are reviewed to show that such assemblies of surface-functionalized iron oxide nanocrystals have a strong potential for innovation. The clusters' optimized magnetic anisotropy (including microscopic surface spin disorder) and weak ferrimagnetism at room temperature, while they do not undermine colloidal stability, endow them a profound advantage as efficient MRI contrast agents and hyperthermic mediators with important biomedical potential.

  13. Ab Initio Calculations of Transport Properties of Vanadium Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Chiranjivi; Ravindra, N. M.

    2018-04-01

    The temperature-dependent transport properties of vanadium oxides have been studied near the Fermi energy using the Kohn-Sham band structure approach combined with Boltzmann transport equations. V2O5 exhibits significant thermoelectric properties, which can be attributed to its layered structure and stability. Highly anisotropic electrical conduction in V2O5 is clearly manifested in the calculations. Due to specific details of the band structure and anisotropic electron-phonon interactions, maxima and crossovers are also seen in the temperature-dependent Seebeck coefficient of V2O5. During the phase transition of VO2, the Seebeck coefficient changes by 18.9 µV/K, which is close to (within 10% of) the observed discontinuity of 17.3 µV/K.

  14. Study on the surface oxidation of uranium in different gaseous atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoling; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou

    1996-03-01

    The studying for the surface oxidation of uranium and oxide by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), and the surface oxidation of uranium in different gaseous atmospheres such as O 2 , H 2 , CO, CO 2 , H 2 O(v) and air were reviewed. The surface oxidation of uranium is greatly influenced by a number of parameters including atmospheric temperature, pressure, diffusion of adsorbed gas atoms through the oxide layer, surface and interface chemical component, and defect structure and electron nature of the oxide layer. The initial oxidation mechanism and kinetics have been discussed. Suggestions for future work have also been presented. (32 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.)

  15. Surface properties of activated carbon treated by cold plasma heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norikazu, Kurano [Shigematsu works Co. Ltd., 267 Yashita, Iwatsuki 3390046 (Japan); Yamada, Hiroshi [Shigematsu works Co. Ltd., 267 Yashita, Iwatsuki 3390046 (Japan); Yajima, Tatsuhiko [Faculty of Engineering, Saitama Institute of Technology, 1690 Fusoiji, Okabe 3690293 (Japan); Sugiyama, Kazuo [Faculty of Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-okubo, Sakura-Ku, Saitama 3388570 (Japan)]. E-mail: sugi@apc.saitama-u.ac.jp

    2007-03-12

    To modify the surface properties of activated carbon powders, we have applied the cold plasma treatment method. The cold plasma was used to be generated in the evacuated reactor vessel by 2.45 GHz microwave irradiation. In this paper, changes of surface properties such as distribution of acidic functional groups and roughness morphology were examined. By the cold plasma treatment, activated carbons with large specific surface area of ca. 2000 m{sup 2}/g or more could be prepared in a minute. The amount of every gaseous organic compound adsorbed on the unit gram of treated activated carbons was more increased that on the unit gram of untreated carbons. Especially, the adsorbed amount of carbon disulfide was remarkably increased even if it was compared by the amount per unit surface area. These results suggest that the surface property of the sample was modified by the plasma treatment. It became apparent by observing SEM photographs that dust and impure particles in macropores of activated carbons were far more reduced by the plasma treatment than by the conventional heating in an electric furnace under vacuum. In addition, a bubble-like surface morphology of the sample was observed by AEM measurement. The amount of acidic functional groups at the surface was determined by using the Boehm's titration method. Consequently, the increase of lactone groups and the decrease of carboxyl groups were also observed.

  16. Oxidative Stress to the Cornea, Changes in Corneal Optical Properties, and Advances in Treatment of Corneal Oxidative Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cestmir Cejka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in many ocular diseases and injuries. The imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favour of oxidants (oxidative stress leads to the damage and may be highly involved in ocular aging processes. The anterior eye segment and mainly the cornea are directly exposed to noxae of external environment, such as air pollution, radiation, cigarette smoke, vapors or gases from household cleaning products, chemical burns from splashes of industrial chemicals, and danger from potential oxidative damage evoked by them. Oxidative stress may initiate or develop ocular injury resulting in decreased visual acuity or even vision loss. The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases with particular attention to oxidative stress in the cornea and changes in corneal optical properties are discussed. Advances in the treatment of corneal oxidative injuries or diseases are shown.

  17. Recent advances in synthesis and surface modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodipo, Bashiru Kayode; Aziz, Azlan Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Research on synthesis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) and its surface modification for biomedical applications is of intense interest. Due to superparamagnetic property of SPION, the nanoparticles have large magnetic susceptibility, single magnetic domain and controllable magnetic behaviour. However, owing to easy agglomeration of SPION, surface modification of the magnetic particles with biocompatible materials such as silica nanoparticle has gained much attention in the last decade. In this review, we present recent advances in synthesis of SPION and various routes of producing silica coated SPION. - Highlights: • We present recent advances in synthesis of SPION and various routes of producing silica coated SPION • The synthetic routes of producing SPION can be classified into three: physical, chemical and biological methods. • The chemical method is the most cited method of producing SPION and it sub-classified into liquid and gas phase. • The techniques of producing silica coated SPION is grouped into seeded and non-seeded methods.

  18. Recent advances in synthesis and surface modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodipo, Bashiru Kayode, E-mail: bashirsodipo@gmail.com [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Nano-Biotechnology Research and Innovation (NanoBRI), Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Aziz, Azlan Abdul [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Nano-Biotechnology Research and Innovation (NanoBRI), Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2016-10-15

    Research on synthesis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) and its surface modification for biomedical applications is of intense interest. Due to superparamagnetic property of SPION, the nanoparticles have large magnetic susceptibility, single magnetic domain and controllable magnetic behaviour. However, owing to easy agglomeration of SPION, surface modification of the magnetic particles with biocompatible materials such as silica nanoparticle has gained much attention in the last decade. In this review, we present recent advances in synthesis of SPION and various routes of producing silica coated SPION. - Highlights: • We present recent advances in synthesis of SPION and various routes of producing silica coated SPION • The synthetic routes of producing SPION can be classified into three: physical, chemical and biological methods. • The chemical method is the most cited method of producing SPION and it sub-classified into liquid and gas phase. • The techniques of producing silica coated SPION is grouped into seeded and non-seeded methods.

  19. Behind the Nature of Titanium Oxide Excellent Surface Passivation and Carrier Selectivity of c-Si

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plakhotnyuk, Maksym; Crovetto, Andrea; Hansen, Ole

    We present an expanded study of the passivation properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) on p-type crystalline silicon (c-Si). We report a low surface recombination velocity (16 cm/s) for TiO2 passivation layers with a thin tunnelling oxide interlayer (SiO2 or Al2O3) on p-type crystalline silicon (c-Si......), and post-deposition annealing temperature were investigated. We have observed that that SiO2 and Al2O3 interlayers enhance the TiO2 passivation of c-Si. TiO2 thin film passivation layers alone result in lower effective carrier lifetime. Further annealing at 200  ̊C in N2 gas enhances the surface...

  20. Computer simulation of the structure and properties of non-crystalline oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belashchenko, D.K.

    1997-01-01

    The structure data and some properties of non-crystalline (liquid and amorphous) oxide systems are discussed that were obtained using computer simulation methods. The simple oxide models, the homological serii of simple oxides, the models of binary and multi-components oxide systems are considered. Also the results of the simulation of ionic transfer in electric field are discussed. Ionic theory of oxides allows to predict the structure, thermodynamic and other properties for many oxide systems except the phosphate and vanadate oxides and some others

  1. Structural and magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bojesen, A.; Timmermann, L.

    2002-01-01

    We present studies of the structural and magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles. alpha-Fe nanoparticles were fabricated by sputtering and subsequently covered with a protective nanocrystalline oxide shell consisting of either maghaemite (gamma-Fe2O3) or partially oxidized...... magnetite (Fe3O4). We observed that the nanoparticles were stable against further oxidation, and Mossbauer spectroscopy at high applied magnetic fields and low temperatures revealed a stable form of partly oxidized magnetite. The nanocrystalline structure of the oxide shell results in strong canting...... of the spin structure in the oxide shell, which thereby modifies the magnetic properties of the core-shell nanoparticles....

  2. Tuning the electronic properties at the surface of BaBiO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreyra, C. [GIyA y INN, CNEA, Av.Gral Paz 1499, (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, Facultad Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Guller, F.; Llois, A. M.; Vildosola, V. [GIyA y INN, CNEA, Av.Gral Paz 1499, (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Marchini, F.; Williams, F. J. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química-Física, INQUIMAE-CONICET, Facultad Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón 2, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lüders, U. [CRISMAT, CNRS UMR 6508, ENSICAEN, 6 Boulevard Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex 4 (France); Albornoz, C. [GIyA y INN, CNEA, Av.Gral Paz 1499, (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Leyva, A. G. [GIyA y INN, CNEA, Av.Gral Paz 1499, (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, UNSAM, Campus Miguelete, (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2016-06-15

    The presence of 2D electron gases at surfaces or interfaces in oxide thin films remains a hot topic in condensed matter physics. In particular, BaBiO{sub 3} appears as a very interesting system as it was theoretically proposed that its (001) surface should become metallic if a Bi-termination is achieved (Vildosola et al., PRL 110, 206805 (2013)). Here we report on the preparation by pulsed laser deposition and characterization of BaBiO{sub 3} thin films on silicon. We show that the texture of the films can be tuned by controlling the growth conditions, being possible to stabilize strongly (100)-textured films. We find significant differences on the spectroscopic and transport properties between (100)-textured and non-textured films. We rationalize these experimental results by performing first principles calculations, which indicate the existence of electron doping at the (100) surface. This stabilizes Bi ions in a 3+ state, shortens Bi-O bonds and reduces the electronic band gap, increasing the surface conductivity. Our results emphasize the importance of surface effects on the electronic properties of perovskites, and provide strategies to design novel oxide heterostructures with potential interface-related 2D electron gases.

  3. Modification of Textile Materials' Surface Properties Using Chemical Softener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita KOŽENIAUSKIENĖ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the effect of technological treatment involving the processes of washing or washing and softening with chemical cationic softener "Surcase" produced in Great Britain on the surface properties of cellulosic textile materials manufactured from cotton, bamboo and viscose spun yarns was investigated. The changes in textile materials surface properties were evaluated using KTU-Griff-Tester device and FEI Quanta 200 FEG scanning electron microscope (SEM. It was observed that the worst hand properties and the higher surface roughness are observed of cotton materials if compared with those of bamboo and viscose materials. Also, it was shown that depending on the material structure the handle parameters of knitted materials are the better than the ones of woven fabrics.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.1.249

  4. Investigation of the surface adsorption and biotribological properties of mucins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Busk

    to a surface. However, in other instances the inverse properties are desirable. Mucins are found on epithelial surfaces throughout the body and are a key component of the mucus barrier. Here, they facilitate friction reduction, thus lowering the impact of physical abrasions, but they also act as a physical...... charge due to the oligosaccharides being capped by negatively charged species such as sialic acid or sulphate groups. Mucins display phenotypic diversion according to their expression site. This is most pronounced in the oligosaccharide composition of the central domains. The amphiphilic nature of mucins...... and their aqueous lubrication properties have led to them being proposed as possible biocompatible lubricants. In this thesis, we investigate the biotribological properties of two commercially available mucins on the soft, elastomeric and hydrophobic surface of PDMS under different conditions. Due to the presence...

  5. Effective modification of particle surface properties using ultrasonic water mist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genina, Natalja; Räikkönen, Heikki; Heinämäki, Jyrki

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to design a new technique to modify particle surface properties and, through that, to improve flowability of poorly flowing drug thiamine hydrochloride and pharmaceutical sugar lactose monohydrate of two different grades. The powdered particles were supplied...... properties. It was found that rapid exposition of pharmaceutical materials by water mist resulted in the improvement of powder technical properties. The evident changes in flowability of coarser lactose were obviously due to smoothing of particle surface and decreasing in the level of fines with very slight...... increment in particle size. The changes in thiamine powder flow were mainly due to narrowing in particle size distribution where the tendency for better flow of finer lactose was related to surface and size modifications. The aqueous mist application did not cause any alteration of the crystal structures...

  6. Plasma immersion ion implantation of polyurethane shape memory polymer: Surface properties and protein immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xinying; Kondyurin, Alexey; Bao, Shisan; Bilek, Marcela M. M.; Ye, Lin

    2017-09-01

    Polyurethane-type shape memory polymers (SMPU) are promising biomedical implant materials due to their ability to recover to a predetermined shape from a temporary shape induced by thermal activation close to human body temperature and their advantageous mechanical properties including large recovery strains and low recovery stresses. Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) is a surface modification process using energetic ions that generates radicals in polymer surfaces leading to carbonisation and oxidation and the ability to covalently immobilise proteins without the need for wet chemistry. Here we show that PIII treatment of SMPU significantly enhances its bioactivity making SMPU suitable for applications in permanent implantable biomedical devices. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), contact angle measurements, surface energy measurements, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterise the PIII modified surface, including its after treatment aging kinetics and its capability to covalently immobilise protein directly from solution. The results show a substantial improvement in wettability and dramatic changes of surface chemical composition dependent on treatment duration, due to the generation of radicals and subsequent oxidation. The SMPU surface, PIII treated for 200s, achieved a saturated level of covalently immobilized protein indicating that a full monolayer coverage was achieved. We conclude that PIII is a promising and efficient surface modification method to enhance the biocompatibility of SMPU for use in medical applications that demand bioactivity for tissue integration and stability in vivo.

  7. Piezoelectric properties of zinc oxide nanowires: an ab initio study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korir, K K; Cicero, G; Catellani, A

    2013-11-29

    Nanowires made of materials with non-centrosymmetric crystal structures are expected to be ideal building blocks for self-powered nanodevices due to their piezoelectric properties, yet a controversial explanation of the effective operational mechanisms and size effects still delays their real exploitation. To solve this controversy, we propose a methodology based on DFT calculations of the response of nanostructures to external deformations that allows us to distinguish between the different (bulk and surface) contributions: we apply this scheme to evaluate the piezoelectric properties of ZnO [0001] nanowires, with a diameter up to 2.3 nm. Our results reveal that, while surface and confinement effects are negligible, effective strain energies, and thus the nanowire mechanical response, are dependent on size. Our unified approach allows for a proper definition of piezoelectric coefficients for nanostructures, and explains in a rigorous way the reason why nanowires are found to be more sensitive to mechanical deformation than the corresponding bulk material.

  8. Properties of zinc oxide at low and moderate temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashkarev, G.V.; Karpina, V.A.; Lazorenko, V.I.; Evtushenko, A.I.; Shteplyuk, I.I.; Khranovskij, V.D.

    2011-01-01

    The properties of zinc oxide as an analogue of gallium nitride are considered in a wide temperature range and the field of its potential applications. The economic and ecologic benefits as well as radiation resistivity of ZnO in comparison with Group III nitrides are indicated. Methods of growth of films and nanostructures of high crystal perfection are proposed. In particular, a magnetron method for layer growth of films is implemented which permits to realize their high structural perfection and considerable thickness inappropriate to some other methods. It is shown that monochromatic UV light may be obtained on excitation of films by short-wave radiation and electrons. This makes it possible to use them in the sources of short-wave radiation. The effectiveness of field emission for ZnO nanostructures and films is demonstrated which opens the prospect for their use in vacuum microelectronics devices. In particular, a phototransistor based on ZnO films doped with nitrogen was fabricated the photosensitivity of which was two orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional detectors. The physical basis of creating blue, green LEDs based on zinc oxide film and its solid solutions with CdO are outlined. The importance of active research in physics, and production procedures of zinc oxide-based devices is underlined.

  9. The acidic properties of mixed tin and antimony oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, E.A.; Taylor, D.

    1978-01-01

    The acidic properties of mixed tin + antimony oxide catalysts were studied in the isomerization of 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene, cyclopropane, 1-butene, and cis-2-butene and the dehydration of isopropanol over the mixed oxides outgassed at room temperature and 698/sup 0/K. Only the zero-order portions of the reaction were used for calculations. With catalysts outgassed at room temperature, weakly acidic sites were present, and all the reactions probably occurred by a carbonium ion mechanism with Broensted acid sites as a source of protons. The rates increased with increasing antimony content to a maximum at approx. 50 at. % and then decreased with further increase in the antimony content. Outgassing of the catalysts at 698/sup 0/K increased the isomerization rate of 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene, but decreased those for cyclopropane and isopropanol due to poisoning by the propylene produced. For 1-butene and cis-2-butene and catalysts outgassed at 698/sup 0/K, only catalysts with less than 50Vertical Bar3< antimony were active. The catalysts were poisoned by treatment with bases or with sodium acetate. A proposed correlation between rates and acidity led to the conclusion that the catalyst composition corresponding to maximum acidity differs from that for maximum selective oxidation activity. Graphs and 10 references.

  10. Ozone and the oxidizing properties of the troposphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megie, G.

    1996-01-01

    This article is about the rising concentration of ozone and photo-oxidizers observed in the troposphere, the atmosphere between the ground and a height of 10 to 15 km. This serious global environmental problem has up to now been less well known than the greenhouse effect or the decrease in stratospheric ozone. This is because it varies with time and place and involves many complicated physico-chemical and atmospheric processes. At our latitudes, the average ozone concentration in the air we breathe has quadrupled since the beginning of this century. In polluted areas it often exceeds the recommended norms. This increase in ozone concentrations in the lower atmosphere directly reflects the impact of man-made emissions of compounds like methane, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides. Sunlight acts on these compounds to form ozone via complicated chemical reactions. This change in oxidizing properties of the troposphere is beginning produce perceptible effects on vegetable production, human health and climate. (author). 24 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Preparation of self-organized porous anodic niobium oxide microcones and their surface wettability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Y.; Minami, T.; Mayama, H.; Tsujii, K.; Fushimi, K.; Aoki, Y.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.; Habazaki, H.

    2009-01-01

    Porous anodic niobium oxide with a pore size of ∼10 nm was formed at 10 V in glycerol electrolyte containing 0.6 mol dm -3 K 2 HPO 4 and 0.2 mol dm -3 K 3 PO 4 at 433 K. After prolonged anodizing for 5.4 ks, niobium oxide microcones develop on the surface. X-ray diffraction patterns of the anodized specimens revealed that the initially formed anodic oxide is amorphous, but an amorphous-to-crystalline transition occurs during anodizing. As a consequence of the preferential chemical dissolution of the initially formed amorphous oxide, due to different solubility of the amorphous and crystalline oxides, crystalline oxide microcones appear on the film surface after prolonged anodizing. The surface is superhydrophilic. After coating with fluorinated alkylsilane, the surface becomes superhydrophobic with a contact angle of 158 o for water. The surface is also oil repellent, with a contact angle as high as 140 o for salad oil.

  12. An investigation on high-temperature electrical transport properties of graphene-oxide nano-thinfilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, Gunasekaran; Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2013-01-01

    High-temperature electrical transport properties are investigated for graphene-oxide nano thinfilms. The graphene-oxide nanoparticles are synthesized by modified Hummers method and characterized by UV–vis, Raman and X-ray diffraction techniques. The surface morphology of graphene-oxide film is analyzed using scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. The experimental results on high-temperature electrical studies of thinfilms exhibit metallic behavior followed by three-dimensional variable range hopping mechanism. The current–voltage characteristics at various temperatures (from 293 K to 573 K) were investigated. The effect of high-temperature on the functional groups of graphene-oxide film is evidently examined using X-ray photoelectron, thermal gravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Transistor characteristics were performed after heat treatment resulting ambipolar behavior with holes and electron mobility of 127 and 66.9 cm 2 V −1 s −1 respectively. Our results are comparable to reduced graphene-oxide, indicating the advantage of our approach requires no further reduction to develop graphene-based transparent and conductive electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells and ultra-capacitor applications.

  13. Determination of Surface Properties of Liquid Transition Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, S. D.

    2008-01-01

    Certain surface properties of liquid simple metals are reported. Using the expression derived by Gosh and coworkers we investigated the surface entropy of liquid transition metals namely Fe, Co and Ni. We have also computed surface tensions of the metals concerned. The pair distribution functions are calculated from the solution of Ornstein-Zernike integral equation with Rogers-Young closure using the individual version of the electron-ion potential proposed by Fioalhais and coworkers which was originally developed for solid state. The predicted values of surface tension and surface entropy are in very good agreement with available experimental data. The present study results show that the expression derived by Gosh and coworkers is very useful for the surface entropy by using Fioalhais pseudopotential and Rogers-Young closure

  14. Structural and optical properties of electrodeposited molybdenum oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, R.S.; Uplane, M.D.; Patil, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    Electrosynthesis of Mo(IV) oxide thin films on F-doped SnO 2 conducting glass (10-20/Ω/□) substrates were carried from aqueous alkaline solution of ammonium molybdate at room temperature. The physical characterization of as-deposited films carried by thermogravimetric/differential thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA), infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the formation of hydrous and amorphous MoO 2 . Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a smooth but cracked surface with multi-layered growth. Annealing of these films in dry argon at 450 deg. C for 1 h resulted into polycrystalline MoO 2 with crystallites aligned perpendicular to the substrate. Optical absorption study indicated a direct band gap of 2.83 eV. The band gap variation consistent with Moss rule and band gap narrowing upon crystallization was observed. Structure tailoring of as-deposited thin films by thermal oxidation in ambient air to obtain electrochromic Mo(VI) oxide thin films was exploited for the first time by this novel route. The results of this study will be reported elsewhere

  15. Optical properties of tungsten oxide thin films by non-reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Riech, I.

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten oxide thin films were grown on glass substrates by RF sputtering at room temperature using a tungsten trioxide target for several values of the Argon pressure (PAr). The structural and morphological properties of these films were studied using X-ray diffraction and Atomic Force Microscopy. The as-deposited films were amorphous irrespective of the Argon pressure, and crystallized in a mixture of hexagonal and monoclinic phases after annealing at a temperature of 3500 C in air. Surface-Roughness increased by an order of magnitude (from 1 nm to 20 nm) after thermal treatment. The Argon pressure, however, had a strong influence on the optical properties of the films. Three different regions are clearly identified: deep blue films for PAr 40 mTorr with high transmittance values. We suggest that the observed changes in optical properties are due to an increasing number of Oxygen vacancies as the growth Argon pressure decreases. (Full text)

  16. Direct comparison of the electrical properties in metal/oxide/nitride/oxide/silicon and metal/aluminum oxide/nitride/oxide/silicon capacitors with equivalent oxide thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Ho-Myoung; Seo, Yu Jeong; Kim, Hee Dong; Kim, Kyoung Chan; Kim, Jong-Guk [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Won-Ju; Koh, Jung-Hyuk [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Yun Mo [Department of Materials and Science Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Geun, E-mail: tgkim1@korea.ac.k [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-31

    We examine the electrical properties of metal/oxide/nitride/oxide/silicon (MONOS) capacitors with two different blocking oxides, SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, under the influence of the same electric field. The thickness of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer is set to 150 A, which is electrically equivalent to a thickness of the SiO{sub 2} layer of 65 A, in the MONOS structure for this purpose. The capacitor with the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} blocking layer shows a larger capacitance-voltage memory window of 8.6 V, lower program voltage of 7 V, faster program/erase speeds of 10 ms/1 {mu}s, lower leakage current of 100 pA and longer data retention than the one with the SiO{sub 2} blocking layer does. These improvements are attributed to the suppression of the carrier transport to the gate electrode afforded by the use of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} blocking layer physically thicker than the SiO{sub 2} one, as well as the effective charge-trapping by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at the deep energy levels in the nitride layer.

  17. Annealing induced structural evolution and electrochromic properties of nanostructured tungsten oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ching-Lin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Chung-Kwei [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei City 110, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Chun-Kai [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Sheng-Chang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University, Tainan 710, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Jow-Lay, E-mail: JLH888@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 81148, Taiwan, ROC (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-12-31

    The effect of microstructure on the optical and electrochemical properties of nanostructured tungsten oxide films was evaluated as a function of annealing temperature. The films using block copolymer as the template were prepared from peroxotungstic acid (PTA) by spin-coating onto the substrate and post-annealed at 250–400 °C to form tungsten oxide films with nanostructure. The microstructure of the films was measured by X-ray diffraction and surface electron microscopy. The films annealed at temperatures below 300 °C are characterized by amorphous or nanocrystalline structures with a pore size of less than 10 nm. The evaluated annealing temperature caused a triclinic crystalline structure and microcracks. Cyclic voltammetry measurements were performed in a LiClO{sub 4}-propylene carbonate electrolyte. The results showed that the ion inserted capacity were maximized for films annealed at 300 °C and decreased with the increasing of annealing temperature. The electrochromic properties of the nanostructured tungsten oxide films were evaluated simultaneously by potentiostat and UV–vis spectroscopy. The films annealed at 300 °C exhibit high transmission modulation (∆T ∼ 40%) at λ = 633 nm and good kinetic properties. As a result, the correlation between the microstructure and kinetic properties was established, and the electrochromic properties have been demonstrated. - Highlights: • Surfactant-assisted WO{sub 3} films have been prepared by sol–gel method. • Nanostructure of porous WO{sub 3} film is retained after crystallization. • Kinetic properties of WO{sub 3} can be improved by nanostructure and crystallinity.

  18. Optoelectronic properties of valence-state-controlled amorphous niobium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozato, Takaki; Katase, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Katayama, Shota; Matsushima, Koichi; Itagaki, Naho; Yoshida, Hisao; Ohta, Hiromichi

    2016-06-01

    In order to understand the optoelectronic properties of amorphous niobium oxide (a-NbO x ), we have investigated the valence states, local structures, electrical resistivity, and optical absorption of a-NbO x thin films with various oxygen contents. It was found that the valence states of Nb ion in a-NbO x films can be controlled from 5+  to 4+  by reducing oxygen pressure during film deposition at room temperature, together with changing the oxide-ion arrangement around Nb ion from Nb2O5-like to NbO2-like local structure. As a result, a four orders of magnitude reduction in the electrical resistivity of a-NbO x films was observed with decreasing oxygen content, due to the carrier generation caused by the appearance and increase of an oxygen-vacancy-related subgap state working as an electron donor. The tunable optoelectronic properties of a-NbO x films by valence-state-control with oxygen-vacancy formation will be useful for potential flexible optoelectronic device applications.

  19. Altering properties of cerium oxide thin films by Rh doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ševčíková, Klára; Nehasil, Václav; Vorokhta, Mykhailo; Haviar, Stanislav; Matolín, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thin films of ceria doped by rhodium deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. • Concentration of rhodium has great impact on properties of Rh–CeO x thin films. • Intensive oxygen migration in films with low concentration of rhodium. • Oxygen migration suppressed in films with high amount of Rh dopants. - Abstract: Ceria containing highly dispersed ions of rhodium is a promising material for catalytic applications. The Rh–CeO x thin films with different concentrations of rhodium were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and were studied by soft and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, Temperature programmed reaction and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The sputtered films consist of rhodium–cerium mixed oxide where cerium exhibits a mixed valency of Ce 4+ and Ce 3+ and rhodium occurs in two oxidation states, Rh 3+ and Rh n+ . We show that the concentration of rhodium has a great influence on the chemical composition, structure and reducibility of the Rh–CeO x thin films. The films with low concentrations of rhodium are polycrystalline, while the films with higher amount of Rh dopants are amorphous. The morphology of the films strongly influences the mobility of oxygen in the material. Therefore, varying the concentration of rhodium in Rh–CeO x thin films leads to preparing materials with different properties

  20. SUS 321 HTB boiler tubing with fire grained internal surface resistant to steam-induced oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanero, Takahiro; Minami, Yuusuke; Kodera, Toshihide

    1981-01-01

    Considerable amount of scale is produced by high temperature steam on the austenitic stainless steel tubes used for the superheaters and reheaters of large boilers for power generation. The scale of outer layer separates off due to the thermal stress at the time of starting-up and stopping, and causes the blocking of pipes and the erosion of turbine blades. Following the increase of nuclear power generation, large boilers are used for medium load, accordingly it is expected that the troubles like these increase. In this paper, the manufacturing method and the properties of SUS 321 HTB with fine grain internal surface are reported, which was developed to reduce the rate of growth of scale and to prevent the separation of scale. In order to prevent the separation of scale from austenitic stainless steel tubes, the reduction of scale thickness, surface treatment such as chrome plating, the use of alloys with excellent oxidation resistance, the formation of chrome-rich film rapidly, the heat treatment of cold-worked tubes and so on were carried out. The nitrification of SUS 321 H steel brought about two-phase structure of the fine grain internal surface with excellent oxidation resistance and the rest of coarse grains with high creep strength. (Kako, I.)

  1. The chemical and catalytic properties of nanocrystalline metal oxides prepared through modified sol-gel synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Corrie Leigh

    The goal of this research was to synthesize, characterize and study the chemical properties of nanocrystalline metal oxides. Nanocrystalline (NC) ZnO, CuO, NiO, Al2O3, and the binary Al2O 3/MgO and ZnO/CuO were prepared through modified sol gel methods. These NC metal oxides were studied in comparison to the commercial (CM) metal oxides. The samples were characterized by XRD, TGA, FTIR, BET, and TEM. The NC samples were all accompanied by a significant increase in surface area and decrease in crystallite size. Several chemical reactions were studied to compare the NC samples to the CM samples. One of the reactions involved a high temperature reaction between carbon tetrachloride and the oxide to form carbon dioxide and the corresponding metal chloride. A similar high temperature reaction was conducted between the metal oxide and hydrogen sulfide to form water and the corresponding metal sulfide. A room temperature gas phase adsorption was studied where SO2 was adsorbed onto the oxide. A liquid phase adsorption conducted at room temperature was the destructive adsorption of paraoxon (a toxic insecticide). In all reactions the NC samples exhibited greater activity, destroying or adsorbing a larger amount of the toxins compared to the CM samples. To better study surface area effects catalytic reactions were also studied. The catalysis of methanol was studied over the nanocrystalline ZnO, CuO, NiO, and ZnO/CuO samples in comparison to their commercial counterparts. In most cases the NC samples proved to be more active catalysts, having higher percent conversions and turnover numbers. A second catalytic reaction was also studied, this reaction was investigated to look at the support effects. The catalysis of cyclopropane to propane was studied over Pt and Co catalysts. These catalysts were supported onto NC and CM alumina by impregnation. By observing differences in the catalytic behavior, support effects have become apparent.

  2. The surface properties of biopolymer-coated fruit: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cristina Moncayo Martinez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental conservation concerns have led to research and development regarding biodegradable materials from biopolymers, leading to new formulations for edible films and coatings for preserving the quality of fresh fruit and vegetables. Determining fruit skin surface properties for a given coating solution has led to predicting coating efficiency. Wetting was studied by considering spreading, adhesion and cohesion and measuring the contact angle, thus optimising the coating formulation in terms of biopolymer, plasticiser, surfactant, antimicrobial and antioxidant concentration. This work reviews the equations for determining fruit surface properties by using polar and dispersive interaction calculations and by determining the contact angle.

  3. Relationships among oxidation-reduction and acid-base properties of the actinides in high oxidation states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morss, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    The first chemical identification of plutonium, its subsequent isolation on the macroscopic scale, and more recent chemical separation schemes were achieved by taking advantage of the differences among the oxidation states of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium. Many acid-base properties modify the relative stabilities of oxidation states of the actinides. In the solid state, strongly basic compounds such as Cs 2 O yield complex oxides with oxidation states of Np(VII), Pu(VI), and Am(VI) whereas more acidic compounds such as CsF yield complex fluorides with lower oxidation states. In aqueous solution, high basicity and strongly covalent complexes favor high oxidation states. In nonaqueous solvent systems, high acidity generally favors low oxidation states. This paper elucidates and attempts to interpret the effects of these acid-base properties in a systematic fashion

  4. Parametric surface and properties defined on parallelogrammic domain

    OpenAIRE

    Shuqian Fan; Jinsong Zou; Mingquan Shi

    2014-01-01

    Similar to the essential components of many mechanical systems, the geometrical properties of the teeth of spiral bevel gears greatly influence the kinematic and dynamic behaviors of mechanical systems. Logarithmic spiral bevel gears show a unique advantage in transmission due to their constant spiral angle property. However, a mathematical model suitable for accurate digital modeling, differential geometrical characteristics, and related contact analysis methods for tooth surfaces have not b...

  5. Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruma,; Yoshihara, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R.; Sakugawa, T.; Akiyama, H.; Akiyama, M.; Lukeš, P.

    2014-01-01

    The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000 Hz, with 0.5 J per pulse energy output at 25 kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H 2 O 2 and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

  6. Enhancing the Properties of Carbon and Gold Substrates by Surface Modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnisch, Jennifer Anne [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The properties of both carbon and gold substrates are easily affected by the judicious choice of a surface modification protocol. Several such processes for altering surface composition have been published in literature. The research presented in this thesis primarily focuses on the development of on-column methods to modify carbon stationary phases used in electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC). To this end, both porous graphitic carbon (PGC) and glassy carbon (GC) particles have been modified on-column by the electroreduction of arenediazonium salts and the oxidation of arylacetate anions (the Kolbe reaction). Once modified, the carbon stationary phases show enhanced chromatographic performance both in conventional liquid chromatographic columns and EMLC columns. Additionally, one may also exploit the creation of aryl films to by electroreduction of arenediazonium salts in the creation of nanostructured materials. The formation of mercaptobenzene film on the surface of a GC electrode provides a linking platform for the chemisorption of gold nanoparticles. After deposition of nanoparticles, the surface chemistry of the gold can be further altered by self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formation via the chemisorption of a second thiol species. Finally, the properties of gold films can be altered such that they display carbon-like behavior through the formation of benzenehexathiol (BHT) SAMs. BHT chemisorbs to the gold surface in a previously unprecedented planar fashion. Carbon and gold substrates can be chemically altered by several methodologies resulting in new surface properties. The development of modification protocols and their application in the analytical arena is considered herein.

  7. Electronic Structure of the Perylene / Zinc Oxide Interface: A Computational Study of Photoinduced Electron Transfer and Impact of Surface Defects

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingrui

    2015-07-29

    The electronic properties of dye-sensitized semiconductor surfaces consisting of pery- lene chromophores chemisorbed on zinc oxide via different spacer-anchor groups, have been studied at the density-functional-theory level. The energy distributions of the donor states and the rates of photoinduced electron transfer from dye to surface are predicted. We evaluate in particular the impact of saturated versus unsaturated aliphatic spacer groups inserted between the perylene chromophore and the semiconductor as well as the influence of surface defects on the electron-injection rates.

  8. Electronic Structure of the Perylene / Zinc Oxide Interface: A Computational Study of Photoinduced Electron Transfer and Impact of Surface Defects

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingrui; Li, Hong; Winget, Paul; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The electronic properties of dye-sensitized semiconductor surfaces consisting of pery- lene chromophores chemisorbed on zinc oxide via different spacer-anchor groups, have been studied at the density-functional-theory level. The energy distributions of the donor states and the rates of photoinduced electron transfer from dye to surface are predicted. We evaluate in particular the impact of saturated versus unsaturated aliphatic spacer groups inserted between the perylene chromophore and the semiconductor as well as the influence of surface defects on the electron-injection rates.

  9. Multifunctional surface modification of silk fabric via graphene oxide repeatedly coating and chemical reduction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiliang; Wang, Chaoxia

    2017-05-01

    Multifunctional silk fabrics with electrical conductive, anti-ultraviolet and water repellent were successfully prepared by surface modification with graphene oxide (GO). The yellow-brown GO deposited on the surface of silk fabric was converted into graphitic black reduced graphene (RGO) by sodium hydrosulfite. The surface properties of silk fabrics were changed by repeatedly RGO coating process, which have been proved by SEM and XPS. The SEM results showed that the RGO sheets were successive form a continuously thin film on the surface of silk fabrics, and the deposition of GO or RGO also can be proved by XPS. The electrical conductivity was tested by electrical surface resistance value of the silk fabric, the surface resistance decreased with increasing of RGO surface modification times, and a low surface resistance value reached to 3.24 KΩ cm-1 after 9 times of modification, indicating the silk obtained excellent conductivity. The UPF value of one time GO modification silk fabric (silk-1RGO) was enhanced significantly to 24.45 in comparison to 10.40 of original silk. The contact angle of RGO coating silk samples was all above of 120°. The durability of RGO coated silk fabrics was tested by laundering. The electrical surface resistance of silk-4RGO (65.74 KΩ cm-1), silk-6RGO (15.54 KΩ cm-1) and silk-8RGO (3.86 KΩ cm-1) fabrics was up to 86.82, 22.30 and 6.57 KΩ cm-1 after 10 times of standard washing, respectively. The UPF value, contact angle and color differences of RGO modified silk fabric slightly changed before and after 10 times of standard washing. Therefore, the washing fastness of electric conduction, anti-ultraviolet and water repellent multifunctional silk fabrics was excellent.

  10. Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization improves oxidative stability and interfacial properties of soy protein isolate-stabilized emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Avila, C; Trujillo, A J

    2016-10-15

    Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization (100-300MPa) has great potential for technological, microbiological and nutritional aspects of fluid processing. Its effect on the oxidative stability and interfacial properties of oil-in-water emulsions prepared with 4% (w/v) of soy protein isolate and soybean oil (10 and 20%, v/v) were studied and compared to emulsions treated by conventional homogenization (15MPa). Emulsions were characterized by particle size, emulsifying activity index, surface protein concentration at the interface and by transmission electron microscopy. Primary and secondary lipid oxidation products were evaluated in emulsions upon storage. Emulsions with 20% oil treated at 100 and 200MPa exhibited the most oxidative stability due to higher amount of oil and protein surface load at the interface. This manuscript addresses the improvement in oxidative stability in emulsions treated by UHPH when compared to conventional emulsions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study on the surface oxidation resistance of uranium metal in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaolin; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou

    1999-01-01

    The surface reactions of different layers on uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 25, 80 and 200 degree C are studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The experimental results show that the carbon monoxide is adsorbed on the surface oxide layer of uranium and interacted each other. The content of oxygen in the surface oxide and O/U ratio are decreased with increasing the exposure of carbon monoxide to the surface layer. The effect of reduction on the metal surface is more obviously with a higher temperature and increasing of layer thickness. The investigation indicates the uranium metal has resistance to further oxidation in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide

  12. Improved the Surface Roughness of Silicon Nanophotonic Devices by Thermal Oxidation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Zujun; Shao Shiqian; Wang Yi, E-mail: ywangwnlo@mail.hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Street, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-02-01

    The transmission loss of the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide and the coupling loss of the SOI grating are determined to a large extent by the surface roughness. In order to obtain smaller loss, thermal oxidation is a good choice to reduce the surface roughness of the SOI waveguide and grating. Before the thermal oxidation, the root mean square of the surface roughness is over 11 nm. After the thermal oxidation, the SEM figure shows that the bottom of the grating is as smooth as quartz surface, while the AFM shows that the root mean square of the surface is less than 5 nm.

  13. Influence of surface roughness on the friction property of textured surface

    OpenAIRE

    Yuankai Zhou; Hua Zhu; Wenqian Zhang; Xue Zuo; Yan Li; Jianhua Yang

    2015-01-01

    In contrast with dimple textures, surface roughness is a texture at the micro-scale, essentially which will influence the load-bearing capacity of lubricant film. The numerical simulation was carried out to investigate the influence of surface roughness on friction property of textured surface. The lubricant film pressure was obtained using the method of computational fluid dynamics according to geometric model of round dimple, and the renormalization-group k–ε turbulent model was adopted in ...

  14. XPS study of vanadium surface oxidation by oxygen ion bombardment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alov, N.; Kutsko, D.; Spirovová, Ilona; Bastl, Zdeněk

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 600, č. 8 (2006), s. 1628-1631 ISSN 0039-6028 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/04/0467 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : vanadium oxide * oxide film * ion-beam oxidation * X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.880, year: 2006

  15. Theoretical aspects of studies of oxide and semiconductor surfaces using low energy positrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazleev, N. G.; Maddox, W. B.; Weiss, A. H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a theoretical study of positron surface and bulk states and annihilation characteristics of surface trapped positrons at the oxidized Cu(100) single crystal and at both As- and Ga-rich reconstructed GaAs(100) surfaces. The variations in atomic structure and chemical composition of the topmost layers of the surfaces associated with oxidation and reconstructions and the charge redistribution at the surfaces are found to affect localization and spatial extent of the positron surface-state wave functions. The computed positron binding energy, work function, and annihilation characteristics reveal their sensitivity to charge transfer effects, atomic structure and chemical composition of the topmost layers of the surfaces. Theoretical positron annihilation probabilities with relevant core electrons computed for the oxidized Cu(100) surface and the As- and Ga-rich reconstructed GaAs(100) surfaces are compared with experimental ones estimated from the positron annihilation induced Auger peak intensities measured from these surfaces.

  16. Fabrication of multicolor fluorescent polyvinyl alcohol through surface modification with conjugated polymers by oxidative polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Thien An Phung; Sugimoto, Ryuichi

    2018-06-01

    A simple method for the preparation of multicolor polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) by chemical oxidative polymerization is introduced. The PVA surface was successfully modified with conjugated polymers composed of 3-hexylthiophene (3HT) and fluorene (F). The incorporation of the 3HT/F copolymer onto the PVA surface was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), and fluorescence spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction (XRD), as well as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), contact angle, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Different 3HT/F ratios on the PVA surface result in optical properties that include multicolor-emission and absorption behavior. The color of the resultant (3HT/F)-g-PVA shifted from red to blue, and the quantum yield increased with increasing F content. The surface hydrophobicity of the modified PVA increased significantly through grafting with the conjugated polymers, with the water contact angle increasing by 30° compared to pristine PVA. The PVA XRD peaks were less intense following surface modification. Thermogravimetric analyses reveal that the thermal stability of the PVA decreases as a result of grafting with the 3HT/F copolymers.

  17. Surface morphology study on chromium oxide growth on Cr films by Nd-YAG laser oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Qizhi; Hu Jiandong; Guo Zuoxing; Lian Jianshe; Chen Jiwei; Chen Bo

    2002-01-01

    Grain sized (60-100 nm) Cr 2 O 3 thin films were prepared on Cr thin film surfaces by Nd-YAG laser photothermal oxidation process. Surface morphology study showed crack-free short plateau-like oxide films formed. Increase of dislocation density after pulsed laser irradiation was found. Thin film external surfaces, grain boundaries and dislocations are main paths of laser surface oxidatio