WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface orbital availability

  1. Optimal selection of Orbital Replacement Unit on-orbit spares - A Space Station system availability model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaab, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    A mathematical programing model is presented to optimize the selection of Orbital Replacement Unit on-orbit spares for the Space Station. The model maximizes system availability under the constraints of logistics resupply-cargo weight and volume allocations.

  2. Scalable Lunar Surface Networks and Adaptive Orbit Access, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative network architecture, protocols, and algorithms are proposed for both lunar surface networks and orbit access networks. Firstly, an overlaying...

  3. Mechanisms available for cooling plants’ surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorov Alexey Anatolievich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay briefly touches upon the main mechanisms to cool down the plats’ surfaces that lead to condensation of atmospheric moisture; methods for experimental verification of these mechanisms are presented therein.

  4. Scalable Lunar Surface Networks and Adaptive Orbit Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    Teranovi Technologies, Inc., has developed innovative network architecture, protocols, and algorithms for both lunar surface and orbit access networks. A key component of the overall architecture is a medium access control (MAC) protocol that includes a novel mechanism of overlaying time division multiple access (TDMA) and carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA), ensuring scalable throughput and quality of service. The new MAC protocol is compatible with legacy Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 networks. Advanced features include efficiency power management, adaptive channel width adjustment, and error control capability. A hybrid routing protocol combines the advantages of ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing and disruption/delay-tolerant network (DTN) routing. Performance is significantly better than AODV or DTN and will be particularly effective for wireless networks with intermittent links, such as lunar and planetary surface networks and orbit access networks.

  5. Exploring Mercury's Surface in UltraViolet from Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenberg, N.

    2017-12-01

    The MESSENGER Mission's Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) component of its Mercury Atmosphere and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) instrument obtained approximately 4600 point observations of Mercury's surface in middle ultraviolet (MUV; 210 nm - 300 nm) and far ultraviolet (FUV; 119.1 - 122.5 nm and 129.2 - 131.5 nm) wavelengths over the course of its orbital mission, mostly in Mercury's southern hemisphere. Given the very low (UV surface reflectance and parameters appear to support the presence of varying amounts of carbon in different spectral or geologic units on Mercury. Far-UV reflectance data is currently under-utilized, but analysis of lunar surface by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) indicate that the data are sensitive to both composition and space weathering. The far-UV reflectance from MASCS may provide similar information for the Mercury surface, complementing results from longer wavelengths. MESSENGER data products for surface reflectance include middle-UV reflectance spectra, ultraviolet far-UV reflectance values, combined middle-UV through near-infrared spectra (210 nm - 1450 nm), a global `spectral cube' of near-UV to near-IR, and an upcoming UV spectral cube.

  6. Mars Surface Change Detection from Multi-temporal Orbital Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di, Kaichang; Liu, Yiliang; Hu, Wenmin; Yue, Zongyu; Liu, Zhaoqin

    2014-01-01

    A vast amount of Mars images have been acquired by orbital missions in recent years. With the increase of spatial resolution to metre and decimetre levels, fine-scale geological features can be identified, and surface change detection is possible because of multi-temporal images. This study briefly reviews detectable changes on the Mars surface, including new impact craters, gullies, dark slope streaks, dust devil tracks and ice caps. To facilitate fast and efficient change detection for subsequent scientific investigations, a featured-based change detection method is developed based on automatic image registration, surface feature extraction and difference information statistics. Experimental results which use multi-temporal images demonstrate the promising potential of the proposed method

  7. Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Guochang

    2008-01-01

    This is the first book of the satellite era which describes orbit theory with analytical solutions of the second order with respect to all possible disturbances. Based on such theory, the algorithms of orbits determination are completely revolutionized.

  8. Tropical sea surface temperatures and the earth's orbital eccentricity cycles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, S.M.; Fernandes, A.A.; Mohan, R.

    cyclicities at ~100- and ~400-ka corresponding to the Earth's orbital eccentricity cycles. Results, therefore imply that the tropical Indian Ocean warm pool persisted during the Quaternary and the paleo-SSTs fluctuating at the orbital eccentricity frequencies...

  9. Orbital

    OpenAIRE

    Yourshaw, Matthew Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Orbital is a virtual reality gaming experience designed to explore the use of traditional narrative structure to enhance immersion in virtual reality. The story structure of Orbital was developed based on the developmental steps of 'The Hero's Journey,' a narrative pattern identified by Joseph Campbell. Using this standard narrative pattern, Orbital is capable of immersing the player quickly and completely for the entirety of play time. MFA

  10. Persistent aeolian activity at Endeavour crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars; new observations from orbit and the surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Matthew; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Moersch, Jeffrey E.; Fenton, Lori K.; Michaels, Timothy I.; Bell, James F., III

    2015-05-01

    Aeolian-driven bedform activity is now known to occur in many regions of Mars, based on surface and orbital observation of contemporary martian ripple and dune mobility events. Many of these sites have only been monitored with sufficient resolution data for the last few Mars years, when the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) began acquiring images of Mars. One exception is the well-monitored Endeavour crater in Meridiani Planum, which was one of the first known sites of unambiguous dune activity (migration and deflation). However, those early detections used lower resolution images over longer temporal baselines (versus the HIRISE data now available), leaving some measurements poorly constrained. New orbital and surface observations of Endeavour show multiple spatial (cm, m, km) and temporal (seasons, Mars year) scales of aeolian-driven surface change, which confirms earlier reports. Dome dunes in the eastern portion of the crater persistently deflate, disseminating dark sand across lighter-toned regolith and/or eroded bright dust, and likely contribute to the crater interior's episodic decreases in orbital albedo measurements. Other dome dunes are detected with the highest migration rates (4-12 m per Mars year) and volumetric sand fluxes reported yet for Mars. Estimated dune construction times or "turnover times" here and elsewhere on Mars are significantly shorter than martian obliquity cycles, implying that it is not necessary to invoke paleoclimate wind regimes to explain current dune morphologies. Located on the crater rim, the Opportunity rover detected evidence for near- and far-field aeolian-driven activity, with observations of spherules/sand movement in the rover workspace, bedform albedo alteration, and dust-lifting events. Observations of intracrater dunes show periodic shifting dark streaks that significantly constrain local wind regimes (directionality and seasonality). Constraints on wind directions from surface and orbital images

  11. Potential energy surface for ? dissociation including spin-orbit effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Matthew R.; Aquino, Adelia J. A.; de Jong, Wibe A.; Granucci, Giovanni; Hase, William L.

    2012-10-01

    Previous experiments [J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 2833 (2012)] have studied the dissociation of 1,2-diiodoethane radical cation ( ? ) and found a one-dimensional distribution of translational energy, an odd finding considering most product relative translational energy distributions are two-dimensional. The goal of this study is to obtain an accurate understanding of the potential energy surface (PES) topology for the unimolecular decomposition reaction ? → C2H4I+ + I•. This is done through comparison of many single-reference electronic structure methods, coupled-cluster single-point (energy) calculations, and multi-reference energy calculations used to quantify spin-orbit (SO) coupling effects. We find that the structure of the ? reactant has a substantial effect on the role of the SO coupling on the reaction energy. Both the BHandH and MP2 theories with an ECP/6-31++G** basis set, and without SO coupling corrections, provide accurate models for the reaction energetics. MP2 theory gives an unsymmetric structure with different C-I bond lengths, resulting in a SO energy for ? similar to that for the product I-atom and a negligible SO correction to the reaction energy. In contrast, DFT gives a symmetric structure for ? , similar to that of the neutral C2H4I2 parent, resulting in a substantial SO correction and increasing the reaction energy by 6.0-6.5 kcalmol-1. Also, we find that, for this system, coupled-cluster single-point energy calculations are inaccurate, since a small change in geometry can lead to a large change in energy.

  12. Development of a surface isolation estimation technique suitable for application of polar orbiting satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, P. A.; Penn, L. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A technique is developed for the estimation of total daily insolation on the basis of data derivable from operational polar-orbiting satellites. Although surface insolation and meteorological observations are used in the development, the algorithm is constrained in application by the infrequent daytime polar-orbiter coverage.

  13. Electron beam radiotherapy for the management of recurrent extensive ocular surface squamous neoplasia with orbital extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Murthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent extensive ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN with orbital invasion can be successfully managed with external radiotherapy using electrons resulting in eye and vision salvage. We report a case of right eye recurrent OSSN in an immunocompetent adult Indian male, with extensive orbital involvement. The patient had two previous surgical excisions with recurrent disease. At this stage, conventionally exenteration is considered the treatment modality. However, he was treated with 5040 cGy radiotherapy (15eV electrons resulting in complete disease regression. At the end of 3 years follow-up, the patient was disease free, maintained a vision of 20/25, with mild dry eye, well-managed with topical lubricants. Extensive OSSN with orbital invasion does not always need exenteration. External beam electron radiotherapy provides a noninvasive cure with organ and vision salvage and should be considered in extensive OSSN not amenable to simple excision biopsies. Long-term studies to evaluate the effect of radiation on such eyes are suggested.

  14. Surface characterization and clinical review of two commercially available implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Silvia; Jimbo, Ryo; Andersson, Martin; Bryington, Matthew; Albrektsson, Tomas

    2013-10-01

    To characterize topographically and chemically the surfaces of 2 commercially available implants. Furthermore, to gather an overview of the clinical results of these implant systems. Two commercially available oral implants were analyzed using optical interferometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. In addition, a literature search for all the clinical articles on the same implants was performed. No significant differences of topographical parameters were found between the 2 implants, except for the hybrid parameter Sdr presenting significant higher values for the Ankylos implants. Both surfaces had a homogenous microporosity. At higher magnifications of scanning electron microscope images, evenly distributed nanostructures (approximately 10 nm) were visible. Chemically, mainly titanium, oxygen and carbon were detected. Fifty-six clinical articles were included for the review. The implant survival rates (minimum follow-up: 5 years) ranged between 87.7% and 100%. The examined commercially available implants showed a moderately rough surface, with a homogenous microporosity. Nanofeatures were detected on the surface of both implants. The clinical performances of these implants were comparable to that of other commercialized implant systems.

  15. Orbitally-paced variations of water availability in the SE Asian Monsoon region following the Miocene Climate Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Emma O.; Ji, Shunchuan; Nie, Junsheng; Breecker, Daniel O.

    2017-09-01

    surface which are both influenced by precession-controlled 35°N summer insolation. We then use orbital configurations to predict lithology. Coincidence of obliquity minima (strong ASM) and 35°N summer insolation maxima (strong ASM) drives strong ASM and high PET, resulting in soil formation in an environment with relatively large seasonal changes in water availability. Coincidence of obliquity maxima (weak ASM) and 35°N summer insolation maxima (strong ASM) moderates the ASM, results in high PET, and thus drives overprinting of soils by capillary fringe carbonates above a deepened and relatively stable water table. Coincidence of obliquity and insolation minima also moderates the ASM but results in low PET and thus a high water table, which explains the previously documented occurrence of aquatic plants in this section. This context allows us to assign an orbital configuration to atmospheric pCO2 determined from the paleosols. Our best estimate of pCO2 during the times of intermediate ice volume is 475 + 650 / - 230 ppmV (median value with error reported as 84th-16th percentile values). Southern hemisphere control of ASM variability during the Middle Miocene may have resulted in larger orbital scale water availability variations compared with the Pleistocene.

  16. Scalable Lunar Surface Networks and Adaptive Orbit Access, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Based on our proposed innovations and accomplished work in Phase I, we will focus on developing the new MAC protocol and hybrid routing protocol for lunar surface...

  17. UV Climate at Mars Surface: A Proposed Sensor for Both Orbit and Ground Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillotay, D.; Depiesse, C.; Daerden, F.; This, N.; Muller, C.

    2012-06-01

    The UV conditions on the surface of Mars are of paramount importance for the human exploration of Mars. We propose to measure spectrally the solar direct and diffuse UV and visible radiations from both Mars orbit and surface with light instruments.

  18. Electron beam radiotherapy for the management of recurrent extensive ocular surface squamous neoplasia with orbital extension

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Murthy; Himika Gupta; Rahul Krishnatry; Siddhartha Laskar

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent extensive ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) with orbital invasion can be successfully managed with external radiotherapy using electrons resulting in eye and vision salvage. We report a case of right eye recurrent OSSN in an immunocompetent adult Indian male, with extensive orbital involvement. The patient had two previous surgical excisions with recurrent disease. At this stage, conventionally exenteration is considered the treatment modality. However, he was treated with 50...

  19. Strong Linear Dichroism in Spin-Polarized Photoemission from Spin-Orbit-Coupled Surface States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentmann, H; Maaß, H; Krasovskii, E E; Peixoto, T R F; Seibel, C; Leandersson, M; Balasubramanian, T; Reinert, F

    2017-09-08

    A comprehensive understanding of spin-polarized photoemission is crucial for accessing the electronic structure of spin-orbit coupled materials. Yet, the impact of the final state in the photoemission process on the photoelectron spin has been difficult to assess in these systems. We present experiments for the spin-orbit split states in a Bi-Ag surface alloy showing that the alteration of the final state with energy may cause a complete reversal of the photoelectron spin polarization. We explain the effect on the basis of ab initio one-step photoemission theory and describe how it originates from linear dichroism in the angular distribution of photoelectrons. Our analysis shows that the modulated photoelectron spin polarization reflects the intrinsic spin density of the surface state being sampled differently depending on the final state, and it indicates linear dichroism as a natural probe of spin-orbit coupling at surfaces.

  20. Mars Relays Satellite Orbit Design Considerations for Global Support of Robotic Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Rolf; Cesarone, Robert; Cook, Richard; Knocke, Phillip; McOmber, Robert

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses orbit design considerations for Mars relay satellite (MRS)support of globally distributed robotic surface missions. The orbit results reported in this paper are derived from studies of MRS support for two types of Mars robotic surface missions: 1) the mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) mission, which in its current definition would deploy a global network of up to 16 small landers, and 2)a Small Mars Sample Return (SMSR) mission, which included four globally distributed landers, each with a return stage and one or two rovers, and up to four additional sets of lander/rover elements in an extended mission phase.

  1. Entropy-minimising models of surface diffeomorphisms relative to homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Collins (Pieter)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the theory of surface diffeomorphisms relative to homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits, it is possible to compute a one-dimensional representative map for any irreducible isotopy class. The topological entropy of this graph representative is equal to the growth rate of the number of

  2. The zero gravity curve and surface and radii for geostationary and geosynchronous satellite orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjöberg L.E.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A geosynchronous satellite orbits the Earth along a constant longitude. A special case is the geostationary satellite that is located at a constant position above the equator. The ideal position of a geostationary satellite is at the level of zero gravity, i.e. at the geocentric radius where the gravitational force of the Earth equals the centrifugal force. These forces must be compensated for several perturbing forces, in particular for the lunisolar tides. Considering that the gravity field of the Earth varies not only radially but also laterally, this study focuses on the variations of zero gravity not only on the equator (for geostationary satellites but also for various latitudes. It is found that the radius of a geostationary satellite deviates from its mean value of 42164.2 km only within ±2 m, mainly due to the spherical harmonic coefficient J22, which is related with the equatorial flattening of the Earth. Away from the equator the zero gravity surface deviates from the ideal radius of a geosynchronous satellite, and more so for higher latitudes. While the radius of the former surface increases towards infinity towards the poles, the latter decreases about 520 m from the equator to the pole. Tidal effects vary these radii within ±2.3 km.

  3. Detailed balance, internal consistency, and energy conservation in fragment orbital-based surface hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carof, Antoine; Giannini, Samuele; Blumberger, Jochen

    2017-12-01

    We have recently introduced an efficient semi-empirical non-adiabatic molecular dynamics method for the simulation of charge transfer/transport in molecules and molecular materials, denoted fragment orbital-based surface hopping (FOB-SH) [J. Spencer et al., J. Chem. Phys. 145, 064102 (2016)]. In this method, the charge carrier wavefunction is expanded in a set of charge localized, diabatic electronic states and propagated in the time-dependent potential due to classical nuclear motion. Here we derive and implement an exact expression for the non-adiabatic coupling vectors between the adiabatic electronic states in terms of nuclear gradients of the diabatic electronic states. With the non-adiabatic coupling vectors (NACVs) available, we investigate how different flavours of fewest switches surface hopping affect detailed balance, internal consistency, and total energy conservation for electron hole transfer in a molecular dimer with two electronic states. We find that FOB-SH satisfies detailed balance across a wide range of diabatic electronic coupling strengths provided that the velocities are adjusted along the direction of the NACV to satisfy total energy conservation upon a surface hop. This criterion produces the right fraction of energy-forbidden (frustrated) hops, which is essential for correct population of excited states, especially when diabatic couplings are on the order of the thermal energy or larger, as in organic semiconductors and DNA. Furthermore, we find that FOB-SH is internally consistent, that is, the electronic surface population matches the average quantum amplitudes, but only in the limit of small diabatic couplings. For large diabatic couplings, inconsistencies are observed as the decrease in excited state population due to frustrated hops is not matched by a corresponding decrease in quantum amplitudes. The derivation provided here for the NACV should be generally applicable to any electronic structure approach where the electronic

  4. Orbital-angular-momentum based origin of Rashba-type surface band splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Ryong; Kim, Choong H; Yu, Jaejun; Han, Jung Hoon; Kim, Changyoung

    2011-10-07

    We propose that the existence of local orbital angular momentum (OAM) on the surfaces of high-Z materials plays a crucial role in the formation of Rashba-type surface band splitting. Local OAM state in a Bloch wave function produces an asymmetric charge distribution (electric dipole). The surface-normal electric field then aligns the electric dipole and results in chiral OAM states and the relevant Rashba-type splitting. Therefore, the band splitting originates from electric dipole interaction, not from the relativistic Zeeman splitting as proposed in the original Rashba picture. The characteristic spin chiral structure of Rashba states is formed through the spin-orbit coupling and thus is a secondary effect to the chiral OAM. Results from first-principles calculations on a single Bi layer under an external electric field verify the key predictions of the new model.

  5. Tile Surface Thermocouple Measurement Challenges from the Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Berger, Karen; Anderson, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Hypersonic entry flight testing motivated by efforts seeking to characterize boundary layer transition on the Space Shuttle Orbiters have identified challenges in our ability to acquire high quality quantitative surface temperature measurements versus time. Five missions near the end of the Space Shuttle Program implemented a tile surface protuberance as a boundary layer trip together with tile surface thermocouples to capture temperature measurements during entry. Similar engineering implementations of these measurements on Discovery and Endeavor demonstrated unexpected measurement voltage response during the high heating portion of the entry trajectory. An assessment has been performed to characterize possible causes of the issues experienced during STS-119, STS-128, STS-131, STS-133 and STS-134 as well as similar issues encountered during other orbiter entries.

  6. Chiral orbital-angular momentum in the surface states of Bi2Se3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Ryong; Han, Jinhee; Kim, Chul; Koh, Yoon Young; Kim, Changyoung; Lee, Hyungjun; Choi, Hyoung Joon; Han, Jung Hoon; Lee, Kyung Dong; Hur, Nam Jung; Arita, Masashi; Shimada, Kenya; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki

    2012-01-27

    We performed angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) experiments with circularly polarized light and first-principles density functional calculation with spin-orbit coupling to study surface states of a topological insulator Bi2Se3. We observed circular dichroism (CD) as large as 30% in the ARPES data with upper and lower Dirac cones showing opposite signs in CD. The observed CD is attributed to the existence of local orbital-angular momentum (OAM). First-principles calculation shows that OAM in the surface states is significant and is locked to the electron momentum in the opposite direction to the spin, forming chiral OAM states. Our finding opens a new possibility for strong light-induced spin-polarized current in surface states. We also provide a proof for local OAM origin of the CD in ARPES.

  7. Use of Orbital LIDAR in the Brazilian Cerrado Biome: Potential Applications and Data Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Guimarães Ferreira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS data availability over the 2 million km2 Cerrado, the Brazilian central savanna biome and one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots. Overall, about 2.5 million laser shots, distributed along the seven years of ICESat operation (2003–2009 and comprising three major seasonal domains, were acquired, from which, 206,026 and 176,035 screened footprints are coincident with the remnant vegetation and cultivated pasture areas (the dominant land-use form in the Cerrado. Although these points are well distributed over the entire Cerrado, the ICESat track data collection results in substantial data gaps. In relation to the 15,612 Cerrado watersheds (6th order Otto basin system, 8,369 and 4,415 watersheds are completely deprived of data points over their remnant vegetation and pasture covers, respectively. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR availability was also evaluated in relation to specific targets of interest, including both fully-protected conservation units as well as areas impacted by fire and deforestation. In spite of the very few occurrences, our assessments indicate that enough LIDAR data is available for retrieving structural and functional properties of a variety of Cerrado physiognomies, as well as to assess how these physiognomies respond to anthropogenic induced changes. In fact, the comprehensive data availability analysis conducted in this study corroborate the potential of GLAS LIDAR waveforms for the retrieval of biophysical properties at both local and regional scales, particularly concerning remnant carbon stocks and pasture conditions, key information for the conservation of the fast-changing and severely threatened Cerrado.

  8. Dirac spin-orbit torques and charge pumping at the surface of topological insulators

    KAUST Repository

    Ndiaye, Papa Birame

    2017-07-07

    We address the nature of spin-orbit torques at the magnetic surfaces of topological insulators using the linear-response theory. We find that the so-called Dirac torques in such systems possess a different symmetry compared to their Rashba counterpart, as well as a high anisotropy as a function of the magnetization direction. In particular, the damping torque vanishes when the magnetization lies in the plane of the topological-insulator surface. We also show that the Onsager reciprocal of the spin-orbit torque, the charge pumping, induces an enhanced anisotropic damping. Via a macrospin model, we numerically demonstrate that these features have important consequences in terms of magnetization switching.

  9. Examination of returned solar-max surfaces for impacting orbital debris and meteoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, D. J.; Zook, H. A.; Potter, A. E.; Mckay, D. S.; Clanton, U. S.; Warren, J. L.; Watts, L. A.; Schultz, R. A.; Schramm, L. S.; Wentworth, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    Previous theoretical studies predicted that in certain regions of earth orbit, the man-made earth orbiting debris environment will soon exceed the interplanetary meteoroid environment for sizes smaller than 1 cm. The surfaces returned from the repaired Solar Max Mission (SMM) by STS 41-C on April 12, 1984, offered an excellent opportunity to examine both the debris and meteoroid environments. To date, approximately 0.7 sq. met. of the thermal insulation and 0.05 sq. met of the aluminum louvers have been mapped by optical microscope for crater diameters larger than 40 microns. Craters larger in diameter than about 100 microns found on the initial 75 micron thick Kapton first sheet on the MEB (Main Electronics Box) blanket are actually holes and constitute perforations through that blanket. The following populations have been found to date in impact sites on these blankets: (1) meteoritic material; (2) thermal paint particles; (3) aluminum droplets; and (4) waste particles.

  10. Orbital character and electron correlation effects on two- and three-dimensional Fermi surfaces in KFe2As2 revealed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teppei eYoshida

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated orbital character and electron correlation effects on Fermi surfaces in the hole-overdoped iron pnictide superconductor KFe2As2, which shows a low Tc of ~4 K, by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. From the polarization-dependence of the ARPES spectra, we have determined the orbital character of each Fermi surface. Electron mass renormalization of each band is quantitatively consistent with de Haas-van Alphen results. The outer beta and middle zeta Fermi surfaces show large renormalization factor of m*/mb ~6-7, while the inner Fermi surface has a smaller factor m*/mb ~2. Middle hole Fermi surface zeta has strong three-dimensionality compared to other Fermi surfaces, indicating the d3z2-r2 orbital character, which may be related to the octet-line nodes recently observed by laser ARPES. The observed orbital-dependent mass renormalization would give constraints on the pairing mechanism with line nodes of this system.

  11. Fourier transform photoelectron diffraction and its application to molecular orbitals and surface structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xin [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1998-11-30

    Photoemission intensities from the molecular orbitals of c(2x2)CO/Pt(111) over a wide photon energy range were measured and analyzed by the same methods developed for structural studies using core levels. The 4{sigma} orbital center of gravity is found to be concentrated between the C and O atoms, while that of the 5{sigma} orbital lies between the C atom and the Pt surface. The C 1s photoelectron diffraction was used to determine the adsorption geometry. The earlier ambiguity that multiple scattering is needed to correctly model a {chi} curve while single scattering is sufficient for understanding major peaks in the ARPEFS-FTS is clarified by studying the clean Ni(111) surface. In the normal emission case, several different combinations of scattering events have similar path length differences (PLDs), and can either cancel each other or enhance the corresponding FT peak. In the off-normal case the degeneracy is greatly reduced due to the lower degree of symmetry. In normal emission AR PEFS, up to third order multiple scattering is needed to describe fully both the {chi} curve and its FT spectrum. To improve the spectral resolution in the ARPEFS-FT analysis, several new spectral analysis methods are introduced. With both autocorrelation autoregression (ACAR) and autocorrelation eigenvector (ACE), we can produce a reliable power spectrum by following the order-closing procedure. The best spectra are usually obtained when the autocorrelation sequence is computed with lags up to half the data range. A simple way of determining surface adsorption sites is proposed as follows: First use a single scattering cluster for possible adsorption sites to construct the geometrical PLDs from the strong backscattering events; then compare these PLDs with those obtained from the ARPEFS-FT analysis of the experimental data. After the preferred adsorption site is determined, fine tune the interlayer distances according to the positional R-factor.

  12. Automated 3D Damaged Cavity Model Builder for Lower Surface Acreage Tile on Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belknap, Shannon; Zhang, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The 3D Automated Thermal Tool for Damaged Acreage Tile Math Model builder was developed to perform quickly and accurately 3D thermal analyses on damaged lower surface acreage tiles and structures beneath the damaged locations on a Space Shuttle Orbiter. The 3D model builder created both TRASYS geometric math models (GMMs) and SINDA thermal math models (TMMs) to simulate an idealized damaged cavity in the damaged tile(s). The GMMs are processed in TRASYS to generate radiation conductors between the surfaces in the cavity. The radiation conductors are inserted into the TMMs, which are processed in SINDA to generate temperature histories for all of the nodes on each layer of the TMM. The invention allows a thermal analyst to create quickly and accurately a 3D model of a damaged lower surface tile on the orbiter. The 3D model builder can generate a GMM and the correspond ing TMM in one or two minutes, with the damaged cavity included in the tile material. A separate program creates a configuration file, which would take a couple of minutes to edit. This configuration file is read by the model builder program to determine the location of the damage, the correct tile type, tile thickness, structure thickness, and SIP thickness of the damage, so that the model builder program can build an accurate model at the specified location. Once the models are built, they are processed by the TRASYS and SINDA.

  13. Electron beam radiotherapy for the management of recurrent extensive ocular surface squamous neoplasia with orbital extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Ramesh; Gupta, Himika; Krishnatry, Rahul; Laskar, Siddhartha

    2015-08-01

    Recurrent extensive ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) with orbital invasion can be successfully managed with external radiotherapy using electrons resulting in eye and vision salvage. We report a case of right eye recurrent OSSN in an immunocompetent adult Indian male, with extensive orbital involvement. The patient had two previous surgical excisions with recurrent disease. At this stage, conventionally exenteration is considered the treatment modality. However, he was treated with 5040 cGy radiotherapy (15eV electrons) resulting in complete disease regression. At the end of 3 years follow-up, the patient was disease free, maintained a vision of 20/25, with mild dry eye, well-managed with topical lubricants. Extensive OSSN with orbital invasion does not always need exenteration. External beam electron radiotherapy provides a noninvasive cure with organ and vision salvage and should be considered in extensive OSSN not amenable to simple excision biopsies. Long-term studies to evaluate the effect of radiation on such eyes are suggested.

  14. The Topography of Mars: Understanding the Surface of Mars Through the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, C. A.; Neumann, G. A.; Sakimoto, S. E.

    2001-12-01

    The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter has been orbiting Mars since 1997 and has measured the topography of Mars with a meter of vertical accuracy. This new information has improved our understanding of both the surface and the interior of Mars. The topographic globe and the labeled topographic map of Mars illustrate these new data in a format that can be used in a classroom setting. The map is color shaded to show differences in elevation on Mars, presenting Mars with a different perspective than traditional geological and geographic maps. Through the differences in color, students can see Mars as a three-dimensional surface and will be able to recognize features that are invisible in imagery. The accompanying lesson plans are designed for middle school science students and can be used both to teach information about Mars as a planet and Mars in comparison to Earth, fitting both the solar system unit and the Earth science unit in a middle school curriculum. The lessons are referenced to the National Benchmark standards for students in grades 6-8 and cover topics such as Mars exploration, the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, resolution and powers of 10, gravity, craters, seismic waves and the interior structure of a planet, isostasy, and volcanoes. Each lesson is written in the 5 E format and includes a student content activity and an extension showing current applications of Mars and MOLA data. These activities can be found at http://ltpwww.gsfc.nasa.gov/education/resources.html. Funding for this project was provided by the Maryland Space Grant Consortium and the MOLA Science Team, Goddard Space Flight Center.

  15. Elemental analysis of planetary surfaces via orbital gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    Orbital gamma-ray spectroscopy can determine the chemical composition of planets with little or no atmosphere and provides valuable clues to the planet's origin and evolution. The strongest gamma-ray lines emitted from a planetary surface include those from the decay of the natural radioelements potassium, uranium, and thorium and those from nonelastic-scattering and neutron-capture reactions by cosmic-ray particles. The distributions of potassium, thorium, iron, magnesium, and titanium for 20% of the moon were mapped by NaI(Tl) spectrometers flown on the Apollo 15 and Apollo 16 missions. Backgrounds in the Apollo spectra included cosmic gamma rays, radioactivity in the spacecraft and detector, electron bremsstrahlung, and nuclear reactions in the matter surrounding the detector. Only about 15% of the photons from the lunar surface were gamma-ray lines that had not undergone interactions; the remainder formed a continuum that had to be determined and removed from a lunar spectrum before the discrete line spectrum could be unfolded. Solid-state gamma-ray spectrometers of high-purity germanium are proposed for future orbiters to Mars and the moon. 3 figures

  16. An analytical and experimental study for surface heat flux determination. [in Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. D.; Curry, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    A numerical method by which data from a single embedded thermocouple can be used to predict the transient thermal environment for both high- and low-conductivity materials is described. The results of an investigation performed to verify the method clearly demonstrate that accurate transient surface heating conditions can be obtained from a thermocouple 1.016 cm from the surface in a low-conductivity material. Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system materials having temperature- and pressure-dependent properties and typical Orbiter entry heating conditions were used to verify the accuracy of the analytical procedure. Analytically generated, as well as experimental, data were used to compare predicted and measured surface temperatures.

  17. Orbiter BLT Flight Experiment Wind Tunnel Simulations: Nearfield Flowfield Imaging and Surface Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Ivey, Christoper B.; Barthel, Brett F.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Jones, Stephen B.; Watkins, Anthony N.; Goodman, Kyle Z.; McCrea, Andrew C.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Lipford, William K.; hide

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a series of wind tunnel tests simulating the near-field behavior of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Detailed Test Objective (BLT DTO) flight experiment. Hypersonic flow over a flat plate with an attached BLT DTO-shaped trip was tested in a Mach 10 wind tunnel. The sharp-leading-edge flat plate was oriented at an angle of 20 degrees with respect to the freestream flow, resulting in post-shock edge Mach number of approximately 4. The flowfield was visualized using nitric oxide (NO) planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). Flow visualizations were performed at 10 Hz using a wide-field of view and high-resolution NO PLIF system. A lower spatial resolution and smaller field of view NO PLIF system visualized the flow at 500 kHz, which was fast enough to resolve unsteady flow features. At the lowest Reynolds number studied, the flow was observed to be laminar and mostly steady. At the highest Reynolds number, flow visualizations showed streak instabilities generated immediately downstream of the trip. These instabilities transitioned to unsteady periodic and spatially irregular structures downstream. Quantitative surface heating imagery was obtained using the Temperature Sensitive Paint (TSP) technique. Comparisons between the PLIF flow visualizations and TSP heating measurements show a strong correlation between flow patterns and surface heating trends.

  18. A Model Based Deconvolution Approach for Creating Surface Composition Maps of Irregularly Shaped Bodies from Limited Orbiting Nuclear Spectrometer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmann, N. A.; Carlsten, B. E.; Stonehill, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    Orbiting nuclear spectrometers have contributed significantly to our understanding of the composition of solar system bodies. Gamma rays and neutrons are produced within the surfaces of bodies by impacting galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and by intrinsic radionuclide decay. Measuring the flux and energy spectrum of these products at one point in an orbit elucidates the elemental content of the area in view. Deconvolution of measurements from many spatially registered orbit points can produce detailed maps of elemental abundances. In applying these well-established techniques to small and irregularly shaped bodies like Phobos, one encounters unique challenges beyond those of a large spheroid. Polar mapping orbits are not possible for Phobos and quasistatic orbits will realize only modest inclinations unavoidably limiting surface coverage and creating North-South ambiguities in deconvolution. The irregular shape causes self-shadowing both of the body to the spectrometer but also of the body to the incoming GCR. The view angle to the surface normal as well as the distance between the surface and the spectrometer is highly irregular. These characteristics can be synthesized into a complicated and continuously changing measurement system point spread function. We have begun to explore different model-based, statistically rigorous, iterative deconvolution methods to produce elemental abundance maps for a proposed future investigation of Phobos. By incorporating the satellite orbit, the existing high accuracy shape-models of Phobos, and the spectrometer response function, a detailed and accurate system model can be constructed. Many aspects of this model formation are particularly well suited to modern graphics processing techniques and parallel processing. We will present the current status and preliminary visualizations of the Phobos measurement system model. We will also discuss different deconvolution strategies and their relative merit in statistical rigor, stability

  19. Equations for calculating orbiter surface erosion and breakage rates in IUS and SSUS SRM exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    Equations and coefficients for calculating the flux of solid particles in the exhaust plumes of the interim upper stage and SSUS solid rocket motors (SRM) are considered. Modifications required to account for the independent motions of the orbiter and the SRM, such as will result during an on-orbit SRM firing are described.

  20. Automatic Detection of Changes on Mars Surface from High-Resolution Orbital Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2017-04-01

    Over the last 40 years Mars has been extensively mapped by several NASA and ESA orbital missions, generating a large image dataset comprised of approximately 500,000 high-resolution images (of human resources, which is very difficult to achieve when dealing with a rapidly increasing volume of data. Although citizen science can be employed for training and verification it is unsuitable for planetwide systematic change detection. In this work, we introduce a novel approach in planetary image change detection, which involves a batch-mode automatic change detection pipeline that identifies regions that have changed. This is tested in anger, on tens of thousands of high-resolution images over the MC11 quadrangle [5], acquired by CTX, HRSC, THEMIS-VIS and MOC-NA instruments [1]. We will present results which indicate a substantial level of activity in this region of Mars, including instances of dynamic natural phenomena that haven't been cataloged in the planetary science literature before. We will demonstrate the potential and usefulness of such an automatic approach in planetary science change detection. Acknowledgments: The research leading to these results has received funding from the STFC "MSSL Consolidated Grant" ST/K000977/1 and partial support from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under iMars grant agreement n° 607379. References: [1] P. Sidiropoulos and J. - P. Muller (2015) On the status of orbital high-resolution repeat imaging of Mars for the observation of dynamic surface processes. Planetary and Space Science, 117: 207-222. [2] O. Aharonson, et al. (2003) Slope streak formation and dust deposition rates on Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 108(E12):5138 [3] A. McEwen, et al. (2011) Seasonal flows on warm martian slopes. Science, 333 (6043): 740-743. [4] S. Byrne, et al. (2009) Distribution of mid-latitude ground ice on mars from new impact craters. Science, 325(5948):1674-1676. [5] K. Gwinner, et al (2016) The

  1. Estimation and Validation of Land Surface Temperatures from Chinese Second-Generation Polar-Orbit FY-3A VIRR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Hui Tang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work estimated and validated the land surface temperature (LST from thermal-infrared Channels 4 (10.8 µm and 5 (12.0 µm of the Visible and Infrared Radiometer (VIRR onboard the second-generation Chinese polar-orbiting FengYun-3A (FY-3A meteorological satellite. The LST, mean emissivity and atmospheric water vapor content (WVC were divided into several tractable sub-ranges with little overlap to improve the fitting accuracy. The experimental results showed that the root mean square errors (RMSEs were proportional to the viewing zenith angles (VZAs and WVC. The RMSEs were below 1.0 K for VZA sub-ranges less than 30° or for VZA sub-ranges less than 60° and WVC less than 3.5 g/cm2, provided that the land surface emissivities were known. A preliminary validation using independently simulated data showed that the estimated LSTs were quite consistent with the actual inputs, with a maximum RMSE below 1 K for all VZAs. An inter-comparison using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-derived LST product MOD11_L2 showed that the minimum RMSE was 1.68 K for grass, and the maximum RMSE was 3.59 K for barren or sparsely vegetated surfaces. In situ measurements at the Hailar field site in northeastern China from October, 2013, to September, 2014, were used to validate the proposed method. The result showed that the RMSE between the LSTs calculated from the ground measurements and derived from the VIRR data was 1.82 K.

  2. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-2: Orbital Information (NODC Accession 0044985)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the descriptions for the OSTM/Jason-2 orbital information, which is served through the NOAA/NESDIS Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship...

  3. Anterior surface breakdown and implant extrusion following secondary alloplastic orbital implantation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, Shadi; Paridaens, Dion

    2017-12-08

    Secondary orbital implantation surgery can be complex due to scarring of the orbital tissues and can be complicated by implant exposure and extrusion. To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of implant exposure and extrusion following secondary alloplastic orbital implantation surgery in anophthalmic patients. Retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of patients who underwent secondary placement of an alloplastic orbital implant by one surgeon between 2001 and 2016 in the Rotterdam Eye Hospital. implant exposure or extrusion. Other complications. Sixty-three patients underwent secondary orbital placement of scleral-wrapped acrylic (60) or silicone (three) spherical implants. A subset of 25 patients had undergone earlier secondary orbital implant placement (by other surgeons) with exposure/extrusion necessitating additional implant surgery. Two patients were excluded due to lack of follow-up (Implant exposure or extrusion occurred in six of 18 (33%) patients in whom no muscle had been reattached during secondary orbital implantation and in five of 43 (12%) patients in whom the extraocular recti muscles had been attached, but the follow-up time was shorter for the latter group. Surgical treatment for implant exposure/extrusion was required in eleven of 61 patients (18%). Other complications included postoperative volume deficiency despite optimal prosthesis (five of 61, 8%), inclusion cysts (four of 61, 7%) and conjunctivitis sicca (two of 61, 3%). Seven of 61 (11%) patients required fornix deepening and seven (11%) blepharoptosis correction. Secondary orbital implantation of sclera-wrapped alloplastic implants was complicated by implant extrusion or exposure in 12% of cases in which the extraocular muscles were attached to the implant. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Lessons learned from the development and manufacture of ceramic reusable surface insulation materials for the space shuttle orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, R. P.; Elgin, D. R.; Cordia, E. R.; Nickel, K. N.; Gzowski, E. R.; Aguiler, L.

    1983-01-01

    Three ceramic, reusable surface insulation materials and two borosilicate glass coatings were used in the fabrication of tiles for the Space Shuttle orbiters. Approximately 77,000 tiles were made from these materials for the first three orbiters, Columbia, Challenger, and Discovery. Lessons learned in the development, scale up to production and manufacturing phases of these materials will benefit future production of ceramic reusable surface insulation materials. Processing of raw materials into tile blanks and coating slurries; programming and machining of tiles using numerical controlled milling machines; preparing and spraying tiles with the two coatings; and controlling material shrinkage during the high temperature (2100-2275 F) coating glazing cycles are among the topics discussed.

  5. Phosphate availability in the soil-root system : integration of oxide surface chemistry, transport and uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelhoed, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    A study is presented on the adsorption of phosphate on goethite, the interaction of phosphate with other adsorbing ions at the goethite surface, and the resulting availability of phosphate to plants. The plant-availability of sorbed phosphate was determined from phosphorus uptake of plants

  6. Sagebrush wildfire effects on surface soil nutrient availability: A temporal and spatial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildfires occurring in Artemisia (sagebrush) ecosystems can temporarily increase soil nutrient availability in surface soil. Less is known, however, on how soil nutrient availability changes over time and microsite location post-wildfire. In Oct., 2013 a wildfire approximately 30 km north of Reno, N...

  7. Quantifying the availability of clay surfaces in soils for adsorption of nitrocyanobenzene and diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Simone M; Li, Hui; Teppen, Brian J; Boyd, Stephen A

    2006-12-15

    Coverage of clay surfaces by soil organic matter (SOM) may limitthe efficacy of the soil mineral fractions for adsorption of organic contaminants and pesticides. Two methods were scrutinized for quantitatively assessing the availability of clay surfaces in a smectitic Webster A-horizon soil for sorption of p-nitrocyanobenzene (p-NCB) and diuron. One method, described previously, involves the summation of independent contributions of SOM and swelling clays to sorption of organic solutes. For this method, several assumptions must be made and/or procedural difficulties overcome in the determination of certain terms in the equation proposed for calculating the fractional availability of mineral surfaces (fa). To alleviate the methodological limitations, we developed an alternative approach for determining fa. Good agreement between fa values was obtained from both methods for p-NCB but not diuron. For p-NCB sorption, fa values varied between 0.55 and 0.71. For diuron sorption, our alternative equation estimated fa values varied between 0.41 and 0.61; the other approach yielded negative values. The results demonstrate that SOM does reduce the availability of clay surfaces, hence, suppressing sorption by the Webster A-horizon soil. Our newly developed method provides more reasonable estimates of the availability of soil-clay surfaces for sorption than an earlier published approach.

  8. Spin-orbit torque in 3D topological insulator-ferromagnet heterostructure: crossover between bulk and surface transport

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Sumit

    2017-11-29

    Current-driven spin-orbit torques are investigated in a heterostructure composed of a ferromagnet deposited on top of a three dimensional topological insulator using the linear response formalism. We develop a tight-binding model of the heterostructure adopting a minimal interfacial hybridization scheme that promotes induced magnetic exchange on the topological surface states, as well as induced Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling in the ferromagnet. Therefore, our model accounts for spin Hall effect from bulk states together with inverse spin galvanic and magnetoelectric effects at the interface on equal footing. By varying the transport energy across the band structure, we uncover a crossover from surface-dominated to bulk-dominated transport regimes. We show that the spin density profile and the nature of the spin-orbit torques differ substantially in both regimes. Our results, which compare favorably with experimental observations, demonstrate that the large damping torque reported recently is more likely attributed to interfacial magnetoelectric effect, while spin Hall torque remains small even in the bulk-dominated regime.

  9. Spin-orbit torque in a three-dimensional topological insulator–ferromagnet heterostructure: Crossover between bulk and surface transport

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Sumit

    2018-04-02

    Current-driven spin-orbit torques are investigated in a heterostructure composed of a ferromagnet deposited on top of a three-dimensional topological insulator using the linear response formalism. We develop a tight-binding model of the heterostructure adopting a minimal interfacial hybridization scheme that promotes induced magnetic exchange on the topological surface states, as well as induced Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling in the ferromagnet. Therefore our model accounts for the spin Hall effect from bulk states together with inverse spin galvanic and magnetoelectric effects at the interface on equal footing. By varying the transport energy across the band structure, we uncover a crossover from surface-dominated to bulk-dominated transport regimes. We show that the spin density profile and the nature of the spin-orbit torques differ substantially in both regimes. Our results, which compare favorably with experimental observations, demonstrate that the large dampinglike torque reported recently is more likely attributed to the Berry curvature of interfacial states, while spin Hall torque remains small even in the bulk-dominated regime.

  10. ORBITAL INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kansky

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Orbit is involved in 40% of all facial fractures. There is considerable variety in severity, ranging from simple nondisplaced to complex comminuted fractures. Complex comminuted fractures (up to 20% are responsible for the majority of complications and unfavorable results. Orbital fractures are classified as internal orbital fractures, zygomatico-orbital fractures, naso-orbito-ethmoidal fractures and combined fractures. The ophtalmic sequelae of midfacial fractures are usually edema and ecchymosis of the soft tissues, subconjuctival hemorrhage, diplopia, iritis, retinal edema, ptosis, enophthalmos, ocular muscle paresis, mechanical restriction of ocular movement and nasolacrimal disturbances. More severe injuries such as optic nerve trauma and retinal detachments have also been reported. Within the wide range of orbital fractures small group of complex fractures causes most of the sequelae. Therefore identification of severe injuries and adequate treatment is of major importance. The introduction of craniofacial techniques made possible a wide exposure even of large orbital wall defects and their reconstruction by bone grafts. In spite of significant progress, repair of complex orbital wall defects remains a problem even for the experienced surgeons.Results. In 1999 121 facial injuries were treated at our department (Clinical Centre Ljubljana Dept. Of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery. Orbit was involved in 65% of cases. Isolated inner orbital fractures presented 4% of all fractures. 17 (14% complex cases were treated, 5 of them being NOE, 5 orbital (frame and inner walls, 3 zygomatico-orbital, 2 FNO and 2 maxillo-orbital fractures.Conclusions. Final result of the surgical treatment depends on severity of maxillofacial trauma. Complex comminuted fractures are responsable for most of the unfavorable results and ocular function is often permanently damaged (up to 75% in these fractures.

  11. Satellite estimation of the surface energy balance, moisture availability and thermal inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, T. N.; Dodd, J. K.; Benjamin, S. G.; Cooper, J. N.

    1981-01-01

    A method for inferring the distribution of surface heat and evaporative fluxes and the ground moisture availability and thermal inertia (ground conductive capacity) is used to analyze two urbanized areas, Los Angeles and St. Louis. The technique employs infrared satellite temperature measurements in conjunction with a one-dimensional boundary-layer model. Results show that there is a marked reduction of evaporation and moisture availability and a corresponding elevation of sensible heat flux over urbanized areas and over cropped areas with low vegetative cover. Conversely, low heat flux and high evaporation characterize vegetated and, especially, forested areas. Warm urban centers appear directly related to a reduction in vegetation, which normally allows for a greater fraction of available radiant energy to be converted into latent heat flux. The distribution of thermal inertia was surprisingly ill-defined and its variation between urban and rural areas was quite small. Thus, the increased heat storage within the urban fabric, which has been proposed as the underlying cause of the nocturnal heat island, may be caused mainly by enhanced daytime surface heating which occurs because of surface dryness, rather than by large spatial variations in the conductivity of the surface.

  12. Atomistic simulation of charge effects: From tunable thin film growth to isolation of surface states with spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Wenmei

    This dissertation revitalizes the importance of surface charge effects in semiconductor nanostructures, in particular in the context of thin film growth and exotic electronic structures under delicate spin-orbit coupling. A combination of simulation techniques, including density functional theory calculation, kinetic Monte Carlo method, nonequilibrium Green's function method, and tight binding method, were employed to reveal the underlying physical mechanisms of four topics: (1) Effects of Li doping on H-diffusion in MgH 2 for hydrogen storage. It addresses both the effect of Fermi level tuning by charged dopant and the effect of dopant-defect interaction, and the latter was largely neglected in previous works; (2) Tuning nucleation density of the metal island with charge doping of the graphene substrate. It is the first time that the surface charge doping effect is proposed and studied as an effective approach to tune the kinetics of island nucleation at the early stage of thin film growth; (3) Complete isolation of Rashba surface states on the saturated semiconductor surface. It shows that the naturally saturated semiconductor surface of InSe(0001) with Au single layer film provides a mechanism for the formation of Rashba states with large spin splitting; it opens up an innovative route to obtaining ideal Rashba states without the overwhelming bulk spin-degenerate carriers in spin-dependent transport; (4) Formation of large band gap quantum spin Hall state on Si surface. This study reveals the importance of atomic orbital composition in the formation of a topological insulator, and shows promisingly the possible integration of topological insulator technology into Si-based modern electronic devices.

  13. Thermal performance of FRSI/graphite epoxy materials for the Orbiter TPS application. [Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, I.; Ritrivi, C. A.; Tillian, D. J.; Maraia, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Radiant tests have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (FRSI) when bonded to Graphite/Epoxy (G/E) honeycomb sandwich structures. The results from this study indicate reasonable agreement with the baseline FRSI properties that existed prior to this test program. An updated Thermal Math Model (TMM) prediction technique was developed, with the use of the well-defined boundary conditions, which appears to be valid in analyzing the complex heat transfer associated with the honeycomb structure. The updated TM analysis of flight data resulted in good agreement of predicted temperatures with flight data for bondline responses of Orbiter FRSI/GE TPS applications.

  14. The PROCESS experiment: amino and carboxylic acids under Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions in low-earth orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblet, Audrey; Stalport, Fabien; Guan, Yuan Yong; Poch, Olivier; Coll, Patrice; Szopa, Cyril; Cloix, Mégane; Macari, Frédérique; Raulin, Francois; Chaput, Didier; Cottin, Hervé

    2012-05-01

    The search for organic molecules at the surface of Mars is a top priority of the next Mars exploration space missions: Mars Science Laboratory (NASA) and ExoMars (ESA). The detection of organic matter could provide information about the presence of a prebiotic chemistry or even biological activity on this planet. Therefore, a key step in interpretation of future data collected by these missions is to understand the preservation of organic matter in the martian environment. Several laboratory experiments have been devoted to quantifying and qualifying the evolution of organic molecules under simulated environmental conditions of Mars. However, these laboratory simulations are limited, and one major constraint is the reproduction of the UV spectrum that reaches the surface of Mars. As part of the PROCESS experiment of the European EXPOSE-E mission on board the International Space Station, a study was performed on the photodegradation of organics under filtered extraterrestrial solar electromagnetic radiation that mimics Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions. Glycine, serine, phthalic acid, phthalic acid in the presence of a mineral phase, and mellitic acid were exposed to these conditions for 1.5 years, and their evolution was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy after their retrieval. The results were compared with data from laboratory experiments. A 1.5-year exposure to Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions in space resulted in complete degradation of the organic compounds. Half-lives between 50 and 150 h for martian surface conditions were calculated from both laboratory and low-Earth orbit experiments. The results highlight that none of those organics are stable under low-Earth orbit solar UV radiation conditions.

  15. The Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) for the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.; Cremonese, G.; Ziethe, R.; Gerber, M.; Brändli, M.; Bruno, G.; Erismann, M.; Gambicorti, L.; Gerber, T.; Ghose, K.; Gruber, M.; Gubler, P.; Mischler, H.; Jost, J.; Piazza, D.; Pommerol, A.; Rieder, M.; Roloff, V.; Servonet, A.; Trottmann, W.; Uthaicharoenpong, T.; Zimmermann, C.; Vernani, D.; Johnson, M.; Pelò, E.; Weigel, T.; Viertl, J.; De Roux, N.; Lochmatter, P.; Sutter, G.; Casciello, A.; Hausner, T.; Ficai Veltroni, I.; Da Deppo, V.; Orleanski, P.; Nowosielski, W.; Zawistowski, T.; Szalai, S.; Sodor, B.; Tulyakov, S.; Troznai, G.; Banaskiewicz, M.; Bridges, J.C.; Byrne, S.; Debei, S.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Hauber, E.; Hansen, C.J.; Ivanov, A.; Keszthelyil, L.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Kuzmin, R.; Mangold, N.; Marinangeli, L.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Massironi, M.; McEwen, A.S.; Okubo, Chris H.; Tornabene, L.L.; Wajer, P.; Wray, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    The Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) is the main imaging system onboard the European Space Agency’s ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) which was launched on 14 March 2016. CaSSIS is intended to acquire moderately high resolution (4.6 m/pixel) targeted images of Mars at a rate of 10–20 images per day from a roughly circular orbit 400 km above the surface. Each image can be acquired in up to four colours and stereo capability is foreseen by the use of a novel rotation mechanism. A typical product from one image acquisition will be a 9.5 km×∼45 km">9.5 km×∼45 km9.5 km×∼45 km swath in full colour and stereo in one over-flight of the target thereby reducing atmospheric influences inherent in stereo and colour products from previous high resolution imagers. This paper describes the instrument including several novel technical solutions required to achieve the scientific requirements.

  16. LEO Orbit Surface Charging and Its Relationship to Environment, Vehicle Geometry, and Ionospheric Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fennell, Joseph F; Anderson, Phillip C

    2008-01-01

    .... Such surfaces can be both in shadow and in the satellite wake at the same time, which enhances the chances of charging in the dusk to pre-noon sector of the auroral oval, depending on plasma density...

  17. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-3: Orbital Information, 2015- (NODC Accession 0122598)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Jason-3 is the fourth mission in U.S.-European series of satellite missions that measure the height of the ocean surface. Scheduled to launch in 2015, the mission...

  18. MESSENGER, MErcury: Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging; A Mission to Orbit and Explore the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    MESSENGER is a scientific mission to Mercury. Understanding this extraordinary planet and the forces that have shaped it is fundamental to understanding the processes that have governed the formation, evolution, and dynamics of the terrestrial planets. MESSENGER is a MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging mission to orbit Mercury for one Earth year after completing two flybys of that planet following two flybys of Venus. The necessary flybys return significant new data early in the mission, while the orbital phase, guided by the flyby data, enables a focused scientific investigation of this least-studied terrestrial planet. Answers to key questions about Mercury's high density, crustal composition and structure, volcanic history, core structure, magnetic field generation, polar deposits, exosphere, overall volatile inventory, and magnetosphere are provided by an optimized set of miniaturized space instruments. Our goal is to gain new insight into the formation and evolution of the solar system, including Earth. By traveling to the inner edge of the solar system and exploring a poorly known world, MESSENGER fulfills this quest.

  19. OMI/Aura Surface UV Irradiance 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Version 003 of Aura-OMI Surface UV Irradiance Product OMUVB is now available(http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omuvb_v003.shtml) from the NASA Goddard Earth...

  20. Recharging California's Groundwater: Crop Suitability and Surface Water Availability for Agricultural Groundwater Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, H. E.; Kocis, T. N.; Brown, A.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater banking, the intentional recharge of groundwater from surface water for storage and recovery, is an important conjunctive use strategy for water management in California (CA). A largely unexplored approach to groundwater banking, agricultural groundwater banking (ag-GB), utilizes flood flows and agricultural lands (alfalfa/pasture) for recharging groundwater. Understanding soil suitability for ag-GB, crop health and flooding tolerance, leaching of soil nitrate and salts, the availability of surface water for recharge, and the economic costs and benefits of ag-GB is fundamental to assessing the feasibility of local-scale implementation of ag-GB. The study presented here considers both the availability of excess streamflow (e.g., the magnitude, frequency, timing, and duration of winter flood flow) for ag-GB and the risks and benefits associated with using alfalfa fields as spreading grounds for ag-GB. The availability of surface water for winter (Nov to Apr) ag-GB were estimated based on daily streamflow records for 93 stream gauges within the Central Valley, CA. Analysis focused on high-magnitude (>90thpercentile) flows because most lower flows are likely legally allocated in CA. Results based >50 years of data indicate that an average winter/spring (Nov. - Apr.) in the Sacramento River Basin could provide 7 million acre-feet (AF) (8.6 km3) of water for ag-GB from flows above the 90th percentile. These flows originate from few storm events (5-7 events) and occur on average for 25-30 days between November and April. Wintertime on-farm recharge experiments were conducted on a 9-yr old, 15-acre alfalfa field in the Scott Valley, CA, where 135 AF and 107 AF of water were recharged during the winters of 2015 and 2016, respectively. Biomass data collected indicates that pulsed application of 6-10 ft of water on dormant alfalfa results in minimal yield loss (0.5 ton/acre reduction), short-duration saturated conditions in the root-zone, and high recharge

  1. The stochastic distribution of available coefficient of friction for human locomotion of five different floor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Matz, Simon; Chang, Chien-Chi

    2014-05-01

    The maximum coefficient of friction that can be supported at the shoe and floor interface without a slip is usually called the available coefficient of friction (ACOF) for human locomotion. The probability of a slip could be estimated using a statistical model by comparing the ACOF with the required coefficient of friction (RCOF), assuming that both coefficients have stochastic distributions. An investigation of the stochastic distributions of the ACOF of five different floor surfaces under dry, water and glycerol conditions is presented in this paper. One hundred friction measurements were performed on each floor surface under each surface condition. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test was used to determine if the distribution of the ACOF was a good fit with the normal, log-normal and Weibull distributions. The results indicated that the ACOF distributions had a slightly better match with the normal and log-normal distributions than with the Weibull in only three out of 15 cases with a statistical significance. The results are far more complex than what had heretofore been published and different scenarios could emerge. Since the ACOF is compared with the RCOF for the estimate of slip probability, the distribution of the ACOF in seven cases could be considered a constant for this purpose when the ACOF is much lower or higher than the RCOF. A few cases could be represented by a normal distribution for practical reasons based on their skewness and kurtosis values without a statistical significance. No representation could be found in three cases out of 15. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Martian aeolian activity at the Bagnold Dunes, Gale Crater: The view from the surface and orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, N. T.; Sullivan, R.; Newman, C. E.; Navarro, S.; van Beek, J.; Ewing, R. C.; Ayoub, F.; Silvestro, S.; Gasnault, O.; Le Mouélic, S.; Lapotre, M. G. A.; Rapin, W.

    2017-10-01

    The first in situ investigation of an active dune field on another planetary surface occurred in 2015-2016 when the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover investigated the Bagnold Dunes on Mars. High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images show clear seasonal variations that are in good agreement with atmospheric model predictions of intra-annual sand flux and migration directions that together indicate that the campaign occurred during a period of low wind activity. Curiosity surface images show that limited changes nevertheless occurred, with movement of large grains, particularly on freshly exposed surfaces, two occurrences of secondary grain flow on the slip face of Namib Dune, and a slump on a freshly exposed surface of a large ripple. These changes are seen at Martian solar day (sol)-to-sol time scales. Grains on a rippled sand deposit and unconsolidated dump piles show limited movement of large grains over a few hours during which mean friction speeds are estimated at 0.3-0.4 m s-1. Overall, the correlation between changes and peak Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) winds is moderate, with high wind events associated with changes in some cases, but not in others, suggesting that other factors are also at work. The distribution of REMS 1 Hz wind speeds shows a significant tail up to the current 20 m s-1 calibration limit, indicating that even higher speed winds occur. Nonaeolian triggering mechanisms are also possible. The low activity period at the dunes documented by Curiosity provides clues to processes that dominated in the Martian past under conditions of lower obliquity.

  3. High-resolution projections of surface water availability for Tasmania, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Bennett

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes to streamflows caused by climate change may have major impacts on the management of water for hydro-electricity generation and agriculture in Tasmania, Australia. We describe changes to Tasmanian surface water availability from 1961–1990 to 2070–2099 using high-resolution simulations. Six fine-scale (∼10 km2 simulations of daily rainfall and potential evapotranspiration are generated with the CSIRO Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM, a variable-resolution regional climate model (RCM. These variables are bias-corrected with quantile mapping and used as direct inputs to the hydrological models AWBM, IHACRES, Sacramento, SIMHYD and SMAR-G to project streamflows.

    The performance of the hydrological models is assessed against 86 streamflow gauges across Tasmania. The SIMHYD model is the least biased (median bias = −3% while IHACRES has the largest bias (median bias = −22%. We find the hydrological models that best simulate observed streamflows produce similar streamflow projections.

    There is much greater variation in projections between RCM simulations than between hydrological models. Marked decreases of up to 30% are projected for annual runoff in central Tasmania, while runoff is generally projected to increase in the east. Daily streamflow variability is projected to increase for most of Tasmania, consistent with increases in rainfall intensity. Inter-annual variability of streamflows is projected to increase across most of Tasmania.

    This is the first major Australian study to use high-resolution bias-corrected rainfall and potential evapotranspiration projections as direct inputs to hydrological models. Our study shows that these simulations are capable of producing realistic streamflows, allowing for increased confidence in assessing future changes to surface water variability.

  4. Dissolved and acid available particulate beryllium in eastern UK surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Colin

    2003-10-01

    The concentrations of beryllium (Be) in surface waters are presented for major water quality surveys of eastern UK rivers, based on extensive work within a major environmental programme, the Land Ocean Interaction Study (LOIS). Two measurements were made, one for dissolved Be (i.e. the fraction that can pass through 0.45-microm membrane filters) the other for acid available total Be (dissolved Be plus the fraction of particulate Be that can be leached by a 1% v/v concentrated nitric acid solution). Dissolved Be concentrations are generally less than 1 microg l(-1) with a mean of approximately 0.02 microg l(-1), but higher values occur across the eastern UK rivers between 16th October and 7th November 1995 under neutral to alkaline conditions where Be would not be expected to be mobile. The higher values vary from river to river and there is a marked increase from north to south with particularly high concentrations (up to 29 microg l(-1)) for the industrial and urban impacted rivers of the southern Humber basin. The results show a major increase in dissolved Be at a time of exceptional drought conditions and climate instability, which seems to be linked to industrial/urban catchment systems. The average dissolved Be flux is 0.22 gha(-1) year(-1) with a range in mean across the sites of 0.08-0.45 gha(-1) year(-1). Without the period of enhanced Be concentrations, the Be flux through the period would have been approximately 40% less. There is no clear distinction between the dissolved Be flux for the rural and urban/industrial catchment systems. Acid available particulate Be (AAPBe) concentrations are low across the eastern UK rivers, they range between 0 and 1.33 microg l(-1) with a mean of 0.02 microg l(-1) and the highest concentrations occur for the industrial/urban rivers (approximately twice the levels occurring within the rural rivers). The AAPBe concentrations are linearly correlated with the concentrations of suspended sediment, particulate organic carbon

  5. Multi-image matching for lunar surface reconstruction from orbital images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaksher, Ahmed F.; Al-Jarrah, Ahmad; Walker, Kyle

    2015-09-01

    The last three Apollo lunar missions (15, 16, and 17) carried an integrated photogrammetric mapping system of a Metric Camera (MC), a high-resolution Panoramic Camera, a Star Camera, and a Laser Altimeter. Recently images taken by the MC were scanned by Arizona State University (ASU); these images contain valuable information for scientific exploration, engineering analysis, and visualization of the moon's surface. Through this article, we took advantage of the large overlaps, the multi viewing, and the high ground resolution of the images taken by the Apollo MC in generating an accurate and trustful surface of the Moon. After computing the positions and orientations of the exposure stations, through rigorous a photogrammetric bundle adjustment techniques, we carried out a two-step matching process that contains hierarchical matching and least squares matching; both steps are implemented in a multi-photo scheme. Our results look very promising and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in accounting for depth discontinuities, occlusions, and noises.

  6. Sand Dune Dynamics on Mars: Integration of Surface Imaging, Wind Measurements, and Orbital Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, N.; Sullivan, R. J., Jr.; Ewing, R. C.; Newman, C. E.; Ayoub, F.; Lapotre, M. G. A.; van Beek, J.

    2016-12-01

    In early 2016, the Mars Science Laboratory rover completed the first in situ investigation of an active dune field on another planetary body, the "Bagnold Dunes" in Gale Crater. During the campaign, a series of Mastcam and RMI time-series images of local sand patches, dump piles, ripples, and the lee face and margin of Namib Dune (a barchan in the Bagnold field) were acquired. These were at cadences of a sol or more that were generally at nearly the same local time, and intra-sol imaging bridged by continuous wind measurements from REMS. The dune field has also been imaged 16 times by HiRISE since 2008. By combining the two datasets, long term dune dynamics over the whole field can be compared to small-scale and short-term observations on the surface. From HiRISE, Namib Dune and other barchans and longitudinal dunes to the south and west migrate generally toward the south to southeast. The most active sand deposits are the longitudinal and barchans dunes, with the highest ripple migration rates found on the highest elevations. Rippled sand patches exhibit little of no motion. From MSL, the scrambling of grains on the surfaces of local rippled sand patches and Namib Dune is obvious over periods as short as a single sol, with light-toned grains showing the greatest tendency. On the lee face of Namib, images show grain scrambling, one case of modification to a secondary grainflow, and possibly ripple motion over 3-16 sols. At the dune margin, grain scrambling and one major slump on the lee face of a dune ripple are seen. The daytime REMS record shows wind speeds up to 20 m/s with confidence. As yet, we do not have a demonstrable correlation between measured wind speeds and changes, suggesting that short term gusts or non-aeolian processes acting as triggers may precede significant activity. The changes, occurring in a low flux season based on HiRISE analysis and global circulation models, indicate an active surface at all times of the year to some degree.

  7. Visibility of lunar surface features - Apollo 14 orbital observations and lunar landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziedman, K.

    1972-01-01

    Description of an in-flight visibility test conducted during the Apollo 14 mission for the purpose of validating and extending the mathematical visibility models used previously in the course of the Apollo program to examine the constraints on descent operations imposed by lunar visibility limitations. Following a background review of the effects on mission planning of the visibility limitations due to downsun lunar surface detail 'washout' and a discussion of the visibility prediction techniques previously used for studying lunar visibility problems, the visibility test rationale and procedures are defined and the test results presented. The results appear to confirm the validity of the visibility prediction techniques employed in lunar visibility problem studies. These results provide also a basis for improving the accuracy of the prediction techniques by appropriate modifications.

  8. Effects of Surface-Water Diversions on Habitat Availability for Native Macrofauna, Northeast Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Wolff, Reuben H.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of surface-water diversions on habitat availability for native stream fauna (fish, shrimp, and snails) are described for 21 streams in northeast Maui, Hawaii. Five streams (Waikamoi, Honomanu, Wailuanui, Kopiliula, and Hanawi Streams) were chosen as representative streams for intensive study. On each of the five streams, three representative reaches were selected: (1) immediately upstream of major surface-water diversions, (2) midway to the coast, and (3) near the coast. This study focused on five amphidromous native aquatic species (alamoo, nopili, nakea, opae, and hihiwai) that are abundant in the study area. The Physical Habitat Simulation (PHABSIM) System, which incorporates hydrology, stream morphology and microhabitat preferences to explore relations between streamflow and habitat availability, was used to simulate habitat/discharge relations for various species and life stages, and to provide quantitative habitat comparisons at different streamflows of interest. Hydrologic data, collected over a range of low-flow discharges, were used to calibrate hydraulic models of selected transects across the streams. The models were then used to predict water depth and velocity (expressed as a Froude number) over a range of discharges up to estimates of natural median streamflow. The biological importance of the stream hydraulic attributes was then assessed with the statistically derived suitability criteria for each native species and life stage that were developed as part of this study to produce a relation between discharge and habitat availability. The final output was expressed as a weighted habitat area of streambed for a representative stream reach. PHABSIM model results are presented to show the area of estimated usable bed habitat over a range of streamflows relative to natural conditions. In general, the models show a continuous decrease in habitat for all modeled species as streamflow is decreased from natural conditions. The PHABSIM modeling results

  9. Orbital dependent Rashba splitting and electron-phonon coupling of 2D Bi phase on Cu(100) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargiani, Pierluigi; Lisi, Simone; Betti, Maria Grazia [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza,” Piazzale A. Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Ibrahimi, Amina Taleb; Bertran, François; Le Fèvre, Patrick [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Saint-Aubin-BP 48, F-91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Chiodo, Letizia [Center for Life Nano Science - Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia and European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF), Viale Regina Elena 291, I-00161, Roma (Italy)

    2013-11-14

    A monolayer of bismuth deposited on the Cu(100) surface forms a highly ordered c(2×2) reconstructed phase. The low energy single particle excitations of the c(2×2) Bi/Cu(100) present Bi-induced states with a parabolic dispersion in the energy region close to the Fermi level, as observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The electronic state dispersion, the charge density localization, and the spin-orbit coupling have been investigated combining photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory, unraveling a two-dimensional Bi phase with charge density well localized at the interface. The Bi-induced states present a Rashba splitting, when the charge density is strongly localized in the Bi plane. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the spectral density close to the Fermi level has been evaluated. Dispersive electronic states offer a large number of decay channels for transitions coupled to phonons and the strength of the electron-phonon coupling for the Bi/Cu(100) system is shown to be stronger than for Bi surfaces and to depend on the electronic state symmetry and localization.

  10. Human Missions to Mars Orbit, Phobos, and Mars Surface Using 100-kWe-Class Solar Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Humphrey W.; Woolley, Ryan C.; Strange, Nathan J.; Baker, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) tugs in the 100-kWe range, may be utilized to preposition cargo in the Mars system to enable more affordable human missions to Phobos and to the surface of Mars. The SEP tug, a high heritage follow-on to the 50-kWe SEP spacecraft proposed for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), would have the same structure, tankage, electric propulsion components, and avionics as the ARRM version, But with double the number of solar arrays, Hall thrusters, and power processor units (PPUs) and would be accommodated within the same launch envelope defined for ARRM. As a feasibility study, a 950-day human mission to Phobos using a conjunction class trajectory, such as the 2033 opportunity, was developed using two 100-kWe SEP vehicles to preposition a habitat at Phobos and propulsion stages in high Mars orbit (HMO). An architecture concept for a crewed Mars surface lander mission was also developed as a reference to build on the Phobos mission architecture, adding a lander element that could be delivered using chemical propulsion and aerocapture.

  11. Assessing surface water availability considering human water use and projected climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Batool; AghaKouchak, Amir; Mousavi-Baygi, Mohammd; Moftakhari, Hamed; Anjileli, Hassan

    2017-04-01

    Climate variability along with anthropogenic activities alter the hydrological cycle and local water availability. The overarching goal of this presentation is to demonstrate the compounding interactions between human water use/withdrawals and climate change and variability. We focus on Karkheh River basin and Urmia basin, in western Iran, that have high level of human activity and water use, and suffer from low water productivity. The future of these basins and their growth relies on sustainable water resources and hence, requires a holistic, basin-wide management to cope with water scarcity challenges. In this study, we investigate changes in the hydrology of the basin including human-induced alterations of the system, during the past three decades. Then, we investigate the individual and combined effects of climate variability and human water withdrawals on surface water storage in the 21st century. We use bias-corrected historical simulations and future projections from ensemble mean of eleven General Circulation Models (GCMs) under two climate change scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The results show that, hydrology of the studied basins are significantly dominated by human activities over the baseline period (1976 - 2005). Results show that the increased anthropogenic water demand resulting from substantial socio-economic growth in the past three decades have put significant stress on water resources. We evaluate a number of future water demand scenarios and their interactions with future climate projections. Our results show that by the end of the 21st century, the compounding effects of increased irrigation water demand and precipitation variability may lead to severe local water scarcity in these basins. Our study highlights the necessity for understanding and considering the compounding effects of human water use and future climate projections. Such studies would be useful for improving water management and developing adaption plans in water scarce regions.

  12. High-resolution MRI using orbit surface coils for the evaluation of metastatic risk factors in 143 children with retinoblastoma. Part 2: new vs. old imaging concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirin, Selma; Schlamann, Marc; Schweiger, Bernd; Goericke, Sophia L. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Metz, Klaus A. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Pathology and Neuropathology, Essen (Germany); Bornfeld, Norbert; Holdt, Markus [University Hospital Essen, Department of Ophthalmology, Essen (Germany); Temming, Petra; Schuendeln, Michael M. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Essen (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended for the evaluation of metastatic risk factors in children with retinoblastoma according to recent guidelines. The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic accuracy of a new imaging concept with two orbit surface coils to that of an old imaging concept with one orbit surface coil. One hundred forty-three patients (148 eyes, 64 girls, 79 boys) underwent high-resolution MRI on 1.5 T scanners using orbit surface coils. The old imaging concept (one orbit surface coil focusing on the (most) effected eye additionally to the standard head coil) was used in 100 patients/103 eye; the new imaging concept (two orbit surface coils (each focusing on one eye) additionally to the standard head coil) in 43 patients/45 eyes. Image analysis was performed by two neuroradiologists in consensus. Histopathology served as gold standard. Detection rate for choroidal invasion was higher for the new compared to that for the old imaging concept (sensitivity/specificity 87.5/94.6 % vs. 57.1/96.1 % for choroidal invasion and 100/97.5 % vs. 58.3/97.7 % for massive choroidal invasion, respectively). Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of postlaminar optic nerve infiltration, peribulbar fat, and scleral invasion were comparable in both imaging concepts; however positive predictive value was higher in the new imaging concept (new vs. old imaging concept: 60 vs. 31.6 % for postlaminar and deep postlaminar optic nerve infiltration, respectively, and 100 vs. 66.7 % for scleral invasion). The new imaging concept shows a trend towards improving the accuracy of detecting metastatic risk factors in children with retinoblastoma and is therefore recommended for pretherapeutic imaging and follow-up. (orig.)

  13. High-resolution MRI using orbit surface coils for the evaluation of metastatic risk factors in 143 children with retinoblastoma. Part 2: new vs. old imaging concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirin, Selma; Schlamann, Marc; Schweiger, Bernd; Goericke, Sophia L.; Metz, Klaus A.; Bornfeld, Norbert; Holdt, Markus; Temming, Petra; Schuendeln, Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended for the evaluation of metastatic risk factors in children with retinoblastoma according to recent guidelines. The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic accuracy of a new imaging concept with two orbit surface coils to that of an old imaging concept with one orbit surface coil. One hundred forty-three patients (148 eyes, 64 girls, 79 boys) underwent high-resolution MRI on 1.5 T scanners using orbit surface coils. The old imaging concept (one orbit surface coil focusing on the (most) effected eye additionally to the standard head coil) was used in 100 patients/103 eye; the new imaging concept (two orbit surface coils (each focusing on one eye) additionally to the standard head coil) in 43 patients/45 eyes. Image analysis was performed by two neuroradiologists in consensus. Histopathology served as gold standard. Detection rate for choroidal invasion was higher for the new compared to that for the old imaging concept (sensitivity/specificity 87.5/94.6 % vs. 57.1/96.1 % for choroidal invasion and 100/97.5 % vs. 58.3/97.7 % for massive choroidal invasion, respectively). Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of postlaminar optic nerve infiltration, peribulbar fat, and scleral invasion were comparable in both imaging concepts; however positive predictive value was higher in the new imaging concept (new vs. old imaging concept: 60 vs. 31.6 % for postlaminar and deep postlaminar optic nerve infiltration, respectively, and 100 vs. 66.7 % for scleral invasion). The new imaging concept shows a trend towards improving the accuracy of detecting metastatic risk factors in children with retinoblastoma and is therefore recommended for pretherapeutic imaging and follow-up. (orig.)

  14. Low Albedo Surfaces and Eolian Sediment: Mars Orbiter Camera Views of Western Arabia Terra Craters and Wind Streaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2001-01-01

    High spatial resolution (1.5 to 12 m/pixel) Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera images obtained September 1997 through June 2001 indicate that the large, dark wind streaks of western Arabia Terra each originate at a barchan dune field on a crater floor. The streaks consist of a relatively thin coating of sediment deflated from the dune fields and their vicinity. This sediment drapes a previous mantle that more thickly covers nearly all of western Arabia Terra. No dunes or eolian bedforms are found within the dark wind streaks, nor do any of the intracrater dunes climb up crater walls to provide sand to the wind streaks. The relations between dunes, wind streak, and subjacent terrain imply that dark-toned grains finer than those which comprise the dunes are lifted into suspension and carried out of the craters to be deposited on the adjacent terrain. Such grains are most likely in the silt size range (3.9-62.5 micrometers). The streaks change in terms of extent, relative albedo, and surface pattern over periods measured in years, but very little evidence for recent eolian activity (dust plumes, storms, dune movement) has been observed.

  15. Comparison of Land Surface Phenology Detections from Geostationary (AHI) and Polar-orbiting (VIIRS) Sensors in Tropical Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface phenology (LSP) is an important indicator of ecosystem response to global change and reflects the exchange of water, energy, and carbon between the land surface and the atmosphere. However, the extraction of LSP in tropical Southeast Asia is very challenging due to weak seasonal variation and frequent cloud commination during the vegetation growing season. The successful launch of Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) onboard Himawari-8 geostationary satellite in October 2014 provides large opportunities to obtain cloud-free observations in daily time series data because it collects data every 10 minutes at a spatial resolution of 500m-2000 m. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard operational Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite provides global moderate-resolution (375-750 m) data once every day. To compare the capability of AHI and VIIRS observations to monitor LSP in frequently-cloud-covered tropical Southeast Asia, this research first extracted LSP metrics based on the time series of daily two-band enhanced vegetation index (EVI2) from AHI and VIIRS using a hybrid piecewise logistic model in 2015 and 2016. The daily AHI EVI2 was calculated from diurnal observations after EVI2 at every 10 minutes was angularly corrected using an empirical kernel-driven model to eliminate the effect caused by the varying sun-satellite geometry. Subsequently, we compared the phenological transition dates of greenup onset and dormancy onset retrieved from AHI and VIIRS data at both pixel level and country level. Finally, we assessed the influences of the quality of daily observation from AHI and VIIRS on the reconstruction of EVI2 time series and the retrievals of phenological dates.

  16. Components of near-surface energy balance derived from satellite soundings – Part 1: Net available energy

    OpenAIRE

    K. Mallick; A. Jarvis; G. Wohlfahrt; G. Kiely; T. Hirano; A. Miyata; S. Yamamoto; L. Hoffmann

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a relatively simple method for recovering global fields of near-surface net available energy (the sum of the sensible and latent heat flux or the difference between the net radiation and surface heat accumulation) using satellite visible and infra-red products derived from the AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) and MODIS (MOderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) platforms. The method focuses on first specifying net surface radiation by con...

  17. Diabatic Molecular Orbitals, Potential Energies, and Potential Energy Surface Couplings by the 4-fold Way for Photodissociation of Phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuefei; Yang, Ke R; Truhlar, Donald G

    2013-08-13

    Complete-active-space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) calculations provide useful reference wave functions for configuration interaction or perturbation theory calculations of excited-state potential energy surfaces including dynamical electron correlation. However, the canonical molecular orbitals (MOs) of CASSCF calculations usually have mixed character in regions of strong interaction of two or more electronic states; therefore, they are unsuitable for diabatization using the configurational uniformity approach. Here, CASSCF diabatic MOs for phenol have been obtained by the 4-fold way, and comparison to the CASSCF canonical MOs shows that they are much smoother. Using these smooth CASSCF diabatic MOs, we performed direct diabatization calculations for the three low-lying states ((1)ππ, (1)ππ*, and (1)πσ*) and their diabatic (scalar) couplings at the dynamically correlated multiconfiguration quasidegenerate perturbation theory (MC-QDPT) level. We present calculations along the O-H stretching and C-C-O-H torsion coordinates for the nonadiabatic photodissociation of phenol to the phenoxyl radical and hydrogen atom. The seams of (1)ππ*/(1)πσ* and (1)ππ/(1)πσ* diabatic crossings are plotted as functions of these coordinates. We also present diabatization calculations for displacements along the out-of-plane ring distortion modes 16a and 16b of the phenyl group. The dominant coupling modes of the two conical intersections ((1)ππ*/(1)πσ* and (1)ππ/(1)πσ*) are discussed. The present diabatization method is confirmed to be valid even for significantly distorted ring structures by diabatization calculations along a reaction path connecting the planar equilibrium geometry of phenol to its strongly distorted prefulvenic form. The present work provides insight into the mode specificity of phenol photodissociation and shows that diabatization at the MC-QDPT level employing CASSCF diabatic MOs can be a good starting point for multidimensional dynamics

  18. The role of reservoir storage in large-scale surface water availability analysis for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrote, L. M.; Granados, A.; Martin-Carrasco, F.; Iglesias, A.

    2017-12-01

    A regional assessment of current and future water availability in Europe is presented in this study. The assessment was made using the Water Availability and Adaptation Policy Analysis (WAAPA) model. The model was built on the river network derived from the Hydro1K digital elevation maps, including all major river basins of Europe. Reservoir storage volume was taken from the World Register of Dams of ICOLD, including all dams with storage capacity over 5 hm3. Potential Water Availability is defined as the maximum amount of water that could be supplied at a certain point of the river network to satisfy a regular demand under pre-specified reliability requirements. Water availability is the combined result of hydrological processes, which determine streamflow in natural conditions, and human intervention, which determines the available hydraulic infrastructure to manage water and establishes water supply conditions through operating rules. The WAAPA algorithm estimates the maximum demand that can be supplied at every node of the river network accounting for the regulation capacity of reservoirs under different management scenarios. The model was run for a set of hydrologic scenarios taken from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP), where the PCRGLOBWB hydrological model was forced with results from five global climate models. Model results allow the estimation of potential water stress by comparing water availability to projections of water abstractions along the river network under different management alternatives. The set of sensitivity analyses performed showed the effect of policy alternatives on water availability and highlighted the large uncertainties linked to hydrological and anthropological processes.

  19. The Influence of Climate Change on Irrigated Water Demands and Surface Water Availability of the Yellow River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, T. J.; Zhang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Balancing irrigated water demands and surface water availability is critical for sustainable water resources management. In China, irrigation is the largest water user, and there is concern that irrigated water demands will be affected by climate change. If the relationship between climate change, irrigated water demands and surface water availability is quantified, then effective measures can be developed to maintain food production while ensuring water sustainability. This research focuses on the Yellow River, the second longest in China, and analyzes the impact of historical and projected climate change on agricultural water demands and surface water availability. Corn and wheat are selected as representative crops to estimate the effect of temperature and precipitin changes on irrigated water demands. The VIC model is used to simulate daily streamflow throughout the Yellow River, providing estimates of surface water availability. Overall, results indicate the irrigated water need and surface water availability are impacted by climate change, with spatially varying impacts depending on spatial patterns of climate trends and river network position. This research provides insight into water security in the Yellow River basin, indicating where water efficiency measures are needed and where they are not.

  20. A review of construction techniques available for surface and underground radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, D.G.; Davies, I.L.; MacKenzie, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    In terms of engineering requirements the construction of surface or indeed underground radioactive waste repositories is not unduly difficult. The civil engineering techniques likely to be required have generally been carried out previously, albeit not in the context of radioactive waste repositories in this country. The emphasis will have to be very much on the quality of construction. This paper emphasises the need for quality construction and describes the techniques likely to be used in the construction of repositories. Reference is made to the materials likely to be used in the construction of repositories and also to the need for being able to convince the designers, regulating authorities and the general public that the materials used will indeed last for the required time. Brief reference is made at the end of the paper to the civil engineering parameters requiring consideration in the location of repository siting. (author)

  1. Regional-scale estimates of surface moisture availability and thermal inertia using remote thermal measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, T. N.

    1986-01-01

    A review is presented of numerical models which were developed to interpret thermal IR data and to identify the governing parameters and surface energy fluxes recorded in the images. Analytic, predictive, diagnostic and empirical models are described. The limitations of each type of modeling approach are explored in terms of the error sources and inherent constraints due to theoretical or measurement limitations. Sample results of regional-scale soil moisture or evaporation patterns derived from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission and GOES satellite data through application of the predictive model devised by Carlson (1981) are discussed. The analysis indicates that pattern recognition will probably be highest when data are collected over flat, arid, sparsely vegetated terrain. The soil moisture data then obtained may be accurate to within 10-20 percent.

  2. Evaluation of Surface Microhardness Following Chemical and Microwave Disinfection of Commercially Available Acrylic Resin Denture Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Nitasha; Daniel, Smitha; Benjamin, Sushant; Varghese, Vinaya Susan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Denture disinfection is an indispensable procedure for preventing cross contamination and the maintenance of a healthy oral mucosa in patients rehabilitated with removable dental prosthesis. Nevertheless, they are known to cause changes in the physical and mechanical properties of denture base resins and acrylic resin denture teeth following immersion of a denture in a suitable chemical disinfectant solution or by undergoing microwave irradiation. One such mechanical property indicator for artificial tooth materials is hardness. Aim To assess the surface hardness of acrylic resin teeth of three different commercial brands (Ivoclar, Newace, Acryrock) following chemical (2% glutaraldehyde, 1% sodium hypochlorite) and microwave disinfections. Materials and Methods Ten specimens of each of the three commercial brands were made for control and each simulated disinfection type and stored in distilled water at room temperature for 24 hours. After water storage, specimens were immersed in 2% glutaraldehyde and 1% sodium hypochlorite (one and three cycles) at room temperature for 10 minutes. Irradiation with microwave (one and three cycles) was done in domestic microwave for three minutes with the specimens immersed in 150 ml of distilled water. The specimens were stored in distilled water at room temperature for seven days after each disinfection cycle. Vickers hardness measurements were made using a hardness indenter under a load of 50 g force for 10 seconds. Data was subjected to repeated measure two-way ANOVA test and Tukey’s test. Results There were statistically significant differences for the variables disinfection, tooth, and cycle (pdisinfectant interaction, pdisinfectant interaction). The mean surface hardness following one microwave disinfection cycle was lower than control, glutaraldehyde and sodium hypochlorite. Comparison among cycles revealed that microhardness was significantly decreased for three cycles of microwave disinfection. Conclusion

  3. Implications of Upstream Flow Availability for Watershed Surface Water Supply Across the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai Duan; Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell; Steven G. McNulty; Yang Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Although it is well established that the availability of upstream flow (AUF) affects downstream water supply, its significance has not been rigorously categorized and quantified at fine resolutions. This study aims to fill this gap by providing a nationwide inventory of AUF and local water resource, and assessing their roles in securing water supply across the 2,099 8-...

  4. High-resolution MRI using orbit surface coils for the evaluation of metastatic risk factors in 143 children with retinoblastoma. Part 1: MRI vs. histopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirin, Selma; Schlamann, Marc; Schweiger, Bernd; Goericke, Sophia L. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Metz, Klaus A. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Pathology and Neuropathology, Essen (Germany); Bornfeld, Norbert; Holdt, Markus [University Hospital Essen, Department of Ophthalmology, Essen (Germany); Temming, Petra; Schuendeln, Michael M. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Essen (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    A reliable detection of metastatic risk factors is important for children with retinoblastoma to choose the right therapeutic regimen. First studies using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with orbit surface coils were promising. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the ability of high-resolution MRI to detect metastatic and especially advanced metastatic risk factors in a large group of children with retinoblastoma. One hundred forty-three consecutive children with retinoblastoma (148 enucleated eyes, 64 girls, 79 boys, mean age 19.7 ± 15.3) who received pretherapeutical high-resolution MRI with orbit surface coils on 1.5 T MR scanner systems between 2007 and 2012 and subsequent primary enucleation within 14 days were included in this retrospective study. Image analysis was performed by two neuroradiologists experienced in ocular imaging in consensus. Histopathology served as gold standard. Sensitivity/specificity for the detection of metastatic risk factors using high-resolution MRI with orbit surface coils were 60 %/88.7 % for postlaminar optic nerve infiltration, 65.5 %/95.6 % for choroidal invasion, 100 %/99.3 % for scleral invasion, and 100 %/100 % for peribulbar fat invasion, respectively. The results increased for the detection of advanced metastatic risk factors, 81.8 %/89.1 % for deep postlaminar optic nerve infiltration, 70.6 %/97.6 % for massive choroidal invasion. High-resolution MRI is clinically valuable for the detection of metastatic, especially of advanced metastatic risk factors in children with retinoblastoma. (orig.)

  5. Aerial and surface rivers: downwind impacts on water availability from land use changes in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Weng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The abundant evapotranspiration provided by the Amazon forests is an important component of the hydrological cycle, both regionally and globally. Since the last century, deforestation and expanding agricultural activities have been changing the ecosystem and its provision of moisture to the atmosphere. However, it remains uncertain how the ongoing land use change will influence rainfall, runoff, and water availability as findings from previous studies differ. Using moisture tracking experiments based on observational data, we provide a spatially detailed analysis recognizing potential teleconnection between source and sink regions of atmospheric moisture. We apply land use scenarios in upwind moisture sources and quantify the corresponding rainfall and runoff changes in downwind moisture sinks. We find spatially varying responses of water regimes to land use changes, which may explain the diverse results from previous studies. Parts of the Peruvian Amazon and western Bolivia are identified as the sink areas most sensitive to land use change in the Amazon and we highlight the current water stress by Amazonian land use change on these areas in terms of the water availability. Furthermore, we also identify the influential source areas where land use change may considerably reduce a given target sink's water reception (from our example of the Ucayali River basin outlet, rainfall by 5–12 % and runoff by 19–50 % according to scenarios. Sensitive sinks and influential sources are therefore suggested as hotspots for achieving sustainable land–water management.

  6. [Influence of surface water availability on mammal distributions in Nonggang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tian-Bo; Sung, Yik-Hei; Bosco Chan, Pui-Lok; Meng, Yuan-Jun; Wan, Pak-Ho

    2013-06-01

    Surface water is a major limiting factor affecting animal activities in karst ecosystems. From March, 2006 to June, 2007 and from October, 2010 to May, 2011, infra-red camera traps were installed along animal trails and temporary rain pools in Nonggang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi, China, to monitor mammal diversity and relative abundance. In total, 19 species from 17 genera, 12 families, and 5 orders were recorded, including two State Key Protection Class I species, the François' langur (Trachypithecus francoisi) and Assam macaque (Macaca assamensis). Although 42% of species only occurred in one of the microhabitats, differences in species assemblages between trails and pools were not significant. The results of our observation indicated that camera trapping was effective in monitoring medium to large sized mammals, and for recording illegal hunting. In addition, our results suggest that authorities should reinforce patrolling, especially at water pools during the dry season, and eradicate unsustainable extraction of underground water. Moreover, based on the advantages of large inhibited environments to animal species, especially to large predators, we also recommend connecting the three isolated sections of the reserve to promote species recovery and dispersal.

  7. Aerial and surface rivers: downwind impacts on water availability from land use changes in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wei; Luedeke, Matthias K. B.; Zemp, Delphine C.; Lakes, Tobia; Kropp, Juergen P.

    2018-02-01

    The abundant evapotranspiration provided by the Amazon forests is an important component of the hydrological cycle, both regionally and globally. Since the last century, deforestation and expanding agricultural activities have been changing the ecosystem and its provision of moisture to the atmosphere. However, it remains uncertain how the ongoing land use change will influence rainfall, runoff, and water availability as findings from previous studies differ. Using moisture tracking experiments based on observational data, we provide a spatially detailed analysis recognizing potential teleconnection between source and sink regions of atmospheric moisture. We apply land use scenarios in upwind moisture sources and quantify the corresponding rainfall and runoff changes in downwind moisture sinks. We find spatially varying responses of water regimes to land use changes, which may explain the diverse results from previous studies. Parts of the Peruvian Amazon and western Bolivia are identified as the sink areas most sensitive to land use change in the Amazon and we highlight the current water stress by Amazonian land use change on these areas in terms of the water availability. Furthermore, we also identify the influential source areas where land use change may considerably reduce a given target sink's water reception (from our example of the Ucayali River basin outlet, rainfall by 5-12 % and runoff by 19-50 % according to scenarios). Sensitive sinks and influential sources are therefore suggested as hotspots for achieving sustainable land-water management.

  8. Orbital Order in Two-Orbital Hubbard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkawa, Kojiro; Onari, Seiichiro

    2018-03-01

    In strongly correlated multiorbital systems, various ordered phases appear. In particular, the orbital order in iron-based superconductors attracts much attention since it is considered to be the origin of the nematic state. To clarify the essential conditions for realizing orbital orders, we study the simple two-orbital (dxz,dyz) Hubbard model. We find that the orbital order, which corresponds to the nematic order, appears due to the vertex corrections even in the two-orbital model. Thus, the dxy orbital is not essential to realize the nematic orbital order. The obtained orbital order is determined by the orbital dependence and the topology of Fermi surfaces. We also find that another type of orbital order, which is rotated 45°, appears in a heavily hole-doped case.

  9. Appropriate use of locally available materials in concrete, bituminous surfacings and layerworks for roads in rural areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2009-06-17

    Full Text Available and durability of the concrete and probably to increase the shrinkage. Bituminous surfacings are currently tightly specified and comparison with other countries indicates that certain areas of relaxation are possible. These are mostly with respect to the grading...

  10. Neonatal orbital abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil M Al-Salem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital complications due to ethmoiditis are rare in neonates. A case of orbital abscess due to acute ethmoiditis in a 28-day-old girl is presented. A Successful outcome was achieved following antimicrobial therapy alone; spontaneous drainage of the abscess occurred from the lower lid without the need for surgery. From this case report, we intend to emphasize on eyelid retraction as a sign of neonatal orbital abscess, and to review all the available literature of similar cases.

  11. Orbital glass in HTSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusmartsev, F.V.

    1992-10-01

    The physical reasons why the orbital glass may exist in granular high-temperature superconductors and the existing experimental data appeared recently are discussed. The orbital glass is characterized by the coexistence of the orbital paramagnetic state with the superconducting state and occurs at small magnetic fields H c0 c1 . The transition in orbital glass arises at the critical field H c0 which is inversely proportional to the surface cross-area S of an average grain. In connection with theoretical predictions the possible experiments are proposed. (author). 10 refs

  12. Measurement of fog and haze extinction characteristics and availability evaluation of free space optical link under the sea surface environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaojun; Wang, Hongxing; Song, Bo

    2015-02-10

    Fog and haze can lead to changes in extinction characteristics. Therefore, the performance of the free space optical link is highly influenced by severe weather conditions. Considering the influential behavior of weather conditions, a state-of-the-art solution for the observation of fog and haze over the sea surface is presented in this paper. A Mie scattering laser radar, with a wavelength of 532 nm, is used to observe the weather conditions of the sea surface environment. The horizontal extinction coefficients and visibilities are obtained from the observation data, and the results are presented in the paper. The changes in the characteristics of extinction coefficients and visibilities are analyzed based on both the short-term (6 days) severe weather data and long-term (6 months) data. Finally, the availability performance of the free space optical communication link is evaluated under the sea surface environment.

  13. Methane oxidation in pig and cattle slurry storages, and effects of surface crust moisture and methane availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, S.O.; Ambus, P.

    2006-01-01

    2 during incubation, while intact subsamples were used to characterize CH4 oxidation as a function of CH4 availability and moisture content. Methane oxidation was observed in all materials except for an expanded clay product (Leca) sampled from a pig slurry storage. Despite significant variation......Storages with liquid manure (slurry) may develop a surface crust of particulate organic matter, or an artificial crust can be established. Slurry storages are net sources of atmospheric methane (CH4), but a potential for bacterial oxidation of CH4 in surface crusts was recently suggested in a study...... of experimental storages. The present study was conducted to investigate methanotrophic activity under practical storage conditions. Surface crusts from slurry storages at two pig farms and four dairy farms were sampled in late autumn. Mixed samples (0-4 cm depth) were used to determine changes in CH4, O-2 and CO...

  14. Understanding surface-water availability in the Central Valley as a means to projecting future groundwater storage with climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J. P.; Cayan, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    California's Central Valley (CV) relies heavily on diverted surface water and groundwater pumping to supply irrigated agriculture. However, understanding the spatiotemporal character of water availability in the CV is difficult because of the number of individual farms and local, state, and federal agencies involved in using and managing water. Here we use the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM), developed by the USGS, to understand the relationships between climatic variability, surface water inputs, and resulting groundwater use over the historical period 1970-2013. We analyzed monthly surface water diversion data from >500 CV locations. Principle components analyses were applied to drivers constructed from meteorological data, surface reservoir storage, ET, land use cover, and upstream inflows, to feed multiple regressions and identify factors most important in predicting surface water diversions. Two thirds of the diversion locations ( 80% of total diverted water) can be predicted to within 15%. Along with monthly inputs, representations of cumulative precipitation over the previous 3 to 36 months can explain an additional 10% of variance, depending on location, compared to results that excluded this information. Diversions in the southern CV are highly sensitive to inter-annual variability in precipitation (R2 = 0.8), whereby more surface water is used during wet years. Until recently, this was not the case in the northern and mid-CV, where diversions were relatively constant annually, suggesting relative insensitivity to drought. In contrast, this has important implications for drought response in southern regions (eg. Tulare Basin) where extended dry conditions can severely limit surface water supplies and lead to excess groundwater pumping, storage loss, and subsidence. In addition to fueling our understanding of spatiotemporal variability in diversions, our ability to predict these water balance components allows us to update CVHM predictions before

  15. Preseptal Cellulitis, Orbital Cellulitis, Orbital Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Altan Yaycıoğlu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with orbital infections present to our clinic usually with unilateral pain, hyperemia, and edema of the eyelids. The differentiation between preseptal and orbital cellulitis is utmost important in that the second requires hospitalization. Since in orbital cellulitis, the tissues posterior to the orbital septum are involved, signs such as conjunctival chemosis, limited eye movement, decreased vision, as well as afferent pupil defect secondary to optic nerve involvement may also be observed. Prompt intravenous antibiotic treatment should be started, and surgical drainage may be performed if patient shows failure to improve in 48 hours despite optimal management. Without treatment, the clinical course may progress to subperiosteal or orbital abscess, and even to cavernous sinus thrombosis. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 52-6

  16. X-37 C-Sic CMC Control Surface Components Development [Status of the NASA/Boeing/USAF Orbital Vehicle and Related Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Peter G; Rivers, H. Kevin; Chen, Victor L.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon/Silicon-Carbide (C-Sic) ceramic matrix composite (CMC) flaperon and ruddervator control surface components are being developed for the X-37 Orbital Vehicle (OV). The results of the prior NASA LaRC led work, aimed at developing C-Sic flaperon and ruddervator components for the X-37, will be reviewed. The status of several on-going and/or planned NASA, USAF, and Boeing programs that will support the development of control surface components for the X-37 OV will also be reviewed. The overall design and development philosophy being employed to assemble a team(s) to develop both: (a) C-Sic hot structure control surface components for the X-37 OV, and (b) carbon-carbon (C-C) hot structure components (a risk-reduction backup option for the OV), will be presented.

  17. Evaluate the Effect of Commercially Available Denture Cleansers on Surface Hardness and Roughness of Denture Liners at Various Time Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hilal S.; Singh, Sumeet; Hari, Prasad A.; Amarnath, G. S.; Kundapur, Vinaya; Pasha, Naveed; Anand, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective: Chemical cleansing by denture cleansers is first choice for denture plaque control. The most common problems while using denture cleansers are hardening, porosity, odor sorption, water sorption, solubility, and colour change, bacterial and fungal growth. Chemical cleansing procedures have been found to have an effect on the physical and mechanical properties of denture liners. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of commercially available denture cleansers on surface hardness and roughness of acrylic and silicon based denture liners at various time interval. Method: Two autopolymerising denture liners Kooliner (acrylic) and GC reline soft (silicon) were tested with two commercially available denture cleansers, polident and efferdent plus. Total of 120 specimens were prepared and all the specimens were divided into six groups based on the relining materials and denture cleansers used. Surface hardness and surface roughness was tested using Shore A durometer and profilometer respectively at the end of day 1, day 7, day 30 and day 90. All the specimens were stored in artificial saliva throughout the study. Cleanser solution was prepared daily by adding Polident and Efferdent plus denture cleanser tablet into 250ml of enough very warm (not hot) water. Acrylic and silicon liner groups were cleansed in a solution of denture cleanser and water for 15 minutes daily, rinsed with water and stored in artificial saliva at room temperature. The data was analyzed with one way ANOVA and independent t-test. Result: The acrylic soft lining showed gradual hardening and increase in surface roughness after immersion in denture cleanser and also with time. Acrylic liner material showed maximum hardness and roughness with Polident followed by Efferdent plus and water (control group). Silicone lining material showed a slight difference in hardness and roughness between the test group and control group. There was a slight increase in hardness in

  18. Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler Jr., E. C.; Acuna, M.; Burchell, M. J.; Coates, A.; Farrell, W.; Flasar, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Gorevan, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Johnson, W. T. K.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a combined Titan orbiter and Titan Aerorover mission with an emphasis on both in situ and remote sensing measurements of Titan's surface, atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetospheric interaction. The biological aspect of the Titan environment will be emphasized by the mission (i.e., search for organic materials which may include simple organics to 'amono' analogues of amino acids and possibly more complex, lightening detection and infrared, ultraviolet, and charged particle interactions with Titan's surface and atmosphere). An international mission is assumed to control costs. NASA will provide the orbiter, launch vehicle, DSN coverage and operations, while international partners will provide the Aerorover and up to 30% of the cost for the scientific instruments through collaborative efforts. To further reduce costs we propose a single PI for orbiter science instruments and a single PI for Aerorover science instruments. This approach will provide single command/data and power interface between spacecraft and orbiter instruments that will have redundant central DPU and power converter for their instruments. A similar approach could be used for the Aerorover. The mission profile will be constructed to minimize conflicts between Aerorover science, orbiter radar science, orbiter radio science, orbiter imaging science, and orbiter fields and particles (FP) science. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. [Orbital cellulitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouriaux, F; Rysanek, B; Babin, E; Cattoir, V

    2012-01-01

    Orbital cellulitis is uncommon in ophthalmologic practice. The majority of cases arise from direct spread of sinus infection or eyelid infection. Clinically, orbital cellulitis is divided into two forms: the preseptal form, anterior to the orbital septum, and the retroseptal form, posterior to the orbital septum. Management and prognosis differ widely between the two types. The retroseptal form or "true" orbital cellulitis is a severe disease with potentially disastrous consequences for vision and survival. Clinical examination and urgent CT scanning are indispensable for correct diagnosis, evaluation of severity, surgical planning and antibiotic selection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Monte Carlo simulations of the secondary neutron ambient and effective dose equivalent rates from surface to suborbital altitudes and low Earth orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jaby, Samy; Richardson, Richard B

    2015-07-01

    Occupational exposures from ionizing radiation are currently regulated for airline travel (Earth orbit (∼300-400 km). Aircrew typically receive between 1 and 6 mSv of occupational dose annually, while aboard the International Space Station, the area radiation dose equivalent measured over just 168 days was 106 mSv at solar minimum conditions. It is anticipated that space tourism vehicles will reach suborbital altitudes of approximately 100 km and, therefore, the annual occupational dose to flight crew during repeated transits is expected to fall somewhere between those observed for aircrew and astronauts. Unfortunately, measurements of the radiation environment at the high altitudes reached by suborbital vehicles are sparse, and modelling efforts have been similarly limited. In this paper, preliminary MCNPX radiation transport code simulations are developed of the secondary neutron flux profile in air from surface altitudes up to low Earth orbit at solar minimum conditions and excluding the effects of spacecraft shielding. These secondary neutrons are produced by galactic cosmic radiation interacting with Earth's atmosphere and are among the sources of radiation that can pose a health risk. Associated estimates of the operational neutron ambient dose equivalent, used for radiation protection purposes, and the neutron effective dose equivalent that is typically used for estimates of stochastic health risks, are provided in air. Simulations show that the neutron radiation dose rates received at suborbital altitudes are comparable to those experienced by aircrew flying at 7 to 14 km. We also show that the total neutron dose rate tails off beyond the Pfotzer maximum on ascension from surface up to low Earth orbit. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Available content, surface runoff and leaching of phosphorus forms in a typic hapludalf treated with organic and mineral nutrient sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cledimar Rogério Lourenzi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of animal manure to soil can increase phosphorus availability to plants and enhance transfer of the nutrient solution drained from the soil surface or leached into the soil profile. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of successive applications of organic and mineral nutrient sources on the available content, surface runoff and leaching of P forms in a Typic Hapludalf in no-tillage systems. Experiment 1 was set up in 2004 in the experimental area of UFSM, in Santa Maria (RS, Brazil. The treatments consisted of: control (without nutrient application and application of pig slurry (PS, pig deep-litter (PL, cattle slurry (CS, and mineral fertilizers (NPK. The rates were determined to meet the N crop requirements of no-tillage black oat and maize, grown in the 2010/2011 growing season. The soil solution was collected after each event (rain + runoff or leaching and the soluble, particulate and total P contents were measured. In November 2008, soil was collected in 2 cm intervals to a depth of 20 cm, in 5 cm intervals to a depth of 40 cm, and in 10 cm intervals to a depth of 70 cm. The soil was dried and ground, and P determined after extraction by anion exchange resin (AER. In experiment 2, samples collected from the Typic Hapludalf near experiment 1 were incubated for 20, 35, 58, 73 and 123 days after applying the following treatments: soil, soil + PS, soil + PL, soil + CS and soil + NPK. Thereafter, the soil was sampled and P was analyzed by AER. The applications of nutrient sources over the years led to an increase in available P and its migration in the soil profile. This led to P transfer via surface runoff and leaching, with the largest transfer being observed in PS and PL treatments, in which most P was applied. The soil available P and P transfer via surface runoff were correlated with the amounts applied, regardless of the P source. However, P transfer by leaching was not correlated with the applied nutrient

  2. Availability of surface boron species in improved oxygen reduction activity of Pt catalysts: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Libo; Zhou, Gang, E-mail: gzhou@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2016-04-14

    The oxidation process of boron (B) species on the Pt(111) surface and the beneficial effects of boron oxides on the oxygen reduction activity are investigated by first-principles calculations. The single-atom B anchored on the Pt surface has a great attraction for the oxygen species in the immediate environment. With the dissociation of molecular oxygen, a series of boron oxides is formed in succession, both indicating exothermic oxidation reactions. After BO{sub 2} is formed, the subsequent O atom immediately participates in the oxygen reduction reaction. The calculated O adsorption energy is appreciably decreased as compared to Pt catalysts, and more approximate to the optimal value of the volcano plot, from which is clear that O hydrogenation kinetics is improved. The modulation mechanism is mainly based on the electron-deficient nature of stable boron oxides, which normally reduces available electronic states of surface Pt atoms that bind the O by facilitating more electron transfer. This modification strategy from the exterior opens the new way, different from the alloying, to efficient electrocatalyst design for PEMFCs.

  3. Revisiting magnetism of capped Au and ZnO nanoparticles: Surface band structure and atomic orbital with giant magnetic moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernando, Antonio; Crespo, Patricia [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-CSIC-ADIF, Las Rozas. P.O. Box 155, 28230 Madrid (Spain); Dept. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Garcia, Miguel Angel [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/ Kelsen, 5, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Coey, Michael [Trinity College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Ayuela, Andres; Echenique, Pedro Miguel [Centro de Fisica de Materiales, CFM-MPC CSIC-UPV/EHU, Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Fac. de Quimicas, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV-EHU, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    In this article we review the exotic magnetism of nanoparticles (NPs) formed by substances that are not magnetic in bulk as described with generality in Section 1. In particular, the intrinsic character of the magnetism observed on capped Au and ZnO NPs is analysed. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) analysis has shown that the magnetic moments are intrinsic and lie in the Au and Zn atoms, respectively, as analysed in Section 2, where the general theoretical ideas are also revisited. Since impurity atoms bonded to the surface act as donor or acceptor of electrons that occupy the surface states, the anomalous magnetic response is analysed in terms of the surface band in Section 3. Finally, Section 4 summarizes our last theoretical proposal. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Orbital velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Modestino, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    The trajectory and the orbital velocity are determined for an object moving in a gravitational system, in terms of fundamental and independent variables. In particular, considering a path on equipotential line, the elliptical orbit is naturally traced, verifying evidently the keplerian laws. The case of the planets of the solar system is presented.

  5. ORBITAL, CELLULITIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of paranasal sinusitis as a cause of orbital cellulitis and to identify the commonest sinus(es) involved in our setting. Methods: A retrospective review of the case notes of 47 patients with orbital cellulitis admitted into the ophthalmic ward of the University College ...

  6. Envelopes of Cometary Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijajlović, Ž.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss cometary orbits from the standpoint of Nonstandard (Leibnitz analysis, a relatively new branch of mathematics. In particular, we consider parabolic cometary paths. It appears that, in a sense, every parabola is an ellipse.

  7. Unusual Sclerosing Orbital Pseudotumor Infiltrating Orbits and Maxillofacial Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Toprak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic orbital pseudotumor (IOP is a benign inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. Bilateral massive orbital involvement and extraorbital extension of the IOP is very rare. We present an unusual case of IOP with bilateral massive orbital infiltration extending into maxillofacial regions and discuss its distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI features that help to exclude other entities during differential diagnoses.

  8. OMI/Aura Surface UV Irradiance 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 (OMUVB) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Version 003 Surface UV Irradiance Product (OMUVB) is now available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and...

  9. Peripheral orbit model

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, Yasuo

    1975-01-01

    Peripheral orbit model, in which an incoming hadron is assumed to revolve in a peripheral orbit around a target hadron, is discussed. The non-diffractive parts of two-body reaction amplitudes of hadrons are expressed in terms of the radius, width an absorptivity of the orbit. The radius of the orbit is about 1 fm and the width of the orbit is determined by the range of the interaction between the hadrons. The model reproduces all available experimental data on differential cross-sections and polarizations of $K^{-}p\\to K^{-}p$ and $\\bar K^{\\circ}n$ reactions for all angles successfully. This contribution is not included in the proceedings since it will appear in Progress of Theoretical Physics Vol. 51 (1974) No 2. Any person interested in the subject may apply for reprints to the author.

  10. Thermal math model analysis of FRSI test article subjected to cold soak and entry environments. [Flexible Reuseable Surface Insulation in Space Shuttle Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    A multi-objective test program was conducted at the NASA/JSC Radiant Heat Test Facility in which an aluminum skin/stringer test panel insulated with FRSI (Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation) was subjected to 24 simulated Space Shuttle Orbiter ascent/entry heating cycles with a cold soak in between in the 10th and 20th cycles. A two-dimensional thermal math model was developed and utilized to predict the thermal performance of the FRSI. Results are presented which indicate that the modeling techniques and property values have been proven adequate in predicting peak structure temperatures and entry thermal responses from both an ambient and cold soak condition of an FRSI covered aluminum structure.

  11. Hypersonic Navier Stokes Comparisons to Orbiter Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Nompelis, Ioannis; Candler, Graham; Barnhart, Michael; Yoon, Seokkwan

    2009-01-01

    Hypersonic chemical nonequilibrium simulations of low earth orbit entry flow fields are becoming increasingly commonplace as software and computational capabilities become more capable. However, development of robust and accurate software to model these environments will always encounter a significant barrier in developing a suite of high quality calibration cases. The US3D hypersonic nonequilibrium Navier Stokes analysis capability has been favorably compared to a number of wind tunnel test cases. Extension of the calibration basis for this software to Orbiter flight conditions will provide an incremental increase in confidence. As part of the Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment and the Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements project, NASA is performing entry flight testing on the Orbiter to provide valuable aerothermodynamic heating data. An increase in interest related to orbiter entry environments is resulting from this activity. With the advent of this new data, comparisons of the US3D software to the new flight testing data is warranted. This paper will provide information regarding the framework of analyses that will be applied with the US3D analysis tool. In addition, comparisons will be made to entry flight testing data provided by the Orbiter BLT Flight Experiment and HYTHIRM projects. If data from digital scans of the Orbiter windward surface become available, simulations will also be performed to characterize the difference in surface heating between the CAD reference OML and the digitized surface provided by the surface scans.

  12. Topology of tokamak orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, J.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1978-09-01

    Guiding center orbits in noncircular axisymmetric tokamak plasmas are studied in the constants of motion (COM) space of (v, zeta, psi/sub m/). Here, v is the particle speed, zeta is the pitch angle with respect to the parallel equilibrium current, J/sub parallels/, and psi/sub m/ is the maximum value of the poloidal flux function (increasing from the magnetic axis) along the guiding center orbit. Two D-shaped equilibria in a flux-conserving tokamak having β's of 1.3% and 7.7% are used as examples. In this space, each confined orbit corresponds to one and only one point and different types of orbits (e.g., circulating, trapped, stagnation and pinch orbits) are represented by separate regions or surfaces in the space. It is also shown that the existence of an absolute minimum B in the higher β (7.7%) equilibrium results in a dramatically different orbit topology from that of the lower β case. The differences indicate the confinement of additional high energy (v → c, within the guiding center approximation) trapped, co- and countercirculating particles whose orbit psi/sub m/ falls within the absolute B well

  13. The Hot Orbit: Orbital Cellulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Imtiaz A.; Al-Rashed, Waleed; Arat, Yonca O.

    2012-01-01

    Orbital cellulitis is an uncommon condition previously associated with severe complications. If untreated, orbital cellulitis can be potentially sight and life threatening. It can affect both adults and children but has a greater tendency to occur in the pediatric age group. The infection most commonly originates from sinuses, eyelids or face, retained foreign bodies, or distant soources by hematogenous spread. It is characterized by eyelid edema, erythema, chemosis, proptosis, blurred vision, fever, headache, and double vision. A history of upper respiratory tract infection prior to the onset is very common especially in children. In the era prior to antibiotics, vision loss from orbital cellulitis was a dreaded complication. Currently, imaging studies for detection of orbital abcess, the use of antibiotics and early drainage have mitigated visual morbidity significantly. The purpose of this review is to describe current investigative strategies and management options in the treatment of orbital cellulitis, establish their effectiveness and possible complications due to late intervention. PMID:22346113

  14. Electron content near the lunar surface using dual-frequency VLBI tracking data in a single lunar orbiter mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Na; Ping, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    In VLBI observations of Vstar, a subsatellite of the Japanese lunar mission SELENE, there were opportunities for lunar grazing occultation when Vstar was very close to the limb of the Moon. This kind of chance made it possible to probe the thin plasma layer above the Moon's surface as a meaningful by-product of VLBI, by using the radio occultation method with coherent radio waves from the S/X bands. The dual-frequency measurements were carried out at Earth-based VLBI stations. In the line-of-sight direction between the satellite and the ground-based tracking station where VLBI measurements were made, the effects of the terrestrial ionosphere, interplanetary plasma and the thin lunar ionosphere mixed together in the combined observables of dual-frequency Doppler shift and phase shift. To separate the variation of the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) near the surface of the Moon from the mixed signal, the influences of the terrestrial ionosphere and interplanetary plasma have been removed by using an extrapolation method based on a short-term trend. The lunar TEC is estimated from the dual-frequency observation for Vstar from UT 22:18 to UT 22:20 on 2008 June 28 at several tracking stations. The TEC results obtained from VLBI sites are identical, however, they are not as remarkable as the result obtained at the Usuda deep space tracking station. (paper)

  15. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkardt Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  16. Foreign body orbital cyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanfard, Younes; Heegard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology......Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology...

  17. Late Neogene Orbitally-Forced Sea Surface Temperature Variability in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific as Measured by Uk'37 and TEX86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, K. T.; Pearson, A.; Castañeda, I. S.; Peterson, L.

    2017-12-01

    Key features of late Neogene climate remain uncertain due to conflicting records derived from different sea surface temperature (SST) proxies. To resolve these disputes, it is necessary to explore both the consistencies and differences between paleotemperature estimates from critical oceanographic regimes. Here, we report orbital-scale climate variability at ODP Site 846 in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) in the interval from 5-6 Ma using alkenone and TEX86 temperature estimates. Results from both proxies are very similar in their secular trends and magnitude of long-term temperature change; and spectral analysis demonstrates that the records are coherent and in-phase or nearly in-phase in both the obliquity and precession bands. However, we find that the temperatures reconstructed by TEX86 are consistently offset towards colder values by 2ºC with orbital-scale variations approximately twice the amplitude of the Uk'37 derived estimates. Both temperature records are antiphased - i.e. "colder" - at higher sediment alkenone concentrations, a qualitative indicator of increased glacial productivity. Temperature differences between the proxies are accentuated during glacial intervals in contrasts to modern observations of EEP surface and subsurface temperatures, which show that thermocline temperatures are fairly stable, and thus by analogy, glacial cooling and/or enhanced upwelling should have reduced rather than accentuated temperature gradients in the upper water column. Therefore, arguments that Uk'37 corresponds to temperature variability in the surface, while TEX86 responds to the subsurface, may be too simplistic. Instead, it appears generally true that high-productivity environments, including the EEP, tend to have negative TEX86 anomalies. This may reflect a dual dependence of TEX86 records on both water column temperature and local productivity. Overall, our data suggest that in the EEP and likely in other upwelling zones, paleotemperature data derived

  18. Spin-orbit coupling in the dissociative excitation of alkali atoms at the surface of rare gas clusters: A theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, B; Zanuttini, D; Douady, J

    2016-05-21

    We analyze the role of the spin-orbit (SO) coupling in the dissociative dynamics of excited alkali atoms at the surface of small rare gas clusters. The electronic structure of the whole system is deduced from a one-electron model based on core polarization pseudo-potentials. It allows us to obtain in the same footing the energy, forces, and non-adiabatic couplings used to simulate the dynamics by means of a surface hopping method. The fine structure state population is analyzed by considering the relative magnitude of the SO coupling ξ, with respect to the spin-free potential energy. We identify three regimes of ξ-values leading to different evolution of adiabatic state population after excitation of the system in the uppermost state of the lowest np (2)P shell. For sufficiently small ξ, the final population of the J=12 atomic states, P12, grows up linearly from P12=13 at ξ = 0 after a diabatic dynamics. For large values of ξ, we observe a rather adiabatic dynamics with P12 decreasing as ξ increases. For intermediate values of ξ, the coupling is extremely efficient and a complete transfer of population is observed for the set of parameters associated to NaAr3 and NaAr4 clusters.

  19. Estimating Surface Area of Sponges and Marine Gorgonians as Indicators of Habitat Availability on Caribbean Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface area and topographical complexity are fundamental attributes of shallow tropical coral reefs and can be used to estimate habitat for fish and invertebrates. This study presents empirical methods for estimating surface area provided by sponges and gorgonians in the Central...

  20. Predicting Potential Fire Severity Using Vegetation, Topography and Surface Moisture Availability in a Eurasian Boreal Forest Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Fang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Severity of wildfires is a critical component of the fire regime and plays an important role in determining forest ecosystem response to fire disturbance. Predicting spatial distribution of potential fire severity can be valuable in guiding fire and fuel management planning. Spatial controls on fire severity patterns have attracted growing interest, but few studies have attempted to predict potential fire severity in fire-prone Eurasian boreal forests. Furthermore, the influences of fire weather variation on spatial heterogeneity of fire severity remain poorly understood at fine scales. We assessed the relative importance and influence of pre-fire vegetation, topography, and surface moisture availability (SMA on fire severity in 21 lightning-ignited fires occurring in two different fire years (3 fires in 2000, 18 fires in 2010 of the Great Xing’an Mountains with an ensemble modeling approach of boosted regression tree (BRT. SMA was derived from 8-day moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS evapotranspiration products. We predicted the potential distribution of fire severity in two fire years and evaluated the prediction accuracies. BRT modeling revealed that vegetation, topography, and SMA explained more than 70% of variations in fire severity (mean 83.0% for 2000, mean 73.8% for 2010. Our analysis showed that evergreen coniferous forests were more likely to experience higher severity fires than the dominant deciduous larch forests of this region, and deciduous broadleaf forests and shrublands usually burned at a significantly lower fire severity. High-severity fires tended to occur in gentle and well-drained slopes at high altitudes, especially those with north-facing aspects. SMA exhibited notable and consistent negative association with severity. Predicted fire severity from our model exhibited strong agreement with the observed fire severity (mean r2 = 0.795 for 2000, 0.618 for 2010. Our results verified that spatial variation

  1. Use of high resolution images of orbital surface of waterproofing with different levels of urban land: case Irati-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Costa de Oliveira Filho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to present a detailed diagnosis for use and occupation of urban land aimed at different levels of sealing, in a downtownIrati area of 14 blocks, totaling 0.23 km2, from the Quickbird satellite images with spatial resolution of 0.60 m, by the method of interpretation and vectorization on the screen followed by classification. The area occupied by the classes that represent the highest level of waterproof is 33,218% of the total study area, since the area occupied by classes representing less impermeable level is 22,488% of the same area. The results show that the study area is well sealed.

  2. Neonatal orbital abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik Y Gogri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital abscess generally occurs in older children but it can rarely affect infants and neonates too. We report a case of community acquired methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA neonatal orbital abscess in a 12-day-old term female neonate with no significant past medical history or risk factor for developing the infection. The case highlights the importance of consideration of CA-MRSA as a causative agent of neonatal orbital cellulitis even in a neonate without any obvious predisposing condition. Prompt initiation of appropriate medical therapy against MRSA and surgical drainage of the abscess prevents life threatening complications of orbital cellulitis which more often tend to be fatal in neonates.

  3. Congenital orbital teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Aiyub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of mature congenital orbital teratoma managed with lid-sparing exenteration and dermis fat graft. This is a case report on the management of congenital orbital teratoma. A full-term baby was born in Fiji with prolapsed right globe which was surrounded by a nonpulsatile, cystic mass. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to limited surgical expertise, the patient was transferred to Adelaide, Australia for further management. The patient underwent a lid-sparing exenteration with frozen section control of the apical margin. A dermis fat graft from the groin was placed beneath the lid skin to provide volume. Histopathology revealed mature tissues from each of the three germ cell layers which confirmed the diagnosis of mature teratoma. We describe the successful use of demis fat graft in socket reconstruction following lid-sparing exenteration for congenital orbital teratoma.

  4. SPHERES Mars Orbiting Sample Return External Orbiting Capture Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission scenario utilizes a small Orbiting Sample (OS) satellite, launched from the surface of Mars, which will rendezvous with an...

  5. [Orbital exenteration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzou, S; Arkha, Y; Boulaadas, M; Essakalli, L; Kzadri, M

    2011-04-01

    Orbital exenteration is a disfiguring surgery. The surgery is mostly performed for advanced neoplasms of the eyelid in an attempt to achieve cure with tumor free margins. Reconstruction is a real challenge, especially in elderly patients with significant comorbidities. We operated 15 patients presenting with palpebral and orbital tumors, between January 2000 and December 2007. We collected the clinical data concerning patients, tumor, treatment, and recurrences. Ten male and five female patients with a mean age of 56 years at diagnosis presented with ulcerative palpebral malignant tumor, and impaired ocular motility. Basal cell carcinoma was the most common (80%). All patients underwent exenteration, (subtotal three, total eight, and extended four patients). The cavity was filled with a temporal muscle flap in ten cases, Mustardé flap in three cases, latissimus dorsi myocutaneous free flap in one case, and a jugal V-Y flap in one case. The mean follow-up was 23 months with good healing without radiotherapy tissue alteration. Four patients had a recurrence and one patient died from metastases. The goals of reconstruction are functional and esthetic. Given the initial tumoral extension, we choose to use a regional or microsurgical flap for functional reconstruction. The flap provides a good cutaneous coverage, rapid healing, closure of orbital nasal and sinus communications, or of orbital and cranial communications. It is not damaged by radiotherapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Orbit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelotti, L.

    1995-01-01

    We take an overview of recently developed methods for studying single particle orbits in accelerators and discuss some physics underlying those which involve Lie operators. It will be further argued that object-oriented programming provides the appropriate computing strategy in which to model accelerators and to implement these techniques

  7. Primary orbital aspergilloma of the exenterated orbit in an immunocompromized patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergilloma is a fungal ball that usually forms in a preformed stationary cavity, mostly in lung and paranasal sinuses. We report a rare case of primary orbital Aspergilloma following exenteration for an invasive ocular surface squamous neoplasia, clinically mimicking a recurrence of the tumor. The fungal ball showed the presence of conidiophores with a globular head and a complete row of uni and biserrate phialides, suggestive of Aspergillus flavus species. The exposure to air in the orbit, possibly promoted the formation of conidiophores, which are normally seen when the organism is located in air cavities.

  8. Precise orbits of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter from radiometric tracking data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löcher, Anno; Kusche, Jürgen

    2018-02-01

    Since 2009, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) acquires images and altimetric profiles of the lunar surface. Assembling these data to maps and terrain models requires the precise knowledge of the spacecraft trajectory. In this contribution, we present 5 years of LRO orbits from radiometric data processed with a software tailored to this mission. The presented orbits are the first independent validation of the LRO science orbits from NASA and are available for public use. A key feature of our processing is the elaborate treatment of model and observation errors by empirical parameters and an adaptive data weighting by variance component estimation. The quality of the resulting orbits is assessed by analyzing overlapping arcs. For our solution based on arcs of 2.5 days, such analysis yields a mean error of 2.81 m in total position and 0.11 m in radial direction. It is shown that this result greatly benefits from the adaptive data weighting, reducing the error by 2.54 and 0.13 m, respectively. Unfortunately, the precision achieved varies strongly, dependent on the view onto the orbital ellipse which changes with the lunar cycle. To mitigate this dependency, the arc length was extended in steps up to 10.5 days, leading in the best case to a further improvement of 0.80 m.

  9. Decades-old silvicultural treatments influence surface wildfire severity and post-fire nitrogen availability in a ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann L. Lezberg; Michael A. Battaglia; Wayne D. Shepperd; Anna W. Schoettle

    2008-01-01

    Wildfire severity and subsequent ecological effects may be influenced by prior land management, via modification of forest structure and lingering changes in fuels. In 2002, the Hayman wildfire burned as a low to moderate-severity surface fire through a 21-year pine regeneration experiment with two overstory harvest cuttings (shelterwood, seed-tree) and two site...

  10. Potential energy surfaces for the HBr(+) + CO2 → Br + HOCO(+) reaction in the HBr(+)  (2)Π3/2 and (2)Π1/2 spin-orbit states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Granucci, Giovanni; Paul, Amit K; Siebert, Matthew; Liang, Hongliang J; Cheong, Grace; Hase, William L; Persico, Maurizio

    2015-03-14

    Quantum mechanical (QM) + molecular mechanics (MM) models are developed to represent potential energy surfaces (PESs) for the HBr(+) + CO2 → Br + HOCO(+) reaction with HBr(+) in the (2)Π3/2 and (2)Π1/2 spin-orbit states. The QM component is the spin-free PES and spin-orbit coupling for each state is represented by a MM-like analytic potential fit to spin-orbit electronic structure calculations. Coupled-cluster single double and perturbative triple excitation (CCSD(T)) calculations are performed to obtain "benchmark" reaction energies without spin-orbit coupling. With zero-point energies removed, the "experimental" reaction energy is 44 ± 5 meV for HBr(+)((2)Π3/2) + CO2 → Br((2)P3/2) + HOCO(+), while the CCSD(T) value with spin-orbit effects included is 87 meV. Electronic structure calculations were performed to determine properties of the BrHOCO(+) reaction intermediate and [HBr⋯OCO](+) van der Waals intermediate. The results of different electronic structure methods were compared with those obtained with CCSD(T), and UMP2/cc-pVTZ/PP was found to be a practical and accurate QM method to use in QM/MM direct dynamics simulations. The spin-orbit coupling calculations show that the spin-free QM PES gives a quite good representation of the shape of the PES originated by (2)Π3/2HBr(+). This is also the case for the reactant region of the PES for (2)Π1/2 HBr(+), but spin-orbit coupling effects are important for the exit-channel region of this PES. A MM model was developed to represent these effects, which were combined with the spin-free QM PES.

  11. Autonomous Control System for Precise Orbit Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Aorpimai, Manop; Hashida, Yoshi; Palmer, Phil

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a closed-loop autonomous control system that enables orbit operations to be performed without the need of any ground segment. The growing availability of GPS receivers on satellites provides an excellent means for autonomous orbit determination and our work builds upon previous work on orbit determination algorithms developed here at Surrey. The orbit is described using a set of epicycle parameters which provide an analytic model of LEO orbits. The parameters in thi...

  12. Orbit Propagation and Determination of Low Earth Orbit Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Nien Shou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents orbit propagation and determination of low Earth orbit (LEO satellites. Satellite global positioning system (GPS configured receiver provides position and velocity measures by navigating filter to get the coordinates of the orbit propagation (OP. The main contradictions in real-time orbit which is determined by the problem are orbit positioning accuracy and the amount of calculating two indicators. This paper is dedicated to solving the problem of tradeoffs. To plan to use a nonlinear filtering method for immediate orbit tasks requires more precise satellite orbit state parameters in a short time. Although the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF method is widely used, its linear approximation of the drawbacks in dealing with nonlinear problems was especially evident, without compromising Kalman filter (unscented Kalman Filter, UKF. As a new nonlinear estimation method, it is measured at the estimated measurements on more and more applications. This paper will be the first study on UKF microsatellites in LEO orbit in real time, trying to explore the real-time precision orbit determination techniques. Through the preliminary simulation results, they show that, based on orbit mission requirements and conditions using UKF, they can satisfy the positioning accuracy and compute two indicators.

  13. The Zn abundance and isotopic composition of diatom frustules, a proxy for Zn availability in ocean surface seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Morten B.; Vance, Derek; Archer, Corey; Anderson, Robert F.; Ellwood, Michael J.; Allen, Claire S.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed cleaning methods for extracting diatomopal from bulk marine sediment samples, for measurement of both zinc (Zn) abundance and isotope composition. This cleaning technique was then applied to a set of Holocene core-top samples from the Southern Ocean. The measured δ66Zn (reported relative to the JMCLyon standard) and Zn/Si ratios from the Southern Ocean diatomopal samples range from 0.7 to 1.5‰, and from 14 to 0.9 μmol/mol, respectively. The Zn abundance and isotope composition data show a clear correlation with opal burial rates and other oceanographic parameters. In common with previous work, we interpret the systematic changes in the Zn/Si ratio to be linked to the variability in the concentrations of bioavailable Zn in the ambient surface seawater where the diatom opal is formed. This variability is likely to be primarily controlled by the degree to which Zn is taken up into phytoplankton biomass. The observed systematic pattern in the δ66Zn compositions of the diatomopal core-top samples is, similarly, likely to reflect changes in the δ66Zn composition of the ambient Zn in the surface waters above the core-top sites, which is progressively driven towards isotopically heavier values by preferential incorporation of the lighter isotopes into phytoplankton organic material. Thus, the systematic relationship between Zn isotopes and abundance observed in the core-top diatomopal samples suggests a potential tool for investigating the biogeochemical cycling of Zn in the past surface ocean for down-core diatomopal material. In this respect, it may be possible to test hypotheses that attribute variations in atmospheric CO2 on glacial-interglacial timescales to the degree to which trace metals limited primary productivity in HNLC zones.

  14. "PROCESS and UVolution: photochemistry experiments in Low Earth Orbit": investigation of the photostability of organic and mineral material exposed to Mars surface UV radiation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalport, Fabien; Guan, Yuan Yong; Noblet, Audrey; Coll, Patrice; Szopa, Cyril; Macari, Frederique; Person, Alain; Chaput, Didier; Raulin, Francois; Cottin, Hervé

    The harsh martian environment could explain the lack of organics and minerals such as car-bonates by destroying them: i) no organic molecule has been found at the two different landing sites of the Viking landers within the detection limits of the instruments onboard, ii) to date, no large deposits of carbonates have been detected and their detection is specific of local ar-eas and in very low amounts. In this context several experimental and numerical modelling studies were led to evaluate the possibility for the destruction or evolution of the organics and carbonates under the martian surface environmental conditions. The presence of UV radiation has been proposed to explain the photodecomposition of such material. This is the reason why, to investigate the nature, abundance, and stability of organic and mineral material that could survive under such environmental conditions, we exposed in low Earth orbit organic molecules and carbonates (also biominerals) with martian relevance to solar UV radiation ¿ 200 nm, in the frame of the experiment UVolution, onboard the BIOPAN ESA module which was set outside a Russian Foton automated capsule and exposed to space condition during 12 days in September 2007, and the experiment PROCESS (hervé peux tu rajouter quelques infos sur le temps exact d'exposition stp) which was set outside the International Space Station (ISS). Here, we present results with regard to the impact of solar UV radiation on the targeted molecules. Preliminary results indicate that that no organic sample seems to resist to the solar UV radiation if directly exposed to it. Conversely our results show that the exposed carbonates seem to be stable to the solar UV radiation if directly exposed to it. Moreover, the stability of the biominerals strengthens the interest to explore deeper their potential as life records at Mars. Hence they should be considered as primary targets for in situ analyses during future missions.

  15. Myxoma of the orbit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambhatla Saptagirish

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Myxomas are rare, benign neoplasms of mesenchymal origin that usually develop in soft tissues. As the clinical manifestations are non-specific, it is difficult to diagnose the tumour without biopsy and histopathological examination. We report a case of orbital myxoma with histopathological correlation.

  16. Equilibrium Temperature of a Satellite in LowEarth Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Hegab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of artificial satellite equipment, essentially, depends on its temperature condition, which in the case of low-Earth orbit varies quite widely. The satellite temperature changes because of the fact that along with a portion of the orbit where the satellite perceives heat flows, caused by solar radiation directly incident on its surface and solar radiation, reflected from the Earth's surface; in general cases of the low earth orbit there is its shaded portion where the satellite receives only a relatively low intensive self-radiation of the Earth. The level of possible values of satellite temperature at different portions of low earth orbit can be estimated by the equilibrium temperature determined from the balance equation of heat flows, perceived and radiated by its surface.The analysis of heat flows, which act on the surface of an artificial satellite of conditional spherical shape, allows us to obtain the dependences, in order to find a satellite equilibrium temperature at different heights of its position above Earth's surface and an angle between the directions from the center of the Earth towards the Sun, and the satellite as it moves out of the shadow of the Earth and at different height of its position at the shaded portion of the orbit as well. These dependencies are used for graphing to show the changes of the equilibrium temperature of the low-Earth orbiting satellite.The presented technique allows us to evaluate the possible range of temperature change of the low-Earth orbiting satellite.

  17. Orbit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelotti, L.

    1995-01-01

    The past fifteen years have witnessed a remarkable development of methods for analyzing single particle orbit dynamics in accelerators. Unlike their more classic counterparts, which act upon differential equations, these methods proceed by manipulating Poincare maps directly. This attribute makes them well matched for studying accelerators whose physics is most naturally modelled in terms of maps, an observation that has been championed most vigorously by Forest. In the following sections the author sketchs a little background, explains some of the physics underlying these techniques, and discusses the best computing strategy for implementing them in conjunction with modeling accelerators

  18. Orbit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelotti, L.

    1995-01-01

    The past fifteen years have witnessed a remarkable development of methods for analyzing single particle orbit dynamics in accelerators. Unlike their more classic counterparts, which act upon differential equations, these methods proceed by manipulating Poincare maps directly. This attribute makes them well matched for studying accelerators whose physics is most naturally modelled in terms of maps, an observation that has been championed most vigorously by Forest. In the following sections the author sketchs a little background, explains some of the physics underlying these techniques, and discusses the best computing strategy for implementing them in conjunction with modeling accelerators.

  19. Inflammation of the Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glaucoma (Video) Macular Degeneration Additional Content Medical News Inflammation of the Orbit (Inflammatory Orbital Pseudotumor) By James ... Introduction to Eye Socket Disorders Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Inflammation of the Orbit Orbital Cellulitis Preseptal Cellulitis Tumors ...

  20. Development of a New Data Tool for Computing Launch and Landing Availability with Respect to Surface Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K. Lee; Altino, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Branch has a long history of expertise in the modeling and computation of statistical launch availabilities with respect to weather conditions. Their existing data analysis product, the Atmospheric Parametric Risk Assessment (APRA) tool, computes launch availability given an input set of vehicle hardware and/or operational weather constraints by calculating the climatological probability of exceeding the specified constraint limits, APRA has been used extensively to provide the Space Shuttle program the ability to estimate impacts that various proposed design modifications would have to overall launch availability. The model accounts for both seasonal and diurnal variability at a single geographic location and provides output probabilities for a single arbitrary launch attempt. Recently, the Shuttle program has shown interest in having additional capabilities added to the APRA model, including analysis of humidity parameters, inclusion of landing site weather to produce landing availability, and concurrent analysis of multiple sites, to assist in operational landing site selection. In addition, the Constellation program has also expressed interest in the APRA tool, and has requested several additional capabilities to address some Constellation-specific issues, both in the specification and verification of design requirements and in the development of operations concepts. The combined scope of the requested capability enhancements suggests an evolution of the model beyond a simple revision process. Development has begun for a new data analysis tool that will satisfy the requests of both programs. This new tool, Probabilities of Atmospheric Conditions and Environmental Risk (PACER), will provide greater flexibility and significantly enhanced functionality compared to the currently existing tool.

  1. Evaluate the Effect of Commercially Available Denture Cleansers on Surface Hardness and Roughness of Denture Liners at Various Time Intervals

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Hilal S.; Singh, Sumeet; Hari, Prasad A.; Amarnath, G. S.; Kundapur, Vinaya; Pasha, Naveed; Anand, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective: Chemical cleansing by denture cleansers is first choice for denture plaque control. The most common problems while using denture cleansers are hardening, porosity, odor sorption, water sorption, solubility, and colour change, bacterial and fungal growth. Chemical cleansing procedures have been found to have an effect on the physical and mechanical properties of denture liners. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of commercially available denture cle...

  2. A Typical Presentation of Orbital Pseudotumor Mimicking Orbital Cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ayatollahi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Orbital pseudotumor, also known as idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome (IOIS, is a benign, non- infective inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. The disease may mimics a variety of pathologic conditions. We pre-sent a case of pseudotumor observed in a patient admitted under the name of orbital celluli-ties. Case Report: A 26-year-old woman reffered to our hospital with the history of left ocular pain and headache 2 days before her visit.. Ophthalmological examination of the patient was normal except for the redness and lid edema, mild chemosis and conjunctival injection. Gen-eral assessment was normal but a low grade fever was observed. She was hospitalized as an orbital cellulitis patient. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics. On the third day , sud-denly diplopia, proptosis in her left eye and ocular pain in her right side appeared. MRI re-vealed bilateral enlargement of extraocular muscles. Diagnosis of orbital pseudotumor was made and the patient was treated with oral steroid.She responded promptly to the treatment. Antibiotics were discontinued and steroid was tapered in one month period under close fol-low up. Conclusion: The clinical features of orbital pseudotumor vary widely . Orbital pseudotumor and orbital cellulitis can occasionally demonstrate overlapping features.. Despite complete physical examination and appropriate imaging, sometimes correct diagnosis of the disease would be difficult (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (3:256-259

  3. Satellite Laser Ranging Satellite Orbit Product from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SLR Satellite Orbit solutions available from the Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS). Precise Orbit Determination (POD) solutions in Standard Product 3...

  4. Orbital flower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs-Csillik, Iharka

    2017-11-01

    The regularizing techniques known as Kustaanheimo-Stiefel (KS) transformation have investigated. It has proved that it is very useful in n-body simulations, where it helps to handle close encounters. This paper shows how the basic transformation is a starting point for a family of polynomial coupled function. This interpretation becomes simply on writing KS transformations in quaternion form, which also helps to derive concise expressions for regularized equations of motion. Even if the KS regularization method is more easy to use, it is interesting to encapsulate the KS transformation in a family of methods, which all conserve the KS transformations' properties. Further, an interesting point of view is considering, the orbital shapes of the restricted three-body problem (also regularized restricted three-body problem) for different initial conditions has compared with flower pattern.

  5. Orbital Chondroma: A rare mesenchymal tumor of orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi S Kabra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While relatively common in the skeletal system, cartilaginous tumors are rarely seen originating from the orbit. Here, we report a rare case of an orbital chondroma. A 27-year-old male patient presented with a painless hard mass in the superonasal quadrant (SNQ of left orbit since 3 months. On examination, best-corrected visual acuity of both eyes was 20/20, with normal anterior and posterior segment with full movements of eyeballs and normal intraocular pressure. Computerized tomography scan revealed well defined soft tissue density lesion in SNQ of left orbit. Patient was operated for anteromedial orbitotomy under general anesthesia. Mass was excised intact and sent for histopathological examination (HPE. HPE report showed lobular aggregates of benign cartilaginous cells with mild atypia suggesting of benign cartilaginous tumor - chondroma. Very few cases of orbital chondroma have been reported in literature so far.

  6. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, T.; Chin, G.

    2007-08-01

    NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) plans to launch in October 2008 with a companion secondary impactor mission, LCROSS, as the inaugural missions for the Exploration System Mission Directorate. LRO is a pathfinder whose objective is to obtain the needed information to prepare for eventual human return to the Moon. LRO will undertake at least one baseline year of operation with additional extended mission phase sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. LRO will employ six individual instruments to produce accurate maps and high-resolution images of future landing sites, to assess potential lunar resources, and to characterize the radiation environment. LRO will also test the feasibility of one advanced technology demonstration package. The LRO payload includes: Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) which will determine the global topography of the lunar surface at high resolution, measure landing site slopes, surface roughness, and search for possible polar surface ice in shadowed regions; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) which will acquire targeted narrow angle images of the lunar surface capable of resolving meter-scale features to support landing site selection, as well as wide-angle images to characterize polar illumination conditions and to identify potential resources; Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) which will map the flux of neutrons from the lunar surface to search for evidence of water ice, and will provide space radiation environment measurements that may be useful for future human exploration; Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE) which will chart the temperature of the entire lunar surface at approximately 300 meter horizontal resolution to identify cold-traps and potential ice deposits; Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) which will map the entire lunar surface in the far ultraviolet. LAMP will search for surface ice and frost in the polar regions and provide images of permanently shadowed regions illuminated only

  7. The Lunar orbit paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Aleksandar S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Newton's formula for gravity force gives greather force intensity for atraction of the Moon by the Sun than atraction by the Earth. However, central body in lunar (primary orbit is the Earth. So appeared paradox which were ignored from competent specialist, because the most important problem, determination of lunar orbit, was inmediately solved sufficiently by mathematical ingeniosity - introducing the Sun as dominant body in the three body system by Delaunay, 1860. On this way the lunar orbit paradox were not canceled. Vujičić made a owerview of principles of mechanics in year 1998, in critical consideration. As an example for application of corrected procedure he was obtained gravity law in some different form, which gave possibility to cancel paradox of lunar orbit. The formula of Vujičić, with our small adaptation, content two type of acceleration - related to inertial mass and related to gravity mass. So appears carried information on the origin of the Moon, and paradox cancels.

  8. Impact of Different Implant Surfaces Topographies on Peri-Implant Tissues: An Update of Current Available Data on Dental Implants Retrieved from Human Jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibli, Jamil A; Pires, Jefferson T; Piattelli, Adriano; Iezzi, Giovanna; Mangano, Carlo; Mangano, Francesco; de Souza, Sergio L S; Gehrke, Sergio A; Wang, Hom-Lay; Ehrenfest, David M Dohan

    2017-01-01

    The high success range obtained with the implant-supported restorations has improved its applicability on routine of the daily clinical practice. This elevated percentage of success is related to the previous pre-clinical data obtained from animal and in vitro studies that evaluated the impact of implant surface topographies on bone tissue. However, the histological evaluation of human bone tissue is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this review is to depict an actual panorama of the data available on boneto- implant contact (BIC) of retrieved implants from human jaws. Some aspects of implant surface topography as well as systemic conditions as osteoporosis and smoking habit were demonstrated to have a strong impact, suggesting that the data obtained from human bone tissue is still valuable for the better understanding of the osseointegration process. This article also highlighted that most data in humans are difficult to interpret, due to the lack of detailed information about the surfaces found in retrieved implants. Without the definition of the surface characteristics, it is difficult to link exactly the surface patterns to specific clinical observations, and all observations remain de facto incomplete. As a conclusion, data from implants retrieved from human jaws are very important for our understanding, however the studies remain scarce and data is fragmented. This important approach should be improved, completed and developed in the future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. A new kinematical definition of orbital eccentricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninković S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new concept of orbital eccentricity is given. The dimensionless quantities proposed in the present paper to serve as orbital eccentricities have a kinematical nature. The purpose is to use them in describing the motion for the case of three-dimensional orbits. A comparison done for nearly planar orbits shows that the values of the eccentricities proposed here do not differ significantly from those corresponding to the eccentricities of geometric nature usually applied.

  10. Effect of exposed surface area, volume and environmental pH on the calcium ion release of three commercially available tricalcium silicate based dental cements

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasekharan, Sivaprakash; Vercruysse, Chris; Martens, Luc; Verbeeck, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    Tricalcium silicate cements (TSC) are used in dental traumatology and endodontics for their bioactivity which is mostly attributed to formation of calcium hydroxide during TSC hydration and its subsequent release of calcium and hydroxide ions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of volume (Vol), exposed surface area (ESA) and pH of surrounding medium on calcium ion release. Three commercially available hydraulic alkaline dental cements were mixed and condensed into cylindrical t...

  11. Rehabilitation of orbital cavity after orbital exenteration using polymethyl methacrylate orbital prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid is the second most common malignant neoplasm of the eye with the incidence of 0.09 and 2.42 cases/100 000 people. Orbital invasion is a rare complication but, if recognized early, can be treated effectively with exenteration. Although with advancements in technology such as computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing, material science, and retentive methods like implants, orbital prosthesis with stock ocular prosthesis made of methyl methacrylate retained by anatomic undercuts is quiet effective and should not be overlooked and forgotten. This clinical report describes prosthetic rehabilitation of two male patients with polymethyl methacrylate resin orbital prosthesis after orbital exenteration, for squamous cell carcinoma of the upper eyelid. The orbital prosthesis was sufficiently retained by hard and soft tissue undercuts without any complications. The patients using the prosthesis are quite satisfied with the cosmetic results and felt comfortable attending the social events.

  12. Towards Biochar and Hydrochar Engineering—Influence of Process Conditions on Surface Physical and Chemical Properties, Thermal Stability, Nutrient Availability, Toxicity and Wettability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Dieguez-Alonso

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of conversion process parameters in pyrolysis (maximum temperature, inert gas flow rate and hydrothermal carbonization (maximum temperature, residence time and post-washing on biochar and hydrochar properties is investigated. Pine wood (PW and corn digestate (CD, with low and high inorganic species content respectively, are used as feedstock. CD biochars show lower H/C ratios, thermal recalcitrance and total specific surface area than PW biochars, but higher mesoporosity. CD and PW biochars present higher naphthalene and phenanthrene contents, respectively, which may indicate different reaction pathways. High temperatures (>500 °C lead to lower PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content (<12 mg/kg and higher specific surface area. With increasing process severity the biochars carbon content is also enhanced, as well as the thermal stability. High inert gas flow rates increase the microporosity and wettability of biochars. In hydrochars the high inorganic content favor decarboxylation over dehydration reactions. Hydrochars show mainly mesoporosity, with a higher pore volume but generally lower specific surface area than biochars. Biochars present negligible availability of NO 3 − and NH 4 + , irrespective of the nitrogen content of the feedstock. For hydrochars, a potential increase in availability of NO 3 − , NH 4 + , PO 4 3 − , and K + with respect to the feedstock is possible. The results from this work can be applied to “engineer” appropriate biochars with respect to soil demands and certification requirements.

  13. HCMM/soil moisture experiment. [relationship between surface minus air temperature differential and available water according to crop type in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihlar, J. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the compilation and analysis of airborne and ground data to determine the relationship between the maximum surface minus maximum air temperature differential (delta Tsa) and available water (PAW) is reported. Also, results of an analysis of HCMM images to determine the effect of cloud cover on the availability of HCMM-type data are presented. An inverse relationship between delta Tsa and PAW is indicated along with stable delta Tsa vs. PAW distributions for fully developed canopies. Large variations, both geographical and diurnal, in the cloud cover images are reported. The average monthly daytime cloud cover fluctuated between 40 and 60 percent.

  14. Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Peter L.; Vincent, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy of solar system tests of gravitational theory could be very much improved by range and Doppler measurements to a Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter. A nearly circular orbit at roughly 2400 km altitude is assumed in order to minimize problems with orbit determination and thermal radiation from the surface. The spacecraft is spin-stabilized and has a 30 cm diameter de-spun antenna. With K-band and X-band ranging systems using a 50 MHz offset sidetone at K-band, a range accuracy of 3 cm appears to be realistically achievable. The estimated spacecraft mass is 50 kg. A consider-covariance analysis was performed to determine how well the Earth-Mercury distance as a function of time could be determined with such a Relativity Orbiter. The minimum data set is assumed to be 40 independent 8-hour arcs of tracking data at selected times during a two year period. The gravity field of Mercury up through degree and order 10 is solved for, along with the initial conditions for each arc and the Earth-Mercury distance at the center of each arc. The considered parameters include the gravity field parameters of degree 11 and 12 plus the tracking station coordinates, the tropospheric delay, and two parameters in a crude radiation pressure model. The conclusion is that the Earth-Mercury distance can be determined to 6 cm accuracy or better. From a modified worst-case analysis, this would lead to roughly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in the knowledge of the precession of perihelion, the relativistic time delay, and the possible change in the gravitational constant with time.

  15. Role of Negative Orbit Vector in Orbital Blow-Out Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Youn; Lee, Hwa; Baek, Sehyun

    2017-11-01

    Negative orbit vector is defined as the most anterior globe portion protrudes past the malar eminence. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between negative orbit vector and blow-out fracture location analyzing the distance between the anterior corneal surface and orbital bone with facial soft tissue in medial and orbital floor blow out fractures using orbital computed tomography (CT). Seventy-seven patients diagnosed with blow-out fractures involving the medial or orbital floor were included. Distances from the anterior cornea to lower lid fat, inferior orbital wall, inferior orbital rim, and anterior cheek mass were measured using orbital CT scans. The proportion of negative orbit vector and measured distanced were compared between medial wall fracture and orbital floor fracture. Medical records including age, sex, concomitant ophthalmic diagnosis, and nature of injury were retrospectively reviewed. Forty-three eyes from 43 patients diagnosed with medial wall fracture and 34 eyes from 34 patients diagnosed with orbital floor fracture were included. There was no significant difference in the distance from the anterior cornea to lower lid fat (P = 0.574), inferior orbital wall (P = 0.494), or orbital rim (P = 0.685). The distance from anterior cornea to anterior cheek mass was significantly different in medial wall fracture (-0.19 ± 3.49 mm) compared with orbital floor fracture (-1.69 ± 3.70 mm), P = 0.05. Negative orbit vector was significantly higher in orbital floor fracture patients (24 among 34 patients, 70.6%) compared with those with medial wall fractures (19 among 43 patients, 44.2%) (P = 0.04). Patients presenting with a negative orbit vector relationship when the most anterior portion of globe protruded past the anterior cheek mass and malar eminence were more likely to develop orbital floor fracture than medial wall fracture.

  16. ERS orbit control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Mats

    1991-12-01

    The European remote sensing mission orbit control is addressed. For the commissioning phase, the orbit is defined by the following requirements: Sun synchronous, local time of descending node 10:30; three days repeat cycle with 43 orbital revolutions; overhead Venice tower (12.508206 deg east, 45.314222 deg north). The launch, maneuvers for the initial acquisition of the operational orbit, orbit maintenance maneuvers, evaluation of the orbit control, and the drift of the inclination are summarized.

  17. GOC: General Orbit Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, L.B.; McNeilly, G.S.

    1979-08-01

    GOC (General Orbit Code) is a versatile program which will perform a variety of calculations relevant to isochronous cyclotron design studies. In addition to the usual calculations of interest (e.g., equilibrium and accelerated orbits, focusing frequencies, field isochronization, etc.), GOC has a number of options to calculate injections with a charge change. GOC provides both printed and plotted output, and will follow groups of particles to allow determination of finite-beam properties. An interactive PDP-10 program called GIP, which prepares input data for GOC, is available. GIP is a very easy and convenient way to prepare complicated input data for GOC. Enclosed with this report are several microfiche containing source listings of GOC and other related routines and the printed output from a multiple-option GOC run

  18. JSC Orbital Debris Website Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The website provides information about the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office at JSC, which is the lead NASA center for orbital debris research. It is recognized world-wide for its leadership in addressing orbital debris issues. The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has taken the international lead in conducting measurements of the environment and in developing the technical consensus for adopting mitigation measures to protect users of the orbital environment. Work at the center continues with developing an improved understanding of the orbital debris environment and measures that can be taken to control its growth. Major Contents: Orbital Debris research is divided into the following five broad efforts. Each area of research contains specific information as follows: 1) Modeling - NASA scientists continue to develop and upgrade orbital debris models to describe and characterize the current and future debris environment. Evolutionary and engineering models are described in detail. Downloadable items include a document in PDF format and executable software. 2) Measurements - Measurements of near-Earth orbital debris are accomplished by conducting ground-based and space-based observations of the orbital debris environment. The data from these sources provide validation of the environment models and identify the presence of new sources. Radar, optical and surface examinations are described. External links to related topics are provided. 3) Protection - Orbital debris protection involves conducting hypervelocity impact measurements to assess the risk presented by orbital debris to operating spacecraft and developing new materials and new designs to provide better protection from the environment with less weight penalty. The data from this work provides the link between the environment defined by the models and the risk presented by that environment to operating spacecraft and provides recommendations on design and operations procedures to reduce the risk as

  19. Calcium Hypochlorite Solutions: Evaluation of Surface Tension and Effect of Different Storage Conditions and Time Periods over pH and Available Chlorine Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, Natália Gomes e Silva; Carlotto, Israel Bangel; Luisi, Simone Bonato; Kopper, Patrícia Maria Poli; Grecca, Fabiana Soares; Montagner, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the pH and the available chlorine content from sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and calcium hypochlorite (Ca[OCl]2) solutions stored in different conditions and time periods and the surface tension of Ca(OCl)2 solutions in comparison with NaOCl. Solutions at 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, and 5.25% concentrations were prepared. The pH level and the available chlorine content of freshly prepared solutions and solutions stored for 30, 60, and 90 days at 25°C, 4°C, or 37°C were evaluated in a digital pH meter and by titration, respectively. Surface tension was tested using a Du Nouy tensiometer (Sigma 702, Force Tensiometer; Attension, Espoo, Finland). Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed. A precipitate formed by 2.5% and 5.25% Ca(OCl)2 solutions was observed. Ca(OCl)2 showed a higher concentration of available chlorine than NaOCl. Both 2.5% and 5.25% NaOCl and Ca(OCl)2 had a decrease in the available chlorine content when compared with freshly prepared solutions; 0.5% and 1% NaOCl tend to have a lower pH compared with 0.5% and 1% Ca(OCl)2. NaOCl, 5.25%, showed higher pH compared with 5.25% Ca(OCl)2. NaOCl and Ca(OCl)2 in 0.5% and 1% concentrations tend to show a reduced pH level, whereas 2.5% and 5.25% solutions showed an increase in pH. The heat contributed to the instability of the solutions. NaOCl showed lower surface tension values than Ca(OCl)2. Ca(OCl)2 solutions are extremely alkaline and tend to have more available chlorine content than NaOCl but have a higher surface tension than NaOCl. Regarding the available chlorine content, these solutions tend to be stable to 30 days of storage when kept at 4°C or at 25°C. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Surface UV Environment on Planets Orbiting M Dwarfs: Implications for Prebiotic Chemistry and the Need for Experimental Follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Sasselov, Dimitar D.; Wordsworth, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Potentially habitable planets orbiting M dwarfs are of intense astrobiological interest because they are the only rocky worlds accessible to biosignature search over the next 10+ years because of a confluence of observational effects. Simultaneously, recent experimental and theoretical work suggests that UV light may have played a key role in the origin of life on Earth, especially the origin of RNA. Characterizing the UV environment on M-dwarf planets is important for understanding whether life as we know it could emerge on such worlds. In this work, we couple radiative transfer models to observed M-dwarf spectra to determine the UV environment on prebiotic Earth-analog planets orbiting M dwarfs. We calculate dose rates to quantify the impact of different host stars on prebiotically important photoprocesses. We find that M-dwarf planets have access to 100–1000 times less bioactive UV fluence than the young Earth. It is unclear whether UV-sensitive prebiotic chemistry that may have been important to abiogenesis, such as the only known prebiotically plausible pathways for pyrimidine ribonucleotide synthesis, could function on M-dwarf planets. This uncertainty affects objects like the recently discovered habitable-zone planets orbiting Proxima Centauri, TRAPPIST-1, and LHS 1140. Laboratory studies of the sensitivity of putative prebiotic pathways to irradiation level are required to resolve this uncertainty. If steady-state M-dwarf UV output is insufficient to power these pathways, transient elevated UV irradiation due to flares may suffice; laboratory studies can constrain this possibility as well.

  1. The Surface UV Environment on Planets Orbiting M Dwarfs: Implications for Prebiotic Chemistry and the Need for Experimental Follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Sasselov, Dimitar D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wordsworth, Robin, E-mail: sranjan@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    Potentially habitable planets orbiting M dwarfs are of intense astrobiological interest because they are the only rocky worlds accessible to biosignature search over the next 10+ years because of a confluence of observational effects. Simultaneously, recent experimental and theoretical work suggests that UV light may have played a key role in the origin of life on Earth, especially the origin of RNA. Characterizing the UV environment on M-dwarf planets is important for understanding whether life as we know it could emerge on such worlds. In this work, we couple radiative transfer models to observed M-dwarf spectra to determine the UV environment on prebiotic Earth-analog planets orbiting M dwarfs. We calculate dose rates to quantify the impact of different host stars on prebiotically important photoprocesses. We find that M-dwarf planets have access to 100–1000 times less bioactive UV fluence than the young Earth. It is unclear whether UV-sensitive prebiotic chemistry that may have been important to abiogenesis, such as the only known prebiotically plausible pathways for pyrimidine ribonucleotide synthesis, could function on M-dwarf planets. This uncertainty affects objects like the recently discovered habitable-zone planets orbiting Proxima Centauri, TRAPPIST-1, and LHS 1140. Laboratory studies of the sensitivity of putative prebiotic pathways to irradiation level are required to resolve this uncertainty. If steady-state M-dwarf UV output is insufficient to power these pathways, transient elevated UV irradiation due to flares may suffice; laboratory studies can constrain this possibility as well.

  2. Orbital Infarction due to Sickle Cell Disease without Orbital Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron L. McBride

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease is a hemoglobinopathy that results in paroxysmal arteriolar occlusion and tissue infarction that can manifest in a plurality of tissues. Rarely, these infarcted crises manifest in the bony orbit. Orbital infarction usually presents with acute onset of periorbital tenderness, swelling, erythema, and pain. Soft tissue swelling can result in proptosis and attenuation of extraocular movements. Expedient diagnosis of sickle cell orbital infarction is crucial because this is a potentially sight-threatening entity. Diagnosis can be delayed since the presentation has physical and radiographic findings mimicking various infectious and traumatic processes. We describe a patient who presented with sickle cell orbital crisis without pain. This case highlights the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion in patients with known sickle cell disease or of African descent born outside the United States in a region where screening for hemoglobinopathy is not routine, even when the presentation is not classic.

  3. Preseptal and orbital cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Akçay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Preseptal cellulitis (PC is defined as an inflammation of the eyelid and surrounding skin, whereas orbital cellulitis (OC is an inflammation of the posterior septum of the eyelid affecting the orbit and its contents. Periorbital tissues may become infected as a result of trauma (including insect bites or primary bacteremia. Orbital cellulitis generally occurs as a complication of sinusitis. The most commonly isolated organisms are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. epidermidis, Haempphilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and S. pyogenes. The method for the diagnosis of OS and PS is computed tomography. Using effective antibiotics is a mainstay for the treatment of PC and OC. There is an agreement that surgical drainage should be performed in cases of complete ophthalmoplegia or significant visual impairment or large abscesses formation. This infections are also at a greater risk of acute visual loss, cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningitis, cerebritis, endophthalmitis, and brain abscess in children. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial to control the infection. Diagnosis, treatment, management and complications of PC and OC are summarized in this manuscript. J MicrobiolInfect Dis 2014; 4(3: 123-127

  4. CONGENITAL ORBITAL TERATOMA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was done without contrast and 3mm/5mm/10mm slices were obtained to cover the orbit, skull base and brain. The findings included a soft tissue mass arising from the orbit. The left eye ball was extra orbital. There was no defect .... love's Short Practice of Surgery. 7 Edition,. Levis London, 1997; 45-64. 2. Orbital tumor Part 1, ...

  5. Geostationary orbit capacity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, P. S.; Norris, P.; Walton, R.

    1982-04-01

    Factors influencing the communications satellite capacity of the geostationary orbit were analyzed to derive an interference model of the orbit environment. Comparison of the total orbit arc length required by each proposed planning method or by using different technology developments indicates that the orbit arc of most interest to Western Europe will not be saturated by the year 2000. The orbit arc occupied in the year 2000 by the satellites in the West European arc of interest can be approximately halved by using digital modulation techniques for TV program transfers which use FM at present, or by adopting an orbital planning method which assigns FM TV services to predefined orbit or spectrum segments.

  6. Radiovolumetry of the orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abujamra, S.

    1983-01-01

    The authors present a method called ''Radiovolumetry of the orbit'' that permits the evaluation of the orbital volume from anteroposterior skull X-Rays (CALDWELL 30 0 position). The research was based in the determination of the orbital volume with lead spheres, in 1010 orbits of 505 dry skulls of Anatomy Museums. After the dry skulls was X-rayed six frontal orbital diameters were made, with care to correct the radiographic amplification. PEARSON correlation coeficient test was applied between the mean orbital diameter and the orbital volume. The result was r = 0,8 with P [pt

  7. Solid Propulsion De-Orbiting and Re-Orbiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonenborg, R. A. C.; Schoyer, H. F. R.

    2009-03-01

    With many "innovative" de-orbit systems (e.g. tethers, aero breaking, etc.) and with natural de-orbit, the place of impact of unburned spacecraft debris on Earth can not be determined accurately. The idea that satellites burn up completely upon re-entry is a common misunderstanding. To the best of our knowledge only rocket motors are capable of delivering an impulse that is high enough, to conduct a de-orbit procedure swiftly, hence to de-orbit at a specific moment that allows to predict the impact point of unburned spacecraft debris accurately in remote areas. In addition, swift de-orbiting will reduce the on-orbit time of the 'dead' satellite, which reduces the chance of the dead satellite being hit by other dead or active satellites, while spiralling down to Earth during a slow, 25 year, or more, natural de-orbit process. Furthermore the reduced on-orbit time reduces the chance that spacecraft batteries, propellant tanks or other components blow up and also reduces the time that the object requires tracking from Earth.The use of solid propellant for the de-orbiting of spacecraft is feasible. The main advantages of a solid propellant based system are the relatively high thrust and the facts that the system can be made autonomous quite easily and that the system can be very reliable. The latter is especially desirable when one wants to de-orbit old or 'dead' satellites that might not be able to rely anymore on their primary systems. The disadvantage however, is the addition of an extra system to the spacecraft as well as a (small) mass penalty. [1]This paper describes the above mentioned system and shows as well, why such a system can also be used to re-orbit spacecraft in GEO, at the end of their life to a graveyard orbit.Additionally the system is theoretically compared to an existing system, of which performance data is available.A swift market analysis is performed as well.

  8. Pesticides in Surface and Ground Water of the San Joaquin-Tulare Basins, California: Analysis of Available Data, 1966 Through 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph L.

    1997-01-01

    Available pesticide data (1966-92) for surface and ground water were analyzed for the San Joaquin-Tulare Basins, California, one of 60 large hydrologic systems being studied as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Most of the pesticide data were for the San Joaquin Valley, one of the most intensively farmed and irrigated areas of the United States. Data were obtained from the Storage and Retrieval data base of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the water-quality data base of the U.S. Geological Survey, and from data files of State agencies. Pesticides detected in surface water include organochlorine pesticides, organophosphate pesticides, carbamate pesticides, and triazine herbicides. Pesticides detected in ground water include triazine and other organonitrogen herbicides and soil fumi gants. Surface-water data indicate seasonal patterns for the detection of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, which are attributed to their use on almond orchards and alfafa fields. Organochlorine pesticides were detected primarily in river-bed sediments. Concentrations detected in bed sediments of the San Joaquin River near Vernalis are among the highest of any major river system in the United States. Patterns and timing of pesticide use indicate that pesticides might be present in surface-water systems during most months of a year. The most commonly detected pesticide in ground water is the soil fumigant, dibromochloropropane. Dibromochloropropane, used primarily on vineyards and orchards, was detected in ground water near the city of Fresno. Triazine and other organonitrogen herbicides were detected near vineyards and orchards in the same general locations as the detections of dibromochloropropane. Pesticides were detected in ground water of the east side of the valley floor, where the soils are sandy or coarsegrained, and water-soluble pesticides with long environmental half-lives were used. In contrast, fewer

  9. Use of activated carbon as a support medium for H2S biofiltration and effect of bacterial immobilization on available pore surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Y L; Yan, R; Chen, X G; Geng, A L; Gould, W D; Liang, D T; Koe, L C C

    2004-12-01

    The use of support media for the immobilization of microorganisms is widely known to provide a surface for microbial growth and a shelter that protects the microorganisms from inhibitory compounds. In this study, activated carbon is used as a support medium for the immobilization of microorganisms enriched from municipal sewage activated sludge to remove gas-phase hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a major odorous component of waste gas from sewage treatment plants. A series of designed experiments is used to examine the effect on bacteria-immobilized activated carbon (termed "biocarbon") due to physical adsorption, chemical reaction, and microbial degradation in the overall removal of H2S. H2S breakthrough tests are conducted with various samples, including microbe-immobilized carbon and Teflon discs, salts-medium-washed carbon, and ultra-pure water-washed carbon. The results show a higher removal capacity for the microbe-immobilized activated carbon compared with the activated carbon control in a batch biofilter column. The increase in removal capacity is attributed to the role played by the immobilized microorganisms in metabolizing adsorbed sulfur and sulfur compounds on the biocarbon, hence releasing the adsorption sites for further H2S uptake. The advantage for activated carbon serving as the support medium is to adsorb a high initial concentration of substrate and progressively release this for microbial degradation, hence acting as a buffer for the microorganisms. Results obtained from surface area and pore size distribution analyses of the biocarbon show a correlation between the available surface area and pore volume with the extent of microbial immobilization and H2S uptake. The depletion of surface area and pore volume is seen as one of the factors which cause the onset of column breakthrough. Microbial growth retardation is due to the accumulation of metabolic products (i.e., sulfuric acid); and a lack of water and nutrient salts in the batch biofilter are other

  10. Building and calibrating a large-extent and high resolution coupled groundwater-land surface model using globally available data-sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanudjaja, E. H.; Van Beek, L. P.; de Jong, S. M.; van Geer, F.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    The current generation of large-scale hydrological models generally lacks a groundwater model component simulating lateral groundwater flow. Large-scale groundwater models are rare due to a lack of hydro-geological data required for their parameterization and a lack of groundwater head data required for their calibration. In this study, we propose an approach to develop a large-extent fully-coupled land surface-groundwater model by using globally available datasets and calibrate it using a combination of discharge observations and remotely-sensed soil moisture data. The underlying objective is to devise a collection of methods that enables one to build and parameterize large-scale groundwater models in data-poor regions. The model used, PCR-GLOBWB-MOD, has a spatial resolution of 1 km x 1 km and operates on a daily basis. It consists of a single-layer MODFLOW groundwater model that is dynamically coupled to the PCR-GLOBWB land surface model. This fully-coupled model accommodates two-way interactions between surface water levels and groundwater head dynamics, as well as between upper soil moisture states and groundwater levels, including a capillary rise mechanism to sustain upper soil storage and thus to fulfill high evaporation demands (during dry conditions). As a test bed, we used the Rhine-Meuse basin, where more than 4000 groundwater head time series have been collected for validation purposes. The model was parameterized using globally available data-sets on surface elevation, drainage direction, land-cover, soil and lithology. Next, the model was calibrated using a brute force approach and massive parallel computing, i.e. by running the coupled groundwater-land surface model for more than 3000 different parameter sets. Here, we varied minimal soil moisture storage and saturated conductivities of the soil layers as well as aquifer transmissivities. Using different regularization strategies and calibration criteria we compared three calibration scenarios

  11. Four Years on Orbit at the Moon with LOLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.; Torrence, M. H.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2013-12-01

    After four years of near-continuous operation at the Moon, the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) continues to collect altimetry, surface roughness, slope and normal reflectance data. Although the instrument is beginning to show the effects of tens of thousands of thermal cycles and the natural process of the aging of the laser transmitters, LOLA continues to acquire data on the sunlit portion of every orbit on all 5 laser beams when below 100-km altitude. LOLA has acquired over 6x10^9 altimeter measurements, all geodetically controlled to the center-of-mass of the Moon with a radial precision of around 10 cm and an accuracy of about 1 meter. The position of the measurements on the lunar surface is primarily limited by the knowledge of the position of the spacecraft in orbit; in the last year the LRO orbit accuracy has improved significantly as a result of the availability of an accurate gravity model of the Moon from the GRAIL Discovery mission. Our present estimate of positional accuracy is less than 10 m rms but is only achievable with a GRAIL gravity model to at least degree and order 600 because of the perturbing gravitational effect of the Moon's surface features. Significant improvements in the global shape and topography have assisted the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) stereo mapping program, and the identification of potential lunar landing sites for ESA and Russia, particularly in the high-latitude polar regions where 5- and 10-meter average horizontal resolution has been obtained. LOLA's detailed mapping of the polar regions has improved the delineation of permanently-shadowed areas and assisted in the understanding of the LEND neutron data and its relationship to surface slopes. Recently, a global, calibrated LOLA normal albedo dataset at 1064 nm has been developed and is being combined with analysis and modeling by the Diviner team for the identification of the coldest locations in the polar regions.

  12. Evidence for surface water ice in the lunar polar regions using reflectance measurements from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter and temperature measurements from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Lucey, Paul G.; Lemelin, Myriam; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Siegler, Matthew A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Aharonson, Oded; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Hayne, Paul O.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Paige, David A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2017-08-01

    We find that the reflectance of the lunar surface within 5° of latitude of the South Pole increases rapidly with decreasing temperature, near ∼110 K, behavior consistent with the presence of surface water ice. The North polar region does not show this behavior, nor do South polar surfaces at latitudes more than 5° from the pole. This South pole reflectance anomaly persists when analysis is limited to surfaces with slopes less than 10° to eliminate false detection due to the brightening effect of mass wasting, and also when the very bright south polar crater Shackleton is excluded from the analysis. We also find that south polar regions of permanent shadow that have been reported to be generally brighter at 1064 nm do not show anomalous reflectance when their annual maximum surface temperatures are too high to preserve water ice. This distinction is not observed at the North Pole. The reflectance excursion on surfaces with maximum temperatures below 110 K is superimposed on a general trend of increasing reflectance with decreasing maximum temperature that is present throughout the polar regions in the north and south; we attribute this trend to a temperature or illumination-dependent space weathering effect (e.g. Hemingway et al., 2015). We also find a sudden increase in reflectance with decreasing temperature superimposed on the general trend at 200 K and possibly at 300 K. This may indicate the presence of other volatiles such as sulfur or organics. We identified and mapped surfaces with reflectances so high as to be unlikely to be part of an ice-free population. In this south we find a similar distribution found by Hayne et al. (2015) based on UV properties. In the north a cluster of pixels near that pole may represent a limited frost exposure.

  13. Use of activated carbon as a support medium for H{sub 2}S biofiltration and effect of bacterial immobilization on available pore surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Y.L.; Yan, R.; Chen, X.G.; Geng, A.L.; Liang, D.T.; Koe, L.C.C. [Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore); Gould, W.D. [Environmental Lab., CANMET, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-12-01

    The use of support media for the immobilization of micro-organisms widely known to provide a surface for microbial growth and a shelter that protects the microorganisms from inhibitory compounds. In this study, activated carbon is used as a support medium for the immobilization of microorganisms enriched from municipal sewage activated sludge to remove gas-phase hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a major odorous component of waste gas from sewage treatment plants. A series of designed experiments is used to examine the effect on bacteria-immobilized activated carbon (termed ''biocarbon'') due to physical adsorption, chemical reaction and microbial degradation in the overall removal of H{sub 2}S. H{sub 2}S breakthrough tests are conducted with various samples, including micro-immobilized carbon and Teflon discs, salts-medium-washed carbon, and ultra-pure water-washed carbon. The results show a higher removal capacity for the microbe-immobilized activated carbon compared with the activated carbon control in a batch biofilter column. The increase in removal capacity is attributed to the role played by the immobilized micro-organisms in metabolizing adsorbed sulfur and sulfur compounds on the biocarbon, hence releasing the adsorption sites for further H{sub 2}S uptake. The advantage for activated carbon serving as the support medium is to adsorb a high initial concentration of substrate and progressively release this for microbial degradation, hence acting as a buffer for the microorganisms. Results obtained from surface area and pore size distribution analyses of the biocarbon show a correlation between the available surface area and pore volume with the extent of microbial immobilization and H{sub 2}S uptake. The depletion of surface area and pore volume is seen as one of the factors which cause the onset of column breakthrough. Microbial growth retardation is due to the accumulation of metabolic products (i.e., sulfuric acid); and a lack of water and

  14. Sub-nanometer surface chemistry and orbital hybridization in lanthanum-doped ceria nano-catalysts revealed by 3D electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sean M; Fernandez-Garcia, Susana; Calvino, José J; Midgley, Paul A

    2017-07-14

    Surface chemical composition, electronic structure, and bonding characteristics determine catalytic activity but are not resolved for individual catalyst particles by conventional spectroscopy. In particular, the nano-scale three-dimensional distribution of aliovalent lanthanide dopants in ceria catalysts and their effect on the surface electronic structure remains unclear. Here, we reveal the surface segregation of dopant cations and oxygen vacancies and observe bonding changes in lanthanum-doped ceria catalyst particle aggregates with sub-nanometer precision using a new model-based spectroscopic tomography approach. These findings refine our understanding of the spatially varying electronic structure and bonding in ceria-based nanoparticle aggregates with aliovalent cation concentrations and identify new strategies for advancing high efficiency doped ceria nano-catalysts.

  15. Orbital exenteration in immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles K

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kagmeni Giles,1,2 Yannick Bilong,1,2 Nomo Arlette,1,2 Nanfack Chantal,1,3 Bella Assumpta Lucienne1,3 1Eye Department, University of Yaoundé I, 2Yaounde Teaching Hospital, 3Gyneco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon Background: Orbital exenteration (OE is a disfiguring procedure most commonly performed for locally advanced and potentially life-threatening periorbital malignancies.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed records of 11 consecutive HIV patients who underwent OE for invasive orbital malignancy at our institution from January 2005 to December 2015. Patient demographic and clinic data and histopathology of the tumor were analyzed.Results: There were eight (72.72% female and three (27.28% male participants ranging in age from 31 to 52 years with an mean of 39.4 years. Nine patients had been known to be HIV-positive for at least 2 years, and HIV-positive status was revealed at presentation for two patients. The mean CD4 cell count was 154.4 cells/mm3. Histopathological examination showed invasive orbital squamous cell carcinomas in nine patients (81.81%, achromic orbital melanoma in one patient (9.09%, and adenoid cystic carcinoma in one patient (9.09%. None of the patients underwent primary orbital reconstruction. The mean follow-up time was 3.4 months. Only one patient who underwent adjuvant radiotherapy was seen after 12 months.Conclusion: Oculo-orbital malignancies are very aggressive in HIV-positive individuals, especially in untreated patients. Routine screening for suspected ocular surface lesions and early surgical removal of all these lesions could help to avoid the need to perform the radical and disfiguring OE procedure. Keywords: orbital tumors, achromic melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, HIV

  16. Differential diagnosis of intraconal orbital masses using high-resolution MRI with surface coils in 78 patients; Differenzialdiagnostik intrakonaler orbitaler Raumforderungen unter Verwendung der hochaufloesenden MRT mit Oberflaechenspulen anhand von 78 Patienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemke, A.-J.; Kazi, I.; Felix, R. [Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde; Landeck, L.M. [Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Berlin (Germany). Venerologie und Allergologie; Zaspel, U. [Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Berlin (Germany). Institut fuer Radiologie; Hosten, N. [Universitaet Greifswald (Germany). Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    2004-10-01

    Purpose: Over the last decade, MRI has become the standard procedure for the diagnosis of orbital masses. Purpose of the study was to evaluate criteria for differential diagnosis for intraconal masses on MRI in a large patient group. Material and Methods: In a retrospective study, MR examinations of 78 patients with intraconal masses were evaluated. All examinations were performed using surface coils for high spatial resolution. Signal behavior on T2-WI and T1-WI before and after contrast application as well as further tumor characteristics (i.e., shape, size, position, delineation and infiltration) were evaluated. Every diagnosis was proven by histopathological results from extirpation (n=18) or biopsy (n=22), or confirmed by other imaging modalities (n=13) or clinical course (n=25). Results: Different tumor characteristics are helpful in the differentiation between cavernous hemangioma, lymphangioma, varices, AV malformations and solid tumors. Due to overlapping in the imaging appearance, the differentiation between inflammatory pseudotumor, lymphoma and orbital metastasis was more difficult. (orig.)

  17. The Effects of Different Tillage Methods on Available Soil Potassium Measured by Various Extractors in a Soil with High Specific Surface Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hosseini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effects of any tillage method on soil properties, depends on location (soil, water and air and the number of (years their implementation. Soil compaction reduces yield through increased soil mechanical resistance against root growth and lower water and nutrient use efficiency (Gamda et al. 18 & Ishagh et al 23. Soil surface and sub surface compaction both reduce yield due to limited root growth and plant potassium uptake (Doulan et al. 14. Sabt et al. (50 reported that in the study area, which the lands are mostly illite clay (high specific surface area with sufficient nitrogen, soil potassium is the most important limiting factor for the growth of wheat.Considering the point that loess soils in Golestan Province have a high specific surface area,they can provide potassium for plants to produce crop, but for a higher production, potassium fertilizers should be used. Previous studies indicated that production of wheat is limited due to potassium deficiency (4, 49, 54 and 57. In these soils with a high specific surface area, the speed of movement of potassium from the soil solution is low, and doing solimits wheat yield.In loess soils containing high illite and high specific surface area (eg, soilsin the series of Rahmat Abad of Gorgan, ammonium acetate measured potassium on exchange and solution surfaces, which is highly correlated with grain yield (54 . There is a high correlation between grain yield with overload of potassium and Na TPB extraction (57. The aim of this study was to absorb potassium (limiting factor for plant growth with different tillage systemsat different depths. International recommendations towards reducing the depth and intensity of tillage (from minimum tillage to no-tillage in order to reduce erosion and oxidation of organic substances plays an important role in determining the amount of greenhouse gases. If potassium absorption does not reduceafter reducing tillage intensity,low or no-tillage methods

  18. Space Tourism: Orbital Debris Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, N.; Shajiee, S.; Moghani, T.; Bahrami, M.

    2002-01-01

    Space activities after a phase of research and development, political competition and national prestige have entered an era of real commercialization. Remote sensing, earth observation, and communication are among the areas in which this growing industry is facing competition and declining government money. A project like International Space Station, which draws from public money, has not only opened a window of real multinational cooperation, but also changed space travel from a mere fantasy into a real world activity. Besides research activities for sending man to moon and Mars and other outer planets, space travel has attracted a considerable attention in recent years in the form of space tourism. Four countries from space fairing nations are actively involved in the development of space tourism. Even, nations which are either in early stages of space technology development or just beginning their space activities, have high ambitions in this area. This is worth noting considering their limited resources. At present, trips to space are available, but limited and expensive. To move beyond this point to generally available trips to orbit and week long stays in LEO, in orbital hotels, some of the required basic transportations, living requirements, and technological developments required for long stay in orbit are already underway. For tourism to develop to a real everyday business, not only the price has to come down to meaningful levels, but also safety considerations should be fully developed to attract travelers' trust. A serious hazard to space activities in general and space tourism in particular is space debris in earth orbit. Orbiting debris are man-made objects left over by space operations, hazardous to space missions. Since the higher density of debris population occurs in low earth orbit, which is also the same orbit of interest to space tourism, a careful attention should be paid to the effect of debris on tourism activities. In this study, after a

  19. Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery is an extensive collection of over 2,600 high- and moderate-resolution photographs produced by all five of the Lunar Orbiter...

  20. ASC Champ Orbit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels; Jørgensen, John Leif

    1999-01-01

    This documents describes a test of the implementation of the ASC orbit model for the Champ satellite.......This documents describes a test of the implementation of the ASC orbit model for the Champ satellite....

  1. Effect of Exposed Surface Area, Volume and Environmental pH on the Calcium Ion Release of Three Commercially Available Tricalcium Silicate Based Dental Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaprakash Rajasekharan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tricalcium silicate cements (TSC are used in dental traumatology and endodontics for their bioactivity which is mostly attributed to formation of calcium hydroxide during TSC hydration and its subsequent release of calcium and hydroxide ions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of volume (Vol, exposed surface area (ESA and pH of surrounding medium on calcium ion release. Three commercially available hydraulic alkaline dental cements were mixed and condensed into cylindrical tubes of varying length and diameter (n = 6/group. For the effect of ESA and Vol, tubes were immersed in 10 mL of deionized water. To analyze the effect of environmental pH, the tubes were randomly immersed in 10 mL of buffer solutions with varying pH (10.4, 7.4 or 4.4. The solutions were collected and renewed at various time intervals. pH and/or calcium ion release was measured using a pH glass electrode and atomic absorption spectrophotometer respectively. The change of pH, short-term calcium ion release and rate at which calcium ion release reaches maximum were dependent on ESA (p < 0.05 while maximum calcium ion release was dependent on Vol of TSC (p < 0.05. Maximum calcium ion release was significantly higher in acidic solution followed by neutral and alkaline solution (p < 0.05.

  2. Traumatic transconjunctival orbital emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Stroh, E M; Finger, P T

    1990-01-01

    Orbital emphysema can be produced by trans-conjunctival migration of air from a high pressure airgun. In an industrial accident an 8 mm conjunctival laceration was produced in the superior fornix which acted as a portal of entry for air into the subconjunctival, subcutaneous, and retrobulbar spaces. Computed tomography revealed no evidence of orbital fracture and showed that traumatic orbital emphysema occurred without a broken orbital bone.

  3. Surface enhancement Raman scattering of tautomeric thiobarbituric acid. Natural bond orbitals and B3LYP/6-311+G (d, p) assignments of the Fourier Infrared and Fourier Raman Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, C A Téllez; Ramos, J M; Costa Junior, A C; Vieira, Laís S; Rangel, João L; Raniero, L; Fávero, Priscila P; Lemma, Tibebe; Ondar, Grisset F; Versiane, Otavio; Martin, A A

    2013-10-01

    Surface enhancement Raman scattering (SERS) of two tautomer of thiobarbituric acid was obtained using silver and gold nanoparticles. Large band enhancement in the region of the ν(C=S), ν(C=C), δ(CH2), and δ(CNH) vibrational modes was found. Natural bond analysis of the tautomer species revealed expressive values of charge transfer, principally from lone pair electron orbitals of the S, N, and O atoms. Complete vibrational assignment was done for the two tautomers using the B3LYP/6-311+G (d, p) procedure, band deconvolution analysis, and from a rigorous interpretation of the normal modes matrix. The calculated spectra agree well with the experimental ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Eye and orbital cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panfilova, G.V.; Koval', G.Yu.

    1984-01-01

    Radioanatomy of eyes and orbit is described. Diseases of the orbit (developmental anomalies, inflammatory diseases, lacrimal apparatus deseases, toxoplasmosis, tumors and cysts et al.), methods of foreign body localization in the eye are considered. Roentgenograms of the orbit and calculation table for foreign body localization in spherical eyes of dissimilar diameter are presented

  5. Idiopathic granulomatous orbital inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mombaerts, I.; Schlingemann, R. O.; Goldschmeding, R.; Koornneef, L.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: Granulomatous orbital inflammation may occur as an isolated condition of unknown origin. These idiopathic granulomatous lesions are believed to belong to the orbital pseudotumor group by some authors, whereas others consider them sarcoidosis limited to the orbit. The aim of this study is to

  6. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  7. Dopamine-2 receptor extracellular N-terminus regulates receptor surface availability and is the target of human pathogenic antibodies from children with movement and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinmaz, Nese; Tea, Fiona; Pilli, Deepti; Zou, Alicia; Amatoury, Mazen; Nguyen, Tina; Merheb, Vera; Ramanathan, Sudarshini; Cooper, Sandra T; Dale, Russell C; Brilot, Fabienne

    2016-12-01

    Anti-Dopamine-2 receptor (D2R) antibodies have been recently identified in a subgroup of children with autoimmune movement and psychiatric disorders, however the epitope(s) and mechanism of pathogenicity remain unknown. Here we report a major biological role for D2R extracellular N-terminus as a regulator of receptor surface availability, and as a major epitope targeted and impaired in brain autoimmunity. In transfected human cells, purified anti-D2R antibody from patients specifically and significantly reduced human D2R surface levels. Next, human D2R mutants modified in their extracellular domains were subcloned, and we analyzed the region bound by 35 anti-D2R antibody-positive patient sera using quantitative flow cytometry on live transfected cells. We found that N-glycosylation at amino acids N5 and/or N17 was critical for high surface expression in interaction with the last 15 residues of extracellular D2R N-terminus. No anti-D2R antibody-positive patient sera bound to the three extracellular loops, but all patient sera (35/35) targeted the extracellular N-terminus. Overall, patient antibody binding was dependent on two main regions encompassing amino acids 20 to 29, and 23 to 37. Residues 20 to 29 contributed to the majority of binding (77%, 27/35), among which 26% (7/27) sera bound to amino acids R20, P21, and F22, 37% (10/27) patients were dependent on residues at positions 26 and 29, that are different between humans and mice, and 30% (8/27) sera required R20, P21, F22, N23, D26, and A29. Seven patient sera bound to the region 23 to 37 independently of D26 and A29, but most sera exhibited N-glycosylation-independent epitope recognition at N23. Interestingly, no evident segregation of binding pattern according to patient clinical phenotype was observed. D2R N-terminus is a central epitope in autoimmune movement and psychiatric disorders and this knowledge could help the design of novel specific immune therapies tailored to improve patient outcome.

  8. TRIFLE DIFFERENCE APPROACH TO LOW EARTH ORBITER PRECISION ORBIT DETERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Hyoun Kwon

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A precise kinematic orbit determination (P-KOD procedure for Low Earth Orbiter(LEO using the GPS ion-free triple differenced carrier phases is presented. Because the triple differenced observables provide only relative information, the first epoch`s positions of the orbit should be held fixed. Then, both forward and backward filtering was executed to mitigate the effect of biases of the first epoch`s position. p-KOD utilizes the precise GPS orbits and ground stations data from International GPS Service (IGS so that the only unknown parameters to be solved are positions of the satellite at each epoch. Currently, the 3-D accuracy off-KOD applied to CHAMP (CHAllenging Min-isatellite Payload shows better than 35 cm compared to the published rapid scientific orbit (RSO solution from GFZ (GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam. The data screening for cycle slips is a particularly challenging procedure for LEO, which moves very fast in the middle of the ionospheric layer. It was found that data screening using SNR (signal to noise ratio generates best results based on the residual analysis using RSO. It is expected that much better accuracy are achievable with refined prescreening procedure and optimized geometry of the satellites and ground stations.

  9. Nontraumatic orbital roof encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Amber; Maugans, Todd; Ngo, Thang; Ikeda, Jamie

    2017-02-01

    Intraorbital meningoencephaloceles occur most commonly as a complication of traumatic orbital roof fractures. Nontraumatic congenital orbital meningoncephaloceles are very rare, with most secondary to destructive processes affecting the orbit and primary skull defects. Treatment for intraorbital meningoencephaloceles is surgical repair, involving the excision of herniated brain parenchyma and meninges and reconstruction of the osseous defect. Most congenital lesions present in infancy with obvious globe and orbital deformities; we report an orbital meningoencephalocele in a 3-year-old girl who presented with ptosis. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Deadly Sunflower Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    2018-04-01

    Solar radiation pressure is usually very effective at removing hazardous millimeter-sized debris from distant orbits around asteroidsand other small solar system bodies (Hamilton and Burns 1992). Theprimary loss mechanism, driven by the azimuthal component of radiationpressure, is eccentricity growth followed by a forced collision withthe central body. One large class of orbits, however, neatly sidestepsthis fate. Orbits oriented nearly perpendicular to the solar directioncan maintain their face-on geometry, oscillating slowly around a stableequilibrium orbit. These orbits, designated sunflower orbits, arerelated to terminator orbits studied by spacecraft mission designers(Broschart etal. 2014).Destabilization of sunflower orbits occurs only for particles smallenough that radiation pressure is some tens of percent the strength ofthe central body's direct gravity. This greatly enhanced stability,which follows from the inability of radiation incident normal to theorbit to efficiently drive eccentricities, presents a threat tospacecraft missions, as numerous dangerous projectiles are potentiallyretained in orbit. We have investigated sunflower orbits insupport of the New Horizons, Aida, and Lucy missions and find thatthese orbits are stable for hazardous particle sizes at asteroids,comets, and Kuiper belt objects of differing dimensions. Weinvestigate the sources and sinks for debris that might populate suchorbits, estimate timescales and equilibrium populations, and willreport on our findings.

  11. Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Campos Arbulú

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma is a rare entity. There is little published literature. We report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the orbital soft tissues. Surgical resection offered the best treatment for the patient. Complete resection of the lesion was achieved. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy due to the proximity of the lesion to the surgical margins. Surgical treatment is feasible and should be considered as part of the surgeon's arsenal. However, therapeutic decisions must be made on a case-by-case basis

  12. Effect of Exposed Surface Area, Volume and Environmental pH on the Calcium Ion Release of Three Commercially Available Tricalcium Silicate Based Dental Cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekharan, Sivaprakash; Vercruysse, Chris; Martens, Luc; Verbeeck, Ronald

    2018-01-13

    Tricalcium silicate cements (TSC) are used in dental traumatology and endodontics for their bioactivity which is mostly attributed to formation of calcium hydroxide during TSC hydration and its subsequent release of calcium and hydroxide ions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of volume (Vol), exposed surface area (ESA) and pH of surrounding medium on calcium ion release. Three commercially available hydraulic alkaline dental cements were mixed and condensed into cylindrical tubes of varying length and diameter ( n = 6/group). For the effect of ESA and Vol, tubes were immersed in 10 mL of deionized water. To analyze the effect of environmental pH, the tubes were randomly immersed in 10 mL of buffer solutions with varying pH (10.4, 7.4 or 4.4). The solutions were collected and renewed at various time intervals. pH and/or calcium ion release was measured using a pH glass electrode and atomic absorption spectrophotometer respectively. The change of pH, short-term calcium ion release and rate at which calcium ion release reaches maximum were dependent on ESA ( p < 0.05) while maximum calcium ion release was dependent on Vol of TSC ( p < 0.05). Maximum calcium ion release was significantly higher in acidic solution followed by neutral and alkaline solution ( p < 0.05).

  13. Durability test of geomembrane liners presumed to avail near surface disposal facilities for low-level waste generated from research, industrial and medical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakai, Akihiro; Kurosawa, Ryohei; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Kanno, Naohiro; Kashima, Takahiro

    2014-02-01

    The Low-level Radioactive Waste Disposal Project Center will construct near surface disposal facilities for radioactive wastes from research, industrial and medical facilities. The disposal facilities consist of “concrete pit type” for low-level radioactive wastes and “trench type” for very low level radioactive wastes. As for the trench type disposal facility, two kinds of facility designs are on projects – one for a normal trench type disposal facility without any of engineered barriers and the other for a trench type disposal facility with geomembrane liners that could prevent from causing environmental effects of non radioactive toxic materials contained in the waste packages. The disposal facility should be designed taking basic properties of durability on geomembrane liners into account, for it is exposed to natural environment on a long-term basis. This study examined mechanical strength and permeability properties to assess the durability on the basis of an indoor accelerated exposure experiment targeting the liner materials presumed to avail the conceptual design so far. Its results will be used for the basic and detailed design henceforth by confirming the empirical degradation characteristic with the progress of the exposure time. (author)

  14. The fundamental group of the orbit space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hattab Hawete

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Let G be a subgroup of the group Homeo(X of homeomorphisms of a topological space X. Let G¯$\\bar G$ be the closure of G in Homeo(X. The class of an orbit O of G is the union of all orbits having the same closure as O. We denote by X/G˜$X/\\widetildeG$ the space of classes of orbits called the orbit class space. In this paper, we study the fundamental group of the spaces X/G, X/G¯$X/\\bar G$ and X/G˜$X/\\widetildeG$

  15. Orbital tumor revealing a systemic sarcoidosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Hannanachi Sassi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocular involvement is seen in approximately 25% of patients with sarcoidosis. Uveitis is the most common ocular manifestation, but sarcoidosis may involve any part of the eye. Orbital manifestations of sarcoidosis are uncommon with few series in the literature. A 65-year-old woman presented with redness of the right eye and painless, unilateral eyelid swelling. Orbital scanning revealed mass infiltrating the soft tissue of the inferior right orbital quadrant. Biopsy results showed nodular, noncaseating granulomas consistent with sarcoidosis. The complete systemic workup revealed systemic manifestations of sarcoidosis at the time of examination with hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathies noted on CT scan. The orbital surgical treatment was followed by systemic prednisone therapy with good response. Although rare, orbital sarcoidosis must be considered in the evaluation of orbital tumors in elderly patients. A search for systemic findings should be undertaken and appropriate therapy should be instituted.

  16. Orbital Eccrine Hidrocystoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Marangoz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old female patient presented with a painless mass on her upper eyelid medially. She noticed the mass 4 years earlier and it had increased in size over time. She had no diplopia, eyelid swelling, skin lesion overlying the mass, or visual disturbances. On ocular examination, eye movements and funduscopy were normal. The mass was movable and painless with palpation. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast showed a 12x8x7 mm well-circumscribed cystic lesion with no contrast dye appearance. Surgical removal was performed delicately and no capsular rupture occured. Pathological examination revealed an eccrine hidrocystoma. Our aim is to underline that eccrine hidrocystoma should be included in differential diagnosis of orbital masses.

  17. Exploratory orbit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelotti, L.

    1989-03-01

    Unlike the other documents in these proceedings, this paper is neither a scientific nor a technical report. It is, rather, a short personal essay which attempts to describe an Exploratory Orbit Analysis (EOA) environment. Analyzing the behavior of a four or six dimensional nonlinear dynamical system is at least as difficult as analyzing events in high-energy collisions; the consequences of doing it badly, or slowly, would be at least as devastating; and yet the level of effort and expenditure invested in the latter, the very attention paid to it by physicists at large, must be two orders of magnitude greater than that given to the former. It is difficult to choose the model which best explains the behavior of a physical device if one does not first understand the behavior of the available models. The time is ripe for the development of a functioning EOA environment, which I will try to describe in this paper to help us achieve this goal

  18. Aerocapture Design Study for a Titan Polar Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C. A.; Kirchman, F.; Esper, J.; Folta, D.; Mashiku, A.

    2016-03-01

    In 2014 a team at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) studied the feasibility of using active aerocapture to reduce the chemical ΔV requirements for inserting a small scientific satellite into Titan polar orbit. The scientific goals of the mission would be multi-spectral imaging and active radar mapping of Titan's surface and subsurface. The study objectives were to: (i) identify and select from launch window opportunities and refine the trajectory to Titan; (ii) study the aerocapture flight path and refine the entry corridor; (iii) design a carrier spacecraft and systems architecture; (iv) develop a scientific and engineering plan for the orbital portion of the mission. Study results include: (i) a launch in October 2021 on an Atlas V vehicle, using gravity assists from Earth and Venus to arrive at Titan in January 2031; (ii) initial aerocapture via an 8-km wide entry corridor to reach an initial 350-6000 km orbit, followed by aerobraking to reach a 350-1500 km orbit, and a periapse raise maneuver to reach a final 1500 km circular orbit; (iii) a three-part spacecraft system consisting of a cruise stage, radiator module, and orbiter inside a heat shield; (iv) a 22-month mission including station keeping to prevent orbital decay due to Saturn perturbations, with 240 Gb of compressed data returned. High-level issues identified include: (i) downlink capability - realistic downlink rates preclude the desired multi- spectral, global coverage of Titan's surface; (ii) power - demise of the NASA ASRG (Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator) program, and limited availability at present of MMRTGs (Multi-Mission Radioisotope Generators) needed for competed outer planet missions; (iii) thermal - external radiators must be carried to remove 4 kW of waste heat from MMRTGs inside the aeroshell, requiring heat pipes that pass through the aeroshell lid, compromising shielding ability; (iv) optical navigation to reach the entry corridor; (v) the NASA requirement of continuous

  19. Prospective Ukrainian lunar orbiter mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkuratov, Y.; Litvinenko, L.; Shulga, V.; Yatskiv, Y.; Kislyuk, V.

    Ukraine has launch vehicles that are able to deliver about 300 kg to the lunar orbit. Future Ukrainian lunar program may propose a polar orbiter. This orbiter should fill principal information gaps in our knowledge about the Moon after Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions and the future missions, like Smart-1, Lunar-A, and Selene. We consider that this can be provided by radar studies of the Moon with supporting optical polarimetric observations from lunar polar orbit. These experiments allow one to better understand global structure of the lunar surface in a wide range of scales, from microns to kilometers. We propose three instruments for the prospective lunar orbiter. They are: a synthetic aperture imaging radar (SAR), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and imaging polarimeter (IP). The main purpose of SAR is to study with high resolution (50 m) the permanently shadowed sites in the lunar polar regions. These sites are cold traps for volatiles, and have a potential of resource utilization. Possible presence of water ice in the regolith in the sites makes them interesting for permanent manned bases on the Moon. Radar imaging and mapping of other interesting regions could be also planned. Multi-frequencies multi-polarization soun d ing of the lunar surface with GPR can provide information about internal structure of the lunar surface from meters to several hundred meters deep. GPR can be used for measuring the megaregolith layer properties, detection of cryptomaria, and studies of internal structure of the largest craters. IP will be a CCD camera with an additional suite of polarizers. Modest spatial resolution (100 m) should provide a total coverage or a large portion of the lunar surface in oblique viewing basically at large phase angles. Polarization degree at large (>90°) phase angles bears information about characteristic size of the regolith particles. Additional radiophysical experiments are considered with the use of the SAR system, e.g., bistatic radar

  20. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS LPVEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Satellite Simulated Orbits LPVEx dataset is available in the Orbital database, which takes account for the atmospheric profiles, the...

  1. On periodic orbits in discrete-time cascade systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Li

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present some results on existence, minimum period, number of periodic orbits, and stability of periodic orbits in discrete-time cascade systems. Some examples are presented to illustrate these results.

  2. Guidance proposal for using available DegT50 values for estimation of degradation rates of plant protection products in Dutch surface water and sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Adriaanse, P.I.; Horst, ter M.M.S.; Tiktak, A.; Linden, van der A.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    The degradation rate of plant protection products and their transformation products in surface water and sediment may influence their concentrations in Dutch surface water. Therefore the estimation of these rates may be an important part of the assessment of the exposure of aquatic organisms. We

  3. [Not Available].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeg, P

    1997-06-01

    In general, the desinfection of surfaces is done through scrubbing and wiping using substances on the basis of aldehydes, oxidants and tensides. We propose a 4-stage procedure (see Table 1). The concentration of the agent and the duration of application depend on the circumstances, whether one is dealing with a prophylactic measure, a nosocomial infection or an infection which has to be reported. The epidemiologic relevance dictates the extent of desinfection.

  4. Space Shuttle Orbiter-Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This illustration is an orbiter cutaway view with callouts. The orbiter is both the brains and heart of the Space Transportation System (STS). About the same size and weight as a DC-9 aircraft, the orbiter contains the pressurized crew compartment (which can normally carry up to seven crew members), the huge cargo bay, and the three main engines mounted on its aft end. There are three levels to the crew cabin. Uppermost is the flight deck where the commander and the pilot control the mission. The middeck is where the gallery, toilet, sleep stations, and storage and experiment lockers are found for the basic needs of weightless daily living. Also located in the middeck is the airlock hatch into the cargo bay and space beyond. It is through this hatch and airlock that astronauts go to don their spacesuits and marned maneuvering units in preparation for extravehicular activities, more popularly known as spacewalks. The Space Shuttle's cargo bay is adaptable to hundreds of tasks. Large enough to accommodate a tour bus (60 x 15 feet or 18.3 x 4.6 meters), the cargo bay carries satellites, spacecraft, and spacelab scientific laboratories to and from Earth orbit. It is also a work station for astronauts to repair satellites, a foundation from which to erect space structures, and a hold for retrieved satellites to be returned to Earth. Thermal tile insulation and blankets (also known as the thermal protection system or TPS) cover the underbelly, bottom of the wings, and other heat-bearing surfaces of the orbiter to protect it during its fiery reentry into the Earth's atmosphere. The Shuttle's 24,000 individual tiles are made primarily of pure-sand silicate fibers, mixed with a ceramic binder. The solid rocket boosters (SRB's) are designed as an in-house Marshall Space Flight Center project, with United Space Boosters as the assembly and refurbishment contractor. The solid rocket motor (SRM) is provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  5. Bony orbital distances among the Filipino population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Constance M; Jimenez, David F; Laskey, Antoinette; Alcantara, Briccio G; Braddock, Stephen R

    2002-03-01

    Six hundred and seventy seven radiographs were selected from the logs of films taken in a major hospital in Metro Manila, Philippines over the course of the previous year. Two hundred and eighty-eight female and 389 male, healthy Filipinos between the ages of birth and twenty years were selected based on the availability of a modified Waters' projection and lateral skull film taken at the same time. Measurements for the lateral orbital wall were made at the site of the suture on the medial surface of the zygomatic bone. The medial orbital wall measurement was the distance between the dacrya using a correction factor formula of CF = D-d/D where D is the target film distance and d is the object film distance (1). The actual bony measurements were calculated. The data was gathered and plotted according to sex and in age in years. Graphs were generated using SAS over a graph software. Lines were smooth using cubic spline technique developed by Reinsch with the smoothest value of 75 (2). The mean plus two, four, and six standard deviations were included in each of the curves.

  6. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: ACCESS 2000 - niveau 1 : 13 & 14.11.03 (2 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists : 17 – 21.11.03 (6 X 3-hour lectures) Programmation automate Schneider TSX Premium – niveau 2 : 18 – 21.11.03 (4 jours) JAVA 2 Enterprise Edition – Part 1 : WEB Applications : 20 & ...

  7. Congenital orbital encephalocele, orbital dystopia, and exophthalmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Han Joon

    2012-07-01

    We present here an exceedingly rare variant of a nonmidline basal encephalocele of the spheno-orbital type, and this was accompanied with orbital dystopia in a 56-year-old man. On examination, his left eye was located more inferolaterally than his right eye, and the patient said this had been this way since his birth. The protrusion of his left eye was aggravated when he is tired. His naked visual acuity was 0.7/0.3, and the ocular pressure was 14/12 mm Hg. The exophthalmometry was 10/14 to 16 mm. His eyeball motion was not restricted, yet diplopia was present in all directions. The distance from the midline to the medial canthus was 20/15 mm. The distance from the midline to the midpupillary line was 35/22 mm. The vertical dimension of the palpebral fissure was 12/9 mm. The height difference of the upper eyelid margin was 11 mm, and the height difference of the lower eyelid margin was 8 mm. Facial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed left sphenoid wing hypoplasia and herniation of the left anterior temporal pole and dura mater into the orbit, and this resulted into left exophthalmos and encephalomalacia in the left anterior temporal pole. To the best of our knowledge, our case is the second case of basal encephalocele and orbital dystopia.

  8. New opportunities in planetary geomorphology: an assessment of the capabilities of the Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) on The Exomars Trace Gas Orbiter through Image Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornabene, Livio Leonardo; Seelos, Frank; Pommerol, Antoine; Thomas, Nick; Caudill, Christy; Conway, Susan J.

    2017-04-01

    The Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) is a full-colour visible to near-infrared (VNIR) bi-directional pushframe stereo camera onboard the ExoMars 2016 Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO). For more details on ExoMars TGO and its payload, please see [4], and for the CaSSIS instrument see [1]. For details on the first Mars Capture Orbit (MCO)-acquired CaSSIS stereo images and preliminary 3D reconstructions from them [5]. CaSSIS will provide full-colour, stereo and repeat imaging spanning different times of day and covering all seasons. Such images will be used to address the following objectives: 1) characterizing possible [surface/subsurface] sources for methane and other trace gases; 2) investigating dynamic surface processes that may contribute to atmospheric gases; and 3) certifying and characterizing candidate landing site safety and hazards (e.g., rocks, slopes, etc.). Here we present a summary, and some highlights, based on the creation and analysis of simulated CaSSIS image cubes [see 2, 3]. We generated simulated images that are spatially (4.6 m/px) and spectrally (4-bands) consistent with CaSSIS from existing Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) datasets. Simulated CaSSIS colours were generated from hyperspectral VNIR (S-detector) data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) after the methods of [6], which were then combined with spatially oversampled and resampled 32-bit calibrated I/F images from the Context Camera (CTX) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) [2, 3]. For more of the details on the simulation process and the various products produced please see [2, 3]. Our simulations show that such colour coverage will be particularly valuable towards facilitating and enhancing seasonal process and change detection studies. For example, a simulation image of Gasa crater demonstrates exactly how additional colour context would facilitate gully change detections that can be subtle and difficult to detect in

  9. Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Places available The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses : Introduction à Outlook : 19.8.2004 (1 journée) Outlook (short course I) : E-mail : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, morning) Outlook (short course II) : Calendar, Tasks and Notes : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Instructor-led WBTechT Study or Follow-up for Microsoft Applications : 7.9.2004 (morning) Outlook (short course III) : Meetings and Delegation : 7.9.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Introduction ...

  10. MRI of orbital schwannomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, T.; Kawamura, N.; Homma, H.; Sasaki, K.; Izumimaya, H.; Matsumoto, K. [Department of Neurosurgery, Showa University School of Medicine, 5-8 Hatanodai 1, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8666 (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    The literature on MRI of orbital schwannomas is limited. The appearances in three patients with an orbital schwannoma were reviewed. A superior orbitotomy through a subfrontal craniotomy revealed a schwannoma in all cases. MRI characteristics of very low signal on T 1-weighted images and homogeneous postcontrast enhancement may be helpful for differentiating schwannomas from other intraconal masses. (orig.)

  11. Optical communication beyond orbital angular momentum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Trichili, A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mode division multiplexing (MDM) is mooted as a technology to address future bandwidth issues, and has been successfully demonstrated in free space using spatial modes with orbital angular momentum (OAM). To further increase the data transmission...

  12. Amplitude damping channel for orbital angular momentum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the pioneering work on the entanglement of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of light, much attention has been devoted to the subject, with particular attention into the quantum aspects of information processing using OAM. Furthermore...

  13. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74460

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Nouveautés de FileMaker : 20 - 23.03.01 (4 matins) Contract Follow-up : 9.4.01 (3 heures) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.

  14. Orbital abscess: Management and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Suneetha

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To discuss the diagnosis, management and outcome of various types of orbital abscess. Methods: The medical records of 13 patients diagnosed and treated for orbital abscess were reviewed. The sources of infection included: paranasal sinusitis (n = 5, odontogenic origin of infection (n = 4, one each, temporal fossa abscess, palatal abscess, furuncle on the nose, and secondary to retrobulbar injection of steroid. Computed tomographic scans revealed the presence of an abscess in all 13 cases. Associated findings on CT scan included: sinus disease (n = 8, cavernous sinus thrombosis (n = 2 and subdural empyema (n = 2. All patients were treated with intensive, multiple, intravenous antibiotics and early surgical drainage. Results: Purulent material collected surgically from the orbit cultured Staphylococcus aureus (n = 3, two each Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter species and one each β-haemolytic Streptococci, Citrobacter frundi and Enterobacter. Final visual acuity was good in 6 patients (6/12 - 6/6 and no light perception in 6 others. Visual acuity could not be recorded in the infant. The other complications were intracranial abscess (n = 4, cavernous sinus thrombosis (n = 2 and restricted ocular motility (n = 1. Conclusions: A high index of suspicion is necessary, along with early institution of appropriate diagnostic imaging, and aggressive medical and surgical treatment for a favourable outcome in cases of orbital abscess.

  15. Places available**

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses : EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 22.10.03 (2 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom (free of charge) : 23.10.03 (half day) The EDMS-MTF in practice (free of charge) :  28 -  30.10.03 (6 half-day sessions) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1 : 3, 4, 12, 13.11.03 (4 days) LabVIEW TestStand ver. 3 : 4 & 5.11.03 (2 days) Introduction to Pspice : 4.11.03 p.m. (half-day) Hands-on Introduction to Python Programm...

  16. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: MATLAB Fundamentals and Programming Techniques (ML01) :2 & 3.12.03 (2 days) Oracle 8i : SQL : 3 - 5.12.03 (3 days) The EDMS MTF in practice : 5.12.03 (afternoon, free of charge) Modeling Dynamic Systems with Simulink (SL01) : 8 & 9.12.03 (2 days) Signal Processing with MATLAB (SG01) : 11 & ...

  17. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: The JAVA Programming Language Level 1 : 9 & 10.1.2004 (2 days) The JAVA Programming Language Level 2 : 11 to 13.1.2004 (3 days) LabVIEW base 1 : 25 - 27.2.2004 (3 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom : 10.3.2004 (afternoon - free of charge) C++ for Particle Physicists : 8 - 12.3.2004 ( 6 X 4-hour sessions) LabVIEW Basics 1 : 22 - 24.3.20...

  18. Places available**

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: The JAVA Programming Language Level 1 :9 & 10.1.2004 (2 days) The JAVA Programming Language Level 2 : 11 to 13.1.2004 (3 days) Hands-on Introduction to Python Programming : 16 - 18.2.2004 (3 days - free of charge) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom : 10.3.2004 (afternoon - free of charge) C++ for Particle Physicists : 8 - 12.3.2004...

  19. Places available**

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval Tel. 74924technical.training@cern.ch ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: MATLAB Fundamentals and Programming Techniques (ML01) : 2 & 3.12.03 (2 days) Oracle 8i : SQL : 3 - 5.12.03 (3 days) The EDMS MTF in practice : 5.12.03 (afternoon, free of charge) Modeling Dynamic Systems with Simulink (SL01) : 8 & 9.12.03 (2 days) Signal Processing with MATLAB (SG01) : 11 & 12.12.03 (2 days) The JAVA Programming Language - l...

  20. Places available**

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: Project Planning with MS-Project : 15 & 22.1.2004 (2 days) Joint PVSS JCOP Framework Course : 2 sessions : 2 - 6.2.2004 and 16 - 20-2-2004 (5 days) Hands-on Introduction to Python Programming : 16 - 18.2.2004 (3 days - free of charge) C++ for Particle Physicists : 8 - 12.3.2004 ( 6 X 4-hour sessions)

  1. Places available**

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval Tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: JAVA 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 1 : WEB Applications : 20 & 21.11.03(2 days) FrontPage 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 21.11.03 (2 jours) Oracle 8i : SQL : 3 - 5.12.03 (3 days) Oracle 8i : Programming with PL/SQL : 8 - 10.12.03 (3 days) The JAVA Programming Language - leve...

  2. [Not Available].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiero, Fabiano; Giangreco, Manuela; Pisa, Federica Edith; Negro, Corrado; Bovenzi, Massimo; Rosolen, Valentina; Barbone, Fabio

    2016-07-26

    The incidence of mesothelioma in Italy shows wide geographical variation, with the highest incidence rates in Genoa and Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG). For mesothelioma, national standard incidence rates are not available prior to the calendar year 2006. To estimate the Standardized Incidence rate Ratio (SIR) of mesothelioma in a cohort of former workers undergoing health surveillance because of previous asbestos exposure, when sex-, age-, and calendar year-specific rates of the national standard are not available and the number of expected cases calculated from the regional rates is biased by the size of the study cohort. We conducted a sensitivity analysis in a cohort of 2,488 men. We considered every Italian cancer registry available with complete data in the period 1995-2007 (N=14). We calculated, for each year and age group, the corresponding weighted mean rate of 10 registries of North-Italy (Mean W10), the weighted mean rate of all 14 registries available (Mean W14) and considered FVG standard rate. During the period 1995-2007, we observed 25 incident cases of mesothelioma with expected cases that varied between 2.00 (Mean W14) and 2.56 (FVG standard rate), with a SIR of 12.49 (CI95% 8.08-18.48) and 9.76 (CI95% 6.32-14.45) respectively. Our results show that the use of FVG rates as standard does not lead to significant distortions in the calculation of the expected cases. However, distortion is remarkable in the SIRs estimation. Using a weighted mean standard incidence rate may be a valid alternative for SIR estimate when national standard rates are not available.

  3. Granular Cell Tumor of the Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Salour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of granular cell tumor as a rare orbital pathology. Case report: A 50-year-old female presented with a 4-year history of diplopia, right ocular displacement and a firm nontender mass in her right lower lid. Computed tomography (CT scan of the orbit disclosed a well-defined mass in the right inferior orbit involving the right inferior rectus. Subtotal excision of the mass was performed, and histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies revealed granular cell tumor. Subsequently, the tumor recurred and exenteration was required as multiple sessions of radiotherapy failed to prevent the residual tumor from growing. Conclusion: Granular cell tumor, though very rare in the orbit, should be considered in patients with orbital masses especially in cases with involvement of the inferior rectus muscle. Infiltrative tumors may be impossible to completely resect and can rapidly recur following surgery.

  4. Hemangiopericitoma de órbita Orbital hemangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ximenes Alves

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Descrever um raro caso de hemangiopericitoma orbital. Métodos: Relato de caso de associação entre hemangipericitoma orbital e blefaroptose. Resultados: A exérese da neoplasia normalizou o posicionamento palpebral. Conclusões: Lesões orbitais anteriores são causas de blefaroptose por compressão do músculo elevador palpebral.Purpose: To describe a rare case of orbital hemangiope- ricytoma. Methods: Case report of an association of blepha-roptosis with orbital hemangiopericytoma. Results: When the lesion was surgically removed the position of the upper eyelid returned to normal. Conclusions: Anterior orbital lesions can lead to blepharoptosis by compression of the levator palpebrae muscle.

  5. A Case of Orbital Myiasis in Recurrent Eyelid Basal Cell Carcinoma Invasive into the Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triptesh Raj Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Orbital myiasis is the infestation of the orbital tissues by fly larvae or maggots. Compromise of periorbital tissues by malignant disease, surgery, ischemia, or infection may predispose the patient to orbital myiasis. Case Report. A 73-year-old male patient with neglected recurrent basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid invasive into the orbit presented with complaints of intense itching and crawling sensation with maggots wriggling and falling from the wound of left orbit. The patient improved following manual removal of the maggots along with oral Ivermectin treatment. Recurrence of the basal cell carcinoma was confirmed by punch biopsy from the wound and extended exenteration of the orbit followed by reconstructive surgery was done. Conclusion. Orbital myiasis is a rare and preventable ocular morbidity that can complicate the malignancies resulting in widespread tissue destruction. The broad spectrum antiparasitic agent, Ivermectin, can be used as noninvasive means to treat orbital myiasis. In massive orbital myiasis and those associated with malignancies, exenteration of the orbit must be seriously considered.

  6. Pursuit/evasion in orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, H. J.; Cliff, E. M.; Lutze, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    Maneuvers available to a spacecraft having sufficient propellant to escape an antisatellite satellite (ASAT) attack are examined. The ASAT and the evading spacecraft are regarded as being in circular orbits, and equations of motion are developed for the ASAT to commence a two-impulse maneuver sequence. The ASAT employs thrust impulses which yield a minimum-time-to-rendezvous, considering available fuel. Optimal evasion is shown to involve only in-plane maneuvers, and begins as soon as the ASAT launch information is gathered and thrust activation can be initiated. A closest approach, along with a maximum evasion by the target spacecraft, is calculated to be 14,400 ft. Further research to account for ASATs in parking orbit and for generalization of a continuous control-modeled differential game is indicated.

  7. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Utilisation du simulateur Simplorer : 30.5 - 1.6.01 (3 jours) Contract Follow-up : 11.6.01 (1/2 journée) LabView hands-on : 11.6.01 F ou E (1/2 journée) LabView Base 1 : 12 - 14.6.01 (3 jours) Habilitation électrique : superviseurs: 2 sessions d'une demi-journée les 12 et 19.6.01 If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.

  8. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    TECHNICAL TRAINING; Tel. 74460

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: The JAVA programming language level 1: 8 - 9.2.01 (2 days) AutoCAD 2D niveau 1 : 12 - 16.2.01 (5 jours) The JAVA programming language level 2: 19 - 21.2.01 (3 days) C++ for Particle Physicists: 5 - 9.3.01 (20 hrs on 5 days) Contract Follow-up : 12.3.01 (3 heures) The JAVA programming language level 2: 12 - 14.3.01 (3 days) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.

  9. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: December 2002   PCAD Schémas - Débutants :  5 & 6.12.02  (2 jours) PCAD PCB - Débutants :  9 - 11.12.02  (3 jours) FrontPage 2000 - level 1:  9 & 10.12.02  (2 days) Introduction à la CAO Cadence (cours gratuit) :  10 & 11.12.02  (2 jours) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : Technical Training or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Technical Training Monique Duval Tel.74924 monique.duval@cern.ch

  10. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: CLEAN-2002 : Travailler en salle blanche (cours gratuit) : 13.08.2002 (matin) Introduction to the CERN Enginnering Data Management System :  27.8.02  (1 day) The CERN Engineering Data Management System for Advanced Users :  28.8.02  (1 day) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : Technical Training or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Technical Training Monique Duval Tel.74924 monique.duval@cern.ch    

  11. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: C++ Programming Level 2 - Traps & Pitfalls:  16 - 19.7.02 (4 days) Frontpage 2000 - level 1 :  22 - 23.7.02  (2 days) Introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN : 24.7.02 (après-midi) CLEAN-2002 : Travailler en salle blanche (cours gratuit) : 13.08.2002 (matin) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : Technical Training or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Technical Training Monique Duval Tel.74924 monique.duval@cern.ch

  12. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Introduction to Perl 5 : 2 - 3.7.01 (2 days) Introduction to Databases :  3 - 4.7.01 (2 days) JAVA programming language Level 2 : 4 - 6.7.01 (3 days) Enterprise JavaBeans :  9 - 11.7.01 (3 days) Design Patterns :  10 - 12.7.01 (3 days) C++ for Particle Physicists :  23 - 27.7.01 (6 3-hour lectures) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.

  13. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Introduction to Databases :  3 - 4.7.01 (2 days) The JAVA programming language Level 2 : 4 - 6.7.01 (3 days) Enterprise JavaBeans :  9 - 11.7.01 (3 days) Design Patterns :  10 - 12.7.01 (3 days) C++ for Particle Physicists :  23 - 27.7.01 (6 3-hour lectures) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.

  14. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Conception de PCB rapides dans le flot Cadence : 11.6.03 (matin) EXCEL 2000 - level 1 : 12 & 13.6.03 (2 days) Introduction to PVSS : 16.6.03 (p.m.) Basic PVSS : 17 - 19.6.03 (3 days) Réalisation de PCB rapides dans le flot Cadence : 17.6.03 (matin) PVSS - JCOP Framework Tutorial : 20.6.03 (1 day) Programmation automate Schneider : Programmation automate Schneider TSX Premium - 2ème niveau : 24 - 27.6.03 (4 jours) - audience : toute personne qui veux maitriser la mise en uvre et la programmation des fonctions spécialisées d'un automate TSX Premium - objectifs : maitriser la mise en uvre et la programmation des fonctions spécialisées d'un automate TSX Premium Cours de sécurité : Etre TSO au CERN : Prochaines sessions : 24, 25 & 27.6.03 - 4, 5 & 7.11.03 (session de 3 jours) ** The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. If you wish to participate in one of these courses, pl...

  15. Mixed nano/micro-sized calcium phosphate composite and EDTA root surface etching improve availability of graft material in intrabony defects: an in vivo scanning electron microscopy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal, Ahmed Y; Iacono, Vincent J

    2013-12-01

    The use of nanoparticles of graft materials may lead to breakthrough applications for periodontal regeneration. However, due to their small particle size, nanoparticles may be eliminated from periodontal defects by phagocytosis. In an attempt to improve nanoparticle retention in periodontal defects, the present in vivo study uses scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the potential of micrograft particles of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) to enhance the binding and retention of nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite (nHA) on EDTA-treated and non-treated root surfaces in periodontal defects after 14 days of healing. Sixty patients having at least two hopeless periodontally affected teeth designated for extraction were randomly divided into four treatment groups (15 patients per group). Patients in group 1 had selected periodontal intrabony defects grafted with nHA of particle size 10 to 100 nm. Patients in group 2 were treated in a similar manner but had the affected roots etched for 2 minutes with a neutral 24% EDTA gel before grafting of the associated vertical defects with nHA. Patients in group 3 had the selected intrabony defects grafted with a composite graft consisting of equal volumes of nHA and β-TCP (particle size 63 to 150 nm). Patients in group 4 were treated as in group 3 but the affected roots were etched with neutral 24% EDTA as in group 2. For each of the four groups, one tooth was extracted immediately, and the second tooth was extracted after 14 days of healing for SEM evaluation. Fourteen days after surgery, all group 1 samples were devoid of any nanoparticles adherent to the root surfaces. Group 2 showed root surface areas 44.7% covered by a single layer of clot-blended grafted particles 14 days following graft application. After 14 days, group 3 samples appeared to retain fibrin strands devoid of grafted particles. Immediately extracted root samples of group 4 had adherent graft particles that covered a considerable area of the root surfaces

  16. Posttraumatic Orbital Emphysema: A Numerical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Skorek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital emphysema is a common symptom accompanying orbital fracture. The pathomechanism is still not recognized and the usually assumed cause, elevated pressure in the upper airways connected with sneezing or coughing, does not always contribute to the occurrence of this type of fracture. Observations based on the finite model (simulating blowout type fracture of the deformations of the inferior orbital wall after a strike in its lower rim. Authors created a computer numeric model of the orbit with specified features—thickness and resilience modulus. During simulation an evenly spread 14400 N force was applied to the nodular points in the inferior rim (the maximal value not causing cracking of the outer rim, but only ruptures in the inferior wall. The observation was made from 1·10-3 to 1·10-2 second after a strike. Right after a strike dislocations of the inferior orbital wall toward the maxillary sinus were observed. Afterwards a retrograde wave of the dislocation of the inferior wall toward the orbit was noticed. Overall dislocation amplitude reached about 6 mm. Based on a numeric model of the orbit submitted to a strike in the inferior wall an existence of a retrograde shock wave causing orbital emphysema has been found.

  17. Backtrack Orbit Search Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, K.; Swick, R.

    2002-12-01

    A Mathematical Solution to a Mathematical Problem. With the dramatic increase in satellite-born sensor resolution traditional methods of spatially searching for orbital data have become inadequate. As data volumes increase end-users of the data have become increasingly intolerant of false positives. And, as computing power rapidly increases end-users have come to expect equally rapid search speeds. Meanwhile data archives have an interest in delivering the minimum amount of data that meets users' needs. This keeps their costs down and allows them to serve more users in a more timely manner. Many methods of spatial search for orbital data have been tried in the past and found wanting. The ever popular lat/lon bounding box on a flat Earth is highly inaccurate. Spatial search based on nominal "orbits" is somewhat more accurate at much higher implementation cost and slower performance. Spatial search of orbital data based on predict orbit models are very accurate at a much higher maintenance cost and slower performance. This poster describes the Backtrack Orbit Search Algorithm--an alternative spatial search method for orbital data. Backtrack has a degree of accuracy that rivals predict methods while being faster, less costly to implement, and less costly to maintain than other methods.

  18. Orbital cellulitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswaran, Savithri; Woods, Charles R; Benjamin, Daniel K; Givner, Laurence B; Shetty, Avinash K

    2006-08-01

    To review the epidemiology and management of orbital cellulitis in children. The medical records of children orbital cellulitis and confirmed by computed tomography scan were reviewed. A literature search for additional studies for systematic review was also conducted. Forty-one children with orbital cellulitis were identified. The mean age was 7.5 years (range, 10 months to 16 years), and 30 (73%) were male (male:female ratio = 2.7). All cases of orbital cellulitis were associated with sinusitis; ethmoid sinusitis was present in 40 (98%) patients. Proptosis and/or ophthalmoplegia was documented in 30 (73%), and 34 (83%) had subperiosteal and/or orbital abscesses. Twenty-nine (71%) had surgical drainage and 12 (29%) received antibiotic therapy only. The mean duration of hospitalization was 5.8 days. The mean duration of antibiotic therapy was 21 days. Orbital cellulitis occurs throughout childhood and in similar frequency among younger and older children. It is twice as common among males as females. Selected cases of orbital cellulitis, including many with subperiosteal abscess, can be treated successfully without surgical drainage.

  19. Harmonically excited orbital variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, T.

    1985-01-01

    Rephrasing the equations of motion for orbital maneuvers in terms of Lagrangian generalized coordinates instead of Newtonian rectangular cartesian coordinates can make certain harmonic terms in the orbital angular momentum vector more readily apparent. In this formulation the equations of motion adopt the form of a damped harmonic oscillator when torques are applied to the orbit in a variationally prescribed manner. The frequencies of the oscillator equation are in some ways unexpected but can nonetheless be exploited through resonant forcing functions to achieve large secular variations in the orbital elements. Two cases are discussed using a circular orbit as the control case: (1) large changes in orbital inclination achieved by harmonic excitation rather than one impulsive velocity change, and (2) periodic and secular changes to the longitude of the ascending node using both stable and unstable excitation strategies. The implications of these equations are also discussed for both artificial satellites and natural satellites. For the former, two utilitarian orbits are suggested, each exploiting a form of harmonic excitation. 5 refs

  20. QUIKVIS- CELESTIAL TARGET AVAILABILITY INFORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzo, C.

    1994-01-01

    QUIKVIS computes the times during an Earth orbit when geometric requirements are satisfied for observing celestial objects. The observed objects may be fixed (stars, etc.) or moving (sun, moon, planets). QUIKVIS is useful for preflight analysis by those needing information on the availability of celestial objects to be observed. Two types of analyses are performed by QUIKVIS. One is used when specific objects are known, the other when targets are unknown and potentially useful regions of the sky must be identified. The results are useful in selecting candidate targets, examining the effects of observation requirements, and doing gross assessments of the effects of the orbit's right ascension of the ascending node (RAAN). The results are not appropriate when high accuracy is needed (e.g. for scheduling actual mission operations). The observation duration is calculated as a function of date, orbit node, and geometric requirements. The orbit right ascension of the ascending node can be varied to account for the effects of an uncertain launch time of day. The orbit semimajor axis and inclination are constant throughout the run. A circular orbit is assumed, but a simple program modification will allow eccentric orbits. The geometric requirements that can be processed are: 1) minimum separation angle between the line of sight to the object and the earth's horizon; 2) minimum separation angle between the line of sight to the object and the spacecraft velocity vector; 3) maximum separation angle between the line of sight to the object and the zenith direction; and 4) presence of the spacecraft in the earth's shadow. The user must supply a date or date range, the spacecraft orbit and inclination, up to 700 observation targets, and any geometric requirements to be met. The primary output is the time per orbit that conditions are satisfied, with options for sky survey maps, time since a user-specified orbit event, and bar graphs illustrating overlapping requirements. The

  1. Evaluation of Beryllium, Total Chromium and Nickel in the Surface Contaminant Layer Available for Dermal Exposure After Abrasive Blasting in a Shipyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    estimate the rate of allergy in the population at 10% or higher (44), while others suggest a rate of2.5% to 5% (24). Nickel itch or nickel allergy is a...area of the surface. As described in Chapter 2 nickel allergy may be the most common allergy in the general population ( 44). With the potential...presence of nickel in the non-exposed areas personnel with allergies to nickel should be properly protected. PUBLIC HEAL TH SIGNIFICANCE Blasting

  2. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Habilitation électrique : recyclage HT/BT : 11 - 15.3.2002  (2 * 2 heures) PVSS Basics :  8 - 12.4.02  (5 days) ELEC-2002 : Spring Term :  9, 11, 16, 18, 23, 25, 30.4.02 (7 * 2.5 hours) LabVIEW base 1 : 22 - 24.4.02 (3 jours) LabVIEW DSC (F) 25 & 26.4.02 (2 jours) LabVIEW Basics 2 : 13 & 14.5.02 (2 days) LabVIEW DAQ (F) : 15 & 16.5.02 (2 jours) Cours sur la migration AutoCAD :   AutoCAD : Mise à jour AutoCAD r-14 vers 2002 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical PowerPack 6 basé sur AutoCAD 2002 (5 jours) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : Technical Training or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applica...

  3. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: PVSS basics :  18 - 22.2.02 (5 days) Introduction à la CAO CADENCE : 20 & 21.2.02 (2 jours) LabView Basics 1 :  4 - 6.3.02  (3 days) Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur de CADENCE : 6 & 7.3.02 (2 jours) LabView Base 2 : 11 & 12.3.02 (2 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists :  11 - 15.3.2002  (6 * 3 hour lectures) LabView Advanced :  13 - 15.3.02 (3 days) Cours sur la migration AutoCAD :   AutoCAD : Mise à jour AutoCAD r-14 vers 2002 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical PowerPack 6 basé sur AutoCAD 2002 (5 jours) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : Technical Training or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO...

  4. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Introduction à la CAO CADENCE : 20 & 21.2.02 (2 jours) LabView Basics 1 :  4 - 6.3.02  (3 days) Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur de CADENCE : 6 & 7.3.02 (2 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Clean Room :  7.3.2002  (1 day) LabView Base 2 : 11 & 12.3.02 (2 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists :  11 - 15.3.2002  (6 * 3 hour lectures) LabView Advanced :  13 - 15.3.02 (3 days) Cours sur la migration AutoCAD :   AutoCAD : Mise à jour AutoCAD r-14 vers 2002 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical PowerPack 6 basé sur AutoCAD 2002 (5 jours) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : Technical Training or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisiona...

  5. PLACES AVAILABLES

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2000-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses:   C++ for Particle Physicists 20 - 24.11.00 6 lectures CANbus 20.11.00 1 journée CANopen 21 et 22.11.00 2 jours Sécutiré dans les installations cryogéniques 21 et 22.11.00 2 demi-journées The JAVA programming language level 2 27 ­ 29.11.00 3 days Contract Follow-up 27.11.00 3 heures 1/2 Cryogénie (introduction) 4 ­ 8.12.00 ANSYS Introduction : langue a décider suivant majorité 5 ­ 7.12.00 3 jours EXCEL 7, 8, 13 et 14.12.00 4 jours Contract Follow-up 15.12.00 3 heures 1/2 If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an “application for training” form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer)....

  6. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74460

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: LabView Base 1 : 27-29.3.01 (3 jours) Contract Follow-up : 9.4.01 (3 heures) Introduction à PowerPoint : 24.4.01 (1 journée) Publier sur le Web : 25-27.4.01 (3 demi-journées) Programmation TSX Premium 2 : 15-16.5.01 (5 jours) LabView Base 2 : 27-29.3.01 (2 jours) Hands-on Object-oriented Analysis, Design & Programming with C++ :  23-27.4.01 (5 days) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.

  7. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74460

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: The JAVA programming language level 1 : 22 - 23.1.01 (2 days) Introduction to Databases : 23 - 24.1.01 (2 days) EXCEL : 24 - 25.1.01  et 1 - 2.2.01 (4 jours) Advanced and Modern Databases : 25 - 26.01.01 (2 days) UNIX pour non-programmeurs : 31.1 - 2.2.01 (3 jours) JAVA for non-programmers : 5 - 7.2.01 (3 days) Publier sur le Web :  6 - 8.2.01 (3 demi-journées) Contract Follow-up : 12.2.01 (3 heures) Introduction to Oracle SQL and PL/SQL : 12 - 16.2.01 (5 days) The JAVA programming language level 2 : 19 - 21.2.01 (3 days) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order...

  8. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    TECHNICAL TRAINING; Tel. 74460

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Introduction to Databases : 23 - 24.1.01 (2 days) Advanced and Modern Databases : 25 - 26.01.01 (2 days) UNIX pour non-programmeurs : 31.1 - 2.2.01 (3 jours) JAVA for non-programmers : 5 - 7.2.01 (3 days) Contract Follow-up : 12.2.01 (3 heures) Introduction to Oracle SQL and PL/SQL : 12 - 16.2.01 (5 days) AutoCAD 2D niveau I : 12 - 16.2.02 (5 jours) The JAVA programming language level 2 : 19 - 21.2.2001 (3 days) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.

  9. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Utilisation du simulateur Simplorer : 30.5 - 1.6.01 (3 jours) JAVA programming language level 1: 11-12.6.01 (2 days) LabView hands-on F ou E : 11.6.01 (1/2 journée) Comprehensive VHDL for EPLD/FPGA Design : 11 - 15.6.01 (5 days) Introduction au Langage C : 13 - 15.6.01 (3 jours) LabView Base 1 : 12 - 14.6.01 (3 jours) Habilitation électrique : superviseurs : 2 sessions d'une demi-journée les 12 et 19.6.01 Migration de LabVIEW 5 vers LabVIEW 6i Migration from LabVIEW 5 to LabVIEW 6I :  15.6.01 (1/2 journée/half-day) Introduction to Perl 5 : 2 - 3.7.01 (2 days) JAVA programming language level 2 : 4 - 6.7.01 (3 days) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from ...

  10. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: November 2002   Java Programming Language level 1 :  28 & 29.11.02  (2 days) December 2002   LabVIEW - DSC (English) :  2 - 3.12.02  (2 days) FileMaker (Français) :  2 - 5.12.02  (4 jours) PCAD Schémas - Débutants :  5 & 6.12.02  (2 jours) PCAD PCB - Débutants :  9 - 11.12.02  (3 jours) FrontPage 2000 - level 1:  9 & 10.12.02  (2 days) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : Technical Training or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Technical Training M...

  11. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: LabView Hands-on (bilingue/bilingual - gratuit/free of charge) : 13.9.02 (a.m.) LabView DAQ Hands-on (bilingue/bilingual - gratuit/free of charge) : 13.9.02 (p.m.) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 19, 20, 26, 27.9.02 (4 jours) LabView Base 1 : 23 - 25.9.02 (3 jours) LabView DAQ (E) : 26 - 27.9.02 (2 days) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 30.9, 1, 2, 9, 10, 11.10.02 (6 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom (free of charge) : 10.10.02 (half-day, p.m.) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 14 - 15.10.02 (2 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1 : 17, 18, 24, 25.10.02 (4 days) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : Technical Training or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Of...

  12. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: November 2002   Hands-on Object-Oriented Design and Programming with C++:  19 - 21.11.02  (3 days)  December 2002   LabVIEW - DSC (English) :  2 - 3.12.02  (2 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 :  2 & 3.12.02  (2 jours) FileMaker (Français) :  2 - 5.12.02  (4 jours) PCAD Schémas - Débutants :  5 & 6.12.02  (2 jours) PCAD PCB - Débutants :  9 - 11.12.02  (3 jours) FrontPage 2000 - level 1:  9 & 10.12.02  (2 days) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : Technical Training or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisiona...

  13. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74460

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Introduction à PowerPoint : 26.2.01 (1 journée) Programmation TSX Premium 1 : 26.2 - 2.3.01 (5 jours) Premiers pas avec votre PC : 27.2 - 2.3.01 (4 matins) C++ for Particle Physicists :  5 - 9.3.01 (6*3 hour lectures) The CERN Engineering Data Management System for Electronic Design : 6.3.01 (1 day) The CERN Engineering Data Management System for Electronic Design : 7.3.01 (1 day) EXCEL : 6, 7 et 13, 14.3.01 (4 jours) The JAVA programming language level 2 : 12 - 14.3.01 (3 days) Nouveautés de FileMaker : 20 - 23.03.01 (4 matins) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be acc...

  14. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    TECHNICAL TRAINING; Tel. 74460

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: MS-Project 1er niveau : 20 - 23.2.01 (4 matins) Architecture d'automatisme : 20 - 21.2.01 (2 jours) Introduction à PowerPoint : 26.2.01 (1 journée) Programmation TSX Premium 1 (Schneider) : 26.2 - 2.3.01 (5 jours) Premiers pas avec votre PC : 27.2 - 2.3.01 (4 matins) C++ for Particle Physicists : 5 - 9.3.01 (6*3 hour lectures) EXCEL : 6, 7 et 13, 14.3.01 (4 jours) The JAVA programming language level 2 :  12 - 14.3.01 (3 days) Nouveautés de FileMaker :  20 - 23.03.01 (4 matins) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.

  15. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel 74924

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: LabView hands-on : 21.01.02 (1/2 journée) LabView DAQ hands-on : 21.01.02 (1/2 journée) FileMaker Pro : 22 - 25.1.02 (4 jours) MS-Project 2000 : 24 & 25.01.02 (2 jours) Introduction au PC et à Windows 2000 au CERN : 29 - 30.1.02 (2 jours) LabView Base 1 : 4 - 6.2.02 (3 jours) LabView DAQ (E) : 7 & 8.02.02 (2 days) Hands-on Object-Oriented Design & Programming with Java : 11 - 13.02.02 (3 days) C++ for Particle Physicists : 11 - 15.3.2002 (6 * 3 hour lectures) Cours sur la migration AutoCAD : AutoCAD : Mise à jour AutoCAD r-14 vers 2002 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical PowerPack 6 basé sur AutoCAD 2002 (5 jours) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : Technical Training or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO ...

  16. Image Simulation and Assessment of the Colour and Spatial Capabilities of the Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) on the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornabene, Livio L.; Seelos, Frank P.; Pommerol, Antoine; Thomas, Nicholas; Caudill, C. M.; Becerra, Patricio; Bridges, John C.; Byrne, Shane; Cardinale, Marco; Chojnacki, Matthew; Conway, Susan J.; Cremonese, Gabriele; Dundas, Colin M.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Fernando, Jennifer; Hansen, Candice J.; Hansen, Kayle; Harrison, Tanya N.; Henson, Rachel; Marinangeli, Lucia; McEwen, Alfred S.; Pajola, Maurizio; Sutton, Sarah S.; Wray, James J.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to assess the spatial and visible/near-infrared (VNIR) colour/spectral capabilities of the 4-band Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) aboard the ExoMars 2016 Trace Grace Orbiter (TGO). The instrument response functions for the CaSSIS imager was used to resample spectral libraries, modelled spectra and to construct spectrally ( i.e., in I/F space) and spatially consistent simulated CaSSIS image cubes of various key sites of interest and for ongoing scientific investigations on Mars. Coordinated datasets from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) are ideal, and specifically used for simulating CaSSIS. The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) provides colour information, while the Context Imager (CTX), and in a few cases the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), provides the complementary spatial information at the resampled CaSSIS unbinned/unsummed pixel resolution (4.6 m/pixel from a 400-km altitude). The methodology used herein employs a Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening algorithm to combine the ˜18-36 m/pixel CRISM-derived CaSSIS colours with I/F images primarily derived from oversampled CTX images. One hundred and eighty-one simulated CaSSIS 4-colour image cubes (at 18-36 m/pixel) were generated (including one of Phobos) based on CRISM data. From these, thirty-three "fully"-simulated image cubes of thirty unique locations on Mars ( i.e., with 4 colour bands at 4.6 m/pixel) were made. All simulated image cubes were used to test both the colour capabilities of CaSSIS by producing standard colour RGB images, colour band ratio composites (CBRCs) and spectral parameters. Simulated CaSSIS CBRCs demonstrated that CaSSIS will be able to readily isolate signatures related to ferrous (Fe2+) iron- and ferric (Fe3+) iron-bearing deposits on the surface of Mars, ices and atmospheric phenomena. Despite the lower spatial resolution of CaSSIS when compared to HiRISE, the results of this work demonstrate that Ca

  17. Image simulation and assessment of the colour and spatial capabilities of the Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) on the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornabene, Livio L.; Seelos, Frank P.; Pommerol, Antoine; Thomas, Nicolas; Caudill, Christy M.; Becerra, Patricio; Bridges, John C.; Byrne, Shane; Cardinale, Marco; Chojnacki, Matthew; Conway, Susan J.; Cremonese, Gabriele; Dundas, Colin M.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Fernando, Jennifer; Hansen, Candice J.; Hansen, Kayle; Harrison, Tanya N.; Henson, Rachel; Marinangeli, Lucia; McEwen, Alfred S.; Pajola, Maurizio; Sutton, Sarah S.; Wray, James J.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to assess the spatial and visible/near-infrared (VNIR) colour/spectral capabilities of the 4-band Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) aboard the ExoMars 2016 Trace Grace Orbiter (TGO). The instrument response functions for the CaSSIS imager was used to resample spectral libraries, modelled spectra and to construct spectrally (i.e., in I/F space) and spatially consistent simulated CaSSIS image cubes of various key sites of interest and for ongoing scientific investigations on Mars. Coordinated datasets from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) are ideal, and specifically used for simulating CaSSIS. The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) provides colour information, while the Context Imager (CTX), and in a few cases the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), provides the complementary spatial information at the resampled CaSSIS unbinned/unsummed pixel resolution (4.6 m/pixel from a 400-km altitude). The methodology used herein employs a Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening algorithm to combine the ∼18–36 m/pixel CRISM-derived CaSSIS colours with I/F images primarily derived from oversampled CTX images. One hundred and eighty-one simulated CaSSIS 4-colour image cubes (at 18–36 m/pixel) were generated (including one of Phobos) based on CRISM data. From these, thirty-three “fully”-simulated image cubes of thirty unique locations on Mars (i.e., with 4 colour bands at 4.6 m/pixel) were made. All simulated image cubes were used to test both the colour capabilities of CaSSIS by producing standard colour RGB images, colour band ratio composites (CBRCs) and spectral parameters. Simulated CaSSIS CBRCs demonstrated that CaSSIS will be able to readily isolate signatures related to ferrous (Fe2+) iron- and ferric (Fe3+) iron-bearing deposits on the surface of Mars, ices and atmospheric phenomena. Despite the lower spatial resolution of CaSSIS when compared to HiRISE, the results of this work demonstrate that

  18. High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging Can Reliably Detect Orbital Tumor Recurrence after Enucleation in Children with Retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Selma; de Jong, Marcus C; de Graaf, Pim; Brisse, Hervé J; Galluzzi, Paolo; Maeder, Philippe; Bornfeld, Norbert; Biewald, Eva; Metz, Klaus A; Temming, Petra; Castelijns, Jonas A; Goericke, Sophia L

    2016-03-01

    Orbital tumor recurrence is a rare but serious complication in children with retinoblastoma, leading to a high risk of metastasis and death. Therefore, we assume that these recurrences have to be detected and treated as early as possible. Preliminary studies used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate postsurgical findings in the orbit. In this study, we assessed the diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution MRI to detect orbital tumor recurrence in children with retinoblastoma in a large study cohort. Consecutive retrospective study (2007-2013) assessing MRI findings after enucleation. A total of 103 MRI examinations of 55 orbits (50 children, 27 male/23 female, mean age 16.3±12.4 months) with a median time of 8 months (range, 0-93) after enucleation for retinoblastoma. High-resolution MRI using orbital surface coils was performed on 1.5 Tesla MRI systems to assess abnormal orbital findings. Five European experts in retinoblastoma imaging evaluated the MRI examinations regarding the presence of abnormal orbital gadolinium enhancement and judged them as "definitive tumor," "suspicious of tumor," "postsurgical condition/scar formation," or "without pathologic findings." The findings were correlated to histopathology (if available), MRI, and clinical follow-up. Abnormal orbital enhancement was a common finding after enucleation (100% in the first 3 months after enucleation, 64.3% >3 years after enucleation). All histopathologically confirmed tumor recurrences (3 of 55 orbits, 5.5%) were correctly judged as "definitive tumor" in MRI. Two orbits from 2 children rated as "suspicious of tumor" received intravenous chemotherapy without histopathologic confirmation; further follow-up (67 and 47 months) revealed no sign of tumor recurrence. In 90.2%, no tumor was suspected on MRI, which was clinically confirmed during follow-up (median follow-up after enucleation, 45 months; range, 8-126). High-resolution MRI with orbital surface coils may reliably distinguish between

  19. CMTM3 (CKLF-Like Marvel Transmembrane Domain 3) Mediates Angiogenesis by Regulating Cell Surface Availability of VE-Cadherin in Endothelial Adherens Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrifi, Ihsan; Louzao-Martinez, Laura; Brandt, Maarten; van Dijk, Christian G M; Burgisser, Petra; Zhu, Changbin; Kros, Johan M; Duncker, Dirk J; Cheng, Caroline

    2017-06-01

    Decrease in VE-cadherin adherens junctions reduces vascular stability, whereas disruption of adherens junctions is a requirement for neovessel sprouting during angiogenesis. Endocytosis plays a key role in regulating junctional strength by altering bioavailability of cell surface proteins, including VE-cadherin. Identification of new mediators of endothelial endocytosis could enhance our understanding of angiogenesis. Here, we assessed the function of CMTM3 (CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain 3), which we have previously identified as highly expressed in Flk1 + endothelial progenitor cells during embryonic development. Using a 3-dimensional coculture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells-GFP (green fluorescent protein) and pericytes-RFP (red fluorescent protein), we demonstrated that siRNA-mediated CMTM3 silencing in human umbilical vein endothelial cells impairs angiogenesis. In vivo CMTM3 inhibition by morpholino injection in developing zebrafish larvae confirmed that CMTM3 expression is required for vascular sprouting. CMTM3 knockdown in human umbilical vein endothelial cells does not affect proliferation or migration. Intracellular staining demonstrated that CMTM3 colocalizes with early endosome markers EEA1 (early endosome marker 1) and Clathrin + vesicles and with cytosolic VE-cadherin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Adenovirus-mediated CMTM3 overexpression enhances endothelial endocytosis, shown by an increase in Clathrin + , EEA1 + , Rab11 + , Rab5 + , and Rab7 + vesicles. CMTM3 overexpression enhances, whereas CMTM3 knockdown decreases internalization of cell surface VE-cadherin in vitro. CMTM3 promotes loss of endothelial barrier function in thrombin-induced responses, shown by transendothelial electric resistance measurements in vitro. In this study, we have identified a new regulatory function for CMTM3 in angiogenesis. CMTM3 is involved in VE-cadherin turnover and is a regulator of the cell surface pool of VE-cadherin. Therefore, CMTM

  20. Optical lattices: Orbital dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewenstein, Maciej; Liu, W. Vincent

    2011-02-01

    Emulating condensed-matter physics with ground-state atoms trapped in optical lattices has come a long way. But excite the atoms into higher orbital states, and a whole new world of exotic states appears.

  1. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the retina, or in other parts of the eye (such as melanoma ) Damaged tissue or injuries in the bony socket (orbit) that surrounds and protects the eye Foreign bodies Pulling away of the retina from ...

  2. [Not Available].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaeyer, Ph

    2016-01-01

    Medicine owes many to Hippocrate, but pneumology traces its origin back to antiquity, from Mesopotamia to ancient Rome. Regarding prehistory: if viscera of this period have not been kept, some bones were. Since Neanderthals, it is then possible to study osteoarticular pathologies (often chronic arthrosis). But no evidence of tuberculosis was found (all thoracic kyphosis are not tuberculosis). Tuberculosis probably appears during the Neolithic age, because of high concentration of population. In ancient times, pneumology was of course not a real medical specialty. However, respiratory illness already constituted a big part of antique medical practice. The purpose of the physician in antiquity was to establish a diagnosis, a prognostic and to propose a treatment. Prognostic revealed to be of great importance in ancient times, since therapeutic efficacy was limited. Contemporary physicians often neglect this part of their practice. In ancient times, physicians also tried to gradually eliminate magic-religious aspects in taking care of the patients. This review will propose a journey from Mesopotamia to ancient Egypt (and its medical papyrus). Very few sources are available concerning medicine in pre-Columbian cultures. However, it is well known that shamans had, besides their religious competences, a great pharmacopoeia. Because of these very few sources, this topic will not be added to this article. Little is known in Europa about chinese medicine before the Jesuit mission in China during the 17th and 18th centuries. Yet, chinese medicine grew in parallel with European's one. Some relevant elements of this medicine will hereafter be shown.

  3. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: LabVIEW base 1 : 22 - 24.4.02 (3 jours) CLEAN 2002 : working in a cleanroom:  24.4.02  (half-day, pm) LabVIEW DSC (F) 25 & 26.4.02 (2 jours) AutoCAD : Mise à jour AutoCAD r-14 vers 2002 : 25 & 26.4.02 (2 jours) Cotations selon les normes GPS de l'ISO : 29 - 30.4.02 (2 jours) Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System:  7.5.02  (1 day) LabVIEW Basics 2: 13 & 14.5.02 (2 days) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 13-14, 17, 21, 27-28.5.02 (6 jours) WorldFIP - Généralités : 14.5.2002 (1/2 journée) WorldFIP - Développer avec MicroFIP HANDLER : 14.5 - après-midi, 15.5.02 - matin (1 jour) WorldFIP - FullFIP FDM : FIP Device Manager (F) : 15.5 - après-midi, 16.5.02 - matin (1 jour) LabVIEW DAQ (F) : 15 & 16.5.02 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 2 : 22 & 23.5.02 (2 jours)...

  4. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: The CERN Engineering Data Management System for Advanced users : 16.4.02  (1 day) Migration from AutoCAD 14 towards AutoCAD Mechanical6 PowerPack:  17 - 19.4 and 2 &3.5.02  (5 days) AutoCAD - niveau 1 : 22, 23, 29, 30.4 et 6, 7.5.02 (6 jours) LabVIEW base 1 : 22 - 24.4.02 (3 jours) CLEAN 2002 : working in a cleanroom:  24.4.02  (half-day, pm) LabVIEW DSC (F) 25 & 26.4.02 (2 jours) AutoCAD : Mise à jour AutoCAD r-14 vers 2002 : 25 & 26.4.02 (2 jours) Cotations selon les normes GPS de l'ISO : 29 - 30.4.02 (2 jours) Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System:  7.5.02  (1 day) LabVIEW Basics 2: 13 & 14.5.02 (2 days) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 13-14, 17, 21, 27-28.5.02 (6 jours) WorldFIP - Généralités : 14.5.2002 (1/2 journée) WorldFIP - Développer avec Micr...

  5. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Document Server

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: ELEC-2002 : Spring Term :  9, 11, 16, 18, 23, 25, 30.4.02 (7 * 2.5 hours) Object-Oriented Analysis & Design: 16 - 19.4.02  (4 days) The CERN Engineering Data Management System for Advanced users:  16.4.02  (1 day) Migration from AutoCAD 14 towards AutoCAD Mechanical6 PowerPack:  17 - 19.4 and 2 &3.5.02  (5 days) AutoCAD - niveau 1 : 22, 23, 29, 30.4 et 6, 7.5.02 (6 jours) LabVIEW base 1 : 22 - 24.4.02 (3 jours) CLEAN 2002 : working in a cleanroom:  24.4.02  (half-day, pm) LabVIEW DSC (F) 25 & 26.4.02 (2 jours) AutoCAD : Mise à jour AutoCAD r-14 vers 2002 : 25 & 26.4.02 (2 jours) Cotations selon les normes GPS de l'ISO : 29 - 30.4.02 (2 jours) Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System:  7.5.02  (1 day) LabVIEW Basics 2 : 13 & 14.5.02 (2 days) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 13-...

  6. Places available **

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following courses : WorldFIP 2003 pour utilisateurs : 11-14.2.03 (4 jours) DISP-2003 ? Spring I Term : Introduction to Digital Signal Processing : 20, 27.2, 6, 13, 20, 27.3, 3.4.03 (7 X 2-hour lectures) AXEL-2003 - Introduction to Accelerators : 24-28.2.03 (10 X 1-hour lectures) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 24, 25.2 & 3, 4.3.03 (4 jours) Introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN : 25.2.03 (1/2 journée) LabView base 2/LabView Basics 2 : 10 & 11.3.03 (2 jours/2 days) langue à définir/Language to be decided C++ for Particle Physicists : 10 ? 14.3.03 (6 X 3-hour lectures) Introduction to PVSS : 10.3.03 (half day, afternoon) Basic PVSS : 11 - 13.3.03 (3 days) LabView avancé /LabView Advanced : 12 - 14.3.03 (3 jours/3days) Langue à définir/language to be decided AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 17, 18, 24 & 25.3.03 (6 jours) PVSS - JCOP Framework Tutorial : 14.3.03 (1 day) MAGNE-03 - Magnetism for Technical Ele...

  7. Places available **

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following courses : Introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN : 25.2.03 (1/2 journée) LabView base 2/LabView Basics 2 : 10 & 11.3.03 (2 jours/2 days) langue à définir/Language to be decided C++ for Particle Physicists : 10 - 14.3.03 (6 X 3-hour lectures) Introduction to PVSS : 10.3.03 (half day, afternoon) Basic PVSS : 11 - 13.3.03 (3 days) LabView avancé /LabView Advanced : 12 - 14.3.03 (3 jours/3days) Langue à définir/Language to be decided AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 17, 18, 24 & 25.3.03 (6 jours) PVSS - JCOP Framework Tutorial : 14.3.03 (1 day) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a cleanroom : 2.4.03 (half-day, afternoon, free course, registration required) LabView base 1/LabView Basics 1 : 9 - 11.4.03 (3 jours/3 days) Langue à définir/Language to be decided DISP-2003 - Spring II Term : Advanced Digital Signal Processing : 30.4, 7, 14, 21.5.03 (4 X 2-hour lectures) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 5 & 6.5.03 (...

  8. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses : CLEAN-2002 : Working in a cleanroom (free course, registration required) : 2.4.03 (half-day, afternoon) LabView base 1/LabView Basics 1 (Langue à définir/ language to be decided) : 9 - 11.4.03 (3 jours/3 days) DISP-2003 - Spring II Term : Advanced Digital Signal Processing : 30.4, 7, 14, 21.5.03 (4 X 2-hour lectures) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 29, 30.4 et 7, 8.5.03 (4 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 5 & 6.5.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 20, 21, 27 & 28.5.03(6 jours) Formation Siemens SIMATIC /Siemens SIMATIC Training : Introduction à STEP7 /Introduction to STEP7 : 3 & 4.6.03 (2 jours/2 days) Programmation STEP7/STEP7 Programming : 31.3 - 4.4.03 / 16 - 20.6.03 (5 jours/5 days) Réseau Simatic Net /Simatic Net Network : 15 & 16.4.03 / 26 & 27.6.03 These courses will be given in French or English following the requests. Cours de sécurité : Etre TSO au CERN : 3 sessions sont programmées pour 2003 : 25...

  9. Places available **

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses : CLEAN-2002 : Working in a cleanroom (free course, registration required): 11.4.03 (half-day, afternoon, ) LabView Basics 2 : 10 - 11.4.03 (3 days) DISP-2003 - Spring II Term : Advanced Digital Signal Processing : 30.4, 7, 14, 21.5.03 (4 X 2-hour lectures) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 29, 30.4 et 7, 8.5.03 (4 jours) Oracle iDS Reports : Build Internet Reports : 5 - 9.5.03 (5 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 5 & 6.5.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 20, 21, 27 & 28.5.03 (6 jours) Formation Siemens SIMATIC /Siemens SIMATIC Training : Introduction à STEP7 /Introduction to STEP7 : 3 & 4.6.03 (2 jours/2 days) Programmation STEP7/STEP7 Programming : 31.3 - 4.4.03 / 16 - 20.6.03 (5 jours/5 days) Réseau Simatic Net /Simatic Net Network : 15 & 16.4.03 / 26 & 27.6.03 These courses will be given in French or English following the requests. Cours de sécurité : Etre TSO au CERN : Prochaines sessions : 24, 25 & 27.6....

  10. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses : DISP-2003 - Spring II Term : Advanced Digital Signal Processing : 30.4, 7, 14, 21.5.03 (4 X 2-hour lectures) Oracle iDS Reports : Build Internet Reports : 5 - 9.5.03 (5 days) LabView DAQ (language to be defined) : 8 & 9.5.03 AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 20, 21, 27 & 28.5.03 (6 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 3 & 4.6.03 (2 jours) LabView DSC (language to be defined) : 19 & 20.6.03 Siemens SIMATIC Training : Introduction to STEP7 : 3 & 4.6.03 (2 days) STEP7 Programming : 16 - 20.6.03 (5 days) Simatic Net Network : 15 & 16.4.03 / 26 & 27.6.03 (sessions of 2 days) These courses will be given in French or English following the requests. Cours de sécurité : Etre TSO au CERN : Prochaines sessions : 24, 25 & 27.6.03 - 4, 5 & 7.11.03 (session de 3 jours) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description ...

  11. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses : CLEAN-2002 : Working in a cleanroom (free course, registration required): 11.4.03 (half-day, afternoon, ) LabView Basics 2 : 10 - 11.4.03 (3 days) DISP-2003 - Spring II Term : Advanced Digital Signal Processing : 30.4, 7, 14, 21.5.03 (4 X 2-hour lectures) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 29, 30.4 et 7, 8.5.03 (4 jours) Oracle iDS Reports : Build Internet Reports : 5 - 9.5.03 (5 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 5 & 6.5.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 20, 21, 27 & 28.5.03(6 jours) Formation Siemens SIMATIC /Siemens SIMATIC Training : Introduction à STEP7 /Introduction to STEP7 : 3 & 4.6.03 (2 jours/2 days) Programmation STEP7/STEP7 Programming : 31.3 - 4.4.03 / 16 - 20.6.03 (5 jours/5 days) Réseau Simatic Net /Simatic Net Network : 15 & 16.4.03 / 26 & 27.6.03 These courses will be given in French or English following the requests. Cours de sécurité : Etre TSO au CERN : Prochaines sessions : 24, 25 & 27.6...

  12. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses : DISP-2003 - Spring II Term : Advanced Digital Signal Processing : 30.4, 7, 14, 21.5.03 (4 X 2-hour lectures) Programmation de pilotes périphériques : 5 - 8.5.03 (4 jours) Oracle iDS Reports : Build Internet Reports : 5 - 9.5.03 (5 days) LabView DAQ (language to be defined) : 8 & 9.5.03 AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 20, 21, 27 & 28.5.0 (6 jours) FrontPage 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 21.5.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 3 & 4.6.03 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 10 & 11.6.03 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - level 1 : 12 & 13.6.03 (2 days) PowerPoint 2000 (F) : 17 & 18.6.03 (2 jours) FrontPage 2000 - niveau 2 : 19 & 20.6.03 (2 jours) LabView DSC (langue à décider/language to be defined) : 19 & 20.6.03 EXCEL 2000 - niveau 2 : 24 & 25.6.03 (2 jours) Siemens SIMATIC Training : Introduction to STEP7 : 3 & 4.6.03 (2 days) STEP7 Programming : 16 - 20.6.03 (5 days) Simatic Net Network : 26 & 27.6.03 ...

  13. Places available **

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following courses : DISP-2003 - Spring I Term : Introduction to Digital Signal Processing : 20, 27.2, 6, 13, 20, 27.3, 3.4.03 (7 X 2-hour lectures) AXEL-2003 - Introduction to Accelerators : 24 - 28.2.03 (10 X 1-hour lectures) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 24, 25.2 & 3, 4.3.03 (4 jours) Introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN : 25.2.03 (1/2 journée) LabView base 2/LabView Basics 2 : 10 & 11.3.03 (2 jours/2 days) langue à définir/Language to be decided C++ for Particle Physicists : 10 - 14.3.03 (6 X 3-hour lectures) Introduction to PVSS : 10.3.03 (half day, afternoon) Basic PVSS : 11 - 13.3.03 (3 days) LabView avancé /LabView Advanced : 12 - 14.3.03 (3 jours/3days) Langue à définir/language to be decided AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 17, 18, 24 & 25.3.03 (6 jours) PVSS - JCOP Framework Tutorial : 14.3.03 (1 day) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a cleanroom : 2.4.03 (half-day, afternoon, free course, regis...

  14. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses : CLEAN-2002 : Working in a cleanroom (free course, registration required): 11.4.03 (half-day, afternoon) LabView Basics 2 : 10 - 11.4.03 (3 days) DISP-2003 - Spring II Term : Advanced Digital Signal Processing : 30.4, 7, 14, 21.5.03 (4 X 2-hour lectures) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 29, 30.4 et 7, 8.5.03 (4 jours) Oracle iDS Reports : Build Internet Reports : 5 - 9.5.03 (5 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 5 & 6.5.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 20, 21, 27 & 28.5.03(6 jours) Formation Siemens SIMATIC /Siemens SIMATIC Training : Introduction à STEP7 /Introduction to STEP7 : 3 & 4.6.03 (2 jours/2 days) Programmation STEP7/STEP7 Programming : 16 - 20.6.03 (5 jours/5 days) Réseau Simatic Net /Simatic Net Network : 15 & 16.4.03 / 26 & 27.6.03 These courses will be given in French or English following the requests. Cours de sécurité : Etre TSO au CERN : Prochaines sessions : 24, 25 & 27.6.03 - 4, 5 & 7....

  15. Places available **

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following courses : C++ for Particle Physicists : 10 - 14.3.03 (6 X 3-hour lectures) Introduction to PVSS : 10.3.03 (half day, afternoon) Basic PVSS : 11 - 13.3.03 (3 days) PVSS - JCOP Framework Tutorial : 14.3.03 (1 day) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a cleanroom : 2.4.03 (half-day, afternoon, free course, registration required) LabView base 1/LabView Basics 1 : 9 - 11.4.03 (3 jours/3 days) Langue à définir/language to be decided DISP-2003 - Spring II Term : Advanced Digital Signal Processing : 30.4, 7, 14, 21.5.03 (4 X 2-hour lectures) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 29, 30.4 et 7, 8.5.03 (4 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 5 & 6.5.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 20, 21, 27 & 28.5.03 (6 jours) Formation Siemens SIMATIC /Siemens SIMATIC Training : Introduction à STEP7 /Introduction to STEP7 : 11 & 12.3.03 / 3 & 4.6.03 (2 jours/2 days) Programmation STEP7/STEP7 Programming : 31.3 - 4.4.03 / 16...

  16. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses : Introduction to PVSS : 10.3.03 (half-day, afternoon) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a cleanroom : 2.4.03 (half-day, afternoon, free course, registration required) LabView Basics 1 : 9 - 11.4.03 (3 days) Language to be decided. DISP-2003 - Spring II Term : Advanced Digital Signal Processing : 30.4, 7, 14, 21.5.03 (4 X 2-hour lectures). AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 29, 30.4 et 7, 8.5.03 (4 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 5 & 6.5.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 20, 21, 27 & 28.5.03 (6 jours) Siemens SIMATIC Training: Introduction to STEP7 : 3 & 4.6.03 (2 days) STEP7 Programming : 31.3 - 4.4.03 / 16 - 20.6.03 (5 days) Simatic Net Network : 15 & 16.4.03 / 26 & 27.6.03 These courses will be given in French or English following the requests. Cours de sécurité: Etre TSO au CERN : 3 sessions sont programmées pour 2003 : 25, 26 & 28.3.03 - 24, 25 & 27.6.03 - 4, 5 & 7.11.03 (sessions de 3 jours) ** The number o...

  17. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Document Server

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: LabVIEW Basics 2: 13 & 14.5.02 (2 days) WorldFIP - Généralités : 14.5.2002 (1/2 journée) WorldFIP - Développer avec MicroFIP HANDLER : 14.5 - après-midi, 15.5.02 - matin (1 jour) WorldFIP - FullFIP FDM : FIP Device Manager (F) : 15.5 - après-midi, 16.5.02 - matin (1 jour) LabVIEW DAQ (F) : 15 & 16.5.02 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 2 : 22 & 23.5.02 (2 jours) The CERN Engineering Data Management System for Advanced users:  30.5.02  (1 day) LabVIEW Basics 1:  3 - 5.6.02  (3 days) AutoCAD 2002 - condensé : 4 - 6.6.02 (3 jours) LabVIEW DAQ (E):  6 & 7.6.02  (2 days) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1:  10 - 12 and 24 - 26.6.02  (6 days) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the c...

  18. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Document Server

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System:  7.5.02  (1 day) LabVIEW Basics 2: 13 & 14.5.02 (2 days) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 13-14, 17, 21, 27-28.5.02 (6 jours) WorldFIP - Généralités : 14.5.2002 (1/2 journée) WorldFIP - Développer avec MicroFIP HANDLER : 14.5 - après-midi, 15.5.02 - matin (1 jour) WorldFIP - FullFIP FDM : FIP Device Manager (F) : 15.5 - après-midi, 16.5.02 - matin (1 jour) LabVIEW DAQ (F) : 15 & 16.5.02 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 2 : 22 & 23.5.02 (2 jours) The CERN Engineering Data Management System for Advanced users:  30.5.02  (1 day) LabVIEW Basics 1:  3 - 5.6.02  (3 days) AutoCAD 2002 - condensé : 4 - 6.6.02 (3 jours) LabVIEW DAQ (E):  6 & 7.6.02  (2 days) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1:  10 - ...

  19. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: ELEC-2002 : Spring Term :  9, 11, 16, 18, 23, 25, 30.4.02 (7 * 2.5 hours) Object-Oriented Analysis & Design: 16 - 19.4.02  (4 days) The CERN Engineering Data Management System for Advanced users:  16.4.02  (1 day) Migration from AutoCAD 14 towards AutoCAD Mechanical6 PowerPack:  17 - 19.4 and 2 &3.5.02  (5 days) AutoCAD - niveau 1 : 22, 23, 29, 30.4 et 6, 7.5.02 (6 jours) LabVIEW base 1 : 22 - 24.4.02 (3 jours) CLEAN 2002 : working in a cleanroom:  24.4.02  (half-day, pm) LabVIEW DSC (F) 25 & 26.4.02 (2 jours) AutoCAD : Mise à jour AutoCAD r-14 vers 2002 : 25 & 26.4.02 (2 jours) LabVIEW Basics 2 : 13 & 14.5.02 (2 days) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 15 & 16.5.02 (2 jours) LabVIEW DAQ (F) : 15 & 16.5.02 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 2 : 22 & 23.5.02 (2 jours) LabVIEW Basics 1:  3 - 5.6.02&a...

  20. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel.74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Habilitation électrique : superviseurs : 5.12.01 (1/2 journée) LabVIEW - Basics 1 :  10 - 12.12.01 (3 days) Introduction au PC et Windows 2000 : 12 & 14.12.01 (2 jours) LabVIEW - Basics 2 :  13 - 14.12.01 (2 days) Habilitation électrique : superviseurs : 17.12.2001 (1/2 journée) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 2 : 15 - 16.1.02 (2 jours) Sécurité dans les installations cryogéniques: 15-17.1.2002 (2 demi-journées) C++ Programming Level 2 - Traps and Pitfalls :  15 - 18.1.2002  (4 days) ELEC-2002 Winter Term: Readout and system electronics for Physics  15.1.2002 - 7.2.2002 (8 half- days) Nouveautés de WORD 2000 : 18.1.02 (1/2 journée) LabView hands-on : 21.01.02 (1/2 journée) LabView DAQ hands-on : 21.01.02 (1/2 journée) FileMaker Pro : 22 - 25.1.02 (4 jours) Frontpage...

  1. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: C++ for Particle Physicists :  11 - 15.3.2002  (6 * 3 hour lectures) Programming the Web for Control Applications : 11, 12, 18, 19.3.2002  (4 * 2 hour lectures) Habilitation électrique : recyclage HT/BT (Français) : 13 - 14.3.2002 (2 * 2 heures) Introduction à la CAO CADENCE : 19 & 20.3.02 (2 jours) LabVIEW base 1 : 22 - 24.4.02 (3 jours) LabVIEW DSC (F) 25 & 26.4.02 (2 jours) LabVIEW Basics 2 : 13 & 14.5.02 (2 days) LabVIEW DAQ (F) : 15 & 16.5.02 (2 jours) Cours sur la migration AutoCAD :   AutoCAD : Mise à jour AutoCAD r-14 vers 2002 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical PowerPack 6 basé sur AutoCAD 2002 (5 jours) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at : Technical Training or fil...

  2. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Introduction au PC et à Windows 2000 au CERN : 29 - 30.1.02 (2 jours) LabView Base 1 : 4 - 6.2.02 (3 jours) LabView DAQ  (F) : 7 & 8.2.02 (2 jours) Hands-on Object-Oriented Design & Programming with Java :  11 - 13.02.02 (3 days) PVSS basics :  18 - 22.2.02 (5 days) Introduction à Windows 2000 : 18.2.02 (1 demi-journée) Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System :  20.2.02 (1 day) The CERN Engineering Data Management System for Advanced users :  21.2.02  (1 day) C++ for Particle Physicists :  11 - 15.3.2002  (6 * 3 hour lectures) Cours sur la migration AutoCAD : AutoCAD : Mise à jour AutoCAD r-14 vers 2002 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical PowerPack 6 basé sur AutoCAD 2002 (5 jours) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electr...

  3. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: PVSS Basics :  8 - 12.4.02  (5 days) AutoCAD : Mise à jour AutoCAD r-14 vers 2002 : 25 & 26.4.02 (2 jours) ELEC-2002 : Spring Term :  9, 11, 16, 18, 23, 25, 30.4.02 (7 * 2.5 hours) Object-Oriented Analysis & Design: 16 - 19.4.02  (4 days) Migration from AutoCAD 14 towards AutoCAD Mechanical6 PowerPack:  17 - 19.4 and 2 &3.5.02  (5 days) LabVIEW base 1 : 22 - 24.4.02 (3 jours) LabVIEW DSC (F) 25 & 26.4.02 (2 jours) LabVIEW Basics 2 : 13 & 14.5.02 (2 days) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 2 : 22 & 23.5.02 (2 jours) LabVIEW DAQ (F) : 15 & 16.5.02 (2 jours) LabVIEW Basics 1:  3 - 5.6.02  (3 days) LabVIEW DAQ (E):  6 & 7.6.02  (2 days) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that...

  4. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique DUVAL

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: LabView Basics 1 :  4 - 6.3.02  (3 days) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Clean Room :  7.3.2002  (half day) LabView Base 2 : 11 & 12.3.02 (2 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists :  11 - 15.3.2002  (6 * 3 hour lectures) Programming the Web for Control Applications : 11, 12, 18, 19.3.2002  (4 * 2 hour lectures) Habilitation électrique : recyclage HT/BT (Français) : 13 - 14.3.2002 (2 * 2 heures) LabView Advanced :  13 - 15.3.02 (3 days) Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System (EDMS) :  20.3.2002  (1 day) The CERN (EDMS) for Advanced Users :  21.3.2002  (1 day) LabVIEW DSC : 25 - 26.4.2002 (2 jours) LabVIEW DAQ : 15 - 16.5.2002 (2 jours) Cours sur la migration AutoCAD :   AutoCAD : Mise à jour AutoCAD r-14 vers 2002 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical PowerPack 6 basé ...

  5. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: PVSS Basics : 20 - 24.8.01 (5 days) PROFIBUS : 25 - 26.9.01 (2 jours) PROFIBUS : 27 - 28.9.01 (2 days) PCAD Schémas - débutants : 4 - 5.10.01 (2 jours) PCAD PCB - débutants : 8 - 10.10.01 (3 jours) Programming TSX Premium 1: 15 - 19.10.01 (5 days) Programmation TSX Premium 1 : 22 - 26.10.01 (5 jours) Programming TSX Premium 2: 19 - 23.11.01 (5 days) Programmation TSX Premium 2 : 26 - 30.11.01 (5 jours) The following LabView courses will be given in either English or French according to demand LabVIEW - Base 1 / LabVIEW - Basics 1 : 10 - 12.9.01 (3 jours / 3 days) LabVIEW - DAQ / LabVIEW - DAQ : 13 - 14.9.01 (2 jours / 2 days) LabVIEW - Base 1 / LabVIEW - Basics 1 : 15 - 17.10.01 (3 jours / 3 days) LabVIEW - Base 2 / LabVIEW - Basics 2 : 18 - 19.10.01 (2 jours / 2 days) LabVIEW - Base 1 / LabVIEW - Basics 1 : 12 - 14.11.01 (3 jours / 3 days) LabVIEW - DAQ / LabVIEW - DAQ : 15 - 16.11.01 (2 jours / 2...

  6. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: PROFIBUS : 25 - 26.9.01 (2 jours) PROFIBUS : 27 - 28.9.01 (2 days) Automates et réseaux de terrain : 3 - 4.10.2001 (2 jours) PCAD Schémas - débutants : 4 - 5.10.01 (2 jours) PCAD PCB - débutants : 8 - 10.10.01 (3 jours) Programmation TSX Premium 1 : 15 - 19.10.01 (5 jours) Programmation TSX Premium 1 : 22 - 26.10.01 (5 jours) Programming TSX Premium 2: 19 - 23.11.01 (5 days) Programmation TSX Premium 2 : 26 - 30.11.01 (5 jours) Autocad Migration support courses: a detailed calendar will be published shortly for this series of sessions which will start on 15.10.2001. Registration is already open AutoCAD : Mise à jour AutoCAD r-14 vers 2002 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical PowerPack 6 basé sur AutoCAD 2002 (5 jours) The following LabView courses will be given in either English or French according to demand LabVIEW - Base 1 / LabVIEW - Basics 1 : 10 - 12.9.01 (3 jours / 3 days)...

  7. PLACES AVAILABLES

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: PVSS Basics : 20 - 24.8.01 (5 days) PROFIBUS : 25 - 26.9.01 (2 jours) PROFIBUS : 27 - 28.9.01 (2 days) PCAD Schémas - débutants : 4 - 5.10.01 (2 jours) PCAD PCB - débutants : 8 - 10.10.01 (3 jours) Programming TSX Premium 1: 15 - 19.10.01 (5 days) Programmation TSX Premium 1 : 22 - 26.10.01 (5 jours) Programming TSX Premium 2: 19 - 23.11.01 (5 days) Programmation TSX Premium 2 : 26 - 30.11.01 (5 jours) The following LabView courses will be given in either English or French according to demand LabVIEW - Base 1 / LabVIEW - Basics 1 : 10 - 12.9.01 (3 jours / 3 days) LabVIEW - DAQ / LabVIEW - DAQ : 13 - 14.9.01 (2 jours / 2 days) LabVIEW - Base 1 / LabVIEW - Basics 1 : 15 - 17.10.01 (3 jours / 3 days) LabVIEW - Base 2 / LabVIEW - Basics 2 : 18 - 19.10.01 (2 jours / 2 days) LabVIEW - Base 1 / LabVIEW - Basics 1 : 12 - 14.11.01 (3 jours / 3 days) LabVIEW - DAQ / LabVIEW - DAQ : 15 - 16.11.01 (2 jours / 2...

  8. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: LabView DAQ  (F) : 7 & 8.2.02 (2 jours) Hands-on Object-Oriented Design & Programming with Java :  11 - 13.02.02 (3 days) PVSS basics :  18 - 22.2.02 (5 days) Introduction à Windows 2000 : 18.2.02 (1 demi-journée) Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System :  20.2.02 (1 day) Introduction à la CAO CADENCE : 20 & 21.2.02 (2 jours) The CERN Engineering Data Management System for Advanced users :  21.2.02  (1 day) LabView Basics 1 :  4 - 6.3.02  (3 days) Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur de CADENCE : 6 & 7.3.02 (2 jours) LabView Base 2 : 11 & 12.3.02 (2 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists :  11 - 15.3.2002  (6 * 3 hour lectures) LabView Advanced :  13 - 15.3.02 (3 days) Cours sur la migration AutoCAD :   AutoCAD : Mise à...

  9. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Introduction to C Programming :  21- 23.11.01 (3 days) Programmation TSX Premium 2 : 26 - 30.11.01 (5 jours) Contract Follow-up (F) : 26.11.01 (1/2 journée) Habilitation électrique : électriciens network : 27 - 29.11.2001 (3 jours) Object-Oriented Analysis and Design :  27 - 30.11.2001  (4 days) Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System :  30.11.2001 (1 day) Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC): Introduction (bilingual) :  3.12.01 (half-day) Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System : 07.12.2001 (1 day) LabVIEW - Basics 1 :  10 - 12.12.01 (3 days) LabVIEW - Basics 2 :  13 - 14.12.01 (2 days) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 2 : 15 - 16.1.02 (2 jours) C++ Programming Level 2 - Traps and Pitfalls :  15 - 18.1.2002  (4 days) Nouveautés de WORD 2000 : 18.1.02 (1/2 journée) FileMaker P...

  10. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Contract Follow-up (F) : 30.10.01 (1/2 journée) The CERN Engineering Data Management System for Electronics Design :  30.10.01 (1 day) UNIX pour non-programmeurs : 5 - 7.11.01 (3 jours) Nouveautés d'EXCEL : 5.11.01 (1/2 journée) Introduction a Windows 2000 au CERN : 6.11.01 (1/2 journée) The Java programming language Level 1: 8 - 9.11.01 (2 days) LabView Base 1 : 12 - 14.11.01 (3 jours) Automates et réseaux de terrain : 13 & 14.11.01 (2 jours) Introduction to PERL 5 :  15 - 16.11.01  (2 days) Introduction to XML :  19 - 20.11.01 (2 days) Programming TSX Premium 1 :  19 - 23.11.01  (5 days) Introduction to C Programming :  21- 23.11.01 (3 days) The Java programming language Level 2:  26 - 28.11.01 (3 days) Programmation TSX Premium 2 : 26 - 30.11.01 (5 jours) Autocad Migration support courses: a detail...

  11. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Nouveautés d'EXCEL : 5.11.01 (1/2 journée) Introduction a Windows 2000 au CERN : 6.11.01 (1/2 journée) UNIX pour non-programmeurs : 5 - 7.11.01 (3 jours) Design Patterns :  7 - 8.11.01 (2 days) The Java programming language Level 1: 8 - 9.11.01 (2 days) Automates et réseaux de terrain : 13 & 14.11.01 (3 jours) Introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN : 12 - 14.11.01 (1/2 journée) Introduction to Windows 2000 at CERN :  14.11.01  (half-day) Introduction to PERL 5 :  15 - 16.11.01  (2 days) Introduction to C Programming :  21- 23.11.01 (3 days) Programmation TSX Premium 2 : 26 - 30.11.01 (5 jours) Contract Follow-up (F) : 26.11.01 (1/2 journée) Object-Oriented Analysis and Design :  27 - 30.11.2001  (4 days) Hands-on Object-Oriented Design and Programming with C++ :  11 - 13.12.2...

  12. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Contract Follow-up (F) : 30.10.01 (1/2 journée) The CERN Engineering Data Management System for Electronics Design :  30.10.01 (1 day) Nouveautés d'Excel 2000 : 5.11.01 (1/2 journée) UNIX pour non-programmeurs : 5 - 7.11.01 (3 jours) Introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN : 6.11.01 (1/2 journée) The Java programming language Level 1: 8 - 9.11.01 (2 days) LabView Base 1 : 12 - 14.11.01 (3 jours) LabVIEW DAQ (F) : 15 & 16.11.01 (2 jours) Automates et réseaux de terrain : 13 & 14.11.01 (2 jours) Introduction to PERL 5 :  15 - 16.11.01  (2 days) LabVIEW - DAQ : 15 - 16.11.01 (2 jours) Introduction to XML :  19 - 20.11.01 (2 days) Introduction to C Programming :  21- 23.11.01 (3 days) Programmation TSX Premium 2 : 26 - 30.11.01 (5 jours) Object-Oriented Analysis and Design :  27 - 30.11.2001 (4 days) Hands...

  13. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Automates et réseaux de terrain : 13 & 14.11.01 (3 jours) Introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN : 12 - 14.11.01 (1/2 journée) Introduction to Windows 2000 at CERN :  14.11.01  (half-day) Introduction to PERL 5 :  15 - 16.11.01  (2 days) Sécurité dans les installations cryogéniques : 21 - 22.11.2001 (2 demi-journées) Introduction to C Programming :  21- 23.11.01 (3 days) Programmation TSX Premium 2 : 26 - 30.11.01 (5 jours) Contract Follow-up (F) : 26.11.01 (1/2 journée) Object-Oriented Analysis and Design :  27 - 30.11.2001  (4 days) Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System :  30.11.2001 (1 day) Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC): Introduction (bilingual) :  3.12.01 (half-day) Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System : 07.12.2001...

  14. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Traininf; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC): Introduction (bilingual) :  3.12.01 (half-day) Habilitation électrique : superviseurs : 5.12.01 (1/2 journée) Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System : 07.12.2001 (1 day) LabVIEW - Basics 1 :  10 - 12.12.01 (3 days) Introduction au PC et Windows 2000 : 12 & 14.12.01 (2 jours) LabVIEW - Basics 2 :  13 - 14.12.01 (2 days) Habilitation électrique : superviseurs : 17.12.2001 (1/2 journée) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 2 : 15 - 16.1.02 (2 jours) C++ Programming Level 2 - Traps and Pitfalls :  15 - 18.1.2002  (4 days) Nouveautés de WORD 2000 : 18.1.02 (1/2 journée) LabView hands-on : 21.01.02 (1/2 journée) LabView DAQ hands-on : 21.01.02 (1/2 journée) FileMaker Pro : 22 - 25.1.02 (4 jours) Introduction au PC et à Windows 2000 au CERN : 29 - 30.1....

  15. [Not Available].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbiac, Pascale De; Lamoureux, Fabien; Pourrat, Xavier; Bretault, Lydia; Marchand, Sophie; Grassin, Jacqueline; Antier, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of Bronchial Superinfections: Data Related to Stability of Antibiotics in Portable Pumps. Given many data about the stability of antibiotics in portable pump (elastomer) are lacking, this study was designed to make a point about available data and to evaluate the stability of antibiotics when exposed to temperature within 35°C (average temperature measured in real conditions of use). First, to collect information about the stability of antibiotics in portable pump and to confront them with the local antibiotics protocols dedicated to the treatment of bronchial superinfection in patients with cystic fibrosis; second, to evaluate the stability of piperacillin associated with tazobactam at 35°C. While measured concentrations in tazobactam did not show significant variation during the study, piperacillin measurements showed a major reduction of concentration (up to 33%), both time and concentration related to. Such information must be pointed out to prescribers and patients to ensure a cold accumulator is placed in the pump can'ying-bag and to limit the duration of infusion to 24h with a single pump. This experimental program will keep on going with the stability study of both ticarcillin and cefsulodin in portable pump. Copyright © 2006 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique. Publié par Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. [Not Available].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Catherine; Camberlein, Clémence; Binquet, Christine; Robert, Carine; Vigouroux, Céline; Bouyssou, Caroline; Felin, Alexandra; Dupont-Mordelet, Marie-Françoise; Sailly, Annabelle; Kubiak, Christine; Poli, Géraldine; Gueguen, Sonia; Duchesne, Charlène; Ploix, Stéphanie; Thalamas, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Clinical Investigation Centres (CICs) are academic organisations for performing clinical studies. They are a part of a national network which is co-ordinated by French national institute for health and medical research (Inserm), and the head office of healthcare provision (DGOS). There are working groups and specialised networks within the overall CIC network. The Harmonisation of CIC Procedures (HPCIC) group wrote a manual of good professional practices for clinical research. This manual is described here. This manual was written by consensus. It was approved by the coordinators of all CICs, external experts, and validated by representatives of both Inserm and the General directorate of healthcare provision (DGOS). The CIC Good Professional Practices manual is a guide divided into two sections. The first section covers the general management of a CIC (common to all CICs). The second section covers the core activities of CICs, running clinical studies (clinical study coordination, clinical investigation, data management, statistical analysis, valorisation). This manual is available for all CICs and any other clinical research organisations. It will serve as a basis for CIC self-quality evaluation, audits between CICs, and external audits. This manual shows how much the CICs want to standardise practices and procedures nationwide to offer their partners the best quality in performing clinical studies. Copyright © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique. Publié par Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Places available**

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses : EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 10 & 11.6.03 (2 jours) Conception de PCB rapides dans le flot Cadence : 11.6.03 (matin) EXCEL 2000 - level 1 : 12 & 13.6.03 (2 days) Introduction to PVSS : 16.6.03 (p.m.) Basic PVSS : 17 - 19.6.03 (3 days) Réalisation de PCB rapides dans le flot Cadence : 17.6.03 (matin) PVSS - JCOP Framework Tutorial : 20.6.03 (1 day) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 2 : 24 & 25.6.03 (2 jours) Siemens SIMATIC Training : Introduction to STEP7 : 3 & 4.6.03 (2 jours/2 days) STEP7 Programming : 16 - 20.6.03 (5 jours/5 days) Simatic Net Network : 26 & 27.6.03 (2 jours/2 days) These courses will be given in French or English following the requests. Programmation automate Schneider : Programmation automate Schneider TSX Premium - 1er niveau : 10 - 13.6.03 (4 jours) - audience : toute personne qui veux maitriser la msie en uvre et la programmation d'un automate TSX Premium - objectifs : maitriser la mise en uvre et la programmation d'un autom...

  18. Places available **

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: PIPES-2003 - Pratique du Sertissage de tubes métalliques et multicouches : 26.8.03 (stage pratique) The CERN Engineering Data Management System (EDMS) for Engineers : 27.8.03 (1 day, free of charge) CLEAN-2002 : Travailler en salle blanche : 4.9.03 (une demi-journée, séminaire gratuit) The CERN Engineering Data Management System (EDMS) for Local Administrators : 24 & 25.9.03 (2 days, free of charge) Siemens SIMATIC Training : Programmation STEP7 - niveau 1 : 29 - 2.10.03 (4 jours) - ouverture des inscriptions fin août Programmation STEP7 - niveau 2 : 13 - 17.10.03 (5 jours) - ouverture des inscriptions fin août Réseau Simatic Net : 22 & 23.10.03 (2 jours) - ouverture des inscriptions fin août CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom : 23.20.03 (half day, free of charge) These courses will be given in French or Englis...

  19. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses : FrontPage 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 21.5.03 (2 jours) PIPES-2003 : Pratique du sertissage de tubes métalliques et multicouches : 21.5.03 (1 jour) Introduction à la CAO Cadence : de la saisie de schéma Concept-HDL au PCB : 20 & 22.5.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 3 & 4.6.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 5, 6, 12, 13, 26, 27.6.03 (6 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 10 & 11.6.03 (2 jours) Conception de PCB rapides dans le flot Cadence : 11.6.03 (matin) EXCEL 2000 - level 1 : 12 & 13.6.03 (2 days) PowerPoint 2000 (F) : 17 & 18.6.03 (2 jours) Réalisation de PCB rapides dans le flot Cadence : 17.6.03 (matin) FrontPage 2000 - niveau 2 : 19 & 20.6.03 (2 jours) LabView DSC (langue à décider/language to be defined) : 19 & 20.6.03 EXCEL 2000 - niveau 2 : 24 & 25.6.03 (2 jours) Siemens SIMATIC Training: Introduction to STEP7 : 3 & 4.6.03 (2 days) STEP7 Programming : 16 - 20.6.03 (5 days) Simatic...

  20. Places available **

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : Places are available in the following course : Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System : 28.1.03 (1 day) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 24, 25.2 et 3, 4.3.03 (4 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 27 & 28.2.03 (2 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists : 10 - 14.3.03 (6 X 3 hour lectures) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) : 12, 13, 17, 18, 24 & 25.3.03 (6 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a cleanroom : 25.3.03 (half-day, afternoon, free course, registration required) Formation Siemens SIMATIC /Siemens SIMATIC Training : Introduction à STEP7 /Introduction to STEP7 : 11 & 12.3.03 / 3 & 4.6.03 (2 jours/2 days) Programmation STEP7/STEP7 Programming : 31.3 - 4.4.03 / 16 - 20.6.03 (5 jours/5 days) Réseau Simatic Net /Simatic Net Network : 15 & 16.4.03 / 26 & 27.6.03 Ces cours seront donnés en français ou anglais en fonction des demandes / These courses will be given in French or English following the requests. * Etant do...

  1. Places available**

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses : FrontPage 2000 - niveau 1: 20 & 21.5.03 (2 jours) PIPES-2003 : Pratique du sertissage de tubes métalliques et multicouches: 21.5.03 (1 jour) Introduction à la CAO Cadence: de la saisie de schéma Concept-HDL au PCB : 20 & 22.5.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (E): 5, 6, 12, 13, 26, 27.6.03 (6 days) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1: 10 & 11.6.03 (2 jours) Conception de PCB rapides dans le flot Cadence: 11.6.03 (matin) EXCEL 2000 - level 1: 12 & 13.6.03 (2 days) Introduction to PVSS: 16.6.03 (half-day, pm) Basic PVSS: 17 - 19.6.03 (3 days) Réalisation de PCB rapides dans le flot Cadence: 17.6.03 (matin) LabView DSC (language to be defined): 19 & 20.6.03 PVSS - JCOP Framework Tutorial: 20.6.03 (1 day) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 2: 24 & 25.6.03 (2 jours) Siemens SIMATIC Training: Introduction to STEP7: 3 & 4.6.03 (2 days) STEP7 Programming: 16 - 20.6.03 (5 days) Simatic Net Network: 26 & 27.6.03 (2 days) These courses will be given...

  2. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Introduction to Oracle 8i : SQL and PL/SQL:  7 - 11.10.02  (5 days) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom (free of charge):  10.10.02  (half-day, p.m.) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 :  14 - 15.10.02  (2 jours) Introduction à DesignSpace :  16.10.02  (1 journée) Introduction to DesignSpace:  17.10.02  (1 day) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1:  17, 18, 24, 25.10.02  (4 days) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) :  21, 22, 23.10 et 4, 5, 6.11.02  (6 jours) Introduction à ANSYS/Introduction to ANSYS (langue à définir suivant demande/ Language to be chosen according to demand):  21 - 25.10.02  (5 jours/days) HREF-2002: Helium Refrigeration Techniques (English-French, bilingual) :  21 - 25.10.2002  (7 half days) HREF-2002: Techniques de la Réfri...

  3. Places available**

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses : The CERN EDMS for Local Administrators : 24 & 25.9.03 (2 days, free of charge) HeREF-2003 : Techniques de la réfrigération Hélium (cours en français avec support en anglais) : 6 - 10.10.2003 (7 demi-journées) The Java Programming Language Level 1 : 6 - 7.10.2003 (2 days) Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2 : Enterprise JavaBeans : 8 - 10.10.2003 (3 days) FileMaker - niveau 1 : 9 & 10.10.03 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 22.10.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 20, 21, 27, 28.10.03 (4 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom : 23.10.03 (half day, free of charge) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1 : 3, 4, 12, 13.11.03 (4 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 10 & 11.11.03 (2 jours) ACCESS 2000 - niveau 1 : 13 & 14.11.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (E) : 17, 18, 24, 25.11 & 1, 2.12.03 (6...

  4. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Introduction à DesignSpace :  16.10.02  (1 journée) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) :  21, 22, 23.10 et 4, 5, 6.11.02  (6 jours) Introduction à ANSYS 21 - 25.10.02  (5 jours/days) HREF-2002: Helium Refrigeration Techniques (English-French, bilingual) :  21 - 25.10.2002  (7 half days) LabVIEW Basics 1 (English):  21 - 23.10.02  (3 days) LabVIEW Basics 2 (English):  24 & 25.10.02  (2 days) Oracle 8i : Access the Database with Java:  7 & 8.11.02  (2 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 :  7 & 8.11.02  (2 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1:  14, 15, 21, 22.11.02  (4 days) LabVIEW - Advanced (English) :  18 - 20.11.2002  (3 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 :  19, 20, 25, 26.11.02 (4 jours) Oracle iDS Designer: First Class:&...

  5. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2: Enterprise JavaBeans:  18 - 20.9.02  (3 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 :  19, 20, 26, 27.9.02  (4 jours) LabView Base 1 :  23 - 25.9.02  (3 jours) Object-Oriented Analysis & Design using UML:  25 - 27.9.02  (3 days) LabView DAQ (E):  26 - 27.9.02  (2 days) Introduction to Oracle 8i : SQL and PL/SQL:  7 - 11.10.02  (5 days) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom (free of charge):  10.10.02  (half-day, p.m.) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 :  14 - 15.10.02  (2 jours) Introduction à DesignSpace :  16.10.02  (1 journée) Introduction to DesignSpace:  17.10.02  (1 day) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1:  17, 18, 24, 25.10.02  (4 days) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) :  21, 22, 23.10 et 4, 5, 6.11....

  6. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: November 2002   LabView hands-on (bilingue/bilingual): 5.11.02 (matin/morning) LabView DAQ hands-on (bilingue/bilingual):  5.11.02  (après-midi afternoon) PCAD Schémas - Débutants :  5 & 6.11.02  (2 jours) PCAD PCB - Débutants :  9 - 11.11.02  (3 jours) Introduction au PC et Windows 2000 au CERN :  6 & 7.11.02  (2 jours) Oracle 8i : Access the Database with Java :  7 & 8.11.02  (2 days) Introduction to PVSS (free of charge):  11.11.2002 pm  (1/2 day) Basic PVSS:  12 - 14.11.02  (3 days) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 :  12 & 13.11.02  (2 jours) CLEAN-2002: Working in a Cleanroom (English, free of charge):  13.11.2002  (afternoon) LabView Base 1 :  13 - 15.11.02  (3 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 :  14, 15, 21, 22.11.02  (4 jours) LabVIEW - Advanced:  18 - 20.11.02  (3 days) Hands-on Object-Oriented Design and Programming with C++ :  19 - 21.11.02  (3 days)  LabVIEW - Basics 2:  21 - 22.11.02 ...

  7. Places available**

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: CLEAN-2002 : Travailler en salle blanche (séminaire gratuit) : 4.9.03 (une demi-journée) The CERN EDMS for Local Administrators (free of charge) : 24 & 25.9.03 (2 days) HeREF-2003 : Techniques de la réfrigération Hélium (cours en français avec support en anglais) : 6 - 10.10.2003 (7 demi-journées) The Java Programming Language Level 1 : 6 - 7.10.2003 (2 days) Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2 : Enterprise JavaBeans : 8 - 10.10.2003 (3 days) FileMaker - niveau 1 : 9 & 10.10.03 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 22.10.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 20, 21, 27, 28.10.03 (4 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom (free of charge) : 23.10.03 (half day) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (E) : 23, 24, 30, 31.10 & 12, 13.11.03 (6 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 10 & 11.11.03 (2 jours)...

  8. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: The CERN EDMS for Local Administrators : 24 & 25.9.03 (2 days, free of charge) HeREF-2003 : Techniques de la réfrigération Hélium cours en français avec support en anglais) : 6 - 10.10.2003 (7 demi-journées) The Java Programming Language Level 1 : 6 - 7.10.2003 (2 days) Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2 : Enterprise JavaBeans : 8 - 10.10.2003 (3 days) FileMaker - niveau 1 : 9 & 10.10.03 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 22.10.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 20, 21, 27, 28.10.03 (4 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom : 23.10.03 (half day, free of charge) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1 : 3, 4, 12, 13.11.03 (4 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 10 & 11.11.03 (2 jours) ACCESS 2000 - niveau 1 : 13 & 14.11.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (E) : 17, 18, 24, 25.11 & 1, 2.12.03 (6 days) FrontPage 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 21.11.03 (2 jours) MAGNE-03 : Magnétisme pour l'électrotechnique : 25 - 27.11.03 (3 jours) ...

  9. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: LabView hands-on (bilingue/bilingual): 5.11.02 (matin/morning) LabView DAQ hands-on (bilingue/bilingual):  5.11.02  (après-midi afternoon) Introduction au PC et Windows 2000 au CERN:  6 & 7.11.02  (2 jours) Oracle 8i : Access the Database with Java:  7 & 8.11.02  (2 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2:  7 & 8.11.02  (2 jours) Introduction to PVSS (free of charge):  11.11.2002 pm  (1/2 day) Basic PVSS:  12 - 14.11.02  (3 days) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1:  12 & 13.11.02  (2 jours) CLEAN-2002: Working in a Cleanroom (English, free of charge):  13.11.2002  (afternoon) LabView Base 1 :  13 - 15.11.02  (3 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1:  14, 15, 21, 22.11.2002  (4 days) LabVIEW - Advanced:  18 - 20.11.02  (3 days) Auto...

  10. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: PIPES-2003 - Pratique du sertissage de tubes métalliques et multicouches :26.8.03(stage pratique) The CERN EDMS for Engineers (free of charge) : 27.8.03 (1 day) CLEAN-2002 : Travailler en salle blanche (séminaire gratuit) : 4.9.03(une demi-journée) The CERN EDMS for Local Administrators (free of charge) : 24 & 25.9.03 (2 days) HeREF-2003 : Techniques de la réfrigération Hélium (cours en français avec support en anglais) : 6 - 10.10.2003 (7 demi-journées) The Java Programming Language Level 1 : 6 - 7.10.2003 (2 days) Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2 : Enterprise JavaBeans : 8 - 10.10.2003 (3 days) FileMaker - niveau 1 : 9 & 10.10.03 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 22.10.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 20, 21, 27, 28.10.03 (4 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom (free of charge) : 23.10.03 (half day) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (E) : 23, 24, 30, 31.10 & 12, 13.11.03 (6 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2...

  11. Places available**

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: The CERN EDMS for Local Administrators (free of charge) : 24 & 25.9.03 (2 days) HeREF-2003 : Techniques de la réfrigération Hélium (cours en français avec support en anglais) : 6 - 10.10.2003 (7 demi-journées) The Java Programming Language Level 1 : 6 - 7.10.2003 (2 days) Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2 : Enterprise JavaBeans : 8 - 10.10.2003 (3 days) FileMaker - niveau 1 : 9 & 10.10.03 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 20 & 22.10.03 (2 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 20, 21, 27, 28.10.03 (4 jours) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom (free of charge) : 23.10.03 (half day) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (E) : 23, 24, 30, 31.10 & 12, 13.11.03 (6 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 : 10 & 11.11.03 (2 jours) ACCESS 2000 - niveau 1 : 13 & 14.11.03 (2 jours) FrontPage 2000 - niveau 1 : 20...

  12. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: October 2002   Introduction to the CERN Engineering Data Management System (free of charge):  29.10.2002  (1 day) The CERN EDMS for Advanced users (free of charge):  30.10.2002  (1 day) November 2002   LabView hands-on (bilingue/bilingual): 5.11.02 (matin/morning) LabView DAQ hands-on (bilingue/bilingual):  5.11.02  (après-midi afternoon) Introduction au PC et Windows 2000 au CERN :  6 & 7.11.02  (2 jours) Oracle 8i : Access the Database with Java:  7 & 8.11.02  (2 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 :  7 & 8.11.02  (2 jours) Introduction to PVSS (free of charge):  11.11.2002 pm  (1/2 day) Basic PVSS:  12 - 14.11.02  (3 days) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 :  12 & 13.11.02  (2 jours) CLEAN-2002: Working in a Cleanroom (English, free ...

  13. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Introduction to Oracle 8i : SQL and PL/SQL:  7 - 11.10.02  (5 days) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom (free of charge):  10.10.02  (half-day, p.m.) LabView Hands-on (bilingue/bilingual) : 10.10.02 (matin/morning) LabView DAQ Hands-on (bilingue/bilingual)  10.10.02 (après-midi /afternoon) Introduction à DesignSpace :  16.10.02  (1 journée) Introduction to DesignSpace:  17.10.02  (1 day) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) :  21, 22, 23.10 et 4, 5, 6.11.02  (6 jours) Introduction à ANSYS/Introduction to ANSYS (langue à définir suivant demande/ Language to be chosen according to demand):  21 - 25.10.02  (5 jours/days) HREF-2002: Helium Refrigeration Techniques (English-French, bilingual) :  21 - 25.10.2002  (7 half days) HREF-2002: Techniques de la...

  14. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: November 2002   Introduction to PVSS (free of charge): 11.11.02  (afternoon) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 :  12 & 13.11.02  (2 jours) CLEAN-2002: Working in a Cleanroom (English, free of charge):  13.11.2002  (afternoon) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 :  14, 15, 21, 22.11.02  (4 jours) Hands-on Object-Oriented Design and Programming with C++:  19 - 21.11.02  (3 days)  EXCEL 2000 - niveau 2 :  25 & 26.11.02  (2 jours) FrontPage 2000 - niveau 1 :  27 & 28.11.02  (2 jours) December 2002   LabVIEW - DSC (English) :  2 - 3.12.02  (2 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 :  2 & 3.12.02  (2 jours) FileMaker (Français) :  2 - 5.12.02  (4 jours) PCAD Schémas - Débutants :  5 & 6.12.02 ...

  15. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: LabView Base 1 :  23 - 25.9.02  (3 jours) Object-Oriented Analysis & Design using UML:  25 - 27.9.02  (3 days) LabView DAQ (E):  26 - 27.9.02  (2 days) Introduction to Oracle 8i : SQL and PL/SQL:  7 - 11.10.02  (5 days) CLEAN-2002 : Working in a Cleanroom (free of charge):  10.10.02  (half-day, p.m.) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2 :  14 - 15.10.02  (2 jours) Introduction à DesignSpace :  16.10.02  (1 journée) Introduction to DesignSpace:  17.10.02  (1 day) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1:  17, 18, 24, 25.10.02  (4 days) AutoCAD Mechanical 6 PowerPack (F) :  21, 22, 23.10 et 4, 5, 6.11.02  (6 jours) Introduction à ANSYS/Introduction to ANSYS (langue à définir suivant demande/ Language to be chosen according to demand):...

  16. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Enseignement Technique; Tél. 74924; Technical Training; Monique Duval; Tel. 74924

    2000-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses : Premiers pas avec votre PC 12 - 15.9.00 (4 demi-journées) WORD 20, 21 et 26, 27.9.2000 (4 jours) JAVA programming level 1 25 - 26.9.2000 (2 days) Gaz inflammables 1 26.9.2000 (1 journée) Advanced aspects of PERL 5 6.10.2000 (1 day) Initiation au WWW 10 - 12.10.00 (3 demi-journées) WORD : importer et manipuler des images 16.10.2000 (1 journée) FileMaker 17, 18 et 24, 25.10.00 (4 jours) Nouveautés de WORD 19 et 20.10.2000 (2 jours) ACCESS 1er niveau 30 - 31.10.00 (2 jours)Introduction à PowerPoint 6.11.00 (1 journée)Nouveautés d’EXCEL 7.11.2000(4 demi-journées)Excel 13, 14 et 20, 21.11.00 (4 jours) LabView hands-on 13.11.2000(4 hours)LabView Basics 1 14 - 16.11.2000 (3 days) MS-Project 1er niveau 14-17.11.00 (4 demi-journées) If you wish to participate in one of these courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply elec...

  17. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: MS-Project 2000 - niveau 1 : 15 - 18.10.01 (4 demi-journées) LabView Base 2 : 18 & 19.10.01 (2 jours) WORD 2000 : importer et manipuler des images : 19.10.01 (1 journée) Contract Follow-up (F) : 30.10.01 (1/2 journée) The CERN Engineering Data Management System for Electronics Design :  30.10.01 (1 day) UNIX pour non-programmeurs : 5 - 7.11.01 (3 jours) The Java programming language Level 1: 8 - 9.11.01 (2 days) LabView Base 1 : 12 - 14.11.01 (3 jours) Automates et réseaux de terrain : 13 & 14.11.01 (2 jours) Introduction to PERL 5 :  15 - 16.11.01  (2 days) Introduction to XML :  19 - 20.11.01 (2 days) Programming TSX Premium 1 :  19 - 23.11.01  (5 days) Introduction to C Programming :  21- 23.11.01 (3 days) The Java programming language Level 2:  26 - 28.11.01 (3 days) Programmation TSX Premium 2 : 26 ...

  18. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: Introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN : 2 sessions de _ journée les 24 et 25.9.01 PROFIBUS : 25 - 26.9.01 (2 jours) PROFIBUS : 27 - 28.9.01 (2 days) PowerPoint 2000 : 1 et 2.10.01 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 : 3 et 4.10.01 (2 jours) Automates et réseaux de terrain : 3 - 4.10.2001 (2 jours) PCAD Schémas - débutants : 4 - 5.10.01 (2 jours) Introduction à Outlook : 5.10.01 (1 journée) Frontpage 2000 - niveau 1 : 8 et 9.10.01 (2 jours) PCAD PCB - débutants : 8 - 10.10.01 (3 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists : 8 - 12.10.01 (6 3-hour lectures) MS-Project 2000 - niveau 1 : 15 - 18.10.01 (4 demi-journées) LabView Basics 1 :  15 - 17.10.01  (3 days) Programmation TSX Premium 1 : 15 - 19.10.01 (5 jours) WORD 2000 : importer et manipuler des images : 19.10.01 (1 journée) Programmation TSX Premium 1 : 22 - 26.10.01...

  19. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: LabVIEW - Basics 1 :  10 - 12.12.01 (3 days) Introduction to XML :  12 & 13.12.01 (2 days) Introduction au PC et Windows 2000 : 12 & 14.12.01 (2 jours) LabVIEW - Basics 2 :  13 - 14.12.01 (2 days) Habilitation électrique : superviseurs : 17.12.2001 (1/2 journée) MS-Project 2000 : 10 & 11.01.02 (2 jours) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 2 : 15 - 16.1.02 (2 jours) Sécurité dans les installations cryogéniques: 15-17.1.2002 (2 demi-journées) C++ Programming Level 2 - Traps and Pitfalls :  15 - 18.1.2002  (4 days) ELEC-2002 Winter Term: Readout and system electronics for Physics  15.1.2002 - 7.2.2002 (8 half- days) Nouveautés de WORD 2000 : 18.1.02 (1/2 journée) LabView hands-on : 21.01.02 (1/2 journée) LabView DAQ hands-on : 21.01.02 (1/2 journée) FileMaker Pro : 22 -...

  20. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74924

    2001-01-01

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  5. Images of orbitals in twentieth-century General Chemistry textbooks: a semiotic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Fortes Rozentalski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating how the images of orbitals were presented in undergraduate General Chemistry textbooks throughout the twentieth century. Special attention was given to ontological and epistemological aspects related to such images. Images of orbitals from twenty-six textbooks used in Brazilian universities were analyzed according to Peircean semiotics, in order to assess: the nature of the orbital; what is the relation between representation and the represented object; what aspects of the object are highlighted by means of the representation; what are the limits and potentialities of the representation. It is observed that the images of orbitals in the textbooks are generally described as representations of maximum probability density and identified as limit surfaces. Such images present orbitals as possessing well defined sizes, shapes and directional nature. There is not sufficient information in most textbooks on the meaning of such images, especially regarding: the object of which representation takes place; how the images were produced; what aspects of the object the representation highlight; and what are the similarities and differences between the several images related to an orbital. Teaching difficulties arising from the features discussed here may be overcome by means of explicit discussion on the production, use and meaning of the representations, supported by Peircean semiotics.

  6. Introduction to simulation of upper atmosphere oxygen satellite exposed to atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplinski, D. R.; Arnold, G. S.; Borson, E. N.

    1984-01-01

    A brief review of atmospheric composition in low Earth orbit is presented. The flux of ambient atomic oxygen incident on a surface orbiting in this environment is described. Estimates are presented of the fluence of atomic oxygen to which satellite surfaces in various orbits are exposed.

  7. Disseminated orbital actinomycetoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanbhag Nita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous infection. Lower extremities are commonly involved. A 20-year-old male came with complaints of multiple sinuses on scalp, left eyelid swelling with a sinus and dystopia, since one year. On examination there was relative proptosis in left eye of 2 mm. Computed tomography scan showed soft tissue swelling of the pre-septal area of the left upper eyelid with orbital involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging showed increased left orbital volume and evident dystopia. Microbiology testing of the erosive scalp and lid lesions showed genus Nocardia, suggestive of actinomycetoma. This case is presented as it shows an unusual involvement of the orbit.

  8. Orbital retinoblastoma: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honavar, Santosh G; Manjandavida, Fairooz P; Reddy, Vijay Anand P

    2017-01-01

    Orbital extension is a major cause of death in children with retinoblastoma in the developing countries. Delayed detection and inappropriate management contribute to poor outcome. Conventional treatment including primary orbital exenteration or chemotherapy or radiotherapy alone result in mortality as high as 70%. The recent understanding on the role of sequential multimodal therapy with a combination of high-dose chemotherapy, followed by appropriate surgery, radiotherapy, and additional adjuvant chemotherapy has helped dramatically improve life salvage. PMID:28643706

  9. Orbital interactions in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, Thomas A; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Explains the underlying structure that unites all disciplines in chemistry Now in its second edition, this book explores organic, organometallic, inorganic, solid state, and materials chemistry, demonstrating how common molecular orbital situations arise throughout the whole chemical spectrum. The authors explore the relationships that enable readers to grasp the theory that underlies and connects traditional fields of study within chemistry, thereby providing a conceptual framework with which to think about chemical structure and reactivity problems. Orbital Interactions

  10. Cavernous Hemangioma of the Orbit and Its Impact on Orbital Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Yatsenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common representative of primary tumors is a cavernous hemangioma of the orbit, which can lead to the disorder of functions of an eye and a cosmetic defect. The literature has repeatedly described the clinical picture of patients with cavernous hemangioma, their CT semiotics, hemangiomasintercourse with orbital structures. However, there is no data about the effect of the tumor on the state of the orbital fat.The purpose — to study structural features of cavernous hemangiomaand toundertake a study of state of the orbital fat, depending on the size of tumors.Patients and methods. We studied 36 patients with cavernous hemangioma of the orbit. CT scans were performed according to standard procedures to give axial and frontal slices. Volumetric soft tissues of the orbit indicators obtained after the construction of three-dimensional models. Originally built a three-dimensional reconstruction of the osseous orbit outside the orbit's part of the eye, and then — a muscular channel and soft tissue reconstruction unit (extraocular muscles, the optic nerve, lacrimal gland and eyes. We calculate the orbit of the eye and orbital fat. The volume of the orbital part of the eye obtained by subtracting the volume of the volume of its eyes outside the orbit’s part. The amount of fiber internal surgical space obtained by subtracting from the muscular channel volume of extraocular muscles and optic nerve. Control in all cases was a healthy contralateral orbit.Results and discussion. It was found that an increase in the volume of tumors occurssubatrophy of orbital fat. In patients with smallhemangiomas the amount of orbital fat is reduced by about 0.5 cm3, in patients with an average hemangiomasthe amount of orbital fat is retracted more than 1 cm3. The most prominent orbital fat atrophy in theorbitlocalization of large cavernous hemangiomas (on 2,88±0.09 cm3.Conclusions. An increase in the size of cavernous hemangioma leading to its structural

  11. Dealing with Uncertainties in Initial Orbit Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armellin, Roberto; Di Lizia, Pierluigi; Zanetti, Renato

    2015-01-01

    A method to deal with uncertainties in initial orbit determination (IOD) is presented. This is based on the use of Taylor differential algebra (DA) to nonlinearly map the observation uncertainties from the observation space to the state space. When a minimum set of observations is available DA is used to expand the solution of the IOD problem in Taylor series with respect to measurement errors. When more observations are available high order inversion tools are exploited to obtain full state pseudo-observations at a common epoch. The mean and covariance of these pseudo-observations are nonlinearly computed by evaluating the expectation of high order Taylor polynomials. Finally, a linear scheme is employed to update the current knowledge of the orbit. Angles-only observations are considered and simplified Keplerian dynamics adopted to ease the explanation. Three test cases of orbit determination of artificial satellites in different orbital regimes are presented to discuss the feature and performances of the proposed methodology.

  12. Operational Rapid Precise Orbit Determination For The Low Earth Orbiter Champ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, G.; Baustert, G.; Koenig, R.; Reigber, Ch.

    The geophysical satellite CHAMP of the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ) launched on July 15, 2000, into a 450 km high, near circular, near polar orbit carries a GPS flight receiver. For the support of the atmospheric sounding and ionospheric processors as well as of the magnetic/electric field system of the CHAMP Science Data System the Rapid Science Orbit (RSO) is routinely produced. The RSO is com- puted using dynamical models in a two step approach. In the first step the orbits and clocks of the GPS satellites are calculated using data from approximately 50 selected GPS ground stations. In the next step, the CHAMP orbit is determined by fixing the estimated GPS orbits and clocks. For quality control external GPS orbits and clocks from the International GPS Service (IGS) as well as SLR observations from the Inter- national Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) are used. The GPS orbits are currently deter- mined with a 15 h latency and with an accuracy of about 10 cm in 1-D position, while the CHAMP orbits are determined with a 16 h latency and accuracy of 6 cm in 1-D position. All orbits and clocks are delivered to the CHAMP Information System and Data Center (ISDC) at GFZ, where they are available to users.

  13. Availability of methods of chemical thermodynamics and kinetics for the analysis of chemical transformations on metal surfaces under pulsed laser action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiko, V. P.; Slobodov, A. A.; Odintsova, G. V.

    2013-06-01

    A computational thermodynamic approach to determining the phase-chemical composition of films formed on the surface of metals and alloys under laser oxidation in the normal atmosphere, depending on their bulk composition, laser exposure conditions, and composition of the atmosphere, is suggested. It is demonstrated for the example of a complex alloy (alloyed steel of Russian brand 12X18H10T) subjected to laser heating in air that, among the wide variety of different possible reactions of iron, nickel, or chromium with the components of air (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, its compounds, atmospheric moisture, etc), only strictly defined reactions can occur. First of all these are metal oxidation processes with the formation of an oxide film whose phase and chemical composition is determined by temperature and heating duration. Simulated results are confirmed by the experimental data provided by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy.

  14. Orbital floor dermoid: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeola Meenakshi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermoid cysts are developmental abnormal arrangement of tissues and are often evident soon after birth. Its occurrence in the orbit is relatively rare. We report a case of orbital floor dermoid in an 18-year-old female patient who presented with progressive, painless swelling in the lower eyelid associated with mild proptosis of three months duration. The lesion was excised completely, and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of dermoid cyst.

  15. Reconstruction of Orbital Floor With Auricular Concha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Ergin; Tellioglu, Ali Teoman; Inozu, Emre; Ozakpinar, Hulda Rifat; Horoz, Ugur; Eryilmaz, Avni Tolga; Karamursel, Sebat

    2017-10-01

    Orbital floor fractures of varying sizes commonly occur after orbital injuries and remain a serious challenge. Serious complications of such fractures include enopthalmos, restriction of extraocular movement, and diplopia. There is a dearth of literature that can be applied widely, easily, and successfully in all such situations, and therefore there is no consensus on the treatment protocol of this pathology yet. Autogenous grafts and alloplastic and allogenic materials with a wide variety of advantages and disadvantages have been discussed. The value of preoperative and postoperative ophthalmological examination should be standard of care in all orbital fracture patients. An ideal reconstructed orbital floor fracture should accelerate the restoration of orbital function with acceptable cosmetic results. Management parameters of orbital fractures such as timing of surgery, incision type, and implant materials, though widely discussed, remain controversial. In this study, 55 patients with orbital floor fractures surgically reconstructed with conchal cartilage grafts between 2008 and 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Complications and long-time follow-up visit results have been reported with clinical and radiographic findings. The aim of this study was to present the authors' clinical experiences of reconstruction of blow-out fractures with auricular conchal graft and to evaluate the other materials available for use.

  16. Mission Orbit Design of CubeSat Impactor Measuring Lunar Local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Ah Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study designs the mission orbit of the lunar CubeSat spacecraft to measure the lunar local magnetic anomaly. To perform this mission, the CubeSat will impact the lunar surface over the Reiner Gamma swirl on the Moon. Orbit analyses are conducted comprising ΔV and error propagation analysis for the CubeSat mission orbit. First, three possible orbit scenarios are presented in terms of the CubeSat’s impacting trajectories. For each scenario, it is important to achieve mission objectives with a minimum ΔV since the CubeSat is limited in size and cost. Therefore, the ΔV needed for the CubeSat to maneuver from the initial orbit toward the impacting trajectory is analyzed for each orbit scenario. In addition, error propagation analysis is performed for each scenario to evaluate how initial errors, such as position error, velocity error, and maneuver error, that occur when the CubeSat is separated from the lunar orbiter, eventually affect the final impact position. As a result, the current study adopts a CubeSat release from the circular orbit at 100 km altitude and an impact slope of 15°, among the possible impacting scenarios. For this scenario, the required ΔV is calculated as the result of the ΔV analysis. It can be used to practically make an estimate of this specific mission’s fuel budget. In addition, the current study suggests error constraints for ΔV for the mission.

  17. Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia incorporates a space shuttle orbiter with payload bay doors (PLBDs) open and a spacelab module inside. Trailing the orbiter are the initials EDO. The EDO-modified Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, will be flown for the first EDO mission, STS-50.

  18. Elliptical Orbit Performance Computer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myler, T.

    1984-01-01

    Elliptical Orbit Performance (ELOPE) computer program for analyzing orbital performance of space boosters uses orbit insertion data obtained from trajectory simulation to generate parametric data on apogee and perigee altitudes as function of payload data. Data used to generate presentation plots that display elliptical orbit performance capability of space booster.

  19. METRIC: A Dedicated Earth-Orbiting Spacecraft for Investigating Gravitational Physics and the Space Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Peron

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A dedicated mission in low Earth orbit is proposed to test predictions of gravitational interaction theories and to directly measure the atmospheric density in a relevant altitude range, as well as to provide a metrological platform able to tie different space geodesy techniques. The concept foresees a small spacecraft to be placed in a dawn-dusk eccentric orbit between 450 and 1200 km of altitude. The spacecraft will be tracked from the ground with high precision, and a three-axis accelerometer package on-board will measure the non-gravitational accelerations acting on its surface. Estimates of parameters related to fundamental physics and geophysics should be obtained by a precise orbit determination, while the accelerometer data will be instrumental in constraining the atmospheric density. Along with the mission scientific objectives, a conceptual configuration is described together with an analysis of the dynamical environment experienced by the spacecraft and the accelerometer.

  20. Baseline Design and Performance Analysis of Laser Altimeter for Korean Lunar Orbiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Chul Lim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Korea’s lunar exploration project includes the launching of an orbiter, a lander (including a rover, and an experimental orbiter (referred to as a lunar pathfinder. Laser altimeters have played an important scientific role in lunar, planetary, and asteroid exploration missions since their first use in 1971 onboard the Apollo 15 mission to the Moon. In this study, a laser altimeter was proposed as a scientific instrument for the Korean lunar orbiter, which will be launched by 2020, to study the global topography of the surface of the Moon and its gravitational field and to support other payloads such as a terrain mapping camera or spectral imager. This study presents the baseline design and performance model for the proposed laser altimeter. Additionally, the study discusses the expected performance based on numerical simulation results. The simulation results indicate that the design of system parameters satisfies performance requirements with respect to detection probability and range error even under unfavorable conditions.

  1. Influence of orbital forcing and solar activity on water isotopes in precipitation during the mid- and late Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the impact of mid- and late Holocene orbital forcing and solar activity on variations of the oxygen isotopic composition in precipitation. The investigation is motivated by a recently published speleothem δ18O record from the well-monitored Bunker Cave in Germany. The record reveals some high variability on multi-centennial to millennial scales that does not linearly correspond to orbital forcing. Our model study is based on a set of novel climate simulations performed with the atmosphere general circulation model ECHAM5-wiso enhanced by explicit water isotope diagnostics. From the performed model experiments, we derive the following major results: (1 the response of both orbital and solar forcing lead to changes in surface temperatures and δ18O in precipitation with similar magnitudes during the mid- and late Holocene. (2 Past δ18O anomalies correspond to changing temperatures in the orbital driven simulations. This does not hold true if an additional solar forcing is added. (3 Two orbital driven mid-Holocene experiments, simulating the mean climate state approximately 5000 and 6000 yr ago, yield very similar results. However, if an identical additional solar activity-induced forcing is added, the simulated changes of surface temperatures as well as δ18O between both periods differ. We conclude from our simulation results that non-linear effects and feedbacks of the orbital and solar activity forcing substantially alter the δ18O in precipitation pattern and its relation to temperature change.

  2. Orbital lymphoid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroko; Ueno, Hisayuki

    1994-01-01

    We examined 13 cases of orbital lymphoid tumors (OLT) and 1 of orbital hemangioma (OH), using dynamic MRI, to determine the biological behavior of the tumors before surgery. We measured time-dependent changes in the contrast enhancement of tumors and described time intensity curves (TIC), dividing the cases into 3 architectural types: completes septum (CS), incomplete septum (IS), and diffuse types. The TICs of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH, 2 cases) of CS type and idiopathic orbital inflamation (1), RLH (5) of IS type, atypical lymphoid hyperplasia (4), and malignant lymphoma (1) and OH (1) showed rapid increase with low peak and gradual decrease, rapid increase with high peak and gradual decrease, rapid increase and plateau, and gradual increase type, respectively. In order words, OLT showed various TIC, roughly correlating with pathological findings. These results indicate that dynamic MRI may be useful in the preoperative clinical diagnosis of OLT. (author)

  3. [Secondary orbital lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanta, I; Sevillano, C; Álvarez, M D

    2015-09-01

    A case is presented of an 85 year-old Caucasian female with lymphoma that recurred in the orbit (secondary ocular adnexal lymphoma). The orbital tumour was a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma according to the REAL classification (Revised European-American Lymphoma Classification). Orbital lymphomas are predominantly B-cell proliferations of a variety of histological types, and most are low-grade tumours. Patients are usually middle-aged or elderly, and it is slightly more common in women. A palpable mass, proptosis and blepharoptosis are the most common signs of presentation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Large orbit neoclassical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    Neoclassical transport in the presence of large ion orbits is investigated. The study is motivated by the recent experimental results that ion thermal transport levels in enhanced confinement tokamak plasmas fall below the open-quotes irreducible minimum levelclose quotes predicted by standard neoclassical theory. This apparent contradiction is resolved in the present analysis by relaxing the basic neoclassical assumption that the ions orbital excursions are much smaller than the local toroidal minor radius and the equilibrium scale lengths of the system. Analytical and simulation results are in agreement with trends from experiments. The development of a general formalism for neoclassical transport theory with finite orbit width is also discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  5. Preseptal Cellulitis Or Orbital Cellulitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, L T; Miller, D; Ah-Kee, E Y; Ferguson, A

    2015-06-29

    Preseptal cellulitis and orbital cellulitis can both present with increasing swelling, tenderness and redness around the eye, but their management differs. Preseptal cellulitis is more common and much less aggressive than orbital cellulitis. In contrast, orbital cellulitis is a medical emergency requiring urgent management. In this article, we provide a systematic approach to distinguish between preseptal cellulitis and orbital cellulitis at presentation, as the distinction between the two entities and the prompt recognition of orbital cellulitis can be potentially life-saving.

  6. Cephalic Tetanus from Penetrating Orbital Wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloïse Guyennet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus is a neurologic disorder caused by tetanospasmin, a protein toxin elaborated by Clostridium tetani. Cephalic tetanus is a localized form of the disease causing trismus and dysfunction of cranial nerves. We report the case of a man who presented with facial trauma, complete ophthalmoplegia, exophthalmos, areactive mydriasis, and periorbital hematoma. An orbital CT revealed air bubbles in the right orbital apex. The patient was given a tetanus toxoid booster and antibiotherapy. After extraction of a wooden foreign body, the patient developed right facial nerve palsy, disorders of swallowing, contralateral III cranial nerve palsy, and trismus. Only one case of cephalic tetanus from penetrating orbital wound has been reported in literature 20 years ago. When a patient presents with an orbital wound with ophthalmoplegia and signs of anaerobic infection, cephalic tetanus should be ruled out.

  7. GLONASS Orbits in Teqc: Methodology and Future Extension for Using SP3 Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estey, L.; Wier, S.

    2011-12-01

    UNAVCO's teqc software package provides translation of a wide variety of GNSS receiver formats, metadata editing (either during translation to RINEX or on existing RINEX files), time-windowing and epoch decimation editing, and quality check (qc) analysis. Teqc is used extensively in GNSS pre-processing, and is designed to handle mixed satellite constellations, such as GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and SBAS. The latest release of teqc adds GLONASS orbit calculations using GLONASS broadcast navigation messages, read from RINEX file format, during qc. The ephemerides for each GLONASS SV have time and orbit position in Earth-centered, Earth-fixed x, y, and z coordinates. Following Schenewerk [2003], we use trigonometric interpolation, essentially a fit of a partial sum of the Fourier series for each time-varying cartesian orbital component, allowing estimates of orbit positions at most GLONASS observation times. Tests show the interpolated GLONASS orbits made from the broadcast messages diverge from final orbits little more than the same differences using GPS orbits computed from their broadcast messages. Since GLONASS ephemerides do not use Keplerian orbital elements, GLONASS SV orbits can only be interpolated using this method for time intervals when an adequate sequence of ephemerides are available. For typical daily navigation messages collected at a single sit, when a GLONASS SV is in view less than three hours, that SV's signals are generally not used by teqc due to less precise orbit positions. Teqc quality control including SV position can now use GPS alone, GLONASS alone, or the joint solution. Future work will extend teqc to use SP3 format files, such as the IGS final orbit files, and SBAS data, which have broadcast ephemerides with elements similar to GLONASS.

  8. Quantitative evaluation of orbital hybridization in carbon nanotubes under radial deformation using π-orbital axis vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Ohnishi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When a radial strain is applied to a carbon nanotube (CNT, the increase in local curvature induces orbital hybridization. The effect of the curvature-induced orbital hybridization on the electronic properties of CNTs, however, has not been evaluated quantitatively. In this study, the strength of orbital hybridization in CNTs under homogeneous radial strain was evaluated quantitatively. Our analyses revealed the detailed procedure of the change in electronic structure of CNTs. In addition, the dihedral angle, the angle between π-orbital axis vectors of adjacent atoms, was found to effectively predict the strength of local orbital hybridization in deformed CNTs.

  9. Distichiasis following transconjunctival approach to the inferior orbital rim and orbital floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen Salhi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Zygoma fractures are often associated with orbital floor fractures, which can be approached through a transconjunctival or transcutaneous incision. The transconjunctival approach has gained popularity over the transcutaneous one for its overall lower complication rate. We describe a patient with a zygoma fracture where the inferior orbital rim and orbital floor were exposed, reduced and fixated through a transconjunctival incision. Postoperatively, the patient developed a row of eyelashes posterior to the normal lash line, a condition termed distichiasis, causing corneal irritation and ulceration. This is believed to be caused by the postoperative eyelid inflammation induced by the transconjunctival incision. The condition was treated by electrolysis with no recurrence of symptoms. This condition has never been described as a postoperative complication of a transconjunctival approach to an inferior orbital rim and orbital floor fracture.

  10. Tailoring spin-orbit torque in diluted magnetic semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hang

    2013-05-16

    We study the spin orbit torque arising from an intrinsic linear Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in a single layer III-V diluted magnetic semiconductor. We investigate the transport properties and spin torque using the linear response theory, and we report here: (1) a strong correlation exists between the angular dependence of the torque and the anisotropy of the Fermi surface; (2) the spin orbit torque depends nonlinearly on the exchange coupling. Our findings suggest the possibility to tailor the spin orbit torque magnitude and angular dependence by structural design.

  11. Correlation between the 2-Dimensional Extent of Orbital Defects and the 3-Dimensional Volume of Herniated Orbital Content in Patients with Isolated Orbital Wall Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hyun Cha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between the 2-dimensional (2D extent of orbital defects and the 3-dimensional (3D volume of herniated orbital content in patients with an orbital wall fracture.MethodsThis retrospective study was based on the medical records and radiologic data of 60 patients from January 2014 to June 2016 for a unilateral isolated orbital wall fracture. They were classified into 2 groups depending on whether the fracture involved the inferior wall (group I, n=30 or the medial wall (group M, n=30. The 2D area of the orbital defect was calculated using the conventional formula. The 2D extent of the orbital defect and the 3D volume of herniated orbital content were measured with 3D image processing software. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the correlations between the 2D and 3D parameters.ResultsVarying degrees of positive correlation were found between the 2D extent of the orbital defects and the 3D herniated orbital volume in both groups (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.568−0.788; R2=32.2%−62.1%.ConclusionsBoth the calculated and measured 2D extent of the orbital defects showed a positive correlation with the 3D herniated orbital volume in orbital wall fractures. However, a relatively large volume of herniation (>0.9 cm3 occurred not infrequently despite the presence of a small orbital defect (<1.9 cm2. Therefore, estimating the 3D volume of the herniated content in addition to the 2D orbital defect would be helpful for determining whether surgery is indicated and ensuring adequate surgical outcomes.

  12. A Mars orbital laser altimeter for rover trafficability: Instrument concept and science potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, J. B.; Zuber, M. T.

    1988-01-01

    Limited information on the types of geologic hazards (boulders, troughs, craters etc.) that will affect rover trafficability on Mars are available for the two Viking Lander sites, and there are no prospects for increasing this knowledge base in the near future. None of the instrument payloads on the upcoming Mars Observer or Soviet PHOBOS missions can directly measure surface obstacles on the scales of concern for rover safety (a few meters). Candidate instruments for the Soviet Mars 92 orbiter/balloon/rover mission such as balloon-borne stereo imaging, rover panoramic imaging, and orbital synthetic aperature imaging (SAR) are under discussion, but data from this mission may not be available for target areas of interest for the U.S. Mars Rover Sample Return (MRSR) mission. In an effort to determine how to directly measure the topography of surface obstacles that could affect rover trafficability on Mars, we are studying how to design a laser altimeter with extremely high spatial and vertical resolution that would be suitable for a future Mars Orbiter spacecraft (MRSR precursor or MRSR orbiter). This report discusses some of the design issues associated with such an instrument, gives examples of laser altimeter data collected for Mars analog terrains on Earth, and outlines the scientific potential of data that could be obtained with the system.

  13. Water-quality assessment of southern Florida; an overview of available information on surface-and ground-water quality and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, K.H.; Miller, R.L.; Bradner, L.A.; McCulloch, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes water-quality conditions, issues of concern, and management efforts underway in southern Florida. The report is designed to provide a conceptual framework for the Southern Florida National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study that began in 1994. The report makes reference to the most important water-quality literature pertaining to southern Florida, to water-quality studies that are underway or planned, and to topics which are of high priority in the study unit. These topics include: the availability and suit ability of water for competing demands; nutrient enrichment of the Everglades; transport, degradation, and effects of pesticides; and the sources and cycling of mercury in the ecosystem. The report also includes a retrospective analysis and conceptual presentation of nutrient loading, which is a high priority for the national NAWQA Program and for regional water-quality managers. Nutrient contributions from point and nonpoint sources are estimated for nine basins in the study area and are discussed in relation to land use. Fertilizer is the dominant source of phosphorus in eight basins and the dominant source of nitrogen in at least five basins. Atmospheric sources of nitrogen contribute more than 20 percent of the total nitrogen input to all basins and are the dominant source of nitrogen input to Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades. Nutrient loads are also estimated in selected canal and river outflows in southern Florida to provide a spatial overview of the magnitude of nutrient loading to coastal waters. Annual phosphorus loads from the Peace River are the highest in the study unit; annual phosphorus loads from the Caloosahatchee River and the major Palm Beach canals are also high, compared to other parts of southern Florida. Estimated annual loads of phosphorus from parts of the Big Cypress Basin and the S-12 water-control structures of the Tamiami Canal are low compared with estimated phosphorus loads in outflows in the northern

  14. 11. Deadly Orbital Mucormycosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitwala

    medial recti muscles. The conclusion reached was orbital pseudo-tumour RE with a differential diagnosis of lymphoma. The CT Scan film below shows the retro-bulbar tumour described in the report. Other investigations done were fasting Blood Sugar which was ... thrombosis and death of surrounding tissue by loss. 6.

  15. The orbital record in stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alfred G.

    1992-01-01

    Orbital signals are being discovered in pre-Pleistocene sediments. Due to their hierarchical nature these cycle patterns are complex, and the imprecision of geochronology generally makes the assignment of stratigraphic cycles to specific orbital cycles uncertain, but in sequences such as the limnic Newark Group under study by Olsen and pelagic Cretaceous sequence worked on by our Italo-American group the relative frequencies yield a definitive match to the Milankovitch hierarchy. Due to the multiple ways in which climate impinges on depositional systems, the orbital signals are recorded in a multiplicity of parameters, and affect different sedimentary facies in different ways. In platform carbonates, for example, the chief effect is via sea-level variations (possibly tied to fluctuating ice volume), resulting in cycles of emergence and submergence. In limnic systems it finds its most dramatic expression in alternations of lake and playa conditions. Biogenic pelagic oozes such as chalks and the limestones derived from them display variations in the carbonate supplied by planktonic organisms such as coccolithophores and foraminifera, and also record variations in the aeration of bottom waters. Whereas early studies of stratigraphic cyclicity relied mainly on bedding variations visible in the field, present studies are supplementing these with instrumental scans of geochemical, paleontological, and geophysical parameters which yield quantitative curves amenable to time-series analysis; such analysis is, however, limited by problems of distorted time-scales. My own work has been largely concentrated on pelagic systems. In these, the sensitivity of pelagic organisms to climatic-oceanic changes, combined with the sensitivity of botton life to changes in oxygen availability (commonly much more restricted in the Past than now) has left cyclic patterns related to orbital forcing. These systems are further attractive because (1) they tend to offer depositional continuity

  16. Displaced Electric Sail Orbits Design and Transition Trajectory Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiming Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Displaced orbits for spacecraft propelled by electric sails are investigated as an alternative to the use of solar sails. The orbital dynamics of electric sails based spacecraft are studied within a spherical coordinate system, which permits finding the solutions of displaced electric sail orbits and optimize transfer trajectory. Transfer trajectories from Earth's orbit to displaced orbit are also studied in an optimal framework, by using genetic algorithm and Gauss pseudospectral method. The initial guesses for the state and control histories used in the Gauss pseudospectral method are interpolated from the best solution of a genetic algorithm. Numerical simulations show that the electric sail is able to perform the transfer from Earth’s orbit to displaced orbit in acceptable time, and the hybrid optimization method has the capability to search the feasible and optimal solution without any initial value guess.

  17. On-orbit Passive Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Patricia A.; Winfree, William P.; Cramer, K. Elliott

    2008-01-01

    On July 12, 2006, British-born astronaut Piers Sellers became the first person to conduct thermal nondestructive evaluation experiments in space, demonstrating the feasibility of a new tool for detecting damage to the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) structures of the Shuttle. This new tool was an EVA (Extravehicular Activity, or spacewalk) compatible infrared camera developed by NASA engineers. Data was collected both on the wing leading edge of the Orbiter and on pre-damaged samples mounted in the Shuttle s cargo bay. A total of 10 infrared movies were collected during the EVA totaling over 250 megabytes of data. Images were downloaded from the orbiting Shuttle to Johnson Space Center for analysis and processing. Results are shown to be comparable to ground-based thermal inspections performed in the laboratory with the same type of camera and simulated solar heating. The EVA camera system detected flat-bottom holes as small as 2.54cm in diameter with 50% material loss from the back (hidden) surface in RCC during this first test of the EVA IR Camera. Data for the time history of the specimen temperature and the capability of the inspection system for imaging impact damage are presented.

  18. Meteoroid Orbits from Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Brown, Margaret

    2018-04-01

    Millions of orbits of meteoroids have been measured over the last few decades, and they comprise the largest sample of orbits of solar system bodies which exists. The orbits of these objects can shed light on the distribution and evolution of comets and asteroids in near-Earth space (e.g. Neslusan et al. 2016). If orbits can be measured at sufficiently high resolution, individual meteoroids can be traced back to their parent bodies and, in principle, even to their ejection time (Rudawska et al. 2012). Orbits can be measured with multi-station optical observations or with radar observations.The most fundamental measured quantities are the speed of the meteor and the two angles of the radiant, or point in the sky from which the meteor appears to come. There are many methods used to determine these from observations, but not all produce the most accurate results (Egal et al. 2017). These three measured quantities, along with the time and location of the observation, are sufficient to obtain an orbit (see, e.g., Clark & Wiegert 2011), but the measurements must be corrected for the deceleration of the meteoroid in the atmosphere before it was detected, the rotation of the Earth, and the gravitational attraction of the Earth (including higher order moments if great precision is necessary).Once meteor orbits have been determined, studies of the age and origin of meteor showers (Bruzzone et al., 2015), the parent bodies of sporadic sources (Pokorny et al. 2014), and the dynamics of the meteoroid complex as a whole can be constrained.Bruzzone, J. S., Brown, P., Weryk, R., Campbell-Brown, M., 2015. MNRAS 446, 1625.Clark, D., Wiegert, P., 2011. M&PS 46, 1217.Egal, A., Gural, P., Vaubaillon, J., Colas, F., Thuillot, W., 2017. Icarus 294, 43.Neslusan, L., Vaubaillon, J., Hajdukova, M., 2016. A&A 589, id.A100.Pokorny, P., Vokrouhlicky, D., Nesvorny, D., Campbell-Brown, M., Brown, P., 2014. ApJ 789, id.25.Rudawska, R., Vaubaillon, J., Atreya, P., 2012. A&A 541, id.A2

  19. Mars Molniya Orbit Atmospheric Resource Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Braun, Robert D.; Sibille, Laurent; Sforzo, Brandon; Gonyea, Keir; Ali, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    This NIAC (NASA Advanced Innovative Concepts) work will focus on Mars and will build on previous efforts at analyzing atmospheric mining at Earth and the outer solar system. Spacecraft systems concepts will be evaluated and traded, to assess feasibility. However the study will primarily examine the architecture and associated missions to explore the closure, constraints and critical parameters through sensitivity studies. The Mars atmosphere consists of 95.5 percent CO2 gas which can be converted to methane fuel (CH4) and Oxidizer (O2) for chemical rocket propulsion, if hydrogen is transported from electrolyzed water on the Mars surface or from Earth. By using a highly elliptical Mars Molniya style orbit, the CO2 atmosphere can be scooped, ram-compressed and stored while the spacecraft dips into the Mars atmosphere at periapsis. Successive orbits result in additional scooping of CO2 gas, which also serves to aerobrake the spacecraft, resulting in a decaying Molniya orbit.

  20. Local orbitals by minimizing powers of the orbital variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansik, Branislav; Høst, Stinne; Kristensen, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    's correlation consistent basis sets, it is seen that for larger penalties, the virtual orbitals become more local than the occupied ones. We also show that the local virtual HF orbitals are significantly more local than the redundant projected atomic orbitals, which often have been used to span the virtual......It is demonstrated that a set of local orthonormal Hartree–Fock (HF) molecular orbitals can be obtained for both the occupied and virtual orbital spaces by minimizing powers of the orbital variance using the trust-region algorithm. For a power exponent equal to one, the Boys localization function...... be encountered. These disappear when the exponent is larger than one. For a small penalty, the occupied orbitals are more local than the virtual ones. When the penalty is increased, the locality of the occupied and virtual orbitals becomes similar. In fact, when increasing the cardinal number for Dunning...

  1. JASON-1 Precise Orbit Determination (POD)with SLR and DORIS Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelensky, N. P.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Beckley, B. D.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Wang, Y. M.; Chinn, D. S.; Williams, T. A.

    2002-01-01

    Jason-1, the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) radar altimeter follow-on, is intended to continue measurement of the ocean surface with the same, if not better accuracy. T/P has demonstrated that, the time variation of ocean topography can be determined with an accuracy of a few centimeters, thanks to the availability of highly accurate orbits based on SLR and DORIS tracking. For verification and cross-calibration, Jason-1, was initially injected into the T/P orbit, flying just 72 seconds ahead of T/P. This configuration lasted over 21 Jason cycles. In mid-August T/P was maneuvered into its final tandem configuration, a parallel groundtrack, in order to improve the combined coverage. Preliminary investigations using cycles 1-9, shown at the June 2002 SWT, indicated that nominal Jason orbits can achieve the 2-3 cm accuracy objective, however several puzzling aspects of SLR and DORIS measurement modeling were also observed. This paper presents recent analysis of Jason SLR+DORIS POD spanning more than 20 cycles, and revisits several of the more puzzling issues, including estimation of the Laser Retroreflector Array (LRA) offset. The accuracy of the orbits and of the measurement modeling are evaluated using several tests, including SLR, DORIS, and altimeter crossover residual analysis, altimeter collinear analysis, and direct comparison with GPS and other orbits. T/P POD results over the same period are used as a reference.

  2. Low Earth Orbit Satellite’s Orbit Propagation and Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Institute of Technology Email: honien.shou@xuite.net Abstract This paper represents orbit propagation and determination of Low Eearth Orbit(LEO...Arichandran, S. H. Tan, T. Bretschneider, High – Presicion Onboard Orbit Determination for Small Satellites - the GPS-Based XNS on X-SAT. 6th Symposium on

  3. The Power Consumption Performance of an Orbiting Screw Solid-Solid Mixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semuel Pati Senda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing concentration of CO2 and other greenhouse gasses (GHGs in the atmosphere warms up the earth's surface and causes drastic changes to the climate. Therefore, reducing energy consumption in order to reduce GHGs emission from the manufactures become urgent, especially in developing new industries such as Slow Release Fertilizer (SRF urea plant. In this work, mixing in an orbiting screw mixer designed for solid-solid mixing was investigated. Mixing was carried out using urea powder and natural zeolite powder by varying three particle sizes i.e. groups of >50 mesh, >60 mesh and >80 mesh. Mixing process was conducted to examine the influence of orbital and rotation speeds combined with air injection, as well as the particle size of urea-natural zeolite to the specific energy consumption. Achieving a good homogeneity of mixture with a shorter mixing time, thus, power and energy consumption, was one goal of this work. The power consumption was calculated from measured torque of orbital and screw obtained by computerized record. Specific energy consumption was calculated by total power with time tied the homogeneity of the mixture for each particle size group. Experimental results showed that the higher of the orbital and rotation speed, the higher energy consumption. It can be seen that power consumption was dominated by rotation motion of the screw. Smaller particle size required higher power for mixing process due to their cohesiveness. Mixing process used a modified orbiting screw mixer with air injection showed lower power consumption for each particle size group compared with that of no air injection. This paper also developed a derivation of the power equation model of mixing in the orbiting screw mixer. The influence of speed of mixer in an orbiting screw mixer on the power consumption can be expressed by the Power Number.

  4. Orbital debris: a technical assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    ..., and other debris created as a byproduct of space operations. Orbital Debris examines the methods we can use to characterize orbital debris, estimates the magnitude of the debris population, and assesses the hazard that this population poses to spacecraft...

  5. Topics in orbit equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Kechris, Alexander S

    2004-01-01

    This volume provides a self-contained introduction to some topics in orbit equivalence theory, a branch of ergodic theory. The first two chapters focus on hyperfiniteness and amenability. Included here are proofs of Dye's theorem that probability measure-preserving, ergodic actions of the integers are orbit equivalent and of the theorem of Connes-Feldman-Weiss identifying amenability and hyperfiniteness for non-singular equivalence relations. The presentation here is often influenced by descriptive set theory, and Borel and generic analogs of various results are discussed. The final chapter is a detailed account of Gaboriau's recent results on the theory of costs for equivalence relations and groups and its applications to proving rigidity theorems for actions of free groups.

  6. Small Aerostationary Telecommunications Orbiter Concept for Mars in the 2020s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Robert E.; Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Nicholas, Austin; Woolley, Ryan; Bell, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Current Mars science orbiters carry UHF proximity payloads to provide limited access and data services to landers and rovers on Mars surface. In the era of human spaceflight to Mars, very high rate and reliable relay services will be needed to serve a large number of supporting vehicles, habitats, and orbiters, as well as astronaut EVAs. These will likely be provided by a robust network of orbiting assets in very high orbits, such as areostationary orbits. In the decade leading to that era, telecommunications orbits can be operated at areostationary orbit that can support a significant population of robotic precursor missions and build the network capabilities needed for the human spaceflight era. Telecommunications orbiters of modest size and cost, delivered by Solar Electric Propulsion to areostationary orbit, can provide continuous access at very high data rates to users on the surface and in Mars orbit.In the era of human spaceflight to Mars very high rate andreliable relay services will be needed to serve a largenumber of supporting vehicles, habitats, and orbiters, aswell as astronaut EVAs. These could be provided by arobust network of orbiting assets in very high orbits. In thedecade leading to that era, telecommunications orbiterscould be operated at areostationary orbit that could support asignificant population of robotic precursor missions andbuild the network capabilities needed for the humanspaceflight era. These orbiters could demonstrate thecapabilities and services needed for the future but withoutthe high bandwidth and high reliability requirements neededfor human spaceflight.Telecommunications orbiters of modest size and cost,delivered by Solar Electric Propulsion to areostationaryorbit, could provide continuous access at very high datarates to users on the surface and in Mars orbit. Twoexamples highlighting the wide variety of orbiter deliveryand configuration options were shown that could providehigh-performance service to users.

  7. Evolution of the Orbital Elements for Geosynchronous Orbit of Communications Satellite, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Hong Choi

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available For a geostationary satellite north-south station keeping maneuver must control the inclination elements. The effects on the orbit plane of maneuvers and natural perturbations may be represented by a plane plot of Wc versus Ws, since these inclination elements represent the projection of the unit orbit normal onto the equatorial plane. The evolution of the semi-major axis and the inclination elements are obtained.

  8. Plotting Orbital Trajectories For Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Adam R.

    1991-01-01

    Interactive Orbital Trajectory Planning Tool (EIVAN) computer program is forward-looking interactive orbit-trajectory-plotting software tool for use with proximity operations (operations occurring within 1-km sphere of space station) and other maneuvers. Developed to plot resulting trajectories, to provide better comprehension of effects of orbital mechanics, and to help user develop heuristics for planning missions on orbit. Program runs with Microsoft's Excel for execution on MacIntosh computer running MacIntosh OS.

  9. Sentinel-1A - First precise orbit determination results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, H.; Jäggi, A.; Fernández, J.; Escobar, D.; Ayuga, F.; Arnold, D.; Wermuth, M.; Hackel, S.; Otten, M.; Simons, W.; Visser, P.; Hugentobler, U.; Féménias, P.

    2017-09-01

    Sentinel-1A is the first satellite of the European Copernicus programme. Equipped with a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instrument the satellite was launched on April 3, 2014. Operational since October 2014 the satellite delivers valuable data for more than two years. The orbit accuracy requirements are given as 5 cm in 3D. In order to fulfill this stringent requirement the precise orbit determination (POD) is based on the dual-frequency GPS observations delivered by an eight-channel GPS receiver. The Copernicus POD (CPOD) Service is in charge of providing the orbital and auxiliary products required by the PDGS (Payload Data Ground Segment). External orbit validation is regularly performed by comparing the CPOD Service orbits to orbit solutions provided by POD expert members of the Copernicus POD Quality Working Group (QWG). The orbit comparisons revealed systematic orbit offsets mainly in radial direction (approx. 3 cm). Although no independent observation technique (e.g. DORIS, SLR) is available to validate the GPS-derived orbit solutions, comparisons between the different antenna phase center variations and different reduced-dynamic orbit determination approaches used in the various software packages helped to detect the cause of the systematic offset. An error in the given geometry information about the satellite has been found. After correction of the geometry the orbit validation shows a significant reduction of the radial offset to below 5 mm. The 5 cm orbit accuracy requirement in 3D is fulfilled according to the results of the orbit comparisons between the different orbit solutions from the QWG.

  10. Orbit limited theory in the solar wind - κ distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinović M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When a solid object is immersed into ionized gas it gets brought to a certain value of electrostatic potential and surrounded by a space charge region called ‘plasma sheath’. Through this region, particles are attracted or repelled from the surface of the charge collecting object. For collisionless plasma, this process is described by the so-called orbit limited theory, which explains how the collection of particles is determined by the collector geometry and plasma velocity distribution function (VDF. In this article, we provide explicit expressions for orbit-limited currents for generalized Lorentzian (κ distributions. This work is useful to describe the charging processes of objects in non-collisional plasmas like the solar wind, where the electrons VDF is often observed to exhibit quasi power-law populations of suprathermal particles. It is found that these ‘suprathermals’ considerably increase the charge collection. Since the surface charging process that determines the value of electrostatic potential is also affected by the plasma VDF, calculation of the collector potential in the solar wind is described along with some quantitative predictions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176002

  11. Orbital Cellulitis of Odontogenic Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, William; Chakrabarti, Rahul; Choong, Jessica; Hardy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic orbital cellulitis, although uncommon, has the potential to cause severe vision loss if unsuspected and untreated. Compared to non-odontogenic bacteriology, odontogenic orbital abscesses typically feature a heavy mixed growth with anaerobic organisms. We review the literature and discuss the case of a 26-year-old male who presented with anaerobic orbital cellulitis for treatment.

  12. Orbiter OMS and RCS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Orbiter Orbital Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) and Reaction Control Subsystem (RCS) tankage has proved to be highly successful in shuttle flights on-orbit propellant transfer tests were done. Tank qualification tests along with flight demonstrations were carried out future uses of storable propellants are cited.

  13. Application of orbital strong magnet in the extraction of deep orbital magnetic foreign bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chen Jia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the surgical method and efficacy of extraction of deep orbital magnetic foreign bodies by mean of an orbital strong magnet. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of clinical data of patients with deep orbital magnetic foreign bodies(OMFBin Hebei Eye Hospital from June 2014 to May 2017 was processed. A total of 23 eyes were enrolled, among them, 14 eyes of extraorbital OMFB, 9 eyes of intraorbital OMFB. The rate of extraction of foreign bodies and the postoperative complications were observed. RESULTS: All eyes of intraorbital foreign bodies were successfully extracted with 100% success rate. Twelve of 14 eyes of extraorbital foreign bodies were extracted with 86% success rate. Mild orbital hemorrhage were found in 2 eyes. There was no other obvious complication such as visual loss, orbital massive hemorrhage or limited ocular movement. CONCLUSION: It's an ideal surgical method to extract the deep orbital magnetic foreign bodies by mean of an orbital strong magnet, with mini-injury, high success rate, short duration and few complications.

  14. Potential energy surfaces for the HBr{sup +} + CO{sub 2} → Br + HOCO{sup +} reaction in the HBr{sup +} {sup 2}Π{sub 3/2} and {sup 2}Π{sub 1/2} spin-orbit states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Rui; Paul, Amit K.; Hase, William L. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Granucci, Giovanni; Persico, Maurizio [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Siebert, Matthew [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri 65879 (United States); Liang, Hongliang J. [Department of Engineering, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania 19081 (United States); Cheong, Grace [Department of Chemistry, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania 19041 (United States)

    2015-03-14

    Quantum mechanical (QM) + molecular mechanics (MM) models are developed to represent potential energy surfaces (PESs) for the HBr{sup +} + CO{sub 2} → Br + HOCO{sup +} reaction with HBr{sup +} in the {sup 2}Π{sub 3/2} and {sup 2}Π{sub 1/2} spin-orbit states. The QM component is the spin-free PES and spin-orbit coupling for each state is represented by a MM-like analytic potential fit to spin-orbit electronic structure calculations. Coupled-cluster single double and perturbative triple excitation (CCSD(T)) calculations are performed to obtain “benchmark” reaction energies without spin-orbit coupling. With zero-point energies removed, the “experimental” reaction energy is 44 ± 5 meV for HBr{sup +}({sup 2}Π{sub 3/2}) + CO{sub 2} → Br({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) + HOCO{sup +}, while the CCSD(T) value with spin-orbit effects included is 87 meV. Electronic structure calculations were performed to determine properties of the BrHOCO{sup +} reaction intermediate and [HBr⋯OCO]{sup +} van der Waals intermediate. The results of different electronic structure methods were compared with those obtained with CCSD(T), and UMP2/cc-pVTZ/PP was found to be a practical and accurate QM method to use in QM/MM direct dynamics simulations. The spin-orbit coupling calculations show that the spin-free QM PES gives a quite good representation of the shape of the PES originated by {sup 2}Π{sub 3/2}HBr{sup +}. This is also the case for the reactant region of the PES for {sup 2}Π{sub 1/2} HBr{sup +}, but spin-orbit coupling effects are important for the exit-channel region of this PES. A MM model was developed to represent these effects, which were combined with the spin-free QM PES.

  15. Retinoblastoma associated orbital cellulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, P.; Karcioglu, Z.; Huaman, A.; Al-Mesfer, S.

    1998-01-01

    AIM—Preseptal and orbital cellulitis are rare presenting features of intraocular retinoblastoma. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of retinoblastoma associated cellulitis, as well as to review its clinical and histopathological features.
METHODS—The medical records of 292 retinoblastoma patients in the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were reviewed. Those indicating a history of, or presenting with, cellulitis were retrieved and their clinical, radiological, and histopathological variables were assessed. Patients with definite extraocular tumour extension on clinical or radiological examination were excluded.
RESULTS—14 patients were found to have retinoblastoma associated cellulitis (4.8%); nine had bilateral and five had unilateral retinoblastoma. Conjunctival and blood cultures were performed in 10 cases and were negative. 10 children were treated with intravenous steroids, often in conjunction with antibiotics, resulting in a prompt decrease in inflammation. Three other children were treated with antibiotics alone and one received no treatment. Computed tomographic scanning depicted large intraocular tumours occupying between 80% and 100% of the globe in each case. In eight patients, periocular inflammation was radiologically interpreted as possible extraocular extension. In one patient serial computed tomographic scanning showed a reduction in intraocular calcification over time which occurred in the presence of cellulitis. 12 patients underwent enucleation and histopathological examination revealed large necrotic, poorly differentiated tumours associated with uveal involvement and early optic nerve invasion. Focal perilimbal destruction was seen in one patient, and in another peripapillary extrascleral extension was present. 12 patients are alive with a mean follow up of 56.4 months.
CONCLUSIONS—Radiological evaluation of scleral integrity may be hindered by periocular inflammatory

  16. Orbital Cellulitis Following Orbital Blow-out Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Je Yeon; Choi, Hwan Jun

    2017-10-01

    Orbital cellulitis and abscess have been described in the literature as complication that usually occur secondary to infection in the maxillary, ethmoidal, and frontal sinuses. If left untreated, it can lead to blindness, cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningitis, or cerebral abscess. Orbital fractures are a common sequela of blunt orbital trauma, but are only rarely associated with orbital cellulitis. So, the authors present rare orbital cellulitis after orbital blow-out fracture. A 55-year-old Asian complains of severe orbital swelling and pain on the left side. These symptoms had started 2 days earlier and worsened within the 24 hours before hospital admission resulting in visual disturbances such as diplopia and photophobia. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan showed considerable soft tissue swelling and abscess formation on the left side. Patient was subjected to surgical drainage under general anesthesia in the operation room. In this case, the postoperative period was uneventful and the rapid improvement of symptoms was remarkable. In conclusion, the abscess of the orbit is a surgical emergency in patients whose impairment of vision or ocular symptoms cannot be controlled with medical therapy using antibiotics. In our case, orbital cellulitis can occur after blunt orbital trauma without predisposing sinusitis. Early and prompt diagnosis and surgical drainage before severe loss of visual acuity rescue or recover the vision in case of orbital cellulitis.

  17. The earth orbiting space debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The space debris population is similar to the asteroid belt, since it is subject to a process of high-velocity mutual collisions that affects the long-term evolution of its size distribution. Presently, more than 10 000 artificial debris particles with diameters larger than 10 cm (and more than 300 000 with diameters larger than 1 cm are orbiting the Earth, and are monitored and studied by a large network of sensors around the Earth. Many objects of different kind compose the space debris population, produced by different source mechanisms ranging from high energy fragmentation of large spacecraft to slow diffusion of liquid metal. The impact against a space debris is a serious risk that every spacecraft must face now and it can be evaluated with ad-hoc algorithms. The long term evolution of the whole debris population is studied with computer models allowing the simulation of all the known source and sink mechanisms. One of these codes is described in this paper and the evolution of the debris environment over the next 100 years, under different traffic scenarios, is shown, pointing out the possible measures to mitigate the growth of the orbital debris population. .

  18. Fungal infections of the orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipasha Mukherjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the orbit can lead to grave complications. Although the primary site of inoculation of the infective organism is frequently the sinuses, the patients can initially present to the ophthalmologist with ocular signs and symptoms. Due to its varied and nonspecific clinical features, especially in the early stages, patients are frequently misdiagnosed and even treated with steroids which worsen the situation leading to dire consequences. Ophthalmologists should be familiar with the clinical spectrum of disease and the variable presentation of this infection, as early diagnosis and rapid institution of appropriate therapy are crucial elements in the management of this invasive sino-orbital infection. In this review, relevant clinical, microbiological, and imaging findings are discussed along with the current consensus on local and systemic management. We review the recent literature and provide a comprehensive analysis. In the immunocompromised, as well as in healthy patients, a high index of suspicion must be maintained as delay in diagnosis of fungal pathology may lead to disfiguring morbidity or even mortality. Obtaining adequate diagnostic material for pathological and microbiological examination is critical. Newer methods of therapy, particularly oral voriconazole and topical amphotericin B, may be beneficial in selected patients.

  19. Analysis of the structural continuity in twinned crystals in terms of pseudo-eigensymmetry of crystallographic orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Amine Marzouki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reticular theory of twinning gives the necessary conditions on the lattice level for the formation of twins. The latter are based on the continuation, more or less approximate, of a substructure through the composition surface. The analysis of this structural continuity can be performed in terms of the eigensymmetry of the crystallographic orbits corresponding to occupied Wyckoff positions in the structure. If {\\cal G} is the space group of the individual and {\\cal H} a space group which fixes the twin lattice obtained as an intersection of the space groups of the individuals in their respective orientations, then a structural continuity is obtained if (1 the eigensymmetry of an orbit under {\\cal G} contains the twin operation; (2 the eigensymmetry of a union of orbits under {\\cal G} contains the twin operation; (3 the eigensymmetry of a split orbit under {\\cal H} contains the twin operation; or (4 the eigensymmetry of a union of split orbits under {\\cal H} contains the twin operation. The case of the twins in melilite is analysed: the (approximate restoration of some of the orbits explains the formation of these twins.

  20. Low-Cost 3D Printing Orbital Implant Templates in Secondary Orbital Reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Alison B; Campbell, Ashley A; Petris, Carisa; Kazim, Michael

    Despite its increasing use in craniofacial reconstructions, three-dimensional (3D) printing of customized orbital implants has not been widely adopted. Limitations include the cost of 3D printers able to print in a biocompatible material suitable for implantation in the orbit and the breadth of available implant materials. The authors report the technique of low-cost 3D printing of orbital implant templates used in complex, often secondary, orbital reconstructions. A retrospective case series of 5 orbital reconstructions utilizing a technique of 3D printed orbital implant templates is presented. Each patient's Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine data were uploaded and processed to create 3D renderings upon which a customized implant was designed and sent electronically to printers open for student use at our affiliated institutions. The mock implants were sterilized and used intraoperatively as a stencil and mold. The final implant material was chosen by the surgeons based on the requirements of the case. Five orbital reconstructions were performed with this technique: 3 tumor reconstructions and 2 orbital fractures. Four of the 5 cases were secondary reconstructions. Molded Medpor Titan (Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI) implants were used in 4 cases and titanium mesh in 1 case. The stenciled and molded implants were adjusted no more than 2 times before anchored in place (mean 1). No case underwent further revision. The technique and cases presented demonstrate 1) the feasibility and accessibility of low-cost, independent use of 3D printing technology to fashion patient-specific implants in orbital reconstructions, 2) the ability to apply this technology to the surgeon's preference of any routinely implantable material, and 3) the utility of this technique in complex, secondary reconstructions.

  1. The effects of plasma shape control on the edge collisionless ion orbit loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, G. J.; Zhang, X. D.; Li, Y. D.; Sun, P. J.; Cao, G. M. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Double null magnetic configurations with different elongation κ and triangularity δ are constructed by using an analytical solution of the Grad–Shafranov equation. The ion orbit losses in plasma edge region are calculated by solving the ion guiding center orbit equation for different values of κ and δ. It is found that the ion orbit loss is larger for a smaller value of κ or δ. The variation of the ion orbit loss fraction on the magnetic surface is also studied.

  2. PROSTHETICS IN CANCER PATIENTS WITH ORBITAL DEFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kulakov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthopedic treatment was performed in 53 patients with postoperative defects in the orbital area during 1969–2012. The developed practical guidelines could improve the cosmetic aspects of ectoprostheses, their fixation, and quality of life in the patients.

  3. Accelerated rotation with orbital angular momentum modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schulze, C

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 91, 043821 (2015) Accelerated rotation with orbital angular momentum modes Christian Schulze, Filippus S. Roux, Angela Dudley, Ronald Rop, Michael Duparr´e, and Andrew Forbes Abstract: We introduce a class of light field that angularly...

  4. Orbital MALT Lymphoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha G Pai

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A case of orbital MALT (mucous associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is reported for its rarity. It presented as a large tumor obscuring the whole eye with loss of vision, without any signs of dissemination and remained free of recurrence or metastasis 12 months after undergoing simple surgical excision.

  5. Orbit Representations from Linear mod 1 Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Correia Ramos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We show that every point $x_0in [0,1]$ carries a representationof a $C^*$-algebra that encodes the orbit structure of thelinear mod 1 interval map $f_{eta,alpha}(x=eta x +alpha$. Such $C^*$-algebra is generated by partial isometries arising from the subintervals of monotonicity of the underlying map $f_{eta,alpha}$. Then we prove that such representation is irreducible. Moreover two such of representations are unitarily equivalent if and only if the points belong to the same generalized orbit, for every $alphain [0,1[$ and $etageq 1$.

  6. Periodic and homoclinic orbits in a toy climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Toner

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A two dimensional system of autonomous nonlinear ordinary differential equations models glacier growth and temperature changes on an idealized planet. We apply standard perturbative techniques from dynamical systems theory to study small amplitude periodic orbits about a constant equilibrium. The equations are put in cononical form and the local phase space topology is examined. Maximum and minimum periods of oscillation are obtained and related to the radius of the orbit. An adjacent equilibrium is shown to have saddle character and the inflowing and outflowing manifolds of this saddle are studied using numerical integration. The inflowing manifolds show the region of attraction for the periodic orbit. As the frequency gets small, the adjacent (saddle equilibrium approaches the radius of the periodic orbit. The bifurcation of the periodic orbit to a stable homoclinic orbit is observed when an inflowing manifold and an outflowing manifold of the adjacent equilibrium cross.

  7. Screening in orbital-density-dependent functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, Nicola; Nguyen, Ngoc Linh; Ferretti, Andrea; Marzari, Nicola

    2018-03-01

    Electronic-structure functionals that include screening effects, such as Hubbard or Koopmans' functionals, require to describe the response of a system to the fractional addition or removal of an electron from an orbital or a manifold. Here, we present a general method to incorporate screening based on linear-response theory, and we apply it to the case of the orbital-by-orbital screening of Koopmans' functionals. We illustrate the importance of such generalization when dealing with challenging systems containing orbitals with very different chemical character, also highlighting the simple dependence of the screening on the localization of the orbitals. We choose a set of 46 transition-metal complexes for which experimental data and accurate many-body perturbation theory calculations are available. When compared to experiment, results for ionization potentials show a very good performance with a mean absolute error of $~0.2$ eV, comparable to the most accurate many-body perturbation theory approaches. These results reiterate the role of Koopmans' compliant functionals as simple and accurate quasiparticle approximations to the exact spectral functional, bypassing diagrammatic expansions and relying only on the physics of the local density or generalized-gradient approximation.

  8. Relative orientation of orbits in triple stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzik, M. F.; Tokovinin, A. A.

    2002-03-01

    Statistical analysis of the relative alignment of inner and outer orbits in triple systems resulting from a dynamical decay of small-N clusters (N le10 ) is presented and compared to the statistics of real multiple stars. The distribution of the relative angle Phi between the angular momentum vectors of inner and outer orbits in triple stars formed by decay is shown to depend on the initial cluster conditions like geometry, mass function, rotational and thermal energy. For a realistic set of initial conditions, a modest alignment of orbital momentum vectors is found, in good agreement with the latest observational data on visual multiple stars exhibiting an average between 67o and 79o. The relation between eccentricities of outer orbits and period ratios for both simulated and real triples is consistent with a slightly adjusted formulation of the stability criterium by Mardling & Aarseth (2001). Dynamical decay can therefore explain the weak correlation of orbital orientations observed in multiple stars. Using modern high-resolution techniques, the observed statistics of Phi should be extended as it will allow one to sensitively constrain properties of initial clusters. Table 4 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/384/1030

  9. Infantile maxillary sinus osteomyelitis mimicking orbital cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarajan Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Periorbital soft tissue swelling may result due to primary orbital pathology or from adjacent facio-maxillary or sino-nasal inflammatory causes. Osteomyelitis of maxilla in the pediatric age group is a rare entity in this era of antibiotics. We present an 11-month-old female infant who was brought with peri-orbital selling and purulent nasal discharge. Computed Tomography showed erosions of the walls of maxillary sinus suggestive of osteomyelitis. Culture of sinus scraping showed Staphylococcus aureus growth and the child improved with intravenous cloxacillin therapy. This case is presented due to the rarity of its presentation in this age group and for awareness to consider this entity in children having fever and peri-orbital swelling.

  10. Orbital melanoma with calcification: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhdeep Bains

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary orbital melanoma is rare and has varied initial presentation. A 28-year-old female presented with proptosis and decreased vision in the left eye. Computed tomography scan showed an orbital mass with contrast enhancement and calcification around the optic nerve leading to a diagnosis of meningioma. The patient chose to be on observation. Loss of vision with an increase in proptosis was seen at 6 months follow-up. On surgical exploration, a well-defined pigmented mass was seen encasing the optic nerve. Histopathological analysis revealed a malignant melanoma. Metastatic workup was negative. Left eye lid sparing exenteration was done. A high index of suspicion is necessary in a rapidly growing suspected optic nerve sheath meningioma and a differential diagnosis including orbital melanoma be considered.

  11. Symmetry orbits and their data-analytic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos A.G. Viana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of data indexed by finite symmetry orbits is reviewed within the data-analytic framework of symmetry studies. Data decompositions are discussed in terms of canonical projections and Plancherel’s formulas, and interpreted in terms of orbit invariants.

  12. Mapping of Temporal Surface-water Resources Availability and Agricultural Adaptability due to Climate Change and Anthropogenic Activity in a Hot Semi-arid Region of Maharashtra State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A.; Inamdar, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    Major part of Godavari River Basin is intensely drought prone and climate vulnerable in the Western Maharashtra State, India. The economy of the state depends on the agronomic productivity of this region. So, it is necessary to regulate the effects of existing and upcoming hydro-meteorological advances in various strata. This study investigates and maps the surface water resources availability and vegetation, their decadal deviations with multi-temporal LANDSAT images; and finally quantifies the agricultural adaptations. This work involves the utilization of Remote Sensing and GIS with Hydrological modeling. First, climatic trend analysis is carried out with NCEP dataset. Then, multi-temporal LANDSAT images are classified to determine the decadal LULC changes and correlated to the community level hydrological demand. Finally, NDVI, NDWI and SWAT model analysis are accomplished to determine irrigated and non-irrigated cropping area for identifying the agricultural adaptations. The analysis shows that the mean value of annual and monsoon rainfall is significantly decreasing, whereas the mean value of annual and summer temperature is increasing significantly and the winter temperature is decreasing. The analysis of LANDSAT images shows that the surface water availability is highly dependent on climatic conditions. Barren-lands are most dynamic during the study period followed by, vegetation, and water bodies. The spatial extent of barren-lands is increased drastically during the climate vulnerable years replacing the vegetation and surface water bodies. Hence, the barren lands are constantly increasing and the vegetation cover is linearly decreasing, whereas the water extent is changing either way in a random fashion. There appears a positive correlation between surface water and vegetation occurrence; as they are fluctuating in a similar fashion in all the years. The vegetation cover is densely replenished around the dams and natural water bodies which serve as the

  13. Orbital actinomycotic mycetoma caused by

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Walton

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Case summary An 18-month-old male neutered Ragdoll cat presented with an 8 week history of progressive unilateral right-sided mucopurulent nasal discharge and exophthalmos. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogeneous right retrobulbar mass and bilateral nasal cavity disease. Filamentous structures seen on cytology of retrobulbar and nasal biopsies were mistakenly identified as filamentous fungal hyphae. Subsequent investigations revealed that the cat had a retrobulbar actinomycotic mycetoma with invasion of the globe. The aetiological agent was identified on 16S recombinant DNA sequencing as Streptomyces cinnamoneus . After exenteration and chronic antimicrobial therapy the cat was alive and well 3 years after presentation. Relevance and novel information This is the first report of a pathogenic role of S cinnamoneus in a cat. Orbital actinomycotic mycetomas in cats can resemble mycotic granulomas.

  14. Autonomous Orbit Navigator Development, Using GPS, Applied to Autonomous Orbit Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galski, Roberto Luiz

    2002-01-01

    The appearance of modem global positioning systems motivated the study and development of precise and robust systems for autonomous orbit determination of artificial satellites. These systems maintain, independently from human intervention from the ground, a precise knowledge of the satellite orbital state, through the processing of the information, autonomously generated on-board, by a receiver of the positioning system used. One of the major motivations for the research and development of autonomous navigators, is the availability of real time information about the position and velocity of the satellite, required, for instance, in earth observation missions, for interpretation and analysis of the generated images. The appearance of global positioning systems and the consequent development of autonomous navigators, by making available onboard space vehicles, updated orbit estimations, with good accuracy level, made feasible the research and development of orbit autonomous control procedures. It allowed the orbital maneuvers execution process to be performed in a way totally independent from ground human intervention. Whereas the satellite attitude control reached a high level of autonomy, due to the fact that the attitude measurements are, in general, naturally generated on-board the spacecraft, the orbit control is still now almost totally planned and executed from ground commanded actions. The proposed work consists of the study, development, simulation and analysis of a simplified navigator coupled to an autonomous orbit control system, applied to the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellites (CBERS). At first, an autonomous orbit determination procedure is developed and analyzed. Its objective is to improve the coarse geometric solution provided by Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. This will be done by directly using this solution as input (observation) for a real time Kalman filtering process. The orbital state vector will be extended in order to

  15. MAGELLAN SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS VECTOR DATA RECORD

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the Magellan Surface Characteristics Vector Data Record (SCVDR) which is an orbit-by-orbit reduction of Magellan scattering and emission...

  16. Time-saving method of orbital thermal regime calculations of nanosatellites as exemplified by a 3U CubeSat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorev Vasily

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A time-saving approach to perform technical calculations of thermal conditions of orbital motion of 3U CubeSat nanosatellite was applied, which made it possible to make the thermal calculations of a satellite with simple structure geometry using MatLab and SolidWorks Simulation. Passive thermal regulation facilities are sufficient for a 3U CubeSat to provide thermal conductivity of the case’s structural elements and to remove heat from the lighted surface and internal components to the satellite’s shadowed surface. Application of spectrally selective coatings allows narrowing the range of surface temperatures of 3U CubeSat.

  17. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS C3VP V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Satellite Simulated Orbits C3VP dataset is available in the Orbital database, which takes account for the atmospheric profiles, the...

  18. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Satellite Simulated Orbits MC3E dataset is available in the Orbital database , which takes account for the atmospheric profiles, the...

  19. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS TWP-ICE V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Satellite Simulated Orbits TWP-ICE dataset is available in the Orbital database, which takes account for the atmospheric profiles, the...

  20. TRIFLE DIFFERENCE APPROACH TO LOW EARTH ORBITER PRECISION ORBIT DETERMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Jay Hyoun Kwon; Dorota A. Grejner-Brezinska; Jae Hong Yom; Dong Cheon Lee

    2003-01-01

    A precise kinematic orbit determination (P-KOD) procedure for Low Earth Orbiter(LEO) using the GPS ion-free triple differenced carrier phases is presented. Because the triple differenced observables provide only relative information, the first epoch`s positions of the orbit should be held fixed. Then, both forward and backward filtering was executed to mitigate the effect of biases of the first epoch`s position. p-KOD utilizes the precise GPS orbits and ground stations data from International...

  1. Orbit Determination of Spacecraft in Earth-Moon L1 and L2 Libration Point Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Mark; Cosgrove, Daniel; Morinelli, Patrick; Marchese, Jeff; Owens, Brandon; Folta, David

    2011-01-01

    measurements that would be needed to meet the required orbit determination accuracies. Analysts used the Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS) to perform covariance analyses using various tracking data schedules. From this analysis, it was determined that 3.5 hours of DSN TRK-2-34 range and Doppler tracking data every other day would suffice to meet the predictive orbit knowledge accuracies in the Lissajous region. The results of this analysis are presented. Both GTDS and ODTK have high-fidelity environmental orbit force models that allow for very accurate orbit estimation in the lunar Lissajous regime. These models include solar radiation pressure, Earth and Moon gravity models, third body gravitational effects from the Sun, and to a lesser extent third body gravitational effects from Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, and Mars. Increased position and velocity uncertainties following each maneuver, due to small execution performance errors, requires that several days of post-maneuver tracking data be processed to converge on an accurate post-maneuver orbit solution. The effects of maneuvers on orbit determination accuracy will be presented, including a comparison of the batch least squares technique to the extended Kalman filter/smoother technique. We will present the maneuver calibration results derived from processing post-maneuver tracking data. A dominant error in the orbit estimation process is the uncertainty in solar radiation pressure and the resultant force on the spacecraft. An estimation of this value can include many related factors, such as the uncertainty in spacecraft reflectivity and surface area which is a function of spacecraft orientation (spin-axis attitude), uncertainty in spacecraft wet mass, and potential seasonal variability due to the changing direction of the Sun line relative to the Earth-Moon Lissajous reference frame. In addition, each spacecraft occasionally enters into Earth or Moon penumbra or umbra and these shadow crossings reduche solar

  2. Giant deep orbital dermoid cyst presenting early in infancy in a Nigerian child: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasina Oluyemi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Dermoid cysts are the most common orbital cystic lesions seen in children. While superficial orbital dermoid cysts present early in life, deep dermoid cysts remain clinically occult until adolescence or adulthood. We here present a case of a deep orbital dermoid cyst in a Nigerian child that became symptomatic early in infancy. Case presentation A female Nigerian infant of Yoruba ethnicity presented at three months of age with left non-axial proptosis and a hazy cornea. A superotemporal cystic orbital mass was seen on ultrasonography, and her parents were counseled for simple tumor excision. They however defaulted, only for their child to re-present two years later with gradually progressive proptosis, an enlarged orbit and keratinized ocular surface, necessitating orbital exenteration. Conclusion Deep orbital dermoid cysts may be symptomatic from birth. Late presentation may result in an irreversible loss of vision, as demonstrated in our case. The need for public enlightenment on early presentation and prompt management of such benign lesions is emphasized.

  3. Correlation Effects and Hidden Spin-Orbit Entangled Electronic Order in Parent and Electron-Doped Iridates Sr_{2}IrO_{4}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Analogs of the high-T_{c} cuprates have been long sought after in transition metal oxides. Because of the strong spin-orbit coupling, the 5d perovskite iridates Sr_{2}IrO_{4} exhibit a low-energy electronic structure remarkably similar to the cuprates. Whether a superconducting state exists as in the cuprates requires understanding the correlated spin-orbit entangled electronic states. Recent experiments discovered hidden order in the parent and electron-doped iridates, some with striking analogies to the cuprates, including Fermi surface pockets, Fermi arcs, and pseudogap. Here, we study the correlation and disorder effects in a five-orbital model derived from the band theory. We find that the experimental observations are consistent with a d-wave spin-orbit density wave order that breaks the symmetry of a joint twofold spin-orbital rotation followed by a lattice translation. There is a Berry phase and a plaquette spin flux due to spin procession as electrons hop between Ir atoms, akin to the intersite spin-orbit coupling in quantum spin Hall insulators. The associated staggered circulating J_{eff}=1/2 spin current can be probed by advanced techniques of spin-current detection in spintronics. This electronic order can emerge spontaneously from the intersite Coulomb interactions between the spatially extended iridium 5d orbitals, turning the metallic state into an electron-doped quasi-2D Dirac semimetal with important implications on the possible superconducting state suggested by recent experiments.

  4. ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter provides atmospheric data during Aerobraking into its final orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedhem, Hakan; Vago, Jorge L.; Bruinsma, Sean; Müller-Wodarg, Ingo; ExoMars 2016 Team

    2017-10-01

    After the arrival of the Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) at Mars on 19 October 2016 a number of initial orbit change manoeuvres were executed and the spacecraft was put in an orbit with a 24 hour period and 74 degrees inclination. The spacecraft and its four instruments were thoroughly checked out after arrival and a few measurements and images were taken in November 2016 and in Feb-March 2017. The solar occultation observations have however not yet been possible due to lack of the proper geometry.On 15 March a long period of aerobraking to reach the final 400km semi-circular frozen orbit (370x430km, with a fixed pericentre latitude). This orbit is optimised for the payload observations and for the communication relay with the ExoMars Rover, due to arrive in 2021.The aerobraking is proceeding well and the final orbit is expected to be reached in April 2018. A large data set is being acquired for the upper atmosphere of Mars, from the limit of the sensitivity of the accelerometer, down to lowest altitude of the aerobraking at about 105km. Initial analysis has shown a highly variable atmosphere with a slightly lower density then predicted by existing models. Until the time of the abstract writing no dust storms have been observed.The ExoMars programme is a joint activity by the European Space Agency(ESA) and ROSCOSMOS, Russia. ESA is providing the TGO spacecraft and Schiaparelli (EDM) and two of the TGO instruments and ROSCOSMOS is providing the Proton launcher and the other two TGO instruments. After the arrival of the ExoMars 2020 mission, consisting of a Rover and a Surface platform also launched by a Proton rocket, the TGO will handle the communication between the Earth and the Rover and Surface Platform through its (NASA provided) UHF communication system.

  5. Use of extraocular muscle flaps in the correction of orbital implant exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Yen Chu

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: The study is to describe a new surgical technique for correcting large orbital implant exposure with extraocular muscle flaps and to propose a treatment algorithm for orbital implant exposure. METHODS: In a retrospective study, seven patients with orbital implant exposure were treated with extraocular muscle flaps. All data were collected from patients in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan during 2007-2012. All surgeries were performed by one surgeon (Y.J.T. Patient demographics, the original etiology, details of surgical procedures, implant types, and follow-up interval were recorded. Small exposure, defined as exposure area smaller than 3 mm in diameter, was treated conservatively first with topical lubricant and prophylactic antibiotics. Larger defects were managed surgically. RESULTS: Seven patients consisting of two males and five females were successfully treated for orbital implant exposure with extraocular muscle flaps. The average age was 36.4 (range, 3-55 years old. Five patients were referred from other hospitals. One eye was enucleated for retinoblastoma. The other six eyes were eviscerated, including one for endophthalmitis and five for trauma. Mean follow-up time of all seven patients was 19.5 (range, 2-60 months. No patient developed recurrence of exposure during follow-up. All patients were fitted with an acceptable prosthesis and had satisfactory cosmetic and functional results. CONCLUSIONS: The most common complication of orbital implant is exposure, caused by breakdown of the covering layers, leading to extrusion. Several methods were reported to manage the exposed implants. We report our experience of treating implant exposure with extraocular muscle flaps to establish a well-vascularized environment that supplies both the wrapping material and the overlying ocular surface tissue. We believe it can work as a good strategy to manage or to prevent orbital implant exposure.

  6. Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance via molecular π orbitals of Pb dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöneberg, Johannes; Ferriani, Paolo; Heinze, Stefan; Weismann, Alexander; Berndt, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Pb dimers on a ferromagnetic surface are shown to exhibit large tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR) due to molecular π orbitals. Dimers oriented differently with respect to the magnetization directions of a ferromagnetic Fe double layer on W(110) were made with a scanning tunneling microscope. Depending on the dimer orientations, TAMR is absent or as large as 20% at the Fermi level. General arguments and first-principles calculations show that mixing of molecular orbitals due to spin-orbit coupling, which leads to TAMR, is maximal when the magnetization is oriented parallel to the dimer axis.

  7. A methodology for selective removal of orbital debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, R. L.; Odonoghue, P. J.; Chambers, E. J.; Raney, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    Earth-orbiting objects, large enough to be tracked, were surveyed for possible systematic debris removal. Based upon the statistical collision studies of others, it was determined that objects in orbits approximately 1000 km above the Earth's surface are at greatest collisional risk. Russian C-1B boosters were identified as the most important target of opportunity for debris removal. Currently, more than 100 in tact boosters are orbiting the Earth with apogees between 950 km and 1050 km. Using data provided by Energia USA, specific information on the C-1B booster, in terms of rendezvous and capture strategies, was discussed.

  8. Manipulating localized molecular orbitals by single-atom contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weihua; Shi, Xingqiang; Lin, Chensheng; Zhang, Rui Qin; Minot, Christian; Van Hove, Michel A; Hong, Yuning; Tang, Ben Zhong; Lin, Nian

    2010-09-17

    We have fabricated atom-molecule contacts by attachment of single Cu atoms to terpyridine side groups of bis-terpyridine tetra-phenyl ethylene molecules on a Cu(111) surface. By means of scanning tunneling microscopy, spectroscopy, and density functional calculations, we have found that, due to the localization characteristics of molecular orbitals, the Cu-atom contact modifies the state localized at the terpyridine side group which is in contact with the Cu atom but does not affect the states localized at other parts of the molecule. These results illustrate the contact effects at individual orbitals and offer possibilities to manipulate orbital alignments within molecules.

  9. A New Approach for Studying Bond Rupture/Closure of a Spiro Benzopyran Photochromic Material: Reactivity Descriptors Derived from Frontier Orbitals and DFT Computed Electrostatic Potential Energy Surface Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. A. Abdel-Mottaleb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on computations technique within the framework of the TD-DFT theory for studying the relationship between structure-properties of reversible conversion of photochromic materials. Specifically, we report on 1′,3′-dihydro-8-methoxy-1′,3′,3′-trimethyl-6-nitrospiro[2H-1-benzopyran-2,2′-(2H-indole] (SP and its isomers. TD-DFT calculated UV-Vis electronic spectra of the closed and open isomers of this photochromic material are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. Moreover, this paper reports on the results of theoretical investigations of reactivity indices that may govern the conversion between spiropyrans and its isomers. In addition, the solvent and rigidity of the medium significantly control the thermal bleaching of the photogenerated colored isomers and hence the switch ability pattern of the photochromic material. The effect of molecular structure computed by DFT in gas-phase and solvents on Cspiro-O bond length has been shown to correlate with photochromic properties. For this compound, DFT optimized geometry could be used to predict photochromism. Furthermore, in an attempt to predict the driving force for MC → SP, this work explores, for the first time, profitable exploitation of the calculated and visualized mapped electrostatic potential energy surfaces (ESP map. Interestingly, it seems that the electrostatic potential forces over the molecular fragments govern spirobond rupture/closure reactions. Thermodynamically, all-trans-colored isomer (CTT is the most stable merocyanine-like form.

  10. ISABELLE closed orbit correction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzen, G.

    1977-01-01

    The proposed closed orbit correction system for the ISABELLE storage accelerators is described. Results given include the initial orbit displacement error expected, the degree of correction that is expected by moving quadrupoles and by exciting dipole correction coils, the limitations on orbit correction due to the number and location of the probes (pick-up electrodes) and the accuracy requirements on the power supplies that stem primarily from the need to keep the two narrow beams in proper collision with each other

  11. Orbital science's 'Bermuda Triangle'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Thomas J.

    1991-02-01

    The effects of a part of the inner Van Allen belt lying closest to the earth, known as the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) upon spacecraft including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), are discussed. The area consists of positively charged ions and electrons from the Van Allen Belt which become trapped in the earth's dipole field. Contor maps representing the number of protons per square centimeter per second having energies greater than 10 million electron volts are presented. It is noted that the HST orbit causes it to spend about 15 percent of its time in the SAA, but that, unlike the experience with earlier spacecraft, the satellite's skin, internal structure, and normal electronic's packaging provides sufficient protection against eletrons, although some higher energy protons still get through. Various charged particle effects which can arise within scientific instruments including fluorescence, Cerenkov radiation, and induced radioactivity are described.

  12. Solitonic natural orbitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioslowski, Jerzy

    2018-04-01

    The dependence of the natural amplitudes of the harmonium atom in its ground state on the confinement strength ω is thoroughly investigated. A combination of rigorous analysis and extensive, highly accurate numerical calculations reveals the presence of only one positive-valued natural amplitude ("the normal sign pattern") for all ω ≥1/2 . More importantly, it is shown that unusual, weakly occupied natural orbitals (NOs) corresponding to additional positive-valued natural amplitudes emerge upon sufficient weakening of the confinement. These solitonic NOs, whose shapes remain almost invariant as their radial positions drift toward infinity upon the critical values of ω being approached from below, exhibit strong radial localization. Their asymptotic properties are extracted from the numerical data and their relevance to calculations on fully Coulombic systems is discussed.

  13. Intraoperative stereotactic navigation for reconstruction in zygomatic-orbital trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P nyachhyon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of the maxillofacial skeleton after traumatic injury is not always straightforward because of its three dimensional complex anatomy and aesthetic signifi cance. In case of zygomaticorbital injury induced by trauma resulting in enophthalmos, the patient is affected on both function and cosmesis. To prevent diplopia or conspicuous asymmetry, exact correction of the orbital symmetry is required. The aim of this case report is to demonstrate the use of an intraoperative image guided navigation system for identifi cation of adequate reconstruction of the orbital fl oor and orbital symmetry in zygomatic-orbital fracture. Navigation-guided open reduction of a zygomatic-orbital complex fractures with orbital fl oor reconstruction can be regarded as a valuable treatment option for this potentially complicated procedure. This case demonstrated the use of the non-ionizing, noncontact, navigation system in intraoperative procedure and clinical monitoring to identify the correct position and symmetry in complex orbital fl oor reconstruction. Keywords: intraoperative navigations, orbital reconstruction, zygomatico-orbital fracture.

  14. Radiologic evaluation of orbital index among Ghanaians using CT scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botwe, Benard Ohene; Sule, Derick Seyram; Ismael, Abdul Mumin

    2017-07-11

    Orbital index (OI) expresses the proportion of the orbital height to the orbital width and varies with race, regions within the same race and periods in evolution. This index is useful in forensic medicine, anthropology and surgery. However, the average OI among Ghanaian adults was unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the orbital index of adult Ghanaians and classify them under one of the three predetermined groups. The study design was a retrospective cross-sectional. A systematic random sampling method was used for selecting 350 adult Ghanaian head computed tomography images available from 1 January to 31 December 2015 at KBTH Hospital. The orbital height and orbital width of each orbit were measured on a 3D CT skull. Data was analysed using Microsoft Excel and Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. The study had more females than men (167, 47.71%, vs 183, 52.29%). The observed orbital index of Ghanaians in the study was 81.22 ± 4.22. The mean orbital index was 80.52 ± 4.66 in males and 82.15 ± 3.83 in females with their difference being statistically significant (p value forensic medicine for skull classification and also for better surgical approach in neurosurgery as well as cosmetic surgery.

  15. Orbital myositis in scleritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonman, Z F H M; de Keizer, R J W; Graniewski-Wijnands, H S; Watson, P G

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the association between scleritis and myositis. Methods: Retrospective, non-comparative case series. Records and ultrasonograms were examined of 132 patients, with a diagnosis of episcleritis or scleritis, who attended the ophthalmology department at Leiden University Medical Center between 1997 and 2000. 103 were eligible for comprehensive examination. Medical records were evaluated. Ultrasonography was performed in all patients diagnosed with episcleritis or scleritis. Clinical features, precipitating factors, systemic associations, ocular complications, treatment, and outcome of each patient were assessed. Results: Of the 103 patients, 27 (26.2%) had episcleritis and 76 (73.8%) had scleritis. Myositis was found to be present in 11 patients. It was present in 14.5% of all patients with scleritis and 30.5% of those in whom the posterior sclera was affected. The presence of the associated myositis did not worsen the visual prognosis and the presence of myositis was not associated with other systemic diseases. There were no cases of unilateral scleritis with bilateral orbital myositis. During an attack ocular complications were more common in patients with scleritis and myositis (64%) than in patients with scleritis alone (30.4%), indicating a more diffuse and potentially dangerous inflammation. There was no evidence that the inflammatory changes in the orbit had spread to involve the sclera, so it is assumed that the muscle changes are an extension of a generalised response to intense inflammation of the episclera and sclera. Conclusion: This study found a frequent association between myositis and scleritis. Prognosis for vision was not affected by coexistence of myositis. PMID:12488260

  16. Orbit Determination Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, James R.; Berry, Kevin; Gregpru. Late; Speckman, Keith; Hur-Diaz, Sun; Surka, Derek; Gaylor, Dave

    2010-01-01

    The Orbit Determination Toolbox is an orbit determination (OD) analysis tool based on MATLAB and Java that provides a flexible way to do early mission analysis. The toolbox is primarily intended for advanced mission analysis such as might be performed in concept exploration, proposal, early design phase, or rapid design center environments. The emphasis is on flexibility, but it has enough fidelity to produce credible results. Insight into all flight dynamics source code is provided. MATLAB is the primary user interface and is used for piecing together measurement and dynamic models. The Java Astrodynamics Toolbox is used as an engine for things that might be slow or inefficient in MATLAB, such as high-fidelity trajectory propagation, lunar and planetary ephemeris look-ups, precession, nutation, polar motion calculations, ephemeris file parsing, and the like. The primary analysis functions are sequential filter/smoother and batch least-squares commands that incorporate Monte-Carlo data simulation, linear covariance analysis, measurement processing, and plotting capabilities at the generic level. These functions have a user interface that is based on that of the MATLAB ODE suite. To perform a specific analysis, users write MATLAB functions that implement truth and design system models. The user provides his or her models as inputs to the filter commands. The software provides a capability to publish and subscribe to a software bus that is compliant with the NASA Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) standards, to exchange data with other flight dynamics tools to simplify the flight dynamics design cycle. Using the publish and subscribe approach allows for analysts in a rapid design center environment to seamlessly incorporate changes in spacecraft and mission design into navigation analysis and vice versa.

  17. Parallel Study of HEND, RAD, and DAN Instrument Response to Martian Radiation and Surface Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniez Sierra, Luz Maria; Jun, Insoo; Litvak, Maxim; Sanin, Anton; Mitrofanov, Igor; Zeitlin, Cary

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear detection methods are being used to understand the radiation environment at Mars. JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) assets on Mars include: Orbiter -2001 Mars Odyssey [High Energy Neutron Detector (HEND)]; Mars Science Laboratory Rover -Curiosity [(Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD); Dynamic Albedo Neutron (DAN))]. Spacecraft have instruments able to detect ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Instrument response on orbit and on the surface of Mars to space weather and local conditions [is discussed] - Data available at NASA-PDS (Planetary Data System).

  18. The conservation of orbital symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, R B

    2013-01-01

    The Conservation of Orbital Symmetry examines the principle of conservation of orbital symmetry and its use. The central content of the principle was that reactions occur readily when there is congruence between orbital symmetry characteristics of reactants and products, and only with difficulty when that congruence does not obtain-or to put it more succinctly, orbital symmetry is conserved in concerted reaction. This principle is expected to endure, whatever the language in which it may be couched, or whatever greater precision may be developed in its application and extension. The book ope

  19. CDDIS_DORIS_products_orbit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precise satellite orbits derived from analysis of Doppler Orbitography by Radiopositioning Integrated on Satellite (DORIS) data. These products are the generated by...

  20. Computer program determines thermal environment and temperature history of lunar orbiting space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, D. E.; Mitchell, K. L.

    1967-01-01

    Program computes the thermal environment of a spacecraft in a lunar orbit. The quantities determined include the incident flux /solar and lunar emitted radiation/, total radiation absorbed by a surface, and the resulting surface temperature as a function of time and orbital position.

  1. EUSO@TurLab: An experimental replica of ISS orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertaina M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The EUSO@TurLab project is an on-going activity aimed to reproduce atmospheric and luminous conditions that JEM-EUSO will encounter on its orbits around the Earth. The use of the TurLab facility, part of the Department of Physics of the University of Torino, allows the simulation of different surface conditions in a very dark and rotating environment in order to test the response of JEM-EUSO's sensors and sensitivity. The experimental setup currently in operation has been used to check the potential of the TurLab facility for the above purposes, and the acquired data will be used to test the concept of JEM-EUSO's trigger system.

  2. Orbital Space Solar Power Option for a Lunar Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les

    2017-01-01

    One of the most significant challenges to the implementation of a continuously manned lunar base is power. During the lunar day (14 Earth days), it is conceptually simple to deploy solar arrays to generate the estimated 35 kilowatts of continuous power required. However, generating this level of power during the lunar night (also 14 Earth days) has been an extremely difficult problem to solve. Conventional solutions range from the requirement that the base be located at the lunar south pole so as to take advantage of the continuous sunshine available there to developing a space-qualified nuclear reactor and power plant to generate the needed energy. There is a third option: Use the soon-to-be-available Space Launch System to place a space based solar power station in lunar orbit that would beam the needed energy to the lunar base. Several detailed studies have been performed by NASA, universities and others looking at the lunar south pole for locating the base. The results are encouraging: by taking advantage of the moon's orbital tilt, large solar arrays can be deployed there to track the sun continuously and generate the power needed to sustain the base. The problem with this approach is inherent to its design: it will only work at the lunar south pole. There is no other site on the Moon with geometry favorable to generating continuous solar power. NASA has also considered the development of a compact fission reactor and power plant to generate the needed power, allowing the base to be sited anywhere on the Moon. The problem with this approach is that there are no space fission reactors available, none are being planned and the cost of developing one is prohibitively expensive. Using an orbiting space based solar power station to generate electrical power and beam it to a base sited anywhere on the moon should therefore be considered. The technology to collect sunlight, generate greater than the estimated 35 kilowatts of power, and beam it to the surface using

  3. PyORBIT: A Python Shell For ORBIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Francois Ostiguy; Jeffrey Holmes

    2003-01-01

    ORBIT is code developed at SNS to simulate beam dynamics in accumulation rings and synchrotrons. The code is structured as a collection of external C++ modules for SuperCode, a high level interpreter shell developed at LLNL in the early 1990s. SuperCode is no longer actively supported and there has for some time been interest in replacing it by a modern scripting language, while preserving the feel of the original ORBIT program. In this paper, we describe a new version of ORBIT where the role of SuperCode is assumed by Python, a free, well-documented and widely supported object-oriented scripting language. We also compare PyORBIT to ORBIT from the standpoint of features, performance and future expandability

  4. PyORBIT: A Python Shell For ORBIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean-Francois Ostiguy; Jeffrey Holmes

    2003-07-01

    ORBIT is code developed at SNS to simulate beam dynamics in accumulation rings and synchrotrons. The code is structured as a collection of external C++ modules for SuperCode, a high level interpreter shell developed at LLNL in the early 1990s. SuperCode is no longer actively supported and there has for some time been interest in replacing it by a modern scripting language, while preserving the feel of the original ORBIT program. In this paper, we describe a new version of ORBIT where the role of SuperCode is assumed by Python, a free, well-documented and widely supported object-oriented scripting language. We also compare PyORBIT to ORBIT from the standpoint of features, performance and future expandability.

  5. Mercury's Seasonal Sodium Exosphere: MESSENGER Orbital Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Timothy A.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2014-01-01

    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft now orbiting Mercury provides the first close-up look at the planet's sodium exosphere. UVVS has observed the exosphere from orbit almost daily for over 10 Mercury years. In this paper we describe and analyze a subset of these data: altitude profiles taken above the low-latitude dayside and south pole. The observations show spatial and temporal variations, but there are no obvious year-to-year variations in most of the observations. We do not see the episodic variability reported by some ground-based observers. We used these altitude profiles to make estimates of sodium density and temperature. The bulk of the exosphere, at about 1200 K, is much warmer than Mercury's surface. This value is consistent with some ground-based measurements and suggests that photon-stimulated desorption is the primary ejection process. We also observe a tenuous energetic component but do not see evidence of the predicted thermalized (or partially thermalized) sodium near Mercury's surface temperature. Overall we do not see the variable mixture of temperatures predicted by most Monte Carlo models of the exosphere.

  6. Correlation-enhanced odd-parity inter-orbital singlet pairing in LiFeAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourafkan, Reza; Kotliar, Gabi; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    The rich variety of iron-based superconductors and their complex electronic structure lead to a wide range of possibilities for gap symmetry and pairing components. We solved, in the two-Fe Brillouin zone, the full frequency-dependent linearized Eliashberg equations to investigate spin-fluctuations mediated Cooper pairing for LiFeAs . The magnetic excitations were calculated with the random phase approximation on a correlated electronic structure obtained with density functional theory and dynamical mean field theory. The interaction between electrons through Hund's coupling promotes both the intra-orbital dxz (yz) and the inter-orbital magnetic susceptibility. As a consequence, the leading pairing channel, conventional s+-, acquires sizeable inter-orbital dxy -dxz (yz) singlet pairing with odd parity under glide-plane symmetry. The combination of intra- and inter-orbital components makes the results consistent with available experiments on the angular dependence of the gaps observed on the different Fermi surfaces. We also explain the difference in pairing symmetry between LiFeAs and LiFeP.

  7. Hipparcos on-orbit environment and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fade, G.; le Moine, M.; Pawlak, D.

    Hipparcos was launched on 8 August 1989 for astrometry mission on geostationary orbit. Several unsuccessful attempts to ignite the ABM resulted in a revised mission on an eccentric orbit (500 km/36,000 km). Compared with the planned geostationary orbit, this one induced a more severe environment from physical and operational points of view. It resulted in major drawbacks for the radiation environment, since the radiation belts are crossed twice per orbit (i.e. roughly 4 times per day), and the eclipse duration increased up to 50%, for an orbit period divided by a factor two. Although the ground segment was extended to include additional ground stations, the revised orbit does not allow permanent contact between the ground stations and the spacecraft. The flexibility of the on-board software has been used for programming the main housekeeping functions during the non visibility periods. The spacecraft has been operating for several months, and after the payload calibration, the scientific mission started in November 1989. The results are very encouraging and the scientific returns will reach an unexpected level compared with the initial predictions after the ABM failure. The final performance relies on two major parameters. The payload characteristics measured on orbit are very well in line with ground measurements and simulations; however, radiation affects the photometry by the optics darkening effect. The mission lifetime will depend on resources and possible failures; the power budget was considered as a limiting factor, due to the solar generator degradation, but the last predictions, which are correlated with the on-orbit behaviour, indicate a possible lifetime of 3 years; however, the severe radiation levels could cause other problems which cannot be predicted. This paper presents the spacecraft status and payload performances as observed after 10 months of scientific mission. The first, astrometry performances will be known at that time, since the complete

  8. Plasmablastic lymphoma mimicking orbital cellulitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkhuysen, R.; Merkx, M.A.W.; Weijs, W.L.J.; Gerlach, N.L.; Berge, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Orbital cellulitis is an uncommon, potentially devastating condition that, when not promptly and adequately treated, can lead to serious sequelae. The presenting clinical signs are proptosis, swelling, ophthalmoplegia, pain and redness of the peri-orbital tissues. A number of cases

  9. Generating realistic synthetic meteoroid orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Denis; Brown, Peter G.; Campbell-Brown, Margaret

    2017-11-01

    Context. Generating a synthetic dataset of meteoroid orbits is a crucial step in analysing the probabilities of random grouping of meteoroid orbits in automated meteor shower surveys. Recent works have shown the importance of choosing a low similarity threshold value of meteoroid orbits, some pointing out that the recent meteor shower surveys produced false positives due to similarity thresholds which were too high. On the other hand, the methods of synthetic meteoroid orbit generation introduce additional biases into the data, thus making the final decision on an appropriate threshold value uncertain. Aims. As a part of the ongoing effort to determine the nature of meteor showers and improve automated methods, it was decided to tackle the problem of synthetic meteoroid orbit generation, the main goal being to reproduce the underlying structure and the statistics of the observed data in the synthetic orbits. Methods. A new method of generating synthetic meteoroid orbits using the Kernel Density Estimation method is presented. Several types of approaches are recommended, depending on whether one strives to preserve the data structure, the data statistics or to have a compromise between the two. Results. The improvements over the existing methods of synthetic orbit generation are demonstrated. The comparison between the previous and newly developed methods are given, as well as the visualization tools one can use to estimate the influence of different input parameters on the final data.

  10. Endoscopic treatment of orbital tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Francesco; Anile, Carmelo; Rigante, Mario; Paludetti, Gaetano; Pompucci, Angelo; Mangiola, Annunziato

    2015-03-16

    Different orbital and transcranial approaches are performed in order to manage orbital tumors, depending on the location and size of the lesion within the orbit. These approaches provide a satisfactory view of the superior and lateral aspects of the orbit and the optic canal but involve risks associated with their invasiveness because they require significant displacement of orbital structures. In addition, external approaches to intraconal lesions may also require deinsertion of extraocular muscles, with subsequent impact on extraocular mobility. Recently, minimally invasive techniques have been proposed as valid alternative to external approaches for selected orbital lesions. Among them, transnasal endoscopic approaches, "pure" or combined with external approaches, have been reported, especially for intraconal lesions located inferiorly and medially to the optic nerve. The avoidance of muscle detachment and the shortness of the surgical intraorbital trajectory makes endoscopic approach less invasive, thus minimizing tissue damage. Endoscopic surgery decreases the recovery time and improves the cosmetic outcome not requiring skin incisions. The purpose of this study is to review and discuss the current surgical techniques for orbital tumors removal, focusing on endoscopic approaches to the orbit and outlining the key anatomic principles to follow for safe tumor resection.

  11. [Enophthalmos in an orbital tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Bianca; Szabo, I; Nicula, Cristina; Popescu, Livia Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Enophtalmus is an unusual sign of the orbital tumors often represented by proptosis. One patient with enophtalmus and intraorbital tumor and aplasy is presented. The treatment of choice of orbital tumor is complete surgical excision and careful follow-up. Considering the more aggressive course followed by recurrent tumor, correct diagnosis and management is essential.

  12. Diplopia and Orbital Wall Fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffano, P.; Roccia, F.; Gallesio, C.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Diplopia is a symptom that is frequently associated with orbital wall fractures. The aim of this article was to present the incidence and patterns of diplopia after orbital wall blow-out fractures in 2 European centers, Turin and Amsterdam, and to identify any correlation between this symptom and

  13. Diplopia and orbital wall fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffano, P.; Roccia, F.; Gallesio, C.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Diplopia is a symptom that is frequently associated with orbital wall fractures. The aim of this article was to present the incidence and patterns of diplopia after orbital wall blow-out fractures in 2 European centers, Turin and Amsterdam, and to identify any correlation between this symptom and

  14. Medical And Surgical Management Of Orbital Cellulitis In Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friling Ronit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify features of orbital cellulitis that predict response to conservative treatment without surgical intervention and factors associated with a decision for surgery.

  15. The decay of orbital angular momentum entanglement in atmospheric turbulence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, 8-12 July 2013 The decay of orbital angular momentum entanglement in atmospheric turbulence Roux FS CSIR, National Laser Centre, Pretoria, 0001 Corresponding email: FSroux...

  16. Plasmablastic lymphoma mimicking orbital cellulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkx, Matthias A. W.; Weijs, Willem L. J.; Gerlach, Niek L.; Bergé, Stefaan J.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Orbital cellulitis is an uncommon, potentially devastating condition that, when not promptly and adequately treated, can lead to serious sequelae. The presenting clinical signs are proptosis, swelling, ophthalmoplegia, pain and redness of the peri-orbital tissues. A number of cases have been reported in which these symptoms have been mistakenly interpreted as being secondary to an orbital infection whilst, in fact, other pathology was present. Discussion We add another case in which, on clinical grounds and after radiological assessment and laboratory tests, a working diagnosis of orbital cellulitis of the left eye was made. It was only after histopathological analysis of a soft tissue specimen from the maxillary sinus that a diagnosis of an AIDS-related plasmablastic lymphoma was made. The patient was referred to the department of haematology where chemotherapeutic treatment for the lymphoma and the HIV infection was started. This case report adds another differential diagnosis of orbital cellulitis to the existing literature. PMID:18597126

  17. Flight Performance Handbook for Orbital Operations: Orbital Mechanics and Astrodynamics Formulae, Theorems, Techniques, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Alphonso; Blitzer, Leon; Conte, S.D.; Cooper, Donald H.; Dergarabedian, P.; Dethlefsen, D.G.; Lunn, Richard L.; Ireland, Richard O.; Jensen, Arnold A.; Kang, Garfield; hide

    1961-01-01

    astrodynamic subject. By the use of compact graphical and tabular presentation the full scope of the material is made available in an easy-to-use style. Throughout the volume the analyst is shown, by means of suitable introductions, notes, authoritative examples, and cross-references the vital interrelation of the various orbital mechanics topics in the general field of earth satellites and satellite rendezvous. The handbook is designed to give the analyst rapid, reliable access to the mathematics of orbital mechanics needed for virtually any working requirements.

  18. Slices to sums of adjoint orbits, the Atiyah-Hitchin manifold, and Hilbert schemes of points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielawski Roger

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that the regular Slodowy slice to the sum of two semisimple adjoint orbits of GL(n, ℂ is isomorphic to the deformation of the D2-singularity if n = 2, the Dancer deformation of the double cover of the Atiyah-Hitchin manifold if n = 3, and to the Atiyah-Hitchin manifold itself if n = 4. For higher n, such slices to the sum of two orbits, each having only two distinct eigenvalues, are either empty or biholomorphic to open subsets of the Hilbert scheme of points on one of the above surfaces. In particular, these open subsets of Hilbert schemes of points carry complete hyperkähler metrics. In the case of the double cover of the Atiyah-Hitchin manifold this metric turns out to be the natural L2-metric on a hyperkähler submanifold of the monopole moduli space.

  19. Probabilistic Thermal Analysis During Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Aerobraking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dec, John A.

    2007-01-01

    A method for performing a probabilistic thermal analysis during aerobraking has been developed. The analysis is performed on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter solar array during aerobraking. The methodology makes use of a response surface model derived from a more complex finite element thermal model of the solar array. The response surface is a quadratic equation which calculates the peak temperature for a given orbit drag pass at a specific location on the solar panel. Five different response surface equations are used, one of which predicts the overall maximum solar panel temperature, and the remaining four predict the temperatures of the solar panel thermal sensors. The variables used to define the response surface can be characterized as either environmental, material property, or modeling variables. Response surface variables are statistically varied in a Monte Carlo simulation. The Monte Carlo simulation produces mean temperatures and 3 sigma bounds as well as the probability of exceeding the designated flight allowable temperature for a given orbit. Response surface temperature predictions are compared with the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter flight temperature data.

  20. Precise Orbit Determination of GPS Satellites Using Phase Observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Kook Jee

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of user position by GPS is heavily dependent upon the accuracy of satellite position which is usually transmitted to GPS users in radio signals. The real-time satellite position information directly obtained from broadcast ephimerides has the accuracy of 3 x 10 meters which is very unsatisfactory to measure 100km baseline to the accuracy of less than a few mili-meters. There are globally at present seven orbit analysis centers capable of generating precise GPS ephimerides and their orbit quality is of the order of about 10cm. Therefore, precise orbit model and phase processing technique were reviewed and consequently precise GPS ephimerides were produced after processing the phase observables of 28 global GPS stations for 1 day. Initial 6 orbit parameters and 2 solar radiation coefficients were estimated using batch least square algorithm and the final results were compared with the orbit of IGS, the International GPS Service for Geodynamics.

  1. Resonant Orbital Dynamics in LEO Region: Space Debris in Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Sampaio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of objects orbiting the earth justifies the great attention and interest in the observation, spacecraft protection, and collision avoidance. These studies involve different disturbances and resonances in the orbital motions of these objects distributed by the distinct altitudes. In this work, objects in resonant orbital motions are studied in low earth orbits. Using the two-line elements (TLE of the NORAD, resonant angles and resonant periods associated with real motions are described, providing more accurate information to develop an analytical model that describes a certain resonance. The time behaviors of the semimajor axis, eccentricity, and inclination of some space debris are studied. Possible irregular motions are observed by the frequency analysis and by the presence of different resonant angles describing the orbital dynamics of these objects.

  2. On the effect of orbital forcing on mid-Pliocene climate, vegetation and ice sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Willeit

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We present results from modelling of the mid-Pliocene warm period (3.3–3 million years ago using the Earth system model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER-2 analysing the effect of changes in boundary conditions as well as of orbital forcing on climate. First we performed equilibrium experiments following the PlioMIP (Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project protocol with a CO2 concentration of 405 ppm, reconstructed mid-Pliocene orography and vegetation and a present-day orbital configuration. Simulated global Pliocene warming is about 2.5 °C, fully consistent with results of atmosphere–ocean general circulation model simulations performed for the same modelling setup. A factor separation analysis attributes 1.5 °C warming to CO2, 0.3 °C to orography, 0.2 °C to ice sheets and 0.4 °C to vegetation. Transient simulations for the entire mid-Pliocene warm period with time-dependent orbital forcing as well as interactive ice sheets and vegetation give a global warming varying within the range 1.9–2.8 °C. Ice sheet and vegetation feedbacks in synergy act as amplifiers of the orbital forcing, transforming seasonal insolation variations into an annual mean temperature signal. The effect of orbital forcing is more significant at high latitudes, especially during boreal summer, when the warming over land varies in the wide range from 0 to 10 °C. The modelled ice-sheet extent and vegetation distribution also show significant temporal variations. Modelled and reconstructed data for Northern Hemisphere sea-surface temperatures and vegetation distribution show the best agreement if the reconstructions are assumed to be representative for the warmest periods during the orbital cycles. This suggests that low-resolution Pliocene palaeoclimate reconstructions can reflect not only the impact of increased CO2 concentrations and topography changes but also the effect of orbital forcing. Therefore, the climate (Earth system sensitivity estimates from

  3. The value of color Doppler imaging and intralesional steroid injection in pediatric orbital capillary hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifeng Ke

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: The blood flow characteristics of CDI play a vital role in the differentiation of orbital capillary hemangiomas from other orbital lesions. The availability and lack of adverse effects of CDI enable its utilization in the early clinical diagnosis of pediatric orbital capillary hemangioma.

  4. Summary of the results from the lunar orbiter laser altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Lemoine, Frank G.; Head, James W., III; Lucey, Paul G.; Aharonson, Oded; Robinson, Mark S.; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H.; Barker, Michael K.; Oberst, Juergen; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Mao, Dandan; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Jha, Kopal; Rowlands, David D.; Goossens, Sander; Baker, David; Bauer, Sven; Gläser, Philipp; Lemelin, Myriam; Rosenburg, Margaret; Sori, Michael M.; Whitten, Jennifer; Mcclanahan, Timothy

    2017-02-01

    In June 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft was launched to the Moon. The payload consists of 7 science instruments selected to characterize sites for future robotic and human missions. Among them, the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) was designed to obtain altimetry, surface roughness, and reflectance measurements. The primary phase of lunar exploration lasted one year, following a 3-month commissioning phase. On completion of its exploration objectives, the LRO mission transitioned to a science mission. After 7 years in lunar orbit, the LOLA instrument continues to map the lunar surface. The LOLA dataset is one of the foundational datasets acquired by the various LRO instruments. LOLA provided a high-accuracy global geodetic reference frame to which past, present and future lunar observations can be referenced. It also obtained high-resolution and accurate global topography that were used to determine regions in permanent shadow at the lunar poles. LOLA further contributed to the study of polar volatiles through its unique measurement of surface brightness at zero phase, which revealed anomalies in several polar craters that may indicate the presence of water ice. In this paper, we describe the many LOLA accomplishments to date and its contribution to lunar and planetary science.

  5. Drag De-Orbit Device (D3): A Retractable Device for CubeSat Attitude and Orbit Control using Aerodynamic Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, David; Omar, Sanny R.; Bevilacqua, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number of CubeSats being launched has raised concerns about orbital debris since most of these satellites have no means of active orbit control. Some technologies exist to increase the surface area of a CubeSat and expedite de-orbit due to aerodynamic drag in low Earth orbit, but most of these devices cannot be retracted and hence cannot be used for orbital maneuvering. This paper discusses the De-Orbit Drag Device (D3) module that is capable of de-orbiting a 12U, 15kg CubeSat from a 700 km circular orbit in under 25 years and can be deployed and retracted to modulate the aerodynamic drag force experienced by the satellite. This facilitates orbital maneuvering using aerodynamic drag and the active targeting of a de-orbit location. In addition, the geometry of this drag device provides 3-axis attitude stabilization of the host CubeSat using aerodynamic and gravity gradient torques which is useful for many missions and provides a predictable aerodynamic profile for use in orbital maneuvering algorithms.

  6. Magnetically levitated space elevator to low-earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, J. R.; Mulcahy, T. M.

    2001-01-01

    The properties of currently available NbTi superconductor and carbon-fiber structural materials enable the possibility of constructing a magnetically levitated space elevator from the earth's surface up to an altitude of(approx) 200 km. The magnetic part of the elevator consists of a long loop of current-carrying NbTi, composed of one length that is attached to the earth's surface in an east-west direction and a levitated-arch portion. The critical current density of NbTi is sufficiently high that these conductors will stably levitate in the earth's magnetic field. The magnetic self-field from the loop increases the levitational force and for some geometries assists levitational stability. The 200-km maximum height of the levitated arch is limited by the allowable stresses of the structural material. The loop is cryogenically cooled with helium, and the system utilizes intermediate pumping and cooling stations along both the ground and the levitated portion of the loop, similar to other large terrestrial cryogenic systems. Mechanically suspended from the basic loop is an elevator structure, upon which mass can be moved between the earth's surface and the top of the loop by a linear electric motor or other mechanical or electrical means. At the top of the loop, vehicles may be accelerated to orbital velocity or higher by rocket motors, electromagnetic propulsion, or hybrid methods

  7. Noncommutative Phase Spaces by Coadjoint Orbits Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancille Ngendakumana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce noncommutative phase spaces by minimal couplings (usual one, dual one and their mixing. We then realize some of them as coadjoint orbits of the anisotropic Newton-Hooke groups in two- and three-dimensional spaces. Through these constructions the positions and the momenta of the phase spaces do not commute due to the presence of a magnetic field and a dual magnetic field.

  8. Review of orbital exenterations in Korle-Bu teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackuaku-Dogbe, E

    2011-06-01

    Orbital exenteration (OE) is a disfiguring procedure which typically involves removal of the entire contents of the orbit including the periorbita, appendages, eyelids and, sometimes, a varying amount of surrounding skin and bone. It results in devastating functional, aesthetic and psychological losses. This study reports an experience of OE in a Teaching Hospital in Accra Ghana. The records of all patients who underwent OE between November 2005 and October 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. These were cases seen at the orbit and oculoplastic clinic of the eye unit. A total of 25 patients underwent OE. Nineteen (76%) of these were for invasive orbital squamous cell carcinomas and six (24%) were for other cases. Only one patient had OE for a benign condition (orbital haemangioma). Four patients had lid sparing procedures. One of these was for a patient with extensive ocular surface squamous cell carcinoma. Five patients had recurrent tumours. Among those patients with squamous cell carcinoma, seven had previous procedures, sometimes multiple before reporting to our clinic. Orbital exenterations in developing countries are mostly for neglected periorbital and ocular surface malignancies. Educating patients to seek medical attention as soon as they notice a persistent conjunctival growth could prevent this.

  9. Angular dependence of spin-orbit spin-transfer torques

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Ki-Seung

    2015-04-06

    In ferromagnet/heavy-metal bilayers, an in-plane current gives rise to spin-orbit spin-transfer torque, which is usually decomposed into fieldlike and dampinglike torques. For two-dimensional free-electron and tight-binding models with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, the fieldlike torque acquires nontrivial dependence on the magnetization direction when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling becomes comparable to the exchange interaction. This nontrivial angular dependence of the fieldlike torque is related to the Fermi surface distortion, determined by the ratio of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling to the exchange interaction. On the other hand, the dampinglike torque acquires nontrivial angular dependence when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling is comparable to or stronger than the exchange interaction. It is related to the combined effects of the Fermi surface distortion and the Fermi sea contribution. The angular dependence is consistent with experimental observations and can be important to understand magnetization dynamics induced by spin-orbit spin-transfer torques.

  10. Rehabilitation of orbital cavity after orbital exenteration using polymethyl methacrylate orbital prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sumeet; Jain, Parul

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid is the second most common malignant neoplasm of the eye with the incidence of 0.09 and 2.42 cases/100 000 people. Orbital invasion is a rare complication but, if recognized early, can be treated effectively with exenteration. Although with advancements in technology such as computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing, material science, and retentive methods like implants, orbital prosthesis with stock ocular prosthesis made of methyl methacrylate retained by anatomic undercuts is quiet effective and should not be overlooked and forgotten. This clinical report describes prosthetic rehabilitation of two male patients with polymethyl methacrylate resin orbital prosthesis after orbital exenteration, for squamous cell carcinoma of the upper eyelid. The orbital prosthesis was sufficiently retained by hard and soft tissue undercuts without any complications. The patients using the prosthesis are quite satisfied with the cosmetic results and felt comfortable attending the social events.

  11. Modelling of Shaft Orbiting with 3-D Solid Finite Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yu

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-D solid finite element model which can include bending, torsional, axial and other motions is proposed to analyse dynamic responses of shafts. For uniform shafts, this model shows consistency with beam theories when bending vibration is examined. For non-uniform shafts such as tapered ones, however, this model gives much more reliable and accurate results than beam theories which use an assumption that plane sections remain plane. Reduction procedures can be applied which involve only small matrix operations for such a system with a large number of degrees of freedom. The equations of motion have been consistently derived in a rotating frame. Shaft orbiting motion is then defined in this frame, giving a clear view of its trajectories. Forced responses due to excitation in the rotating frame have been examined to find some characteristics of the orbiting shaft. Resonant orbiting frequencies, i.e., natural frequencies of rotating shafts, can be determined in terms of the rotating or fixed frame. Trajectories of transverse displacements have been found to be varying with the forcing frequencies. At resonance, a uniform shaft will only have forward or backward orbiting motion with circular orbits. For other forcing frequencies, however, even a uniform shaft could present both forward and backward orbiting motions with non-circular orbits at different locations along its length. It is anticipated that modelling of shaft orbiting in the rotating frame with the proposed 3-D solid finite elements will lead to accurate dynamic stress evaluation.

  12. Smooth nylon foil (SupraFOIL) orbital implants in orbital fractures: a case series of 181 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D J John; Garibaldi, Daniel C; Iliff, Nicholas T; Grant, Michael P; Merbs, Shannath L

    2008-01-01

    The SupraFOIL smooth nylon foil implant is a polyamide sheet available in varying thicknesses that has been used in orbital reconstruction following trauma. The authors report their experience with smooth nylon foil implants in the repair of orbital fractures. A retrospective chart review of patients having undergone repair of orbital fractures between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2003 was conducted. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare cases with complications and those with no complications. Of 282 orbits that underwent fracture repair with alloplastic material, 87 were excluded because non-nylon foil implants were used alone or in combination with nylon foil to repair the orbital fracture. An additional 14 fractures were excluded because of insufficient clinical data or lack of follow-up, for a total of 181 orbits that underwent orbital fracture repair with only nylon foil. A transconjunctival approach was used in 98% cases, and all 181 implants were fixated with at least 1 titanium screw. Average follow-up was 362.8 days. The overall complication rate was 1.7%. One patient had an acute postoperative orbital hemorrhage (0.6% acute complication rate). Two patients had late orbital infections, 683 days and 984 days following repair (1.1% late complication rate). The authors found the smooth nylon foil implant to be safe and effective in orbital fracture repair. The lower rate of complications the authors observed compared with previously reported series may be related to implant fixation. A titanium screw secured just posterior to the orbital rim may decrease long-term complications by providing more stability than implants left without fixation.

  13. Orbit correction in a linear nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Kelliher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In a linear nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator, the large natural chromaticity of the machine results in a betatron tune that varies by several integers over the momentum range. Orbit correction is complicated by the consequent variation of the phase advance between lattice elements. Here we investigate how the correction of multiple closed orbit harmonics allows correction of both the closed orbit distortion and the accelerated orbit distortion over the momentum range.

  14. Influence of the Choice of Lunar Gravity Model on Orbit Determination for Lunar Orbiters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Rok Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the influence of the lunar gravity model on the orbit determination (OD of a lunar orbiter operating in a 100 km high, lunar polar orbit. Doppler and sequential range measurements by three Deep Space Network antennas and one Korea Deep Space Antenna were used. For measurement simulation and OD analysis, STK11 and ODTK6 were utilized. GLGM2, LP100K, LP150Q, GRAIL420A, and GRAIL660B were used for investigation of lunar gravity model selection effect. OD results were assessed by position and velocity uncertainties with error covariance and an external orbit comparison using simulated true orbit. The effect of the lunar gravity models on the long-term OD, degree and order level, measurement-acquisition condition, and lunar altitude was investigated. For efficiency verification, computational times for the five lunar gravity models were compared. Results showed that significant improvements to OD accuracy are observed by applying a GRAIL-based model; however, applying a full order and degree gravity modeling is not always the best strategy, owing to the computational burden. Consequently, we consider that OD using GRAIL660B with 70 × 70 degree and order is the most efficient strategy for mission preanalysis. This study provides useful guideline for KPLO OD analysis during nominal mission operation.

  15. GPS Based Reduced-Dynamic Orbit Determination for Low Earth Orbiters with Ambiguity Fixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-increasing number of satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO for scientific missions, the precise determination of the position and velocity of the satellite is a necessity. GPS (Global Positioning System based reduced-dynamic orbit determination (RPOD method is commonly used in the post processing with high precision. This paper presents a sequential RPOD strategy for LEO satellite in the framework of Extended Kalman Filter (EKF. Precise Point Positioning (PPP technique is used to process the GPS observations, with carrier phase ambiguity resolution using Integer Phase Clocks (IPCs products. A set of GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment mission data is used to test and validate the RPOD performance. Results indicate that orbit determination accuracy could be improved by 15% in terms of 3D RMS error in comparison with traditional RPOD method with float ambiguity solutions.

  16. Orbital soft-tissue trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazen, J Levi; Lantos, Joshua; Gupta, Ajay; Lelli, Gary J; Phillips, C Douglas

    2014-08-01

    In the clinical assessment of orbital trauma, visual acuity and extraocular muscle motility are critical for rapid evaluation of injury severity. However, assessment of these parameters may be limited by edema and concomitant injuries. Imaging may further delineate the trauma pattern and extent of injury. This review focuses on orbital soft-tissue injuries that can exist with or without orbital fracture. Imaging techniques and soft-tissue injuries, including those involving the anterior chamber, iris and ciliary body, lens, globe, posterior segment, and optic nerve, are reviewed, in addition to intraocular foreign bodies and cavernous-carotid fistulas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fusion of photogrammetric and photoclinometric information for high-resolution DEMs from Mars in-orbit imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douté, S.; Jiang, C.

    2017-09-01

    High-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of the Martian surface are instrumental for studying the red planet : characterizing geological objects, generating synthetic images, normalizing illumination conditions on images, and modeling local meteorology. Our work addresses the problem of producing DEMs for regions of interest on Mars using available in-orbit imagery, typically ≈1000 km2 in area, while insuring a ≈10 meters vertical accuracy and a spatial accuracy which is comparable to that of the imagery. A method is proposed that combines photogrammetric and photoclinometric approaches in order to retain their mutual advantages. According to experiments using Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Context Camera (CTX) images, the proposed method is indeed able to produce DEMs satisfying the previous requirements, with less artifacts, better surface continuity, and sharper details than the photogrammetric method when it is used alone.

  18. Evaluation of palpebral fissure and orbital volume after bimatoprost 0.03% orbital injections. Experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Lopes da Fonseca Junior

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate in experimental animals the changes of the palpebral fissure and the orbital volume after orbital injection of bimatoprost 0.03%. Methods: Two main groups of Wistar rats were analyzed, one after orbital injection of bimatoprost 0.03% and another, a control group, after orbital injection of saline solution. The calculation of the palpebral fissure was done on images by means of computer processing, using the program Image J. After taking photographs, the animals were submitted to bilateral orbital exenteration and the volume was calculated in all the animals by the water displacement method (Archimedes’ Principle. Results: While comparing the measurements of the palpebral fissure and the orbital volume among animals given an injection with bimatoprost 0.03% and the control group it was found that there were no statistically significant differences. Conclusions: In this study there were no statistically significant differences in the measurement of the vertical palpebral fissure and the orbital volume among animals given the orbital injection of bimatoprost 0.03% and the animals of the control group.

  19. Iterative diagonalization for orbital optimization in natural orbital functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piris, M; Ugalde, J M

    2009-10-01

    A challenging task in natural orbital functional theory is to find an efficient procedure for doing orbital optimization. Procedures based on diagonalization techniques have confirmed its practical value since the resulting orbitals are automatically orthogonal. In this work, a new procedure is introduced, which yields the natural orbitals by iterative diagonalization of a Hermitian matrix F. The off-diagonal elements of the latter are determined explicitly from the hermiticity of the matrix of the Lagrange multipliers. An expression for diagonal elements is absent so a generalized Fockian is undefined in the conventional sense, nevertheless, they may be determined from an aufbau principle. Thus, the diagonal elements are obtained iteratively considering as starting values those coming from a single diagonalization of the matrix of the Lagrange multipliers calculated with the Hartree-Fock orbitals after the occupation numbers have been optimized. The method has been tested on the G2/97 set of molecules for the Piris natural orbital functional. To help the convergence, we have implemented a variable scaling factor which avoids large values of the off-diagonal elements of F. The elapsed times of the computations required by the proposed procedure are compared with a full sequential quadratic programming optimization, so that the efficiency of the method presented here is demonstrated. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Uranium favorability of tertiary sedimentary rocks of the Pend Oreille River valley, Washington. [Measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples, and examination of available water logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjaniemi, D.K.; Robins, J.W.

    1975-08-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Pend Oreille River valley were investigated in a regional study to determine the favorability for potential uranium resources of northeastern Washington. This project involved measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples, and examination of available water well logs. The Box Canyon Dam area north of Ione is judged to have very high favorability. Thick-bedded conglomerates interbedded with sandstones and silty sandstones compose the Tiger Formation in this area, and high radioactivity levels are found near the base of the formation. Uranophane is found along fracture surfaces or in veins. Carbonaceous material is present throughout the Tiger Formation in the area. Part of the broad Pend Oreille valley surrounding Cusick, Washington, is an area of high favorability. Potential host rocks in the Tiger Formation, consisting of arkosic sandstones interbedded with radioactive shales, probably extend throughout the subsurface part of this area. Carbonaceous material is present and some samples contain high concentrations of uranium. In addition, several other possible chemical indicators were found. The Tiger-Lost Creek area is rated as having medium favorability. The Tiger Formation contains very hard, poorly sorted granite conglomerate with some beds of arkosic sandstone and silty sandstone. The granite conglomerate was apparently derived from source rocks having relatively high uranium content. The lower part of the formation is more favorable than the upper part because of the presence of carbonaceous material, anomalously high concentrations of uranium, and other possible chemical indicators. The area west of Ione is judged to have low favorability, because of the very low permeability of the rocks and the very low uranium content. (auth)

  1. The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riris, H.; Cavanaugh, J.; Sun, X.; Liiva, P.; Rodriguez, M.; Neuman, G.

    2017-11-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument [1-3] on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission, launched on June 18th, 2009, from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, will provide a precise global lunar topographic map using laser altimetry. LOLA will assist in the selection of landing sites on the Moon for future robotic and human exploration missions and will attempt to detect the presence of water ice on or near the surface, which is one of the objectives of NASA's Exploration Program. Our present knowledge of the topography of the Moon is inadequate for determining safe landing areas for NASA's future lunar exploration missions. Only those locations, surveyed by the Apollo missions, are known with enough detail. Knowledge of the position and characteristics of the topographic features on the scale of a lunar lander are crucial for selecting safe landing sites. Our present knowledge of the rest of the lunar surface is at approximately 1 km kilometer level and in many areas, such as the lunar far side, is on the order of many kilometers. LOLA aims to rectify that and provide a precise map of the lunar surface on both the far and near side of the moon. LOLA uses short (6 ns) pulses from a single laser through a Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) to produce a five-beam pattern that illuminates the lunar surface. For each beam, LOLA measures the time of flight (range), pulse spreading (surface roughness), and transmit/return energy (surface reflectance). LOLA will produce a high-resolution global topographic model and global geodetic framework that enables precise targeting, safe landing, and surface mobility to carry out exploratory activities. In addition, it will characterize the polar illumination environment, and image permanently shadowed regions of the lunar surface to identify possible locations of surface ice crystals in shadowed polar craters.

  2. Multi-agent Orbit Design for Visual Perception Enhancement Purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Nourzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a robust optimization-based method to design orbits on which the sensory perception of the desired physical quantities are maximized. It also demonstrates how to incorporate various constraints imposed by many spacecraft missions, such as collision avoidance, co-orbital configuration, altitude and frozen orbit constraints along with Sun-synchronous orbit constraints. The paper specifically investigates designing orbits for constrained visual sensor planning applications as its case study. For this purpose, the key elements to form an image in such vision systems are considered and effective factors are taken into account to define a metric for perception quality. The method employs a max-min model to ensure robustness against possible perturbations and model uncertainties. While fulfilling the mission requirements, the algorithm devises orbits on which a higher level collective observation quality for the desired sides of the targets is available. The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method for several scenarios involving low and medium Earth orbits as well as a challenging space-based space surveillance program application.

  3. Elasticity, viscosity, and deformation of orbital fat

    OpenAIRE

    Schoemaker, Ivo; Hoefnagel, Pepijn; Mastenbroek, Tom; Kolff, Cornelis; Schutte, Sander; Helm, Frans; Picken, Stephen; Gerritsen, Anton; Wielopolski, Piotr; Spekreijse, Henk; Simonsz, Huib

    2006-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE. For development of a finite element analysis model of orbital mechanics, it was necessary to determine the material properties of orbital fat and its degree of deformation in eye rotation. METHODS. Elasticity and viscosity of orbital fat of eight orbits of four calves and two orbits of one rhesus monkey were measured with a parallel-plate rheometer. The degree of deformation of orbital fat was studied in two human subjects by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) through the o...

  4. Management of odontogenic orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCroos, F C; Liao, J C; Ramey, N A; Li, I

    2011-08-15

    This work describes a series of patients with odontogenic orbital cellulitis (OOC), focusing on rate of abscess formation, need for surgical intervention, and imaging findings helpful for rapid diagnosis. Review of a current case and 22 patients with OOC from the scientific literature demonstrated periapical lucency as the most commonly (36.4%) reported finding on facial and orbital computerized tomography (CT) scan. Orbital abscess occurred in 72.7% of cases, and tooth extraction and/or abscess drainage was required in 95.5% of cases reviewed for control of infection. The current case presented with periapical lucency on CT scan, developed orbital abscess despite broad spectrum antibiotic therapy, and required multiple surgical interventions for disease resolution. Though our patient regained excellent vision, OOC often can result in severe vision loss. Periapical lucency on CT can help identify this atypical origin of cellulitis that is strongly associated with abscess formation and need for surgical intervention.

  5. Real and Hybrid Atomic Orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D. B.; Fowler, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogenlike atom separates in both spheroconal and prolate spheroidal coordinates and that these separations provide a sound theoretical basis for the real and hybrid atomic orbitals. (Author/SK)

  6. Lidar Orbital Angular Momentum Sensor

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The recognition in recent decades that electromagnetic fields have angular momentum (AM) in the form of not only polarization (or spin AM) but also orbital (OAM) has...

  7. A Case of Orbital Histoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakauer, Mark; Prendes, Mark Armando; Wilkes, Byron; Lee, Hui Bae Harold; Fraig, Mostafa; Nunery, William R

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum var capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus endemic to the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys of the United States. In this case report, a 33-year-old woman who presented with a right orbital mass causing progressive vision loss, diplopia, and facial swelling is described. Lateral orbitotomy with lateral orbital wall bone flap was performed for excisional biopsy of the lesion. The 1.5 × 1.8 × 2.3 cm cicatricial mass demonstrated a granulomatous lesion with necrosis and positive staining consistent with Histoplasma capsulatum var capsulatum infection. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of orbital histoplasmosis to be reported in the United States and the first case worldwide of orbital histoplasmosis due to Histoplasma capsulatum var capsulatum.

  8. NASA Orbital Debris Baseline Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has created high fidelity populations of the debris environment. The populations include objects of 1 cm and larger in Low Earth Orbit through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit. They were designed for the purpose of assisting debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment is derived directly from the newest ORDEM model populations which include a background derived from LEGEND, as well as specific events such as the Chinese ASAT test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, the RORSAT sodium-potassium droplet releases, and other miscellaneous events. It is the most realistic ODPO debris population to date. In this paper we present the populations in chart form. We describe derivations of the background population and the specific populations added on. We validate our 1 cm and larger Low Earth Orbit population against SSN, Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  9. Impact Effects Calculator. Orbital Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazachev, D.; Naroenkov, S.; Kartashova, A.; Turuntaev, I.; Svetsov, V.; Shuvalov, V.; Popova, O.; Podobnaya, E.

    2017-09-01

    Next-generation Impact Calculator for quick assessment of impact consequences is preparing. The estimates of impact effects are revised. The possibility to manipulate with the orbital parameters and to determine impact point is included.

  10. High Power Orbit Transfer Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulczinski, Frank

    2003-01-01

    ... from Virginia Tech University and Aerophysics, Inc. to examine propulsion requirements for a high-power orbit transfer vehicle using thin-film voltaic solar array technologies under development by the Space Vehicles Directorate (dubbed PowerSail...

  11. Rumble surfaces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    National Institute for Transport and Road

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumble surfaces are intermittent short lengths of coarse-textured road surfacings on which vehicle tyres produce a rumbling sound. used in conjunction with appropriate roadsigns and markings, they can reduce accidents on rural roads by alerting...

  12. Spin-Orbit Coupling for Photons and Polaritons in Microstructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Sala

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We use coupled micropillars etched out of a semiconductor microcavity to engineer a spin-orbit Hamiltonian for photons and polaritons in a microstructure. The coupling between the spin and orbital momentum arises from the polarization-dependent confinement and tunneling of photons between adjacent micropillars arranged in the form of a hexagonal photonic molecule. It results in polariton eigenstates with distinct polarization patterns, which are revealed in photoluminescence experiments in the regime of polariton condensation. Thanks to the strong polariton nonlinearities, our system provides a photonic workbench for the quantum simulation of the interplay between interactions and spin-orbit effects, particularly when extended to two-dimensional lattices.

  13. A rare case of idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Kamalakar Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old woman presented with swelling and pain at the superomedial aspect of the right eye that was associated with proptosis, ptosis and restriction of eye movements superiorly and medially since 1 month. Considering the age and clinical presentation of the patient, a differential diagnosis of orbital cellulitis, thyroid orbitopathy, ocular myasthenia, orbital neoplasm, lymphoproliferative disorder and idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome (IOIS was considered. Relevant laboratory investigations were performed, which were normal. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and biopsy were suggestive of IOIS. The patient was started on oral steroids and had a favorable outcome.

  14. A modified technique for retention of orbital prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera R Shaikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An orbital defect (congenital or acquired causes severe facial asymmetry and disfigurement, which results in psychological and social disturbances to the patient. It becomes a challenging task for a maxillofacial prosthodontist to fabricate a prosthesis that replicates the healthy side of the face. Success of the prosthesis depends primarily on satisfactory retention of the same. This clinical report illustrates rehabilitation of a patient with an orbital defect by fabricating a hollow orbital prosthesis, utilizing anatomical undercuts for retention using an acrylic resin template relined by a resilient denture liner.

  15. Metastatic neuroendocrine tumor with initial presentation of orbital apex syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Yu Huang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The possible etiologies of orbital apex syndrome range from inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, iatrogenic/traumatic, to vascular processes. In patients without obvious infection or systemic cancer history, judicious use of corticosteroids is a reasonable strategy. We describe a 64-year-old man who presented with orbital apex syndrome and had progressed to total visual loss in three days after admission. Radiological imaging and pathological studies were consistent with a neuroendocrine tumor with multiple metastases. We recommend that a biopsy-proven specimen is warranted in patient with orbital apex syndrome even without a cancer history.

  16. Solar Radiation Pressure Binning for the Geosynchronous Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.; Ghrist, R. W.

    2011-01-01

    Orbital maintenance parameters for individual satellites or groups of satellites have traditionally been set by examining orbital parameters alone, such as through apogee and perigee height binning; this approach ignored the other factors that governed an individual satellite's susceptibility to non-conservative forces. In the atmospheric drag regime, this problem has been addressed by the introduction of the "energy dissipation rate," a quantity that represents the amount of energy being removed from the orbit; such an approach is able to consider both atmospheric density and satellite frontal area characteristics and thus serve as a mechanism for binning satellites of similar behavior. The geo-synchronous orbit (of broader definition than the geostationary orbit -- here taken to be from 1300 to 1800 minutes in orbital period) is not affected by drag; rather, its principal non-conservative force is that of solar radiation pressure -- the momentum imparted to the satellite by solar radiometric energy. While this perturbation is solved for as part of the orbit determination update, no binning or division scheme, analogous to the drag regime, has been developed for the geo-synchronous orbit. The present analysis has begun such an effort by examining the behavior of geosynchronous rocket bodies and non-stabilized payloads as a function of solar radiation pressure susceptibility. A preliminary examination of binning techniques used in the drag regime gives initial guidance regarding the criteria for useful bin divisions. Applying these criteria to the object type, solar radiation pressure, and resultant state vector accuracy for the analyzed dataset, a single division of "large" satellites into two bins for the purposes of setting related sensor tasking and orbit determination (OD) controls is suggested. When an accompanying analysis of high area-to-mass objects is complete, a full set of binning recommendations for the geosynchronous orbit will be available.

  17. Topological imprint for periodic orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, Jesús San; Moscoso, Ma José; Gómez, A González

    2012-01-01

    The more self-crossing points an orbit has the more complex it is. We introduce the topological imprint to characterize crossing points and focus on the period-doubling cascade. The period-doubling cascade topological imprint determines the topological imprint for orbits in chaotic bands. In addition, there is a closer link between this concept and the braids studied by Lettelier et al (2000 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 33 1809–25). (paper)

  18. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...... people comment on projects. Our work explores the usage of interactive technologies as enablers for the appropriation of an otherwise invisible infrastructure....

  19. MESSENGER at Mercury: Early Orbital Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Ralph L., Jr; Solomon, Sean C.; Bedini, Peter D.; Anderson, Brian J.; Blewett, David T.; Evans, Larry G.; Gold, Robert E.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Murchie, Scott L.; Nittler, Larry R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched in August 2004 under NASA's Discovery Program, was inserted into orbit about the planet Mercury in March 2011. MESSENGER's three flybys of Mercury in 2008-2009 marked the first spacecraft visits to the innermost planet since the Mariner 10 flybys in 1974-1975. The unprecedented orbital operations are yielding new insights into the nature and evolution of Mercury. The scientific questions that frame the MESSENGER mission led to the mission measurement objectives to be achieved by the seven payload instruments and the radio science experiment. Interweaving the full set of required orbital observations in a manner that maximizes the opportunity to satisfy all mission objectives and yet meet stringent spacecraft pointing and thermal constraints was a complex optimization problem that was solved with a software tool that simulates science observations and tracks progress toward meeting each objective. The final orbital observation plan, the outcome of that optimization process, meets all mission objectives. MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System is acquiring a global monochromatic image mosaic at better than 90% coverage and at least 250 m average resolution, a global color image mosaic at better than 90% coverage and at least 1 km average resolution, and global stereo imaging at better than 80% coverage and at least 250 m average resolution. Higher-resolution images are also being acquired of targeted areas. The elemental remote sensing instruments, including the Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer and the X-Ray Spectrometer, are being operated nearly continuously and will establish the average surface abundances of most major elements. The Visible and Infrared Spectrograph channel of MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer is acquiring a global map of spectral reflectance from 300 to 1450 nm wavelength at a range of incidence and emission

  20. Ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsin Hsu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe in this paper the current status of ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan. Data were collected from the Bureau of National Health Insurance of Taiwan, the Bulletin of the Taiwan Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Society, and the Statistics Yearbook of Practicing Physicians and Health Care Organizations in Taiwan by the Taiwan Medical Association. We ascertained that 94 ophthalmologists were oculoplastic surgeons and accounted for 5.8% of 1621 ophthalmologists in Taiwan. They had their fellowship training abroad (most ophthalmologists trained in the United States of America or in Taiwan. All ophthalmologists were well trained and capable of performing major oculoplastic surgeries. The payment rates by our National Health Insurance for oculoplastic and orbital surgeries are relatively low, compared to Medicare payments in the United States. Ophthalmologists should promote the concept that oculoplastic surgeons specialize in periorbital plastic and aesthetic surgeries. However, general ophthalmologists should receive more educational courses on oculoplastic and cosmetic surgery.

  1. Orbital decompression for Graves' orbitopathy in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perros, P; Chandler, T; Dayan, C M; Dickinson, A J; Foley, P; Hickey, J; MacEwen, C J; Lazarus, J H; McLaren, J; Rose, G E; Uddin, J M; Vaidya, B

    2012-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to obtain data on orbital decompression procedures performed in England, classed by hospital and locality, to evaluate regional variation in care. Methods Data on orbital decompression taking place in England over a 2-year period between 2007 and 2009 were derived from CHKS Ltd and analysed by the hospital and primary care trust. Results and conclusions In all, 44% of these operations took place in hospitals with an annual workload of 10 or fewer procedures. Analysis of the same data by primary care trust suggests an almost 30-fold variance in the rates of decompression performed per unit population. Expertise available to patients with Graves' orbitopathy and rates of referral for specialist care in England appears to vary significantly by geographic location. These data, along with other outcome measures, will provide a baseline by which progress can be judged. PMID:22157920

  2. Loops in the Sun’s orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanov Milutin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides translation, spin around its axis and rotation around center of the Milky Way, the Sun performs relative motion in the solar system Laplacian plane, also. This motion was anticipated by Newton himself, in his Principia. The form of the Sun’s orbit is substantially different from the other solar system bodies’ orbits. Namely, the Sun moves along the path composed of the chain of large and small loops [1, 2, 6, 9]. This chain is situated within the circular outline with the diameter approximately twice as large as the Sun’s is. Under supposition that the solar system is stable, the Sun is going to move along it, in the same region, for eternity, never reitereiting the same path. It was also shown in this work that velocity and acceleration of the Sun’s center of mass are completely defined by the relative velocities and accelerations of the planets with respect to the Sun.

  3. ANTARCTIC ICE SHEET SLOPE AND ASPECT BASED ON ICESAT’S REPEAT ORBIT MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yuan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate information of ice sheet surface slope is essential for estimating elevation change by satellite altimetry measurement. A study is carried out to recover surface slope of Antarctic ice sheet from Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat elevation measurements based on repeat orbits. ICESat provides repeat ground tracks within 200 meters in cross-track direction and 170 meters in along-track direction for most areas of Antarctic ice sheet. Both cross-track and along-track surface slopes could be obtained by adjacent repeat ground tracks. Combining those measurements yields a surface slope model with resolution of approximately 200 meters. An algorithm considering elevation change is developed to estimate the surface slope of Antarctic ice sheet. Three Antarctic Digital Elevation Models (DEMs were used to calculate surface slopes. The surface slopes from DEMs are compared with estimates by using in situ GPS data in Dome A, the summit of Antarctic ice sheet. Our results reveal an average surface slope difference of 0.02 degree in Dome A. High resolution remote sensing images are also used in comparing the results derived from other DEMs and this paper. The comparison implies that our results have a slightly better coherence with GPS observation than results from DEMs, but our results provide more details and perform higher accuracy in coastal areas because of the higher resolution for ICESat measurements. Ice divides are estimated based on the aspect, and are weakly consistent with ice divides from other method in coastal regions.

  4. Orbital abscess secondary to acute dacryocystitis: case report Abscesso orbitário secundário à dacriocistite aguda: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Clivati Martins

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute dacryocystitis usually induces preseptal infection. In rare instances the infection that is confined to the lacrimal sac can extend to the orbital contents resulting in orbital cellulitis. We present a case of intraconal abscess secondary to acute dacryocystitis and review the literature of orbital cellulitis resulting from acute lacrimal sac infection.A dacriocistite aguda comumente evolui para infecção pré-septal. Raramente a infecção localizada no saco lacrimal pode estender-se ao conteúdo orbitário resultando em celulite orbitária. Apresentamos um caso de abscesso orbitário intraconal secundário à dacriocistite aguda e uma revisão de literatura de celulite orbitária causada por infecção aguda do saco lacrimal.

  5. Practice patterns in the use of prophylactic antibiotics following nonoperative orbital fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang JJ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Jijo Jizhou Wang,1 Jennifer M Koterwas,2 Edward H Bedrossian Jr,2 William J Foster2,3 1Lewis Katz School of Medicine, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, 3Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the practice management patterns of the current members of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (ASOPRS and to determine the use of oral prophylactic antibiotics in an attempt to prevent orbital cellulitis following nonoperative orbital fractures.Patients and methods: A cross-sectional web-based survey was emailed to all the members of ASOPRS regarding their current management of nonsurgical orbital fractures and their experience with orbital cellulitis following nonoperative orbital fractures.Results: The majority of practicing oculoplastic surgeon members of ASOPRS do not routinely prescribe prophylactic antibiotics for patients with nonoperative orbital fractures or patients with orbital fractures whom the physicians are observing and who might potentially need surgical intervention. Among the reported cases of orbital cellulitis following a nonoperative orbital fracture in this survey, more than a quarter of the patients had received prophylactic antibiotics. Furthermore, among physicians who have managed orbital cellulitis following nonoperative fracture, 75% (33 out of 44 physicians report that <1% of patients develop orbital cellulitis.Conclusion: Despite frequent recommendation for the use of prophylactic antibiotics after orbital fractures in commonly cited ophthalmic references, the majority of oculoplastic surgeons do not use prophylactic antibiotics for orbital fractures, including both nonoperative orbital fractures and orbital fractures that may potentially need surgery. Keywords: orbital blowout fracture, orbital fracture, antibiotic use, practice patterns, survey

  6. Combined orbits and clocks from the IGS 2nd reprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, J.; Ray, J.

    2016-12-01

    In early 2015, the Analysis Centers (ACs) of the International GNSS Service (IGS) completed their second reanalysis of the full history of globally distributed GPS and GLONASS data collected since 1994. The suite of reprocessed AC solutions includes daily product files containing station positions, Earth rotation parameters, satellite orbits and clocks. This second reprocessing—or repro2—provided the IGS contribution to ITRF2014; it follows the successful first reprocessing, which provided the IGS input for ITRF2008. For this poster, we will discuss the newly combined repro2 GPS orbits and clocks. We also revisit our previous analysis of orbit day-boundary discontinuities with several significant changes and improvements: 1) Orbit discontinuities for the contributing ACs were studied in addition to those for the IGS repro2 combined orbits. (2) Apart from homogeneous reprocessing with updated analysis models, the main difference compared to the IGS Final operational products is that NOAA/NGS inputs were not submitted for the IGS reprocessing, yet they contribute heavily in the operational orbits in recent years. (3) Also, during spring 2016, the ESA modified their orbit model so that it is no longer consistent with the one used for reprocessing. A much longer span of orbits was available now, up to 11.2 years for some individual satellites, which allows a far better resolution of spectral features. 4) The procedure to compute orbit discontinuities has been further refined to account for extrapolation edge effects, improved geopotential fields, and to allow for spectral analysis of a longer time series of jumps. The satellite position time series used are complete enough that linear interpolation is necessary for only sparse gaps. So the key results are based on standard FFT power spectra (stacked over the available constellation and lightly smoothed). However, we have also computed Lomb-Scargle periodgrams to provide higher frequency resolution of some spectral

  7. Emergency surgery in orbital trauma : a neurosurgical view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patkar Sushil

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an analysis of five cases of orbital trauma causing proptosis, paralysis of extraocular muscles with or without associated visual failure. All the cases were treated by a Neurosurgical team. Either a frontal craniotomy or a lateral orbitotomy was performed. Plain X-rays of the skull and Computerised Tomography (C.T. Scanning were the main investigations. Results were encouraging both functionally and cosmetically. Early diagnosis and an aggressive approach to orbital decompression can achieve good results.

  8. Searching for stable orbits in the HD 10180 planetary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laskar J.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A planetary system with at least seven planets has been found around the star HD 10180. However, the traditional Keplerian and n-body fits to the data provide an orbital solution that becomes unstable very quickly, which may quest the reliability of the observations. Here we show that stable orbital configurations can be obtained if general relativity and long-term dissipation raised by tides on the innermost planet are taken into account.

  9. Triple Difference Approach to Low Earth Orbiter Precision Orbit Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jay-Hyoun; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota A.; Yom, Jae-Hong; Cheon, Lee-Dong

    2003-03-01

    A precise kinematic orbit determination (P-KOD) procedure for Low Earth Orbiter(LEO) using the GPS ion-free triple differenced carrier phases is presented. Because the triple differenced observables provide only relative information, the first epoch's positions of the orbit should be held fixed. Then, both forward and backward filtering was executed to mitigate the effect of biases of the first epoch's position. P-KOD utilizes the precise GPS orbits and ground stations data from International GPS Service (IGS) so that the only unknown parameters to be solved are positions of the satellite at each epoch. Currently, the 3-D accuracy of P-KOD applied to CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload) shows better than 35 cm compared to the published rapid scientific orbit (RSO) solution from GFZ (GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam). The data screening for cycle slips is a particularly challenging procedure for LEO, which moves very fast in the middle of the ionospheric layer. It was found that data screening using SNR (signal to noise ratio) generates best results based on the residual analysis using RSO. It is expected that much better accuracy are achievable with refined prescreening procedure and optimized geometry of the satellites and ground stations.

  10. Rehabilitation of orbital cavity after orbital exenteration using polymethyl methacrylate orbital prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Sumeet; Jain, Parul

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid is the second most common malignant neoplasm of the eye with the incidence of 0.09 and 2.42 cases/100 000 people. Orbital invasion is a rare complication but, if recognized early, can be treated effectively with exenteration. Although with advancements in technology such as computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing, material science, and retentive methods like implants, orbital prosthesis with stock ocular prosthesis made of methyl methacryla...

  11. Classical orbital paramagnetism in non-equilibrium steady state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    58

    Kumar (2012) negated the result of Kumar & Ku- mar (2009) through similar numerical simulation, but now with finer time steps, for the motion of the charged particle on the surface of a sphere –in fact, in the long-time limit (i.e. in thermal equilibrium) the orbital moment indeed again turned out to van- ish with decreasing time ...

  12. Testing molecular potential functions with bifurcation diagrams of periodic orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farantos, S. C.; Zachilas, L.

    1993-12-01

    An evaluation of the performance of a molecular potential energy function in dynamical calculations can be obtained by constructing bifurcation diagrams of periodic orbits. This is demonstrated for the HCN molecule by using two analytical potential functions which give a global and a local representation of the surface respectively.

  13. Photoelectric Radial Velocities, Paper XVIII Spectroscopic Orbits for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    opposed to Cassegrain) which involves two upward-facing mirrors; their reflective surfaces inevitably ... Few externally measured (published) radial velocities have been incorporated in the orbits presented .... the 'van Bueren' numbers, running from 153 to 191, of the stars in those tables were subsequently assigned by ...

  14. Microbiology of pediatric orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Steven H; Yen, Michael T; Miller, Aaron M; Yen, Kimberly G

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate the microbiology of pediatric orbital cellulitis associated with sinusitis. Retrospective review of medical records of pediatric patients treated for orbital cellulitis. All pediatric patients treated for orbital cellulitis associated with sinusitis at Texas Children's Hospital between December 1, 2001 and September 30, 2005 were reviewed. Data collected included patient age, history, microbiology results, and surgical intervention. Thirty-eight cases were identified. Fifteen cases required medical management, whereas 23 patients received a combination of medical and surgical intervention. Three patients had multiple surgical procedures performed. Of the procedures performed, four were sinus irrigation, 12 were sinusotomy and drainage, nine were orbitotomy with drainage of abscess, and one was craniotomy with drainage of abscess. Surgical aspirate specimens yielded a higher positive culture result rate with 9/9 of orbital abscesses and 13/16 of sinus aspirates demonstrating a positive yield. Two of the 27 blood cultures had a positive yield. Staphylococcus species was the most common organism isolated. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) represented 73% of S. aureus isolates. Streptococcus species was the next most common pathogen. Three cultures yielded Haemophilus species with one being positive for H. influenzae. Organisms responsible for causing pediatric orbital cellulitis are evolving, with Staphylococcus followed by Streptococcus species being the most common pathogens. The occurrence of MRSA in pediatric orbital cellulitis is increasing, and empiric antimicrobial therapy should be directed against these organisms if they are prevalent in the community. Sinus and orbital abscess aspirates yielded the greatest number of positive cultures, though these invasive surgical procedures should be performed only when clinically indicated.

  15. OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGICAL DISEASES MASQUERADING AS ORBITAL TUMOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmistha Behera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The close proximity of the orbit and the paranasal sinuses, both of which share more than two-thirds of common walls makes the orbit too susceptible to infections spreading from the paranasal sinuses. In any case of proptosis indicating an orbital tumour, extension from a PNS lesion should be ruled out. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was a retrospective descriptive study. Data taken from the patient's medical record during the period of July 2014- June 2017. A total of 32 cases of proptosis were studied all of which were secondary to paranasal sinus pathology. These cases were subject to routine clinical examination and investigations including CT and MRI scan. Histopathological diagnosis was obtained by biopsy in appropriate cases. RESULTS Out of 32 patients, males were 68.75% (n=22 and females were 31.25% (n=10. The largest age group are in the age range 41-50 years (31.25%, n=10 and in age group 0-10 years (31.25%. Out of the whole, 13 (40.6% of them were due to sinusitis, 6 (18.75% due to sinonasal malignancy, all of which were histopathologically confirmed to be squamous cell carcinoma of maxillary sinus, 6 (18.75% cases were of mucoceles from frontoethmoidal origin, 4 (12.50% cases were of fibrous dysplasia of maxillary sinus, 2 (6.25% case was of schwannoma of frontal sinus origin and 1 (3.12% case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis of maxillary sinus. In our study, proptosis was commonest presenting complaint in all 32 patients followed by nasal obstruction (62.5%, reduced vision (25%, facial asymmetry (25%, redness of eye (18.75% and double vision (12.50%. Out of all investigative modalities, biopsy was found to be the most accurate followed by CT scan brain, PNS and orbit. CONCLUSION Due to close proximity, nasal and PNS diseases through bone erosion or preformed pathways can invade the orbit and cause proptosis. Longstanding optic nerve compression by orbital encroachment of PNS lesion can lead to blindness due to optic

  16. "Saturn" remains in orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushechenko E. N.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to scientific and production enterprise "Saturn" — since its foundation up to the present day. The authors describe the determining stages of its development and its team’s scientific and technological achievements over the 45-year history of the enterprise.

  17. Orbital Inflammation Developing from Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis in an Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung In Kim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We report a rare case of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC that developed into an orbital inflammation in an adult. Case Presentation: A 67-year-old Korean man, who had been diagnosed with EKC and treated for conjunctival injection and chemosis in the right eye for 4 days, was referred to Oculoplastics as orbital cellulitis was suspected. At the point of referral, clinical features such as decreased visual acuity, severe eyelid swelling, chemosis, follicles, corneal edema, limitations in lateral eye movement, and diplopia were observed in the right eye. Orbital cellulitis was suspected according to orbital computed tomography scan images, but there was no response to systemic antibiotics. Systemic steroid was administered instead, and then his symptoms and signs started to improve. The final diagnosis of this patient was orbital inflammation related to EKC based on the facts that there was no response to antibiotics, that he presented with contralateral symptoms and signs, that pseudomembrane formation occurred in both eyes, and that the symptoms resolved completely after 2 weeks. Conclusion: Clinicians need to consider the possibility of orbital inflammation developing from EKC, even in an adult patient, and treat the patient properly if the EKC symptoms and signs, such as conjunctival injection and follicles, are accompanied with symptoms and signs similar to orbital cellulitis.

  18. Small incision removal of nylon foil orbital implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Catherine Y; Vemuri, Swapna; Tao, Jeremiah P

    2015-01-01

    To describe a small incision technique for the removal of a nylon foil orbital wall implant. The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of 9 patients who underwent a minimally invasive anterior orbitotomy for nylon foil explantation. Indications for removal and surgical technique, including size of orbitotomy incision and extent of orbital dissection, were recorded. Motility, globe position, strabismus pre- and post procedure, and complications were also assessed. Photographs, videos, and postoperative imaging were included, when available. The indications for removal were adjacent sinusitis (4 cases), undesirable implant position (3), orbital abscess (1), and adjacent orbital emphysema (1). The removal technique was associated with no changes in motility, globe position, or strabismus postprocedure. The average incision size was 1.1 cm, and the procedure was rapid, usually seconds once the anterior aspect of the implant was exposed and grasped with a hemostat. The dissection in all cases was to the anterior aspect of the implant without a need for deep orbital manipulation. The authors demonstrate through video that the implant folds to exit through a small incision. No adverse events were noted. Nasal endoscopy and radiography demonstrated a fibrous capsule that maintained orbital structure and support. Thin nylon foil implant can be explanted safely and efficiently through a very small incision. The orbit maintains structure and configuration postexplantation in this series.

  19. Orbital exenteration in immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Kagmeni; Bilong, Yannick; Arlette, Nomo; Chantal, Nanfack; Lucienne, Bella Assumpta

    2016-01-01

    Orbital exenteration (OE) is a disfiguring procedure most commonly performed for locally advanced and potentially life-threatening periorbital malignancies. We retrospectively reviewed records of 11 consecutive HIV patients who underwent OE for invasive orbital malignancy at our institution from January 2005 to December 2015. Patient demographic and clinic data and histopathology of the tumor were analyzed. There were eight (72.72%) female and three (27.28%) male participants ranging in age from 31 to 52 years with an mean of 39.4 years. Nine patients had been known to be HIV-positive for at least 2 years, and HIV-positive status was revealed at presentation for two patients. The mean CD4 cell count was 154.4 cells/mm 3 . Histopathological examination showed invasive orbital squamous cell carcinomas in nine patients (81.81%), achromic orbital melanoma in one patient (9.09%), and adenoid cystic carcinoma in one patient (9.09%). None of the patients underwent primary orbital reconstruction. The mean follow-up time was 3.4 months. Only one patient who underwent adjuvant radiotherapy was seen after 12 months. Oculo-orbital malignancies are very aggressive in HIV-positive individuals, especially in untreated patients. Routine screening for suspected ocular surface lesions and early surgical removal of all these lesions could help to avoid the need to perform the radical and disfiguring OE procedure.

  20. Detecting a Subsurface Ocean From Periodic Orbits at Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casotto, S.; Padovan, S.; Russell, R. P.; Lara, M.

    2008-12-01

    Enceladus is a small icy satellite of Saturn which has been observed by the Cassini orbiter to eject plumes mainly consisting of water vapor from the "tiger stripes" located near its South pole. While tidal heating has been ruled out as an inadequate energy source to drive these eruptions, tidally induced shear stress both along and across the stripes appears to be sufficiently powerful. The internal constitution of Enceladus that fits this model is likely to entail a thin crust and a subcrustal water layer above an undifferentiated interior. Apart from the lack of a core/mantle boundary, the situation is similar to the current hypothetical models of Europa's interior. The determination of the existence of a subsurface fluid layer can therefore be pursued with similar methods, including the study of the gravitational perturbations of tidal origin on an Enceladus orbiter, and the use of altimeter measurements to the tidally deformed surface. The dynamical environment of an Enceladus orbiter is made very unstable by the overwhelming presence of nearby Saturn. The Enceladus sphere of influence is roughly twice its radius. This makes it considerably more difficult to orbit than Europa, whose sphere of influence is ~six times its radius. While low-altitude, near-polar Enceladus orbits suffer extreme instability, recent works have extended the inclination envelope for long-term stable orbits at Enceladus. Several independent methods suggest that ~65 degrees inclination is the maximum attainable for stable, perturbed Keplerian motion. These orbits are non-circular and exist with altitude variations from ~200 to ~300 km. We propose a nominal reference orbit that enjoys long term stability and is favorable for long-term mapping and other scientific experiments. A brief excursion to a lower altitude, slightly higher inclined, yet highly unstable orbit is proposed to improve gravity signatures and enable high resolution, nadir-pointing experiments on the geysers emanating