WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface oil slicks

  1. Oil slick skimmer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karterman, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    A craft for removing an oil slick from a body of water is described comprising: a pair of spacedly arranged paralleled positioned elongated floats, a platform mounted on and extending between said floats, a weir mounted on said platform between said floats and being movable independently and substantially vertical of the longitudinal axis of said floats to a position below the surface of said body of water, a submersible oil receiving and storage means detachedly mounted to said platform between said floats and having an inlet port at one level and comprising a substantially enclosed oil accumulator having an outlet port at a lower level, said weir comprising a sluice gate constructed and arranged to admit into said inlet port of said oil receiving and storage means under the effects of gravity a portion of an oil stick comprising a water and oil mixture skimmed from said body of water, and a first pump connected to said outlet port of said accumulator to control the movement of water from the inside lower level of said accumulator out of said accumulator to thereby control the amount of the oil slick flowing into said accumulator

  2. Mississippi River and Sea Surface Height Effects on Oil Slick Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcini, Frederico; Jerolmack, Douglas J.; Buongiorno Nardelli, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Millions of barrels of oil escaped into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) after the 20 April, 2010 explosion of Deepwater Horizon (DH). Ocean circulation models were used to forecast oil slick migration in the GoM, however such models do not explicitly treat the effects of secondary eddy-slopes or Mississippi River (MR) hydrodynamics. Here we report oil front migration that appears to be driven by sea surface level (SSL) slopes, and identify a previously unreported effect of the MR plume: under conditions of relatively high river discharge and weak winds, a freshwater mound can form around the MR Delta. We performed temporal oil slick position and altimeter analysis, employing both interpolated altimetry data and along-track measurements for coastal applications. The observed freshwater mound appears to have pushed the DH oil slick seaward from the Delta coastline. We provide a physical mechanism for this novel effect of the MR, using a two-layer pressure-driven flow model. Results show how SSL variations can drive a cross-slope migration of surface oil slicks that may reach velocities of order km/day, and confirm a lag time of order 5–10 days between mound formation and slick migration, as observed form the satellite analysis. Incorporating these effects into more complex ocean models will improve forecasts of slick migration for future spills. More generally, large SSL variations at the MR mouth may also affect the dispersal of freshwater, nutrients and sediment associated with the MR plume. PMID:22558317

  3. Mississippi River and sea surface height effects on oil slick migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Falcini

    Full Text Available Millions of barrels of oil escaped into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM after the 20 April, 2010 explosion of Deepwater Horizon (DH. Ocean circulation models were used to forecast oil slick migration in the GoM, however such models do not explicitly treat the effects of secondary eddy-slopes or Mississippi River (MR hydrodynamics. Here we report oil front migration that appears to be driven by sea surface level (SSL slopes, and identify a previously unreported effect of the MR plume: under conditions of relatively high river discharge and weak winds, a freshwater mound can form around the MR Delta. We performed temporal oil slick position and altimeter analysis, employing both interpolated altimetry data and along-track measurements for coastal applications. The observed freshwater mound appears to have pushed the DH oil slick seaward from the Delta coastline. We provide a physical mechanism for this novel effect of the MR, using a two-layer pressure-driven flow model. Results show how SSL variations can drive a cross-slope migration of surface oil slicks that may reach velocities of order km/day, and confirm a lag time of order 5-10 days between mound formation and slick migration, as observed form the satellite analysis. Incorporating these effects into more complex ocean models will improve forecasts of slick migration for future spills. More generally, large SSL variations at the MR mouth may also affect the dispersal of freshwater, nutrients and sediment associated with the MR plume.

  4. Natural oil slicks fuel surface water microbial activities in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziervogel, Kai; D'Souza, Nigel; Sweet, Julia; Yan, Beizhan; Passow, Uta

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a series of roller tank incubations with surface seawater from the Green Canyon oil reservoir, northern Gulf of Mexico, amended with either a natural oil slick (GCS-oil) or pristine oil. The goal was to test whether bacterial activities of natural surface water communities facilitate the formation of oil-rich marine snow (oil snow). Although oil snow did not form during any of our experiments, we found specific bacterial metabolic responses to the addition of GCS-oil that profoundly affected carbon cycling within our 4-days incubations. Peptidase and β-glucosidase activities indicative of bacterial enzymatic hydrolysis of peptides and carbohydrates, respectively, were suppressed upon the addition of GCS-oil relative to the non-oil treatment, suggesting that ascending oil and gas initially inhibits bacterial metabolism in surface water. Biodegradation of physically dispersed GCS-oil components, indicated by the degradation of lower molecular weight n-alkanes as well as the rapid transformation of particulate oil-carbon (C: N >40) into the DOC pool, led to the production of carbohydrate- and peptide-rich degradation byproducts and bacterial metabolites such as transparent exopolymer particles (TEP). TEP formation was highest at day 4 in the presence of GCS-oil; in contrast, TEP levels in the non-oil treatment already peaked at day 2. Cell-specific enzymatic activities closely followed TEP concentrations in the presence and absence of GCS-oil. These results demonstrate that the formation of oil slicks and activities of oil-degrading bacteria result in a temporal offset of microbial cycling of organic matter, affecting food web interactions and carbon cycling in surface waters over cold seeps.

  5. Natural oil slicks fuel surface water microbial activities in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eZiervogel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a series of roller tank incubations with surface seawater from the Green Canyon oil reservoir, northern Gulf of Mexico, amended with either a natural oil slick (GCS-oil or pristine oil. The goal was to test whether bacterial activities of natural surface water communities facilitate the formation of oil-rich marine snow (oil snow. Although oil snow did not form during any of our experiments, we found specific bacterial metabolic responses to the addition of GCS-oil that profoundly affected carbon cycling within our 4-days incubations. Peptidase and -glucosidase activities indicative of bacterial enzymatic hydrolysis of peptides and carbohydrates, respectively, were suppressed upon the addition of GCS-oil relative to the non-oil treatment, suggesting that ascending oil and gas initially inhibits bacterial metabolism in surface water. Biodegradation of physically dispersed GCS-oil components indicated by the degradation of lower molecular weight n-alkanes as well as the rapid transformation of particulate oil-carbon (C: N >40 into the DOC pool, led to the production of carbohydrate- and peptide-rich degradation byproducts and bacterial metabolites such as transparent exopolymer particles (TEP. TEP formation was highest at day 4 in the presence of GCS-oil; in contrast, TEP levels in the non-oil treatment already peaked at day 2. Cell-specific enzymatic activities closely followed TEP concentrations in the presence and absence of GCS-oil. These results demonstrate that the formation of oil slicks and activities of oil-degrading bacteria result in a temporal offset of microbial cycling of organic matter, affecting food web interactions and carbon cycling in surface waters over cold seeps.

  6. Oil Slick Characterization with UAVSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Holt, B.

    2017-12-01

    Although radar has long been used for mapping the spatial extent of oil slicks, its capability for characterizing oil, e.g., to discriminate thicker from thinner oil or mineral slicks from look-alikes, is far less well defined. In fact, the capability of SAR to quantify the oil-to-water ratio of emulsions within slicks on the open water was first demonstrated using UAVSAR data acquired over the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico [Minchew et al., 2012]. UAVSAR's capability was made possible by the airborne instrument's high signal-to-noise ratio, which enabled it to measure low backscatter signals from oil-smoothed water that are often near or below the noise floor of satellite SAR instruments. Since 2010, UAVSAR has been used to study oil slicks through experiments in Norway (2015) and the Gulf of Mexico. In November 2016, UAVSAR took part in a NOAA-led experiment to study remote sensing of oil slicks, which took place at the site of a persistent seep in the Gulf of Mexico. The goal was to use remote sensing to identify zones of thicker oil, which is the type of information that could direct emergency responders for more effective clean-up. The objectives of the experiment were to validate and compare different remote sensing methods' capabilities for measuring the thickness of oil within a slick on open water under environmental conditions typical of oil spills. In this presentation, we show the results from UAVSAR for determining oil thickness within a slick, and relate them to the standard method of oil slick classification, the Bonn Agreement oil appearance code used by trained observers in the field. This work was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contracts with the California Dept. of Water Resources and with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  7. Detecting surface oil slick related to gas hydrate/petroleum on the ocean bed of South China Sea by ENVI/ASAR radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunpeng; Chen, Duofu; Song, Zhiguang

    2013-03-01

    For exploring the distribution of oil slick related to gas hydrate or petroleum in the northern part of South China Sea and evaluating the potential of ENVI/ASAR radar data for detecting oil slick, this paper tries to detect the oil slick on ocean surface of some potential areas in South China Sea and map oil slick from anomaly area in radar image. Seven surface oil slicks in Qiongdongnan Basin and four potential targets of oil slicks in Taixi-Dongsha Basin were detected and extracted by using ENIV/ASAR data. The anomalies of the radar image representing oil slick are validated by in-site sampling and laboratory analyzing. The Gas Chromatograph (GC) results of the extracted oil from the water samples gathered from the sites of detected oil slick demonstrate a typical composition of oil rather than that of ocean microbial origins, and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) concentrations in two designed vertical profiles keep steady in different depths, showing that the organic contents in water column are steady from the deep area to ocean surface. These results suggest the detected oil slick is a thin floating oil rather than a thick spill. Influencing factors to the results of oil slick detection including wind speed, current, small islands and capes as well as deep-sea petroleum reservoirs are discussed. The results in this study exhibit that extracting the anomaly signals related to oil slick related to oil/gas seeps using image processing techniques from ENVI/ASAR data is helpful to predict anomaly areas as potential targets for further exploration in this area.

  8. Measurement of thickness of highly inhomogeneous crude oil slicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheemalapati, Surya; Forth, Heather P; Wang, Hao; Konnaiyan, Karthik Raj; Morris, Jeffrey M; Pyayt, Anna L

    2017-04-10

    As part of the Deepwater Horizon toxicity testing program, a number of laboratories generated oil slicks in the laboratory to study potential toxic effects of these oil slicks on aquatic organisms. Understanding the details of how these slicks affect aquatic organisms requires careful correlation between slick thickness and the observed detrimental effects. Estimating oil film thickness on water can be challenging since the traditional color-based technique used in the field is very imprecise. Also, as we demonstrate here, the films formed on the water surface are highly nonuniform on a microscale level, and thus uniform thin film thickness measurement techniques based on optical interference do not work. In this paper, we present a method that estimates the local thickness of weathered oil slicks formed on artificial seawater using light transmission and Beer-Lambert's law. Here, we demonstrate results of careful calibration together with the actual thickness estimation. Due to the heterogeneity of the slicks formed, we present slick thickness as a range of thicknesses collected from multiple points within the oil slick. In all the experiments we used oil samples provided by the Natural Resource Damage Assessment toxicity testing program for the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Therefore, this study has an important practical value and successfully addresses unique challenges related to measurements involving complex, viscous, paste-like heterogeneous substances such as weathered crude oil.

  9. Radar and optical remote sensing in offshore domain to detect, characterize, and quantify ocean surface oil slicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelliaume, S.; Ceamanos, X.; Viallefont-Robinet, F.; Baqué, R.; Déliot, Ph.; Miegebielle, V.

    2017-10-01

    Radar and optical sensors are operationally used by authorities or petroleum companies for detecting and characterizing maritime pollution. The interest lies not only in exploration but also in the monitoring of the maritime environment. Occurrence of natural seeps on the sea surface is a key indicator of the presence of mature source rock in the subsurface. These natural seeps, as well as the oil slicks, are commonly detected using radar sensors but the addition of optical imagery can deliver extra information such as the oil real fraction, which is critical for both exploration purposes and efficient cleanup operations. Today state-of-the-art approaches combine multiple data collected by optical and radar sensors embedded on-board different airborne and spaceborne platforms, to ensure wide spatial coverage and high frequency revisit time. Multi-wavelength imaging system may create a breakthrough in remote sensing applications, but it requires adapted processing techniques that need to be developed. To explore performances offered by multi-wavelength radar and optical sensors for oil slick monitoring, remote sensing data have been collected by SETHI, the airborne system developed by ONERA, during an oil spill cleanup exercise carried out in 2015 in the North Sea, Europe. The uniqueness of this data set lies in its high spatial resolution, low noise level and quasi-simultaneous acquisitions of different part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Specific processing techniques have been developed in order to extract meaningful information associated with oil-covered sea surface. Analysis of this unique and rich dataset demonstrates that remote sensing imagery, collected in both optical and microwave domains, allows to estimate slick surface properties such as the spatial abundance of oil and the relative concentration of hydrocarbons on the sea surface.

  10. Data Mining of Satellite-Based Measurements to Distinguish Natural From Man-Made Oil Slicks at the Sea Surface in Campeche Bay (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, G. D. A.; Minnett, P. J.; de Miranda, F. P.; Landau, L.; Paes, E.

    2016-02-01

    Campeche Bay, located in the Mexican portion of the Gulf of Mexico, has a well-established activity engaged with numerous oil rigs exploring and producing natural gas and oil. The associated risk of oil slicks in this region - that include oil spills (i.e. oil floating at the sea surface solely attributed to man-made activities) and oil seeps (i.e. surface footprint of the oil that naturally comes out of the seafloor reaching the surface of the ocean) - leads Pemex to be in a continuous state of alert for reducing possible negative influence on marine and coastal ecosystems. Focusing on a monitoring strategy, a multi-year dataset (2008-2012) of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements from the RADARSAT-2 satellite is used to investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of the oil slicks observed at the surface of the ocean in the Campeche Bay region. The present study is an exploratory data analysis that seeks to discriminate between these two possible oil slick types: oil seeps and oil spills. Multivariate data analysis techniques (e.g. Principal Components Analysis, Clustering Analysis, Discriminant Function, etc.) are explored to design a data-learning classification algorithm to distinguish natural from man-made oil slicks. This analysis promotes a novel idea bridging geochemistry and remote sensing research to express geophysical differences between seeped and spilled oil. Here, SAR backscatter coefficients - i.e. sigma-naught (σo), beta-naught (βo), and gamma-naught (γo) - are combined with attributes referring to the geometry, shape, and dimension that describe the oil slicks. Results indicate that the synergy of combining these various characteristics is capable of distinguishing oil seeps from oil spills observed on the sea surface to a useful accuracy.

  11. Apparatus for collecting oil slick from a body of water. [Conveyors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Voss, E.A.

    A system for removing oil slicks from water surfaces such as the ocean, harbors, lakes, or ponds uses an endless conveyor, for example, the surface of a drum or of a belt. The surface contacts the oil slick which adheres to it. The slick is conveyed by the conveyor to a means for its removal such as a wringer. The invention uses a flexible, relatively limber, flat blade-like cover for the conveyor such as the well-known artificial grass Astroturf. The conveyor overhangs and presses against the top of the oil slick so that the oil slick can adhere to the conveyor. A second convey on aft of the first conveyor extends below the elevation of the first conveyor so that they form a wedgeshaped path in which the oil tends to be trapped and drawn. The system can be mounted to floating support means and for moving it along the oil slick.

  12. Predicting the consequence of natural and chemical dispersion for oil slick size over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinstra-Helfrich, Marieke; Koops, Wierd; Murk, Albertinka J.

    2017-01-01

    Application of dispersants aims to enhance the natural dispersion process in order to reduce the size of the slick and the amount of oil at the surface. This study presents an approach for modeling the development of the surface oil slick as a function of the wind speed, oil viscosity, and

  13. Natural and unnatural oil slicks in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia‐Pineda, O.; Beet, A.; Daneshgar Asl, S.; Feng, L.; Graettinger, G.; French‐McCay, D.; Holmes, J.; Hu, C.; Huffer, F.; Leifer, I.; Muller‐Karger, F.; Solow, A.; Silva, M.; Swayze, G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract When wind speeds are 2–10 m s−1, reflective contrasts in the ocean surface make oil slicks visible to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) under all sky conditions. Neural network analysis of satellite SAR images quantified the magnitude and distribution of surface oil in the Gulf of Mexico from persistent, natural seeps and from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) discharge. This analysis identified 914 natural oil seep zones across the entire Gulf of Mexico in pre‐2010 data. Their ∼0.1 µm slicks covered an aggregated average of 775 km2. Assuming an average volume of 77.5 m3 over an 8–24 h lifespan per oil slick, the floating oil indicates a surface flux of 2.5–9.4 × 104 m3 yr−1. Oil from natural slicks was regionally concentrated: 68%, 25%, 7%, and Gulf, respectively. This reflects differences in basin history and hydrocarbon generation. SAR images from 2010 showed that the 87 day DWH discharge produced a surface‐oil footprint fundamentally different from background seepage, with an average ocean area of 11,200 km2 (SD 5028) and a volume of 22,600 m3 (SD 5411). Peak magnitudes of oil were detected during equivalent, ∼14 day intervals around 23 May and 18 June, when wind speeds remained <5 m s−1. Over this interval, aggregated volume of floating oil decreased by 21%; area covered increased by 49% (p < 0.1), potentially altering its ecological impact. The most likely causes were increased applications of dispersant and surface burning operations. PMID:27774370

  14. Tracking an oil slick from multiple natural sources, Coal Oil Point, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, Ira [Marine Sciences Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Luyendyk, Bruce [Department of Geological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Broderick, Kris [Exxon/Mobil Exploration Company, 13401 N. Freeway, Houston, TX 77060 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Oil slicks on the ocean surface emitted from natural marine hydrocarbon seeps offshore from Coal Oil Point in the Santa Barbara Channel, California were tracked and sampled over a 2-h period. The objectives were to characterize the seep oil and to track its composition over time using a new sampling device, a catamaran drum sampler (CATDRUMS). The sampler was designed and developed at UCSB. Chromatograms showed that oil originating from an informally named, very active seep area, Shane Seep, primarily evolved during the first hour due to mixing with oil originating from a convergence zone slick surrounding Shane Seep. (author)

  15. Modeling and simulating the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of seawater covered by oil slicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zijian; Ma, Chunyong; Chen, Lu; Chen, Ge

    2016-05-01

    A high-efficiency anisotropic model for bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of seawater covered by oil slicks (SWCOS) was proposed. This model was set by combining a BRDF model for anisotropic rough sea surface whose slopes follow Gaussian distribution and the two-beam inference theory of a thin film. We have simulated the BRDFs of oil slicks by using the above model and the measured complex refractive index data of Romashkino crude oil. In addition, the relationships between the BRDF of oil slicks and the wind speed of sea surface, thickness of oil slick, complex refractive index of crude oil and the incident zenith angle were analyzed. Also, the differences between optical characteristics of clean water and of polluted water were discussed in the context of the optical contrast of SWCOS. With high simulation speed and reliable simulation precision, this model provides a theoretical basis for rapid detection of oil spill.

  16. Remote sensing of oil slicks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    , passive microwave radiometer, laser beam fluorosensor and laser-illuminated active gated television. These sensors provide more objective information for detection, quantification and classification of oil as well as identification of a polluting vessel. A...

  17. Remote sensing study of historical changes in natural oil slick volumes in the Santa Barbara Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scepan, J.; Estes, J.; Hornafius, J.S. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Large natural oil slicks are continually forming in the Santa Barbara Channel as a result of natural hydrocarbon seeps that occur above subsurface oil accumulations. Evaporation of volatile constituents in these oil slicks is a significant source of air pollution. In this study we employed a suite of remote sensing data along with a variety of image processing and geographic information system techniques to analyze the location, extent and changes in sea surface oil slicks during the period of 1975 - present. An extensive collection of airborne and spaceborne remote sensor data was accessed and examined for this study, including aerial photography, airborne spectral and microwave data, Landsat MSS and TM data and Shuttle Imaging Radar. Areas of oil slick accumulations were identified, delineated, georeferenced, measured and mapped to a common scale using both manual and digital techniques. A Gaussian mathematical model was employed to provide quantitative estimates of surface oil accumulations identified within each image over the entire twenty year period. This study indicates that variances in mapped oil slick location and extent as well as the estimated amounts of oil present within each image may be attributed to image type and quality as well as environmental conditions.

  18. Remote sensing study of historical changes in natural oil slick volumes in the Santa Barbara Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scepan, J.; Estes, J.; Hornafius, J.S. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Large natural oil slicks are continually forming in the Santa Barbara Channel as a result of natural hydrocarbon seeps that occur above subsurface oil accumulations. Evaporation of volatile constituents in these oil slicks is a significant source of air pollution. In this study we employed a suite of remote sensing data along with a variety of image processing and geographic information system techniques to analyze the location, extent and changes in sea surface oil slicks during the period of 1975 - present. An extensive collection of airborne and spaceborne remote sensor data was accessed and examined for this study, including aerial photography, airborne spectral and microwave data, Landsat MSS and TM data and Shuttle Imaging Radar. Areas of oil slick accumulations were identified, delineated, georeferenced, measured and mapped to a common scale using both manual and digital techniques. A Gaussian mathematical model was employed to provide quantitative estimates of surface oil accumulations identified within each image over the entire twenty year period. This study indicates that variances in mapped oil slick location and extent as well as the estimated amounts of oil present within each image may be attributed to image type and quality as well as environmental conditions.

  19. Field research on using oil herding surfactants to thicken oil slicks in pack ice for in-situ burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buist, I.; Potter, S. [S.L. Ross Environmental Research Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Nedwed, T. [ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co., Houston, TX (United States); Mullin, J. [Minerals Management Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Herndon, VA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Laboratory and field studies have been performed in recent years to determine the capability of herding agents to thicken oil slicks among loose pack ice for the purpose of in situ burning. In loose pack ice conditions where booms are not practical, effective in situ burns may be possible if thin slicks could be thickened to the 2 to 5 mm range. However, specific chemical surface-active agents known as herders are need to clear and contain oil slicks on an open water surface. The agents spread quickly over a water surface into a monomolecular layer due to their high spreading coefficients. The best agents have spreading pressures in the mid 40 mN/m range. As such, only small quantities of these surfactants are needed to clear thin films of oil from large areas of water surface, and to contract it into thicker slicks. This paper summarized the previous studies that evaluated shoreline-cleaning agents with oil herding properties. However, the main focus of this paper was on the final phase of testing conducted at the Prudhoe Bay Fire Training Grounds in November 2006 in which a series of outdoor burns were conducted at the scale of 30 m{sup 2} with herders and crude oil in a test pool containing pieces of ice. The tests revealed that when a herder was used on crude oil slicks that were otherwise unignitable, the slicks could be ignited and burned in situ in brash and slush ice conditions at temperatures as low as -17 degrees C. Both the removal rate and efficiencies for the herded slicks were comparable to the theoretical maximum achievable for mechanically contained slicks on open water. 13 refs., 1 tab., 18 figs.

  20. Research on using oil herding surfactants to thicken oil slicks in pack ice for in situ burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buist, I.; Morrison, J. [S.L. Ross Environmental Research Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The severe limitations of conventional containment and recovery systems for oil spills in pack ice have been demonstrated during skimmer tests conducted in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. In-situ burning may be one of the few viable alternatives to quickly remove oil spilled in pack ice, but the slicks are often too thin, preventing effective ignition or burning. This study examined ways to thicken the slicks to the 2- to 5-mm range so that effective burns could be carried out. Specific chemical surface-active agents known as oil herders or oil collecting agents can be used to clear and contain oil slicks on water surfaces. Since these agents can spread quickly on water, only a small quantity is needed to clear thin films of oil from large areas of water. Applying a chemical herder around the periphery of spilled oil can contract the oil into a thicker slick. Two chemical products were developed and tested in the 1970s and 1980s: Shell Herder and Exxon OC-5 Oil Collector. However, they are no longer used because they were effective only in very calm conditions. Corexit EC9580 which exhibits similar slick herding abilities and which has a spreading pressure of 39.5 mN/m is still commercially available. This study tested formulations of herding agents for use in pack ice. Concerns regarding the potential toxicity risk of using these agents in pack ice were also addressed. The agents should not harm the environment because they have low toxicity and only very small quantities are used. Two series of tests conducted to assess the potential for herding agents to help ignite and effectively burn thin oil slicks in loose pack ice conditions. The agents proved to be effective on cold water and on thick slicks. The composition of the oil played an important role in determining potential efficiency. It was concluded that applying herders to thin oil slicks in pack ice shows considerable promise for thickening them for in-situ burning. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 17 figs.

  1. Mid-scale test tank research on using oil herding surfactants to thicken oil slicks in pack ice : an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buist, I.; Potter, S. [S.L. Ross Environmental Research Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Meyer, P. [Ohmsett Facility, Leonardo, NJ (United States); Zabilansky, L. [CRREL, Hanover, NH (United States); Mullin, J. [Minerals Management Service, Herndon, VA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The use of chemical surface-active agents called oil herders to clear and contain oil slicks on open water surfaces is well known. This paper presented details of the first 2 of 3 planned mid-scale tests exploring the effectiveness of oil-herding agents in pack ice conditions for the purposes of in situ burning. A small scale preliminary assessment of a shoreline-cleaning agent with oil herding properties was carried out to assess its ability to herd oil on colder water and among ice. After it was observed that the cleaner herded slicks to thicknesses of 2 to 4 mm, a 2 week test program was then carried out at an ice engineering facility. A total of 17 tests were conducted in various concentrations of broken ice at a scale of 81 m{sup 2}. There was no difference in the effectiveness of the herder in 50 per cent and 70 per cent brash ice cover, and there appeared to be no difference between the effects of the herder in 10 per cent brash or frazil ice. The herder appeared to work as well at air temperatures of -21 degrees C as at 0 degrees C. Low wave action did not significantly affect the herder's action in the lowest ice concentration. However, with 30, 50, and 70 per cent ice cover, the wave action and its effects on the ice field broke the slick into many small slicks. In 30 per cent ice cover with waves, the herded slick remained large and contiguous for between 20 and 40 minutes. In the 50 per cent ice cover the slick remained contiguous for between 10 and 20 minutes with 50 per cent ice cover. With 70 per cent ice cover, the waves quickly converged the ice into 90 per cent coverage that compressed the oil into small interstices among the ice. An additional series of 5 tests was carried out to explore the use of herders on spreading oil slicks in free-drifting ice fields at a scale of 1000 m{sup 2}. Results indicated that there is considerable promise for the application of chemical herders to contract oil slicks in pack ice to thicknesses conducive to

  2. Using remote sensing to detect the polarized sunglint reflected from oil slicks beyond the critical angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingcheng; Zhou, Yang; Liu, Yongxue; Mao, Zhihua; Qian, Weixian; Wang, Mengqiu; Zhang, Minwei; Xu, Jiang; Sun, Shaojie; Du, Peijun

    2017-08-01

    The critical angle at which the brightness of oil slicks and oil-free seawater is reversed occurs under sunglint and is often shown as an area of uncertainty due to different roughness and surface Fresnel reflection parameters. Consequently, differentiating oil slicks from the seawater in these areas using optical sensors is a challenge. Polarized optical remote sensing techniques provide complementary information for intensity imagery with different physical properties and, thus, possess the ability to resolve this difficult problem. In the polarized reflectance model, the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) of sunglint depends on accurately knowing the Stokes parameter for the reflected light, and varies with the refractive index of the surface layer and viewing angles. For the polarized detection of oil slicks, the highest sensitivity of the DOLP to the refractive index is located within the specular reflection direction where the sum of the solar and sensor zenith angles is 82.6°. The modeled results clearly indicate that the DOLP of oil slicks is weaker in comparison with oil-free seawater under sunglint. Using measurements from the space-borne Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar (PARASOL) over the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, we illustrate that the PARASOL-derived DOLP difference between the oil spill and seawater is obvious and is in accordance with the modeled results. These preliminary results suggest that the potential of multiangle measurement and feasibility of deriving refractive index of ocean surface from space-borne sensors need further researches.

  3. Oil slick studies using photographic and multispectral scanner data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Macintyre, W. G.; Penney, M. E.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

    1971-01-01

    Field studies of spills of Nos. 6 (Bunker C), 4, and 2 fuel oils and menhaden fish oil in the southern Chesapeake Bay have been supplemented with aerial photographic and multispectral scanner data. Thin films showed best in ultraviolet and blue bands and thick films in the green. Color film was effective for all thicknesses. Thermal infrared imagery provided clear detection, but required field temperature and thickness data to distinguish thickness/emissivity variations from temperature variations. Slick spreading rates agree with the theory of Fay (1969); further study of spreading is in progress.

  4. Field research on using oil herding surfactants to thicken oil slicks in pack ice for in-situ burning. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buist, I.; Potter, S. [S.L. Ross Environmental Research Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Nedwed, T. [ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co., Houston, TX (United States); Mullin, J. [Minerals Management Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Herndon, VA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Laboratory and field studies have been performed in recent years to determine the capability of herding agents to thicken oil slicks among loose pack ice for the purpose of in situ burning. In loose pack ice conditions where booms are not practical, effective in situ burns may be possible if thin slicks could be thickened to the 2 to 5 mm range. However, specific chemical surface-active agents known as herders are need to clear and contain oil slicks on an open water surface. The agents spread quickly over a water surface into a monomolecular layer due to their high spreading coefficients. The best agents have spreading pressures in the mid 40 mN/m range. As such, only small quantities of these surfactants are needed to clear thin films of oil from large areas of water surface, and to contract it into thicker slicks. This paper summarized the previous studies that evaluated shoreline-cleaning agents with oil herding properties. However, the main focus of this paper was on the final phase of testing conducted at the Prudhoe Bay Fire Training Grounds in November 2006 in which a series of outdoor burns were conducted at the scale of 30 m{sup 2} with herders and crude oil in a test pool containing pieces of ice. The tests revealed that when a herder was used on crude oil slicks that were otherwise unignitable, the slicks could be ignited and burned in situ in brash and slush ice conditions at temperatures as low as -17 degrees C. Both the removal rate and efficiencies for the herded slicks were comparable to the theoretical maximum achievable for mechanically contained slicks on open water. 13 refs., 1 tab., 18 figs.

  5. Oil slick: the risk and the ordinary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, C.

    2004-01-01

    In order to fight oil contamination due to oil tanker accidents, it appears necessary and natural to implement new regulations through regular and more complete technical controls. It would be more efficient to define actions and policies from the true reality of sea transport. The simplified picture that appears just after an accident concerning the assumed relationships between the shipper, the public authorities and the insurance companies is far from depicting the reality. The safety relies more on mutual recommendations between the different actors of sea transport than on injunctions concerning particular points. The complexity, the specificities and particular constraints of sea trade have to be taken into account. (A.C.)

  6. An optical remote sensing model for estimating oil slick thickness based on two-beam interference theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingcheng; Li, Xiang; Tian, Qingjiu; Han, Wenchao

    2012-10-22

    Oil slick thickness was an important parameter for estimating oil spill volume. Two-beam interference theory could be used to interpret the behavior of reflected and refracted light in oil slick. A quantitative relationship between thickness and spectral reflectance of oil slick could be established based on this theory. Some parameters have the properties of numerical oscillation and can be ignored in practical application. In addition, numerical approximation results showed that two parameters of the relationship were closely related to the spectral reflectance of background water and the thick oil slick. Therefore, a practical model for estimating oil slick thickness could be derived and proved to be consisted with theoretical relationship.

  7. Biodegradation of oil slicks in the marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartha, R.

    1970-12-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatographic techniques were tested and standardized for recovery and quantitative measurement of partially biodegraded crude oil and of individual hydrocarbons. A model petroleum has been formulated from a limited number of chemically defined aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons as an aid for the interpretation of biodegradative changes that occur in complex crude oils. Various methods and devices were tested for containment and recovery of small experimental oil slicks in field studies. A device consisting of large-diameter vertical glass tubes held in a partially submerged position by a styrofoam float has been developed and tested. On sea salts media with individual hydrocarbons or with crude oils as the sole added carbon sources 40 strains of oil-degrading maine microrganisms have been isolated in pure culture. The substrate range of these organisms was evaluated on two types of crude oil and on 11 aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Aliphatic compounds supported the growth of most of the isolated cultures, but the substrate range of several organisms included also alicyclic and aromatic compounds. In laboratory tests, several isolates were able to degrade 35 to 40% of Sweden crude added to a sea salts solution in 1% by volume concentration.

  8. Analysis of the Contribution of Wind Drift Factor to Oil Slick Movement under Strong Tidal Condition: Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Case

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Yang, Chan-Su; Oh, Jeong-Hwan; Ouchi, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model and Automatic Wea...

  9. Importance of the slick thickness for effective in-situ burning of crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Brogaard, Nicholas L.; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2015-01-01

    height. The experiments were performed in a new experimental apparatus, the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus (COFA), which has been developed to study ISB of oil on water in a controlled laboratory environment with large water-to-oil ratios. The regression rate, average mass loss rate and burning...... efficiency reached a constant maximum value for all oils at slick thicknesses exceeding 10–20 mm. For thinner initial slick thicknesses, these values were greatly reduced, most likely due to heat losses to the water. A further increase in the initial slick thickness could not improve the burning efficiency...... above 75% for the crude oils, showing that it only has a limited effect on the burning efficiency as higher burning efficiencies have been reported for larger scales. Furthermore, the results showed that the burning mechanisms differ for pure and crude oil, indicating that the hydrocarbon mixture...

  10. Multi-sensor satellite survey of natural oil slicks in the southeastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mityagina, Marina I.; Lavrova, Olga Yu.

    2017-10-01

    Results of satellite observations of the Southeastern Black Sea are presented. Our work is aimed to the development and enhancement of satellite remote sensing technics for monitoring of sea surface oil pollution caused by the natural seepages of hydrocarbons from the seabed. We showed that multi-sensor approach to the satellite remote sensing survey contributes to a more comprehensive interpretation of the data and helps in developing a better understanding of the sea surface film pollution pattern. By using high-resolution satellite data, we were able to get a clear picture of a spatial and temporal variability of surface oil films and to show that their geographical distribution correlates with geographical locations of natural hydrocarbon seeps in this region. We used SAR for the precise estimation of the actual seafloor source location. We investigated the effect of surface winds and currents on transport, spreading, evolution, and persistence of oil slicks on the sea surface. We further demonstrated the importance of the effects of dynamic and circulation processes and natural factors (current meandering, vortical activity, and wind patterns) on the trajectory and fate of the released oil. We put together detailed maps of the sea surface oil pollution caused by natural hydrocarbons showings from the sea bottom in the south-eastern of the Black Sea and outlined the regions of the heaviest pollution.

  11. Discrimination of Oil Slicks and Lookalikes in Polarimetric SAR Images Using CNN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hao; Wu, Danni; An, Jubai

    2017-08-09

    Oil slicks and lookalikes (e.g., plant oil and oil emulsion) all appear as dark areas in polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images and are highly heterogeneous, so it is very difficult to use a single feature that can allow classification of dark objects in polarimetric SAR images as oil slicks or lookalikes. We established multi-feature fusion to support the discrimination of oil slicks and lookalikes. In the paper, simple discrimination analysis is used to rationalize a preferred features subset. The features analyzed include entropy, alpha, and Single-bounce Eigenvalue Relative Difference (SERD) in the C-band polarimetric mode. We also propose a novel SAR image discrimination method for oil slicks and lookalikes based on Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). The regions of interest are selected as the training and testing samples for CNN on the three kinds of polarimetric feature images. The proposed method is applied to a training data set of 5400 samples, including 1800 crude oil, 1800 plant oil, and 1800 oil emulsion samples. In the end, the effectiveness of the method is demonstrated through the analysis of some experimental results. The classification accuracy obtained using 900 samples of test data is 91.33%. It is here observed that the proposed method not only can accurately identify the dark spots on SAR images but also verify the ability of the proposed algorithm to classify unstructured features.

  12. Data Validation Package September 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traub, David [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nguyen, Jason [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-01-04

    The Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites are referred to as the Slick Rock West Processing Site (SRK05) and the Slick Rock East Processing Site (SRK06). This annual event involved sampling both sites for a total of 16 monitoring wells and 6 surface water locations as required by the 2006 Draft Final Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites (GCAP). A domestic well was also sampled at a property adjacent to the Slick Rock East site at the request of the landowner.

  13. Analysis of the Contribution of Wind Drift Factor to Oil Slick Movement under Strong Tidal Condition: Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Yang, Chan-Su; Oh, Jeong-Hwan; Ouchi, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model and Automatic Weather System (AWS) were used to generate tidal and wind fields respectively. Simulation results were then compared with 5 sets of spaceborne optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. From the present study, it was found that highest matching rate between the simulation results and satellite imagery was obtained with different values of the wind drift factor, and to first order, this factor was linearly proportional to the wind speed. Based on the results, a new modified empirical formula was proposed for forecasting the movement of oil slicks on the coastal area. PMID:24498094

  14. Analysis of the contribution of wind drift factor to oil slick movement under strong tidal condition: Hebei Spirit oil spill case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Ho Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC model and Automatic Weather System (AWS were used to generate tidal and wind fields respectively. Simulation results were then compared with 5 sets of spaceborne optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR data. From the present study, it was found that highest matching rate between the simulation results and satellite imagery was obtained with different values of the wind drift factor, and to first order, this factor was linearly proportional to the wind speed. Based on the results, a new modified empirical formula was proposed for forecasting the movement of oil slicks on the coastal area.

  15. Automatic Calculation of Oil Slick Area from Multiple SAR Acquisitions for Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanoğlu, B.; Özkan, C.; Sunar, F.; Staples, G.

    2012-07-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010 and became the largest accidental marine oil spill in history. Oil leaked continuously between April 20th and July 15th of 2010, releasing about 780, 000m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. The oil spill caused extensive economical and ecological damage to the areas it reached, affecting the marine and wildlife habitats along with fishing and tourism industries. For oil spill mitigation efforts, it is important to determine the areal extent, and most recent position of the contaminated area. Satellitebased oil pollution monitoring systems are being used for monitoring and in hazard response efforts. Due to their high accuracy, frequent acquisitions, large area coverage and day-and-night operation Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellites are a major contributer of monitoring marine environments for oil spill detection. We developed a new algorithm for determining the extent of the oil spill from multiple SAR images, that are acquired with short temporal intervals using different sensors. Combining the multi-polarization data from Radarsat-2 (C-band), Envisat ASAR (C-band) and Alos-PALSAR (L-band) sensors, we calculate the extent of the oil spill with higher accuracy than what is possible from only one image. Short temporal interval between acquisitions (hours to days) allow us to eliminate artifacts and increase accuracy. Our algorithm works automatically without any human intervention to deliver products in a timely manner in time critical operations. Acquisitions using different SAR sensors are radiometrically calibrated and processed individually to obtain oil spill area extent. Furthermore the algorithm provides probability maps of the areas that are classified as oil slick. This probability information is then combined with other acquisitions to estimate the combined probability map for the spill.

  16. AUTOMATIC CALCULATION OF OIL SLICK AREA FROM MULTIPLE SAR ACQUISITIONS FOR DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Osmanoğlu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010 and became the largest accidental marine oil spill in history. Oil leaked continuously between April 20th and July 15th of 2010, releasing about 780, 000m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. The oil spill caused extensive economical and ecological damage to the areas it reached, affecting the marine and wildlife habitats along with fishing and tourism industries. For oil spill mitigation efforts, it is important to determine the areal extent, and most recent position of the contaminated area. Satellitebased oil pollution monitoring systems are being used for monitoring and in hazard response efforts. Due to their high accuracy, frequent acquisitions, large area coverage and day-and-night operation Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR satellites are a major contributer of monitoring marine environments for oil spill detection. We developed a new algorithm for determining the extent of the oil spill from multiple SAR images, that are acquired with short temporal intervals using different sensors. Combining the multi-polarization data from Radarsat-2 (C-band, Envisat ASAR (C-band and Alos-PALSAR (L-band sensors, we calculate the extent of the oil spill with higher accuracy than what is possible from only one image. Short temporal interval between acquisitions (hours to days allow us to eliminate artifacts and increase accuracy. Our algorithm works automatically without any human intervention to deliver products in a timely manner in time critical operations. Acquisitions using different SAR sensors are radiometrically calibrated and processed individually to obtain oil spill area extent. Furthermore the algorithm provides probability maps of the areas that are classified as oil slick. This probability information is then combined with other acquisitions to estimate the combined probability map for the spill.

  17. Prediction model of oil slick movement in the Nemunas river (Lithuania)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatavicius, G.; Sakalauskiene, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Oil products (petroleum products) were used to fuel airplanes, cars and trucks, to heat the houses, and to make products like medicines and plastics. Even petroleum products make life easier, but extraction, production, movement, and use of them cause environment pollution in air, soil and water. There are several sources of water pollution, like ship traffic, oil refineries and other industry, which together deteriorate the river water quality and disturb the life within rivers and lakes. Rain as it falls through the air, or drains from urban areas and farmland, absorbs contaminants. The model has been developed based on the solution of the governing partial differential equations of flow and oil products for predicting the oil slick transformation in the rivers. In the present model, the processes included are advection, diffusion, evaporation and dissolution. The model can take into account all losses of oil products during the movement of oil slick. It can be used either as a real time basis to predict the movement of oil spill or as a scenario model to analyse to possible impact of accidental oil spill in to the rivers

  18. Comparisons of Circular Transmit and Linear Receive Compact Polarimetric SAR Features for Oil Slicks Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Compact polarimetric (CP synthetic aperture radar (SAR has proven its potential in distinguishing oil slicks and look-alikes. Polarimetric information can be retrieved directly from scattering vector or from reconstructed pseudo-Quad-Pol covariance matrix of CP SAR data. In this paper, we analysed features from Circular Transmit and Linear Receive (CTLR CP SAR data that are derived by taking both of these two methods. K-means clustering followed by accuracy assessment was also implemented for performance evaluation. Through experiments that were conducted based on L-band UAVSAR fully polarimetric data, it was found that optimum extraction methods varied for different features. The histogram analysis and segmentation results also demonstrated the comparable performance of CP SAR features in distinguishing different damping properties within oil slicks. This study proposed a framework of statistically analyzing polarimetric SAR (Pol-SAR features and provided guidelines for determining optimum feature extraction methods from CP SAR data and for marine oil-spills detection and classification.

  19. Design and hydrodynamic testing of an oil slick containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen-Jones, J.

    1997-01-01

    Aspects of mechanical containment of spilled oil were studied. The focus was on design problems and the development of a model for global loading on a horizontal catenary of a previously defined form. The result is then compared with existing theoretical formulations and an approximate model is developed for the effect of flow through the system in deep water. The modified result is again compared with accepted formulations and with sea-trial data. The leading edge of the skirt was observed to oscillate sinusoidally. Experimental results obtained from pressure transducer data and calibrated underwater video measurements show that the oscillation period diminishes with increases in tow speed. In contrast, the magnitude of the oscillation increases while mean deviation from datum draught returns to zero. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 31 figs

  20. Method of cleaning oil slicks and chemical spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billings, L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of cleaning a floating chemical spill on a body of water. It comprises: providing a quantity of popular bark-based pelleted or granular product, flotation means and a flexible net having openings generally smaller than the smallest whole pellet dimension of the pelleted product, spreading the net over a chemical spill on the body of water, connecting the floatation means to the net thereby supporting the net adjacent the surface of the body of water, placing the poplar bark-based product on the net, absorbing the floating chemical spill into the product, and removing the chemical soaked product from the body of water

  1. Interpreting sea surface slicks on the basis of the normalized radar cross-section model using RADARSAT-2 copolarization dual-channel SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivonin, D. V.; Skrunes, S.; Brekke, C.; Ivanov, A. Yu.

    2016-03-01

    A simple automatic multipolarization technique for discrimination of main types of thin oil films (of thickness less than the radio wave skin depth) from natural ones is proposed. It is based on a new multipolarization parameter related to the ratio between the damping in the slick of specially normalized resonant and nonresonant signals calculated using the normalized radar cross-section model proposed by Kudryavtsev et al. (2003a). The technique is tested on RADARSAT-2 copolarization (VV/HH) synthetic aperture radar images of slicks of a priori known provenance (mineral oils, e.g., emulsion and crude oil, and plant oil served to model a natural slick) released during annual oil-on-water exercises in the North Sea in 2011 and 2012. It has been shown that the suggested multipolarization parameter gives new capabilities in interpreting slicks visible on synthetic aperture radar images while allowing discrimination between mineral oil and plant oil slicks.

  2. TESTING THE GENERALIZATION EFFICIENCY OF OIL SLICK CLASSIFICATION ALGORITHM USING MULTIPLE SAR DATA FOR DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ozkan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine oil spills due to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, etc. are seriously affecting the fragile marine and coastal ecosystem and cause political and environmental concern. A catastrophic explosion and subsequent fire in the Deepwater Horizon oil platform caused the platform to burn and sink, and oil leaked continuously between April 20th and July 15th of 2010, releasing about 780,000 m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Today, space-borne SAR sensors are extensively used for the detection of oil spills in the marine environment, as they are independent from sun light, not affected by cloudiness, and more cost-effective than air patrolling due to covering large areas. In this study, generalization extent of an object based classification algorithm was tested for oil spill detection using multiple SAR imagery data. Among many geometrical, physical and textural features, some more distinctive ones were selected to distinguish oil and look alike objects from each others. The tested classifier was constructed from a Multilayer Perception Artificial Neural Network trained by ABC, LM and BP optimization algorithms. The training data to train the classifier were constituted from SAR data consisting of oil spill originated from Lebanon in 2007. The classifier was then applied to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill data in the Gulf of Mexico on RADARSAT-2 and ALOS PALSAR images to demonstrate the generalization efficiency of oil slick classification algorithm.

  3. Size Distribution and Dispersion of Droplets Generated by Impingement of Breaking Waves on Oil Slicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Miller, J.; Wang, J.; Koley, S. S.; Katz, J.

    2017-10-01

    This laboratory experimental study investigates the temporal evolution of the size distribution of subsurface oil droplets generated as breaking waves entrain oil slicks. The measurements are performed for varying wave energy, as well as large variations in oil viscosity and oil-water interfacial tension, the latter achieved by premixing the oil with dispersant. In situ measurements using digital inline holography at two magnifications are applied for measuring the droplet sizes and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for determining the temporal evolution of turbulence after wave breaking. All early (2-10 s) size distributions have two distinct size ranges with different slopes. For low dispersant to oil ratios (DOR), the transition between them could be predicted based on a turbulent Weber (We) number in the 2-4 range, suggesting that turbulence plays an important role. For smaller droplets, all the number size distributions have power of about -2.1, and for larger droplets, the power decreases well below -3. The measured steepening of the size distribution over time is predicted by a simple model involving buoyant rise and turbulence dispersion. Conversely, for DOR 1:100 and 1:25 oils, the diameter of slope transition decreases from ˜1 mm to 46 and 14 µm, respectively, much faster than the We-based prediction, and the size distribution steepens with increasing DOR. Furthermore, the concentration of micron-sized droplets of DOR 1:25 oil increases for the first 10 min after entrainment. These phenomena are presumably caused by the observed formation and breakup oil microthreads associated with tip streaming.

  4. MEDSLIK-II, a Lagrangian marine surface oil spill model for short-term forecasting – Part 1: Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Dominicis, M.; Pinardi, N.; Zodiatis, G.; Lardner, R.

    2013-01-01

    The processes of transport, diffusion and transformation of surface oil in seawater can be simulated using a Lagrangian model formalism coupled with Eulerian circulation models. This paper describes the formalism and the conceptual assumptions of a Lagrangian marine surface oil slick numerical model and rewrites the constitutive equations in a modern mathematical framework. The Lagrangian numerical representation of the oil slick requires three different state variables: the...

  5. An image-segmentation-based framework to detect oil slicks from moving vessels in the Southern African oceans using SAR imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mdakane, Lizwe W

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil slick events caused due to bilge leakage/dumps from ships and from other anthropogenic sources pose a threat to the aquatic ecosystem and need to be monitored on a regular basis. An automatic image-segmentation-based framework to detect oil...

  6. Assessment of oil slick hazard and risk at vulnerable coastal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaku Canu, Donata; Solidoro, Cosimo; Bandelj, Vinko; Quattrocchi, Giovanni; Sorgente, Roberto; Olita, Antonio; Fazioli, Leopoldo; Cucco, Andrea

    2015-05-15

    This work gives an assessment of the hazard faced by Sicily coasts regarding potential offshore surface oil spill events and provides a risk assessment for Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and Special Protection Areas (SPA). A lagrangian module, coupled with a high resolution finite element three dimensional hydrodynamic model, was used to track the ensemble of a large number of surface trajectories followed by particles released over 6 selected areas located inside the Sicily Channel. The analysis was carried out under multiple scenarios of meteorological conditions. Oil evaporation, oil weathering, and shore stranding are also considered. Seasonal hazard maps for different stranding times and seasonal risk maps were then produced for the whole Sicilian coastline. The results highlight that depending on the meteo-marine conditions, particles can reach different areas of the Sicily coast, including its northern side, and illustrate how impacts can be greatly reduced through prompt implementation of mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The sensitivity of the surface oil signature to subsurface dispersant injection and weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daae, Ragnhild L; Skancke, Jørgen; Brandvik, Per Johan; Faksness, Liv-Guri

    2018-02-01

    Subsea blowouts have the potential to spread oil across large geographical areas, and subsea dispersant injection (SSDI) is a response option targeted at reducing the impact of a blowout, especially reducing persistent surface oil slicks. Modified Weber scaling was used to predict oil droplet sizes with the OSCAR oil spill model, and to evaluate the surface oil volume and area when using SSDI under different conditions. Generally, SSDI reduces the amount of oil on the surface, and creates wider and thinner surface oil slicks. It was found that the reduction of surface oil area and volume with SSDI was enhanced for higher wind speeds. Overall, given the effect of SSDI on oil volume and weathering, it may be suggested that tar ball formation, requiring thick and weathered oil, could possibly be reduced when SSDI is used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Remote Detection of Oil Slicks at the Ocean Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    la historia del Golfo de México, así como el derrame marino más grande en la historia de la industria petrolera...Memorias La Geoinformación al Servicio de la Sociedad Medellín, Colombia 29 de Septiembre al 3 de Octubre de 2014 Sociedad Latinoamericana en...por la explosión del pozo petrolero Macondo y conocido con el nombre de Deepwater Horizon (DWH) o el Horizonte de Aguas Profundas, fue el

  9. Exploratory Data Analysis of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR Measurements to Distinguish the Sea Surface Expressions of Naturally-Occurring Oil Seeps from Human-Related Oil Spills in Campeche Bay (Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo de Araújo Carvalho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA aims to use Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR measurements for discriminating between two oil slick types observed on the sea surface: naturally-occurring oil seeps versus human-related oil spills—the use of satellite sensors for this task is poorly documented in scientific literature. A long-term RADARSAT dataset (2008–2012 is exploited to investigate oil slicks in Campeche Bay (Gulf of Mexico. Simple Classification Algorithms to distinguish the oil slick type are designed based on standard multivariate data analysis techniques. Various attributes of geometry, shape, and dimension that describe the oil slick Size Information are combined with SAR-derived backscatter coefficients—sigma-(σo, beta-(βo, and gamma-(γo naught. The combination of several of these characteristics is capable of distinguishing the oil slick type with ~70% of overall accuracy, however, the sole and simple use of two specific oil slick’s Size Information (i.e., area and perimeter is equally capable of distinguishing seeps from spills. The data mining exercise of our EDA promotes a novel idea bridging petroleum pollution and remote sensing research, thus paving the way to further investigate the satellite synoptic view to express geophysical differences between seeped and spilled oil observed on the sea surface for systematic use.

  10. Chronology and backtracking of oil slick trajectory to source in offshore environments using ultraspectral to multispectral remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammoglia, Talita; Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto de

    2015-07-01

    Offshore natural seepage confirms the occurrence of an active petroleum system with thermal maturation and migration, regardless its economic viability for petroleum production. Ocean dynamics, however, impose a challenge for correlation between oil seeps detected on the water surface and its source at the ocean floor. This hinders the potential use of seeps in petroleum exploration. The present study aims to estimate oil exposure time on the water surface via remote sensing in order to help locating ocean floor seepage sources. Spectral reflectance properties of a variety of fresh crude oils, oil films on water and oil-water emulsions were determined. Their spectral identity was used to estimate the duration of exposure of oil-water emulsions based on their temporal spectral responses. Laboratory models efficiently predicted oil status using ultraspectral (>2000 bands), hyperspectral (>300 bands), and multispectral (oil seepage recorded by the ASTER sensor on the Brazilian coast was used to test the designed predictive model. Results indicate that the model can successfully forecast the timeframe of crude oil exposure in the ocean (i.e., the relative "age" of the seepage). The limited spectral resolution of the ASTER sensor, though, implies less accurate estimates compared to higher resolution sensors. The spectral libraries and the method proposed here can be reproduced for other oceanic areas in order to approximate the duration of exposure of noticeable natural oil seepages. This type of information is optimal for seepage tracing and, therefore, for oceanic petroleum exploration and environmental monitoring.

  11. Slick trajectory predictions for the Arabian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurup, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    The environmental damage caused by slicks at sea and the subsequent deposition of tar on shores is wellknown. Contingent planning for successful deployment of men and material for slick combatment programs requires knowledge of calculated positions of the slick at any instant of time after the spill has occurred. The paper presents slick drift vectors for the Arabian Sea for every 2 degrees lat. x 2 degrees long. grids, calculated from monthly wind and current data obtained from the KNMI Atlas. Monthly charts have been produced to give the resultant drift trajectories of slicks from 61 hypothetical spills occurring in the vicinity of the shores of the Arabian SEa on the first day of every month. The location of possible slick deposition on the shore and the duration available for weathering have been predicted. Of 732 hypothetical spills studied, 135 may pollute the Indian coast with varying intensity. The period May-September provides more chances of severe oil deposition on the west coast of India while the period October-February may be critical for the western shores of the Arabian Sea. The drift velocities have highest magnitudes during July. Slicks from the furthermost spill considered (370 km offshore) takes only 14 days to reach the Indian shore during July. Spills occurring during December in the western Arabian Sea will affect the shores of Africa and Arabia severely

  12. Concentrations of the genotoxic metals, chromium and nickel, in whales, tar balls, oil slicks, and released oil from the gulf of Mexico in the immediate aftermath of the deepwater horizon oil crisis: is genotoxic metal exposure part of the deepwater horizon legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, John Pierce; Wise, James T F; Wise, Catherine F; Wise, Sandra S; Gianios, Christy; Xie, Hong; Thompson, W Douglas; Perkins, Christopher; Falank, Carolyne; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-01-01

    Concern regarding the Deepwater Horizon oil crisis has largely focused on oil and dispersants while the threat of genotoxic metals in the oil has gone largely overlooked. Genotoxic metals, such as chromium and nickel, damage DNA and bioaccumulate in organisms, resulting in persistent exposures. We found chromium and nickel concentrations ranged from 0.24 to 8.46 ppm in crude oil from the riser, oil from slicks on surface waters and tar balls from Gulf of Mexico beaches. We found nickel concentrations ranged from 1.7 to 94.6 ppm wet weight with a mean of 15.9 ± 3.5 ppm and chromium concentrations ranged from 2.0 to 73.6 ppm wet weight with a mean of 12.8 ± 2.6 ppm in tissue collected from Gulf of Mexico whales in the wake of the crisis. Mean tissue concentrations were significantly higher than those found in whales collected around the world prior to the spill. Given the capacity of these metals to damage DNA, their presence in the oil, and their elevated concentrations in whales, we suggest that metal exposure is an important understudied concern for the Deepwater Horizon oil disaster.

  13. Rapid microbial respiration of oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in offshore surface waters of the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Bethanie R; Reddy, Christopher M; Carmichael, Catherine A; Longnecker, Krista; Van Mooy, Benjamin A S [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole (United States); Camilli, Richard, E-mail: bvanmooy@whoi.edu [Department of Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole (United States)

    2011-07-15

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was one of the largest oil spills in history, and the fate of this oil within the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem remains to be fully understood. The goal of this study-conducted in mid-June of 2010, approximately two months after the oil spill began-was to understand the key role that microbes would play in the degradation of the oil in the offshore oligotrophic surface waters near the Deepwater Horizon site. As the utilization of organic carbon by bacteria in the surface waters of the Gulf had been previously shown to be phosphorus limited, we hypothesized that bacteria would be unable to rapidly utilize the oil released from the Macondo well. Although phosphate was scarce throughout the sampling region and microbes exhibited enzymatic signs of phosphate stress within the oil slick, microbial respiration within the slick was enhanced by approximately a factor of five. An incubation experiment to determine hydrocarbon degradation rates confirmed that a large fraction of this enhanced respiration was supported by hydrocarbon degradation. Extrapolating our observations to the entire area of the slick suggests that microbes had the potential to degrade a large fraction of the oil as it arrived at the surface from the well. These observations decidedly refuted our hypothesis. However, a concomitant increase in microbial abundance or biomass was not observed in the slick, suggesting that microbial growth was nutrient limited; incubations amended with nutrients showed rapid increases in cell number and biomass, which supported this conclusion. Our study shows that the dynamic microbial community of the Gulf of Mexico supported remarkable rates of oil respiration, despite a dearth of dissolved nutrients.

  14. Rapid microbial respiration of oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in offshore surface waters of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Bethanie R; Reddy, Christopher M; Carmichael, Catherine A; Longnecker, Krista; Van Mooy, Benjamin A S; Camilli, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was one of the largest oil spills in history, and the fate of this oil within the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem remains to be fully understood. The goal of this study-conducted in mid-June of 2010, approximately two months after the oil spill began-was to understand the key role that microbes would play in the degradation of the oil in the offshore oligotrophic surface waters near the Deepwater Horizon site. As the utilization of organic carbon by bacteria in the surface waters of the Gulf had been previously shown to be phosphorus limited, we hypothesized that bacteria would be unable to rapidly utilize the oil released from the Macondo well. Although phosphate was scarce throughout the sampling region and microbes exhibited enzymatic signs of phosphate stress within the oil slick, microbial respiration within the slick was enhanced by approximately a factor of five. An incubation experiment to determine hydrocarbon degradation rates confirmed that a large fraction of this enhanced respiration was supported by hydrocarbon degradation. Extrapolating our observations to the entire area of the slick suggests that microbes had the potential to degrade a large fraction of the oil as it arrived at the surface from the well. These observations decidedly refuted our hypothesis. However, a concomitant increase in microbial abundance or biomass was not observed in the slick, suggesting that microbial growth was nutrient limited; incubations amended with nutrients showed rapid increases in cell number and biomass, which supported this conclusion. Our study shows that the dynamic microbial community of the Gulf of Mexico supported remarkable rates of oil respiration, despite a dearth of dissolved nutrients.

  15. Deepwater Horizon - Estimating surface oil volume distribution in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, B.; Simecek-Beatty, D.; Leifer, I.

    2011-12-01

    Spill responders to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill required both the relative spatial distribution and total oil volume of the surface oil. The former was needed on a daily basis to plan and direct local surface recovery and treatment operations. The latter was needed less frequently to provide information for strategic response planning. Unfortunately, the standard spill observation methods were inadequate for an oil spill this size, and new, experimental, methods, were not ready to meet the operational demands of near real-time results. Traditional surface oil estimation tools for large spills include satellite-based sensors to define the spatial extent (but not thickness) of the oil, complemented with trained observers in small aircraft, sometimes supplemented by active or passive remote sensing equipment, to determine surface percent coverage of the 'thick' part of the slick, where the vast majority of the surface oil exists. These tools were also applied to DWH in the early days of the spill but the shear size of the spill prevented synoptic information of the surface slick through the use small aircraft. Also, satellite images of the spill, while large in number, varied considerably in image quality, requiring skilled interpretation of them to identify oil and eliminate false positives. Qualified staff to perform this task were soon in short supply. However, large spills are often events that overcome organizational inertia to the use of new technology. Two prime examples in DWH were the application of hyper-spectral scans from a high-altitude aircraft and more traditional fixed-wing aircraft using multi-spectral scans processed by use of a neural network to determine, respectively, absolute or relative oil thickness. But, with new technology, come new challenges. The hyper-spectral instrument required special viewing conditions that were not present on a daily basis and analysis infrastructure to process the data that was not available at the command

  16. Operational use of ocean surface drifters for tracking spilled oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamo, O. M.; Jensen, H.

    1997-01-01

    The use of Argos-positioned surface drifters by Norwegian engineers to monitor oil slicks in the North Sea was discussed. The system that was tested in June 1996 during the Norwegian Clean Seas Association oil-on-water exercise consisted of several GPS-positioned Argos drift trackers, an Argos receiver, a GPS navigator for the ship's position, and a PC with software for logging and displaying positions. Results of the field trial have been positive in that the system worked as expected. The range of direct transmission of signals from the buoys to the ship was about three nautical miles. The degree of accuracy of the relative positioning between the buoy GPS and the ship-borne GPS navigator was similar to the absolute positioning of single buoys. For best results, a minimum of two buoys and the use of lithium cells to increase battery capacity, were recommended. 3 refs., 5 figs

  17. A Laboratory Screening Study On The Use Of Solidifiers As A Response Tool To Remove Crude Oil Slicks On Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of five solidifiers to remove Prudhoe Bay crude oil from artificial seawater in the laboratory was determined by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The performance of the solidifers was determined by US-V...

  18. Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Appendix C to Attachment 3, Calculations. Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This volume contains calculations for: Slick Rock processing sites background ground water quality; Slick Rock processing sites lysimeter water quality; Slick Rock processing sites on-site and downgradient ground water quality; Slick Rock disposal site background water quality; Burro Canyon disposal site, Slick Rock, Colorado, average hydraulic gradients and average liner ground water velocities in the upper, middle, and lower sandstone units of the Burro Canyon formation; Slick Rock--Burro Canyon disposal site, Burro Canyon pumping and slug tests--analyses; water balance and surface contours--Burro Canyon disposal cell; and analytical calculation of drawdown in a hypothetical well completed in the upper sandstone unit of the Burro Canyon formation

  19. Simulation of an oil film at the sea surface and its radiometric properties in the SWIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenger, Frédéric; Van Eijk, Alexander M. J.

    2017-10-01

    The knowledge of the optical contrast of an oil layer on the sea under various surface roughness conditions is of great interest for oil slick monitoring techniques. This paper presents a 3D simulation of a dynamic sea surface contaminated by a floating oil film. The simulation considers the damping influence of oil on the ocean waves and its physical properties. It calculates the radiance contrast of the sea surface polluted by the oil film in relation to a clean sea surface for the SWIR spectral band. Our computer simulation combines the 3D simulation of a maritime scene (open clear sea/clear sky) with an oil film at the sea surface. The basic geometry of a clean sea surface is modeled by a composition of smooth wind driven gravity waves. Oil on the sea surface attenuates the capillary and short gravity waves modulating the wave power density spectrum of these waves. The radiance of the maritime scene is calculated in the SWIR spectral band with the emitted sea surface radiance and the specularly reflected sky radiance as components. Wave hiding and shadowing, especially occurring at low viewing angles, are considered. The specular reflection of the sky radiance at the clean sea surface is modeled by an analytical statistical bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of the sea surface. For oil at the sea surface, a specific BRDF is used influenced by the reduced surface roughness, i.e., the modulated wave density spectrum. The radiance contrast of an oil film in relation to the clean sea surface is calculated for different viewing angles, wind speeds, and oil types characterized by their specific physical properties.

  20. Barents Sea field test of herder to thicken oil for in-situ burning in drift ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buist, I.; Potter, S. [SL Ross Environmental Research Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Sorstrom, S.E. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim (Norway)

    2009-07-01

    Thick oil slicks are the key to effective in situ burning. Pack ice can enable in situ burning by keeping slicks thick. Oil spills in drift ice conditions can rapidly spread and become too thin to ignite. The application of chemical surface-active agents known as oil herders are commonly used in open waters to clean and contain oil slicks. Herders result in the formation of a monolayer of surfactants on the water surface and reduce the surface tension on the surrounding water considerably. When the surfactant monolayer reaches the edge of a thin oil slick, it changes the balance of interfacial forces acting on the slick edge and allows the interfacial tensions to contract the oil into thicker layers. This study examined the use of chemical herding agents to thicken oil spills in broken ice to allow them to be ignited and burned in situ. Two meso-scale field burn tests were conducted in May 2008 with crude oil slicks of about 0.1 and 0.7 m{sup 3} in open drift ice off Svalbard in the Barents Sea. Prior to the field experiments, 2 series of small laboratory tests were conducted using Heidrun and Statfjord crudes to determine the ability of the U.S. Navy herding agent to contract slicks of the oil. In the first field experiment involving 102 litres of fresh Heidrun, the slick was unexpectedly carried by currents to a nearby ice edge where the oil was ignited and burned. Approximately 80 per cent of the oil was consumed in the burn. In the second field experiment involving 630 litres of fresh Heidrun, the free-drifting oil was allowed to spread for 15 minutes until it was much too thin to ignite. When the herding agent was applied, the slick contracted and thickened for about 10 minutes and was then ignited using a gelled gas igniter. A 9-minute long burn consumed about 90 per cent of the oil. 9 refs., 5 tabs., 34 figs.

  1. Satellite and airborne oil spill remote sensing: State of the art and application to the BP DeepWater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, I.; Clark, R.; Jones, C.; Holt, B.; Svejkovsky, J.; Swayze, G.

    2011-01-01

    The vast, persistent, and unconstrained oil release from the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) challenged the spill response, which required accurate quantitative oil assessment at synoptic and operational scales. Experienced observers are the mainstay of oil spill response. Key limitations are weather, scene illumination geometry, and few trained observers, leading to potential observer bias. Aiding the response was extensive passive and active satellite and airborne remote sensing, including intelligent system augmentation, reviewed herein. Oil slick appearance strongly depends on many factors like emulsion composition and scene geometry, yielding false positives and great thickness uncertainty. Oil thicknesses and the oil to water ratios for thick slicks were derived quantitatively with a new spectral library approach based on the shape and depth of spectral features related to C-H vibration bands. The approach used near infrared, imaging spectroscopy data from the AVIRIS (Airborne Visual/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer) instrument on the NASA ER-2 stratospheric airplane. Extrapolation to the total slick used MODIS satellite visual-spectrum broadband data, which observes sunglint reflection from surface slicks; i.e., indicates the presence of oil and/or surfactant slicks. Oil slick emissivity is less than seawater's allowing MODIS thermal infrared (TIR) nighttime identification; however, water temperature variations can cause false positives. Some strong emissivity features near 6.7 and 9.7 ??m could be analyzed as for the AVIRIS short wave infrared features, but require high spectral resolution data. TIR spectral trends can allow fresh/weathered oil discrimination. Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SSAR) provided synoptic data under all-sky conditions by observing oil dampening of capillary waves; however, SSAR typically cannot discriminate thick from thin oil slicks. Airborne UAVSAR's significantly greater signal-to-noise ratio and fine spatial resolution allowed

  2. Photoassisted oxidation of oil films on water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.; Brock, J.R.

    1991-08-01

    The objective of the project is to develop TiO{sub 2}-based photocatalysts for the solar assisted oxidative dissolution of oil slicks. In a TiO{sub 2} crystal, absorption of a photon generates an electron-hole pair. The electron reacts with surface-adsorbed oxygen, reducing it to hydrogen peroxide; the hole directly oxidizes adsorbed organic compounds, usually via an intermediate OH radical. Since the density of TiO{sub 2} (3.8g/cc for anatase, 4.3 g/cc for rutile) is greater than that of either oil or seawater, TiO{sub 2} crystals are attached to inexpensive, engineered hollow glass microspheres to ensure flotation on the oil slick surface. Portions of the microsphere surface not covered by TiO{sub 2} are made oleophilic so that the microbeads will be preferentially attracted to the oil-air interface.

  3. Assessment of early life stage mahi-mahi windows of sensitivity during acute exposures to Deepwater Horizon crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Edward M; Pasparakis, Christina; Schlenker, Lela S; Yao, Zongli; Bodinier, Charlotte; Stieglitz, John D; Hoenig, Ronald; Morris, Jeffrey M; Benetti, Daniel D; Grosell, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Windows of exposure to a weathered Deepwater Horizon oil sample (slick A) were examined for early life stage mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) to determine whether there are developmental periods of enhanced sensitivity during the course of a standard 96-h bioassay. Survival was assessed at 96 h following oil exposures ranging from 2 h to 96 h and targeting 3 general periods of development, namely the prehatch phase, the period surrounding hatch, and the posthatch phase. In addition, 3 different oil preparations were used: high- and low-energy water accommodated fractions of oil and very thin surface slicks of oil (∼1 μm). The latter 2 were used to distinguish between effects due to direct contact with the slick itself and the water underlying the slick. Considering the data from all 3 exposure regimes, it was determined that the period near or including hatch was likely the most sensitive. Furthermore, toxicity was not enhanced by direct contact with slick oil. These findings are environmentally relevant given that the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons eliciting mortality from exposures during the sensitive periods of development were below or near concentrations measured during the active spill phase. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1887-1895. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  4. Bacterial communities of surface and deep hydrocarbon-contaminated waters of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Nigro, L. M.; McKay, L.; Ziervogel, K.; Gutierrez, T.; Teske, A.

    2010-12-01

    We performed a 16S rRNA gene sequencing survey of bacterial communities within oil-contaminated surface water, deep hydrocarbon plume water, and deep water samples above and below the plume to determine spatial and temporal patterns of oil-degrading bacteria growing in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil leak. In addition, we are reporting 16S rRNA sequencing results from time series incubation, enrichment and cultivation experiments. Surface oil slick samples were collected 3 nautical miles from ground zero, (5/6/10, RV Pelican) and were added to uncontaminated surface water (collected within a 30 nautical mile radius of ground zero, 5/6/10 - 5/9/10, RV Pelican). This mixture was incubated for 20 days in a rolling bottle at 25°C. 16S rRNA clone libraries from marine snow-like microbial flocs that had formed during the incubation yielded a highly diverse bacterial community, predominately composed of the Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, and a smaller number of Planktomycetes and other bacterial lineages. The most frequently recovered proteobacterial sequences were closely related to cultured species of the genus Cycloclasticus, specialists in aerobic oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. These time series incubation results will be compared to the microbial community structure of contaminated surface water, sampled on the same cruise with RV Pelican (5/6/10-5/9/10) and frozen immediately. Stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments with C13-labelled alkanes and polycyclic aromatic substrates and gulf water samples have yielded different enrichments. With naphthalene, predominantly Alteromonas-related clones and a smaller share of Cycloclasticus clones were recovered; phenanthrene yielded predominantly clones related to Cycloclasticus, and diverse other Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria. Analyses of SIP experiments with hexadecane are in progress. The microbial community composition of the deep hydrocarbon plume was characterized using water column profile samples taken

  5. State of the Art Satellite and Airborne Marine Oil Spill Remote Sensing: Application to the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    kelp beds, natural organics, pollen, plankton blooms, cloud shadows, jellyfish , algae, and guano washing off rocks have all been reported as oil by...susceptible to misidentification, as they appear similar to non-oil bio- logical slicks. In fact , the sea surface’s upper 1 mm is well described as a gelatinous...Airborne and spaceborne synthetic aperture radar Airborne SAR can map areas of interest at high spatial resolution (b10 m), with faster repeat times than

  6. The Parameters Controlling the Burning Efficiency of In-Situ Burning of Crude Oil on Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    Parameters that control the burning efficiency of in-situ burning of crude oil on water were identified by studying the influence of the initial slick thickness, vaporization order, oil slick diameter, weathering state of the oil, heat losses to the water layer and heat flux to the fuel surface...... on the burning efficiency for light and heavy crude oils. These parameters were studied in several small scale and intermediate scale experimental setups. The results showed that the heat losses to the water layer increase with increasing burning time because the components in a crude oil evaporate from volatile...... to non-volatile. Due to the relatively low heat feedback (reradiation and convection, in kW/m2) to the fuel surface of small scale pool fires, as compared to large scale pool fires, these heat losses were shown to limit the burning efficiency in small scale experiments. By subjecting small scale crude...

  7. Release of Crude Oil from Silica and Calcium Carbonate Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption and desorption of a North Sea crude oil to silica and calcium carbonate surfaces were studied by a quartz crystal microbalance, while the bare surfaces and adsorbed oil layers were characterized by atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements. Water contact angles were measured...... on the bare surfaces, surfaces with an adsorbed oil layer, and surfaces after being exposed to aqueous salt solutions. This showed that the silica surface became more hydrophobic after oil adsorption, while the wettability of the calcium carbonate surface was not significantly changed by adsorption of an oil...... layer. A surface energy component analysis based on the acid base theory showed that oil adsorption on the surfaces depends upon apolar, acidic, and basic oil components of the crude oil and that the adsorbed oil components differ for adsorption to silica and calcium carbonate. Desorption of the crude...

  8. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  9. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (42 USC section 7901 et seq.), hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miquel County. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 63 acres of the Union Carbide (UC) processing site and 15 ac of the North Continent (NC) processing site. The sites are within 1 mile of each other and are adjacent to the Dolores River. The sites contain concrete foundations of mill buildings, tailings piles, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive tailings materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 621,300 cubic yards (yd 3 ). In addition to the contamination in the two processing site areas, four VPs were found to contain contamination. As a result of the tailings being exposed to the environment, contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into shallow ground water. Surface water has not been affected. The closest residence is approximately 0.3 air mi from either site. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designing site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi northeast of the sites on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM)

  10. Surface studies of oil-seal degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. C.; Park, D.; Titchener, K. J.; Davies, R. E.; West, R. H.

    1995-11-01

    Fluoroelastomers are frequently used as engine oil-seal materials. Under certain test conditions specific fluoroelastomers may show degradation of mechanical properties. A range of fluoroelastomers of different chemical composition have been aged in simple oil/additive blends and in oil formulations equivalent to commercial blends. These were then examined using XPS, SEM/EPMA and XRD to elucidate the physical and chemical changes associated with degradation. The interaction is shown to proceed through amine catalysed post-curing of the constituent polymers. These reactions promote defluorination, embrittlement and cracking of elastomers with a consequent decline in tensile properties as fracture failure mechanisms dominate performance. Degradation of these materials was found, even in the most extreme case, to be limited to the near-surface region of the samples, to a depth of less than approximately 50 μm. Degradation was reduced in elastomers with a higher fluorine level, higher terpolymer content, and a greater extent of cross-linking.

  11. State of the art satellite and airborne marine oil spill remote sensing: Application to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ira; Lehr, William J.; Simecek-Beatty, Debra; Bradley, Eliza; Clark, Roger N.; Dennison, Philip E.; Hu, Yongxiang; Matheson, Scott; Jones, Cathleen E; Holt, Benjamin; Reif, Molly; Roberts, Dar A.; Svejkovsky, Jan; Swayze, Gregg A.; Wozencraft, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The vast and persistent Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill challenged response capabilities, which required accurate, quantitative oil assessment at synoptic and operational scales. Although experienced observers are a spill response's mainstay, few trained observers and confounding factors including weather, oil emulsification, and scene illumination geometry present challenges. DWH spill and impact monitoring was aided by extensive airborne and spaceborne passive and active remote sensing.Oil slick thickness and oil-to-water emulsion ratios are key spill response parameters for containment/cleanup and were derived quantitatively for thick (> 0.1 mm) slicks from AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) data using a spectral library approach based on the shape and depth of near infrared spectral absorption features. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite, visible-spectrum broadband data of surface-slick modulation of sunglint reflection allowed extrapolation to the total slick. A multispectral expert system used a neural network approach to provide Rapid Response thickness class maps.Airborne and satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides synoptic data under all-sky conditions; however, SAR generally cannot discriminate thick (> 100 μm) oil slicks from thin sheens (to 0.1 μm). The UAVSAR's (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR) significantly greater signal-to-noise ratio and finer spatial resolution allowed successful pattern discrimination related to a combination of oil slick thickness, fractional surface coverage, and emulsification.In situ burning and smoke plumes were studied with AVIRIS and corroborated spaceborne CALIPSO (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) observations of combustion aerosols. CALIPSO and bathymetry lidar data documented shallow subsurface oil, although ancillary data were required for confirmation.Airborne hyperspectral, thermal infrared data have nighttime and

  12. Linking Natural Oil Seeps from the Gulf of Mexico to Their Origin by Use of Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Logan C; Lobodin, Vladislav V; Johansen, Caroline; Bartges, Tessa E; Maksimova, Ekaterina V; MacDonald, Ian R; Marshall, Alan G

    2018-02-06

    We report chemical characterization of natural oil seeps from the Gulf of Mexico by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) and Gas Chromatography/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (GC/APCI-MS), to highlight how FT-ICR MS can also be employed as a means to determine petroleum connectivity, in addition to traditional GC/MS techniques. The source of petroleum is the Green Canyon (GC) 600 lease block in the Gulf of Mexico. Within GC600, two natural oil seepage zones, Mega Plume and Birthday Candles, continuously release hydrocarbons and develop persistent oil slicks at the sea surface above them. We chemically trace the petroleum from the surface oil slicks to the Mega Plume seep itself, and further to a petroleum reservoir 5 km away in lease block GC645 (Holstein Reservoir). We establish the connectivity between oil samples and confirm a common geological origin for the oil slicks, oil seep, and reservoir oil. The ratios of seven common petroleum biomarkers detected by GC/APCI-MS display clear similarity between the GC600 and GC645 samples, as well as a distinct difference from another reservoir oil collected ∼300 km away (Macondo crude oil from MC252 lease block). FT-ICR MS and principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrate further similarities between the GC600 and GC645 samples that distinctly differ from MC252. A common geographical origin is postulated for the GC600/GC645 samples, with petroleum migrating from the GC645 reservoir to the oil seeps found in GC600 and up through the water column to the sea surface as an oil slick.

  13. Design of a Low-cost Oil Spill Tracking Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Hu, X.; Yu, F.; Dong, S.; Chen, G.

    2017-12-01

    As the rapid development of oil exploitation and transportation, oil spill accidents, such as Prestige oil spill, Gulf of Mexico oil spill accident and so on, happened frequently in recent years which would result in long-term damage to the environment and human life. It would be helpful for rescue operation if we can locate the oil slick diffusion area in real time. Equipped with GNSS system, current tracking buoys(CTB), such as Lagrangian drifting buoy, Surface Velocity Program (SVP) drifter, iSLDMB (Iridium self locating datum marker buoy) and Argosphere buoy, have been used as oil tracking buoy in oil slick observation and as validation tools for oil spill simulation. However, surface wind could affect the movement of oil slick, which couldn't be reflected by CTB, thus the oil spill tracking performance is limited. Here, we proposed an novel oil spill tracking buoy (OSTB) which has a low cost of less than $140 and is equipped with Beidou positioning module and sails to track oil slick. Based on hydrodynamic equilibrium model and ocean dynamic analysis, the wind sails and water sails are designed to be adjustable according to different marine conditions to improve tracking efficiency. Quick release device is designed to assure easy deployment from air or ship. Sea experiment was carried out in Jiaozhou Bay, Northern China. OSTB, SVP, iSLDMB, Argosphere buoy and a piece of oil-simulated rubber sheet were deployed at the same time. Meanwhile, oil spill simulation model GNOME (general NOAA operational modeling environment) was configured with the wind and current field, which were collected by an unmanned surface vehicle (USV) mounted with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) and wind speed and direction sensors. Experimental results show that the OSTB has better relevance with rubber sheet and GNOME simulation results, which validate the oil tracking ability of OSTB. With low cost and easy deployment, OSTB provides an effective way for oil spill numerical

  14. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the slick rock Uranium Mill Tailings sites Slick Rock, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (42 USC {section} 7901 et seq.), hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the sites and on vicinity properties (VPs) associated with the sites. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 55 acres of the Union Carbide (UC) processing site and 12 ac of the North Continent (NC) processing site. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 61 8,300 cubic yards. In addition to the contamination in the two processing site areas, four VPs were found to contain contamination. As a result of the tailings being exposed to the environment, contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into shallow ground water. Surface water has not been affected. The closest residence is approximately 0.3 air mi from either site. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designated site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the sites on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Remediation would be performed by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. All solid contaminated materials would be buried under 5 feet (ft) of rock and soil materials. The proposed disposal site area is currently used by ranchers for cattle grazing over a 7-month period. The closest residence to the proposed disposal site is 2 air mi. An estimated 44 ac of land would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future use.

  15. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the slick rock Uranium Mill Tailings sites Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (42 USC section 7901 et seq.), hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the sites and on vicinity properties (VPs) associated with the sites. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 55 acres of the Union Carbide (UC) processing site and 12 ac of the North Continent (NC) processing site. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 61 8,300 cubic yards. In addition to the contamination in the two processing site areas, four VPs were found to contain contamination. As a result of the tailings being exposed to the environment, contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into shallow ground water. Surface water has not been affected. The closest residence is approximately 0.3 air mi from either site. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designated site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the sites on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Remediation would be performed by the DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. All solid contaminated materials would be buried under 5 feet (ft) of rock and soil materials. The proposed disposal site area is currently used by ranchers for cattle grazing over a 7-month period. The closest residence to the proposed disposal site is 2 air mi. An estimated 44 ac of land would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future use

  16. Detection of Natural Oil Seeps in the Atlantic Ocean Using MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reahard, Ross; Jones, Jason B.; Mitchell, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Natural oil seepage is the release of crude oil into the ocean from fissures in the seabed. Oil seepage is a major contributor to the total amount of oil entering the world s oceans. According to a 2003 study by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), 47 percent of oil entering the world s oceans is from natural seeps, and 53 percent is from human sources (extraction, transportation, and consumption). Oil seeps cause smooth oil slicks to form on the water s surface. Oil seeps can indicate the location of stores of fossil fuel beneath the ocean floor. Knowledge of the effect of oil seepage on marine life and marine ecosystems remains limited. In the past, remote sensing has been used to detect oil seeps in the Gulf of Mexico and off of the coast of southern California. This project utilized sun glint MODIS imagery to locate oil slicks off of the Atlantic coast, an area that had not previously been surveyed for natural oil seeps using remote sensing. Since 1982, the Atlantic Ocean has been closed to any oil and gas drilling. Recently, however, the U.S. Minerals Management Services (MMS) has proposed a lease for oil and gas drilling off the coasts of Virginia and North Carolina. Determining the location of seepage sites in the Atlantic Ocean will help MMS locate potential deposits of oil and natural gas, thereby reducing the risk of leasing areas for petroleum extraction that do not contain these natural resources.

  17. Technical summary of geological, hydrological, and engineering studies at the Slick Rock Uranium Mill Tailings sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the Colorado Department of Health (CDH) with a summary of the technical aspects of the proposed remedial action for the Slick Rock tailings near Slick Rock, Colorado. The technical issues summarized in this document are the geology and groundwater at the Burro Canyon disposal site and preliminary engineering considerations for the disposal cell

  18. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  19. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the sites and on vicinity properties (VP) associated with the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contained measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial actions at the Slick Rock sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

  20. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Slick Rock sites in order to revise the October 1977 engineering radioactive uranium mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 387,000 tons of tailings at the Slick Rock sites constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, consolidation of the piles, and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings sites. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $6,800,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $11,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 6.5 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Slick Rock tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $800/lb of U 3 O 8 whether by conventional or heap leach plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present, nor for the foreseeable future

  1. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Slick Rock sites in order to revise the October 1977 engineering radioactive uranium mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 387,000 tons of tailings at the Slick Rock sites constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, consolidation of the piles, and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings sites. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $6,800,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $11,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 6.5 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Slick Rock tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $800/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ whether by conventional or heap leach plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present, nor for the foreseeable future.

  2. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Slick Rock sites in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 387,000 tons of tailings at the Slick Rock sites constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, consolidation of the piles, and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings sites. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $6,800,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $11,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 6.5 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Slick Rock tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $800/lb of U 3 O 8 whether by conventional or heap leach plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present, nor for the foreseeable future

  3. Oil spillage recovery by vacuum trawl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkett, H.

    1992-01-01

    In this invention, floating oil is sucked from the surface of the sea under a skirt and into a tubular floating boom, along whose interior it is carried to water-oil separation means. The suction is produced by one or more ejectors which are supplied with sea water under pressure and may be located inside the boom, or immediately below it and connected into a separate pipe. The boom is used to enclose an oil slick and drawn tighter to increase the thickness of the oil layer. The oil enters the boom through holes in its upper half and then flows to the ejector(s) along separate internal tubes or between buoyancy balls. A fraction of the oil-water mixture withdrawn from the boom is pressurised and returned to ejector(s) and the rest is diverted to the separation means. (author)

  4. A review on technologies for oil shale surface retort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Y.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S.; Yang, S.A.; Ren, N.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, with the shortage of oil resources and the continuous increase in oil prices, oil shale has seized much more attention. Oil shale is a kind of important unconventional oil and gas resources. Oil shale resources are plentiful according to the proven reserves in places. And shale oil is far richer than crude oil in the world. Technology processing can be divided into two categories: surface retorting and in-situ technology. The process and equipment of surface retorting are more mature, and are still up to now, the main way to produce shale oil from oil shale. According to the variations of the particle size, the surface retorting technologies of oil shale can be notified and classified into two categories such as lump shale process and particulate shale process. The lump shale processes introduced in this article include the Fushun retorting technology, the Kiviter technology and the Petrosix technology; the particulate processes include the Gloter technology, the LR technology, the Tosco-II technology, the ATP (Alberta Taciuk Process) technology and the Enefit-280 technology. After the thorough comparison of these technologies, we can notice that, this article aim is to show off that : the particulate process that is environmentally friendly, with its low cost and high economic returns characteristics, will be the major development trend; Combined technologies of surface retorting technology and other oil producing technology should be developed; the comprehensive utilization of oil shale should be considered during the development of surface retorting technology, meanwhile the process should be harmless to the environment. (author)

  5. An oil spill-food chain interaction model for coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yew Hoong Gin, K.; Huda, Md. K.; Tkalich, P.

    2001-01-01

    An oil spill-food chain interaction model, composed of a multiphase oil spill model (MOSM) and a food chain model, has been developed to assess the probable impacts of oil spills on several key marine organisms (phytoplankton, zooplankton, small fish, large fish and benthic invertebrates). The MOSM predicts oil slick thickness on the water surface; dissolved, emulsified and particulate oil concentrations in the water column; and dissolved and particulate oil concentrations in bed sediments. This model is used to predict the fate of oil spills and transport with respect to specific organic compounds, while the food chain model addresses the uptake of toxicant by marine organisms. The oil spill-food chain interaction model can be used to assess the environmental impacts of oil spills in marine ecosystems. The model is applied to the recent Evoikos-Orapin Global oil spill that occurred in the Singapore Strait. (author)

  6. Effectiveness of a chemical herder in association with in-situ burning of oil spills in ice-infested water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    The average herded slick thickness, surface distribution and burning efficiency of a light crude oil were studied in ice-infested water to determine the effectiveness of a chemical herder in facilitating the in-situ burning of oil. Experiments were performed in a small scale (1.0m2......) and an intermediate scale (19m2) setup with open water and 3/10, 5/10 and 7/10 brash ice coverages. The herded slick thicknesses (3-8mm) were ignitable in each experiment. The presence of ice caused fracturing of the oil during the herding process, which reduced the size of the herded slicks and, as a consequence......, their ignitability, which in turn decreased the burning efficiency. Burning efficiencies relative to the ignited fraction of the oil were in the expected range (42-86%). This shows that the herder will be an effective tool for in-situ burning of oil when the ignitability issues due to fracturing of the oil...

  7. Satellite monitoring of sea surface pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, G.; Telfer, D. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Image processing techniques developed are well adapted to the exploration and isolation of local areas which exhibit small temperature differences between themselves and their surroundings. In the worst case of imagery of small areal extent of sea surface having no coastal boundary in the area, there is yet no method of distinguishing unambiguously an oil spill from fog, cloud, the effect produced by shallow sediments, or the effects of naturally occuring thermal fronts. In the case of uniform slicks of liquid North Sea oil in still air, laboratory simulation experiments show that, for oil thicknesses in excess of 1 or 2 mm, there is, under equilibrium conditions, little dependence of oil surface temperature on the thickness of the oil layer. The surface temperature of oil is consistently higher than that of water, the difference being about 1 K at low values of relative humidity, but tending to increase as the relative humidity increases.

  8. Sub-Surface Oil Monitoring Cruise (GU1002, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives were to evaluate ability of acoustic echosounder measurements to detect and localize a sub-surface plume of oil or related hydrocarbons released from the...

  9. Empirical weathering properties of oil in ice and snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buist, I.; Belore, R.; Guarino, A.; Hackenberg, D.; Dickins, D.; Wang, Z.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reported on a study which generated experimental data for validating weathering algorithms and computerized oil weathering models in the presence of ice and snow. Over a 4-year period, 6 laboratory-scale experiments were conducted at 3 facilities, notably an outdoor test facility near Ottawa, Ontario; an indoor wind/wave tank in Ottawa; and the Ohmsett Facility in New Jersey. The goals of the experiments were to study the fate of 4 Alaskan crude oils in terms of spreading on ice and in snow; evaporation in ice and snow; slick thickness on cold water; migration rates through brine channels; formation of water-in-oil emulsions; and full spill-related characterization of crude oil samples. The fate, behaviour and interactions of fresh crude oil spilled with first-year, land-fast sea ice were investigated using extensive laboratory testing with meso-scale verification. It was not possible to develop algorithms for emulsification process in drift or ice, or for the rate of appearance of oil on the surface of melting ice in spring. The study showed that oils whose pour point exceeds ambient temperature have unusual physical characteristics. As these oils cool, wax particles begin to precipitate from solution in the bulk oil and eventually form a polymer-like matrix in the oil that renders it a gel-like semi-solid. The oil therefore develops a resistance to flow. These changes significantly reduce the spreading of oil on water, on ice and through snow. The onset of the internal wax matrix also restricts diffusive movement of the volatile molecules through the slick to the air/oil surface that changes the way in which the oil evaporates. The reduced evaporation can be modelled using an internal resistance to mass transfer. 13 refs., 14 tabs., 18 figs

  10. Hyperspectral and Radar Airborne Imagery over Controlled Release of Oil at Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Angelliaume

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing techniques are commonly used by Oil and Gas companies to monitor hydrocarbon on the ocean surface. The interest lies not only in exploration but also in the monitoring of the maritime environment. Occurrence of natural seeps on the sea surface is a key indicator of the presence of mature source rock in the subsurface. These natural seeps, as well as the oil slicks, are commonly detected using radar sensors but the addition of optical imagery can deliver extra information such as thickness and composition of the detected oil, which is critical for both exploration purposes and efficient cleanup operations. Today, state-of-the-art approaches combine multiple data collected by optical and radar sensors embedded on-board different airborne and spaceborne platforms, to ensure wide spatial coverage and high frequency revisit time. Multi-wavelength imaging system may create a breakthrough in remote sensing applications, but it requires adapted processing techniques that need to be developed. To explore performances offered by multi-wavelength radar and optical sensors for oil slick monitoring, remote sensing data have been collected by SETHI (Système Expérimental de Télédection Hyperfréquence Imageur, the airborne system developed by ONERA (the French Aerospace Lab, during an oil spill cleanup exercise carried out in 2015 in the North Sea, Europe. The uniqueness of this dataset lies in its high spatial resolution, low noise level and quasi-simultaneous acquisitions of different part of the EM spectrum. Specific processing techniques have been developed to extract meaningful information associated with oil-covered sea surface. Analysis of this unique and rich dataset demonstrates that remote sensing imagery, collected in both optical and microwave domains, allows estimating slick surface properties such as the age of the emulsion released at sea, the spatial abundance of oil and the relative concentration of hydrocarbons remaining on

  11. Hyperspectral and Radar Airborne Imagery over Controlled Release of Oil at Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelliaume, Sébastien; Ceamanos, Xavier; Viallefont-Robinet, Françoise; Baqué, Rémi; Déliot, Philippe; Miegebielle, Véronique

    2017-08-02

    Remote sensing techniques are commonly used by Oil and Gas companies to monitor hydrocarbon on the ocean surface. The interest lies not only in exploration but also in the monitoring of the maritime environment. Occurrence of natural seeps on the sea surface is a key indicator of the presence of mature source rock in the subsurface. These natural seeps, as well as the oil slicks, are commonly detected using radar sensors but the addition of optical imagery can deliver extra information such as thickness and composition of the detected oil, which is critical for both exploration purposes and efficient cleanup operations. Today, state-of-the-art approaches combine multiple data collected by optical and radar sensors embedded on-board different airborne and spaceborne platforms, to ensure wide spatial coverage and high frequency revisit time. Multi-wavelength imaging system may create a breakthrough in remote sensing applications, but it requires adapted processing techniques that need to be developed. To explore performances offered by multi-wavelength radar and optical sensors for oil slick monitoring, remote sensing data have been collected by SETHI (Système Expérimental de Télédection Hyperfréquence Imageur), the airborne system developed by ONERA (the French Aerospace Lab), during an oil spill cleanup exercise carried out in 2015 in the North Sea, Europe. The uniqueness of this dataset lies in its high spatial resolution, low noise level and quasi-simultaneous acquisitions of different part of the EM spectrum. Specific processing techniques have been developed to extract meaningful information associated with oil-covered sea surface. Analysis of this unique and rich dataset demonstrates that remote sensing imagery, collected in both optical and microwave domains, allows estimating slick surface properties such as the age of the emulsion released at sea, the spatial abundance of oil and the relative concentration of hydrocarbons remaining on the sea surface.

  12. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites, Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (42 USC {section}7901 et seq.), hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miquel County. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 63 acres of the Union Carbide (UC) processing site and 15 ac of the North Continent (NC) processing site. The sites are within 1 mile of each other and are adjacent to the Dolores River. The sites contain concrete foundations of mill buildings, tailings piles, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive tailings materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 621,300 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}). In addition to the contamination in the two processing site areas, four VPs were found to contain contamination. As a result of the tailings being exposed to the environment, contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into shallow ground water. Surface water has not been affected. The closest residence is approximately 0.3 air mi from either site. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designing site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi northeast of the sites on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

  13. Application of oil spill model to marine pollution and risk control problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseev, Nikita; Agoshkov, Valery; Sheloput, Tatyana

    2017-04-01

    Oil transportation by sea induces challenging problems of environmental control. Millions of tonnes of oil are yearly released during routine ship operations, not to mention vast spills due to different accidents (e.g. tanker collisions, grounding, etc.). Oil pollution is dangerous to marine organisms such as plants, fish and mammals, leading to widespread damage to our planet. In turn, fishery and travel agencies can lose money and clients, and ship operators are obliged to pay huge penalties for environmental pollution. In this work we present the method of accessing oil pollution of marine environment using recently developed oil spill model. The model describes basic processes of the oil slick evolution: oil transport due to currents, drift under the action of wind, spreading on the surface, evaporation, emulsification and dispersion. Such parameters as slick location, mass, density of oil, water content, viscosity and density of "water-in-oil" emulsion can be calculated. We demonstrate how to apply the model to damage calculation problems using a concept of average damage to particular marine area. We also formulate the problem of oil spill risk control, when some accident parameters are not known, but their probability distribution is given. We propose a new algorithm to solve such problems and show results of our model simulations. The work can be interesting to broad environmental, physics and mathematics community. The work is supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant 16-31-00510.

  14. Wetting kinetics of oil mixtures on fluorinated model cellulose surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulin, Christian; Shchukarev, Andrei; Lindqvist, Josefina; Malmström, Eva; Wågberg, Lars; Lindström, Tom

    2008-01-15

    The wetting of two different model cellulose surfaces has been studied; a regenerated cellulose (RG) surface prepared by spin-coating, and a novel multilayer film of poly(ethyleneimine) and a carboxymethylated microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). The cellulose films were characterized in detail using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). AFM indicates smooth and continuous films on a nanometer scale and the RMS roughness of the RG cellulose and MFC surfaces was determined to be 3 and 6 nm, respectively. The cellulose films were modified by coating with various amounts of an anionic fluorosurfactant, perfluorooctadecanoic acid, or covalently modified with pentadecafluorooctanyl chloride. The fluorinated cellulose films were used to follow the spreading mechanisms of three different oil mixtures. The viscosity and surface tension of the oils were found to be essential parameters governing the spreading kinetics on these surfaces. XPS and dispersive surface energy measurements were made on the cellulose films coated with perfluorooctadecanoic acid. A strong correlation was found between the surface concentration of fluorine, the dispersive surface energy and the contact angle of castor oil on the surface. A dispersive surface energy less than 18 mN/m was required in order for the cellulose surface to be non-wetting (theta e>90 degrees ) by castor oil.

  15. State-of-the-art and research needs for oil spill impact assessment modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French-McCay, D.

    2009-01-01

    Many oil spill models focus on trajectory and fate in aquatic environments. Models designed to address subsurface oil concentrations typically overlay fates model concentration results on maps or grids of biological distributions to assess impacts. This paper discussed a state-of-the-art biological effects model designed to evaluate the impacts and dose of oil spill hydrocarbons on aquatic biota including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, invertebrates and plants. The biological effects model was coupled to an oil trajectory and fates spill impact model application package (SIMAP) in order to obtain accurate spatial and temporal quantifications of oil distributions and hydrocarbon component concentrations. Processes simulated in the model included slick spreading, evaporation of volatiles from surface oil, transport on the water surface, and various types of oil dispersion and emulsification. The design of the model was discussed, as well as strategies used for applying the model for hindcasts and risk assessments. 204 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  16. MEDSLIK oil spill model recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, Robin; Zodiatis, George

    2016-04-01

    MEDSLIK oil spill model recent developments Robin Lardner and George Zodiatis Oceanography Center, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus MEDSLIK is a well established 3D oil spill model that predicts the transport, fate and weathering of oil spills and is used by several response agencies and institutions around the Mediterranean, the Black seas and worldwide. MEDSLIK has been used operationally for real oil spill accidents and for preparedness in contingency planning within the framework of pilot projects with REMPEC-Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea and EMSA-European Maritime Safety Agency. MEDSLIK has been implemented in many EU funded projects regarding oil spill predictions using the operational ocean forecasts, as for example the ECOOP, NEREIDs, RAOP-Med, EMODNET MedSea Check Point. Within the frame of MEDESS4MS project, MEDSLIK is at the heart of the MEDESS4MS multi model oil spill prediction system. The MEDSLIK oil spill model contains among other, the following features: a built-in database with 240 different oil types characteristics, assimilation of oil slick observations from in-situ or aerial, to correct the predictions, virtual deployment of oil booms and/or oil skimmers/dispersants, continuous or instantaneous oil spills from moving or drifting ships whose slicks merge can be modelled together, multiple oil spill predictions from different locations, backward simulations for tracking the source of oil spill pollution, integration with AIS data upon the availability of AIS data, sub-surface oil spills at any given water depth, coupling with SAR satellite data. The MEDSLIK can be used for operational intervention for any user-selected region in the world if the appropriate coastline, bathymetry and meteo-ocean forecast files are provided. MEDSLIK oil spill model has been extensively validated in the Mediterranean Sea, both in real oil spill incidents (i.e. during the Lebanese oil pollution crisis in

  17. Natural and Unnatural Oil Layers on the Surface of the Gulf of Mexico Detected and Quantified in Synthetic Aperture RADAR Images with Texture Classifying Neural Network Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Garcia-Pineda, O. G.; Morey, S. L.; Huffer, F.

    2011-12-01

    similar estimate using 5x5 km grid cells, we observed discharged oil over an area of 1.20x10^5 km^2; 91% of this area was east of 90° W. The average area oil covered water observed in the SAR images was 4.41x104^ km^2, 98% of which was observed in the eastern Gulf. Numerical oil spill model experiments are used to clarify the distinction between the area impacted by the BP oil spill and the surface slicks due to known natural seeps. Natural oil seepage has been cited as a background source of hydrocarbon contamination in the Gulf of Mexico. Our direct comparison shows that during the blowout, the discharged oil impacted an average area two orders of magnitude greater than the entire Gulf total and three orders of magnitude greater than the usual dose received in the northeastern region. Because the layers of discharged oil were often many times thicker than natural seep oil, additional scale factors are required to show the true difference in doses. These differences should be weighed when evaluating the relative impact of natural and unnatural oil in a large marine ecosystem.

  18. Chemical oil-spill dispersants: evaluation of three laboratory procedures for estimating performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, J.R.; Marsden, P.

    1992-09-01

    The report presents data from studies designed to evaluate characteristics of selected bench-scale test methods for estimating performance of chemical agents for dispersing oil from surface slicks into an underlying water column. In order to mitigate the effect of surface slicks with chemical dispersant agents, however, an on-scene coordinator must have information and an understanding of performance characteristics for available dispersant agents. Performance of candidate dispersant agents can be estimated on the basis of laboratory testing procedures that are designed to evaluate performance of different agents. Data presented in the report assist in the evaluation of candidate test methods for estimating performance of candidate dispersant agents. Three test methods were selected for evaluating performance: the currently accepted Revised Standard EPA test, Environmental Canada's Swirling Flask test, and the IFP-Dilution test

  19. Measurements of oil spill spreading in a wave tank using digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, H.; Saavedra, I.; Andreatta, A.; Llona, G.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, an experimental study of spreading of crude oil is carried out in a wave tank. The tests are performed by spilling different volumes and types of crude oil on the water surface. An experimental measurement technique was developed based on digital processing of video images. The acquisition and processing of such images is carried out by using a video camera and inexpensive microcomputer hardware and software. Processing is carried out by first performing a digital image filter, then edge detection is performed on the filtered image data. The final result is a file that contains the coordinates of a polygon that encloses the observed slick for each time step. Different types of filters are actually used in order to adequately separate the color intensifies corresponding to each of the elements in the image. Postprocessing of the vectorized images provides accurate measurements of the slick edge, thus obtaining a complete geometric representation, which is significantly different from simplified considerations of radially symmetric spreading. The spreading of the oil slick was recorded for each of the tests. Results of the experimental study are presented for each spreading regime, and analyzed in terms of the wave parameters such as period and wave height. (author)

  20. Method and apparatus for recovering oil from an oil spill on the surface of a body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, R.W.; Patel, K.P.; Lau, P.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method of recovering a hydrophobic hydrocarbon oil from the surface of a body of water, the body of water having a water temperature, the oil having a specific gravity which is less than the specific gravity of the water in the body of water and a viscosity which is greater than approximately 80 centipoise at the water temperature. It comprises continuously withdrawing a feed oil-water mixture from the surface of the body of water; continuously adjusting the viscosity of the oil in the feed oil-water mixture to a level below approximately 80 centipoise to form an adjusted oil-water mixture; and continuously passing the adjusted oil-water mixture through an oil-water coalescer to separate the oil in the adjusted oil-water mixture from the water in the adjusted oil-water mixture

  1. Preparing near-surface heavy oil for extraction using microbial degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, Frederick D.; Rollins, John B.; Noyes, Harold J.; Bush, James G.

    2017-05-30

    In one embodiment, the invention provides a system including at least one computing device for enhancing the recovery of heavy oil in an underground, near-surface crude oil extraction environment by performing a method comprising sampling and identifying microbial species (bacteria and/or fungi) that reside in the underground, near-surface crude oil extraction environment; collecting rock and fluid property data from the underground, near-surface crude oil extraction environment; collecting nutrient data from the underground, near-surface crude oil extraction environment; identifying a preferred microbial species from the underground, near-surface crude oil extraction environment that can transform the heavy oil into a lighter oil; identifying a nutrient from the underground, near-surface crude oil extraction environment that promotes a proliferation of the preferred microbial species; and introducing the nutrient into the underground, near-surface crude oil extraction environment.

  2. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the processing sites and on vicinity properties (VPs) associated with the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contained measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect the ground water from further degradation. The sites contain concrete foundations of mill buildings, tailings piles, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive tailings materials. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designated site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the processing sites on land administered by the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Remediation would be performed by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project.

  3. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the processing sites and on vicinity properties (VPs) associated with the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contained measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect the ground water from further degradation. The sites contain concrete foundations of mill buildings, tailings piles, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive tailings materials. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designated site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the processing sites on land administered by the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Remediation would be performed by the DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project

  4. Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimizing Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the optimum processing conditions which give the maximum yield of oil extracted from tropical almond seed by the use of response surface methodology (RSM). The factors investigated were solvent concentration (50 – 100% v/v), extraction temperature (84 -100oC) and processing time (60 – 120 ...

  5. Evaluating technologies of oil spill surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hover, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Surveillance and monitoring of oil in the marine environment imposes a broad spectrum of remote sensing requirements. At the US Coast Guard Research ampersand Development Center, the environmental safety branch is sponsoring oil spill remote sensing research in four areas of technology: Synthetic aperture radar (SAR), Frequency-scanning microwave radiometry (FSR), Laser fluorosensing (LFS), and Forward-looking infrared (FLIR) imagers. SAR technology uses sophisticated signal processing to overcome prior limitations, providing images of higher and more uniform spatial acuity which may enable interpreters to more-readily distinguish petroleum slicks from others. The ability to determine the distribution of oil thickness within a slick is necessary when an estimate of oil volume is desired. Scientists at MIT have formulated a new approach to radiometric oil thickness measurement that takes advantage of recent advances in electronic component technology. The initial data collected with a prototype FSR instrument have validated the FSR concept and more work is ongoing. The Coast Guard is co-funding a program to demonstrate and evaluate the capabilities of an airborne laser fluorosensor to support oil spill response operations. During a controlled test, the instrument successfully demonstrated an ability to detect oil on water, ice, and various beach surfaces. Additional testing included different oil types and allowed for weathering. Data analysis is ongoing. Recent developments in infrared imager technology have produced a wide variety of off-the-shelf, portable cameras that could potentially provide a rapid-response spill assessment capability. The R ampersand D Center has been involved in the testing of many of these sensors

  6. Stranded oil in coastal sediments: permeation in tidal flats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harper, J. R; Humphrey, B

    1986-01-01

    Physical/sedimentological parameters determining the retention and penetration oil slicks in fine sediments were examined experimentally in natural and reconstituted cores, set up in a simulated tidal system...

  7. Influence of physical and chemical dispersion on the biodegradation of oil under simulated marine conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swannell, R. P. J.; Daniel, F.; Croft, B. C.; Engelhardt, M. A.; Wilson, S.; Mitchell, D. J.; Lunel, T.

    1997-01-01

    Dispersion and biodegradation of oil was studied in marine microcosms designed to simulate oil dispersion at sea. Dispersion was studied using both Phase Doppler Particle Analyser and a Chamber Slide technique. In both natural and artificial seawater, oil addition was observed to encourage the growth of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the presence of sufficient nitrogen and phosphorus. Results showed that microorganisms enhanced oil dispersion by colonizing physically-dispersed oil droplets and preventing re-coalescence with the surface slick. The addition of dispersants increased the rate of colonization as well as the number of degraded droplets. These results suggest that stimulation of physical dispersion by chemical means increase the rate of oil biodegradation under natural conditions. 25 refs., 3 tabs., 14 figs

  8. @iMaersk navigator@@ oil spill in the great channel (Andaman Sea) in January 1993 and its environmental impact

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Fondekar, S.P.; Shailaja, M.S.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Observations on oil slicks, tar residues and dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons (DPH) shortly after the oil spill resulting from the tanker accident in January 1993 showed negligible impact on the Indian EEZ of the Great Channel (Andaman Sea). DPH...

  9. Maersk navigator oil spill in the great channel (Andaman Sea) in January 1993 and its environmental impact

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Fondekar, S.P.; Shailaja, M.S.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Observations on oil slicks, tar residues and dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons (DPH) shortly after the oil spill resulting from the tanker accident in January 1993 showed negligible impact on the Indian EEZ of the Great Channel (Andaman Sea). DPH...

  10. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites Slick Rock, Colorado. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the sites and on vicinity properties (VP) associated with the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contained measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial actions at the Slick Rock sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  11. Thickness characterisation of oil spills using active microwave sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, Michael; Shuchman, Robert A.; Kletzli, D. W., Jr.; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Digranes, Gunar; Berg, Sverre; Dalland, Kjell

    1994-12-01

    Oil thickness is a crucial parameter in the characterization of oil spills for environmental impact. The feasibility of using active microwave sensors to measure thickness was addressed in a series of microwave scatterometer experiments performed by Simrad Marine A/S in a wave tank at the Nansen Environmental Remote Sensing Center. The thickness of the oil layer was maintained at levels similar to the thick part of an oil spill (0.1 - 1 mm). The measurements showed the capability of active microwave sensors to measure oil spill thickness when the oil type is known. In addition to thickness characterization, the experiment studied the effects of oil viscosity, incidence angle, wind speed, wind angle, microwave frequency, and polarization. The backscatter contrast was observed to be greater for lower incidence angles which indicates that the ERS-1 viewing geometry is optimum for the detection and measurement of thick oil slicks. A thickness-dependent backscatter model was developed which included the effects of oil viscosity, composite surface effects, and oil-water reflectivities. The model viscous effects saturated when the oil thickness was greater than the viscous boundary layer thickness. This explained the observed C-VV backscatter contrast saturation for low viscosity diesel oil at thicknesses greater than 0.15 mm. The model predicted contrast saturation at greater thicknesses for the higher viscosity oils. The data showed this trend but the measurements did not extend to thicknesses which tested the model completely.

  12. Protection of Oil Casing Tube Steel via Surface Treatment in China: a Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jiaojuan; Lin, Naiming; Qin, Lin; Tang, Bin; Xie, Faqin

    2013-04-01

    Oil casing tube is the foundation member of an oil well and it plays an important role in oil exploration and exploitation. The oil casing tubes are prone to failure induced by corrosion and wear during applications. Based on the fact that the damages caused by corrosion and wear are first generated on the surface of oil casing tube, adopting an appropriate surface treatment technology would be a promising approach to protect itself from deterioration. Surface treatments can fabricate protective layers with different composition or structure from the substrate. This paper reviewed the existing literatures about the protection of oil casing tube steel via surface treatment in China.

  13. Surface and groundwater management in the oil sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.G.; Barker, J.

    2004-02-01

    A study was conducted to examine the sublethal effects of oil sands constituents on gill and liver histopathology and fish reproduction. Field studies of food web dynamics were conducted using stable isotopes, including oil sands constituents degradation isotope studies. The objective was to determine changes in food web dynamics associated with reclamation methods and maturity using stable isotopes. The study related changes in toxicity to changes in ground and surface naphthenic acids concentration and composition. It also demonstrated the natural attenuation of toxic chemicals as they travel through groundwater to potential surface water receptors. A methodology was developed to assess the natural attenuation capacity for future situations involving process-affected groundwater of different chemistry with different critical potential contaminants such as sulphides, metals, and specific organics. The mobility and natural attenuation of process water chemicals migrating in groundwater was also assessed. tabs., figs

  14. Marine oil degrading bacteria related to oil inputs and surface currents in the western Caribbean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizarraga-Partida, M.L.; Vicuna, F.B.I.; Chang, I.W.

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of oil degrading bacteria (ODB) and its ratios to viable heterotrophic bacteria (CFU) and direct counts (AODC) were examined in relation to the surface currents of the western Caribbean Sea. High ODB/CFU and ODB/AODC ratios were found, suggesting that chronic sources of hydrocarbons in the region may have a larger impact than those in the southern Gulf of Mexico, where previous studies have been performed. It was concluded that, in western Caribbean waters, the distribution of oil degrading bacteria, or its ratios to CFU or AODC, could be useful indicators of chronic oil inputs originating at the east of the Caribbean Sea, as well as their motions afterwards. (author)

  15. Water and oil wettability of anodized 6016 aluminum alloy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, S. P.; Alves, C. F. Almeida; Cavaleiro, A.; Carvalho, S.

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports on the control of wettability behaviour of a 6000 series aluminum (Al) alloy surface (Al6016-T4), which is widely used in the automotive and aerospace industries. In order to induce the surface micro-nanostructuring of the surface, a combination of prior mechanical polishing steps followed by anodization process with different conditions was used. The surface polishing with sandpaper grit size 1000 promoted aligned grooves on the surface leading to static water contact angle (WCA) of 91° and oil (α-bromonaphthalene) contact angle (OCA) of 32°, indicating a slightly hydrophobic and oleophilic character. H2SO4 and H3PO4 acid electrolytes were used to grow aluminum oxide layers (Al2O3) by anodization, working at 15 V/18° C and 100 V/0 °C, respectively, in one or two-steps configuration. Overall, the anodization results showed that the structured Al surfaces were hydrophilic and oleophilic-like with both WCA and OCA below 90°. The one-step configuration led to a dimple-shaped Al alloy surface with small diameter of around 31 nm, in case of H2SO4, and with larger diameters of around 223 nm in case of H3PO4. The larger dimples achieved with H3PO4 electrolyte allowed to reach a slight hydrophobic surface. The thicker porous Al oxide layers, produced by anodization in two-step configuration, revealed that the liquids can penetrate easily inside the non-ordered porous structures and, thus, the surface wettability tended to superhydrophilic and superoleophilic character (CA mechanisms of porous structures, was broken. Moreover, thicker oxide layers with narrow pores of about 29 nm diameter allowed to achieve WCA mechanical components or in water-oil separation process.

  16. Second to none: Brazilian, Mexican oil giants turn to Canadian satellite system for eagle eye on offshore spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramp, B.

    2001-07-02

    The use by Petrobras of Canada's RADARSAT-1 earth observation satellite imaging system to determine the characteristics of the developing environmental disaster when the world's largest oil rig afloat, owned by Petrobras, was sinking of the Brazilian coast following a series of three explosions which seriously damaged the rig. RADARSAT-1 was pressed into service to determine the fate of the oil slick in terms of where it was heading and how soon it would get there, information that is vital to directing clean-up efforts to minimize the damage. RADARSAT-1 was also involved in responding to a tanker oil spill in January 2001 that threatened the Galapagos Islands off the coast of Ecuador. PEMEX, the Mexican state oil company also uses RADARSAT-1 satellite imagery to monitor its nearly 400 marine oil operations in the Gulf of Mexico. RADARSAT-1, launched in 1995 by the Canadian Space Agency, is well known for its reliability, regularity and rapidity. It is equipped with microwave sensors, which can be relied on to produce usable imagery 96 to 97 per cent of the time. It can acquire imagery day or night under any atmospheric conditions through its ability to penetrate darkness, cloud, rain or haze. This is crucial when tracking oil slicks in the ocean where clouds and haze are common, especially near or in the equatorial zones. RADARSAT-1 works by transmitting microwave energy, bouncing it off the earth's surface and back to the satellite. The returning signals are received and stored by the satellite as data. Oil slicks as small as 100 metres long can be detected from space by RADARSAT-1.

  17. Where the oil from surface and subsurface plumes deposited during/after Deepwater Horizon oil spill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, B.

    2016-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill released an estimated 4.9 million barrels (about 200 million gallons) of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico between April 20, 2010 and July 15, 2010. Though Valentine et al. has linked the elevated oil components in some sediments with the subsurface plume, the sites with fallout from the ocean surface plume has not been identified. This piece of information is critical not only for a comprehensive scientific understanding of the ecosystem response and fate of spill-related pollutants, but also for litigation purposes and future spill response and restoration planning. In this study we focus on testing the hypothesis that marine snow from the surface plume were deposited on the sea floor over a broad area. To do so, we use publicly available data generated as part of the ongoing Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process to assess the spatial distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in the water column and deep-ocean sediments of the Gulf of Mexico. Sensitive hydrocarbon markers are used to differentiate hydrocarbons from surface plume, deep subsurface plume, and in-situ burning. Preliminary results suggest the overlapping but different falling sites of these plumes and the sedimentation process was controlled by various biological, chemical, and physical factors.

  18. Simulation Oil Background Pollution of the Caspian Sea Based on Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, Sergey

    At present time scales of oil pollution of the seas constantly increase. Such critical juncture of things is characteristic for the Caspian Sea at the expense of increase of oil extraction and transportation. However pure oil (crude oil) is rare. Most spills are formed as a result of an oil tanker cracking or an oil platform problem. Oil products or surfactants (synthetic surfactants) are the most common reasons for the creation of oil slicks of man-made origin. These products get into the sea in most different ways: with river runoff, with ship wastes, with sewage water. A separate issue is the oil seeping from natural mud springs on the sea bottom - it forms thin oil films that, generally speaking, are not man-made pollutions. Nonetheless, they contribute to the total level of pollution, especially on the south-western part of the Caspian Sea. Remote radar sensing from space (SAR imagery) allow conducting diagnostics and observation of movement and transformation of oil pollution on sea surface. However they do not give an estimation of oil spills influence on values of oil content in water and the forecast of their transfer. In the report the model of distribution, destruction, evaporation and sedimentation of oil hydrocarbons is suggested for time interval 1993-2007. Oil hydrocarbons pollutions values of river runoff (more than 90This study was supported by the grant of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (06-05-64871), and by the INTAS Project "ALTImetry for Coastal REgions" (ALTICORE).

  19. Microbial activities and dissolved organic matter dynamics in oil-contaminated surface seawater from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ziervogel

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon oil spill triggered a complex cascade of microbial responses that reshaped the dynamics of heterotrophic carbon degradation and the turnover of dissolved organic carbon (DOC in oil contaminated waters. Our results from 21-day laboratory incubations in rotating glass bottles (roller bottles demonstrate that microbial dynamics and carbon flux in oil-contaminated surface water sampled near the spill site two weeks after the onset of the blowout were greatly affected by activities of microbes associated with macroscopic oil aggregates. Roller bottles with oil-amended water showed rapid formation of oil aggregates that were similar in size and appearance compared to oil aggregates observed in surface waters near the spill site. Oil aggregates that formed in roller bottles were densely colonized by heterotrophic bacteria, exhibiting high rates of enzymatic activity (lipase hydrolysis indicative of oil degradation. Ambient waters surrounding aggregates also showed enhanced microbial activities not directly associated with primary oil-degradation (β-glucosidase; peptidase, as well as a twofold increase in DOC. Concurrent changes in fluorescence properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM suggest an increase in oil-derived, aromatic hydrocarbons in the DOC pool. Thus our data indicate that oil aggregates mediate, by two distinct mechanisms, the transfer of hydrocarbons to the deep sea: a microbially-derived flux of oil-derived DOC from sinking oil aggregates into the ambient water column, and rapid sedimentation of the oil aggregates themselves, serving as vehicles for oily particulate matter as well as oil aggregate-associated microbial communities.

  20. The SLICK hair locus derived from Senepol cattle confers thermotolerance to intensively managed lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, S; Khan, F A; Huson, H J; Sonstegard, T S; Moss, J I; Dahl, G E; Hansen, P J

    2014-09-01

    The SLICK haplotype (http://omia.angis.org.au/OMIA001372/9913/) in cattle confers animals with a short and sleek hair coat. Originally identified in Senepol cattle, the gene has been introduced into Holsteins. The objectives of the current study were to determine (1) whether lactating Holsteins with the slick hair phenotype have superior ability for thermoregulation compared with wild-type cows or relatives not inheriting the SLICK haplotype, and (2) whether seasonal depression in milk yield would be reduced in SLICK cows. In experiment 1, diurnal variation in vaginal temperature in the summer was monitored for cows housed in a freestall barn with fans and sprinklers. Vaginal temperatures were lower in slick-haired cows than in relatives and wild-type cows. In experiment 2, acute responses to heat stress were monitored after cows were moved to a dry lot in which the only heat abatement was shade cloth. The increases in rectal temperature and respiration rate caused by heat stress during the day were lower for slick cows than for relatives or wild-type cows. Moreover, sweating rate was higher for slick cows than for cows of the other 2 types. In experiment 3, effects of season of calving (summer vs. winter) on milk yield and composition were determined. Compared with milk yield of cows calving in winter, milk yield during the first 90 d in milk was lower for cows calving in the summer. However, this reduction was less pronounced for slick cows than for wild-type cows. In conclusion, Holsteins with slick hair have superior thermoregulatory ability compared with non-slick animals and experience a less drastic depression in milk yield during the summer. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Some environmental problems and their satellite monitoring. [anthropogenic modifications of earth surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterman, J.

    1975-01-01

    Anthropogenic modification of the earth's surface is discussed in two problem areas: (1) land use changes and overgrazing, and how it affects albedo and land surface-atmosphere interactions, and (2) water and land surface pollution, especially oil slicks. A literature survey evidences the importance of these problems. The need for monitoring is stressed, and it is suggested that with some modifications to the sensors, ERTS (Landsat) series satellites can provide approximate monitoring information. The European Landsat receiving station in Italy will facilitate data collection for the tasks described.

  2. Response surface analysis to improve dispersed crude oil biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahed, Mohammad A.; Aziz, Hamidi A.; Mohajeri, Leila [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed H. [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2012-03-15

    In this research, the bioremediation of dispersed crude oil, based on the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus supplementation in the closed system, was optimized by the application of response surface methodology and central composite design. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model demonstrated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the hydrocarbon bioremediation (R{sup 2} = 0.9256). Statistical significance was checked by analysis of variance and residual analysis. Natural attenuation was removed by 22.1% of crude oil in 28 days. The highest removal on un-optimized condition of 68.1% were observed by using nitrogen of 20.00 mg/L and phosphorus of 2.00 mg/L in 28 days while optimization process exhibited a crude oil removal of 69.5% via nitrogen of 16.05 mg/L and phosphorus 1.34 mg/L in 27 days therefore optimization can improve biodegradation in shorter time with less nutrient consumption. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Surface Effect on Oil Transportation in Nanochannel: a Molecular Dynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haixia; Du, Yonggang; Xue, Qingzhong; Zhu, Lei; Li, Xiaofang; Lu, Shuangfang; Jin, Yakang

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the dynamics mechanism of oil transportation in nanochannel using molecular dynamics simulations. It is demonstrated that the interaction between oil molecules and nanochannel has a great effect on the transportation properties of oil in nanochannel. Because of different interactions between oil molecules and channel, the center of mass (COM) displacement of oil in a 6-nm channel is over 30 times larger than that in a 2-nm channel, and the diffusion coefficient of oil molecules at the center of a 6-nm channel is almost two times more than that near the channel surface. Besides, it is found that polarity of oil molecules has the effect on impeding oil transportation, because the electrostatic interaction between polar oil molecules and channel is far larger than that between nonpolar oil molecules and channel. In addition, channel component is found to play an important role in oil transportation in nanochannel, for example, the COM displacement of oil in gold channel is very few due to great interaction between oil and gold substrate. It is also found that nano-sized roughness of channel surface greatly influences the speed and flow pattern of oil. Our findings would contribute to revealing the mechanism of oil transportation in nanochannels and therefore are very important for design of oil extraction in nanochannels.

  4. Slick (Kcnt2 Sodium-Activated Potassium Channels Limit Peptidergic Nociceptor Excitability and Hyperalgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle L Tomasello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Slick (Kcnt2 sodium-activated potassium (K Na channel is a rapidly gating and weakly voltage-dependent and sodium-dependent potassium channel with no clearly defined physiological function. Within the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs, we show Slick channels are exclusively expressed in small-sized and medium-sized calcitonin gene–related peptide (CGRP-containing DRG neurons, and a pool of channels are localized to large dense-core vesicles (LDCV-containing CGRP. We stimulated DRG neurons for CGRP release and found Slick channels contained within CGRP-positive LDCV translocated to the neuronal membrane. Behavioral studies in Slick knockout (KO mice indicated increased basal heat detection and exacerbated thermal hyperalgesia compared with wild-type littermate controls during neuropathic and chronic inflammatory pain. Electrophysiologic recordings of DRG neurons from Slick KO mice revealed that Slick channels contribute to outward current, propensity to fire action potentials (APs, and to AP properties. Our data suggest that Slick channels restrain the excitability of CGRP-containing neurons, diminishing pain behavior after inflammation and injury.

  5. Relative abundance of 'Bacillus' spp., surfactant-associated bacterium present in a natural sea slick observed by satellite SAR imagery over the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Lynn Howe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The damping of short gravity-capillary waves (Bragg waves due to surfactant accumulation under low wind speed conditions results in the formation of natural sea slicks. These slicks are detectable visually and in synthetic aperture radar satellite imagery. Surfactants are produced by natural life processes of many marine organisms, including bacteria, phytoplankton, seaweed, and zooplankton. In this work, samples were collected in the Gulf of Mexico during a research cruise on the R/V 'F.G. Walton Smith' to evaluate the relative abundance of 'Bacillus' spp., surfactant-associated bacteria, in the sea surface microlayer compared to the subsurface water at 0.2 m depth. A method to reduce potential contamination of microlayer samples during their collection on polycarbonate filters was implemented and advanced, including increasing the number of successive samples per location and changing sample storage procedures. By using DNA analysis (real-time polymerase chain reaction to target 'Bacillus' spp., we found that in the slick areas, these surfactant-associated bacteria tended to reside mostly in subsurface waters, lending support to the concept that the surfactants they may produce move to the surface where they accumulate under calm conditions and enrich the sea surface microlayer.

  6. Experimental L-Band Airborne SAR for Oil Spill Response at Sea and in Coastal Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cathleen E; Holt, Benjamin

    2018-02-22

    Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is frequently used during oil spill response efforts to identify oil slick extent, but suffers from the major disadvantages of potential long latency between when a spill occurs and when a satellite can image the site and an inability to continuously track the spill as it develops. We show using data acquired with the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR (UAVSAR) instrument how a low noise, high resolution, L-band SAR could be used for oil spill response, with specific examples of tracking slick extent, position and weathering; determining zones of relatively thicker or more emulsified oil within a slick; and identifying oil slicks in coastal areas where look-alikes such as calm waters or biogenic slicks can confound the identification of mineral oil spills. From these key points, the essential features of an airborne SAR system for operational oil spill response are described, and further research needed to determine SAR's capabilities and limitations in quantifying slick thickness is discussed.

  7. Environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Abed; Mohammadi, Aliasghar

    2016-09-01

    Environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles are colloidal nanoparticles coated with, at least, two physicochemically distinct surface groups. Recent advances in the synthesis and production of nanoparticles have enabled the production of environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface groups. These nanoparticles act like colloidal surfactants. In this paper, environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles are synthesized and used for enhancement of oil recovery. For this purpose, silica nanoparticles are coated with polyethylene glycol chains as hydrophilic agent and propyl chains as hydrophobic agent at various quantities, and their ability to modulate oil-water interface properties and oil recovery is examined. Oil-water interfacial tension and water surface tension are decreased by 50 % in the presence of silica nanoparticles coated with both agents. Measuring oil-drop contact angle on oil-wetted glass slides and carbonate rock sections, after aging in various surface-modified silica nanofluids, indicates that the wettability of various oil-wetted surfaces is modified from strongly oil-wet to water-wet. Flooding nanofluids to glass micro-models and pore-level investigations demonstrate that surface modification of silica nanoparticles, specially, with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents improves considerably their performance in increasing oil recovery and wettability alteration.

  8. A Review of Oil Spill Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingas, Merv; Brown, Carl E

    2017-12-30

    The technical aspects of oil spill remote sensing are examined and the practical uses and drawbacks of each technology are given with a focus on unfolding technology. The use of visible techniques is ubiquitous, but limited to certain observational conditions and simple applications. Infrared cameras offer some potential as oil spill sensors but have several limitations. Both techniques, although limited in capability, are widely used because of their increasing economy. The laser fluorosensor uniquely detects oil on substrates that include shoreline, water, soil, plants, ice, and snow. New commercial units have come out in the last few years. Radar detects calm areas on water and thus oil on water, because oil will reduce capillary waves on a water surface given moderate winds. Radar provides a unique option for wide area surveillance, all day or night and rainy/cloudy weather. Satellite-carried radars with their frequent overpass and high spatial resolution make these day-night and all-weather sensors essential for delineating both large spills and monitoring ship and platform oil discharges. Most strategic oil spill mapping is now being carried out using radar. Slick thickness measurements have been sought for many years. The operative technique at this time is the passive microwave. New techniques for calibration and verification have made these instruments more reliable.

  9. Analysis of method of polarization surveying of water surface oil pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, B. S.

    1979-01-01

    A method of polarization surveying of oil films on the water surface is analyzed. Model calculations of contrasted oil and water obtained with different orientations of the analyzer are discussed. The model depends on the spectral range, water transparency and oil film, and the selection of observational direction.

  10. Effect of Specific Oil Surface Area on the Thermal Stressing of Rapeseed Oil During Heating in an Electric Frying Pan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobyliński, Jakub P; Krygier, Krzysztof; Karlovits, György; Szydłowska-Czerniak, Aleksandra

    The effect of specific oil surface (SOS) during pan frying of rapeseed oil on its thermal stability and antioxidant capacity (AC) was evaluated. Rapeseed oils with different oil layer heights (OLH = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 cm) were heated on an electric frying pan coated with Teflon at 180 ± 10 °C until a selected end point of 25 % total polar compounds (TPC) was reached. The changes of chemical parameters of oil samples such as peroxide value, p -anisidine value, Totox value, free fatty acids, TPC and AC using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay were determined. Irrespective of the applied methods, the highest changes in oil with OLH = 0.5 cm were observed. Heating in low OLH also led to the fastest time of TPC formation in rapeseed oil; the 0.5-cm layer reached 25 % TPC in a relatively short time (71.5 min) compared to the highest OLH = 2.5 cm ( t  = 315.1 min). The SOS and the rate of change in the heated oils decreased with increasing OLH. Crucial effects of SOS on physicochemical oil changes were observed. The present study demonstrated the protective effect of increasing the OLH on the quality of the heated rapeseed oils.

  11. Mathematical Modeling of Marine Oil Spills in the Luanjiakou District, near the Port of Yantai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daming Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation method for oil spills in a multi-island area. The simulation considers three parts, which consist of (1 the spreading of an oil slick on its edge as well as the diffusion and drift under dynamic actions, (2 the evaporation and spreading thickness of an oil slick in its interior, and (3 the adsorption and emulsification near shorelines and islands. The Euler-Lagrange method is adopted to track the spill location and particles positions on the edge of oil slicks. A mathematical model of marine oil spills is established for the Luanjiakou District of the Port of Yantai. The flow field verification shows that the BIAS of tidal level, flow velocity, and flow direction is below ±10 cm, 0.11 m/s, and ±2°, respectively, and the oil spill verification captures satisfactory results. Hence, the proposed model could reproduce the oil spill process in this region. Then, we simulate oil spills under various operating conditions. It is concluded that the transport of oil slicks is mainly influenced by flood/ebb currents, whereas the wind plays a major role in the drift and thickness of oil slicks. The study provides an important reference to controlling and handling of accidental oil spills.

  12. Simultaneous caving and surface restoration system for oil shale mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allsman, P.T.

    1968-10-01

    A modified caving method is introduced for mining oil shale and simultaneous restoration of the land surface by return of spent shale onto the subsided area. Other methods have been designed to mine the relatively thin richer beds occurring near outcrops in the Piceance Creek Basin of NW. Colorado. Since the discovery of the much thicker beds in the N.-central part of the basin, some attention has focused on in situ and open-pit methods of recovery. Although caving has been recognized as a possible means of mining shale, most people have been skeptical of its success. This stems from the unknown and salient factors of cavability and size of broken rock with caving. Wisdom would seem to dictate that serious evaluation of the caving method be made along with the other methods.

  13. Surface structure and properties of plant seed oil bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzen, J T; Huang, A H

    1992-04-01

    Storage triacylglycerols (TAG) in plant seeds are present in small discrete intracellular organelles called oil bodies. An oil body has a matrix of TAG, which is surrounded by phospholipids (PL) and alkaline proteins, termed oleosins. Oil bodies isolated from mature maize (Zea mays) embryos maintained their discreteness, but coalesced after treatment with trypsin but not with phospholipase A2 or C. Phospholipase A2 or C exerted its activity on oil bodies only after the exposed portion of oleosins had been removed by trypsin. Attempts were made to reconstitute oil bodies from their constituents. TAG, either extracted from oil bodies or of a 1:2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein, in a dilute buffer were sonicated to produce droplets of sizes similar to those of oil bodies; these droplets were unstable and coalesced rapidly. Addition of oil body PL or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, with or without charged stearylamine/stearic acid, or oleosins, to the medium before sonication provided limited stabilization effects to the TAG droplets. High stability was achieved only when the TAG were sonicated with both oil body PL (or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine) and oleosins of proportions similar to or higher than those in the native oil bodies. These stabilized droplets were similar to the isolated oil bodies in chemical properties, and can be considered as reconstituted oil bodies. Reconstituted oil bodies were also produced from TAG of a 1:2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein, dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, and oleosins from rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), rapeseed (Brassica napus), soybean (Glycine max), or jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). It is concluded that both oleosins and PL are required to stabilize the oil bodies and that oleosins prevent oil bodies from coalescing by providing steric hindrance. A structural model of an oil body is presented. The current findings on seed oil bodies could be extended to the intracellular storage lipid

  14. Environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles for enhanced oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behzadi, Abed; Mohammadi, Aliasghar

    2016-01-01

    Environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles are colloidal nanoparticles coated with, at least, two physicochemically distinct surface groups. Recent advances in the synthesis and production of nanoparticles have enabled the production of environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface groups. These nanoparticles act like colloidal surfactants. In this paper, environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles are synthesized and used for enhancement of oil recovery. For this purpose, silica nanoparticles are coated with polyethylene glycol chains as hydrophilic agent and propyl chains as hydrophobic agent at various quantities, and their ability to modulate oil–water interface properties and oil recovery is examined. Oil–water interfacial tension and water surface tension are decreased by 50 % in the presence of silica nanoparticles coated with both agents. Measuring oil-drop contact angle on oil-wetted glass slides and carbonate rock sections, after aging in various surface-modified silica nanofluids, indicates that the wettability of various oil-wetted surfaces is modified from strongly oil-wet to water-wet. Flooding nanofluids to glass micro-models and pore-level investigations demonstrate that surface modification of silica nanoparticles, specially, with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents improves considerably their performance in increasing oil recovery and wettability alteration.

  15. Environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behzadi, Abed; Mohammadi, Aliasghar, E-mail: amohammadi@sharif.edu [Sharif University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles are colloidal nanoparticles coated with, at least, two physicochemically distinct surface groups. Recent advances in the synthesis and production of nanoparticles have enabled the production of environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface groups. These nanoparticles act like colloidal surfactants. In this paper, environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles are synthesized and used for enhancement of oil recovery. For this purpose, silica nanoparticles are coated with polyethylene glycol chains as hydrophilic agent and propyl chains as hydrophobic agent at various quantities, and their ability to modulate oil–water interface properties and oil recovery is examined. Oil–water interfacial tension and water surface tension are decreased by 50 % in the presence of silica nanoparticles coated with both agents. Measuring oil-drop contact angle on oil-wetted glass slides and carbonate rock sections, after aging in various surface-modified silica nanofluids, indicates that the wettability of various oil-wetted surfaces is modified from strongly oil-wet to water-wet. Flooding nanofluids to glass micro-models and pore-level investigations demonstrate that surface modification of silica nanoparticles, specially, with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents improves considerably their performance in increasing oil recovery and wettability alteration.

  16. Age of oil palm plantations causes a strong change in surface biophysical variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabajo, Clifton; le Maire, Guerric; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades, Indonesia has experienced dramatic land transformations with an expansion of oil palm plantations at the expense of tropical forests. As vegetation is a modifier of the climate near the ground these large-scale land transformations are expected to have major impacts on the surface biophysical variables i.e. surface temperature, albedo, and vegetation indices, e.g. the NDVI. Remote sensing data are needed to assess such changes at regional scale. We used 2 Landsat images from Jambi Province in Sumatra/Indonesia covering a chronosequence of oil palm plantations to study the 20 - 25 years life cycle of oil palm plantations and its relation with biophysical variables. Our results show large differences between the surface temperature of young oil palm plantations and forest (up to 9.5 ± 1.5 °C) indicating that the surface temperature is raised substantially after the establishment of oil palm plantations following the removal of forests. During the oil palm plantation lifecycle the surface temperature differences gradually decreases and approaches zero around an oil palm plantation age of 10 years. Similarly, NDVI increases and the albedo decreases approaching typical values of forests. Our results show that in order to assess the full climate effects of oil palm expansion biophysical processes play an important role and the full life cycle of oil palm plantations need to be considered.

  17. Probing the intrinsically oil-wet surfaces of pores in North Sea chalk at subpore resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassenkam, Tue; Skovbjerg, Lone Lindbæk; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane

    2009-01-01

    Ultimate Oil recovery from chalk reservoirs is limited by many factors - including the grain size and the surface properties of the small mainly biogenic calcite particles that chalk is made off . Wettability, the tendency for water or oil to spread over a surface, of the particle surfaces is one......, not a product of later migration of oil into the reservoir, which is known to alter the wettability of the surfaces. The data indicated distinct patches, with diameters ranging from 500 to 50 nm, which appears to have different wettability The size of the patches is significantly less than the size of the chalk...

  18. Supplement to the UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) provides the regulatory and technical basis for ground water and surface water sampling at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Union Carbide (UC) and North Continent (NC) processing sites and the Burro Canyon disposal site near Slick Rock, Colorado. The initial WSAP was finalized in August 1994 and will be completely revised in accordance with the WSAP guidance document (DOE, 1995) in late 1996. This version supplements the initial WSAP, reflects only minor changes in sampling that occurred in 1995, covers sampling scheduled for early 1996, and provides a preliminary projection of the next 5 years of sampling and monitoring activities. Once surface remedial action is completed at the former processing sites, additional and more detailed hydrogeologic characterization may be needed to develop the Ground Water Program conceptual ground water model and proposed compliance strategy. In addition, background ground water quality needs to be clearly defined to ensure that the baseline risk assessment accurately estimated risks from the contaminants of potential concern in contaminated ground water at the UC and NC sites

  19. Hydrophobic surface functionalization of Philippine natural zeolite for a targeted oil remediation application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osonio, Airah P.; Olegario-Sanchez, Eleanor M.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study is to modify and compare the oil sorption capacity on the surface of natural zeolite (NZ) and functionalized natural zeolite (FNZ) and to compare with activated charcoal samples. The NZ samples were surface modified via esterification process and characterized using XRD, SEM, and IR spectroscopy. The NZ, FNZ and activated charcoal were then tested using ASTM method F726-12 to validate the oil sorption capacity and TGA was used for the oil selectivity of the adsorbents. The results indicate that FNZ has an improved oil/water adsorption capacity than NZ when functionalized with ester and has a comparable capacity with activated charcoal.

  20. Partial Photochemical Oxidation Was a Dominant Fate of Deepwater Horizon Surface Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Collin P; Sharpless, Charles M; Valentine, David L; French-McCay, Deborah P; Aeppli, Christoph; White, Helen K; Rodgers, Ryan P; Gosselin, Kelsey M; Nelson, Robert K; Reddy, Christopher M

    2018-02-20

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout in 2010, oil floated on the Gulf of Mexico for over 100 days. In the aftermath of the blowout, substantial accumulation of partially oxidized surface oil was reported, but the pathways that formed these oxidized residues are poorly constrained. Here we provide five quantitative lines of evidence demonstrating that oxidation by sunlight largely accounts for the partially oxidized surface oil. First, residence time on the sunlit sea surface, where photochemical reactions occur, was the strongest predictor of partial oxidation. Second, two-thirds of the partial oxidation from 2010 to 2016 occurred in less than 10 days on the sunlit sea surface, prior to coastal deposition. Third, multiple diagnostic biodegradation indices, including octadecane to phytane, suggest that partial oxidation of oil on the sunlit sea surface was largely driven by an abiotic process. Fourth, in the laboratory, the dominant photochemical oxidation pathway of DWH oil was partial oxidation to oxygenated residues rather than complete oxidation to CO 2 . Fifth, estimates of partial photo-oxidation calculated with photochemical rate modeling overlap with observed oxidation. We suggest that photo-oxidation of surface oil has fundamental implications for the response approach, damage assessment, and ecosystem restoration in the aftermath of an oil spill, and that oil fate models for the DWH spill should be modified to accurately reflect the role of sunlight.

  1. Spill-of-opportunity testing of dispersant effectiveness at the Mega Borg oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, J.R.; Martrano, R.J.; Reilly, T.J.; Lindblom, G.P.; Kennicutt, M.C. II; Brooks, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The release of 3.9 million gallons of Angola Planca crude oil from the stricken tanker Mega Borg 57 miles offshore of Galveston, Texas in June 1990 provided a valuable opportunity to document dispersant effectiveness under field conditions. Aerial application of Corexit 9527 (968 gallons total in four adjacent passes) onto an identified test portion of the slick was evaluated by concurrent observations from a command-and-control aircraft and surface vessels (with videotape and 35-mm photographic documentation) and ground truth measurements, including continuous 4-meter-depth ultraviolet/fluorescence and a discrete water sampling program. Using the study plan outlined by Payne and colleagues, target and control areas were designated before dispersant application by deployment of smoke bombs and coded three-meter drogues. Postdispersant surface vessel placement and 30 liter water sampling activities from the Texas A ampersand M research vessel HOS Citation were aided by the smoke bombs, the free-drifting drogues, and directions from the command-and-control aircraft. Subsequent FID GC and GC/MS analyses of water sample extracts allowed quantitation of the dispersed oil concentrations under both treated and control areas. Although the spilled oil was extremely light (API gravity 39.0) and subject to significant natural dispersion, the field observations, filmed documentation, and water column data clearly demonstrated an increase in dispersed oil concentrations beneath the treated slick. The distribution of dispersed oil droplets was very heterogeneous and reflected the patchy distribution of oil on the water surface before dispersant application. Maximum concentrations of dispersed hydrocarbons in the center of the treated zone were 22,000 μg/L (22 ppm) for total aliphatic and 5.6 μg/L (5.6 ppb) for total aromatics 60 to 90 minutes after dispersant application. Elevated levels were generally limited to the upper 1 to 3 meters of the water column

  2. Immersion condensation on oil-infused heterogeneous surfaces for enhanced heat transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong; Miljkovic, Nenad; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing condensation heat transfer is important for broad applications from power generation to water harvesting systems. Significant efforts have focused on easy removal of the condensate, yet the other desired properties of low contact angles and high nucleation densities for high heat transfer performance have been typically neglected. In this work, we demonstrate immersion condensation on oil-infused micro and nanostructured surfaces with heterogeneous coatings, where water droplets nucleate immersed within the oil. The combination of surface energy heterogeneity, reduced oil-water interfacial energy, and surface structuring enabled drastically increased nucleation densities while maintaining easy condensate removal and low contact angles. Accordingly, on oil-infused heterogeneous nanostructured copper oxide surfaces, we demonstrated approximately 100% increase in heat transfer coefficient compared to state-of-the-art dropwise condensation surfaces in the presence of non-condensable gases. This work offers a distinct approach utilizing surface chemistry and structuring together with liquid-infusion for enhanced condensation heat transfer.

  3. Evaluating bacterial community structures in oil collected from the sea surface and sediment in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Jiqing

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial community structures were evaluated in oil samples using culture-independent pyrosequencing, including oil mousses collected on sea surface and salt marshes during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and oil deposited in sediments adjacent to the wellhead 1 year after the spill. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that Erythrobacter, Rhodovulum, Stappia, and Thalassospira of Alphaproteobacteria were the prevailing groups in the oil mousses, which may relate to high temperatures and strong ...

  4. A role for analytical chemistry in advancing our understanding of the occurrence, fate, and effects of Corexit Oil Dispersants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Ben; Anderson, Brian; Mekebri, Abdou; Furlong, Edward T.; Gray, James L.; Tjeerdema, Ron; Field, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    On April 24, 2010, the sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig resulted in the release of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. As of July 19, 2010, the federal government's Deepwater Horizon Incident Joint Information Center estimates the cumulative range of oil released is 3,067,000 to 5,258,000 barrels, with a relief well to be completed in early August. By comparison, the Exxon Valdez oil spill released a total of 260,000 barrels of crude oil into the environment. As of June 9, BP has used over 1 million gallons of Corexit oil dispersants to solubilize oil and help prevent the development of a surface oil slick. Oil dispersants are mixtures containing solvents and surfactants that can exhibit toxicity toward aquatic life and may enhance the toxicity of components of weathered crude oil. Detailed knowledge of the composition of both Corexit formulations and other dispersants applied in the Gulf will facilitate comprehensive monitoring programs for determining the occurrence, fate, and biological effects of the dispersant chemicals. The lack of information on the potential impacts of oil dispersants has caught industry, federal, and state officials off guard. Until compositions of Corexit 9500 and 9527 were released by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency online, the only information available consisted of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), patent documentation, and a National Research Council report on oil dispersants. Several trade and common names are used for the components of the Corexits. For example, Tween 80 and Tween 85 are oligomeric mixtures.

  5. Utjecaj naftnog zagađenja na površinski mikrosloj mora (Influence of Oil Contamination on the Sea Surface Microlayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frka Milosavljević, S.

    2006-12-01

    catch of fish fishery recruitment in the coastal waters. Also, petroleum films can have a marked impact on exchange of heat, gases and particulate matter between the atmosphere and the ocean. It is a known fact that petroleum films due to the static effect retard evaporation, increase the temperature of the water surface film and decrease the aeration rate. Also, oil slicks are known to decrease turbulence at the interface, to damp wind-generated waves and to expert a strong effect on gas fluxes by hydrodynamic effects. Oil pollution of the SSM is extremely hazardous, especially to the closed and semi-closed costal marine environments, like the Adriatic Sea, where human influence may produce catastrophic effect on the whole marine ecosystem. A more systematic approach to research in physicochemical and biological processes of the SSM is needed for better understanding of this important environmental interface and its exact role in global distribution of human-borne contaminants.

  6. Natural sunlight shapes crude oil-degradingbacterial communities in northern Gulf of Mexico surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando P Bacosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH site with amendments of crude oil, Corexit dispersant, or both for 36 d under natural sunlight in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bacterial community was analyzed over time for total abundance, density of alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, and community composition via pyrosequencing. Our results showed that, for treatments with oil and/or Corexit, sunlight significantly reduced bacterial diversity and evenness and was a key driver of shifts in bacterial community structure. In samples containing oil or dispersant, sunlight greatly reduced abundance of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus but increased the relative abundances of Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Labrenzia, Sandarakinotalea, Bartonella, and Halomonas. Dark samples with oil were represented by members of Thalassobius, Winogradskyella, Alcanivorax, Formosa, Pseudomonas, Eubacterium, Erythrobacter, Natronocella, and Coxiella. Both oil and Corexit inhibited the Candidatus Pelagibacter with or without sunlight exposure. For the first time, we demonstrated the effects of light in structuring microbial communities in water with oil and/or Corexit. Overall, our findings improve understanding of oil pollution in surface water, and provide unequivocal evidence that sunlight is a key factor in determining bacterial community composition and dynamics in oil polluted marine waters.

  7. Femtosecond laser fabrication of robust underwater superoleophobic and anti-oil surface on sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Dongkai; Yin, Kai; Dong, Xinran; Luo, Zhi; Duan, Ji-An

    2017-11-01

    Due to the presence of unique micro/nanostructures on the surface, fish's scale exhibits underwater superoleophobicity and keeps clean even in oil-polluted water. Inspired from this, we propose a facile method for the fabrication of underwater superoleophobic and anti-oil sapphire surface with line-patterned nanostructures by femtosecond laser. The as-prepared surface shows great superoleophobicity that the oil contact angles can reach up to 153° for 1, 2-dichloroethane droplets in water and low oil-adhesion. At the same time, the relationship between the microgrooves' period and surface wettability is studied, and the results indicate that the underwater superoleophobicity and low oil-adhesion can be achieved using a wide range of processing parameters. Meanwhile, the obtained surface is demonstrated to exhibit excellent stability. Moreover, the self-cleaning anti-oil ability of the as-prepared surface is conducted, and the potential mechanism of which is discussed. This technique has potential applications for the fabrication of underwater oil repelling devices and microfluidics.

  8. Macondo-1 well oil in sediment and tarballs from the northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Florence L.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Thomas, Burt

    2011-01-01

    From April 20 through July 15, 2010, an estimated 4.4 million barrels (1 barrel = 42 gallons [~700,000 cu m]) of crude oil spilled into the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) from the ruptured British Petroleum (BP) Macondo-1 (M-1) well after the explosion of the drilling platform Deepwater Horizon. In addition, ~1.84 million gallons (~7,000 cu m) of hydrocarbon-based Corexit dispersants were applied to the oil both on and below the sea surface (Operational Science Advisory Team, 2010). An estimate of the total extent of the surface oil slick, derived from wind, ocean currents, aerial photography, and satellite imagery, was 68,000 square miles (~180,000 sq km; Amos and Norse, 2010). Spilled oil from this event impacted sensitive habitat along the shores of the nGOM. In response to this environmental catastrophe, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected coastal sediment and tarball samples along the shores of the nGOM from Texas to Florida before and after oil made landfall. These sites included priority areas of the nGOM at highest risk for oil contamination. These areas included coastal wetlands, shorelines, and barrier islands that could suffer severe environmental damage if a significant amount of oil came ashore. Samples were collected before oil reached land from 69 sites; 49 were revisited to collect samples after oil landfall. This poster focuses on the samples from locations that were sampled on both occasions. The USGS samples and one M-1 well-oil sample provided by BP were analyzed for a suite of diagnostic geochemical biomarkers. Aided by multivariate statistical analysis, the M-1 well oil was not detected in the samples collected before landfall but have been identified in sediment and tarballs collected from Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida after landfall. None of the sediment hydrocarbon extracts from Texas correlated with the M-1 well oil. Oil-impacted sediment is confined to the shoreline adjacent to the cumulative oil slick of the

  9. Damping of short gravity-capillary waves due to oil derivatives film on the water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergievskaya, Irina; Ermakov, Stanislav; Lazareva, Tatyana

    2016-10-01

    In this paper new results of laboratory studies of damping of gravity-capillary waves on the water surface covered by kerosene are presented and compared with our previous analysis of characteristics of crude oil and diesel fuel films. Investigations of kerosene films were carried out in a wide range values of film thicknesses (from some hundreds millimetres to a few millimetres) and in a wide range of surface wave frequencies (from 10 to 27 Hz). The selected frequency range corresponds to the operating wavelengths of microwave, X- to Ka-band radars typically used for the ocean remote sensing. The studied range of film thickness covers typical thicknesses of routine spills in the ocean. It is obtained that characteristics of waves, measured in the presence of oil derivatives films differ from those for crude oil films, in particular, because the volume viscosity of oil derivatives and crude oil is strongly different. To retrieve parameters of kerosene films from the experimental data the surface wave damping was analyzed theoretically in the frame of a model of two-layer fluid. The films are assumed to be soluble, so the elasticity on the upper and lower boundaries is considered as a function of wave frequency. Physical parameters of oil derivative films were estimated when tuning the film parameters to fit theory and experiment. Comparison between wave damping due to crude oil, kerosene and diesel fuel films have shown some capabilities of distinguishing of oil films from remote sensing of short surface waves.

  10. Convergent Evolution of Slick Coat in Cattle through Truncation Mutations in the Prolactin Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laercio R. Porto-Neto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary adaptations are occasionally convergent solutions to the same problem. A mutation contributing to a heat tolerance adaptation in Senepol cattle, a New World breed of mostly European descent, results in the distinct phenotype known as slick, where an animal has shorter hair and lower follicle density across its coat than wild type animals. The causal variant, located in the 11th exon of prolactin receptor, produces a frameshift that results in a truncated protein. However, this mutation does not explain all cases of slick coats found in criollo breeds. Here, we obtained genome sequences from slick cattle of a geographically distinct criollo breed, namely Limonero, whose ancestors were originally brought to the Americas by the Spanish. These data were used to identify new causal alleles in the 11th exon of the prolactin receptor, two of which also encode shortened proteins that remove a highly conserved tyrosine residue. These new mutations explained almost 90% of investigated cases of animals that had slick coats, but which also did not carry the Senepol slick allele. These results demonstrate convergent evolution at the molecular level in a trait important to the adaptation of an animal to its environment.

  11. Surfactant-associated bacteria and natural sea slicks in application to satellite oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, K.; Dean, C.; Kluge, J.; Soloviev, A.; Shivji, M.; Lehner, S.; Perrie, W. A.; Tartar, A.

    2016-12-01

    The sea surface microlayer (SML) is a vital environmental boundary involved in Earth's biogeochemical processes, such as heat, gas, and momentum exchange at the air-sea interface (Carlson et al. 1988, Cunliffe et al. 2013, Liss and Duce 2005). Under favorable conditions, natural slicks form on the sea surface and are visible in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery due to the damping of Bragg waves by surfactants. Surface-active agents (surfactants) reside in the SML and associated subsurface water (SSW) and are the byproducts of life processes of marine organisms such as phytoplankton, zooplankton, and seaweed (Gade et al. 2013); the focus of this work is bacteria. A new approach to reduce contamination during sample collection, handling, and lab processing has been further expanded upon and implemented in this study (Kurata et al. 2016, Hamilton et al. 2015). Microlayer and subsurface samples have been collected in the Straits of Florida and the Gulf of Mexico during Radarsat-2 and TerraSAR-X overpasses. As part of the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (CARTHE), over 100 samples were collected in the Gulf of Mexico near De Soto Canyon in February 2016. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of these samples show a wide variability of relative abundance of Bacillus spp., a well-known surfactant-associated bacteria (Satpute et al. 2010), between the SML and SSW. NextGen sequencing (Illuming MiSeq) results will be analyzed to determine exact bacterial community composition of sea surface microlayer and subsurface samples. We plan to expand our observational sites to several locations in the World Ocean.

  12. Spreading of oil films on water in the surface tension regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Surface tension forces will cause an oil to spread over water if the tension of the oil film (the summed surface and interfacial tensions for bulk oil films, or the equilibrium spreading tension for monomolecular films) is less than the surface tension of water. For oil films spreading in a 40 cm long channel, measurements are made of leading edge position and lateral profiles of film thickness, velocity, and tension as a function of time. Measurements of the tension profiles, important for evaluating proposed theories, is made possible by the development of a new technique based on the Wilhelmy method. The oils studied were silicones, fatty acids and alcohols, and mixtures of surfactants in otherwise nonspreading oils. The single-component oils show an acceleration zone connecting a slow-moving inner region with a fast-moving leading monolayer. The dependence of film tension on film thickness for spreading single-component oils often differs from that at equilibrium. The mixtures show a bulk oil film configuration which extends to the leading edge and have velocity profiles which increase smoothly. The theoretical framework, similarity transformation, and asymptotic solutions of Foda and Cox for single-component oils were shown to be valid. An analysis of spreading surfactant-oil mixtures is developed which allows them to be treated under this framework. An easily-used semi-empirical model is proposed which allows them to be treated under this framework. An easily-used semi-empirical model is proposed which allows accurate prediction of detailed spreading behavior for any spreading oil.

  13. Quantification of the effect of oil layer thickness on entrainment of surface oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaas Dijkstra; Albertinka J. Murk; Marieke Zeinstra-Helfrich; Wierd Koops

    2015-01-01

    This study quantifies the effect of oil layer thickness on entrainment and dispersion of oil into seawater, using a plunging jet with a camera system. In contrast to what is generally assumed, we revealed that for the low viscosity “surrogate MC252 oil” we used, entrainment rate is directly

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, evaluates potential public health and environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former North Continent (NC) and Union Carbide (UC) uranium mill processing sites. The tailings at these sites will be placed in a disposal cell at the proposed Burro Canyon, Colorado, site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates the start of the first phase remedial action by the spring of 1995 under the direction of the DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project will evaluate ground water contamination. This baseline risk assessment is the first site-specific document for these sites under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the compliance strategy for contaminated ground water at the site. In addition, surface water and sediment are qualitatively evaluated in this report

  15. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, evaluates potential public health and environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former North Continent (NC) and Union Carbide (UC) uranium mill processing sites. The tailings at these sites will be placed in a disposal cell at the proposed Burro Canyon, Colorado, site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates the start of the first phase remedial action by the spring of 1995 under the direction of the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project will evaluate ground water contamination. This baseline risk assessment is the first site-specific document for these sites under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the compliance strategy for contaminated ground water at the site. In addition, surface water and sediment are qualitatively evaluated in this report.

  16. Genome-wide association study and ancestral origins of the slick-hair coat in tropically adapted cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The slick hair coat (SLICK) is a dominantly inherited trait typically associated with tropically adapted cattle that are from Criollo descent through Spanish colonization of cattle into the New World. The trait is of interest relative to climate change, due to its association with improved thermo-t...

  17. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF PROTOCOLS FOR EVALUATION OF OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protocols were developed and evaluated to assess the efficacy and environmental safety of commercial oil spill bioremediation agents (CBAs). Test systems that simulate oil slicks on open water or oiled sandy beaches were used to test the effectiveness of CBAs. Gravimetric and gas...

  18. [Optimization for supercritical CO2 extraction with response surface methodology of Prunus armeniaca oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei-Fei; Wu, Yan; Ge, Fa-Huan

    2012-03-01

    To optimize the extraction conditions of Prunus armeniaca oil by Supercritical CO2 extraction and identify its components by GC-MS. Optimized of SFE-CO extraction by response surface methodology and used GC-MS to analysis Prunus armeniaca oil compounds. Established the model of an equation for the extraction rate of Prunus armeniaca oil by supercritical CO2 extraction, and the optimal parameters for the supercritical CO2 extraction determined by the equation were: the extraction pressure was 27 MPa, temperature was 39 degrees C, the extraction rate of Prunus armeniaca oil was 44.5%. 16 main compounds of Prunus armeniaca oil extracted by supercritical CO2 were identified by GC-MS, unsaturated fatty acids were 92.6%. This process is simple, and can be used for the extraction of Prunus armeniaca oil.

  19. The resistance of surfaces treated with oils and waxes to the action of dry heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaić Milan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface treatment of wood can be done with different coatings, and the choice of the appropriate system of processing depends on several factors, such as technological, aesthetic, economic and ecological. Raising awareness of the need to preserve the living and working environment has had a crucial impact on the increase in the use of natural materials for surface treatment of wood - oil and wax. The application of oils and waxes allows surface treated wood to keep the natural look, while protecting it from different influences, which can cause degradation and deterioration of the final product. The paper presents the results of testing the resistance of beech surface (Fagus silvatica L. processed with linseed oil and beeswax to the action of dry heat. In order to compare the quality of surface treated with oil and/or wax, beech wood treated with 2K-polyurethane coating is taken as a reference of surface treatment of wood. Surfaces treated with beeswax are less resistant to dry heat than those treated with linseed oil, and both showed significantly less resistance than surface treated with 2K-polyurethane coating.

  20. Synthesis of highly hydrophobic floating magnetic polymer nanocomposites for the removal of oils from water surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mudan, E-mail: chenmudan@163.com [National Special Superfine Powder Engineering Research Center, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Jiang, Wei, E-mail: climentjw@126.com [National Special Superfine Powder Engineering Research Center, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Wang, Fenghe [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Shen, Ping; Ma, Peichang; Gu, Junjun; Mao, Jianyu; Li, Fengsheng [National Special Superfine Powder Engineering Research Center, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2013-12-01

    The removal of organic contaminants, particularly oil spills from water surface is of great technological importance for environmental protection. In this article, we present a novel, economic and environment-friendly core–shell composite material based on magnetic hollow Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (MNPs) that was fabricated by two-step process, which can fast and efficiently separate oils from water surface under a magnetic field. The magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (MNPs) were coated with a polystyrene layer successfully to form water-repellent and oil-absorbing surfaces, which could float on water and selectively absorb lubricating oil up to 3 times of the particles’ weight while completely repelling water. More importantly, the oils could be readily removed from the surfaces of nanocomposites by a simple treatment and the nanocomposites still kept highly hydrophobic and superoleophilic characteristics, so the nanocomposites have an excellent recyclability in the oil-absorbent capacity. Several techniques such as transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used in the characterization of the materials. In addition, magnetic force and oils removal capability tests were also performed. It will open up a potential and broad application in wastewater treatment.

  1. Synthesis of highly hydrophobic floating magnetic polymer nanocomposites for the removal of oils from water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mudan; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Fenghe; Shen, Ping; Ma, Peichang; Gu, Junjun; Mao, Jianyu; Li, Fengsheng

    2013-12-01

    The removal of organic contaminants, particularly oil spills from water surface is of great technological importance for environmental protection. In this article, we present a novel, economic and environment-friendly core-shell composite material based on magnetic hollow Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs) that was fabricated by two-step process, which can fast and efficiently separate oils from water surface under a magnetic field. The magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs) were coated with a polystyrene layer successfully to form water-repellent and oil-absorbing surfaces, which could float on water and selectively absorb lubricating oil up to 3 times of the particles’ weight while completely repelling water. More importantly, the oils could be readily removed from the surfaces of nanocomposites by a simple treatment and the nanocomposites still kept highly hydrophobic and superoleophilic characteristics, so the nanocomposites have an excellent recyclability in the oil-absorbent capacity. Several techniques such as transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used in the characterization of the materials. In addition, magnetic force and oils removal capability tests were also performed. It will open up a potential and broad application in wastewater treatment.

  2. Heteromeric Slick/Slack K+ channels show graded sensitivity to cell volume changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejada, Maria A; Hashem, Nadia; Callø, Kirstine

    2017-01-01

    Slick and Slack high-conductance K+ channels are found in the CNS, kidneys, pancreas, among other organs, where they play an important role in cell excitability as well as in ion transport processes. They are both activated by Na+ and Cl- but show a differential regulation by cell volume changes...... to osmotic challenges. In order to provide with the adequate water permeability to the cell membrane of Xenopus laevis oocytes, mRNA of aquaporin 1 was co-expressed with homomeric or heteromeric Slick and Slack α-subunits. Oocytes were superfused with hypotonic or hypertonic buffers and changes in currents...

  3. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado. Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the two millsites in Slick Rock, Colorado. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. The Union Carbide site has 350,000 tons of tailings and the North Continent site now owned by Union Carbide has 37,000 tons of tailings. Both tailings piles have been stabilized in accordance with regulations of the State of Colorado. Radon gas release from the tailings on the sites constitute the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact. Hence the three alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the sites (Option I), and returning the windblown tailings to the piles and stabilizing the piles with cover material (Option II), and consolidating the two piles on the UC site and stabilizing with 2 ft of cover (Option III). Fencing around the tailings piles is included in all options. Options II and III provide 2 ft of cover material on the tailings. Costs of the options range from $370,000 to $1,100,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium is not economically feasible

  4. Smart surfaces with switchable superoleophilicity and superoleophobicity in aqueous media: Toward controllable oil/water separation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, L.

    2012-02-01

    Advanced materials with surfaces that have controllable oil wettability when submerged in aqueous media have great potential for various underwater applications. Here we have developed smart surfaces on commonly used materials, including non-woven textiles and polyurethane sponges, which are able to switch between superoleophilicity and superoleophobicity in aqueous media. The smart surfaces are obtained by grafting a block copolymer, comprising blocks of pH-responsive poly(2-vinylpyridine) and oleophilic/hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (i.e., P2VP-b-PDMS) on these materials. The P2VP block can alter its wettability and its conformation via protonation and deprotonation in response to the pH of the aqueous media, which provides controllable and switchable access of oil by the PDMS block, resulting in the switchable surface oil wettability in the aqueous media. On the other hand, the high flexibility of the PDMS block facilitates the reversible switching of the surface oil wettability. As a proof of concept, we also demonstrate that materials functionalized with our smart surfaces can be used for highly controllable oil/water separation processes.

  5. Adaptable bioinspired special wetting surface for multifunctional oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavalenka, Maryna N.; Vüllers, Felix; Kumberg, Jana; Zeiger, Claudia; Trouillet, Vanessa; Stein, Sebastian; Ava, Tanzila T.; Li, Chunyan; Worgull, Matthias; Hölscher, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by the multifunctionality of biological surfaces necessary for the survival of an organism in its specific environment, we developed an artificial special wetting nanofur surface which can be adapted to perform different functionalities necessary to efficiently separate oil and water for cleaning accidental oil spills or separating industrial oily wastewater. Initial superhydrophobic nanofur surface is fabricated using a hot pulling method, in which nano- and microhairs are drawn out of the polymer surface during separation from a heated sandblasted steel plate. By using a set of simple modification techniques, which include microperforation, plasma treatment and subsequent control of storage environment, we achieved selective separation of either water or oil, variable oil absorption and continuous gravity driven separation of oil/water mixtures by filtration. Furthermore, these functions can be performed using special wetting nanofur made from various thermoplastics, including biodegradable and recyclable polymers. Additionally, nanofur can be reused after washing it with organic solvents, thus, further helping to reduce the environmental impacts of oil/water separation processes. PMID:28051163

  6. Spreading of oil on water in the surface-tension regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, D.W.; Berg, J.C.

    1987-11-01

    Data which describe the unidirectional spreading of several pure oils and oil-surfactant mixtures on water in the surface-tension regime are reported. Leading-edge position and profiles of velocity, thickness and film tension are given as functions of time. The data are consistent with the numerical similarity solution of Foda and Cox (1980), although the measured dependence of the film tension on the film thickness often differs from the equilibrium relationship. The configuration of the oil film near the spreading origin may be either a coherent multimolecular layer or a multitude of thinning, outward-moving lenses surrounded by monolayer. The pure oils show an acceleration zone connecting the slow-moving inner region to a fast-moving outer region, while the oil-surfactant mixtures show a much more gradual increase in film velocity.

  7. Prediction and correlation of surface tension of naphtha reformate and crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, E.I.; Al-Sahhaf, T.A.; Fahim, M.A. [Kuwait University (Kuwait). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1995-04-01

    Six methods were tested for the prediction of the surface tension of naphtha reformate and crude oil fractions. The corresponding-state method gave the lowest deviation from experimental values for single cuts. The surface tension-density correlation method gave the lowest deviation for a blend of several cuts. 12 refs., 14 tabs.

  8. Green Approach to the Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Mesh Surface for Oil/Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fajun; Lei, Sheng; Xu, Yao; Ou, Junfei

    2015-07-20

    We report a simple and environment friendly method to fabricate superhydrophobic metallic mesh surfaces for oil/water separation. The obtained mesh surface exhibits superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity after it was dried in an oven at 200 °C for 10 min. A rough silver layer is formed on the mesh surface after immersion, and the spontaneous adsorption of airborne carbon contaminants on the silver surface lower the surface free energy of the mesh. No low-surface-energy reagents and/or volatile organic solvents are used. In addition, we demonstrate that by using the mesh box, oils can be separated and collected from the surface of water repeatedly, and that high separation efficiencies of larger than 92 % are retained for various oils. Moreover, the superhydrophobic mesh also possesses excellent corrosion resistance and thermal stability. Hence, these superhydrophobic meshes might be good candidates for the practical separation of oil from the surface of water. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Robust superhydrophobic surface by nature-inspired polyphenol chemistry for effective oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Yiming; Huang, Jingjing; Zhang, Shiyu; Wang, Yinghua; Gu, Shaojin; Cao, Genyang; Yang, Hongjun; Ye, Dezhan; Zhou, Yingshan; Xu, Weilin

    2018-05-01

    With the ever-increasing oil spillages, oil-water separation has attracted widespread concern in recent years. In this work, a nature-inspired polyphenol method has been developed to fabricate the durable superhydrophobic surfaces for the oil-water separation. Inspiring from the adhesion of polyphenol and reducing capacity of free catechol/pyrogallol groups in polyphenol, firstly, the simple immersion of commercial materials (melamine sponge, PET, and nonwoven cotton fabrics) in tannic acid (TA) solution allows to form a multifunctional coating on the surface of sponge or fabrics, which was used as reducing reagent to generate Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Then, decoration of 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecanethiol (PFDT) molecules produced superhydrophobic surfaces. The surface topological structure, chemical composition, and superhydrophobic property of the as-prepared surface are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and water contact angle (WCA) measurements. The WCAs of as-prepared sponge and fabrics were higher than 150°. The stability, absorption capacity, and recyclability of as-prepared sponge and fabrics were investigated. The as-prepared sponge demonstrates high oil/water selectivity and high absorption capacity (66-150 g/g) for a broad variety of oils and organic solvents, and was chemically resistant, robust against abrasion, and long-term durability in harsh environments. Most important of all, it can continuously separate various kinds of oils or organic pollutants from the surface of water. This study presents a facile strategy to fabricate superhydrophobic materials for continuous oil-water separation, displaying great potential in large-scale practical application.

  10. The density behaviour of heavy oils in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Hollebone, B.; Fieldhouse, B. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch

    2006-07-01

    The recent concern regarding the difficulty of cleaning up Low API gravity oils (LAPIO) spilled in water was discussed. Sinking and overwashing are 2 phenomena related to the behaviour of these heavy oils in water. Sinking refers to the complete submergence of the oil to the bottom of a waterbody, while over-washing refers to the overflowing of a layer of water over dense oil at sea when the oil is still close to the surface. The latter is important because even a micron-layer of water could render the oil undetectable, particularly at acute viewing angles, such as from a ship. This paper reviewed the properties of heavy oil, the prediction of density changes and the sinking/over-washing of heavy oil. In particular, it discussed a spill which occurred in August 2005 when 11 tank cars from train derailment spilled 800,000 litres of Bunker fuel mixed with high PAH-containing pole-treating oil into Lake Wabamun, Alberta. The behaviour of the oil included submergence, neutral buoyancy, resurfacing and formation of several types of aggregates of oil. This study summarized the behaviours and processes that transformed the particles of oil into small tar balls, larger logs, sheets, and large lumps into a slick. Sediment uptake or loss was found to be the major process that caused the changes in density. The behaviour of the oils was compared with respect to density and uptake of various types of sediment. The paper also reviewed the literature on dense oil behaviour. Weathering experiments performed on dense oils to determine if extensive weathering could render oils heavier than water showed that rarely is weathering the only factor in the bulk sinking of oil. Once an oil is submerged, little weathering occurs, either by dissolution or volatilization. The uptake of particulate matter is the most important process in increasing density. This study reviewed over-washing experiments to develop a mathematical solution of the conditions required for oil to be covered by a

  11. The density behaviour of heavy oils in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Hollebone, B.; Fieldhouse, B.

    2006-01-01

    The recent concern regarding the difficulty of cleaning up Low API gravity oils (LAPIO) spilled in water was discussed. Sinking and overwashing are 2 phenomena related to the behaviour of these heavy oils in water. Sinking refers to the complete submergence of the oil to the bottom of a waterbody, while over-washing refers to the overflowing of a layer of water over dense oil at sea when the oil is still close to the surface. The latter is important because even a micron-layer of water could render the oil undetectable, particularly at acute viewing angles, such as from a ship. This paper reviewed the properties of heavy oil, the prediction of density changes and the sinking/over-washing of heavy oil. In particular, it discussed a spill which occurred in August 2005 when 11 tank cars from train derailment spilled 800,000 litres of Bunker fuel mixed with high PAH-containing pole-treating oil into Lake Wabamun, Alberta. The behaviour of the oil included submergence, neutral buoyancy, resurfacing and formation of several types of aggregates of oil. This study summarized the behaviours and processes that transformed the particles of oil into small tar balls, larger logs, sheets, and large lumps into a slick. Sediment uptake or loss was found to be the major process that caused the changes in density. The behaviour of the oils was compared with respect to density and uptake of various types of sediment. The paper also reviewed the literature on dense oil behaviour. Weathering experiments performed on dense oils to determine if extensive weathering could render oils heavier than water showed that rarely is weathering the only factor in the bulk sinking of oil. Once an oil is submerged, little weathering occurs, either by dissolution or volatilization. The uptake of particulate matter is the most important process in increasing density. This study reviewed over-washing experiments to develop a mathematical solution of the conditions required for oil to be covered by a

  12. Impact of the Microstructure of Polymer Drag Reducer on Slick-Water Fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-yu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on the drag reduction performance of slick-water, but the microdrag reduction mechanism remains unclear since the microstructure of the drag reducer and its effect on this mechanism have not been well studied. In this study, the microstructure of the drag reducer in slick-water was effectively characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The viscoelasticity and drag reduction performance of the drag reducer with different microstructures were then investigated. Further, the effects of the microstructure of the drag reducer on the viscoelasticity and drag reduction performance of slick-water were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the viscoelasticity of slick-water is governed by the microstructure of the drag reducer, which exhibits a network structure. In addition, the drag reduction performance is related to the viscoelasticity. At low flow rates, the drag reduction performance is dominantly influenced by viscosity, whereas, at high flow rates, it is governed mainly by elasticity. Furthermore, the drag reducer with a uniformly distributed network structure exhibits the most stable drag reduction performance. This drag reducer was used in a field test and the obtained results were consistent with those of a laboratory experiment.

  13. Film Thickness Estimation for the Oil Applied to the Inner Surface of Slim Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Svetlík

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the approximation of the results of experimental measurement of coating of the inner surface of slim pipes with special oil, using a dispersion oil fraction. The reason for such treatment of the inner surface of the tubes is the anti-corrosion protection or various other requirements. The oil manufacturer prescribes the minimum required layer to guarantee the anti-corrosion protection parameters. Therefore, it is advisable to know the most exact coating parameters for different pipe diameters. The measured results give us an assumption of how much oil is sufficient to coat the inside of a pipe. The main idea lies in the correct estimation of coefficients in the three-parameter exponential dependence. For the initial estimates, Nelder–Mead’s minimization method was used. The condition for meeting the lower estimate of the minimum thickness of the oil layer was determined. Following graphic processing of minimization of individual pipe diameters, in some cases, the coefficients were adjusted manually. The result is that the oil thickness depends on the distance of the investigated point from the beginning of the tube, or on the point of entry of the dispersion oil fraction.

  14. Molecular modeling of interactions between heavy crude oil and the soil organic matter coated quartz surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guozhong; Zhu, Xinzhe; Ji, Haoqing; Chen, Daoyi

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamic (MD) simulation was applied to evaluate the mobility, diffusivity and partitioning of SARA (saturates, aromatics, resins, asphaltenes) fractions of heavy crude oil on soil organic matter (SOM) coated quartz surface. Four types of SOM were investigated including Leonardite humic acid, Temple-Northeastern-Birmingham humic acid, Chelsea soil humic acid and Suwannee river fulvic acid. The SOM aggregation at oil-quartz interface decreased the adsorption of SARA on the quartz surface by 13-83%. Although the SOM tended to promote asphaltenes aggregation, the overall mobility of SARA was significantly greater on SOM-quartz complex than on pure quartz. Particularly, the diffusion coefficient of asphaltenes and resins increased by up to one-order of magnitude after SOM addition. The SOM increased the overall oil adsorption capacity but also mobilized SARA by driving them from the viscous oil phase and rigid quartz to the elastic SOM. This highlighted the potential of SOM addition for increasing the bioavailability of heavy crude oil without necessarily increasing the environmental risks. The MD simulation was demonstrated to be helpful for interpreting the role of SOM and the host oil phase for the adsorption and partitioning of SARA molecules, which is the key for developing more realistic remediation appraisal for heavy crude oil in soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Drop entrainment from the surface of oil mist filters: mechanisms, kinetics, and drop spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Wurster, S.; Kolb, H.; Meyer, J.; Kasper, G.

    2016-01-01

    Oil entrainment from coalescence filters has been characterized by different techniques. Drop spectra and entrainment rates were measured by a combination of techniques from 1 mm over long periods of time. Dominant entrainment mechanism(s) are identified on the basis of comparisons of entrainment rates measured in different regions of the filter surface with rates of air bubble formation, measurements of oil film thickness, as well as visual observations. Experiments are supported by force es...

  16. Effect of the linseed oil surface treatment on the performance of resistive plate chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbrescia, M.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Romano, F.; Arena, V.; Bonomi, G.; Braj, A.; Gianini, G.; Liguori, G.; Ratti, S.P.; Riccardi, C.; Viola, L.; Vitulo, P.

    1997-01-01

    Results on the behaviour of several bakelite resistive plate chambers (RPCs) without the linseed oil treatment of the internal electrodes will be presented. Efficiency, collected charge and cluster size distributions will be compared to the ones of a standard oiled RPC. Currents and single rate are the quantities most affected by the surface treatment of the electrodes beyond the optical/mechanical properties. A factor 4 less in currents and at least a factor 10 less in single rate is achieved using standard oiled RPCs operated in streamer mode. (orig.)

  17. Control of Penicillium sp. on the Surface of Italian Salami Using Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Maria Cenci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to evaluate the in vitro effects of rosemary, salvia, oregano and clove oils at volume fractions of 1000, 750, 500, 250, 100, 50, 26, 10 and 5 μL/mL (100, 75, 50, 25, 10, 5, 3, 1 and 0.5 % on the growth of contaminating fungi in salami. The in vitro effect of the oils against fungal growth was indicated by zones of inhibition. Rosemary oil showed an inhibition zone of 9.6 mm only at the maximal volume fraction (1000 μL/mL. Salvia oil showed inhibition zones of 12.2, 11.2 and 10.5 mm only at the three highest fractions tested. Based on the inhibition zones, clove oil at 125 and 250 μL/mL, oregano oil at 250 and 500 μL/mL and a mixture (1:1 by volume of the two oils at 100 μL/mL were selected to be applied to the surface of salamis. A significant reduction of fungal growth in all of the oil-treated samples was confi rmed by visual inspection. A sensory analysis revealed that the samples treated with 125 μL/mL of clove oil or 100 μL/mL of a mixture of oregano and clove oil showed no significant flavour differences compared with the control. Carvacrol and eugenol were the principal compounds in oregano and clove oils, respectively, and were most likely responsible for the antifungal activity.

  18. Surfactant-Associated Bacteria in the Near Surface Layer of the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Naoko; Vella, Katie; Soloviev, Alexander; Matt, Silvia; Tartar, Aurelien; Shivji, Mahmood; Perrie, William

    2013-04-01

    advection. A better understanding of the effects of surfactant-associated bacteria on sea surface properties may help in discriminating oil spills from natural slicks in SAR.

  19. Differential distribution of the sodium-activated potassium channels slick and slack in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Sandra; Knaus, Hans-Günther; Schwarzer, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    The sodium-activated potassium channels Slick (Slo2.1, KCNT2) and Slack (Slo2.2, KCNT1) are high-conductance potassium channels of the Slo family. In neurons, Slick and Slack channels are involved in the generation of slow afterhyperpolarization, in the regulation of firing patterns, and in setting and stabilizing the resting membrane potential. The distribution and subcellular localization of Slick and Slack channels in the mouse brain have not yet been established in detail. The present study addresses this issue through in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Both channels were widely distributed and exhibited distinct distribution patterns. However, in some brain regions, their expression overlapped. Intense Slick channel immunoreactivity was observed in processes, varicosities, and neuronal cell bodies of the olfactory bulb, granular zones of cortical regions, hippocampus, amygdala, lateral septal nuclei, certain hypothalamic and midbrain nuclei, and several regions of the brainstem. The Slack channel showed primarily a diffuse immunostaining pattern, and labeling of cell somata and processes was observed only occasionally. The highest Slack channel expression was detected in the olfactory bulb, lateral septal nuclei, basal ganglia, and distinct areas of the midbrain, brainstem, and cerebellar cortex. In addition, comparing our data obtained from mouse brain with a previously published study on rat brain revealed some differences in the expression and distribution of Slick and Slack channels in these species. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2093-2116, 2016. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Tuning Tribological Performance of Layered Zirconium Phosphate Nanoplatelets in Oil by Surface and Interlayer Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Yong, Huaisong; Sun, Dazhi

    2017-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) inorganic layered nanoplatelets exhibit superior lubricating properties in both solid states and oil dispersions. In this paper, we have systematically investigated the effects of surface and interlayer modifications on the tribological performance of layered α-zirconium phosphate (ZrP) nanoplatelets in mineral oil. The pristine layered ZrP nanoplatelets were first reacted with silanes of different alkyl chains to achieve outer surface modifications, followed by intercalation with different alkyl amines to alter the interlayer spacing. Friction and anti-wear studies on ZrP nanoplatelets with various modifications in mineral oils suggest that a longer alkyl chain on the outer surfaces along with a small increase in interlayer spacing would lead to a better tribological behavior especially under a relatively heavy load condition. Our results illustrate the ability of tuning the tribological properties of 2D layered nanoplatelets in oils by varying their surface and interlayer functionalities and would be helpful for understanding the underlying tribological mechanisms of nanolubricating oils containing 2D layered nanoplatelets. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Tuning Tribological Performance of Layered Zirconium Phosphate Nanoplatelets in Oil by Surface and Interlayer Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Yong, Huaisong; Sun, Dazhi

    2017-09-20

    Two-dimensional (2D) inorganic layered nanoplatelets exhibit superior lubricating properties in both solid states and oil dispersions. In this paper, we have systematically investigated the effects of surface and interlayer modifications on the tribological performance of layered α-zirconium phosphate (ZrP) nanoplatelets in mineral oil. The pristine layered ZrP nanoplatelets were first reacted with silanes of different alkyl chains to achieve outer surface modifications, followed by intercalation with different alkyl amines to alter the interlayer spacing. Friction and anti-wear studies on ZrP nanoplatelets with various modifications in mineral oils suggest that a longer alkyl chain on the outer surfaces along with a small increase in interlayer spacing would lead to a better tribological behavior especially under a relatively heavy load condition. Our results illustrate the ability of tuning the tribological properties of 2D layered nanoplatelets in oils by varying their surface and interlayer functionalities and would be helpful for understanding the underlying tribological mechanisms of nanolubricating oils containing 2D layered nanoplatelets. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  2. Rapid Formation of Microbe-Oil Aggregates and Changes in Community Composition in Coastal Surface Water Following Exposure to Oil and the Dispersant Corexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn M. Doyle

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During the Deepwater Horizon (DWH oil spill, massive quantities of oil were deposited on the seafloor via a large-scale marine oil-snow sedimentation and flocculent accumulation (MOSSFA event. The role of chemical dispersants (e.g., Corexit applied during the DWH oil spill clean-up in helping or hindering the formation of this MOSSFA event are not well-understood. Here, we present the first experiment related to the DWH oil spill to specifically investigate the relationship between microbial community structure, oil and Corexit®, and marine oil-snow in coastal surface waters. We observed the formation of micron-scale aggregates of microbial cells around droplets of oil and dispersant and found that their rate of formation was directly related to the concentration of oil within the water column. These micro-aggregates are potentially important precursors to the formation of larger marine oil-snow particles. Therefore, our observation that Corexit® significantly enhanced their formation suggests dispersant application may play a role in the development of MOSSFA events. We also observed that microbial communities in marine surface waters respond to oil and oil plus Corexit® differently and much more rapidly than previously measured, with major shifts in community composition occurring within only a few hours of experiment initiation. In the oil-amended treatments without Corexit®, this manifested as an increase in community diversity due to the outgrowth of several putative aliphatic- and aromatic-hydrocarbon degrading genera, including phytoplankton-associated taxa. In contrast, microbial community diversity was reduced in mesocosms containing chemically dispersed oil. Importantly, different consortia of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria responded to oil and chemically dispersed oil, indicating that functional redundancy in the pre-spill community likely results in hydrocarbon consumption in both undispersed and dispersed oils, but by different

  3. Probing the intrinsically oil-wet surfaces of pores in North Sea chalk at subpore resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassenkam, Tue; Skovbjerg, Lone Lindbæk; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane

    2009-01-01

    atomic force microscopy-mediated adhesion and elasticity mapping derived from maps of force curves, to examine 5 x 5 µm2 areas of internal pore surfaces, using a tip functionalised to make it hydrophobic.  We investigated chalk samples from inside a drill core sample from the Danish North Sea that had...... been drilled in a water-bearing formation. At this site, the chalk has never seen oil, though at other locations, the same stratigraphic horizon with the same rock properties is known to be a productive oil reservoir. Thus the properties of the investigated particle surfaces are inherent to the chalk...

  4. Repellent materials. Robust self-cleaning surfaces that function when exposed to either air or oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Sathasivam, Sanjayan; Song, Jinlong; Crick, Colin R; Carmalt, Claire J; Parkin, Ivan P

    2015-03-06

    Superhydrophobic self-cleaning surfaces are based on the surface micro/nanomorphologies; however, such surfaces are mechanically weak and stop functioning when exposed to oil. We have created an ethanolic suspension of perfluorosilane-coated titanium dioxide nanoparticles that forms a paint that can be sprayed, dipped, or extruded onto both hard and soft materials to create a self-cleaning surface that functions even upon emersion in oil. Commercial adhesives were used to bond the paint to various substrates and promote robustness. These surfaces maintained their water repellency after finger-wipe, knife-scratch, and even 40 abrasion cycles with sandpaper. The formulations developed can be used on clothes, paper, glass, and steel for a myriad of self-cleaning applications. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Robust self-cleaning surfaces that function when exposed to either air or oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Sathasivam, Sanjayan; Song, Jinlong; Crick, Colin R.; Carmalt, Claire J.; Parkin, Ivan P.

    2015-03-01

    Superhydrophobic self-cleaning surfaces are based on the surface micro/nanomorphologies; however, such surfaces are mechanically weak and stop functioning when exposed to oil. We have created an ethanolic suspension of perfluorosilane-coated titanium dioxide nanoparticles that forms a paint that can be sprayed, dipped, or extruded onto both hard and soft materials to create a self-cleaning surface that functions even upon emersion in oil. Commercial adhesives were used to bond the paint to various substrates and promote robustness. These surfaces maintained their water repellency after finger-wipe, knife-scratch, and even 40 abrasion cycles with sandpaper. The formulations developed can be used on clothes, paper, glass, and steel for a myriad of self-cleaning applications.

  6. Motility of Microtubules on the Inner Surface of Water-in-Oil Emulsion Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Mikako; Rashedul Kabir, Arif Md; Ito, Masaki; Inoue, Daisuke; Kokado, Kenta; Sada, Kazuki; Kakugo, Akira

    2017-10-31

    Water-in-oil emulsion systems have recently attracted much attention in various fields. However, functionalization of water-in-oil emulsion systems, which is required for expanding their applications in industries and research, has been challenging. We now demonstrate the functionalization of a water-in-oil emulsion system by anchoring a target protein molecule. A microtubule (MT)-associated motor protein kinesin-1 was successfully anchored to the inner surface of water-in-oil emulsion droplets by employing the specific interaction of nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid-histidine tag. The MTs exhibited a gliding motion on the kinesin-functionalized inner surface of the emulsion droplets, which confirmed the success of the functionalization of the water-in-oil emulsion system. This result would be beneficial in exploring the roles of biomolecular motor systems in the cellular events that take place at the cell membrane and might also contribute to expanding the nanotechnological applications of biomolecular motors and water-in-oil emulsion systems in the future.

  7. Possibility of oil film detection on the ice cover of the sea surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, I.M.; Radomyslskaya, T.M.; Osadchy, V.J.; Rybalka, N.N.; Klementieva, N.Y.; Zhou, J.; Li, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Ice cover in the Arctic regions makes the application of traditional remote methods of environmental monitoring difficult, and can also prevent the use of probes or other measurement tools. This paper presented a method of detecting oil pollution on ice-covered sea surfaces. The method was able to detect oil films on the lower ice-water boundary from above and below under both natural and artificial illumination. Pollution was detected when the sensor signal, the apparent contrast of oil-ice, and signal-noise ratio exceeded corresponding threshold values. A standard TV system at a low altitude was used to detect oil pollution on pure crystalline ice with a snow cover from 0.6 to 0.8 meters to several meters thick. At higher altitudes, the contrast in oil and water decreased due to the presence of atmospheric haze. Underwater pulsed-laser imaging systems were used to detect oil pollution when ice was covered by with soot, dust, aquatic plants, and phytoplankton pigments. It was concluded that both methods can be used to detect oil on the water-ice boundary. 10 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  8. Optimisation of steam distillation extraction oil from onion by response surface methodology and its chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao Dan; Li, Li Hua; Xia, Hui; Wang, Feng; Yang, Li Gang; Wang, Shao Kang; Sun, Gui Ju

    2018-01-01

    Oil extraction from onion was performed by steam distillation. Response surface methodology was applied to evaluate the effects of ratio of water to raw material, extraction time, zymolysis temperature and distillation times on yield of onion oil. The maximum extraction yield (1.779%) was obtained as following conditions: ratio of water to raw material was 1, extraction time was 2.5 h, zymolysis temperature was 36° and distillation time was 2.6 h. The experimental values agreed well with those predicted by regression model. The chemical composition of extracted onion oil under the optimum conditions was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technology. The results showed that sulphur compounds, like alkanes, sulphide, alkenes, ester and alcohol, were the major components of onion oil.

  9. Flexible PVDF membranes with exceptional robust superwetting surface for continuous separation of oil/water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhu; Lin, Haibo; Liu, Fu; Xiao, Peng; Wu, Ziyang; Li, Tiantian; Li, Dehong

    2017-10-26

    Instability of superwetting surface is the stumbling block of flexible polymeric membranes for continuous separation of water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsions. Manipulation of rigid superwetting nano-TiO 2 on hierarchical poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane by mimicking the plant roots holding soil behaviour enabled the generation of robust superwetting surface withstanding the harshly physical and chemical torture. The unique interface combination, which fabricated by a compacted nano-layer with the thickness of ~20 μm, was disclosed by systematic structure characterization. As demonstrated by SEM, LSCM and nano-CT, the pristine PVDF membrane with large quantities of cilia-like micro/nano-fibrils can function as the plant roots to capture, cage and confine the nanoparticles to form a robustly rigid nano-coating. The as-prepared membranes showed excellent durable separation performance both in varieties of stabilized water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsion separation for a long term with few nanoparticles loss in a continuous crossflow mode. The strategy of assembling rigid inorganic nano-particles on flexible surface offers a window of opportunity for preparation of robust organic-inorganic hybrid membranes not only for continuous oil/water emulsion separation, but also for other functional application, such as electric conduction, heat conduction, ion exchange, and in membrane catalytic reactors etc.

  10. Remedial action and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This report presents geologic considerations that are pertinent to the Remedial Action Plan for Slick Rock mill tailings. Topics covered include regional geology, site geology, geologic stability, and geologic suitability

  11. Evaluating bacterial community structures in oil collected from the sea surface and sediment in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Jiqing

    2013-06-01

    Bacterial community structures were evaluated in oil samples using culture-independent pyrosequencing, including oil mousses collected on sea surface and salt marshes during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and oil deposited in sediments adjacent to the wellhead 1 year after the spill. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that Erythrobacter, Rhodovulum, Stappia, and Thalassospira of Alphaproteobacteria were the prevailing groups in the oil mousses, which may relate to high temperatures and strong irradiance in surface Gulf waters. In the mousse collected from the leaves of Spartina alterniflora, Vibrio of Gammaproteobacteria represented 57% of the total operational taxonomic units, suggesting that this indigenous genus is particularly responsive to the oil contamination in salt marshes. The bacterial communities in oil-contaminated sediments were highly diversified. The relatively high abundance of the Methylococcus, Methylobacter, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Chlorofexi bacteria resembles those found in certain cold-seep sediments with gas hydrates. Bacterial communities in the overlying water of the oil-contaminated sediment were dominated by Ralstonia of Betaproteobacteria, which can degrade small aromatics, and Saccharophagus degradans of Gammaproteobacteria, a cellulose degrader, suggesting that overlying water was affected by the oil-contaminated sediments, possibly due to the dissolution of small aromatics and biosurfactants produced during biodegradation. Overall, these results provided key information needed to evaluate oil degradation in the region and develop future bioremediation strategies. © 2013 The Authors. Microbiology Open published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Oil spill models for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgins, D.O.

    1997-01-01

    The need for, and the nature of an oil spill model, were discussed. Modern oil spill models were shown to provide rapid and accurate input of information about a marine spill, as well as to provide powerful visualization methods for displaying output data. Marine oil spill models are designed to answer five questions: (1) where will the oil go in 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours, (2) how fast will it move, (3) how big will the slick get, (4) how much will end up on shore and where, and (5) how do the oil properties change. The models are able to provide timely and accurate results by using reasonably complete algorithms for the physics and chemistry governing oil slick evolution that take advantage of computer visualization methods for displaying output data. These models have been made possible through new technologies which have increased access to environmental data on winds, currents and satellite imaging of slicks. Spill modelling is also evolving by taking advantage of the Internet for both acquisition of input data and dissemination of results. 5 figs

  13. Application of response surface methodology for optimizing transesterification of Moringa oleifera oil: Biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Umer; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Yusup, Suzana

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Biodiesel production from Moringa oil (MO) has been optimized for the first time using RSM. → RSM-optimized reaction conditions gave a high Moringa oil methyl esters (MOMEs) yield (94.3%). → Fuel properties of MOMEs yielded satisfied the ASTM D 6751 and EU 14214 specifications. → Present RSM-model can be useful for predicting optimum biodiesel yield from other oils. - Abstract: Response surface methodology (RSM), with central composite rotatable design (CCRD), was used to explore optimum conditions for the transesterification of Moringa oleifera oil. Effects of four variables, reaction temperature (25-65 deg. C), reaction time (20-90 min), methanol/oil molar ratio (3:1-12:1) and catalyst concentration (0.25-1.25 wt.% KOH) were appraised. The quadratic term of methanol/oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time while the interaction terms of methanol/oil molar ratio with reaction temperature and catalyst concentration, reaction time with catalyst concentration exhibited significant effects on the yield of Moringa oil methyl esters (MOMEs)/biodiesel, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05, respectively. Transesterification under the optimum conditions ascertained presently by RSM: 6.4:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, 0.80% catalyst concentration, 55 deg. C reaction temperature and 71.08 min reaction time offered 94.30% MOMEs yield. The observed and predicted values of MOMEs yield showed a linear relationship. GLC analysis of MOMEs revealed oleic acid methyl ester, with contribution of 73.22%, as the principal component. Other methyl esters detected were of palmitic, stearic, behenic and arachidic acids. Thermal stability of MOMEs produced was evaluated by thermogravimetric curve. The fuel properties such as density, kinematic viscosity, lubricity, oxidative stability, higher heating value, cetane number and cloud point etc., of MOMEs were found to be within the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards.

  14. Application of response surface methodology for optimizing transesterification of Moringa oleifera oil: Biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Umer, E-mail: umer.rashid@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar 31750, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Anwar, Farooq, E-mail: fqanwar@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Ashraf, Muhammad, E-mail: ashrafbot@yahoo.com [Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Department of Botany and Microbiology, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Saleem, Muhammad [Department of Statistics, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Yusup, Suzana, E-mail: drsuzana_yusuf@petronas.com.my [Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar 31750, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Biodiesel production from Moringa oil (MO) has been optimized for the first time using RSM. {yields} RSM-optimized reaction conditions gave a high Moringa oil methyl esters (MOMEs) yield (94.3%). {yields} Fuel properties of MOMEs yielded satisfied the ASTM D 6751 and EU 14214 specifications. {yields} Present RSM-model can be useful for predicting optimum biodiesel yield from other oils. - Abstract: Response surface methodology (RSM), with central composite rotatable design (CCRD), was used to explore optimum conditions for the transesterification of Moringa oleifera oil. Effects of four variables, reaction temperature (25-65 deg. C), reaction time (20-90 min), methanol/oil molar ratio (3:1-12:1) and catalyst concentration (0.25-1.25 wt.% KOH) were appraised. The quadratic term of methanol/oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time while the interaction terms of methanol/oil molar ratio with reaction temperature and catalyst concentration, reaction time with catalyst concentration exhibited significant effects on the yield of Moringa oil methyl esters (MOMEs)/biodiesel, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05, respectively. Transesterification under the optimum conditions ascertained presently by RSM: 6.4:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, 0.80% catalyst concentration, 55 deg. C reaction temperature and 71.08 min reaction time offered 94.30% MOMEs yield. The observed and predicted values of MOMEs yield showed a linear relationship. GLC analysis of MOMEs revealed oleic acid methyl ester, with contribution of 73.22%, as the principal component. Other methyl esters detected were of palmitic, stearic, behenic and arachidic acids. Thermal stability of MOMEs produced was evaluated by thermogravimetric curve. The fuel properties such as density, kinematic viscosity, lubricity, oxidative stability, higher heating value, cetane number and cloud point etc., of MOMEs were found to be within the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards.

  15. High-Resolution Numerical Model for Predicting the Transport and Dispersal of Oil Spilled in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Korotenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The coupled DieCAST-SSBOM (Shirshov-Stony Brook Oil spill transport Model circulation-oil spill transport model is used to predict the transport and dispersal of contaminants resulting from representative hypothetical oil spills in the Black Sea. With climatological forcing, the DieCAST model realistically simulates many of the dominant mesoscale features of seasonally-varying large scale circulation and meso-scale features of the circulation including the Rim Current, anticyclonic coastal eddies, headland eddy shedding and vertical stratification. The oil spill model ingests DieCAST surface currents and employs a Lagrangian tracking algorithm to predict the motion of a large number of seeded particles, the sum of which (~1 million form the oil plume. Basic processes affecting the transport of oil and its fate (advection, sinking, evaporation, etc. are included as parameters. Various scenarios of hypothetical blowouts of oil in different regions of the sea are simulated and discussed as to their structure, transport and likelihood of coastal contamination. The ultimate objective is to develop an operational oil slick model forced with synoptic winds and air-sea interaction.

  16. Dwell Time and Surface Parameter Effects on Removal of Silicone Oil From D6ac Steel Using TCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, R. E.

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of dwell time, surface roughness, and the surface activation state on 1,1,1-trichloroethane's (TCA's) effectiveness for removing silicone oil from D6ac steel. Silicone-contaminated test articles were washed with TCA solvent, and then the surfaces were analyzed for residue, using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The predominant factor affecting the ability to remove the silicone oil was surface roughness.

  17. Synthesis and surface active properties of cationic surface active agents from crude rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Dougdoug, W. I. A.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Cationic surfactants of 2-hidroxy-3-(2- alkylamidopolyethyl amino propane-1-triethylammonium hydroxides (ix-xuia-d were prepared from fatty acids (ia-d [palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic acid] and mixed fatty acids of crude rice bran oil ie [RBO]. The reaction of these acids with ethylenediamine, diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine andletraethylenepentamine (iia-d produced (iii-viia-d. The produced amidopolyethylamine (iii-viia-d reacted with 2-epoxypropylenetriethylammonium chloride (viii to give the cationic surfactants (ix-xiiia-d . The produced derivatives were purified and characterized by microanalysis, molecular weight determination, infra-red (IR, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectra. The surface active properties and inhibition efficiency of the prepared cationic surfactants were determined.

    Se han preparado tensioactivos catiónicos de hidróxidos de! 2-hidroxi-3-(2-alquilamidopolietilamino propano-1;trietilamonio (ix-xiiia-d a partir de los ácidos grasos (ia-d [ácido palmítico, esteárico, oleico y linoleico] y mezclas de ácidos grasos de aceite de germen de arroz crudo ie [RBO]. La reacción de estos ácidos con etilenodiamina, dietilenotriamina, trietilenotetramina y tetraetilenopentamina (iia-d produjo los compuestos (iv-viia-d . Los amidopolietilaminos producidos (iii-viia-d reaccionaron con el cloruro de 2-epoxipropilenotrietilamonio (viii para dar los tensioactivos catiónicos (ix-xiiia-d. Los derivados producidos se purificaron y caracterizaron por microanálisis, determinación del peso molecular, espectros de infrarrojo (IR y resonancia magnética nuclear de protón (1H NMR. Se determinaron las propiedades tensioactivas y la eficacia de inhibición de los tensioactivos cati

  18. Optimization of biodiesel production from castor oil using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    2009-05-01

    The short supply of edible vegetable oils is the limiting factor in the progression of biodiesel technology; thus, in this study, we applied response surface methodology in order to optimize the reaction factors for biodiesel synthesis from inedible castor oil. Specifically, we evaluated the effects of multiple parameters and their reciprocal interactions using a five-level three-factor design. In a total of 20 individual experiments, we optimized the reaction temperature, oil-to-methanol molar ratio, and quantity of catalyst. Our model equation predicted that the following conditions would generate the maximum quantity of castor biodiesel (92 wt.%): a 40-min reaction at 35.5 degrees C, with an oil-to-methanol molar ratio of 1:8.24, and a catalyst concentration of 1.45% of KOH by weight of castor oil. Subsequent empirical analyses of the biodiesel generated under the predicted conditions showed that the model equation accurately predicted castor biodiesel yields within the tested ranges. The biodiesel produced from castor oil satisfied the relevant quality standards without regard to viscosity and cold filter plugging point.

  19. Geologic history of the Slick Rock district and vicinity, San Miguel and Dolores Counties, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawe, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    This report is a narrative summary and interpretation, in the form of a geologic history of the Slick Rock district and vicinity, of four previously published chapters in this series dealing with stratigraphy of the Slick Rock district and vicinity, petrography of sedimentary rocks of the district, structure of the district and vicinity, and altered sedimentary rocks of the district, and of other previously published reports on the district. It forms the background, with the earlier reports, for presentation of a final report in the series describing the uranium-vanadium ore deposits. A review of the origin of sedimentary rocks and geologic history of the region indicates that formation of uranium-vanadium deposits was a natural result of the deposition of th rocks, the occurrence of intrastratal waters therein, and the post-depositional movement of the waters resulting from evolution of the sedimentary rock environment. 31 refs

  20. An hydrodynamic model for the calculation of oil spills trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paladino, Emilio Ernesto; Maliska, Clovis Raimundo [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Dinamica dos Fluidos Computacionais]. E-mails: emilio@sinmec.ufsc.br; maliska@sinmec.ufsc.br

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a mathematical model and its numerical treatment to forecast oil spills trajectories in the sea. The knowledge of the trajectory followed by an oil slick spilled on the sea is of fundamental importance in the estimation of potential risks for pipeline and tankers route selection, and in combating the pollution using floating barriers, detergents, etc. In order to estimate these slicks trajectories a new model, based on the mass and momentum conservation equations is presented. The model considers the spreading in the regimes when the inertial and viscous forces counterbalance gravity and takes into account the effects of winds and water currents. The inertial forces are considered for the spreading and the displacement of the oil slick, i.e., is considered its effects on the movement of the mass center of the slick. The mass loss caused by oil evaporation is also taken into account. The numerical model is developed in generalized coordinates, making the model easily applicable to complex coastal geographies. (author)

  1. Dynamic modeling of oil boom failure using computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R. H.; Brown, H. M.; An, C. F.; Rowe, R. D.

    1997-01-01

    Oil retention boom failure mechanisms have been identified and studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), a powerful modeling tool combining fluid dynamics and mathematics with high speed computer technology. This study utilized a commercially available CFD package, 'Fluent', to simulate the oil-water flow around a barrier. 'Drainage failure', 'droplet entrainment' and 'critical accumulation' were modeled using this software. Flow characteristics were found to be different for different failure mechanisms. In the drainage failure process, the oil slick was compressed against the barrier until the slick was deep enough for the oil to leak under the barrier. During boom failure due to droplet entrainment, the oil-water interface of the oil slick was wavy and unstable. During boom failure due to critical accumulation, the oil remained a single mass and moved under the barrier readily. The most significant observation, however, was that flow patterns around barriers are modified by the presence of oil. Therefore, towing and wave-conformity tests of booms will not be meaningful unless such tests are conducted with oil present. 15 refs., 11 figs

  2. Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Møller, Per

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25–200°C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface...... different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cosθ values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability...... contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability....

  3. Biochemical and behavioral responses of the Amazonian fish Colossoma macropomum to crude oil: the effect of oil layer on water surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhann, Daiani; Meyersieck Jardim, Manoela; Valdez Domingos, Fabíola Xochilt; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2015-01-01

    The largest Brazilian terrestrial province of petroleum mining is located at the margins of Urucu River, Amazonas. Mined crude oil is transported along 400 km across Solimões River to be refined in Manaus. Thus, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of crude oil exposure on biochemical, physiological and behavioral parameters of juveniles of the Amazonian fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). The toxicity of water-soluble and insoluble oil fractions and the influence of a layer formed by the oil on the water surface from low and high concentrations of crude oil were analyzed. The results showed a strong physical effect of oil at the water surface and a significant effect on fish behavior. Swimming time and response to alarm substance decreased when fish was exposed for just one day to water insoluble fraction, and remain lower after 30 days of exposure, compared to control. Chronic exposure to water insoluble fraction of the inert oil also affected these two parameters. Critical swimming velocity decreased in fish exposed to both crude and inert oil water insoluble fraction. These reductions are possibly related to a decrease in aerobic capacity. Only exposure to high concentrations of petroleum water-soluble fractions induced transient alterations of the analyzed parameters. The exposure of fish to low and high concentrations of water insoluble fraction of Urucu oil caused a reduction of responses to alarm substance, spontaneous swimming activity and swimming capacity (Ucrit), decreased activity of acetylcholinesterase, and increased activity of alkaline phosphatase. Severe hypertrophy of lamellar epithelium and extensive lamellar fusion of the gills were also observed. Overall, these results show significant behavioral and physiological changes caused by the oil layer on the water surface, which means that toxicity of petroleum produced by its chemical components is, in fact, in this fish species, enhanced by the presence of an oil phase as a

  4. Method of and device for detecting oil pollutions on water surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Michael Leonidovich [Moscow, RU; Gorodnichev, Victor Aleksandrovich [Moscow, RU; Kozintsev, Valentin Ivanovich [Moscow, RU; Smimova, Olga Alekseevna [Moscow, RU; Fedotov, Yurii Victorovich [Moscow, RU; Khroustaleva, Anastasiva Michailovnan [Moscow, RU

    2008-08-26

    Detection of oil pollution on water surfaces includes providing echo signals obtained from optical radiation of a clean water area at two wavelengths, optically radiating an investigated water area at two wavelengths and obtaining echo signals from the optical radiation of the investigated water area at the two wavelengths, comparing the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the investigated area at two wavelengths with the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the clean water area, and based on the comparison, determining presence or absence of oil pollution in the investigated water area.

  5. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in seawater following an experimental oil spill by stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and thermal desorption GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyomarch, J.; Van Ganse, S.

    2009-01-01

    Most analytical methods that identify and quantify semi-volatile contaminants from an oil spill on water are time-consuming and run the risk of contamination, particularly when dealing with trace levels. This study examined the feasibility of using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) on-site, followed by analysis in the laboratory. The technique was applied in the context of 2 separate accidental oil spills in the North Sea in the fall of 2009. The 2 Grane crude oils were also tested with field gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The first slick was immediately treated with dispersants, while the second was monitored for 2 days. Water samples containing dissolved oil fractions were taken at regular intervals at 1.5 and 8 m depths. Different chemical and biological techniques were applied for analyses. The oil exhibited a strong natural dispersion, and the slick could be monitored only during the first 26 hours following the spill. The objective of this analyses was to evaluate the behaviour of the dissolved fraction of hydrocarbons during a crude oil spill. The target molecules were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The technique of SBSE coupled with GC/MS allowed quantification of dissolved apolar organic compounds at low levels, around 0.5 ng/L. The study showed a continuous decrease of concentrations over time, at 1.5 or at 8 m water depth. In addition, the concentrations measured at 8 m depth appeared to be more pronounced compared to samples collected at 1.5 m below the water surface. It was concluded that the SBSE technique represents an interesting solution for on-site measurement because of its simplicity and sensitivity. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Contact Angle Hysteresis on Graphene Surfaces and Hysteresis-free Behavior on Oil-infused Graphite Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cyuan-Jhang; Li, Yueh-Feng [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Woon, Wei-Yen [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Sheng, Yu-Jane, E-mail: yjsheng@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Tsao, Heng-Kwong, E-mail: hktsao@cc.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Contact angle hysteresis(CAH) on four graphitic surfacesisinvestigated. • The hysteresis loopof water drops on the polished graphite sheetshowsparticularly small receding contact angle. • The significant CAH observed on CVD graphene and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite is attributed mainly to adhesion hysteresis. • An oil-infused surface of a graphite sheet is produced by imbibition of hexadecane into its porous structure. • The hysteresis-free property for water drops on such a surface is examined and quantitatively explained. - Abstract: Contact angle hysteresis (CAH) on graphitic surfaces, including chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, reduced electrophoretic deposition (EPD) graphene, highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), and polished graphite sheet, has been investigated. The hysteresis loops of water drops on the first three samples are similar but the receding contact angle is particularly small for the polished graphite sheet.The significant CAH observed on CVD graphene and HOPG associated with atom-scale roughness has to be attributed mainly to adhesion hysteresis (surface relaxation), instead of roughness or defects.The difference of the wetting behavior among those four graphitic samples has been further demonstrated by hexadecane drops. On the surface of HOPG or CVD graphene,the contact line expands continuously with time, indicating total wetting for which the contact angle does not exist and contact line pinning disappears. In contrast, on the surface of reduced EPD graphene, spontaneous spreading is halted by spikes on it and partial wetting with small contact angle (θ≈4°) is obtained. On the surface of polished graphite sheet, the superlipophilicity and porous structure are demonstrated by imbibition and capillary rise of hexadecane. Consequently, an oil-infused graphite surface can be fabricated and the ultralow CAH of water (∆θ≈2°) is achieved.

  7. Chemical Flooding in Heavy-Oil Reservoirs: From Technical Investigation to Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Le Van

    2016-09-01

    rather than using a water slug in between. The results of the pre-evaluation show that two sequences of the ASP group have the highest NPV corresponding to the dissimilar applied oil prices. In the post-evaluation, the successful use of response surface methodology (RSM in the estimation and optimization procedures with coefficients of determination R2 greater than 0.97 shows that the project can possibly gain 4.47 $MM at a mean oil price of 46.5 $/bbl with the field scale of a quarter five-spot pattern. Further, with the novel assumption of normal distribution for the oil price variation, the chemical flooding sequence of concurrent alkali-surfactant-polymer injection with a buffering polymer solution is evaluated as the most feasible scheme owing to the achievement of the highest NPV at the highly possible oil price of 40–55 $/bbl compared to the other scheme.

  8. Optimization of the methanolysis of lard oil in the production of biodiesel with response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinyere B. Ezekannagha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Methanolysis of lard oil to biodiesel was optimized using central composite design (CCD of response surface methodology to delineate the effects of five levels, four factorson the yield of biodiesel. A total of 30 individual experiments were conducted and designed to study these process variables. A statistical model predicted that the highest conversion yield of lard biodiesel would be 96.2% at the following optimized reaction conditions: reaction temperature of 65 °C, catalyst amount of 1.25%, time of 40 min, methanol to oil molar ratio of 6:1 at 250 rpm. Experiments performed at the predicted optimum conditions yielded 96% which was in good agreement with the predicted value. This study shows that lard oil as a low cost feedstock is a good source of raw material for biodiesel production and a sustainable biodiesel production could be achieved with proper optimization of the process variables.

  9. Estimating sub-surface dispersed oil concentration using acoustic backscatter response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Christopher B; Bonner, James S; Islam, Mohammad S; Page, Cheryl; Ojo, Temitope; Kirkey, William

    2013-05-15

    The recent Deepwater Horizon disaster resulted in a dispersed oil plume at an approximate depth of 1000 m. Several methods were used to characterize this plume with respect to concentration and spatial extent including surface supported sampling and autonomous underwater vehicles with in situ instrument payloads. Additionally, echo sounders were used to track the plume location, demonstrating the potential for remote detection using acoustic backscatter (ABS). This study evaluated use of an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) to quantitatively detect oil-droplet suspensions from the ABS response in a controlled laboratory setting. Results from this study showed log-linear ABS responses to oil-droplet volume concentration. However, the inability to reproduce ABS response factors suggests the difficultly in developing meaningful calibration factors for quantitative field analysis. Evaluation of theoretical ABS intensity derived from the particle size distribution provided insight regarding method sensitivity in the presence of interfering ambient particles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioinspired polydopamine particles-assisted construction of superhydrophobic surfaces for oil/water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Bin; Wang, Yanbing; Peng, Bo; Deng, Ziwei

    2016-11-15

    Frequent oil spillages and industrial discharge of oils/organic solvents have induced severe environmental pollution and ecological damage, and a great cost in energy and finance has been consumed to solve the problems raised. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a surface hydrophobic modification that can be applied to materials with desired properties of high separation efficiency, excellent selectivity and stable performance in extreme conditions during the oil/water separation. Herein, with combined bioinspirations from mussel adhesive protein (polydopamine) and superhydrophobic lotus leaf (hierarchical structures), we develop a general way to superhydrophobically modify various commercial materials, aiming for the selective removal of oils/organic solvents from water. In this procedure, immersing commercial materials (e.g. melamine sponge, stainless steel mesh, nylon netting and cotton cloth) into water/ethanol/ammonia mixtures at a low concentration of dopamine (DA, 2mg/mL) allows a polydopamine (PDA) coating with a tunable roughness appearing on the substrate in one step. This is because DA can self-polymerize and form PDA particles with a catalyst of ammonia, attaching to any surfaces due to abundant catechol and amine groups in PDA, and ultimately, resulting in hierarchical structures. The subsequent decoration with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecanethiol features the surface superhydrophobic and superoleophilic. This approach is straightforward and economic, and carried out under a mild, environmental-benign circumstance, with nonspecific substrate demands. In addition, the as-prepared superhydrophobic materials exhibit excellent separation performances including high absorption/separation capacity, excellent selectivity, and extraordinary recyclability for collecting various oils/organic solvents from water. These superhydrophobic materials have also verified to be highly chemical resistant, environment stable and mechanically durable. Therefore, this

  11. Conjunctive Surface and Groundwater Management in Utah. Implications for Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Robert [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ruple, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Tanana, Heather [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Holt, Rebecca [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Unconventional fuel development will require scarce water resources. In an environment characterized by scarcity, and where most water resources are fully allocated, prospective development will require minimizing water use and seeking to use water resources in the most efficient manner. Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater provides just such an opportunity. Conjunctive use includes two main practices: First, integrating surface water diversions and groundwater withdrawals to maximize efficiency and minimize impacts on other resource users and ecological processes. Second, conjunctive use includes capturing surplus or unused surface water and injecting or infiltrating that water into groundwater aquifers in order to increase recharge rates. Conjunctive management holds promise as a means of addressing some of the West's most intractable problems. Conjunctive management can firm up water supplies by more effectively capturing spring runoff and surplus water, and by integrating its use with groundwater withdrawals; surface and groundwater use can be further integrated with managed aquifer recharge projects. Such integration can maximize water storage and availability, while simultaneously minimizing evaporative loss, reservoir sedimentation, and surface use impacts. Any of these impacts, if left unresolved, could derail commercial-scale unconventional fuel development. Unconventional fuel developers could therefore benefit from incorporating conjunctive use into their development plans. Despite its advantages, conjunctive use is not a panacea. Conjunctive use means using resources in harmony to maximize and stabilize long-term supplies it does not mean maximizing the use of two separate but interrelated resources for unsustainable short-term gains and it cannot resolve all problems or provide water where no unappropriated water exists. Moreover, conjunctive use may pose risks to ecological values forgone when water that would otherwise remain in a stream

  12. Mechanically durable underwater superoleophobic surfaces based on hydrophilic bulk metals for oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huadong; Lian, Zhongxu; Xu, Jinkai; Wan, Yanling; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Yiquan; Yu, Zhanjiang; Weng, Zhankun

    2018-04-01

    Despite the success of previous methods for fabricating underwater superoleophobic surfaces, most of the surfaces based on soft materials are prone to collapse and deformation due to their mechanically fragile nature, and they fail to perform their designed functions after the surface materials are damaged in water. In this work, the nanosecond laser-induced oxide coatings on hydrophilic bulk metals are reported which overcomes the limitation and shows the robust underwater superoleophobicity to a mechanical challenge encountered by surfaces deployed in water environment. The results show that the surface materials have the advantage that the underwater superoleophobicity is still preserved after the surfaces are scratched by knife or sandpaper and even completely destroyed because of the hydrophilic property of damaged materials in water. It is important that the results provide a guide for the design of durable underwater superoleophobic surfaces, and the development of superoleophobic materials in many potential applications such as the oil-repellent and the oil/water separation. Additionally, the nanosecond laser technology is simple, cost-effective and suitable for the large-area and mass fabrication of mechanically durable underwater superoleophobic metal materials.

  13. Innovative eco-friendly bio- solvent for combating sea surface and sedimented oil pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Paraskevas

    2017-04-01

    The combating of oil spill at sea surface by chemical dispersants accelerates the evaporation and disperse the oil into the water column, where it is broken down by natural processes and/or is sedimented at the sea bottom, especially at near coastal shallow areas, ports and marinas. The usual methodology for cleaning the sedimented oil from the sea bottom is mainly carried out via excavation and dumping of the polluted sediment into deeper sea areas, where the contamination is transferred from one area to another. The eco-friendly bio-solvent MSL Aqua 250 is an innovative new solution based mainly on natural constituents. The action mechanism and the effectiveness of this eco-friendly solvent is based on the high surface tension process. Organic compounds, including hydrocarbons upon coming in contact with MSL Aqua 250 solvent generate a significant surface tension reaction, which is able to alter the organic compounds to liquid form and then to drastically evaporate it. The use of MSL Aqua 250 solvent, both at sea surface and at the bottom, has the following advantages compared to the dispersants: • Efficient solution without transferring the pollution from sea surface to the water column and to the bottom or disturbing the Aquatic Eco System. • Non-Toxic. • Environmentally friendly with a restoration of marine life in the Eco System. • Cost effective. The MSL Aqua 250 solvent has been tested in cooperation with the Cyprus Department of Fisheries and Marine Research and the Technological University of Cyprus and used during the years 2015 and 2016 in marinas and fishing shelters in Cyprus faced oil pollution, with high concentration in the sea water and at the sea bottom of chemical parameters (BOD5, COD, FOG, TKN, TP, TPH), with excellent results.

  14. Detergency and Its Implications for Oil Emulsion Sieving and Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutzius, Thomas M; Walker, Christopher; Maitra, Tanmoy; Schönherr, Romy; Stamatopoulos, Christos; Jung, Stefan; Antonini, Carlo; Eghlidi, Hadi; Fife, Julie L; Patera, Alessandra; Derome, Dominique; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2017-05-02

    Separating petroleum hydrocarbons from water is an important problem to address in order to mitigate the disastrous effects of hydrocarbons on aquatic ecosystems. A rational approach to address the problem of marine oil-water separation is to disperse the oil with the aid of surfactants in order to minimize the formation of large slicks at the water surface and to maximize the oil-water interfacial area. Here we investigate the fundamental wetting and transport behavior of such surfactant-stabilized droplets and the flow conditions necessary to perform sieving and separation of these stabilized emulsions. We show that, for water-soluble surfactants, such droplets are completely repelled by a range of materials (intrinsically underwater superoleophobic) due to the detergency effect; therefore, there is no need for surface micro-/nanotexturing or chemical treatment to repel the oil and prevent fouling of the filter. We then simulate and experimentally investigate the effect of emulsion flow rate on the transport and impact behavior of such droplets on rigid meshes to identify the minimum pore opening (w) necessary to filter a droplet with a given diameter (d) in order to minimize the pressure drop across the mesh-and therefore maximize the filtering efficiency, which is strongly dependent on w. We define a range of flow conditions and droplet sizes where minimum droplet deformation is to be expected and therefore find that the condition of w ≈ d is sufficient for efficient separation. With this new understanding, we demonstrate the use of a commercially available filter-without any additional surface engineering or functionalization-to separate oil droplets (d < 100 μm) from a surfactant-stabilized emulsion with a flux of ∼11,000 L m -2 h -1 bar -1 . We believe these findings can inform the design of future oil separation materials.

  15. First day of an oil spill on the open sea: Early mass transfers of hydrocarbons to air and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gros, J.; Nabi, D.; Würz, B.; Wick, L.Y.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Huisman, J.; van der Meer, J.R.; Reddy, C.M.; Arey, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    During the first hours after release of petroleum at sea, crude oil hydrocarbons partition rapidly into air and water. However, limited information is available about very early evaporation and dissolution processes. We report on the composition of the oil slick during the first day after a

  16. Response Surface Methodology: An Emphatic Tool for Optimized Biodiesel Production Using Rice Bran and Sunflower Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Ahmad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study describes the emphatic use of response surface methodology for the optimized biodiesel production using chemical and enzymatic transesterification of rice bran and sunflower oils. Optimal biodiesel yields were determined to be 65.3 ± 2.0%, 73.4 ± 3.5%, 96.5 ± 1.6%, 89.3 ± 2.0% and 41.7 ± 3.9% for rice bran oil and 65.6 ± 1.2%, 82.1 ± 1.7%, 92.5 ± 2.8%, 72.6 ± 1.6% and 50.4 ± 2.5% for sunflower oil via the transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH and NaOCH3,NOVOZYME-435 and A.n. Lipase, respectively. Based upon analysis of variance (ANOVA and Response Surface plots significant impact of reaction parameters under study was ascertained. FTIR spectroscopic and HPLC methods were employed for monitoring the transesterification reaction progress while GC-MS analysis was performed to evaluate the compositional analysis of biodiesel. The fuel properties of both the rice bran and sunflower oil based biodiesel were shown to be technically compatible with the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. The monitoring of exhaust emission of synthesized biodiesels and their blends revealed a marked reduction in carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM levels, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions.

  17. Sensitivity of the deep-sea amphipod Eurythenes gryllus to chemically dispersed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Gro Harlaug; Coquillé, Nathalie; Le Floch, Stephane; Geraudie, Perrine; Dussauze, Matthieu; Lemaire, Philippe; Camus, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    In the context of an oil spill accident and the following oil spill response, much attention is given to the use of dispersants. Dispersants are used to disperse an oil slick from the sea surface into the water column generating a cloud of dispersed oil droplets. The main consequence is an increasing of the sea water-oil interface which induces an increase of the oil biodegradation. Hence, the use of dispersants can be effective in preventing oiling of sensitive coastal environments. Also, in case of an oil blowout from the seabed, subsea injection of dispersants may offer some benefits compared to containment and recovery of the oil or in situ burning operation at the sea surface. However, biological effects of dispersed oil are poorly understood for deep-sea species. Most effects studies on dispersed oil and also other oil-related compounds have been focusing on more shallow water species. This is the first approach to assess the sensitivity of a macro-benthic deep-sea organism to dispersed oil. This paper describes a toxicity test which was performed on the macro-benthic deep-sea amphipod (Eurythenes gryllus) to determine the concentration causing lethality to 50% of test individuals (LC50) after an exposure to dispersed Brut Arabian Light (BAL) oil. The LC50 (24 h) was 101 and 24 mg L(-1) after 72 h and 12 mg L(-1) at 96 h. Based on EPA scale of toxicity categories to aquatic organisms, an LC50 (96 h) of 12 mg L(-1) indicates that the dispersed oil was slightly to moderately toxic to E. gryllus. As an attempt to compare our results to others, a literature study was performed. Due to limited amount of data available for dispersed oil and amphipods, information on other crustacean species and other oil-related compounds was also collected. Only one study on dispersed oil and amphipods was found, the LC50 value in this study was similar to the LC50 value of E. gryllus in our study. Since toxicity data are important input to risk assessment and net environmental

  18. Study of surface activity of piroxicam at the interface of palm oil esters and various aqueous phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkarim, Muthanna Fawzy; Abdullah, Ghassan Zuhair; Chitneni, Mallikarjun; Yam, Mun Fei; Mahdi, Elrashid Saleh; Salman, Ibrahim Muhammad; Ameer, Omar Ziad; Sattar, Munavvar Abdul; Basri, Mahiran; Noor, Azmin Mohd

    2012-04-01

    The surface activity of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents like ibuprofen was investigated extensively. This fact has attracted the researchers to extend this behavior to other agents like piroxicam. Piroxicam molecules are expected to orient at the interface of oil and aqueous phase. The aim of this study was, firstly, to assess the surface and interfacial tension behaviour of newly synthesised palm oil esters and various pH phosphate buffers. Furthermore, the surface and interfacial tension activity of piroxicam was studied. All the measurements of surface and interfacial tension were made using the tensiometer. The study revealed that piroxicam has no effect on surface tension values of all pH phosphate buffers and palm oil esters. Similarly, various concentrations of piroxicam did not affect the interfacial tensions between the oil phase and the buffer phases. Accordingly, the interfacial tension values of all mixtures of oil and phosphate buffers were considerably high which indicates the immiscibility. It could be concluded that piroxicam has no surface activity. Additionally, there is no surface pressure activity of piroxicam at the interface of plam oil esters and phosphate buffers in the presence of Tweens and Spans.

  19. The Assessment of Instruments for Detecting Surface Water Spills Associated with Oil and Gas Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Aubrey E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hopkinson, Leslie [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Soeder, Daniel [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-12-02

    Surface water and groundwater risks associated with unconventional oil and gas development result from potential spills of the large volumes of chemicals stored on-site during drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations, and the return to the surface of significant quantities of saline water produced during oil or gas well production. To better identify and mitigate risks, watershed models and tools are needed to evaluate the dispersion of pollutants in possible spill scenarios. This information may be used to determine the placement of in-stream water-quality monitoring instruments and to develop early-warning systems and emergency plans. A chemical dispersion model has been used to estimate the contaminant signal for in-stream measurements. Spills associated with oil and gas operations were identified within the Susquehanna River Basin Commission’s Remote Water Quality Monitoring Network. The volume of some contaminants was found to be sufficient to affect the water quality of certain drainage areas. The most commonly spilled compounds and expected peak concentrations at monitoring stations were used in laboratory experiments to determine if a signal could be detected and positively identified using standard water-quality monitoring equipment. The results were compared to historical data and baseline observations of water quality parameters, and showed that the chemicals tested do commonly affect water quality parameters. This work is an effort to demonstrate that hydrologic and water quality models may be applied to improve the placement of in-stream water quality monitoring devices. This information may increase the capability of early-warning systems to alert community health and environmental agencies of surface water spills associated with unconventional oil and gas operations.

  20. Competitive Adsorption between Nanoparticles and Surface Active Ions for the Oil-Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xiaoqing; Bevan, Michael A; Frechette, Joelle

    2018-04-16

    Nanoparticles (NPs) can add functionality (e.g., catalytic, optical, rheological) to an oil-water interface. Adsorption of ∼10 nm NPs can be reversible; however, the mechanisms for adsorption and its effects on surface pressure remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate how the competitive reversible adsorption of NPs and surfactants at fluid interfaces can lead to independent control of both the adsorbed amount and surface pressure. In contrast to prior work, both species investigated (NPs and surfactants) interact reversibly with the interface and without the surface active species binding to NPs. Independent measurements of the adsorption and surface pressure isotherms allow determination of the equation of state (EOS) of the interface under conditions where the NPs and surfactants are both in dynamic equilibrium with the bulk phase. The adsorption and surface pressure measurements are performed with gold NPs of two different sizes (5 and 10 nm), at two pH values, and across a wide concentration range of surfactant (tetrapentylammonium, TPeA + ) and NPs. We show that free surface active ions compete with NPs for the interface and give rise to larger surface pressures upon the adsorption of NPs. Through a competitive adsorption model, we decouple the contributions of NPs wetting at the interface and their surface activity on the measured surface pressure. We also demonstrate reversible control of adsorbed amount via changes in the surfactant concentration or the aqueous phase pH.

  1. See võid sina olla. See võib olla sinu kloon. Sina võid olla kloon / Gregory Slick ; interv. Eero Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Slick, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    USA fotograaf G. Slick, kellel lõppes residentuur EKL külalisateljees, endast, oma loomingust, Eestist jm. G. Slick jätkas Eestis tööd seeriatega "Natural Histories" ja "Humans vs Space". Intervjuu on antud "Vikerraadio" saate "Kultuurikaja" jaoks

  2. Surface integrity and part accuracy in reaming and tapping stainless steel with new vegetable based cutting oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the effect of new formulations of vegetable oils on surface integrity and part accuracy in reaming and tapping operations with AISI 316L stainless steel. Surface integrity was assessed with measurements of roughness, microhardness, and using metallographic...... as part accuracy. Cutting fluids based on vegetable oils showed comparable or better performance than mineral oils. ÆÉ2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd....... techniques, while part accuracy was measured on a coordinate measuring machine. A widely diffused commercial mineral oil was used as reference for all measurements. Cutting fluid was found to have a significant effect on surface integrity and thickness of the strain hardened layer in the sub-surface, as well...

  3. Oil and gas: ownership and use of abandoned oil-well casing when the surface and mineral estates have been severed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akins, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    If an oil and gas lessee fails to remove embedded oil-well casing from a terminated or abandoned lease, the casing is forfeited and title vests in the owner of the fee. The surface owner has the right to pull the casing for its salvage value. However, if the mineral owner or his new lessee wishes to use the abandoned well bore and casing in new oil and gas recovery operations without being charged for the use, two theories can be applied to enjoin the surface owner from removing the casing or from charging for the use of the casing: (1) the implied terms of the lease give the lessee the right to reasonable use of the surface including the casing, and (2) ownership of the space in the bore implies the right to keep the casing in the well to preserve the space. 64 references.

  4. Preliminary analysis of surface mining options for Naval Oil Shale Reserve 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-20

    The study was undertaken to determine the economic viability of surface mining to exploit the reserves. It is based on resource information already developed for NOSR 1 and conceptual designs of mining systems compatible with this resource. Environmental considerations as they relate to surface mining have been addressed qualitatively. The conclusions on economic viability were based primarily on mining costs projected from other industries using surface mining. An analysis of surface mining for the NOSR 1 resource was performed based on its particular overburden thickness, oil shale thickness, oil shale grade, and topography. This evaluation considered reclamation of the surface as part of its design and cost estimate. The capital costs for mining 25 GPT and 30 GPT shale and the operating costs for mining 25 GPT, 30 GPT, and 35 GPT shale are presented. The relationship between operating cost and stripping ratio, and the break-even stripping ratio (BESR) for surface mining to be competitive with room-and-pillar mining, are shown. Identification of potential environmental impacts shows that environmental control procedures for surface mining are more difficult to implement than those for underground mining. The following three areas are of prime concern: maintenance of air quality standards by disruption, movement, and placement of large quantities of overburden; disruption or cutting of aquifers during the mining process which affect area water supplies; and potential mineral leaching from spent shales into the aquifers. Although it is an operational benefit to place spent shale in the open pit, leaching of the spent shales and contamination of the water is detrimental. It is therefore concluded that surface mining on NOSR 1 currently is neither economically desirable nor environmentally safe. Stringent mitigation measures would have to be implemented to overcome some of the potential environmental hazards.

  5. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites are located near the small town of Slick Rock, in San Miguel County, Colorado. There are two designated UMTRA sites at Slick Rock, the Union Carbide (UC) site and the North Continent (NC) site. Both sites are adjacent to the Dolores River. The UC site is approximately 1 mile (mi) [2 kilometers (km)] downstream of the NC site. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 55 acres (ac) [22 hectares (ha)] at the UC site and 12 ac (4.9 ha) at the NC site. The sites contain former mill building concrete foundations, tailings piles, demolition debris, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 620, 000 cubic yards (yd 3 ) [470,000 cubic meters (m 3 )]. In addition to the contamination at the two processing site areas, four vicinity properties were contaminated. Contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into groundwater

  6. Oil spill monitoring and forecasting on the Prestige-Nassau accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero, P.; Blanco, J.; Cabanas, J.M.; Maneiro, J.; Pazos, Y.; Morono, A. [Unidade de Observacion Proxima CPAM, Vilaxoan, Pontevedra (Spain); Balseiro, C.F.; Carracedo, P.; Gomez, B.; Penabad, E.; Perez-Munuzuri, V. [MeteoGalicia CMA, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Braunschweig, F.; Fernandes, R.; Leitao, P.C.; Neves, R. [MARETEC IST, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2003-07-01

    The Prestige-Nassau tanker ship spilled about 10,000 tons of oil off the coast of Spain on November 13, 2002 during a severe storm. On November 19, the ship split in half and sank 133 nautical miles from the Galician coast to a depth of 3,500 metres, spilling another 20,000 tons of oil. The Galician government set up an Office of Nearshore Surveillance and recruited people from the Galician Regional Meteorological Service and the Spanish Institute of Oceanography to monitor the slick and forecast its trajectory. The main spill arrived at Galicia on November 30, damaging most of the coast. A variety of models that combined surface wind drift and ocean currents were used to forecast the movement of the spill. These included the Mothy from MeteoFrance, and DERIVA from the Portuguese Hydrographic Institute. Two models were also developed by MeteoGalicia and MAETEC. The path followed by the oil spill was classified in three parts. The first spill of 10,000 tons took place from November 13 until the ship split in two. The second spill of around 20,000 tons of oil occurred when the ship sank on November 19. The last spill includes oil that continued to leak from the sunken tanker at a rate of 125 tons per day. The trajectory predictions were found to be in good agreement with aerial observations. 24 refs., 10 figs.

  7. Image segmentation-based oil slick detection using SAR Radarsat-2 OSVN maritime data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mdakane, Lizwe W

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available (RS2) Maritime Satellite Surveillance Radar (MSSR) modes have been developed to further improve ocean surveillance. This data can monitor large areas (400 km for SEN1 EW and over 500 km for RS2 OSVN), with a finer resolution. These modes enable...

  8. Modelling the Spread of an Oil-Slick with Irregular Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Brian

    2010-01-01

    We describe a modelling activity for students in a course in which modelling with differential equations is appropriate. We have used this model in our coursework for years and have found that it enlightens students as to the model building process and parameter estimation for a linear, first-order, ordinary differential equation. The activity…

  9. Synthesis of Surface-Responsive Composite Particles by Dehydration of Water-in-Oil Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chen; Liu, Qingxia; Xu, Zhenghe

    2015-09-23

    Organic composite particles were prepared by first emulsifying an aqueous sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) solution in a nonaqueous ethylcellulose (EC) solution, followed by dehydrating emulsified water droplets. CMC and EC are both biodegradable nontoxic materials, but have contrasting properties. CMC is a charged water-soluble polymer, while EC is an uncharged interfacially active water-insoluble polymer. The simple preparative method does not consume unnecessary chemical reagents and produces no waste material. The composite particles prepared by dehydrating emulsion droplets are readily dispersed in organic media due to its biwettable surface terminated with interfacially active EC molecules, which allows composite particles to preferentially adsorb at the oil-water droplet interface. The surface of composite particles, furthermore, is water-permeable, which allows water to be absorbed from emulsified droplets. The size, composition, and structure of the synthesized composite particles are ideally suited for absorption of stabilized water droplets from oil-continuous emulsions. The use of the composite absorbent particles, described herein, presents another viable strategy for dewatering water-in-oil emulsions.

  10. UV and gamma irradiation effects on surface properties of polyurethane derivative from castor oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Elaine C.; Nascimento, Eduardo M., E-mail: helunica@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Chierice, Gilberto O.; Claro Neto, Salvador [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Lepienski, Carlos M. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Gamma and ultraviolet radiation effects on hardness, elastic modulus and viscoelastic properties of polyurethane derived from castor oil (PU) were investigated by nanoindentation tests. Modifications on surface morphology, induce by radiation, were observed by atomic force microscopy. The polyurethane derivative from castor oil shows good resistance to gamma radiation, with only small changes in hardness, elastic modulus, viscoelastic properties and contact angle. The hardness of PY increases at the near surface region due to UVA radiation and decreases after UVC radiation. The contact angle for water drop decreases after UVC radiation, by not after gamma radiation, despite a significant increase in roughness. Such results are attributed to different responses from polyurethane to radiation energy. Increase in hardness due to UVA is attributed to a higher crosslinking at shallow depths, while a decrease in mechanical properties may be attributed to chain scission. These results are consistent with the modifications on viscoelastic properties. Shore D hardness did not show the same trend as observed by nanoindentation results. Hardness, viscoelastic properties and contact angle of castor oil polyurethane are more severely influenced by UVC radiation, while gamma radiation does not have a significant effect. (author)

  11. UV and gamma irradiation effects on surface properties of polyurethane derivative from castor oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Elaine C.; Nascimento, Eduardo M.; Chierice, Gilberto O.; Claro Neto, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Gamma and ultraviolet radiation effects on hardness, elastic modulus and viscoelastic properties of polyurethane derived from castor oil (PU) were investigated by nanoindentation tests. Modifications on surface morphology, induce by radiation, were observed by atomic force microscopy. The polyurethane derivative from castor oil shows good resistance to gamma radiation, with only small changes in hardness, elastic modulus, viscoelastic properties and contact angle. The hardness of PY increases at the near surface region due to UVA radiation and decreases after UVC radiation. The contact angle for water drop decreases after UVC radiation, by not after gamma radiation, despite a significant increase in roughness. Such results are attributed to different responses from polyurethane to radiation energy. Increase in hardness due to UVA is attributed to a higher crosslinking at shallow depths, while a decrease in mechanical properties may be attributed to chain scission. These results are consistent with the modifications on viscoelastic properties. Shore D hardness did not show the same trend as observed by nanoindentation results. Hardness, viscoelastic properties and contact angle of castor oil polyurethane are more severely influenced by UVC radiation, while gamma radiation does not have a significant effect. (author)

  12. Mechanism and look-alikes analysis of oil spill monitoring with optical remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Guoxin; Ma, Long; Li, Ying; Liu, Bingxin

    2011-12-01

    Remote Sensing surveillance constitutes an important component of oil spill disaster management system, but subject to monitoring accuracy and ability, which suffered from resolution, environmental conditions, and look-alikes. So this article aims to provide information of identification and distinguishing of look-alikes for optical sensors, and then improve the monitoring precision. Although limited by monitoring conditions of the atmosphere and night, optical satellite remote sensing can provide the intrinsic spectral information of the film and the background sea, then affords the potentiality for detailed identification of the film thickness, oil type classification (crude/light oil), trends, and sea surface roughness by multi-type data products. This paper focused on optical sensors and indicated that these false targets of sun glint, bottom feature, cloud shadow, suspend bed sediment and surface bioorganic are the main factors for false alarm in optical images. Based on the detailed description of the theory of oil spill detection in optical images, depending on the preliminary summary of the feature of look-alikes in visible-infrared bands, a discriminate criteria and work-flow for slicks identification are proposed. The results are helpful to improve the remote sensing monitoring ability and the contingency planning.

  13. Overlap between Atlantic bluefin tuna spawning grounds and observed Deepwater Horizon surface oil in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhling, B A; Roffer, M A; Lamkin, J T; Ingram, G W; Upton, M A; Gawlikowski, G; Muller-Karger, F; Habtes, S; Richards, W J

    2012-04-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) during the spring spawning season of Atlantic bluefin tuna (BFT). Overlap between BFT spawning habitat and surface oil in the northern GOM was examined using satellite-derived estimates of oil coverage, and spawning habitat models. Results suggested that although eggs and larvae were likely impacted by oil-contaminated waters in the eastern GOM, high abundances of larvae were located elsewhere, especially in the western GOM. Overall, less than 10% of BFT spawning habitat was predicted to have been covered by surface oil, and less than 12% of larval BFT were predicted to have been located within contaminated waters in the northern GOM, on a weekly basis. Our results provide preliminary but important initial estimates of the effects of the spill on larval BFT mortality, as concern continues over the appropriate management responses to impacts of the spill. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural and electrical properties of an Au film system deposited on silicone oil surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Yang Bo; Jin Jin Sheng; Ye Quan Lin; Lao Yan Feng; Jiao Zheng Kuan; Ye Gao Xiang

    2002-01-01

    An Au thin film system, deposited on silicone oil surfaces by the thermal deposition method, has been fabricated and its structure as well as electrical properties has been studied. A web-shaped characteristic surface morphology of the films is observed. The dc sheet resistance R of the metal films on the liquid surfaces is measured during and after deposition in situ by the four-probe method. The time dependence of the sheet resistance can be explained in terms of the film growth mechanism on the oil surface. The anomalous I-V characteristics of the film system can be interpreted as a competition among the local Joule heating, hopping and tunnelling effects. It is found that the dc third-harmonic coefficient B sub 0 and the zero-power resistance R sub 0 satisfy the power-law relation B sub 0 propor to R sub 0 sup 2 sup + sup w and the exponent w is close to zero. This result indicates that the hopping and tunnelling effects in the samples are much stronger than those of the other film systems. We also find I...

  15. The solution of the problem of oil spill risk control in the Baltic Sea taking into account the processes of oil propagation and degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseev, Nikita; Agoshkov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    The report is devoted to the one approach to the problem of oil spill risk control of protected areas in the Baltic Sea (Aseev et al., 2014). By the problem of risk control is meant a problem of determination of optimal resources quantity which are necessary for decreasing the risk to some acceptable value. It is supposed that only moment of accident is a random variable. Mass of oil slick is chosen as a function of control. For the realization of the random variable the quadratic 'functional of cost' is introduced. It comprises cleaning costs and deviation of damage of oil pollution from its acceptable value. The problem of minimization of this functional is solved based on the methods of optimal control and the theory of adjoint equations (Agoshkov, 2003, Agoshkov et al., 2012). The solution of this problem is explicitly found. In order to solve the realistic problem of oil spill risk control in the Baltic Sea the 2d model of oil spill propagation on the sea surface based on the Seatrack Web model (Liungman, Mattson, 2011) is developed. The model takes into account such processes as oil transportation by sea currents and wind, turbulent diffusion, spreading, evaporation from sea surface, dispersion and formation of emulsion 'water-in-oil'. The model allows to calculate basic oil slick parameters: localization, mass, volume, thickness, density of oil, water content and viscosity of emulsion. The results of several numerical experiments in the Baltic Sea using the model and the methodology of oil spill risk control are presented. Along with moment of accident other parameters of oil spill and environment could be chosen as a random variables. The methodology of solution of oil spill risk control problem will remain the same but the computational complexity will increase. Conversion of the function of control to quantity of resources with a glance to methods of pollution removal should be processed. As a result, the developed 2d model of oil spill propagation

  16. Observations of Near-Surface Current Shear Help Describe Oceanic Oil and Plastic Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxague, Nathan J. M.; Ö-zgökmen, Tamay M.; Haus, Brian K.; Novelli, Guillaume; Shcherbina, Andrey; Sutherland, Peter; Guigand, Cédric M.; Lund, Björn; Mehta, Sanchit; Alday, Matias; Molemaker, Jeroen

    2018-01-01

    Plastics and spilled oil pose a critical threat to marine life and human health. As a result of wind forcing and wave motions, theoretical and laboratory studies predict very strong velocity variation with depth over the upper few centimeters of the water column, an observational blind spot in the real ocean. Here we present the first-ever ocean measurements of the current vector profile defined to within 1 cm of the free surface. In our illustrative example, the current magnitude averaged over the upper 1 cm of the ocean is shown to be nearly four times the average over the upper 10 m, even for mild forcing. Our findings indicate that this shear will rapidly separate pieces of marine debris which vary in size or buoyancy, making consideration of these dynamics essential to an improved understanding of the pathways along which marine plastics and oil are transported.

  17. Optimization of oil extraction from olive pomace using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziane, S

    2013-08-01

    A statistical methodology, combining Plackett-Burman design with Box-Behnken design, was applied to optimize the oil extraction process from olive pomace using hexane as solvent. Plackett-Burman design was used in the first step to evaluate the effects of five independent variables on the oil extraction yield. Temperature of extraction, time of contact, solvent-to-solids ratio and moisture content of the olive pomace were identified as significant independent variables and were further optimized by using response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design. The optimized conditions to maximize the yield were as follows: extraction temperature at 33 , contact time at 10 min, solvent-to-solids ratio at 3.5 mL/g and moisture content at 13%. The experimental value of the yield (5.98%) at these optimum conditions was found in perfect agreement with the value predicted by model (5.80%).

  18. Optimization of castor seed oil extraction process using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Mosquera-Artamonov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the study of the oil extraction yield from castor seed using three different seed conditions: whole, minced and bare endosperm. Taguchi design was used to determine the contribution of the following parameters: seed condition, seed load in the extractor, temperature, and pressure. It was proved that it is necessary to introduce the whole seed and that the presence of the pericarp increases the extraction yield. The contribution of the control factors has an extraction yield limit. After determining which factors contributed to the process, these were left at their optimum levels aiming to reduce the control factors to only two. The complete analysis was done using a surface response methodology giving the best parameter for temperature and pressure that allows a better yielding mechanical extraction. The oil extraction yield can be kept up to 35% of the seed.

  19. Uniform-sized silicone oil microemulsions: preparation, investigation of stability and deposition on hair surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Habiba; Lv, Piping; Wang, Lianyan; Lian, Guoping; Zhu, Shiping; Ma, Guanghui

    2011-12-01

    Emulsions are commonly used in foods, pharmaceuticals and home-personal-care products. For emulsion based products, it is highly desirable to control the droplet size distribution to improve storage stability, appearance and in-use property. We report preparation of uniform-sized silicone oil microemulsions with different droplets diameters (1.4-40.0 μm) using SPG membrane emulsification technique. These microemulsions were then added into model shampoos and conditioners to investigate the effects of size, uniformity, and storage stability on silicone oil deposition on hair surface. We observed much improved storage stability of uniform-sized microemulsions when the droplets diameter was ≤22.7 μm. The uniform-sized microemulsion of 40.0 μm was less stable but still more stable than non-uniform sized microemulsions prepared by conventional homogenizer. The results clearly indicated that uniform-sized droplets enhanced the deposition of silicone oil on hair and deposition increased with decreasing droplet size. Hair switches washed with small uniform-sized droplets had lower values of coefficient of friction compared with those washed with larger uniform and non-uniform droplets. Moreover the addition of alginate thickener in the shampoos and conditioners further enhanced the deposition of silicone oil on hair. The good correlation between silicone oil droplets stability, deposition on hair and resultant friction of hair support that droplet size and uniformity are important factors for controlling the stability and deposition property of emulsion based products such as shampoo and conditioner. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adsorption of surfactants on sand surface in enhanced oil recovery: Isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, Achinta; Kumar, T.; Ojha, Keka; Mandal, Ajay, E-mail: mandal_ajay@hotmail.com

    2013-11-01

    Adsorption of surfactants onto reservoir rock surface may result in the loss and reduction of their concentrations in surfactant flooding, which may render them less efficient or ineffective in practical applications of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques. Surfactant flooding for EOR received attraction due to its ability to increase the displacement efficiency by lowering the interfacial tension between oil and water and mobilizing the residual oil. This article highlights the adsorption of surfactants onto sand surface with variation of different influencing factors. It has been experimentally found that adsorption of cationic surfactant on sand surface is more and less for anionic surfactant, while non-ionic surfactant shows intermediate behaviour. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study of clean sand particles has been made to determine the main component present in the sand particles. The interaction between sand particles and surfactant has been studied by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy of the sand particles before and after aging with surfactant. Salinity plays an important role in adsorption of anionic surfactant. Batch experiments were also performed to understand the effects of pH and adsorbent dose on the sorption efficiency. The sand particles exhibited high adsorption efficiency at low pH for anionic and nonionic surfactants. But opposite trend was found for cationic surfactant. Adsorption data were analyzed by fitting with Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, and Sips isotherm models. Results show that the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetics models suit the equilibrium and kinetics of adsorption on sand surface. Thermodynamics feasibility of the adsorption process was also studied to verify the spontaneity of the process.

  1. Parametric Study to Determine the Effect of Temperature on Oil Soldifier Performance and the Development of a new Empirical Correlation for Predicting Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperature can play a significant role in the efficacy of solidifiers in removing oil slicks on water. We studied and quantified the effect of temperature on the performance of several solidifiers using 5 different types of oils under a newly developed testing protocol by condu...

  2. Parametric Study to Determine the Effect of Temperature on Oil Solidifier Performance and the Development of a New Empirical Correlation for Predicting Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperature can play a significant role in the efficacy of solidifiers in removing oil slicks on water. We studied and quantified the effect of temperature on the performance of several solidifiers using 5 different types of oils under a newly developed testing protocol by conduc...

  3. Development of radiation curable surface coating based on soybean oil. part I. preparation and characterization of acrylated oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.S.; Said, H.M.; Moussa, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    An epoxy acrylate was synthesized from epoxidized soybean oil (ESOL) by using acrylic acid monomer. Triethyl amine (TEA) and hydroquinone were used as catalyst and inhibitor respectively. The epoxidized soybean oil acrylate (ESOLA) is done by introducing acrylic acid into oxirane groups of the epoxidized oil (ESOL). This reaction was confirmed by analytical data in terms of oxirane oxygen content, acid value, viscosity and spectroscopically analysis

  4. Enhancing oil removal from water by immobilizing multi-wall carbon nanotubes on the surface of polyurethane foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Alireza; Zilouei, Hamid; Abdolmaleki, Amir; Asadinezhad, Ahmad

    2015-07-01

    A surface modification method was carried out to enhance the light crude oil sorption capacity of polyurethane foam (PUF) through immobilization of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) on the foam surface at various concentrations. The developed sorbent was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and tensile elongation test. The results obtained from thermogravimetric and tensile elongation tests showed the improvement of thermal and mechanical resistance of surface-modified foam. The experimental data also revealed that the immobilization of MWCNT on PUF surface enhanced the sorption capacity of light crude oil and reduced water sorption. The highest oil removal capacity was obtained for 1 wt% MWCNT on PUF surface which was 21.44% enhancement in light crude oil sorption compared to the blank PUF. The reusability of surface modified PUF was determined through four cycles of chemical regeneration using petroleum ether. The adsorption of light crude oil with 30 g initial mass showed that 85.45% of the initial oil sorption capacity of this modified sorbent was remained after four regeneration cycles. Equilibrium isotherms for adsorption of oil were analyzed by the Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin, and Redlich-Peterson models through linear and non-linear regression methods. Results of equilibrium revealed that Langmuir isotherm is the best fitting model and non-linear method is a more accurate way to predict the parameters involved in the isotherms. The overall findings suggested the promising potentials of the developed sorbent in order to be efficiently used in large-scale oil spill cleanup. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Draft genome sequence of the marineRhodobacteraceaestrain O3.65, cultivated from oil-polluted seawater of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Helge-Ansgar; Klotz, Franziska; Voget, Sonja; Poehlein, Anja; Grosser, Katrin; Teske, Andreas; Brinkhoff, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The marine alphaproteobacterium strain O3.65 was isolated from an enrichment culture of surface seawater contaminated with weathered oil (slicks) from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill and belongs to the ubiquitous, diverse and ecological relevant Roseobacter group within the Rhodobacteraceae . Here, we present a preliminary set of physiological features of strain O3.65 and a description and annotation of its draft genome sequence. Based on our data we suggest potential ecological roles of the isolate in the degradation of crude oil within the network of the oil-enriched microbial community. The draft genome comprises 4,852,484 bp with 4,591 protein-coding genes and 63 RNA genes. Strain O3.65 utilizes pentoses, hexoses, disaccharides and amino acids as carbon and energy source and is able to grow on several hydroxylated and substituted aromatic compounds. Based on 16S rRNA gene comparison the closest described and validated strain is Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395, however, strain O3.65 is lacking several phenotypic and genomic characteristics specific for the genus Phaeobacter . Phylogenomic analyses based on the whole genome support extensive genetic exchange of strain O3.65 with members of the genus Ruegeria , potentially by using the secretion system type IV. Our physiological observations are consistent with the genomic and phylogenomic analyses and support that strain O3.65 is a novel species of a new genus within the Rhodobacteraceae .

  6. Fabrication of novel chitosan/PAN/magnetic ZSM-5 zeolite coated sponges for absorption of oil from water surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Saman; Yazd, Shabnam Sharif; Abdoli, Hossein; Jafari, Pooya; Aliabadi, Majid

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, the chitosan (bottom layer)/polyacrylonitrile (top layer, PAN) nanofibers were coated on the sponge surface. The synthesized magnetic Fe 3 O 4 - ZSM-5 nanozeolites have been loaded into the chitosan/PAN nanofibers to increase the performance of nanofibers toward absorption of lubricating oil, motor oil and pump oil from water surfaces. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were used to characterize the synthesized nanozeolites. The morphology and wettability of nanofibers were determined using SEM and water contact angle tests. The influence of Fe 3 O 4 - ZSM-5 nanozeolite content and chitosan/PAN/Fe 3 O 4 - ZSM-5 nanofiber thickness was evaluated on the potential of sponges for oils absorption. The maximum capacity of the chitosan/PAN/Fe 3 O 4 - ZSM-5 nanofibers coated sponges for absorption of motor oil, lubricating oil and pump oil was found to be 99.4, 95.3 and 88.1g/g, in Fe 3 O 4 - ZSM-5 2wt.% and nanofiber thickness of 12μm (chitosan layer of 2μm and PAN layer of 10μm). The reusability of nanofibrous sponges showed that the hydrophobic chitosan/PAN/Fe 3 O 4 - ZSM-5 nanofibers coated sponges can be easily reused in water-oil separation for many cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sorption and distribution of asphaltene, resin, aromatic and saturate fractions of heavy crude oil on quartz surface: molecular dynamic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guozhong; He, Lin; Chen, Daoyi

    2013-09-01

    The molecular scale sorption, diffusion and distribution of asphaltene, resin, aromatic and saturate fractions of heavy crude oil on quartz surface were studied using molecular dynamic simulation. Sorption of saturates on quartz decreased by 31% when temperature increased from 298 to 398K while opposite trend was observed for resins, but insignificant changes were found in asphaltenes and aromatics. Despite of this variety, the main contribution of interactions was van der Waals energy (>90%) irrespective of molecular components and temperatures. The diffusion coefficient of saturates was predicted as 10.8×10(-10)m(2)s(-1) while that of the remaining fractions was about 4×10(-10)m(2)s(-1) at 298K. The most likely oil distribution on quartz surface was that aromatics and saturates transported randomly into and out of the complex consisting of asphaltenes surrounded by resins, which was influenced by temperature. Overall, the knowledge on quartz-oil and oil-oil interactions gained in this study is essential for future risk assessment and remediation activities as previous studies on soil remediation either limited to light oil fractions with <40 carbons or treated the heavy crude oil as a single pseudo entity ignoring the interactions between oil fractions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolation of Nanocrystalline Cellulose from oil palm empty fruit bunch – A response surface methodology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yee Kai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research work studied the extraction of Nano Crystalline Cellulose (NCC from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB, with aid of Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Particle size analysis using Malvern Zetasizer had confirmed the extracted NCC fall within the desired nano scaled range. The impact of three input parameters, namely concentration of NaOH solution during alkaline treatment, concentration of H2SO4 solution during acid hydrolysis, and duration for acid hydrolysis on NCC particle were investigated. From ANOVA study, it had suggested that the current RSM model is significant to interpret the interaction among the all three input parameters.

  9. Potential Environmental Factors Affecting Oil-Degrading Bacterial Populations in Deep and Surface Waters of the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiqing; Bacosa, Hernando P; Liu, Zhanfei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding bacterial community dynamics as a result of an oil spill is important for predicting the fate of oil released to the environment and developing bioremediation strategies in the Gulf of Mexico. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the roles of temperature, water chemistry (nutrients), and initial bacterial community in selecting oil degraders through a series of incubation experiments. Surface (2 m) and bottom (1537 m) waters, collected near the Deepwater Horizon site, were amended with 200 ppm light Louisiana sweet crude oil and bacterial inoculums from surface or bottom water, and incubated at 4 or 24°C for 50 days. Bacterial community and residual oil were analyzed by pyrosequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The results showed that temperature played a key role in selecting oil-degrading bacteria. Incubation at 4°C favored the development of Cycloclasticus, Pseudoalteromonas , Sulfitobacter , and Reinekea , while 24°C incubations enhanced Oleibacter, Thalassobius, Phaeobacter, and Roseobacter. Water chemistry and the initial community also had potential roles in the development of hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities. Pseudoalteromonas , Oleibacter , and Winogradskyella developed well in the nutrient-enriched bottom water, while Reinekea and Thalassobius were favored by low-nutrient surface water. We revealed that the combination of 4°C, crude oil and bottom inoculum was a key factor for the growth of Cycloclasticus , while the combination of surface inoculum and bottom water chemistry was important for the growth of Pseudoalteromonas . Moreover, regardless of the source of inoculum, bottom water at 24°C was a favorable condition for Oleibacter. Redundancy analysis further showed that temperature and initial community explained 57 and 19% of the variation observed, while oil and water chemistry contributed 14 and 10%, respectively. Overall, this study revealed the relative roles of temperature, water

  10. An Optimization Study for Transesterification of Palm Oil using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Y.C.; Tan, Y.P.; Taufiq-Yap, Y.H.; Ramli, I.; Wong, Y.C.; Tan, Y.P.; Taufiq-Yap, Y.H.; Ramli, I.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel was produced via transesterification of palm oil with methanol in the presence of CaO-Nb 2 O 5 mixed oxide catalyst. Response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design (CCD) was performed to determine the optimum operating conditions and to optimize the biodiesel yield. In this study, the reaction variables being optimized were reaction time, catalyst loading and methanol to oil molar ratio. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the most influential parameter on biodiesel production was reaction time. The predicted yield was found in good agreement with the experimental value, with R2= 0.9902. The optimum biodiesel yield of 97.67% was achieved at 2.67 h reaction time, with 3.60 wt. % of catalyst and with methanol to oil molar ratio of 13.04. The high biodiesel yield can be correlated to the synergic effect of basicity between the metallic ions of CaO-Nb 2 O 5 shown in the physicochemical analysis. (author)

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF SESAME SEEDS OIL EXTRACTION OPERATING CONDITIONS USING THE RESPONSE SURFACE DESIGN METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAITHAM OSMAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies Response Surface Design (RSD to model the experimental data obtained from the extraction of sesame seeds oil using n-hexane, chloroform and acetone as solvents under different operating conditions. The results obtained revealed that n-hexane outperformed the extraction obtained using chloroform and acetone. The developed model predicted that n-hexane with a rotational speed of 547 rpm and a contact time between the solvent and seeds of 19.46 hours with solvent: seeds ratio of 4.93, yields the optimum oil extracted of 37.03 %, outperforming chloroform and acetone models that gave prediction for 4.75 and 4.21 respectively. While the maximum predictions yield for chloroform is 6.73 %, under the operating conditions of 602 rpm, and 24 hours contact time, with a ratio of solvent: seeds of 1.74. On the other hand the acetone maximum prediction is only 4.37 %, with operational conditions of 467 rpm, and 6.00 hours contact time, with a ratio of solvent: seeds of 1. It is has been found that the maximum oil extraction yield obtained from the chloroform (6.73 % and Acetone (4.37 % is much lower than that predicted by n-hexane 37.03 %.

  12. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy studies of yellow organic dyestuffs and lake pigments in oil paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Hannah E; Fabian, David M; Svoboda, Shelley A; Wustholz, Kristin L

    2013-08-21

    Identifying natural, organic dyes and pigments is important for the conservation, preservation, and historical interpretation of works of art. Although previous SERS studies have demonstrated high sensitivity and selectivity for red lake pigments using various pretreatment conditions, corresponding investigations of yellow lake pigments and paints are relatively sparse. Here, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy is used to identify a variety of yellow organic dyestuffs and lake pigments in oil paint. High-quality SERS spectra of yellow dyestuffs (i.e., turmeric, old fustic, Buckthorn berries) and corresponding paints could be obtained with or without sample pretreatment using microliter quantities of HCl and methanol at room temperature. However, the SERS spectra of yellow lake pigments (i.e., Stil de Grain, Reseda lake) and their corresponding oil paints were only observed upon sample pretreatment. Ultimately, we demonstrate a reliable sample treatment protocol for SERS-based identification of turmeric, old fustic, Buckthorn berries, Stil de Grain, and Reseda lake as well as for microscopic samples of the corresponding oil paints.

  13. Optimization and Modeling of Process Variables of Biodiesel Production from Marula Oil using Response Surface Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enweremadu, C. C.; Rutto, H. L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization study in the production of biodiesel production from Marula oil. The study was carried out using a central composite design of experiments under response surface methodology. A mathematical model was developed to correlate the transesterification process variables to biodiesel yield. The transesterification reaction variables were methanol to oil ratio, x /sub 1/ (10-50 wt percentage), reaction time, x /sub 2/ (30-90 min), reaction temperature, x /sub 3/ (30-90 Degree C) stirring speed, x /sub 4/ (100-400 rpm) and amount of catalyst, x /sub 5/ (0.5-1.5 g). The optimum conditions for the production of the biodiesel were found to be methanol to oil ratio (29.43 wt percentage), reaction time (59.17 minutes), reaction temperature (58.80 Degree C), stirring speed (325 rpm) and amount of catalyst (1.02 g). The optimum yield of biodiesel that can be produced was 95 percentage. The results revealed that the crucial fuel properties of the biodiesel produced at the optimum conditions met the ASTM biodiesel specifications. (author)

  14. Tribological Properties of Surface-Textured and Plasma-Nitrided Pure Titanium Under Oil Lubrication Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baosen; Dong, Qiangsheng; Ba, Zhixin; Wang, Zhangzhong; Shi, Hancheng; Xue, Yanting

    2018-01-01

    Plasma nitriding was conducted as post-treatment for surface texture on pure titanium to obtain a continuous nitriding layer. Supersonic fine particles bombarding (SFPB) was carried out to prepare surface texture. The surface morphologies and chemical composition were analyzed using scanning electron microscope and energy disperse spectroscopy. The microstructures of modified layers were characterized by transmission electron microscope. The tribological properties of surface-textured and duplex-treated pure titanium under oil lubrication condition were systematically investigated in the ball-on-plate reciprocating mode. The effects of applied load and sliding velocity on the tribological behavior were analyzed. The results show that after duplex treatments, the grains size in modified layer becomes slightly larger, and hardness is obviously improved. Wear resistance of duplex-treated pure titanium is significantly improved referenced to untreated and surface-textured pure titanium, which is 3.22 times as much as untreated pure titanium and 2.15 times of that for surface-textured pure titanium, respectively.

  15. Optimization of the ethanolysis of Raphanus sativus (L. Var.) crude oil applying the response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Anderson Kurunczi; Saad, Emir Bolzani; Wilhelm, Helena Maria; Ramos, Luiz Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Raphanus sativus (L. Var) is a perennial plant of the Brassicaceae (or Cruciferae) family whose oil has not been investigated in detail for biodiesel production, particularly when ethanol is used as the alcoholysis agent. In this work, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum condition for the ethanolysis of R. sativus crude oil. Three process variables were evaluated at two levels (2(3) experimental design): the ethanol:oil molar ratio (6:1 and 12:1), the catalyst concentration in relation to oil mass (0.4 and 0.8 wt% NaOH) and the alcoholysis temperature (45 and 65 degrees C). When the experimental results were tentatively adjusted by linear regression, only 58.15% of its total variance was explained. Therefore, a quadratic model was investigated to improve the poor predictability of the linear model. To apply the quadratic model, the 2(3) experimental design had to be expanded to a circumscribed central composite design. This allowed the development of a response surface that was able to predict 97.75% of the total variance of the system. Validation was obtained by performing one ethanolysis experiment at the conditions predicted by the model (38 degrees C, ethanol:oil molar ratio of 11.7:1 and 0.6 wt% NaOH). The resulting ester yield (104.10 wt% or 99.10% of the theoretical yield of 105.04 wt%) was shown to be the highest among all conditions tested in this study. The second ethanolysis stage of the best RSM product required 50% less ethanol and 90% less catalyst consumption. The amount of ethyl esters obtained after this procedure reached 94.5% of the theoretical yield. The resulting ethyl esters were shown to comply with most of the Brazilian biodiesel specification parameters except for oxidation stability. Addition of 500 ppm of BHT to the esters, however, complied with the specification target of 6h. The application of 2 wt% Magnesol after the second ethanolysis stage eliminated the need for water washing and helped generate a

  16. Challenges related to flotation cleaning of oil shales. Issues due to compositional and surface features and post-grinding surface behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altun N. Emre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil shale is an important energy resource alternative. Despite its recognition as an unconventional oil source, oil shale is also considered as an important solid fossil fuel alternative to coal and lignites due to the solid form and remarkable extent of organic content. Utilization possibilites, similar to coal and lignites, have been considered in the past decades and direct use of oil shales in thermal power production has been possible in countries like Estonia and China. In the perspective of utilization of oil shales in a similar manner to coal and lignites, problems and restrictions related to the inorganic ash-making and potentially pollutant constituents are applied. In this respect, cleaning of this important energy source through mineral processing methods, particularly by flotation, is an outstanding option. However, on the basis of unique features and distinctive characteristics, treatment of oil shales like a type of coal is a big perception and may be highly misleading. This paper discusses specific challenges regarding flotation behavior of oil shales with reference to the surface characteristics and behavior of oil shale entities – probably the most important aspect that determines the efficiency and success of the flotation based cleaning process.

  17. Natural gas and temperature structured a microbial community response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Molly C; Valentine, David L

    2012-12-11

    Microbial communities present in the Gulf of Mexico rapidly responded to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. In deep water plumes, these communities were initially dominated by members of Oceanospirillales, Colwellia, and Cycloclasticus. None of these groups were abundant in surface oil slick samples, and Colwellia was much more abundant in oil-degrading enrichment cultures incubated at 4 °C than at room temperature, suggesting that the colder temperatures at plume depth favored the development of these communities. These groups decreased in abundance after the well was capped in July, but the addition of hydrocarbons in laboratory incubations of deep waters from the Gulf of Mexico stimulated Colwellia's growth. Colwellia was the primary organism that incorporated (13)C from ethane and propane in stable isotope probing experiments, and given its abundance in environmental samples at the time that ethane and propane oxidation rates were high, it is likely that Colwellia was active in ethane and propane oxidation in situ. Colwellia also incorporated (13)C benzene, and Colwellia's abundance in crude oil enrichments without natural gas suggests that it has the ability to consume a wide range of hydrocarbon compounds or their degradation products. However, the fact that ethane and propane alone were capable of stimulating the growth of Colwellia, and to a lesser extent, Oceanospirillales, suggests that high natural gas content of this spill may have provided an advantage to these organisms.

  18. A laboratory study of particulate and gaseous emissions from crude oil and crude oil-dispersant contaminated seawater due to breaking waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Li, Cheng; Rule, Ana M.; Katz, Joseph; Koehler, Kirsten

    2018-04-01

    Crude oil spill incidents occur frequently causing a verity of occupational, ecological and environmental problems. Dispersants are applied to enhance the dispersion rate of crude oil slicks into the water column. In this study, the aerosol size distribution from 10 nm to 20 μm, total particle-bound aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAH) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are measured in a 6 x 0.3 x 0.6 m tank as plunging breaking waves entrain oil slicks. The experiments are performed for seawater with slicks of crude oil, crude oil-dispersant mixture and dispersant only. The measurements investigate the effects of wave energy and slick properties on the temporal evolution of the emissions. The total number concentrations of particles originating from the oil-dispersant mixture are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those of crude oil across the entire nano-scale range, reaching 100x for 20 nm particles. Conversely, the differences in concentration are small in the micron range. The average concentrations of pPAH are variable but similar (150-270 ng/m3). The VOC concentrations for crude oil-dispersant mixtures are 2-3 times lower than those of crude oil, presumably due to the surfactant effect on mass diffusion. The drastic increase in ultrafine particle concentrations may raise concerns about effects of inhalation by cleanup workers and downstream communities though VOC emissions reduce. Findings through this study provide insight into how the spray of dispersant may change the ratio of airborne particulate matter and VOC emissions from seawater due to natural processes.

  19. Studying and optimizing the biodiesel production from mastic oil aided by ultrasonic using response surface method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Hosseinzdeh Samani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Biodiesel is a promising renewable substitute source of fuel produced from tree born oils, vegetable based oils, fats of animals and even waste cooking oil, has been identified as one of the key solutions for the alarming global twin problems of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. One of the sources for biodiesel production is mastic which is often grown in mountains. Its kernel contains 55% oil which makes it as a valuable renewable resource for biodiesel production. The objective of this research was to study of the feasibility of biodiesel production from Atlas mastic oil using ultrasonic system and optimization of the process using Response surface methodology. Materials and Methods In order to supply the required oil for the biodiesel production process, the oil should be prepared before the reaction. Hence, the purified oil was methylated using Metcalf et al (1996 method, and the prepared sample was injected into Gas Chromatography device to determine fatty acids profile and molecular weight of the used oil. An ultrasonic processor (Hielscher Model UP400S, USA. was used to perform the transesterification reaction. All the experiments were replicated three times to determine the variability of the results and to assess the experimental errors. The reported values are the average of the individual runs. The different operating parameters used in the present work, to optimize the extent of conversion of Atlas pistache oil, include methanol to oil molar ratio (4:1, 5:1 ,6:1, amplitude (24.1, 62.5 100%, pulse (24.1, 62.5 100%, reaction time (3, 6, 9 min. Results and Discussion Results of analyses showed that the independent variables, namely molar ratio, vibration amplitude, pulse and reaction time had significant effects on the amount of produced methyl ester. By increasing the amplitude and pulse, the methyl ester content increased. Increase in amplitude and pulse cause to increase the mixing effect and physical

  20. Critical laboratory and field evaluation of selected surface prospecting techniques for locating oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heemstra, R.J.; Ray, R.M.; Wesson, T.C.; Abrams, J.R.; Moore, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    The theoretical basis for the radiation HALO method in geochemical exploration for oil and gas is largely unproven but has been covered extensively in the literature. An evaluation of the method was conducted by direct field examination of some of the variables. The variables chosen were surface radiometry, magnetometry, gravity, and near-surface soil sampling. The radiometry included measurements of potassium-40, thallium-208, and bismuth-214. The near-surface soil samples were analyzed for light hydrocarbon gases through C-4, pH, conductivity, surface area, and moisture. Statistical evaluation and comparisons of these variables were made by computer from their data bases. High correlations between variables were confirmed by comparisons of contour maps on transparent overlays. The highest positive correlations were between the five normal gases over the entire eighteen-section map. A distinct relationship was found between conductivity, pH, and the five normal gases. The role of field topography was also found to be significant. No relationship between the hydrocarbon and radiometric anomalies could be found. Radiometric patterns were heavily influenced, however, by the topographic features.

  1. Isolation, screening, and characterization of surface-active agent-producing, oil-degrading marine bacteria of Mumbai Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanram, Rajamani; Jagtap, Chandrakant; Kumar, Pradeep

    2016-04-15

    Diverse marine bacterial species predominantly found in oil-polluted seawater produce diverse surface-active agents. Surface-active agents produced by bacteria are classified into two groups based on their molecular weights, namely biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers. In this study, surface-active agent-producing, oil-degrading marine bacteria were isolated using a modified Bushnell-Haas medium with high-speed diesel as a carbon source from three oil-polluted sites of Mumbai Harbor. Surface-active agent-producing bacterial strains were screened using nine widely used methods. The nineteen bacterial strains showed positive results for more than four surface-active agent screening methods; further, these strains were characterized using biochemical and nucleic acid sequencing methods. Based on the results, the organisms belonged to the genera Acinetobacter, Alcanivorax, Bacillus, Comamonas, Chryseomicrobium, Halomonas, Marinobacter, Nesterenkonia, Pseudomonas, and Serratia. The present study confirmed the prevalence of surface-active agent-producing bacteria in the oil-polluted waters of Mumbai Harbor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of the oceanographic conditions during spring 2003 on the transport of the Prestige tanker fuel oil to the Galician coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Salgado, X A; Herrera, J L; Gago, J; Otero, P; Soriano, J A; Pola, C G; García-Soto, C

    2006-01-01

    Hydrographic data collected during the cruise HIDROPRESTIGE were combined with meteorological and dynamic data provided by remote sensors and drifting/moored buoys, to describe the surface circulation of the Northern Iberian basin in March-April 2003. Sea surface winds transported the floating Prestige oil slicks from the sinking area to the continental slope off the Rías Baixas in 1/2 month: the surface current intensity was 2% of the wind intensity and it was rotated clockwise 5 degrees from the wind direction. Mesoscale cyclonic and anticyclonic structures west of 10 degrees W increased the residence time of oil patches in the Northern Iberian basin, as compared with the expected southwards flow of the Iberian current (IC). On the other hand, the Iberian poleward current (IPC) formed a marked surface front with coastal waters, preventing the entry of fuel oil into the rías. PAHs in the surface layer during the cruise were <0.5 microgL(-1), except in the Galicia bank (approximately 1 microg L(-1); where the Prestige tanker was still leaking) and the vicinity of Cape Fisterra (approximately 1.5 microg L(-1); where the convergence front between the IPC and coastal waters vanished).

  3. Reduction of Aeromonas hidrophyla biofilm on stainless stell surface by essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Farias Millezi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the possibility of using sanitizing detergents based on natural products for the elimination and/or reduction of Aeromonas hydrophila biofilm formed on stainless steel surfaces. The goal of this work was to determine the reduction effect of sanitizing detergents containing essential oils of Thymus vulgaris (thyme and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass on biofilm formed by A. hydrophila on AISI 304 stainless steel coupons, using UHT skimmed milk as substratum. There was adhesion and biofilm formation by A. hydrophila at 28 ºC, presenting 7.60 log cfu.cm-2 after the fourth day of cultivation. There was no significant difference between the lemongrass treatment and that of the thyme oil (p 0.05. The treatment with lemongrass solution reduced the biofilm by 4.51 log cfu cm-2 at 25 ºC. The thyme detergent also reduced the number of cfu cm-2 by 3.84 log cycles at 25 ºC. The use of the lemongrass and thyme solutions efficiently reduced the A. hydrophila biofilm.

  4. Fundamentals of Reservoir Surface Energy as Related to Surface Properties, Wettability, Capillary Action, and Oil Recovery from Fractured Reservoirs by Spontaneous Imbibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Siddhartha Seth; Zhengxin Tong; Evren Unsal; Siluni Wickramathilaka; Shaochang Wo; Peigui Yin

    2008-06-30

    The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the non-wetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed

  5. FUNDAMENTALS OF RESERVOIR SURFACE ENERGY AS RELATED TO SURFACE PROPERTIES, WETTABILITY, CAPILLARY ACTION, AND OIL RECOVERY FROM FRACTURED RESERVOIRS BY SPONTANEOUS IMBIBITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman R. Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Siddhartha Seth; Peigui Yin; Shaochang Wo

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the nonwetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed

  6. Fundamentals of reservoir surface energy as related to surface properties, wettability, capillary action, and oil recovery from fractured reservoirs by spontaneous imbibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman R. Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Siddhartha Seth; Jason Zhengxin Tong; Peigui Yin; Shaochang Wo

    2006-06-08

    The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the non-wetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed

  7. Application of surface enhanced Raman scattering and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling on detecting furfural dissolved in transformer oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weigen; Zou, Jingxin; Wan, Fu; Fan, Zhou; Yang, Dingkun

    2018-03-01

    Detecting the dissolving furfural in mineral oil is an essential technical method to evaluate the ageing condition of oil-paper insulation and the degradation of mechanical properties. Compared with the traditional detection method, Raman spectroscopy is obviously convenient and timesaving in operation. This study explored the method of applying surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on quantitative analysis of the furfural dissolved in oil. Oil solution with different concentration of furfural were prepared and calibrated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Confocal laser Raman spectroscopy (CLRS) and SERS technology were employed to acquire Raman spectral data. Monte Carlo cross validation (MCCV) was used to eliminate the outliers in sample set, then competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) was developed to select an optimal combination of informative variables that most reflect the chemical properties of concern. Based on selected Raman spectral features, support vector machine (SVM) combined with particle swarm algorithm (PSO) was used to set up a furfural quantitative analysis model. Finally, the generalization ability and prediction precision of the established method were verified by the samples made in lab. In summary, a new spectral method is proposed to quickly detect furfural in oil, which lays a foundation for evaluating the ageing of oil-paper insulation in oil immersed electrical equipment.

  8. CHEMICAL OIL SPILL DISPERSANTS: UPDATE STATE-OF-THE- ART ON MECHANISM OF ACTION AND LABORATORY TESTING FOR PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical dispersants are formulations designed to facilitate dispersion of an oil slick into small droplets that disperse to non-problematic concentrations in an underlying water column. This project had two primary objectives: (1) update information on mechanisms of action of ...

  9. Water management challenges and perspective for surface oil sands operations in North Eastern Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, M.

    2009-01-01

    Oil sands waters has many sources, such as raw water inputs (import water and hydrologic waters); oil sands ore water such as formation water; and oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) such as produced water and released water from tailings. This presentation demonstrated the importance of water to oil sands operations and indicated how oil sands processing affects water quality. Water imports to meet oil sands needs is a topic of particular interest. Other topics that were presented included water properties changing during oil sands operations; tailings management and the effects on water quality; oil sands tailings and water management and the impact on water quality of the region; how oil sands processing affected water quality; and current tailings approach and proposed new tailings methods and the effects on water composition. Post extraction changes in OSPW and the potential impacts of engineered tailings were also discussed. It was concluded that water treatment options must meet water management objectives. figs.

  10. Development of tea tree oil-loaded liposomal formulation using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yan; Ge, Mingqiao

    2015-03-23

    The aim of this study is to prepare tea tree oil liposome (TTOL) and optimize the preparation condition by single factor experiment and statistical design. TTOL was prepared using a thin-film hydration with the combination of sonication method and the preparation conditions of TTOL were optimized with response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal preparation conditions for TTOL by response surface methodology were as follows: the mass ratio of PC and Cho 5.51, TTO concentration 1.21% (v/v) and Tween 80 concentration 0.79% (v/v). The response surface analysis showed that the significant (p  0.05) lack of fit for the reduced models. Furthermore, the interaction of the mass ratio of PC/Cho and TTO concentration had a significant effect. The amounts of Tween 80 required were also reduced with RSM. Under these conditions, the experimental encapsulation efficiency of TTOL was 97.81 ± 0.33%, which was close with the predicted value. Therefore, the optimized preparation condition was very reliable. The increased entrapment efficiency would significantly improve the TTO stability and bioavailability.

  11. Hydrophobic modification on surface of chitin sponges for highly effective separation of oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Bo; Gao, Huimin; He, Meng; Zhang, Lina

    2014-11-26

    A highly hydrophobic and oleophilic chitin sponge was synthesized, for the first time, via a freeze-dried method and then by using a thermal chemical vapor deposition of methyltrichlorosilane (MTCS) at different relative humidity. Fourier-transform infrared, energy-dispersive X-ray spectra, and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the silanization occurred on the pore wall surface of the chitin sponge. The MTCS-coated chitin sponge had interconnected open-cell structures with the average pore size from 20 to 50 μm, and the MTCS nanofilaments immobilized on the chitin matrix, leading to the high hydrophobicity, as a result of the existence of a solid/air composite rough surface. Cyclic compression test indicated that the hydrophobic chitin sponges exhibited excellent elasticity and high mechanical durability. The sponges could efficiently collect organics both on the surface and bottom from the water with the highest 58 times of their own weight absorption capacities through the combination of the particular wettability and great porosity. Furthermore, the biodegradation kinetics of the chitin sponge forecasted that the chitin could be completely biodegraded within 32 days by the microorganisms in the soil. This work provided a new pathway to prepare the chitin-based materials for highly effective removal of oil from water, showing potential application in the pollutant remediation field.

  12. Surface free energy analysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber reinforced biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadi, G. S.; Nikmatin, S.; Sudaryanto; Irmansyah; Sukaryo, S. G.

    2017-05-01

    Study of the size effect of natural fiber from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) as filler, onto the contact angle and surface free energy of fiber reinforced biocomposites has been done. The OPEFB fibers were prepared by mechanical milling and sieving to obtain various sizes of fiber (long-fiber, medium-fiber, short-fiber, and microparticle). The biocomposites has been produced by extrusion using single-screw extruder with EFB fiber as filler, recycled Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) polymer as matrix, and primary antioxidant, acid scavanger, and coupling agent as additives. The obtained biocomposites in form of granular, were made into test piece by injection molding method. Contact angles of water, methanol, and hexane on the surface of biocomposites at room temperature were measured using Phoenix 300 Contact Angle Analyzer. The surface free energy (SFE) and their components were calculated using three previous known methods (Girifalco-Good-Fowkes-Young (GGFY), Owens-Wendt, and van Oss-Chaudhury-Good (vOCG)). The results showed that total SFE of Recycled ABS as control was about 24.38 mJ/m2, and SFE of biocomposites was lower than control, decreased with decreasing of EFB fiber size as biocomposites filler. The statistical analysis proved that there are no statistically significant differences in the value of the SFE calculated with the three different methods.

  13. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado. A summary of the Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the two millsites in Slick Rock, Colorado. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. The Union Carbide site has 350,000 tons of tailings and the North Continent site now owned by Union Carbide has 37,000 tons of tailings. Both tailings piles have been stabilized in accordance with regulations of the State of Colorado. Radon gas release from the tailings on the sites constitute the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact. Hence the three alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the sites (Option I), and returning the windblown tailings to the piles and stabilizing the piles with cover material (Option II), and consolidating the two piles on the UC site and stabilizing with 2 ft of cover (Option III). Fencing around the tailings piles is included in all options. Options II and III provide 2 ft of cover material on the tailings. Costs of the options range from $370,000 to $1,100,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium is not economically feasible

  14. Evaluation of the Safety Issue Concerning the Potential for Loss of Decay Heat Removal Function due to Crude Oil Spill in the Ultimate Heat Sink of Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Roh, Kyung Wan; Yune, Young Gill; Kang, Dong Gu; Kim, Hho Jhung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    A barge crashed into a moored oil tanker at about 7:15 a.m., Dec. 12, 2007, dumping around 10,500 tons of crude oil into the sea in Korea. The incident took place about 15 kilometers northwest of Manripo beach in South Chungcheong where is Korea's west coast in the Yellow Sea. In a few days, the oil slicks spread to the northern and southern tips of the Taean Peninsula by strong winds and tides. As time went the spilled oil floating on the surface of sea water was volatilized to become tar-balls and lumps and drifted far away in the southern direction. 13 days after the incident, some of oil slicks and tar lumps were observed to flow in the service water intake at the Younggwang nuclear power plants (NPPs) operating 6 reactors, which are over 150 km away from the incident spot in the southeastern direction. According to the report by the Younggwang NPPs, a total weight 83 kg of tar lumps was removed for about 3 days. Oil spills in the sea can happen in any country or anytime due to human errors or mistakes, wars, terrors, intentional dumping of waste oils, and natural disasters like typhoon and tsunami. In fact, there have been 7 major oil spills over 10,000 tons that have occurred around the world since 1983. As such serious oil spill incidents may happen near the operating power plants using the sea water as ultimate heat sink. To ensure the safe operation of nuclear reactors it is required to evaluate the potential for loss of decay heat removal function of nuclear reactors due to the spilled oils flowing in the service water intake, from which the service water is pumped. Thus, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety identified this problem as one of the important safety. When an incident of crude oil spill from an oil carrier occurs in the sea near the nuclear power plants, the spilled oil can be transported to the intake pit, where all service water pumps locate, by sea current and wind drift (induced) current. The essential service water pumps take the

  15. Monitoring of oil pollution in the Arabian Gulf based on medium resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Ghedira, H.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of inland and offshore oil fields are located in the Arabian Gulf where about 25% of the world's oil is produced by the countries surrounding the Arabian Gulf region. Almost all of this oil production is shipped by sea worldwide through the Strait of Hormuz making the region vulnerable to environmental and ecological threats that might arise from accidental or intentional oil spills. Remote sensing technologies have the unique capability to detect and monitor oil pollutions over large temporal and spatial scales. Synoptic satellite imaging can date back to 1972 when Landsat-1 was launched. Landsat satellite missions provide long time series of imagery with a spatial resolution of 30 m. MODIS sensors onboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites provide a wide and frequent coverage at medium spatial resolution, i.e. 250 m and 500, twice a day. In this study, the capability of medium resolution MODIS and Landsat data in detecting and monitoring oil pollutions in the Arabian Gulf was tested. Oil spills and slicks show negative or positive contrasts in satellite derived RGB images compared with surrounding clean waters depending on the solar/viewing geometry, oil thickness and evolution, etc. Oil-contaminated areas show different spectral characteristics compared with surrounding waters. Rayleigh-corrected reflectance at the seven medium resolution bands of MODIS is lower in oil affected areas. This is caused by high light absorption of oil slicks. 30-m Landsat image indicated the occurrence of oil spill on May 26 2000 in the Arabian Gulf. The oil spill showed positive contrast and lower temperature than surrounding areas. Floating algae index (FAI) images are also used to detect oil pollution. Oil-contaminated areas were found to have lower FAI values. To track the movement of oil slicks found on October 21 2007, ocean circulations from a HYCOM model were examined and demonstrated that the oil slicks were advected toward the coastal areas of United Arab

  16. Oil Pollution in the Marine Environment: A 35 Year Perspective of Communicating Broadly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, J. W.; Tripp, B. W.

    2006-12-01

    Large accidental oil spills such as the tanker Torrey Canyon off the United Kingdom in 1967 and the Santa Barbara Oil Well Blowout of 1969, and attendant publicity, demonstrated that oil spills could be messy, have adverse effects on birds and other wildlife by oiling, and capture the public attention. However, careful scientific study of oil spills using modern biological sciences methods and modern geochemical analyses were needed to overcome the "out of sight, out of mind" conclusion that all was well when visible oil slicks on the water's surface disappeared. Documenting the long lasting persistence of chemicals from spilled oils and attendant biological effects began with a few dedicated scientists who not only published their findings in the scientific literature, but also made them known in testimony before Congress, in interviews with the press and publishing in magazines designed to communicate science to the public. They served as examples for our own efforts, and those of colleagues, to communicate the magnitude of the chronic input of petroleum compounds to the oceans as a result of the every day use of fossil fuels and how this input was quantitatively much larger than inputs from accidental spills and resulted in contamination of coastal areas near urban harbors and at offshore dumpsites. Over a period of the past thirty years mainly during 1971-2000, we used a combination of participation in review and advisory panels and committees, testimony before Congress, letters to government officials, public lectures, articles in the lay press, print and electronic media interviews, and museum exhibits to communicate the message from our scientific papers in ways that could be understood by the general public and acted on by their elected and appointed officials. Lessons learned from these efforts will be summarized

  17. Optimizing the conditions for hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw for bio-crude oil production using response surface methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Toor, Saqib Sohail

    2018-01-01

    The present paper examines the conversion of barley straw to bio-crude oil (BO) via hydrothermal liquefaction. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was utilized to optimize the conditions of four independent variables including reaction temperature (factor X1, 260-340 o...

  18. Simple and Green Fabrication of a Superhydrophobic Surface by One-Step Immersion for Continuous Oil/Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingfang; Liu, Bin; Li, Longyang; Zeng, Zhixiang; Zhao, Wenjie; Wang, Gang; Guan, Xiaoyan

    2016-07-21

    In this paper, stainless steel meshes with superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surfaces were fabricated by rapid and simple one-step immersion in a solution containing hydrochloric acid and stearic acid. The apparent contact angles were tested by a video contact angle measurement system (CA). Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were conducted to characterize the surface topographies and chemical compositions. The SEM results showed that mesh surfaces were covered by ferric stearate (Fe[CH3(CH2)16COO]2) with low surface energy. The CA test results showed that the mesh had a maximum apparent contact angle of 160 ± 1.0° and a sliding angle of less than 5.0° for the water droplet, whereas the apparent contact angle for the oil droplet was zero. Ultrasound oscillation and exposure tests at atmospheric conditions and immersion tests in 3.5 wt % NaCl aqueous solution were conducted to confirm the mesh with excellent superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties. On the basis of the superhydrophobic mesh, a miniature separation device pump was designed to collect pure oil from the oil/water mixture. It showed that the device was easier and convenient. The techniques and materials presented in this work are promising for application to wastewater and oil spill treatment.

  19. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Investigation of the Structure of Adsorbed Soybean Oil and Methyl Oleate onto Steel Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adsorption of soybean oil (SBO) and methyl oleate (MO) onto steel was investigated using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Adsorption of both SBO and MO increased with increasing concentrations. At full surface coverage, SBO and MO formed rigid thin films and ach...

  20. Oceanographic Applications of ALOS PALSAR Imagery to the Coast of the Korea Peninsula- A Case Study of the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duk-jin; Kang, Jinho; Kim, Younsoo; Lee, Hoonyol; Moon, Wooil M.

    2008-11-01

    On December 7th, 2007, the nation's largest maritime oil spill occurred on the west coast of the Korean peninsula. More than 10,000 tons of crude oil from an oil tanker leaked into the Yellow Sea and contaminated an ecologically pristine region as well as polluted the western coastline of the Korean peninsula. All SAR sensors then available including TerraSAR-X, ENVISAT ASAR, RADARSAT-1, ERS-2 SAR and ALOS PALSAR acquired imageries over the contaminated area from oil spill. Dark patches observed in SAR images, due to the presence of oil slicks, were extracted using adaptive thresholding methods. From multi-frequency SAR images, the damping ratios were calculated and analyzed with measured wind speed and radar frequency. With the multi-temporal SAR images, the movement of oil slicks was monitored and traced.

  1. Watershed-Scale Impacts from Surface Water Disposal of Oil and Gas Wastewater in Western Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, William D; Castillo-Meza, Luis; Tasker, Travis L; Geeza, Thomas J; Drohan, Patrick J; Liu, Xiaofeng; Landis, Joshua D; Blotevogel, Jens; McLaughlin, Molly; Borch, Thomas; Warner, Nathaniel R

    2017-08-01

    Combining horizontal drilling with high volume hydraulic fracturing has increased extraction of hydrocarbons from low-permeability oil and gas (O&G) formations across the United States; accompanied by increased wastewater production. Surface water discharges of O&G wastewater by centralized waste treatment (CWT) plants pose risks to aquatic and human health. We evaluated the impact of surface water disposal of O&G wastewater from CWT plants upstream of the Conemaugh River Lake (dam controlled reservoir) in western Pennsylvania. Regulatory compliance data were collected to calculate annual contaminant loads (Ba, Cl, total dissolved solids (TDS)) to document historical industrial activity. In this study, two CWT plants 10 and 19 km upstream of a reservoir left geochemical signatures in sediments and porewaters corresponding to peak industrial activity that occurred 5 to 10 years earlier. Sediment cores were sectioned for the collection of paired samples of sediment and porewater, and analyzed for analytes to identify unconventional O&G wastewater disposal. Sediment layers corresponding to the years of maximum O&G wastewater disposal contained higher concentrations of salts, alkaline earth metals, and organic chemicals. Isotopic ratios of 226 Ra /228 Ra and 87 Sr /86 Sr identified that peak concentrations of Ra and Sr were likely sourced from wastewaters that originated from the Marcellus Shale formation.

  2. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Two UMTRA (Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action) Project sites are near Slick Rock, Colorado: the North Continent site and the Union Carbide site. Currently, no one uses the contaminated ground water at either site for domestic or agricultural purposes. However, there may be future land development. This risk assessment evaluates possible future health problems associated with exposure to contaminated ground water. Since some health problems could occur, it is recommended that the contaminated ground water not be used as drinking water.

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Two UMTRA (Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action) Project sites are near Slick Rock, Colorado: the North Continent site and the Union Carbide site. Currently, no one uses the contaminated ground water at either site for domestic or agricultural purposes. However, there may be future land development. This risk assessment evaluates possible future health problems associated with exposure to contaminated ground water. Since some health problems could occur, it is recommended that the contaminated ground water not be used as drinking water

  4. Optimization of the production of bio diesel from egusi melon (Colocynthis Citrullus L.) oil using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giwa, S.O.; Chuah, L.A.; Nor Mariah Adam

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In the present work, the response surface methodology (RSM), based on a central composite design (CCD), was used to determine the optimum conditions for the transesterification of crude egusi melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) seed oil. Three process factors were evaluated at three levels (2 3 experimental design): the oil/ methanol molar ratio, the amount of catalyst in relation to the oil mass, and the reaction temperature. The amounts of catalyst and reaction temperature were the most significant (P 2 = 0.98). Using multiple regression analysis a quadratic polynomial equation was obtained for predicting methyl ester yield of the transesterification reaction. The squared terms of catalyst amount (P < 0.0001) and oil/ methanol molar ratio (P < 0.0072) showed significant effects on esters yield. The optimum reaction conditions for synthesis of EMOME were 1:6.55 oil-to-methanol molar ratio, 1.22 % catalyst amounts, and 65 degree Celsius reaction temperature resulting in a yield of 84.01 %. Using these optimal factor values under experimental conditions a methyl esters yield of 84.04 % was obtained on an average, and this value was well within the range predicted by the model. RSM was found to be a suitable technique for optimizing transesterification of egusi melon seed oil. Fuel properties of EMOME measured according to accepted methods were found to satisfy all prescribed ASTM (D 6751) and EN 14214 specifications. (author)

  5. Modeling of Microwave Reflection from the Surface of Water Basins with Spills of Water-Cut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotikov, V. D.; Pelushenko, S. A.; Rakut', I. V.; Savelyev, V. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    We consider specific features of reflection of microwaves from the surface of a water basin for the two-layer model of oil spills, which are determined by a water-cut-oil film. Within the spill model, the dielectric properties of water were allowed for in accordance with the Debye theory, and the dielectric properties of the water-cut oil, in accordance with the theory developed for binary systems. The data about variations in the values of reflection coefficients depending on the frequency, viewing angle, thickness of the oil film, and moisture content in the film are obtained. The dependences of reflection coefficients on the film thickness are determined for various values of volume content of the water fraction in oil. Complex values of the dielectric permittivity of oil-water emulsions with preset volume moisture content are found. Describing the obtained dependences of the complex dielectric permittivity of the emulsion on the volume moisture content requires application of asymmetrical formulas for the mixture of polar and nonpolar fluids.

  6. Activity, distribution, and abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria in the near surface soils of onshore oil and gas fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kewei; Tang, Yuping; Ren, Chun; Zhao, Kebin; Wang, Wanmeng; Sun, Yongge

    2013-09-01

    Methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) have long been used as an important biological indicator for oil and gas prospecting, but the ecological characteristics of MOB in hydrocarbon microseep systems are still poorly understood. In this study, the activity, distribution, and abundance of aerobic methanotrophic communities in the surface soils underlying an oil and gas field were investigated using biogeochemical and molecular ecological techniques. Measurements of potential methane oxidation rates and pmoA gene copy numbers showed that soils inside an oil and gas field are hot spots of methane oxidation and MOB abundance. Correspondingly, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses in combination with cloning and sequencing of pmoA genes also revealed considerable differences in the methanotrophic community composition between oil and gas fields and the surrounding soils. Principal component analysis ordination furthermore indicated a coincidence between elevated CH4 oxidation activity and the methanotrophic community structure with type I methanotrophic Methylococcus and Methylobacter, in particular, as indicator species of oil and gas fields. Collectively, our results show that trace methane migrated from oil and gas reservoirs can considerably influence not only the quantity but also the structure of the methanotrophic community.

  7. [Optimization for supercritical CO2 extraction with response surface methodology and component analysis of Sapindus mukorossi oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Xiao, Xin-yu; Ge, Fa-huan

    2012-02-01

    To study the extraction conditions of Sapindus mukorossi oil by Supercritical CO2 Extraction and identify its components. Optimized SFE-CO2 Extraction by response surface methodology and used GC-MS to analysie Sapindus mukorossi oil compounds. Established the model of an equation for the extraction rate of Sapindus mukorossi oil by Supercritical CO2 Extraction, and the optimal parameters for the Supercritical CO2 Extraction determined by the equation were: the extraction pressure was 30 MPa, temperature was 40 degrees C; The separation I pressure was 14 MPa, temperature was 45 degrees C; The separation II pressure was 6 MPa, temperature was 40 degrees C; The extraction time was 60 min and the extraction rate of Sapindus mukorossi oil of 17.58%. 22 main compounds of Sapindus mukorossi oil extracted by supercritical CO2 were identified by GC-MS, unsaturated fatty acids were 86.59%. This process is reliable, safe and with simple operation, and can be used for the extraction of Sapindus mukorossi oil.

  8. An Improvement in Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil by Applying Thought Multi-Response Surface Methodology Using Desirability Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Corral Bobadilla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The exhaustion of natural resources has increased petroleum prices and the environmental impact of oil has stimulated the search for an alternative source of energy such as biodiesel. Waste cooking oil is a potential replacement for vegetable oils in the production of biodiesel. Biodiesel is synthesized by direct transesterification of vegetable oils, which is controlled by several inputs or process variables, including the dosage of catalyst, process temperature, mixing speed, mixing time, humidity and impurities of waste cooking oil that was studied in this case. Yield, turbidity, density, viscosity and higher heating value are considered as outputs. This paper used multi-response surface methodology (MRS with desirability functions to find the best combination of input variables used in the transesterification reactions to improve the production of biodiesel. In this case, several biodiesel optimization scenarios have been proposed. They are based on a desire to improve the biodiesel yield and the higher heating value, while decreasing the viscosity, density and turbidity. The results demonstrated that, although waste cooking oil was collected from various sources, the dosage of catalyst is one of the most important variables in the yield of biodiesel production, whereas the viscosity obtained was similar in all samples of the biodiesel that was studied.

  9. Fabrication of a novel superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface by one-step electrodeposition method for continuous oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Meisu; Jiang, Meihuizi; Zhang, Yanzong; Liu, Yan; Shen, Fei; Yang, Gang; He, Yan; Wang, Lilin; Zhang, Xiaohong; Deng, Shihuai

    2018-03-01

    A novel superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface was fabricated by one-step electrodeposition on stainless steel meshes, and the durability and oil/water separation properties were assessed. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and optical contact angle measurements were used to characterize surface morphologies, chemical compositions, and wettabilities, respectively. The results indicated that the as-prepared mesh preformed excellent superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity with a high water contact angle (WCA) of 162 ± 1° and oil contact angle of (OCA) 0°. Meanwhile, the as-prepared mesh also exhibited continuous separation capacity of many kinds of oil/water mixtures, and the separation efficiency for lubrication oil/water mixture was about 98.6%. In addition, after 10 separation cycles, the as-prepared mesh possessed the WCAs of 155 ± 2°, the OCAs of 0° and the separation efficiency of 97.8% for lubrication oil/water mixtures. The as-prepared mesh also retained superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties after abrading, immersing in salt solutions and different pH solutions.

  10. Reconnaissance of Macondo-1 well oil in sediment and tarballs from the northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline, Texas to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Thomas, Burt; Wong, Florence L.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons were extracted and analyzed from sediment and tarballs collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) coast that is potentially impacted by Macondo-1 (M-1) well oil. The samples were analyzed for a suite of diagnostic geochemical biomarkers. Aided by multivariate statistical analysis, the M-1 well oil has been identified in sediment and tarballs collected from Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. None of the sediment hydrocarbon extracts from Texas correlated with the M-1 well oil. Oil-impacted sediments are confined to the shoreline adjacent to the cumulative oil slick of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and no impact was observed outside of this area.

  11. Marinobacter sp. from marine sediments produce highly stable surface-active agents for combatting marine oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddadi, Noura; Giacomucci, Lucia; Totaro, Grazia; Fava, Fabio

    2017-11-02

    The application of chemical dispersants as a response to marine oil spills is raising concerns related to their potential toxicity also towards microbes involved in oil biodegradation. Hence, oil spills occurring under marine environments necessitate the application of biodispersants that are highly active, stable and effective under marine environment context. Biosurfactants from marine bacteria could be good candidates for the development of biodispersant formulations effective in marine environment. This study aimed at establishing a collection of marine bacteria able to produce surface-active compounds and evaluating the activity and stability of the produced compounds under conditions mimicking those found under marine environment context. A total of 43 different isolates were obtained from harbor sediments. Twenty-six of them produced mainly bioemulsifiers when glucose was used as carbon source and 16 were biosurfactant/bioemulsifiers producers after growth in the presence of soybean oil. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene classified most isolates into the genus Marinobacter. The produced emulsions were shown to be stable up to 30 months monitoring period, in the presence of 300 g/l NaCl, at 4 °C and after high temperature treatment (120 °C for 20 min). The partially purified compounds obtained after growth on soybean oil-based media exhibited low toxicity towards V. fischeri and high capability to disperse crude oil on synthetic marine water. To the best of our knowledge, stability characterization of bioemulsifiers/biosurfactants from the non-pathogenic marine bacterium Marinobacter has not been previously reported. The produced compounds were shown to have potential for different applications including the environmental sector. Indeed, their high stability in the presence of high salt concentration and low temperature, conditions characterizing the marine environment, the capability to disperse crude oil and the low ecotoxicity makes them interesting for

  12. Biodiesel Production from Non-Edible Beauty Leaf (Calophyllum inophyllum Oil: Process Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad I. Jahirul

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the beauty leaf plant (Calophyllum Inophyllum is being considered as a potential 2nd generation biodiesel source due to high seed oil content, high fruit production rate, simple cultivation and ability to grow in a wide range of climate conditions. However, however, due to the high free fatty acid (FFA content in this oil, the potential of this biodiesel feedstock is still unrealized, and little research has been undertaken on it. In this study, transesterification of beauty leaf oil to produce biodiesel has been investigated. A two-step biodiesel conversion method consisting of acid catalysed pre-esterification and alkali catalysed transesterification has been utilized. The three main factors that drive the biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME conversion from vegetable oil (triglycerides were studied using response surface methodology (RSM based on a Box-Behnken experimental design. The factors considered in this study were catalyst concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction temperature. Linear and full quadratic regression models were developed to predict FFA and FAME concentration and to optimize the reaction conditions. The significance of these factors and their interaction in both stages was determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The reaction conditions for the largest reduction in FFA concentration for acid catalysed pre-esterification was 30:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 10% (w/w sulfuric acid catalyst loading and 75 °C reaction temperature. In the alkali catalysed transesterification process 7.5:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1% (w/w sodium methoxide catalyst loading and 55 °C reaction temperature were found to result in the highest FAME conversion. The good agreement between model outputs and experimental results demonstrated that this methodology may be useful for industrial process optimization for biodiesel production from beauty leaf oil and possibly other industrial processes as well.

  13. Tribological Behavior of Oil-Lubricated Laser Textured Steel Surfaces in Conformal Flat and Non-Conformal Contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalchenko, A. M. [Inst. for Problems of Materials Science, Dept. 7, 3 Krzhizhanovsky Street, Kyiv 03142, UA (Corresponding author), e-mail: andrii.kovalchenko@gatech.edu; Erdemir, A. [Argonne National Lab., Energy Systems Division, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 US; Ajayi, O. O. [Argonne National Lab., Energy Systems Division, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 US; Etsion, I. [Technion-Israel Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Haifa 32000, IL

    2017-01-30

    Changing the surface texture of sliding surfaces is an effective way to manipulate friction and wear of lubricated surfaces. Having realized its potential, we have done very extensive studies on the effects of laser surface texturing (LST, which involves the creation of an array of microdimples on a surface) on friction and wear behavior of oil-lubricated steel surfaces in the early 2000s. In this paper, we reviewed some of our research accomplishments and assessed future directions of the laser texturing field in many diverse industrial applications. Our studies specifically addressed the impact of laser texturing on friction and wear of both the flat conformal and initial non-conformal point contact configurations using a pin-on-disk test rig under fully-flooded synthetic oil lubricants with different viscosities. Electrical resistance measurement between pin and LST disks was also used to determine the operating lubrication regimes in relation to friction. In conformal contact, we confirmed that LST could significantly expand the operating conditions for hydrodynamic lubrication to significantly much higher loads and slower speeds. In particular, with LST and higher viscosity oils, the low-friction full hydrodynamic regime was shifted to the far left in the Stribeck diagram. Overall, the beneficial effects of laser surface texturing were more pronounced at higher speeds and loads and with higher viscosity oil. LST was also observed to reduce the magnitude of friction coefficients in the boundary regime. For the non-conformal contact configuration, we determined that LST would produce more abrasive wear on the rubbing counterface compared to the untreated surfaces due to a reduction in lubricant fluid film thickness, as well as the highly uneven and rough nature of the textured surfaces. However, this higher initial wear rate has led to faster generation of a conformal contact, and thus transition from the high-friction boundary to lower friction mixed

  14. Polydimethylsiloxane-Based Superhydrophobic Surfaces on Steel Substrate: Fabrication, Reversibly Extreme Wettability and Oil-Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaojing; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun; Zhang, Lin; Liang, Tao; Feng, Yuchun; Zeng, Xingrong

    2017-01-25

    Functional surfaces for reversibly switchable wettability and oil-water separation have attracted much interest with pushing forward an immense influence on fundamental research and industrial application in recent years. This article proposed a facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces on steel substrates via electroless replacement deposition of copper sulfate (CuSO 4 ) and UV curing of vinyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). PDMS-based superhydrophobic surfaces exhibited water contact angle (WCA) close to 160° and water sliding angle (WSA) lower than 5°, preserving outstanding chemical stability that maintained superhydrophobicity immersing in different aqueous solutions with pH values from 1 to 13 for 12 h. Interestingly, the superhydrophobic surface could dramatically switch to the superhydrophilic state under UV irradiation and then gradually recover to the highly hydrophobic state with WCA at 140° after dark storage. The underlying mechanism was also investigated by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Additionally, the PDMS-based steel mesh possessed high separation efficiency and excellent reusability in oil-water separation. Our studies provide a simple, fast, and economical fabrication method for wettability-transformable superhydrophobic surfaces and have the potential applications in microfluidics, the biomedical field, and oil spill cleanup.

  15. One-step sculpting of silicon microstructures from pillars to needles for water and oil repelling surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susarrey-Arce, A.; Marín, Á. G.; Schlautmann, S.; Lefferts, L.; Gardeniers, J. G. E.; van Houselt, A.

    2013-02-01

    Surfaces that repel both water and oil effectively (contact angles > 150°) are rare. Here we detail the microfabrication method of silicon surfaces with such properties. The method is based on careful tuning of the process conditions in a reactive etching protocol. We investigate the influence of SF6, O2 and CHF3 gases during the etching process using the same pitch of a photolithographic mask. Varying the loading conditions during etching, we optimized the conditions to fabricate homogeneous pedestal-like structures. The roughness of the microstructures could also effectively be controlled by tuning the dry plasma etching conditions. The wetting behavior of the resulting microstructures was evaluated in terms of the water and oil contact angles. Excitingly, the surfaces can be engineered from superhydrophobic to omniphobic by variation of the aforementioned predefined parameters.

  16. Response of salt marshes to oiling from the Deepwater Horizon spill: Implications for plant growth, soil surface-erosion, and shoreline stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Graham, Sean A; Hou, Aixin; Fleeger, John W; Deis, Donald R

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the initial impacts and post spill recovery of salt marshes over a 3.5-year period along northern Barataria Bay, LA, USA exposed to varying degrees of Deepwater Horizon oiling to determine the effects on shoreline-stabilizing vegetation and soil processes. In moderately oiled marshes, surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations were ~70mgg(-1) nine months after the spill. Though initial impacts of moderate oiling were evident, Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus aboveground biomass and total live belowground biomass were equivalent to reference marshes within 24-30months post spill. In contrast, heavily oiled marsh plants did not fully recover from oiling with surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations that exceeded 500mgg(-1) nine months after oiling. Initially, heavy oiling resulted in near complete plant mortality, and subsequent recovery of live aboveground biomass was only 50% of reference marshes 42months after the spill. Heavy oiling also changed the vegetation structure of shoreline marshes from a mixed Spartina-Juncus community to predominantly Spartina; live Spartina aboveground biomass recovered within 2-3years, however, Juncus showed no recovery. In addition, live belowground biomass (0-12cm) in heavily oiled marshes was reduced by 76% three and a half years after the spill. Detrimental effects of heavy oiling on marsh plants also corresponded with significantly lower soil shear strength, lower sedimentation rates, and higher vertical soil-surface erosion rates, thus potentially affecting shoreline salt marsh stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production has received considerable attention in the recent past as a renewable fuel. The production of biodiesel by conventional transesterification process employs alkali or acid catalyst and has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. However for alkali catalyst, there may be risk of free acid or water contamination and soap formation is likely to take place which makes the separation process difficult. Although yield is high, the acids, being corrosive, may cause damage to the equipment and the reaction rate was also observed to be low. This research focuses on empirical modeling and optimization for the biodiesel production over plasma reactor. The plasma reactor technology is more promising than the conventional catalytic processes due to the reducing reaction time and easy in product separation. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 August 2009, Revised: 5 September 2009, Accepted: 12 October 2009][How to Cite: I. Istadi, D.D. Anggoro, P. Marwoto, S. Suherman, B.T. Nugroho (2009. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 23-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.7115.23-31][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.7115.23-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/7115

  18. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Tri Nugroho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production has received considerable attention in the recent past as a renewable fuel. The production of biodiesel by conventional transesterification process employs alkali or acid catalyst and has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. However for alkali catalyst, there may be risk of free acid or water contamination and soap formation is likely to take place which makes the separation process difficult. Although yield is high, the acids, being corrosive, may cause damage to the equipment and the reaction rate was also observed to be low. This research focuses on empirical modeling and optimization for the biodiesel production over plasma reactor. The plasma reactor technology is more promising than the conventional catalytic processes due to the reducing reaction time and easy in product separation. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 August 2009, Revised: 5 September 2009, Accepted: 12 October 2009][How to Cite: I. Istadi, D.D. Anggoro, P. Marwoto, S. Suherman, B.T. Nugroho (2009. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 23-31. doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.23.23-31][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.23.23-31

  19. Quantifying saline groundwater seepage to surface waters in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasechko, Scott; Gibson, John J.; Jean Birks, S.; Yi, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Western Canadian oil sands contain over 170 billion barrels of proven unconventional petroleum reserves currently extracted at 1.8 million barrels per day by either surface mining, or by in situ techniques that require subsurface injection of steam and hydrocarbon solvents. Natural high-salinity springs are known to add water and entrained inorganic and organic constituents to the Athabasca River and its tributaries in the region of ongoing bitumen production. However, the magnitude and synoptic distribution of these saline inputs has remained unquantified. Here, a chloride mass balance is used to estimate saline groundwater discharge to the Athabasca River from 1987 to 2010. Results show that the highest saline water discharge rate to the Athabasca River occurs between Ft. McMurray and the Peace-Athabasca Delta, supported by subcrop exposure of lower Cretaceous- and Devonian-aged formations bearing saline waters. Further, the input of saline groundwater is found to be an important control on the chemistry of the lower Athabasca River, despite comprising 10 −1 to 3% of the Athabasca River’s discharge. The flux of natural saline groundwater entering the Athabasca does not appear to have increased or decreased from 1987 to 2010. The origin of seep salinity is interpreted as relict subglacial meltwater that has dissolved Devonian-aged evaporites, supported by saline Na-Cl type waters with low 18 O/ 16 O and 2 H/ 1 H ratios relative to modern precipitation. The magnitude of groundwater discharge and its impact on the Athabasca River’s chemistry in the area of ongoing bitumen development warrants the incorporation of natural groundwater seepages into surface water quality monitoring networks.

  20. Optimisation of Croton gratissimus Oil Extraction by n-Hexane and Ethyl Acetate Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiyane, Phiwe Charles; Tumba, Kaniki; Musonge, Paul

    2018-04-01

    The extraction of oil from Croton gratissimus seeds was studied using the three-factor five-level full-factorial central composite rotatable design (CCRD) of the response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of the three factors selected, viz., extraction time, extraction temperature and solvent-to-feed ratio on the extraction oil yield was investigated when n-hexane and ethyl acetate were used as extraction solvents. The coefficients of determination (R 2 ) of the models developed were 0.98 for n-hexane extraction and 0.97 for ethyl acetate extraction. These results demonstrated that the models developed adequately represented the processes they described. From the optimized model, maximum extraction yield obtained from n-hexane and ethyl acetate extraction were 23.88% and 23.25%, respectively. In both cases the extraction temperature and solvent-to-feed ratio were 35°C and 5 mL/g, respectively. In n-hexane extraction the maximum conditions were reached only after 6 min whereas in ethyl acetate extraction it took 20 min to get the maximum extraction oil yield. Oil extraction of Croton gratissimus seeds, in this work, favoured the use of n-hexane as an extraction solvent as it offered higher oil yields at low temperatures and reduced residence times.

  1. Optimization of the Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil with Mg-Al Hydrotalcite Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureano Costarrosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, biodiesel has become a very promising alternative to fossil diesel fuel, regarding environmental concerns and fuel resource depletion. Biodiesel is usually produced through homogeneous or heterogeneous transesterification of different fatty raw materials. Although main research has been carried out with homogenous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts may be of interest due to ease of recovery and recycling, as well as readiness for continuous processing. In this work, calcined Mg-Al hydrotalcite (HT was used for the heterogeneous transesterification of waste cooking oil. Three reaction parameters, namely, reaction time, amount of catalyst, and methanol-to-oil molar ratio, were optimized by means of Response Surface Methodology (RSM at constant temperature (65 °C, using a Box-Behnken design. Optimal fatty acid methyl ester (FAME content (86.23% w/w FAME/sample was predicted by the model with an R-squared value of 98.45%, using 3.39 g of HT (8.5% w/w oil and an 8:1 methanol-oil molar ratio, for a duration of 3.12 h. It was observed that calcination of HT, while avoiding the previous washing step, allowed the presence of chemical species that enhanced the effect of the catalyst. It can be concluded from this field trial that calcined and nonwashed Mg-Al hydrotalcite may be considered an effective basic catalyst for the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. Also, RSM proved to be a useful tool for predicting biodiesel yield.

  2. Enzymatic Transesterification of Ethyl Ferulate with Fish Oil and Its Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Glasius, Marianne; Xu, Xuebing

    2012-01-01

    The enzymatic transesterification of ethyl ferulate (EF) with cod liver fish oil was investigated with Novozym 435 as catalyst under solvent-free conditions. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the synthesis system for production of feruloyl fish oil in industry. The modified HPLC method was ...

  3. Optimization of oil yield from Hevea brasiliensis seeds through ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction via response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Val Irvin F. Mabayo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for oil has been increasing vastly over time, and the source of this has slowly been diminishing. The use of non-food feedstock is seen as a promising alternative source for the production of bio-based fuel. In this study, rubber (Hevea brasiliensis seeds were utilized as biomass in bio-oil production considering that these are non-edible and considered wastes in rubber tree plantations. In the oil extraction process, the rubber seed kernels were oven dried at 100 °C for 24 h, powdered and then dried further at 105 °C for 4 h. After characterization, optimization study was done using Design Expert 7.0 software through central composite design of the response surface methodology. Ultrasonication technology was employed in the oil extraction process which significantly reduced the reaction time needed for extraction to 15 min compared the conventional extraction method of at least 8 h. An optimum rubber seed oil (RSO yield of 30.3 ± 0.3% was obtained using 15 g biomass, 5:1 n-hexane to biomass (mL g−1 ratio, 50 μm resonance amplitude and 60 ± 5 °C temperature at 15 min reaction time. The oil yield at optimum condition was found to have 0.89 g mL−1 density at room temperature, 26.7 cSt kinematic viscosity at 40 °C and high heating value of 39.2 MJ kg−1. The Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation spectroscopy analysis of the RSO, at optimum condition, showed the presence of carboxylic acid and ester carbonyl functional groups which are good indicators as a potential source of biodiesel. Keywords: Hevea brasiliensis, Oil extraction, Optimization, Response surface methodology, Rubber seed oil, Ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction

  4. Performance of floating oil booms in unsheltered waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Gregorio; Castro, Alberte

    2013-04-01

    Oil booms are a fundamental tool to diminish the impact of an oil spill. They tend to perform reasonably well in sheltered waters, e.g. within a harbour. However, their performance is often inadequate in open water conditions, under waves, winds and currents. And it is precisely in those conditions that they are needed if oil slicks are to be prevented from reaching certain particularly sensitive areas, such as estuaries, rias, etc. (Castro et al., 2010; Iglesias et al., 2010). In this work the performance of floating oil booms under waves and currents is assessed on the basis of laboratory experiments carried out in a state-of-the-art wave-current flume. Different oil boom models are used, representative of booms with long and short skirts and with different weights. The results show that different booms behave very differently under waves and currents, hence the importance of selecting the boom design that is appropriate for the actual conditions under which it will have to contain the oil slick. Thus, different oil booms should be used for different areas. References A. Castro, G. Iglesias, R. Carballo, J.A. Fraguela, 2010. Floating boom performance under waves and currents, Journal of Hazardous Materials 174, 226-235 G. Iglesias, A.Castro, J.A.Fraguela, 2010. Artificial intelligence applied to floating boom behavior under waves and currents, Ocean Engineering 37, 1513-1521.

  5. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassotis, Christopher D., E-mail: christopher.kassotis@duke.edu [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Iwanowicz, Luke R. [U.S. Geological Survey, Leetown Science Center, Fish Health Branch, 11649 Leetown Road, Kearneysville, WV 25430 (United States); Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Mumford, Adam C. [U.S. Geological Survey, National Research Program, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, MS 430, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Orem, William H. [U.S. Geological Survey, Eastern Energy Resources Science Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, MS 956, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Nagel, Susan C., E-mail: nagels@health.missouri.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women' s Health, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Currently, > 95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby. - Highlights: • Oil and gas wastewater disposal may increase endocrine disrupting activity in water. • Tested EDC activity in surface water near oil and gas wastewater injection site. • Water downstream had significantly

  6. An integrated model for fate and transport of oil in rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yapa, P.D.; Weng, D.S.; Shen, H.T.; Yang, X.Q.; Perry, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    An integrated oil spill model for microcomputers is developed for simulating fate and transport of spilled oil in rivers. This model can simulate the oil slick transformation in transient flow conditions with varying wind and air temperature. This paper reports on the model which consists of fixed data files, and execution of all modules; an unsteady flow model to simulate the flow conditions along the river as a function of time; a two-dimensional two layer model that can simulate advection, horizontal diffusion, spreading, evaporation, dissolution, vertical mixing, emulsification, and shoreline deposition; a graphics interface for visualizing the results from the oil spill model

  7. A Dynamic Remote Sensing Data-Driven Approach for Oil Spill Simulation in the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jining Yan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In view of the fact that oil spill remote sensing could only generate the oil slick information at a specific time and that traditional oil spill simulation models were not designed to deal with dynamic conditions, a dynamic data-driven application system (DDDAS was introduced. The DDDAS entails both the ability to incorporate additional data into an executing application and, in reverse, the ability of applications to dynamically steer the measurement process. Based on the DDDAS, combing a remote sensor system that detects oil spills with a numerical simulation, an integrated data processing, analysis, forecasting and emergency response system was established. Once an oil spill accident occurs, the DDDAS-based oil spill model receives information about the oil slick extracted from the dynamic remote sensor data in the simulation. Through comparison, information fusion and feedback updates, continuous and more precise oil spill simulation results can be obtained. Then, the simulation results can provide help for disaster control and clean-up. The Penglai, Xingang and Suizhong oil spill results showed our simulation model could increase the prediction accuracy and reduce the error caused by empirical parameters in existing simulation systems. Therefore, the DDDAS-based detection and simulation system can effectively improve oil spill simulation and diffusion forecasting, as well as provide decision-making information and technical support for emergency responses to oil spills.

  8. Tensão superficial estática de soluções aquosas com óleos minerais e vegetais utilizados na agricultura Surface tension of mineral oils and vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina G. de Mendonça

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a tensão superficial estática de soluções aquosas com formulações de óleos minerais e vegetais emulsionáveis utilizados como adjuvantes na agricultura. Os óleos minerais e vegetais, quando adicionados aos produtos fitossanitários, podem imprimir características desejáveis à calda de pulverização, como reduzir a tensão superficial em soluções aquosas, possibilitar maior contato da calda com a superfície vegetal ou reduzir o potencial de deriva durante as pulverizações. Foram testados os seguintes produtos comerciais: óleos minerais (Assist, Attach, Dytrol, Iharol, Mineral Oil, Spinner, Sunspray-E e Triona e óleos vegetais (Agrex'oil Vegetal, Crop Oil, Natur'l Óleo, Óleo Vegetal Nortox e Veget Oil, todos com registro de uso na agricultura. A tensão superficial das soluções aquosas foi avaliada em 11 concentrações para cada produto (0,025; 0,05; 0,1; 0,25; 0,5; 0,75; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 e 3,0% v/v. Essa propriedade dos óleos minerais e dos óleos vegetais foi estimada medindo-se a massa das gotas formadas na extremidade de uma bureta. Ao conjunto de dados obtidos para cada produto, na avaliação da tensão superficial, foram determinadas as análises de variância e de regressão, ajustando-se os dados ao Modelo de Mitscherlich. Entre os óleos minerais, destacaram-se os produtos: Assist, Dytrol, Iharol e Mineral Oil por apresentarem as menores tensões superficiais mínimas estimadas pelo Modelo, respectivamente, 29,255; 28,442; 26,097 e 28,584 mN m-1. Os óleos vegetais que apresentaram os menores valores de tensão superficial mínima estimados pelo Modelo, foram: Agrex' oil Vegetal (27,716 mN m-1, Natur'l óleo (28,216 mN m-1, Veget Oil (27,308 mN m-1 e Crop Oil (29,964 mN m-1.The aim of this work was to evaluate the surface tension of water emulsion with mineral oils and vegetable oils used as adjuvant. The mineral and vegetable oils when added to the agrochemicals can

  9. Oil contamination in surface sediment of Anzali Wetland in Iran is primarily even carbon number n-alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi-Yancheshmeh, Rokhsareh; Riyahi-Bakhtiari, Alireza; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan

    2017-10-29

    To determine the extent of oil contamination and biodegradation in Anzali Wetland of Iran, we examined aliphatic hydrocarbons in surface sediment of this area (n=20). Petroleum hydrocarbon levels (mean 1585 ± 1117; range 316 to 4358 μg g- 1 dry weight) were similar in value to reports from other highly contaminated areas, such as New York Bight, Saudi and Kuwaiti coasts of the Persian Gulf, and Dubai shorelines. Even carbon homologs dominated distribution of n-alkanes in surface sediment of Anzali, which is rarely reported elsewhere. Multiple factors used in our study point to petrogenic source for n-alkanes in Anzali Wetland. Anzali receives multiple industrial and agricultural runoffs from the surrounding area. Shipping industry and oil industry are responsible for a major portion of pollutants entering Anzali. Municipal wastewater discharges are another source of Anzali pollution. To determine why even carbon number n-alkanes predominate in Anzali, we examined the following indices: existence of unresolved complex mixtures (UCM), ratio of UCM to resolved alkanes (RA), ratio of low-molecular weight to high-molecular weight molecules, presence of degraded oil residue, high-relative biodegradation, and the degree of hydrocarbon weathering in the surface sediment of the area. Our findings corroborate with such predominance.

  10. Characterization and flux of marine oil snow settling toward the seafloor in the northern Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon incident: Evidence for input from surface oil and impact on shallow shelf sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Scott A; German, Christopher R

    2017-11-03

    Sediment trap samples from the shelf edge area (400-450m water depth), 58km northeast of the failed Macondo well, were collected before, during and after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Detailed chemical analyses of particulates revealed that fluxes of spill-derived TPH (2356μg/m 2 /day), total PAH (5.4μg/m 2 /day), and hopane (0.89μg/m 2 /day) settling to the seafloor directly beneath the surface-plume were 19- to 44-times higher during the active spill than pre- and post-spill background values. The oil was variably biodegraded, evaporated and photo-oxidized indicating that it derived from the sinking of surface oil. The hopane-based oil flux that we calculate (10bbl/km 2 ) indicates that at least 76,000bbl of Macondo oil that reached the ocean surface subsequently sank over an area of approximately 7600km 2 . We explore how this flux of sunken surface oil contributed to the total volume of oil deposited on the seafloor following the Deepwater Horizon incident. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Jinadriyah anticlines: a surface model for oil fields in eastern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlMahmoud, Mohammed J; Khalil, Mesbah H; Moustafa, Adel R

    2009-01-01

    Mesozoic oil in Saudi Arabia exists in north/south-oriented anticlines. Such anticlines are usually studied using subsurface data. The present study introduces, for the first time in Saudi Arabia, a surface analog for these anticlines. The study covers two northerly oriented anticlines located in the Jinadriyah area at 15 km to the northeast of the Riyadh city. They are named herein the North and South Jinadriyah anticlines. The outcrops in both anticlines belong to the Lower Cretaceous Yamama Formation which consists of limestone in its lower part and limestone with shale in its upper part. The study included initially detailed interpretation of Google Earth and Landsat TM images to map the structural pattern of the anticlines. Detailed field mapping confirmed the satellite image interpretation and helped describe the geometry of the two anticlines in detail. The 3.5-km-long South Jinadriyah anticline is an open doubly plunging asymmetric anticline. The western flank is dissected by 13 minor reverse faults of north-south orientation. The North Jinadriyah anticline is about 5.5 km long and is relatively more complex than the South Jinadriyah anticline. It consists of northern, central, and southern segments that differ from each others in orientation and style. The anticline is dissected by 18 minor faults of different orientations and sense of displacement. Two perpendicular fracture sets with one being parallel to the anticline axes were recorded in the two anticlines. Both anticlines are interpreted as fault-propagation folds that were formed during the Late Cretaceous first Alpine orogeny. The mid-Late Tertiary second Alpine orogeny and Late Tertiary eastward tilting of the Arabian Plate increased the degree of folding and faulting. (author)

  12. Oil and gas pipelines with hydrophobic surfaces better equipped to deal with gas hydrate flow assurance issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perfeldt, Christine Malmos; Sharifi, Hassan; von Solms, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Gas hydrate deposition can cause plugging in oil and gas pipelines with resultant flow assurance challenges. Presently, the energy industry uses chemical additives in order to manage hydrate formation, however these chemicals are expensive and may be associated with safety and environmental...... crystallizer. This indicates that 10 to 14 times less KHI is needed in the presence of a hydrophobically coated surface. These experimental studies suggest that the use of hydrophobic surfaces or pipelines could serve as an alternative or additional flow assurance approach for gas hydration mitigation...... and management....

  13. Variations in organic carbon chemistry in the Gulf Coast and coastal marshes following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, J. M.; Orem, W. H.; Aiken, G.; Varonka, M. S.; Butler, K.; Kokaly, R. F.

    2011-12-01

    Record volumes of oil released from the Macondo well following the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon offshore oil-drilling platform in the Gulf of Mexico significantly impacted coastal marshes in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. Remote sensing and water sampling was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate the extent of impact. Water samples were collected offshore from near the spill site July 5-10, 2010 to characterize molecular organic carbon chemistry on unfiltered samples and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on filtered samples. Three field visits were conducted in July 7-10, August 12-14, and August 24-26, 2010, to collect samples from the soil-water interface in coastal marshes along lower Barataria Bay and the Bird's Foot Delta at the distal end of the Mississippi River Delta. Visible oil in the marsh was observed as thick coatings on vegetation and soil and as sheens at the water surface. Samples were extracted for hydrocarbons with dichloromethane, separated into aliphatic, aromatic and polar compound classes using standard column techniques, and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A significant amount of oil was observed "dissolved" in the water column with a hydrocarbon distribution resembling that of the surface oil slick. While oils maintained many of the more volatile lower molecular weight components near the spill site, these were mostly gone in the onshore Barataria Bay samples, leaving mostly higher molecular weight components. Dissolved organic carbon was characterized using concentration, fluorescence index (FI), specific ultratviolet absorbance (SUVA) and excitation/emission fluorescence (EEM). Offshore samples had distinctive EEMs patterns, SUVA and FI. With few exceptions, marsh samples had EEMs patterns more similar to previously extracted organic matter from the Mississippi River than to the offshore oil. In spite of visible oil sheen in unfiltered water from contaminated shorelines and no visible sign of impact on

  14. Highly efficient separation of surfactant stabilized water-in-oil emulsion based on surface energy gradient and flame retardancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mengying; Peng, Shan; Deng, Wanshun; Miao, Xinrui; Wen, Ni; Zhou, Qiannan; Deng, Wenli

    2018-06-15

    Surface energy gradient would generate an imbalance force to drive tiny water droplets in dry air from the hydrophilic bumps to superhydrophobic domains, which has found on the Stenocara beetle's back. Inspired by this phenomenon, we introduced a pristine superhydrophilic filter paper on the lower surface energy superhydrophobic filter paper. ZnSn(OH) 6 particles and polydimethylsiloxane were mixed to prepare the superhydrophobic coating, and the coating was spray-coated on the poly(dialkyldimethylammonium chloride) covered filter paper to separate the span 80 stabilized water-in-isooctane emulsion. A pristine filter paper was added on the superhydrophobic filter paper to fabricate another membrane for separation. The results revealed that with a pristine filter paper, the membrane performed higher efficiency and more recyclability, and it could separate the emulsions with higher surfactant concentrations. The stabilized water droplets passed the superamphiphilic surface, and hindered by the superhydrophobic surface, generating a surface energy gradient for better separation. In addition, the superhydrophobic membrane could be protected from fire to some degree due to the introduced ZnSn(OH) 6 particles with excellent flame retardancy. This easy and efficient approach via simply bringing in pristine superhydrophilic membrane has great potential applications for water-in-oil emulsion separation or oil purification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Space-based laser-powered orbital transfer vehicle (Project SLICK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A conceptual design study of a laser-powered orbital transfer vehicle (LOTV) is presented. The LOTV, nicknamed SLICK (Space Laser Interorbital Cargo Kite), will be utilized for the transfer of 16000 kg of cargo between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and either Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) or Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). This design concentrates primarily on the LEO/GEO scenario, which will have typical LEO-to-GEO trip time of 6 days and two return versions. One version uses an all propulsive return while the other utilizes a ballute aerobrake for the return trip. Furthermore, three return cargo options of 16000 kg, 5000 kg (standard option), and 1600 kg are considered for this scenario. The LEO/LLO scenario uses only a standard, aerobraked version. The basic concept behind the LOTV is that the power for the propulsion system is supplied by a source separate from the LOTV itself. For the LEO/GEO scenario the LOTV utilizes a direct solar-pumped iodide laser and possibly two relay stations, all orbiting at an altitude of one Earth radius and zero inclination. An additional nuclear-powered laser is placed on the Moon for the LEO/LLO scenario. The propulsion system of the LOTV consists of a single engine fueled with liquid hydrogen. The laser beam is captured and directed by a four mirror optical system through a window in the thrust chamber of the engine. There, seven plasmas are created to convert the laser beam energy into thermal energy at an efficiency of at least 50 percent. For the LEO/LLO scenario the laser propulsion is supplemented by LH2/LOX chemical thrusters.

  16. Control of oil-wetting on technical textiles by means of photo-chemical surface modification and its relevance to the performance of compressed air filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahners, Thomas; Mölter-Siemens, Wolfgang; Haep, Stefan; Gutmann, Jochen S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The oil repellence of textile fabrics was increased following the Wenzel concept. • Fiber surfaces were micro-roughened by means of pulsed UV laser irradiation. • Subsequent UV-induced grafting yielded pronounced oil repellence. • The grafting process conserved the delicate topography of the fiber surfaces. • The modified fabrics showed favorable drainage behavior in oil droplet separation. - Abstract: A two-step process comprising a surface roughening step by excimer laser irradiation and a post-treatment by photo-grafting to decrease the surface free energy was employed to increase the oil repellence of technical fabrics made of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The modification was designed to improve the performance of multi-layer filters for compressed air filtration, in which the fabrics served to remove, i.e. drain, oil separated from the air stream. In detail, the fibers surfaces were roughened by applying several laser pulses at a wavelength of 248 nm and subsequently photo-grafted with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluoro-decyl acrylate (PPFDA). The oil wetting behavior was increased by the treatments from full wetting on the as-received fabrics to highly repellent with oil contact angles of (131 ± 7)°. On surfaces in the latter state, oil droplets did not spread or penetrate even after one day. The grafting of PPFDA alone without any surface roughening yielded an oil contact angle of (97 ± 11)°. However, the droplet completely penetrated the fabric over a period of one day. The drainage performance was characterized by recording the pressure drop over a two-layer model filter as a function of time. The results proved the potential of the treatment, which reduced the flow resistance after 1-h operation by approximately 25%

  17. Control of oil-wetting on technical textiles by means of photo-chemical surface modification and its relevance to the performance of compressed air filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahners, Thomas, E-mail: bahners@dtnw.de [Deutsches Textilforschungszentrum Nord-West gGmbH (DTNW), Adlerstr. 1, 47798 Krefeld (Germany); Mölter-Siemens, Wolfgang; Haep, Stefan [Institut für Energie- und Umwelttechnik e.V. (IUTA), Bliersheimer Str. 60, 47229 Duisburg (Germany); Gutmann, Jochen S. [Deutsches Textilforschungszentrum Nord-West gGmbH (DTNW), Adlerstr. 1, 47798 Krefeld (Germany); Universität Duisburg-Essen, Physikalische Chemie and CENIDE, Universitätsstr. 2, 45141 Essen (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The oil repellence of textile fabrics was increased following the Wenzel concept. • Fiber surfaces were micro-roughened by means of pulsed UV laser irradiation. • Subsequent UV-induced grafting yielded pronounced oil repellence. • The grafting process conserved the delicate topography of the fiber surfaces. • The modified fabrics showed favorable drainage behavior in oil droplet separation. - Abstract: A two-step process comprising a surface roughening step by excimer laser irradiation and a post-treatment by photo-grafting to decrease the surface free energy was employed to increase the oil repellence of technical fabrics made of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The modification was designed to improve the performance of multi-layer filters for compressed air filtration, in which the fabrics served to remove, i.e. drain, oil separated from the air stream. In detail, the fibers surfaces were roughened by applying several laser pulses at a wavelength of 248 nm and subsequently photo-grafted with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluoro-decyl acrylate (PPFDA). The oil wetting behavior was increased by the treatments from full wetting on the as-received fabrics to highly repellent with oil contact angles of (131 ± 7)°. On surfaces in the latter state, oil droplets did not spread or penetrate even after one day. The grafting of PPFDA alone without any surface roughening yielded an oil contact angle of (97 ± 11)°. However, the droplet completely penetrated the fabric over a period of one day. The drainage performance was characterized by recording the pressure drop over a two-layer model filter as a function of time. The results proved the potential of the treatment, which reduced the flow resistance after 1-h operation by approximately 25%.

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF PATCHOULI OIL (POGOSTEMON CABLIN, BENTH WITH STEAM DISTILLATION ASSISTED BY PULSED ELECTRIC FIELD VIA RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUKARDI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to determine the role of pulsed electric field (PEF treatment before hydro-distillation of the patchouli oil. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was employed to optimize PEF treatment (voltages, frequencies and times of distillation of patchouli oil from dried patchouli crops. The experimental design and analysis the result to obtain the optimal processing parameters was a Box-Behnken Design (BBD. Three variables were examined in this study: voltages (1,000-2,000 volt; frequencies (1,000-2,000 Hz; and distillation time (4-8 hours. The results showed that the voltage greatly affects the volume of patchouli oil obtained and optimum condition of PEF was voltages of 2,000 volts, frequencies of 1,874 Hz, and 8 hours distillation. The patchouli oil obtained is 8.037 ml of 300 g of dry material (±2.7%. The verification of the model shows that 96.6% (7.76±0.15 ml can adequately for reflecting the expected optimization.

  19. Analysis of parameter and interaction between parameter of the microwave assisted transesterification process of coconut oil using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayanti, Nur; Suryanto, A.; Qadariyah, L.; Prihatini, P.; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2015-12-01

    A simple batch process was designed for the transesterification of coconut oil to alkyl esters using microwave assisted method. The product with yield above 93.225% of alkyl ester is called the biodiesel fuel. Response surface methodology was used to design the experiment and obtain the maximum possible yield of biodiesel in the microwave-assisted reaction from coconut oil with KOH as the catalyst. The results showed that the time reaction and concentration of KOH catalyst have significant effects on yield of alkyl ester. Based on the response surface methodology using the selected operating conditions, the time of reaction and concentration of KOH catalyst in transesterification process were 150 second and 0.25%w/w, respectively. The largest predicted and experimental yield of alkyl esters (biodiesel) under the optimal conditions are 101.385% and 93.225%, respectively. Our findings confirmed the successful development of process for the transesterification reaction of coconut oil by microwave-assisted heating, which is effective and time-saving for alkyl ester production.

  20. Synthesis of zinc aluminate with high surface area by microwave hydrothermal method applied in the transesterification of soybean oil (biodiesel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirino, M.R. [Chemistry Laboratory of Federal University of Paraiba (LABQUIM), Campus III, 58200-000 Bananeiras, PB (Brazil); Oliveira, M.J.C. [Academic Unit of Materials Engineering, UFCG, Campina Grande Campus I, 58429-900 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Keyson, D. [Laboratory of study in Science, DME, Federal University of Paraíba, Campus I, 58051-900 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Lucena, G.L., E-mail: guilherme_leo1@yahoo.com.br [Chemistry Laboratory of Federal University of Paraiba (LABQUIM), Campus III, 58200-000 Bananeiras, PB (Brazil); Oliveira, J.B.L. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN, Campus I, 59078-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Gama, L. [Academic Unit of Materials Engineering, UFCG, Campina Grande Campus I, 58429-900 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel was synthesized by the microwave hydrothermal method in only 15 or 30 min. • The powders show high specific surface area. • ZAT{sub b}15 showed activity of 52.22% for the conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel. - Abstract: Zinc aluminate is a material with high thermal stability and high mechanical strength that, owing to these properties, is used as a catalyst or support. In this work, zinc aluminate spinel was synthesized by the microwave hydrothermal method in only 15 or 30 min at a low temperature (150 °C) without templates, using only Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·9H{sub 2}O, Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O, and urea as precursors and applied in the transesterification of soybean oil. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} had a cubic structure without secondary phases. The nitrogen adsorption measurements (BET) revealed a high surface area (266.57 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) for the nanopowder synthesized in 15 min. This powder showed activity of 52.22% for the catalytic conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel by transesterification.

  1. Oil Spill Detection in Terma-Side-Looking Airborne Radar Images Using Image Features and Region Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alacid, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    This work presents a method for oil-spill detection on Spanish coasts using aerial Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) images, which are captured using a Terma sensor. The proposed method uses grayscale image processing techniques to identify the dark spots that represent oil slicks on the sea. The approach is based on two steps. First, the noise regions caused by aircraft movements are detected and labeled in order to avoid the detection of false-positives. Second, a segmentation process guided by a map saliency technique is used to detect image regions that represent oil slicks. The results show that the proposed method is an improvement on the previous approaches for this task when employing SLAR images. PMID:29316716

  2. Oil Spill Detection in Terma-Side-Looking Airborne Radar Images Using Image Features and Region Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Gil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a method for oil-spill detection on Spanish coasts using aerial Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR images, which are captured using a Terma sensor. The proposed method uses grayscale image processing techniques to identify the dark spots that represent oil slicks on the sea. The approach is based on two steps. First, the noise regions caused by aircraft movements are detected and labeled in order to avoid the detection of false-positives. Second, a segmentation process guided by a map saliency technique is used to detect image regions that represent oil slicks. The results show that the proposed method is an improvement on the previous approaches for this task when employing SLAR images.

  3. Detection of the Hebei Spirit oil spill on SAR imagery and its temporal evolution in a coastal region of the Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Sung; Park, Kyung-Ae; Li, Xiaofeng; Lee, Moonjin; Hong, Sungwook; Lyu, Sang Jin; Nam, Sooyong

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the evolution of a disastrous oil spill from a vessel collision, known as the Hebei Spirit accident, off the coast of Korea in the Yellow Sea on 6 December 2007, oil slicks were identified from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images using a neural network (NN) and an adaptive threshold method. The results from the two objective methods showed good agreement, enough for the estimation of the extent of oil patches and their trajectories, with the exception of negligible errors at the boundaries. Quantitative analyses showed that the detected oil slicks moved southward, corresponding to the prevailing wind and tidal currents, and gradually dissipated during the spill, except for an extraordinary rapid decrease in onshore regions at the initial stage. The initial dissipation of the spilt oil was induced by tidal mixing in the tidal front zone. The spatial and temporal variations of the oil slicks confirmed the influence of atmospheric and oceanic environmental factors. The overall horizontal migration of the oil spills detected from consecutive SAR images was mainly driven by Ekman drift during the winter monsoon rather than the tidal residual current.

  4. The Impact of the Spectral Band Number and Width on the Oil Pollution Diagnostics on Earth Surface by Laser Fluorescence Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Fedotov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the remote sensing methods is the most promising for day-to-day control of oil pollution. The laser-induced fluorescence method provides efficient detection and classification of oil pollutions. To monitor oil pollutions on the earth surface is more complicated than on the water one because of lower fluorescence intensity and interfering fluorescence of natural objects available on the earth surface.Properties of oil pollution classifiers depend largely on the number and positions of spectral bands of fluorescence registration. Reducing the number of spectral bands allows us to diminish computation complexity and cost of equipment. In some cases the reduction increases classification accuracy. The number of spectral bands can be reduced through increasing their width.The paper presents mathematical modeling of oil pollution detection and classification. The experimentally obtained fluorescence spectra of oil pollutions on different substrates were used as input data. The k-nearest neighbors algorithm was used to detect and classify oil pollutions. Cross validation was applied in mathematical modeling.The mathematical modeling results have shown that for oil pollutions detection using over 8 spectral bands (band width less than 50 nm a classification error rate does not depend on the further increasing number of the spectral bands.As to the type classification of oil pollutions (4 classes, an increasing width of the spectral bands up to 60 nm (the number of spectral bands reduced up 7 does not lead to a significantly decreasing overall classification accuracy.In the case of the sort classification of oil pollutions (8 classes a local maximum of the overall accuracy has been observed at 25-30 nm width of the spectral band (14-16 spectral bands. The spectral resolution improvement (increasing the number of bands does give an essentially increasing accuracy.The paper has shown that to detect and classify oil pollutions on the earth surface

  5. A widely applicable method to fabricate underwater superoleophobic surfaces with low oil-adhesion on different metals by a femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingzhou; Chen, Feng; Yang, Qing; Yong, Jiale; Huo, Jinglan; Fang, Yao; Hou, Xun

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a one-step way to realize underwater superoleophobicity and low oil-adhesion on various metals by femtosecond laser ablation was proposed. The laser ablated aluminum surface showed hierarchical rough microstructure composed of abundant micro-holes and nano-particles. The oil contact angle on the as-prepared Al surface reached up to 157° and the oil sliding angle was just 7° to a 1,2-dichloroethane droplet in water. In addition, various oils including chloroform, hexadecane, n-dodecane, decane, liquid paraffin, and petroleum ether also showed underwater superoleophobicity on the structured aluminum surface. What's more, other metals such as iron, copper, molybdenum, and stainless steel were ablated, respectively, through the same method. Due to the formation of rough microstructures and their intrinsic high surface energy, they all exhibited remarkable underwater ultralow oil-adhesive superoleophobicity. Such one-fit-all method with anti-oil-pollution can be a suit for an ocean of metals, which undoubtedly will be used in underwater precise instruments, such as vessels, underwater detectors, and oil-water separation device.

  6. Analyzing the Surface Roughness Effects on Piston Skirt EHL in Initial Engine Start-Up Using Different Viscosity Grade Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gulzar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The absence of fully developed fluid film lubrication between Pistonand Liner surfaces is responsible for high friction and wear at initial engine start‐up. In this paper flow factor method is used in two dimensional Reynolds’ equation to model the effects of surfaceroughness characteristics on Piston Skirt elastohydrodynamiclubrication. The contact of surface asperities between the twosurfaces and its after effects on EHL of piston skirt is investigated. For this purpose, two different grade oils are used to show the changing effects of viscosity combined with surface roughness on different parameters including film thickness, eccentricities and hydrodynamic pressures. The results of the presented model shows considerable effects on film thickness of rough piston skirt, hydrodynamic pressures and eccentricities profilesfor 720 degrees crank angle.

  7. Marine iguanas die from trace oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikelski, Martin; Wong, Vanessa; Chevalier, Brett; Rattenborg, Niels; Snell, Howard L

    2002-06-06

    An oil tanker ran aground on the Galapagos island of San Cristóbal on 17 January 2001, spilling roughly three million litres of diesel and bunker oil. The slick started to spread westwards and was dispersed by strong currents, so only a few marine animals were killed immediately as a result. Here we draw on the long-term data sets gathered before the spill to show that a population of marine iguanas (Amblyrhychus cristatus) on Sante Fe island suffered a massive 62% mortality in the year after the accident, due to a small amount of residual oil contamination in the sea. Another population on the more remote island of Genovesa was unaffected.

  8. Poly(alkoxysilane) reusable organogels for removal of oil/organic solvents from water surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizil, Soner; Karadag, Koksal; Ozan Aydin, Gulsah; Bulbul Sonmez, Hayal

    2015-02-01

    Novel poly(alkoxysilane)s with high oil and organic solvent absorbencies were prepared by a bulk polymerization technique via the condensation of 1,3-benzenedimethanol with different lengths of alkoxysilanes at 160 °C without using a catalyst. The influence of the length of the alkoxysilane on the polymer properties and swelling ratios was investigated. Swelling experiments in various solvents indicated that these cross-linked poly(alkoxysilane)s can be used as absorbents for oils and oil-derived organic solvents. The swelling features of the poly(alkoxysilane)s were determined by solvent absorption tests, swelling kinetics experiments, and desorption kinetics measurements. The absorption capacities of the poly(alkoxysilane)s were 50-725% for various organic solvents and oil derivatives such as gasoline and diesel. The structural and thermal properties of the cross-linked poly(alkoxysilane) polymers were determined by FTIR, solid-state (13)C and (29)Si cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) NMR, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fabrication of stable and durable superhydrophobic surface on copper substrates for oil-water separation and ice-over delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Yang, Fuchao; Guo, Zhiguang

    2016-03-15

    We report a simple and rapid method to fabricate superhydrophobic films on copper substrates via Fe(3+) etching and octadecanethiol (ODT) modification. The etching process can be as short as 5 min and the ODT treatment only takes several seconds. In addition, the whole process is quite flexible in reaction time. The superhydrophobicity of as-prepared surfaces is mechanically durable and chemically stable, which have great performance in oil-water separation and ice-over resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Crumb waste tire rubber surface modification by plasma polymerization of ethanol and its application on oil-well cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaowei, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); Sheng, Huang [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); School of Oil and Natural Gas Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); Xiaoyang, Guo, E-mail: guoxiaoyangswpi@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); School of Oil and Natural Gas Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); Wenhui, Duan, E-mail: wenhui.duan@monash.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Melbourne 3800 (Australia)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • The crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was modified by plasma polymerization of ethanol. • Hydrophilic groups were introduced onto WTR surface and improved its hydrophilia. • The functionalized crumb WTR was applied in oil-well cement. • The mechanical properties of modified oil-well cement were intensively enhanced. - Abstract: Crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was pretreated by oxygen low temperature plasma (LTP) and modified by LTP polymerization process of ethanol monomer to improve the adhesion property with oil-well cement matrix and the mechanical properties of cement. The surface properties of modified crumb WTR and the mechanical properties and structures of modified oil-well cement were investigated by means of contact angle measurement, dispersion test, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), mechanics performance tests, permeability test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was demonstrated that LTP treatment changed both the surface composition and roughness. The contact angle of pretreated crumb WTR dramatically fell from 122° to 34°, and sample with ethanol LPT polymer film decreased even further to 11°. The ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis results demonstrated that hydrophilic groups, such as –COOH, C–OH, and –CHO, were introduced on the WTR surface. The oxygen atomic percent increased from 8.11% to 14.50% and 24.83%. The mechanical properties, porosity and permeability of raw cement were compared to samples modified by untreated crumb WTR, pretreated crumb WTR and ethanol LTP polymerization treated crumb WTR. It was found that after 28 days, the compressive strength of the samples with the untreated crumb WTR decreased to 80% with respect to raw cement. The tensile strength and flexural strength also had a slight reduction compared with the raw cement. On the contrary, after 28 days, the tensile strength of cement modified by LTP polymerization

  11. High pressure waterjets for oil containment in calm and wavy waters; a parametric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaddar, N.K.; Nawwar, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The use of high pressure waterjets (HPWJ) as oil barriers has been proposed and tested. It has been shown that a series of waterjets directed horizontally above the free water surface provide an effective means of containing or deflecting oil slicks. The waterjets generate a high speed air flow capable of moving the surface layer of the liquid. A numerical model is implemented to study the characteristics of the entrained turbulent air flow using the Spectral Element Method (SEM) and an algebraic turbulent model for the Reynolds stresses. A test of the code is done for turbulent Couette Flow to check the accuracy of the calculated shear stresses against published data. A parametric study is performed to evaluate the HPWJ system performance at various operating and design parameters which include manifold pressure, nozzle flow rate, nozzle characteristics, jet height and surface wave conditions. The total driving shear force and power required for effective containment are used as performance measures. Shear stress and the total driving shear force at the air-liquid interface are calculated over a reference waterjet distance. Performance is measured under calm and wavy sea conditions. It is found that the containment pressure required to generate a given shear force in wavy surface conditions are 30-50% less than those required in calm water. The driving shear force decreases as the jet height above the liquid surface increased. Shear forces also appear to decrease with the reduction of the entrained air flow. The later is governed by nozzle type, spread angle and spacing. The results of the parametric study are consistent with the trends observed experimentally, and could be used in optimising the system design and performance as well as in setting appropriate operational conditions. 12 refs., 10 figs

  12. Optimization of olive oil based O/W nanoemulsions prepared through ultrasonic homogenization: A response surface methodology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Tahir; Ahmad, Asif; Ahmed, Anwaar; Ahmed, Zaheer

    2017-08-15

    The present study was conducted to prepare co-surfactant free, olive-oil based alpha tocopherol nanoemulsions, using a food grade non-ionic surfactant. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the effects of independent variables (ultrasonic homogenization time, olive oil concentrations and surfactant contents) on different physico-chemical characteristics of O/W nanoemulsions. This study was carried out using a central composite design. The coefficients of determination were greater than 0.900 for all response variables and there were significant effects of independent variables on all responses. The optimum levels of independent variables for the preparation of nanoemulsions were 3min. ultrasonic homogenization time, 4% olive oil content and 2.08% surfactant concentration. The physico-chemical responses at these levels were 151.68nm particle size, 7.17% p-anisidine and 88.64% antioxidant activity. These results will help in design of nanoemulsions with optimum independent variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Presence of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in near-surface sediments of an oil spill area in Bohai Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuanglin; Zhang, Shengyin; Dong, Heping; Zhao, Qingfang; Cao, Chunhui

    2015-11-15

    In order to determine the source of organic matter and the fingerprint of the oil components, 50 samples collected from the near-surface sediments of the oil spill area in Bohai Sea, China, were analyzed for grain size, total organic carbon, aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The concentrations of C15-35 n-alkanes and 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) priority pollutant PAHs were found in the ranges of 0.88-3.48μg g(-1) and 9.97-490.13ng/g, respectively. The terrestrial organic matters characterized by C27-C35 n-alkanes and PAHs, resulting from the combustion of higher plants, are dominantly contributed from the transportation of these plants by rivers. Marine organic matters produced from plankton and aquatic plants were represented by C17-C26 n-alkanes in AHs. Crude oil, characterized by C17-C21 n-alkanes, unresolved complex mixture (UCM) with a mean response factor of C19 n-alkanes, low levels of perylene, and a high InP/(InP+BghiP) ratio, seeped into the oceans from deep hydrocarbon reservoirs, as a result of geological faults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of surface finishing on friction and wear of Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone (PEEK under oil lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Fontoura de Andrade

    Full Text Available Abstract The tribological properties of poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK containing 30% of carbon fiber were studied in an oil-lubricated environment and different surface finishing of the metallic counterbody. Four different finishing processes, commonly used in the automotive industry, were chosen for this study: turning, grinding, honing and polishing. The test system used was tri-pin on disc with pins made of PEEK and counterbody made of steel; they were fully immersed in ATF Dexron VI oil. Some test parameters were held constant, such as the apparent pressure of 2 MPa, linear velocity of 2 m/s, oil temperature at 85 °C, and the time - 120 minutes. The lubrication regime for the apparent pressure of 1 MPa to 7 MPa range was also studied at different sliding speeds. A direct correlation was found between the wear rate, friction coefficient and the lubrication regime, wherein wear under hydrodynamic lubrication was, on average, approximately 5 times lower, and the friction coefficient 3 times lower than under boundary lubrication.

  15. ISS Assessment of the Influence of Nonpore Surface in the XPS Analysis of Oil-Producing Reservoir Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon; Toledo; Araujo

    1997-08-15

    The application of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to oil-producing reservoir rocks is new and has shown that pore surface concentrations can be related to rock wettability. In the preparation of fresh fractures of rocks, however, some nonpore surface corresponding to the connection regions in the rocks is created and exposed to XPS. To assess the potential influence of this nonpore surface in the XPS analysis of rocks here we use ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS), which has a resolution comparable to the size of the pores, higher than that of XPS, with an ion gun of He+ at maximum focus. Sample charging effects are partially eliminated with a flood gun of low energy electrons. All the ISS signals are identified by means of a formula which corrects any residual charging on the samples. Three rock samples are analyzed by XPS and ISS. The almost unchanged ISS spectra obtained at different points of a given sample suggest that the nonpore surface created in the fracture process is negligibly small, indicating that XPS data, from a larger surface spot, represents the composition of true pore surfaces. The significant changes observed in ISS spectra from different samples indicate that ISS is sample specific. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  16. Atmospheric characterization through fused mobile airborne and surface in situ surveys: methane emissions quantification from a producing oil field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Leifer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 inventory uncertainties are large, requiring robust emission derivation approaches. We report on a fused airborne–surface data collection approach to derive emissions from an active oil field near Bakersfield, central California. The approach characterizes the atmosphere from the surface to above the planetary boundary layer (PBL and combines downwind trace gas concentration anomaly (plume above background with normal winds to derive flux. This approach does not require a well-mixed PBL; allows explicit, data-based, uncertainty evaluation; and was applied to complex topography and wind flows. In situ airborne (collected by AJAX – the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment and mobile surface (collected by AMOG – the AutoMObile trace Gas – Surveyor data were collected on 19 August 2015 to assess source strength. Data included an AMOG and AJAX intercomparison transect profiling from the San Joaquin Valley (SJV floor into the Sierra Nevada (0.1–2.2 km altitude, validating a novel surface approach for atmospheric profiling by leveraging topography. The profile intercomparison found good agreement in multiple parameters for the overlapping altitude range from 500 to 1500 m for the upper 5 % of surface winds, which accounts for wind-impeding structures, i.e., terrain, trees, buildings, etc. Annualized emissions from the active oil fields were 31.3 ± 16 Gg methane and 2.4 ± 1.2 Tg carbon dioxide. Data showed the PBL was not well mixed at distances of 10–20 km downwind, highlighting the importance of the experimental design.

  17. Mechanical recovery of oil in ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solsberg, L.B.; McGrath, M.

    1992-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the mechanical systems used for removing oil in ice. The most promising spill cleanup techniques were identified along with recommendations for future work. Catalogued data in the review focused on skimmers, of which rope mop machines were considered as having the most versatile approach. The performance of the Foxtail VAB 8-14 skimmer was then assessed in North Slope crude oil and diesel fuel at a test site in Alaska. The skimmer operates through a remote power pack and pump, and incorporates eight vertically oriented rope mops. It weighs 900 kg and is suspended from a crane when deployed. Three independent test parameters were measured: oil type, slick thickness, and ice cover. A test strategy was devised to isolate the effects of individual parameters on skimming in order to optimize machine performance. Skimmer performance was based on the percent oil in the recovered oil/water mixture and the net oil collection rate. Skimmer performance was found to be optimal at rope mop speeds of 0.2-0.3 m/s in medium range viscosity oils. The unit tested was significantly less effective in diesel. Overall, the Foxtail skimmer was found to comprise an oil recovery concept that has excellent potential and affords versatility for many oil-in-ice applications. 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Oil spill remote sensing sensors and aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fruhwirth, M.; Gamble, L.

    1992-01-01

    The most common form of remote sensing as applied to oil spills is aerial remote sensing. The technology of aerial remote sensing, mainly from aircraft, is reviewed along with aircraft-mounted remote sensors and aircraft modifications. The characteristics, advantages, and limitations of optical techniques, infrared and ultraviolet sensors, fluorosensors, microwave and radar sensors, and slick thickness sensors are discussed. Special attention is paid to remote sensing of oil under difficult circumstances, such as oil in water or oil on ice. An infrared camera is the first sensor recommended for oil spill work, as it is the cheapest and most applicable device, and is the only type of equipment that can be bought off-the-shelf. The second sensor recommended is an ultraviolet and visible-spectrum device. The laser fluorosensor offers the only potential for discriminating between oiled and un-oiled weeds or shoreline, and for positively identifying oil pollution on ice and in a variety of other situations. However, such an instrument is large and expensive. Radar, although low in priority for purchase, offers the only potential for large-area searches and foul-weather remote sensing. Most other sensors are experimental or do not offer good potential for oil detection or mapping. 48 refs., 8 tabs

  19. Optimisation of Oil Spill Dispersants on Weathered Oils. A New Approach Using Experimental Design and Multivariate Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandvik, Per Johan

    1997-12-31

    This thesis describes how laboratory experiments combined with numerical modelling were used to predict weathering of an oil slick at different environmental conditions (temperature, wind etc.). It also applies laboratory test methods to screen dispersant effectiveness under different temperatures and salinities. A new approach is developed for dispersant optimization based on statistical design and multivariate analysis; this resulted in a new dispersant with low toxicity and high effectiveness on a broad selection of oil types. The thesis illustrates the potential of dispersant used as an operational response method on oil spills by discussing three different oil spill scenarios and compares the effect of using dispersants to using mechanical recovery and to doing nothing. Some recommendations that may increase the effectiveness of the Norwegian oil spill contingency are also given. 172 refs., 65 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. The effects of oil and oil dispersants on the skeletal growth of the hermatypic coral Diploria strigosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Richard E.; Wyers, Sheila C.; Frith, H. R.; Knap, Anthony H.; Smith, S. R.; Sleeter, T. D.

    1984-12-01

    Specimens of the hermatypic coral species Diploria strigosa were exposed to various concentrations (1 50 ppm) of oil or oil plus dispersant for 6 24 h periods in four laboratory and two field experiments. After dosing, corals were transplanted to, or left in, the field and recollected approximately one year later for extension (linear) growth analysis by the alizarin stain method. The experiments were designed to assess the long-term effects of brief low-level concentrations of chemically dispersed oil and oil alone on corals in a situation, for example, where an oil slick (treated and non-treated with dispersants) passes over a reef. No significant differences between extension growth parameters (Septa increase, Columella increase) and a calical shape parameter (New Endotheca Length) of treated corals versus controls were found in any of the experiments. In two summer experiments calical relief (Fossa length) was found to be depressed in corals of some of the experimental treatments.

  1. Application of secondary of polymers and surface active agents to increase heavy oil recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Luner

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Basin on a comparison of laboratory results with results obtained by screening modelling, one of the most promising methods was selected – the method of oil displacement by means of the polymer injection.Water intended for the injection is thickened with high molecular weight polymers (e.g. Polyacrylamid or Xantan, which increase the water viscosity and, on the other hand, decrease the water mobility. The concentrations of polymers vary in the range from 250 to 2 000 mg l-1 of water and the required volumes of injected water thickened with polymers achieve values ranging from 25 to 60 % of the volume of total oil saturation of the deposit. The method is used as complementary to the process of water flooding. It is suitable even in cases where other tertiary methods are not expected to be successful.

  2. Tumor necrosis factor α modulates sodium-activated potassium channel SLICK in rat dorsal horn neurons via p38 MAPK activation pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang K

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Kun Wang,1 Feng Wang,1 Jun-Ping Bao,2 Zhi-Yang Xie,1 Lu Chen,1 Bao-Yi Zhou,1 Xin-Hui Xie,2 Xiao-Tao Wu1,2 1Medical School of Southeast University, 2Department of Orthopaedics, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The dorsal horn (DH of the spinal cord is the integrative center that processes and transmits pain sensation. Abnormal changes in ion channel expression can enhance the excitability of pain-related DH neurons. Sodium-activated potassium (KNa channels are highly expressed particularly in the central nervous system; however, information about whether rat DH neurons express the SLICK channel protein is lacking, and the direct effects on SLICK in response to inflammation and the potential signaling pathway mediating such effects are yet to be elucidated. Here, using cultured DH neurons, we have shown that tumor necrosis factor-α inhibits the total outward potassium current IK and the KNa current predominantly as well as induces a progressive loss of firing accommodation. However, we found that this change in channel activity is offset by the p38 inhibitor SB202190, thereby suggesting the modulation of SLICK channel activity via the p38 MAPK pathway. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the tumor necrosis factor-α modulation of KNa channels does not occur at the level of SLICK channel gating but arises from possible posttranslational modification. Keywords: p38 MAPK, SLICK channel, neuropathic pain, dorsal horn, TNF-α

  3. EPA OIL FIELD SOLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: aka HYDRO-CLEAN, GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANER, AWAN PRA, this surface washing agent for oil spill cleanups is sprayed full strength on oiled rocky surfaces at shorelines, mangroves, and seagrasses. Allow at least 30 minute soak.

  4. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Mumford, Adam; Orem, William H.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby.

  5. Measurements of surface shear stresses under a three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer using oil-film laser interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailinger, K. G.; Simpson, R. L.

    1990-04-01

    Measurements of surface shear stress magnitude and direction are reported for a three-dimensional, pressure driven, turbulent boundary layer around a wing body junction. Measurements were made using a dual-beam oil film laser interferometer at 56 locations. An iterative procedure was developed which increased the precision of the data extracted from the data records. Skin friction directions computed using a least square error fit were compared to angles obtained from surface oil flows, hot wire anemometry, and LDV measurements. Also, the magnitude of the skin friction coefficients were compared to independently obtained skin friction coefficients. The data agreed to within experimental error outside the effects from the vortex legs present along the side of the wing-body. No accurate data was available for quantitative comparison under the effects of the vortex, but the magnitudes followed the qualitative trends expected. This method failed badly in the region of large three-dimensional effects and requires further study in this area of application.

  6. Surface Film Adsorption and Lubricity of Soybean Oil In-Water Emulsion and Triblock Copolymer Aqueous Solution: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Taheri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the surface film adsorption and lubricity of two different types of potential environmentally friendly cold metal forming lubricants: soybean vegetable oil in water VO/W emulsions and triblock copolymer aqueous solutions. The lubricants have different visual appearance, surface film adsorption characteristic, lubricity and surface cleaning behaviour. The effects of concentration, temperature and emulsification ultrasonic energy (for VO/W emulsion are studied. The result shows that the soybean VO/W emulsions have stronger adsorption, superior lubricity and anti-wear property compared to the copolymer solutions. The effect of temperature is investigated at 30 °C and 65 °C which are below and above cloud point of the aqueous copolymer solutions. Both lubricants show improved friction and anti-wear property at 65 °C. However, tenacious residual film remained on the discs surface after surface cleaning indicates lower cleanability of the soybean VO/W emulsions compared to the copolymer solutions, postulating the need for extra post-processing cleaning operations after cold forming process with VO/W emulsion lubricant.

  7. Studies on cationic UV curing of cycloaliphatic diepoxide - epoxidised palm oil (EPO) for surface coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mek Zah Salleh; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Wan Rosli Wan Daud; Kumar, R.N.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, there are growing trends in using vegetables oil as raw materials in resin production. Development of new products from palm oil derivatives such as epoxidised palm oil (EPO) is of particular interest to this country. The compatibility of EPO with cycloaliphatic diepoxide allows the development of a wide range of radiation curable formulations by cationic photoinitiators. Curing was done by means of a 20 cm wide IST UV, machine with the conditions of 7.5A current and 4 m/min conveyor speed. Sulphonium and ferrocenium salts were used as the cationic photoinitiators. A study was formulated to compromise the investigation of various effects on the cured film properties. These effects include; types and concentration of photoinitiators, formulating ratios, reactive diluents, photosensitizers and postcuring conditions. The effects on the gel fraction, pendulum hardness, tensile strength and elongation at break were investigated. The results showed that 30% of EPO was the maximum value that can be used in the formulation. It was also found that triarylsulphonium hexafluorophosphate has a very low solubility in EPO

  8. The Galeta Oil Spill. III. Chronic Reoiling, Long-term Toxicity of Hydrocarbon Residues and Effects on Epibiota in the Mangrove Fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levings, Sally C.; Garrity, Stephen D.; Burns, Kathryn A.

    1994-04-01

    In April 1986, 75 000-100 000 barrels of medium-weight crude oil (˜ 10 000-13 500 metric tons) spilled into Bahía las Minas, a large mangrove-lined bay on the Caribbean coast of Panamá. Between 1986 and 1991, biological and chemical effects of this spill were studied. The epibiota of fringing mangroves ( Rhizophora mangle L.) were examined in three habitats: (1) the shoreward margins of reef flats that fronted the open sea, (2) the edges of channels and lagoons, and (3) the banks of streams and man-made cuts that drained interior mangroves or uplands into lagoons. Chemical analyses of bivalves collected from submerged prop roots (oysters and false mussels) and records of slicks and tarry deposits on artificial roots documented chronic reoiling. Each habitat was repeatedly oiled between 1986 and 1991, with petroleum residues identified as the oil spilled in 1986. There was a decline in the release of tarry oils recorded as slicks and on roots over time, but not in tissue burdens of hydrocarbons in bivalves. This suggested that the processes that released these different types of oil residues were at least partially independent and that toxic hydrocarbons were likely to be released from sediments over the long term. The submerged prop roots of fringing mangroves in each habitat had a characteristic epibiota. On the open coast, roots were covered with a diverse assemblage of sessile invertebrates and algae. In channels, the most abundant species on roots was the edible oyster Crassostrea virginica ( rhizophorae morph). In streams, the false mussel Mytilopsis sallei covered the most space on roots. Cover of sessile invertebrates was significantly reduced at oiled compared with unoiled sites on the open coast for 4 years after oiling, while oysters and false mussels were reduced in cover at oiled sites in channels and streams through at least 1991, when observations ended. False mussels transplanted from an unoiled stream to oiled and unoiled streams were

  9. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Pollution in Soil and Surface Water by Public Oil Fields in Wonocolo Sub-district, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Lova Sari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Public crude oil fields in Wonocolo sub-district were active from 1942 until now and have inadequately operated. The aims of this research were to measure the level of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH pollution and their distribution in soil and surface water at the Wonocolo public crude oil fields. Twelve composite soil samples were collected from uncontaminated and contaminated sites of old well (OW, transportation line (T, and refinery area (R at the depths of 0–30 cm, 30–60 cm, and 60–90 cm. The composite surface water sample was obtained from two points with different distances from the river side. TPH from soil and surface water samples were extracted using soxhlet and gravimetric method. Quantification of TPH was performed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR Spectrometer. From the results of this study, it was concluded that soils and surface water are contaminated by TPH of 119.80–107,190 µg/g and 211,025.73 µg/L, respectively. TPH is clearly located in the upper of 0–30 cm depth at OW, T, and R sites (52,328.14–107,189.63 µg/g. These concentrations exceeded the soil quality standard of TPH and classified as category A for human hazard risk. The findings from this study show that there are considerable health risks which are potentially poisonous to humans in the local area. We recommend that remediation could be conducted using biological methods to reduce TPH pollution level.

  10. Combining conservation value, vulnerability, and effectiveness of mitigation actions in spatial conservation decisions: an application to coastal oil spill combating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihaksi, Taina; Kokkonen, Teemu; Helle, Inari; Jolma, Ari; Lecklin, Tiina; Kuikka, Sakari

    2011-05-01

    Increasing oil transportation and severe oil accidents in the past have led to the development of various sensitivity maps in different countries all over the world. Often, however, the areas presented on the maps are far too large to be safeguarded with the available oil combating equipment and prioritization is required to decide which areas must be safeguarded. While oil booms can be applied to safeguard populations from a drifting oil slick, decision making on the spatial allocation of oil combating capacity is extremely difficult due to the lack of time, resources and knowledge. Since the operational decision makers usually are not ecologists, a useful decision support tool including ecological knowledge must be readily comprehensible and easy to use. We present an index-based method that can be used to make decisions concerning which populations of natural organisms should primarily be safeguarded from a floating oil slick with oil booms. The indices take into account the relative exposure, mortality and recovery potential of populations, the conservation value of species and populations, and the effectiveness of oil booms to safeguard different species. The method has been implemented in a mapping software that can be used in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) for operational oil combating. It could also be utilized in other similar conservation decisions where species with varying vulnerability, conservational value, and benefits received from the management actions need to be prioritized.

  11. Finding of no significant impact proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0339) of the proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock in San Miguel County, Colorado. These sites contain radioactively contaminated materials that would be removed and stabilized at a remote location. Based on the information and analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (ONSI)

  12. Impact assessment of artificial recharge and geo-chemical characterization of the waters of the slick Tebolba (Eastern Tunisia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferchichi, Hajer

    2007-01-01

    This study concerned the impact assessment of artificial recharge of a coastal aquifer (Tebolba) from the waters of the dam Nebhana and chemical characterization of its waters. The analysis maps piezometric drawn and salinity at various dates since 1940, the establishment of chronic recharge from the years 1992 to 2006, as well as geochemical study of groundwater in the slick Tebolba have enabled us to reach the many results. This study using a multidisciplinary approach (hydrodynamics and geochemical) seeks an assessment of impacts of recharging the water table in Tebolba from the waters of the dam Nebhana through the history of the qualitative and quantitative water the water and a hydro-geochemical study the current state of the waters of the water. (Author). 45 refs

  13. Optimization of hydrodynamic cavitations reactor efficiency for biodiesel production by response surface methods (Case study: Sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Javadikia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Biofuels are considered as one of the largest sources of renewable fuels or replacement of fossil fuels. Combustion of plant-based fuels is the indirect use of solar energy. Biofuels significantly have less pollution than other fossil fuels and can easily generate from residual plant material. Waste and residues of foods and wastewater can also be a good source for biofuel production. Transesterification method (one of biodiesel production methods is the most common forms to produce mono-alkyl esters from vegetable oil and animal fats. The procedure aims are reduction the oil viscosity during the reaction between triglycerides and alcohol in the presence of a catalyst or without it. In this study, the method of transesterification with alkaline catalysts is used that it is the most common and most commercial biodiesel production method. In this study, configurations of made hydrodynamic cavitation reactor were studied to measure biodiesel fuel quality and enhanced device performance with optimum condition. The Design Expert software and response surface methodology were used to get this purpose. Materials and Methods Transesterification method was used in this study. The procedure aims were reduction of the oil viscosity during the reaction between triglycerides and alcohol in the presence of a catalyst or without it. Materials needed in the production of biodiesel transesterification method include: vegetable oil, alcohol and catalysts. The used oil in the production of biodiesel was sunflower oil, which was used 0.6 liters per each test in the production process base on titration method. Methanol with purity of 99.8 percent and the molar ratio of 6:1 to oil was used based on titration equation and according to the results of other researchers. The used catalyst in continuous production process was high-purity sodium hydroxide (99% that it is one of alkaline catalysts. Weight of hydroxide was 1% of the used oil weight in the

  14. Crumb waste tire rubber surface modification by plasma polymerization of ethanol and its application on oil-well cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaowei, Cheng; Sheng, Huang; Xiaoyang, Guo; Wenhui, Duan

    2017-07-01

    Crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was pretreated by oxygen low temperature plasma (LTP) and modified by LTP polymerization process of ethanol monomer to improve the adhesion property with oil-well cement matrix and the mechanical properties of cement. The surface properties of modified crumb WTR and the mechanical properties and structures of modified oil-well cement were investigated by means of contact angle measurement, dispersion test, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), mechanics performance tests, permeability test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was demonstrated that LTP treatment changed both the surface composition and roughness. The contact angle of pretreated crumb WTR dramatically fell from 122° to 34°, and sample with ethanol LPT polymer film decreased even further to 11°. The ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis results demonstrated that hydrophilic groups, such as -COOH, C-OH, and -CHO, were introduced on the WTR surface. The oxygen atomic percent increased from 8.11% to 14.50% and 24.83%. The mechanical properties, porosity and permeability of raw cement were compared to samples modified by untreated crumb WTR, pretreated crumb WTR and ethanol LTP polymerization treated crumb WTR. It was found that after 28 days, the compressive strength of the samples with the untreated crumb WTR decreased to 80% with respect to raw cement. The tensile strength and flexural strength also had a slight reduction compared with the raw cement. On the contrary, after 28 days, the tensile strength of cement modified by LTP polymerization treated WTR increased 11.03% and 13.36%, and the flexural strength increased 9.65% and 7.31%, respectively. A decrease in the compressive strength also occurred but was inconspicuous. A tight interface bonding for ethanol LTP polymerization treated WTR with cement matrix was observed via an SEM image.

  15. Quick stimulation of Alcanivorax sp. by bioemulsificant EPS2003 on microcosm oil spill simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cappello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil spill microcosms experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of bioemulsificant exopolysaccharide (EPS2003 on quick stimulation of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. Early hours of oil spill, were stimulated using an experimental seawater microcosm, supplemented with crude oil and EPS2003 (SW+OIL+EPS2003; this system was monitored for 2 days and compared to control microcosm (only oil-polluted seawater, SW+OIL. Determination of bacterial abundance, heterotrophic cultivable and hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were carried out. Community composition of marine bacterioplankton was determined by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Data obtained indicated that bioemulsificant addition stimulated an increase of total bacterial abundance and, in particular, selection of bacteria related to Alcanivorax genus; confirming that EPS2003 could be used for the dispersion of oil slicks and could stimulate the selection of marine hydrocarbon degraders thus increasing bioremediation process.

  16. Surface damage mitigation of TC4 alloy via micro arc oxidation for oil and gas exploitation application: Characterizations of microstructure and evaluations on surface performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ruizhen; Lin, Naiming; Zhou, Peng; Zou, Jiaojuan; Han, Pengju; Wang, Zhihua; Tang, Bin

    2018-04-01

    Because of its excellent corrosion resistance, high specific strength and high tensile strength, TC4 titanium alloys used as petroleum tubes have received wide interest from material engineers after many technical investigations and estimations. However, because of its low surface hardness values, high coefficient of friction and poor wear resistance, the TC4 alloy is seldom adopted in tribological-related engineering components. In this work, micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coatings were fabricated on TC4 alloys in NaAlO2 and (NaPO3)6 electrolytes with and without ultrasonic assistance. The microstructural characterizations of the produced MAO coatings were investigated. Comparative estimations of electrochemical corrosion in CO2-saturated simulated oilfield brine and tribological behaviours on MAO coatings and TC4 alloys were conducted. The results showed that the introduction of ultrasound increased the thickness of the MAO coatings. The thickness increased by 34% and 15% in the NaAlO2 and (NaPO3)6 electrolytes, respectively. There was no significant discrepancy in phase constitutions when the MAO processes were conducted with and without ultrasonic assistance. Both MAO coatings obtained with and without ultrasonic assistance were found to improve the corrosion and wear resistance of the TC4 alloy. MAO treatments made it possible to ensure the working surface of a TC4 alloy with an enhanced surface performance for oil and gas exploitation applications.

  17. Synthesis, surface properties and oil solubilisation capacity of cationic gemini surfactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, Th.; Engberts, J.B.F.N.; Karthäuser, J.; Karaborni, S.; Os, N.M. van

    1996-01-01

    The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the surface tension at the CMC have been determined for the gemini surfactants alkanediyl-u,w-bis(dimethyla1kylammoniubmr omide) by means of dynamic surface tension measurements. For the same number of carbon atoms in the hydrophobic chain per hydrophilic

  18. Chemical Force Microscopy Study on the Interactions of COOH Functional Groups with Kaolinite Surfaces: Implications for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipada Santha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Clay–oil interactions play a critical role in determining the wettability of sandstone oil reservoirs, which, in turn, governs the effectiveness of enhanced oil recovery methods. In this study, we have measured the adhesion between –COOH functional groups and the siloxane and aluminol faces of kaolinite clay minerals by means of chemical force microscopy as a function of pH, salinity (from 0.001 M to 1 M and cation identity (Na+ vs. Ca2+. Results from measurements on the siloxane face show that Ca2+ displays a reverse low-salinity effect (adhesion decreasing at higher concentrations at pH 5.5, and a low salinity effect at pH 8. At a constant Ca2+ concentration of 0.001 M, however, an increase in pH leads to larger adhesion. In contrast, a variation in the Na+ concentration showed less effect in varying the adhesion of –COOH groups to the siloxane face. Measurements on the aluminol face showed a reverse low-salinity effect at pH 5.5 in the presence of Ca2+, whereas an increase in pH with constant ion concentration resulted in a decrease in adhesion for both Ca2+ and Na+. Results are explained by looking at the kaolinite’s surface complexation and the protonation state of the functional group, and highlight a more important role of the multicomponent ion exchange mechanism in controlling adhesion than the double layer expansion mechanism.

  19. Improved Satellite Retrievals of NO2 and SO2 over the Canadian Oil Sands and Comparisons with Surface Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, C. A.; Fioletov, V.; Boersma, K. F.; Kharol, S. K.; Krotkov, N.; Lamsal, L.; Makar, P. A.; Martin, R. V.; Veefkind, J. P.; Yang, K.

    2014-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing is increasingly being used to monitor air quality over localized sources such as the Canadian oil sands. Following an initial study, significantly low biases have been identified in current NO2 and SO2 retrieval products from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite sensor over this location resulting from a combination of its rapid development and small spatial scale. Air mass factors (AMFs) used to convert line-of-sight "slant" columns to vertical columns were re-calculated for this region based on updated and higher resolution input information including absorber profiles from a regional-scale (15 km × 15 km resolution) air quality model, higher spatial and temporal resolution surface reflectivity, and an improved treatment of snow. The overall impact of these new Environment Canada (EC) AMFs led to substantial increases in the peak NO2 and SO2 average vertical column density (VCD), occurring over an area of intensive surface mining, by factors of 2 and 1.4, respectively, relative to estimates made with previous AMFs. Comparisons are made with long-term averages of NO2 and SO2 (2005-2011) from in situ surface monitors by using the air quality model to map the OMI VCDs to surface concentrations. This new OMI-EC product is able to capture the spatial distribution of the in situ instruments (slopes of 0.65 to 1.0, correlation coefficients of greater than 0.9). The concentration absolute values from surface network observations were in reasonable agreement, with OMI-EC NO2 and SO2 biased low by roughly 30%. Several complications were addressed including correction for the interference effect in the surface NO2 instruments and smoothing and clear-sky biases in the OMI measurements. Overall these results highlight the importance of using input information that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability of the location of interest when performing retrievals.

  20. Oil-material fractionation in Gulf deep water horizontal intrusion layer: Field data analysis with chemodynamic fate model for Macondo 252 oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, A T; Thibodeaux, L J; Parsons, A R; Overton, E; Valsaraj, K T; Nandakumar, K

    2016-04-15

    Among the discoveries of the Deepwater Horizon blowout was the so-called "sub-surface plume"; herein termed the "oil-trapping layer". Hydrocarbons were found positioned at ~1100-1300m with thickness ~100-150m and moving horizontally to the SW in a vertically stratified layer at the junction of the cold abyssal water and the permanent thermocline. This study focuses on its formation process and fate of the hydrocarbons within. The originality of this work to the field is two-fold, first it provides a conceptual framework which places layer origin in the context of a horizontal "intrusion" from the near-field, vertical, blow-out plume and second, it offers a theoretical model for the hydrocarbon chemicals within the horizontal layer as it moves far-afield. The model quantifies the oil-material fractionation process for the soluble and fine particle. The classical Box model, retrofitted with an internal gradient, the "G-Box", allows an approach that includes turbulent eddy diffusion coupled with droplet rise velocity and reactive decay to produce a simple, explicit, transparent, algebraic model with few parameters for the fate of the individual fractions. Computations show the soluble and smallest liquid droplets moving very slowly vertically through the layer appearing within the trapping layer at low concentration with high persistence. The larger droplets move-through this trapping zone quickly, attain high concentrations, and eventually form the sea surface slick. It impacts the field of oil spill engineering science by providing the conceptual idea and the algorithms for projecting the quantities and fractions of oil-material in a deep water, horizontal marine current being dispersed and moving far afield. In the field of oil spill modeling this work extends the current generation near-field plume source models to the far-field. The theory portrays the layer as an efficient oil-material trap. The model-forecasted concentration profiles for alkanes and aromatics

  1. OSIS: A Windows 3 Oil Spill Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, M.; Walker, M.; Wiltshire, M.; Tyler, A.

    1993-01-01

    An oil spill modelling and analysis system called the Oil Spill Information System (OSIS) has recently been developed. OSIS uses a model of oceanographic processes to predict three-dimensional spreading and transport of an oil slick under the influence of wind, waves, tide, turbulence, and shear diffusion. Oil weathering and fate processes of emulsification, evaporation, and dispersion are also simulated. The physical models have been tested against data obtained from sea trials and spill incidents. OSIS uses an object-oriented programming technique and presents model output as maps, graphs, and tables in multiple windows and can link to other Windows packages to create a suite of spill information management tools. 15 refs., 12 figs

  2. ubaegesi@yahoo.co.uk Effects of oil spillage on Soil and Surface

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    FEPA) standards. ... The effect of pollution studies on surface water and soil are ... Untied Nations body, the Group of Experts on. Scientific Aspects of. Marine. Pollution. (GESAMP 1990), pollution is the introduction by man directly or indirectly of ...

  3. Surface Observation and Magnetism of Oil-Extracted Botryococcus braunii Residues before and after Carbonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aohan Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae is a promising next-generational energy. In this research, we focus on oil-extracted Botryococcus braunii residues collected by adding polysilicato-iron (PSI as a flocculant followed by carbonization under argon atmosphere. We conducted carbonization at various temperatures as a first attempt to reveal the fundamental properties of the carbonization process of the microbes. The carbons thus obtained by heat treatment at 900 °C present a unique magnetic behavior due to reduced magnetite (Fe3O4 inclusion, which is produced from polysilicato iron (Fe2O3 during the heating process. Experimental results suggest that this carbonic material can be applied as a heavy metal-capturing carbon and magnetic porous substrate catalyst. The effective use of the waste may open a new avenue for an energy-microbiology-materials system.

  4. Surface chemistry of a pine-oil cleaner and other terpene mixtures with ozone on vinyl flooring tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jason E; Wells, J Raymond

    2011-04-01

    Indoor environments are dynamic reactors where consumer products (such as cleaning agents, deodorants, and air fresheners) emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can subsequently interact with indoor oxidants such as ozone (O(3)), hydroxyl radicals, and nitrate radicals. Typically, consumer products consist of mixtures of VOCs and semi-VOCs which can react in the gas-phase or on surfaces with these oxidants to generate a variety of oxygenated products. In this study, the reaction of a pine-oil cleaner (POC) with O(3) (100ppb) on a urethane-coated vinyl flooring tile was investigated at 5% and 50% relative humidity. These results were compared to previous α-terpineol+O(3) reactions on glass and vinyl surfaces. Additionally, other terpene and terpene alcohol mixtures were formulated to understand the emission profiles as seen in the POC data. Results showed that the α-terpineol+O(3) reaction products were the prominent species that were also observed in the POC/O(3) surface experiments. Furthermore, α-terpineol+O(3) reactions generate the largest fraction of oxygenated products even in equal mixtures of other terpene alcohols. This finding suggests that the judicial choice of terpene alcohols for inclusion in product formulations may be useful in reducing oxidation product emissions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Using response surface methodology in optimisation of biodiesel production via alkali catalysed transesterification of waste cooking oil

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, R

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The report focuses on optimisation of alkali catalysis as a process for producing biodiesel from waste cooking oils. Biodiesel production parameters that were optimised were methanol to oil ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature...

  6. Studies on cationic UV curing of epoxidised palm oil (EPO) for surface coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mek Zah Salleh; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Wan Rosli Wan Daud; Kumar, R.N.

    2000-01-01

    Epoxidised palm oil (EPO) resin can be cured by ultraviolet (UV) radiation either by radical, cationic or hybrid system. Cationic curing system has been chosen in this study due to the fact that epoxy groups present in EPO can be utilised directly to form crosslinking. Curing was done by means of a 20 cm wide UV IST machine with the conditions of 7.5 A current and 4 m/min conveyor speed. Sulphonium and ferrocenium salts were used as cationic photoinitiator. A formulations study was performed on the selected grades of EPO with other materials. These include types and concentration of photoinitiator, monomers, concentration of EPO and post-cure. The properties of the cured film such as pendulum hardness, percentage of gel content and tensile strength were determined. It was found that triarylsulphonium hexafluorophosphate has a very low solubility in EPO. Addition of vinyl ether monomer to the formulation did not enhance pendulum hardness and gel content of the cured films. It is also found that the post cure temperature has no significant effect on the cured film

  7. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document contains the page changes for Attachment 3, Ground Water Hydrology Report dated August, 1996 for the Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for Stabilization of the Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This portion of Attachment 3 contains the Table of Contents pages i and ii, and pages numbered 3-3 through 3-56 of the Ground Water Hydrology Report. Also included are the cover sheets for Appendix A, B, and C to Attachment 3

  8. Response surface modeling of acid activation of raw diatomite using in sunflower oil bleaching by: Box-Behnken experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouci, M; Safa, M; Meddah, B; Aoues, A; Sonnet, P

    2015-03-01

    The optimum conditions for acid activation of diatomite for maximizing bleaching efficiency of the diatomite in sun flower oil treatment were studied. Box-Behnken experimental design combining with response surface modeling (RSM) and quadratic programming (QP) was employed to obtain the optimum conditions of three independent variables (acid concentration, activation time and solid to liquid) for acid activation of diatomite. The significance of independent variables and their interactions were tested by means of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with 95 % confidence limits (α = 0.05). The optimum values of the selected variables were obtained by solving the quadratic regression model, as well as by analyzing the response surface contour plots. The experimental conditions at this global point were determined to be acid concentration = 8.963 N, activation time = 11.9878 h, and solid to liquid ratio = 221.2113 g/l, the corresponding bleaching efficiency was found to be about 99 %.

  9. Application of surface analytical methods for hazardous situation in the Adriatic Sea: monitoring of organic matter dynamics and oil pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletikapić, Galja; Ivošević DeNardis, Nadica

    2017-01-01

    Surface analytical methods are applied to examine the environmental status of seawaters. The present overview emphasizes advantages of combining surface analytical methods, applied to a hazardous situation in the Adriatic Sea, such as monitoring of the first aggregation phases of dissolved organic matter in order to potentially predict the massive mucilage formation and testing of oil spill cleanup. Such an approach, based on fast and direct characterization of organic matter and its high-resolution visualization, sets a continuous-scale description of organic matter from micro- to nanometre scales. Electrochemical method of chronoamperometry at the dropping mercury electrode meets the requirements for monitoring purposes due to the simple and fast analysis of a large number of natural seawater samples enabling simultaneous differentiation of organic constituents. In contrast, atomic force microscopy allows direct visualization of biotic and abiotic particles and provides an insight into structural organization of marine organic matter at micro- and nanometre scales. In the future, merging data at different spatial scales, taking into account experimental input on micrometre scale, observations on metre scale and modelling on kilometre scale, will be important for developing sophisticated technological platforms for knowledge transfer, reports and maps applicable for the marine environmental protection and management of the coastal area, especially for tourism, fishery and cruiser trafficking.

  10. Textural and surface characterization of cork-based sorbents for the removal of oil from water

    OpenAIRE

    Ariana Pintor; A.M. Silvestre-Albero; Catarina Ferreira; Joana Pereira; Vitor Vilar; Cidália Botelho; F. Rodríguez-Reinoso; Rui Boaventura

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the possibility of adding value to cork granulates, byproducts of cork processing, by using them as biosorbents and precursors of activated carbons. Activation was carried out by impregnation with phosphoric acid followed by pyrolysis under N2 flow. Furthermore, biosorbents were treated with a cationic surfactant and activated carbons were subject to a second pyrolysis under propene with the objective of improving hydrophobicity. Physico-chemical, textural, and surface ch...

  11. Response surface optimization for the transesterification of karanja oil using immobilized whole cells of Rhizopus oryzae in n-hexane system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, Devanesan; Rajendran, Aravindan; Thangavelu, Viruthagiri [Annamalai University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Biochemical Engineering Laboratory, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2012-03-15

    Non-edible oils represent one of the most viable alternative feed stocks for the production of large volumes of biodiesel at cheaper cost in tropical countries. The objective of the present study is to investigate the ability of the immobilized whole cells of Rhizopus oryzae MTCC 262 to catalyze the biodiesel production from karanja oil in n-hexane system. Response surface methodology was employed to evaluate the effects of synthesis parameters, such as molar ratio of oil to alcohol, reaction temperature and reaction time on percentage biodiesel (methyl esters) yield. Transesterification was performed in shake flasks containing immobilized cells in the reaction mixture with 10% oil weight of n-hexane. The quadratic effects of molar ratio of oil to alcohol and reaction time proved to be the significant at 1% and 5% levels, respectively. The optimum synthesis conditions were found to be: molar ratio of oil to alcohol 1:2.73, reaction temperature 41.39 C and reaction time 73.97 h. Biodiesel yield (methyl ester) was 75.98 (wt.%) under the optimal conditions and the subsequent verification experiments with biodiesel yield of 78.0 (wt.%) confirmed the validity of the proposed model. (orig.)

  12. Scale-up considerations for surface collecting agent assisted in-situ burn crude oil spill response experiments in the Arctic: Laboratory to field-scale investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Robin J; Aggarwal, Srijan; Perkins, Robert A; Schnabel, William

    2017-04-01

    In the event of a marine oil spill in the Arctic, government agencies, industry, and the public have a stake in the successful implementation of oil spill response. Because large spills are rare events, oil spill response techniques are often evaluated with laboratory and meso-scale experiments. The experiments must yield scalable information sufficient to understand the operability and effectiveness of a response technique under actual field conditions. Since in-situ burning augmented with surface collecting agents ("herders") is one of the few viable response options in ice infested waters, a series of oil spill response experiments were conducted in Fairbanks, Alaska, in 2014 and 2015 to evaluate the use of herders to assist in-situ burning and the role of experimental scale. This study compares burn efficiency and herder application for three experimental designs for in-situ burning of Alaska North Slope crude oil in cold, fresh waters with ∼10% ice cover. The experiments were conducted in three project-specific constructed venues with varying scales (surface areas of approximately 0.09 square meters, 9 square meters and 8100 square meters). The results from the herder assisted in-situ burn experiments performed at these three different scales showed good experimental scale correlation and no negative impact due to the presence of ice cover on burn efficiency. Experimental conclusions are predominantly associated with application of the herder material and usability for a given experiment scale to make response decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimizing the conditions for the microwave-assisted direct liquefaction of Ulva prolifera for bio-oil production using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Junhai; Zhuang, Yingbin; Li, Yan; Chen, Limei; Guo, Jingxue; Li, Demao; Ye, Naihao

    2013-01-01

    Microwave-assisted direct liquefaction (MADL) of Ulva prolifera was performed in ethylene glycol (EG) using sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) as a catalyst. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed to optimize the conditions of three independent variables (catalyst content, solvent-to-feedstock ratio and temperature) for the liquefaction yield. And the bio-oil was analyzed by elementary analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis (FT-IR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The maximum liquefaction yield was 93.17%, which was obtained under a microwave power of 600 W for 30 min at 165 °C with a solvent-to-feedstock ratio of 18.87:1 and 4.93% sulfuric acid. The bio-oil was mainly composed of phthalic acid esters, alkenes and a fatty acid methyl ester with a long chain from C 16 to C 20 . - Highlights: • Ulva prolifera was converted to bio-oil through microwave-assisted direct liquefaction. • Response surface methodology was used to optimize the liquefaction technology. • A maximum liquefaction rate of 93.17 wt% bio-oil was obtained. • The bio-oil was composed of carboxylic acids and esters

  14. An ultrasound-assisted system for the optimization of biodiesel production from chicken fat oil using a genetic algorithm and response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyazi, E; Ghobadian, B; Najafi, G; Hosseinzadeh, B; Mamat, R; Hosseinzadeh, J

    2015-09-01

    Biodiesel is a green (clean), renewable energy source and is an alternative for diesel fuel. Biodiesel can be produced from vegetable oil, animal fat and waste cooking oil or fat. Fats and oils react with alcohol to produce methyl ester, which is generally known as biodiesel. Because vegetable oil and animal fat wastes are cheaper, the tendency to produce biodiesel from these materials is increasing. In this research, the effect of some parameters such as the alcohol-to-oil molar ratio (4:1, 6:1, 8:1), the catalyst concentration (0.75%, 1% and 1.25% w/w) and the time for the transesterification reaction using ultrasonication on the rate of the fatty acids-to-methyl ester (biodiesel) conversion percentage have been studied (3, 6 and 9 min). In biodiesel production from chicken fat, when increasing the catalyst concentration up to 1%, the oil-to-biodiesel conversion percentage was first increased and then decreased. Upon increasing the molar ratio from 4:1 to 6:1 and then to 8:1, the oil-to-biodiesel conversion percentage increased by 21.9% and then 22.8%, respectively. The optimal point is determined by response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithms (GAs). The biodiesel production from chicken fat by ultrasonic waves with a 1% w/w catalyst percentage, 7:1 alcohol-to-oil molar ratio and 9 min reaction time was equal to 94.8%. For biodiesel that was produced by ultrasonic waves under a similar conversion percentage condition compared to the conventional method, the reaction time was decreased by approximately 87.5%. The time reduction for the ultrasonic method compared to the conventional method makes the ultrasonic method superior. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Quick stimulation of Alcanivorax sp. by bioemulsificant EPS₂₀₀₃ on microcosm oil spill simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Simone; Genovese, Maria; Denaro, Renata; Santisi, Santina; Volta, Anna; Bonsignore, Martina; Mancini, Giuseppe; Giuliano, Laura; Genovese, Lucrezia; Yakimov, Michail M

    2014-01-01

    Oil spill microcosms experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of bioemulsificant exopolysaccharide (EPS₂₀₀₃) on quick stimulation of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. Early hours of oil spill, were stimulated using an experimental seawater microcosm, supplemented with crude oil and EPS₂₀₀₃ (SW+OIL+EPS₂₀₀₃); this system was monitored for 2 days and compared to control microcosm (only oil-polluted seawater, SW+OIL). Determination of bacterial abundance, heterotrophic cultivable and hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were carried out. Community composition of marine bacterioplankton was determined by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Data obtained indicated that bioemulsificant addition stimulated an increase of total bacterial abundance and, in particular, selection of bacteria related to Alcanivorax genus; confirming that EPS₂₀₀₃ could be used for the dispersion of oil slicks and could stimulate the selection of marine hydrocarbon degraders thus increasing bioremediation process.

  16. An update on oil spill remote sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Brown, C.

    2005-01-01

    Oil spills and related petroleum products have a serious impact in the marine environment. Public and media scrutiny is normally intense following a spill, and there are often demands that the location and extent of the spill are identified. Remote sensing plays an increasingly important role in oil spill response efforts. A knowledge of slick locations and movement means that response personnel can plan countermeasures more effectively thereby lessening the effects of pollution. This paper provides an assessment of remote sensors for application to oil spills, with specific reference to various technologies currently in use or being developed. Infrared cameras can detect oil under a variety of conditions as well as discriminate oil from some backgrounds and has the lowest cost of any sensor. The weaknesses of infrared cameras include: the inability to discriminate oil on beaches, among weeds or debris and under certain lighting conditions. Additionally, water-in-oil emulsions are occasionally not detected in infrared. However, new technology has made infrared technology both affordable and practical. Laser fluorosensors have the capability to identify oil on backgrounds that include water, soil, weeds, ice and snow. Disadvantages include the large size and weight of the tool as well as its high cost. Radar currently offers the only potential for large area searches and foul weather remote sensing, which is however, costly and requires a dedicated aircraft as well as being prone to interferences. False targets can be as high as 95 per cent. It was noted that equipment that measures slick thickness is still under development, including passive microwave technology. Laser-acoustic instruments are currently development that will provide the technology to measure absolute oil thickness. Cameras and scanners are useful for documentation or providing a basis for the overlay of other data. It was also noted that satellite-borne sensors are becoming increasingly useful

  17. Surface electromagnetic technology for the external inspection of oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Delgado, O.; Flores, A. [Mexican Petroleum Institute, Mexico City (Mexico); Nakamura, E. [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present a surface electromagnetic technology for the non-destructive pipeline coating inspection (SEMPI). This technology allows: determination of the depth and plane position of pipelines, quantitative evaluation of the insulation resistance and delimitation of zones with coating damages, estimation of the performance of the cathodic protection system (CPS) and detection of its connections to out-of-service pipes and other grounded constructions, and assessment of the soil aggressively. The SEMPI technology is based on the approximation of pipelines by heterogeneous transmission lines with variable leakage conductance and pipe impedance to represent insulation coating and wall thickness damages. Based on the result of simulations, we have optimized the field measurements and developed the interpretation procedure of experimental data. The field operations include surface measurements of magnetic field, voltage on the control posts of the CPS and soil resistivity. In zones with coating damages the detailed measurements can be performed using magnetic or electric field to increase the resolution in localizing and evaluating the insulation damages. The SEMPI technology has been applied for inspections of pipelines with different technical characteristics in complicated environmental conditions. The examples presented in this work confirm the high efficiency of the developed technology for external integrity evaluation of pipelines. (author)

  18. BREEDING AND GENETICS SYMPOSIUM:Breeding heat tolerant dairy cattle: the case for introgression of the "slick" prolactin receptor variant into dairy breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S R; Spelman, R J; Littlejohn, M D

    2017-04-01

    Increasing environmental temperatures are a threat to the sustainability of livestock production and, because of the high metabolic demands of lactation, to dairy production in particular. Summer heat waves in temperate climates reduce feed intake, milk production, and cow comfort. In extreme heat events, there is an increase in cow mortality. In tropical climates, dairy cattle are mostly (zebu) type or zebu crossbred with temperate dairy breeds. Crossbreeding is undertaken to combine the heat tolerance and tick resistance of zebu with the productivity of temperate dairy breeds. In the absence of improved heat tolerance, milk production and fertility of temperate cattle is severely impaired. We have recently identified a key role for the prolactin pathway in regulating heat tolerance. A de novo mutation in prolactin that impairs prolactin activity was discovered in hairy and heat intolerant, New Zealand dairy cattle. The phenotypes produced were remarkably similar to those seen in fescue toxicosis, a syndrome seen in grazing cattle in the U.S. where ingestion of ergovaline, a fungal toxin from infected pasture, inhibits prolactin secretion. Recognition of the role of prolactin in hairy cattle led us to identify a deletion in exon 10 of the long-form of the prolactin receptor in Senepol cattle that causes truncation of the protein and determines the slick coat and heat tolerance traits found in this , beef breed. The short form of the prolactin receptor is predicted to be unaffected by the deletion. Knowledge of this dominant mutation has provided the impetus to begin a crossbreeding program to investigate performance and heat tolerance of temperate dairy cattle carrying the slick, prolactin receptor variant. The perceived opportunity is to introgress this variant into temperate dairy cattle to enable performance and welfare improvement in hot climates. Heat tolerance of cattle with slick coats appears to be mostly associated with coat type although sweating ability

  19. The fixity of prostate seed implants: The impact of the strand surface on its ability to migrate inside oil and gel medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teye-Mensah, Randy; Abdalla, Ibrahim; Dong, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive seed implants are widely used to treat cancer patients, most commonly those with prostate cancer. However, the seeds have a tendency to migrate after placement in patients, a phenomenon that can result in unfavorable outcomes. The ability of the seed strand to migrate was investigated by examining the impact of the strand surface on the velocity of its movement inside oil and gel media. We investigated the motion of smooth surface strands and strands with different grooved helical profiles after they were placed in oil and gel media. Three patterns of grooved helices were studied (60, 140, and 300 rotations per meter). The movement of the strands through a tube filled with the medium was recorded by the motion sensor, and the drag forces on the individual strands were calculated and compared for the oil and gel media. The strands with 60, 140, and 300 rotations/meter grooved helical surfaces demonstrated less mobility in both oil and gel than the strands with a smooth surface. The strand with the highest number of helical grooves per meter recorded the largest drag force and moved more slowly in both media. The differential in the motion of the smooth strand and the strands with grooved surfaces can be attributed to the increased surface area of the grooved strands. This finding is significant since it will impact, theoretically, the design, and thus the migration of seed implants that are used to treat cancer patients, particularly those with prostate cancer. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Irradiation of Oil / Water Biphasic Systems: the Importance of Interfacial Surface Area on the Production of Hydrogen and Other Deleterious Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causey, Patrick-W.; Stuart, Craig-R.

    2012-09-01

    -water interfacial surface area, control of headspace gas composition, and removal of sample aliquots. Results highlight the importance of interfacial surface area in affecting the radiolytic degradation of the studied hydrocarbons. In particular, experiments having higher oil-water interfacial surface areas generate greater quantities of oil degradation products as compared with lower surface area samples. As expected, one notable result from these irradiations was the formation of significant quantities of hydrogen, which was found to be dependent on the interfacial surface area. Presented here is a review of the radiolytic degradation of insoluble organic material in aqueous systems, a summary of experimental results focusing on biphasic systems and a description of a strategy to mitigate the effects of insoluble organic material ingress and to aid in developing station-appropriate responses. (authors)

  1. Carboxymethylated lignins with low surface tension toward low viscosity and highly stable emulsions of crude bitumen and refined oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Ogunkoya, Dolanimi; Fang, Tiegang; Willoughby, Julie; Rojas, Orlando J

    2016-11-15

    Kraft and organosolv lignins were subjected to carboxymethylation to produce fractions that were soluble in water, displayed a minimum surface tension as low as 34mN/m (25°C) and a critical aggregation concentration of ∼1.5wt%. The carboxymethylated lignins (CML), which were characterized in terms of their degree of substitution ((31)P NMR), elemental composition, and molecular weight (GPC), were found suitable in the formulation of emulsions with bitumens of ultra-high viscosity, such as those from the Canadian oil sands. Remarkably, the interfacial features of the CML enabled fuel emulsions that were synthesized in a very broad range of internal phase content (30-70%). Cryo-replica transmission electron microscopy, which was used here the first time to assess the morphology of the lignin-based emulsions, revealed the droplets of the emulsion stabilized with the modified lignin. The observed drop size (diametersoil) that enabled operation of a fuel engine. A significant finding is that under certain conditions and compared to the respective pure fuel, combustion of the O/W emulsions stabilized by CML presented lower NOx and CO emissions and maintained a relatively high combustion efficiency. The results highlight the possibilities in high volume application for lignin biomacromolecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Response surface methodology optimization of lipase catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yingxia; Wang, Yun; Guan, Xiu Li; Yu, Dong Dong

    2013-01-01

    The immobilized lipase-catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil and methanol for biodiesel production in tert-butanol was investigated. The effects of different tert-butanol volume, methanol molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time and immobilized lipase amount on the total conversion were systematically analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM). RSM analysis showed good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. The optimal conditions for the transesterification were a reaction time of 17.355 h, a reaction temperature of 34.868 °C, an immobilized lipase amount of 12.435 %, a methanol molar ratio of 5.282:1, a tert-butanol volume ratio of 0.577:1. The optimal predicted yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was 88.5 % and the actual value was 88.1 %. The predicted yield of fatty acid esters and the real one was very close, indicating that the RSM based on central composite design (CCD) was adaptable for a FAME study for the present transesterification system. Moreover, the infrared spectrum of biodiesel showed the characteristic bands of C=O, O–C–O, C=C and –(CH 2 )n–. Furthermore, GC-linked mass spectrometry showed that biodiesel was mainly composed of the methyl esters of hexadecanoic, 9,12-octadecadienoic and 9-octadecadienoic acid

  3. Statistical Optimization for Biobutanol Production by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from Oil Palm Frond (OPF Juice Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Nasrah Nur Syazana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between incubation temperature, yeast extract concentration and inoculum size was investigated to optimize critical environmental parameters for production of biobutanol from oil palm frond (OPF juice by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 using response surface methodology (RSM. A central composite design (CCD was applied as the experimental design and a polynomial regression model with quadratic term was used to analyse the experimental data using analysis of variance (ANOVA. ANOVA analysis showed that the model was very significant (p < 0.0001 for the biobutanol production. The incubation temperature, yeast extract concentration and inoculum size showed significant value at p < 0.005. The results of optimization process showed that a maximum biobutanol production was obtained under the condition of temperature 37 °C, yeast extract concentration 5.5 g/L and inoculum size 10%. Under these optimized conditions, the highest biobutanol yield was 0.3054 g/g after 144 hours of incubation period. The model was validated by applying the optimized conditions and 0.2992 g/g biobutanol yield was obtained. These experimental findings were in close agreement with the model prediction, with a difference of only 9.76%.

  4. Shifts in microbial community structure and function in surface waters impacted by unconventional oil and gas wastewater revealed by metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenfeld, N.L.; Reyes, Hannah Delos; Eramo, Alessia; Akob, Denise M.; Mumford, Adam; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2017-01-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) production produces large quantities of wastewater with complex geochemistry and largely uncharacterized impacts on surface waters. In this study, we assessed shifts in microbial community structure and function in sediments and waters upstream and downstream from a UOG wastewater disposal facility. To do this, quantitative PCR for 16S rRNA and antibiotic resistance genes along with metagenomic sequencing were performed. Elevated conductivity and markers of UOG wastewater characterized sites sampled downstream from the disposal facility compared to background sites. Shifts in overall high level functions and microbial community structure were observed between background sites and downstream sediments. Increases in Deltaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia and decreases in Thaumarchaeota were observed at downstream sites. Genes related to dormancy and sporulation and methanogenic respiration were 18–86 times higher at downstream, impacted sites. The potential for these sediments to serve as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance was investigated given frequent reports of the use of biocides to control the growth of nuisance bacteria in UOG operations. A shift in resistance profiles downstream of the UOG facility was observed including increases in acrB and mexB genes encoding for multidrug efflux pumps, but not overall abundance of resistance genes. The observed shifts in microbial community structure and potential function indicate changes in respiration, nutrient cycling, and markers of stress in a stream impacted by UOG waste disposal operations.

  5. Optimisation of Copper Oxide Impregnation on Carbonised Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch for Nitric Oxide Removal using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Norhidayah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB was successfully modified with phosphoric acid hydration followed by impregnation with copper oxide (CuO to synthesize CuO modified catalytic carbon (CuO/EFBC for low-temperature removal of nitric oxide (NO from gas streams. CuO impregnation was optimised through response surface methodology (RSM using Box-Behnken Design (BBD in terms of metal loading (5-20%, sintering temperature (200-800˚C and sintering time (2-6 hours. The model response for the variables was NO adsorption capacity, which was obtained from an up-flow column adsorption experiment with 100 mL/min flow of 500 ppm NO/He at different operating conditions. The optimum operating variables suggested by the model were 20% metal loading, 200˚C sintering temperature and 6 hours sintering time. A good agreement (R2 = 0.9625 was achieved between the experimental data and model prediction. ANOVA analysis indicated that the model terms (metal loading and sintering temperature are significant (Prob.>F less than 0.05.

  6. Optimisation of Copper Oxide Impregnation on Carbonised Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch for Nitric Oxide Removal using Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Norhidayah; Yong, Sing Hung; Ibrahim, Naimah; Ali, Umi Fazara Md; Ridwan, Fahmi Muhammad; Ahmad, Razi

    2018-03-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was successfully modified with phosphoric acid hydration followed by impregnation with copper oxide (CuO) to synthesize CuO modified catalytic carbon (CuO/EFBC) for low-temperature removal of nitric oxide (NO) from gas streams. CuO impregnation was optimised through response surface methodology (RSM) using Box-Behnken Design (BBD) in terms of metal loading (5-20%), sintering temperature (200-800˚C) and sintering time (2-6 hours). The model response for the variables was NO adsorption capacity, which was obtained from an up-flow column adsorption experiment with 100 mL/min flow of 500 ppm NO/He at different operating conditions. The optimum operating variables suggested by the model were 20% metal loading, 200˚C sintering temperature and 6 hours sintering time. A good agreement (R2 = 0.9625) was achieved between the experimental data and model prediction. ANOVA analysis indicated that the model terms (metal loading and sintering temperature) are significant (Prob.>F less than 0.05).

  7. Nutrient optimization of polyhydroxyalkanoate production from palm oil fiber by Ralstonia eutropha TISTR 1095 using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyarat Boonsawang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA is polyesters formed in several bacteria as a carbon or energy storage under some nutrientlimitation. Ralstonia eutropha has potential to produce PHA from various substrates, including carboxylic acids. In this research,the nutrient optimum to produce PHA from carboxylic acid was studied by using response surface methodology. Thecarboxylic acids were produced by anaerobic palm oil fiber fermentation for 7 days. Then Ralstonia eutropha TISTR 1095was cultured in fermented broth containing 840 mg/l of acids. The interaction of two factors at the same time was investigated.The effects of propionic acid, butyric acid, (NH42SO4 and K2HPO4 addition were examined. The result showed that the nutrient optimum for PHA production was fermented broth with nutrient addition (2.50 g/l propionic acid, 6.53 g/l butyric acid,1.53 g/l, (NH42SO4 and 0.03 g/l K2HPO4. The cell concentration, PHA concentration, and PHA content were 1.53 g/l, 0.70 g/l and 46.5%, respectively

  8. Expansion of oil palm and other cash crops causes an increase of the land surface temperature in the Jambi province in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabajo, Clifton R.; le Maire, Guerric; June, Tania; Meijide, Ana; Roupsard, Olivier; Knohl, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    Indonesia is currently one of the regions with the highest transformation rate of land surface worldwide related to the expansion of oil palm plantations and other cash crops replacing forests on large scales. Land cover changes, which modify land surface properties, have a direct effect on the land surface temperature (LST), a key driver for many ecological functions. Despite the large historic land transformation in Indonesia toward oil palm and other cash crops and governmental plans for future expansion, this is the first study so far to quantify the impacts of land transformation on the LST in Indonesia. We analyze LST from the thermal band of a Landsat image and produce a high-resolution surface temperature map (30 m) for the lowlands of the Jambi province in Sumatra (Indonesia), a region which suffered large land transformation towards oil palm and other cash crops over the past decades. The comparison of LST, albedo, normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) and evapotranspiration (ET) between seven different land cover types (forest, urban areas, clear-cut land, young and mature oil palm plantations, acacia and rubber plantations) shows that forests have lower surface temperatures than the other land cover types, indicating a local warming effect after forest conversion. LST differences were up to 10.1 ± 2.6 °C (mean ± SD) between forest and clear-cut land. The differences in surface temperatures are explained by an evaporative cooling effect, which offsets the albedo warming effect. Our analysis of the LST trend of the past 16 years based on MODIS data shows that the average daytime surface temperature in the Jambi province increased by 1.05 °C, which followed the trend of observed land cover changes and exceeded the effects of climate warming. This study provides evidence that the expansion of oil palm plantations and other cash crops leads to changes in biophysical variables, warming the land surface and thus enhancing the increase of the air

  9. Expansion of oil palm and other cash crops causes an increase of the land surface temperature in the Jambi province in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Sabajo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is currently one of the regions with the highest transformation rate of land surface worldwide related to the expansion of oil palm plantations and other cash crops replacing forests on large scales. Land cover changes, which modify land surface properties, have a direct effect on the land surface temperature (LST, a key driver for many ecological functions. Despite the large historic land transformation in Indonesia toward oil palm and other cash crops and governmental plans for future expansion, this is the first study so far to quantify the impacts of land transformation on the LST in Indonesia. We analyze LST from the thermal band of a Landsat image and produce a high-resolution surface temperature map (30 m for the lowlands of the Jambi province in Sumatra (Indonesia, a region which suffered large land transformation towards oil palm and other cash crops over the past decades. The comparison of LST, albedo, normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI and evapotranspiration (ET between seven different land cover types (forest, urban areas, clear-cut land, young and mature oil palm plantations, acacia and rubber plantations shows that forests have lower surface temperatures than the other land cover types, indicating a local warming effect after forest conversion. LST differences were up to 10.1 ± 2.6 °C (mean ± SD between forest and clear-cut land. The differences in surface temperatures are explained by an evaporative cooling effect, which offsets the albedo warming effect. Our analysis of the LST trend of the past 16 years based on MODIS data shows that the average daytime surface temperature in the Jambi province increased by 1.05 °C, which followed the trend of observed land cover changes and exceeded the effects of climate warming. This study provides evidence that the expansion of oil palm plantations and other cash crops leads to changes in biophysical variables, warming the land surface and thus

  10. Optimization of Crude Oil and PAHs Degradation by Stenotrophomonas rhizophila KX082814 Strain through Response Surface Methodology Using Box-Behnken Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virupakshappa, Praveen Kumar Siddalingappa; Mishra, Gaurav; Mehkri, Mohammed Ameenuddin

    2016-01-01

    The present paper describes the process optimization study for crude oil degradation which is a continuation of our earlier work on hydrocarbon degradation study of the isolate Stenotrophomonas rhizophila (PM-1) with GenBank accession number KX082814. Response Surface Methodology with Box-Behnken Design was used to optimize the process wherein temperature, pH, salinity, and inoculum size (at three levels) were used as independent variables and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon, Biological Oxygen Demand, and Chemical Oxygen Demand of crude oil and PAHs as dependent variables (response). The statistical analysis, via ANOVA, showed coefficient of determination R 2 as 0.7678 with statistically significant P value 0.0163 fitting in second-order quadratic regression model for crude oil removal. The predicted optimum parameters, namely, temperature, pH, salinity, and inoculum size, were found to be 32.5°C, 9, 12.5, and 12.5 mL, respectively. At this optimum condition, the observed and predicted PAHs and crude oil removal were found to be 71.82% and 79.53% in validation experiments, respectively. The % TPH results correlate with GC/MS studies, BOD, COD, and TPC. The validation of numerical optimization was done through GC/MS studies and % removal of crude oil. PMID:28116165

  11. Modelling fate and effects of toxicologically relevant hydrocarbon fractions following hypothetical oil spills in a marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St-Amand, A.; Mazzocco, P.; Stephenson, M.

    2009-01-01

    Numerical oil spill models have generally focused on the transport and fate of oil following a spill through processes such as advection, evaporation, spreading dissolution, dispersion, emulsification, biodegradation and sedimentation. These models provide information regarding the trajectory, location and size of the oil slick, as well as the location where the slick will touch shorelines. The models normally treat the spilled hydrocarbon as a single product or group of representative compounds which is not very useful in evaluating toxicological risks to aquatic biota. For that reason, Stantec developed a model that simultaneously evaluates the likely fate and co-toxicity of toxicologically relevant hydrocarbon compounds and fractions in water following an oil spill in a marine environment. Compounds currently considered in the model include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, BTEX compounds, (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes) and the Canada-Wide Standard hydrocarbon fractions. The fate of these hydrocarbons in the marine environment was simulated using a mass-balance compartment approach in which specific states of the oil and relevant environmental media were considered. At each time step following the hydrocarbon release, the model updated physical properties such as the density and viscosity of the spilled mixtures. When predicting the fate of the mixture, environmental conditions such as wind speed and wave height were taken into account to determine whether droplets of the spilled product remained entrained in the water column or if they resurfaced and possibly emulsified. Two hypothetical spill scenarios were investigated based on assumed spill volumes, assumed product compositions representing a distilled product and crude oil, and assumed environmental and meteorological conditions. The key outputs of the model were the dissolved concentrations of toxicologically relevant hydrocarbon compounds and fractions in the water

  12. Modeling oil spills in the Med-Sea as a mean of early response in cases of oil leakages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodiatis, George; De Dominicis, Michela; Perivoliotis, Leonidas; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Lardner, Robin; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni; Soloviev, Dmitry; Tintore, Joaquin; Sotillo, Marcos; Drago, Aldo; Stylianou, Stavros; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Alves, Tiago; Kokinou, Eleni

    2016-04-01

    Modeling oil spills in the Med-Sea as a mean of early response in cases of oil leakages G. Zodiatis1, M. De Dominicis2, L. Perivoliotis3, H. Radhakrishnan1, R. W. Lardner1, N. Pinardi2, G. Coppini4, D. Soloviev1, J. Tintore5, M. Sotillo6 A. Drago7, S. Stylianou1, A. Nikolaidis1, T. Alves8, E. Kokinou9 and MEDESS4MS partners 1Oceanography Centre, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus 2Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna, Italy 3Hellenic Center for Marine Research, Athens, Greece 4Centro Euro- Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici, Italy 5SOCIB, IMEDEA, Palma de Majorca, Spain 6Puertos del Estado, Madrid, Spain 7IOI, University of Malta, La Valetta, Malta 83D Seismic Lab, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom 9Dept. of Environmental and Natural Resources, Technological Educational Institute Crete, Chania, Greece The risk from oil spill pollution in the Mediterranean is high due to the heavy traffic of merchant vessels for transporting oil and to the increasing coastal and offshore platforms related to the hydrocarbon exploration. This is especially true in the Levantine Basin following the recent widening of the Suez canal and the increase of the offshore deep wells for the exploitation of oil and gas. In order to select the optimal response measurements to assist the response agencies, oil spill models are used to provide predictions of the drift and weathering of the oil slicks. The establishment of the operational ocean forecasting systems at regional level, within the Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Service and in association with the national downscaled ones, provided the background for the implementation of a multi model integrated oil spill prediction system for the entire Mediterranean to support the maritime safety in near real time. This implementation was carried out in the frame of the medess4ms.eu project, which is dedicated to the response agencies of the riparian countries and to

  13. Unidirectional spreading of oil under solid ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerasuriya, S.A.; Yapa, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Equations are presented to describe the unidirectional spreading of oil under solid ice covers floating in calm water. These spreading equations are derived using a simplified form of the Navier-Stokes equations, and cover both the constant discharge and the constant volume modes. An equation for computing final slick length is also given. Laboratory experiments using physical models were conducted to verify the equations. The experiments used oils of different viscosities, ice cover roughnesses varying from smooth to rough, and a variety of discharge conditions. The emphasis of the study was on the dominant spreading mechanism for oil under ice, which is the buoyancy-viscous phase. The laboratory results agree closely with the theoretical predictions. Discrepancies can be attributed to the experimental difficulties and errors introduced from the assumptions made in deriving the theory. The equations presented will be useful in computing spreading rate during an accidental oil spill or in contingency planning. The equations are simple to use, suitable for hand calculations or for incorporation into numerical models for oil spill simulation. 24 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  14. Geochemical modeling research related to the surface disposal of processed oil shale solid waste. [Elements and compounds in oil shale wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, K. J.; Drever, J. I.

    1987-10-01

    Several geochemical codes are available in the literature to model chemical processes such as oxidation-reduction, precipitation-dissolution, formation of solution complex, adsorption, and ion exchange. However, these models differ in the environments to which they apply. The objective of this research was to evaluate the applicability of existing geochemical codes to predict water quality from an oil shale solid waste environment. We selected EQ3/EQ6, GEOCHEM, MINTEQ, PHREEQE, SOLMNEQ, and WATEQFC geochemical models for further evaluation. We concluded that all these models lack thermodynamic data for minerals and solution complexes which are important for oil shale solid waste studies. Selection of any one of the models would require development of a more reliable thermodynamic database, and this report describes the initiation of that work. So far, critical evaluation of thermodynamic data has been completed for Sr, F, Mo, and Se. 64 refs., 15 tabs.

  15. Effect of ultrasound on olive oil extraction and optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of extra virgin olive oil by response surface methodology (RSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydar, A.Y.; Bağdatlıoğlu, N.; Köseoğlu, O.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effects of different extraction parameters including ultrasound time, temperature and malaxation time on olive oil quality were investigated. The extraction variables ultrasound initial temperature (20–50 °C), ultrasound time (2–10 min) and malaxation time (30–50 min) were studied to obtain ideal conditions of ultrasonic treatment on the olive paste for obtaining of a greater yield in the extraction of oil, while maintaining a maximum level of commercial quality. To evaluate the level of commercial quality, absorbance in the UV region, peroxide (PV) and free acidity values (AV), the total chlorophyll, carotenoid, phenol contents, total antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of EVOOs extracted from Edremit cultivar were determined. The optimum conditions were found to be 50 °C, 2 min and 43.23 min for ultrasound initial temperature, sonication time and malaxation time, respectively. This optimal condition gave an extraction yield of 8.25 % and the acidity value of 0.24 mg oleic acid/100 g olive oil. The experimental values obtained under optimal conditions were in agreement with the theoretical values [es

  16. Fingerprinting petroleum hydrocarbons in plankton and surface sediments during the spring and early summer blooms in the Galician coast (NW Spain) after the Prestige oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, N; Ortiz, L; Gilcoto, M; Varela, M; Bayona, J M; Groom, S; Alvarez-Salgado, X A; Albaigés, J

    2006-12-01

    Plankton samples (20-350 microm and >350 microm) collected at three transects along the Galician coast (NW Spain) were analysed for individual aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons by GC-MS. Sample collection was performed in April-July 2003, after the Prestige oil spill (November 2002), to determine whether the hydrocarbons released into the water column as a consequence of the spill were accumulated by the planktonic communities during the subsequent spring and early summer blooms. Surface sediments were also collected to assess the presence of the spilled oil, removed from the water column by downward particle transport. Plankton concentrations of PAHs (Sigma14 parent components) were in the range of 25-898 ng g(-1)dw, the highest values being close to coastal urban areas. However, the individual distributions were highly dominated by alkyl naphthalenes and phenanthrenes, paralleling those in the water dissolved fraction. The detailed study of petrogenic molecular markers (e.g. steranes and triterpanes, and methyl phenanthrenes and dibenzothiophenes) showed the occurrence of background petrogenic pollution but not related with the Prestige oil, with the possible exception of the station off Costa da Morte in May 2003, heavily oiled after the accident. The dominant northerly wind conditions during the spring and early summer 2003, which prevented the arrival of fresh oil spilled from the wreck, together with the heavy nature of the fuel oil, which was barely dispersed in seawater, and the large variability of planktonic cycles, could be the factors hiding the acute accumulation of the spilled hydrocarbons. Then, with the above exception, the concentrations of PAHs found in the collected samples, mostly deriving from chronic pollution, can be considered as the reference values for the region.

  17. Assessment of sediment hydrocarbon contamination from the 2009 Montara oil blow out in the Timor Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kathryn A; Jones, Ross

    2016-04-01

    In August 2009, a blowout of the Montara H1 well 260 km off the northwest coast of Australia resulted in the uncontrolled release of about 4.7 M L of light crude oil and gaseous hydrocarbons into the Timor Sea. Over the 74 day period of the spill, the oil remained offshore and did not result in shoreline incidents on the Australia mainland. At various times slicks were sighted over a 90,000 km(2) area, forming a layer of oil which was tracked by airplanes and satellites but the slicks typically remained within 35 km of the well head platform and were treated with 183,000 L of dispersants. The shelf area where the spill occurred is shallow (100-200 m) and includes off shore emergent reefs and cays and submerged banks and shoals. This study describes the increased inputs of oil to the system and assesses the environmental impact. Concentrations of hydrocarbon in the sediment at the time of survey were very low (total aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranged from 0.04 to 31 ng g(-1)) and were orders of magnitude lower than concentrations at which biological effects would be expected. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Results from oil spill response research - an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennyson, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    Recent large oil spills from tankers have reaffirmed the need for continuing technology assessment and research to improve oil spill response capabilities. This paper discusses Minerals Management Service concerns, as reinforced by the acceleration of its research program in 1990. It briefly assesses current state-of-the-art technology for major aspects of spill response, including remote sensing, open-ocean containment and recovery, in-situ burning, use of chemical treating agents, beachline cleanup, and oil behavior. Specific research projects have begun to yield information that will improve detection and at-sea equipment performance; current projects include the development of an airborne laser-fluorosensor to determine whether apparent slicks contain oil. Additional projects involve the development of improved strategies for responding to oil in broken-ice conditions, for gaining an improved understanding of the fate and behavior of spilled oil as it affects response strategies, and for defining the capabilities of available dispersants and development of improved formulations. Recently, progress has been made on the development of safe and environmentally acceptable strategies to burn spilled oil in situ. The Ohmsett facility has been reopened and will be used to test prospective improvements in chemical treating agents and to develop standard procedures for testing and evaluating response equipment. Results of research published since the last Oil Spill Conference are discussed

  19. Influence of surface properties of filtration-layer metal oxide on ceramic membrane fouling during ultrafiltration of oil/water emulsion

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Dongwei

    2016-04-01

    In this work, ceramic ultrafiltration membranes deposited with different metal oxides (i.e., TiO2, Fe2O3, MnO2, CuO, and CeO2) of around 10 nm in thickness and similar roughness were tested for O/W emulsion treatment. Distinct membrane fouling tendency was observed, which closely correlated to the properties of the filtration-layer metal oxides (i.e. surface hydroxyl groups, hydrophilicity, surface charge, and adhesion energy for oil droplets). In consistent with the distinct bond strength of the surface hydroxyl groups, hydrophilicity of these common metal oxides are quite different. The differences in hydrophilicity consequently lead to different adhesion of these metal oxides towards oil droplets which consists very well with irreversible membrane fouling tendency. In addition, the surface charge of the metal oxide opposite to that of emulsion can help to alleviate irreversible membrane fouling in ultrafiltration. Highly hydrophilic Fe2O3 with lowest fouling tendency could be a potential filtration-layer material for the fabrication/modification of ceramic membranes for O/W emulsion treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study clearly showing the correlations between surface properties of filtration-layer metal oxides and ceramic membrane fouling tendency by O/W emulsion.

  20. Toxicity of weathered Deepwater Horizon oil to bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Kathryn A; Forth, Heather; Takeshita, Ryan; Chesney, Edward J

    2018-02-01

    The BP-contracted Deepwater Horizon Macondo well blowout occurred on 20 April 2010 and lasted nearly three months. The well released millions of barrels of crude oil into the northern Gulf of Mexico, causing extensive impacts on pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species. The bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli) is an important zooplanktivore in the Gulf, serving as an ecological link between lower trophic levels and pelagic predatory fish species. Bay anchovy spawn from May through November in shallow inshore and estuarine waters throughout the Gulf. Because their buoyant embryos are a dominant part of the inshore ichthyoplankton throughout the summer, it is likely bay anchovy embryos encountered oil in coastal estuaries during the summer and fall of 2010. Bay anchovy embryos were exposed to a range of concentrations of two field-collected Deepwater Horizon oils as high-energy and low-energy water accommodated fractions (HEWAFs and LEWAFs, respectively) for 48h. The median lethal concentrations (LC 50 ) were lower in exposures with the more weathered oil (HEWAF, 1.48µg/L TPAH50; LEWAF, 1.58µg/L TPAH50) compared to the less weathered oil (HEWAF, 3.87µg/L TPAH50; LEWAF, 4.28µg/L TPAH50). To measure delayed mortality and life stage sensitivity between embryos and larvae, an additional 24h acute HEWAF exposure using the more weathered oil was run followed by a 24h grow-out period. Here the LC 50 was 9.71µg/L TPAH50 after the grow-out phase, suggesting a toxic effect of oil at the embryonic or hatching stage. We also found that exposures prepared with the more weathered Slick B oil produced lower LC 50 values compared to the exposures prepared with Slick A oil. Our results demonstrate that even relatively acute environmental exposure times can have a detrimental effect on bay anchovy embryos. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of Water-Oil Emulsion Breaking by Stabilized Solution Consisting of Anionic Surface Acting Agent - Soda Ash - Polymer (ASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulichkov, S. V.; Avtomonov, E. G.; Andreeva, L. V.; Solomennik, S. F.; Nikitina, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    The paper provides a laboratory research of breaking natural water-oil emulsions: - by non-stabilized ASP; by stabilized ASP; by mixture of stabilized and non-stabilized ASP in different proportions and production of refinery water of the required quality with the use of IronGuard 2495 as flocculant. Oil-in-water emulsion is stable. Classic methods are not suitable for residual water treatment: sediment gravity flow; filtration; centrifuge test. Microemulsion formed after ASP application has low boundary tension and high pH. It contributes to transfer of oil phase into a water one, forming oil-in-water emulsion. Alkaline condition has adverse effect on demulsifying ability of agents, flocculation and boundary tension. For breaking of water-oil emulsion at EBU before the interchanger water or water-oil emulsion from the wells that were not APS-treated in ratio of 1:9 shall be delivered. Residual water after EBU must be prepared in water tanks by dilution in great volume.

  2. Accumulation and interparticle connections of triangular Ag-coated Au nanoprisms by oil-coating method for surface-enhanced Raman scattering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yuta; Asaka, Toru; Fudouzi, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Tomokatsu

    2018-03-01

    To examine the optical responses of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for tuned plasmonic nanoparticles, triangular Ag-coated Au (Au@Ag) nanoprisms with different sizes were separately synthesized, which were well controlled in their size (edge-length) and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelength (69.0 ± 8.4 to 173.8 ± 25.6 nm in size and 662-943 nm in LSPR wavelength). The mechanism of Ag shell formation on the Au nanoprisms was also studied with scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS). The Au@Ag nanoprisms were immobilized by covering a colloidal solution containing the nanoprisms with silicone oil and evaporating the solvent in the oil (oil-coating method) so as to form a layer of accumulated plasmonic Au@Ag nanoprisms that had LSPR peak wavelengths tuned from 839 to 1182 nm. The accumulation conditions were analyzed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and a Raman mapping technique. The Au@Ag nanoprisms under excitation at 632.8 nm exhibited higher SERS signals of rhodamine 6G, and SERS-mapped images of the novel immobilized films were obtained at different magnifications. It was concluded that accumulated Au@Ag nanoprisms undergoing tip-planar interconnections could produce enhanced local fields, resulting in higher SERS signals.

  3. Modeling and experimental study of oil/water contact angle on biomimetic micro-parallel-patterned self-cleaning surfaces of selected alloys used in water industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickelsen, Simin; Moghadam, Afsaneh Dorri, E-mail: afsaneh@uwm.edu; Ferguson, J.B.; Rohatgi, Pradeep

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Wetting behavior of four metallic materials as a function of surface roughness has been studied. • A model to predict the abrasive particle size and water/oil contact angles relationship is proposed. • Active wetting regime is determined in different materials using the proposed model. - Abstract: In the present study, the wetting behavior of surfaces of various common metallic materials used in the water industry including C84400 brass, commercially pure aluminum (99.0% pure), Nickle–Molybdenum alloy (Hastelloy C22), and 316 Stainless Steel prepared by mechanical abrasion and contact angles of several materials after mechanical abrasion were measured. A model to estimate roughness factor, R{sub f}, and fraction of solid/oil interface, ƒ{sub so}, for surfaces prepared by mechanical abrasion is proposed based on the assumption that abrasive particles acting on a metallic surface would result in scratches parallel to each other and each scratch would have a semi-round cross-section. The model geometrically describes the relation between sandpaper particle size and water/oil contact angle predicted by both the Wenzel and Cassie–Baxter contact type, which can then be used for comparison with experimental data to find which regime is active. Results show that brass and Hastelloy followed Cassie–Baxter behavior, aluminum followed Wenzel behavior and stainless steel exhibited a transition from Wenzel to Cassie–Baxter. Microstructural studies have also been done to rule out effects beyond the Wenzel and Cassie–Baxter theories such as size of structural details.

  4. Vapor-Liquid Sol-Gel Approach to Fabricating Highly Durable and Robust Superhydrophobic Polydimethylsiloxane@Silica Surface on Polyester Textile for Oil-Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaojing; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Jing; Liao, Xiaofeng; Zeng, Xingrong

    2017-08-23

    Large-scale fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with excellent durability by simple techniques has been of considerable interest for its urgent practical application in oil-water separation in recent years. Herein, we proposed a facile vapor-liquid sol-gel approach to fabricating highly durable and robust superhydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane@silica surfaces on the cross-structure polyester textiles. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that the silica generated from the hydrolysis-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) gradually aggregated at microscale driven by the extreme nonpolar dihydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS(OH)). This led to construction of hierarchical roughness and micronano structures of the superhydrophobic textile surface. The as-fabricated superhydrophobic textile possessed outstanding durability in deionized water, various solvents, strong acid/base solutions, and boiling/ice water. Remarkably, the polyester textile still retained great water repellency and even after ultrasonic treatment for 18 h, 96 laundering cycles, and 600 abrasion cycles, exhibiting excellent mechanical robustness. Importantly, the superhydrophobic polyester textile was further applied for oil-water separation as absorption materials and/or filter pipes, presenting high separation efficiency and great reusability. Our method to construct superhydrophobic textiles is simple but highly efficient; no special equipment, chemicals, or atmosphere is required. Additionally, no fluorinated slianes and organic solvents are involved, which is very beneficial for environment safety and protection. Our findings conceivably stand out as a new tool to fabricate organic-inorganic superhydrophobic surfaces with strong durability and robustness for practical applications in oil spill accidents and industrial sewage emission.

  5. Prediction of oil droplet size distribution in agitated aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelifa, A.; Lee, K.; Hill, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    Oil spilled at sea undergoes many transformations based on physical, biological and chemical processes. Vertical dispersion is the hydrodynamic mechanism controlled by turbulent mixing due to breaking waves, vertical velocity, density gradients and other environmental factors. Spilled oil is dispersed in the water column as small oil droplets. In order to estimate the mass of an oil slick in the water column, it is necessary to know how the droplets formed. Also, the vertical dispersion and fate of oil spilled in aquatic environments can be modelled if the droplet-size distribution of the oil droplets is known. An oil spill remediation strategy can then be implemented. This paper presented a newly developed Monte Carlo model to predict droplet-size distribution due to Brownian motion, turbulence and a differential settling at equilibrium. A kinematic model was integrated into the proposed model to simulate droplet breakage. The key physical input of the model is the maximum droplet size permissible in the simulation. Laboratory studies were found to be in good agreement with field studies. 26 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  6. Oil spill characterization thanks to optical airborne imagery during the NOFO campaign 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallefont-Robinet, F.; Ceamanos, X.; Angelliaume, S.; Miegebielle, V.

    2017-10-01

    One of the objectives of the NAOMI (New Advanced Observation Method Integration) research project, fruit of a partnership between Total and ONERA, is to work on the detection, the quantification and the characterization of offshore hydrocarbon at the sea surface using airborne remote sensing. In this framework, work has been done to characterize the spectral signature of hydrocarbons in lab in order to build a database of oil spectral signatures. The main objective of this database is to provide spectral libraries for data processing algorithms to be applied to airborne VNIRSWIR hyperspectral images. A campaign run by the NOFO institute (Norwegian Clean Seas Association for Operating Companies) took place in 2015 to test anti-pollution equipment. During this campaign, several hydrocarbon products, including an oil emulsion, were released into the sea, off the Norwegian coast. The NOFO team allowed the NAOMI project to acquire data over the resulting oil slicks using the SETHI system, which is an airborne remote sensing imaging system developed by ONERA. SETHI integrates a new generation of optoelectronic and radar payloads and can operate over a wide range of frequency bands. SETHI is a pod-based system operating onboard a Falcon 20 Dassault aircraft, which is owned by AvDEF. For these experiments, imaging sensors were constituted by 2 synthetic aperture radar (SAR), working at X and L bands in a full polarimetric mode (HH, HV, VH, VV) and 2 HySpex hyperspectral cameras working in the VNIR (0,4 to 1 μm) and SWIR (1 to 2,5 μm) spectral ranges. A sample of the oil emulsion that was used during the campaign was sent to our laboratory for analysis. Measurements of its transmission and of its reflectance in the VNIR and SWIR spectral domains have been performed at ONERA with a Perkin Elmer spectroradiometer and a spectrogoniometer. Several samples of the oil emulsion were prepared in order to measure spectral variations according to oil thickness, illumination angle

  7. A comparison RSM and ANN surface roughness models in thin-wall machining of Ti6Al4V using vegetable oils under MQL-condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohruni, Amrifan Saladin; Yanis, Muhammad; Sharif, Safian; Yani, Irsyadi; Yuliwati, Erna; Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi; Shayfull, Zamree

    2017-09-01

    Thin-wall components as usually applied in the structural parts of aeronautical industry require significant challenges in machining. Unacceptable surface roughness can occur during machining of thin-wall. Titanium product such Ti6Al4V is mostly applied to get the appropriate surface texture in thin wall designed requirements. In this study, the comparison of the accuracy between Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) in the prediction of surface roughness was conducted. Furthermore, the machining tests were carried out under Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) using AlCrN-coated carbide tools. The use of Coconut oil as cutting fluids was also chosen in order to evaluate its performance when involved in end milling. This selection of cutting fluids is based on the better performance of oxidative stability than that of other vegetable based cutting fluids. The cutting speed, feed rate, radial and axial depth of cut were used as independent variables, while surface roughness is evaluated as the dependent variable or output. The results showed that the feed rate is the most significant factors in increasing the surface roughness value followed by the radial depth of cut and lastly the axial depth of cut. In contrary, the surface becomes smoother with increasing the cutting speed. From a comparison of both methods, the ANN model delivered a better accuracy than the RSM model.

  8. Wetting Alteration of Solid Surfaces by Crude Oils and Their Asphaltenes Modification de la mouillabilité des surfaces solides par les pétroles bruts et leurs asphaltènes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckley J. S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Crude oils contain a variety of components - including asphaltenes - that can adsorb onto mineral surfaces and alter wetting. What distinguishes the asphaltenes from other constituents of an oil is their tendency to aggregate and even separate from the oil in response to changes in oil solvency. Because they change in size, asphaltenes can be viewed as both macromolecules and colloids. Their influence on wettability can change with this shift from molecular to colloidal regimes. As macromolecules, asphaltenes and other crude oil components with polar functionality can adsorb on mineral surfaces. Many different crude oils have been shown to have similar effects on wetting of dry silicate surfaces. When water is present, however, the results of exposing surfaces to different oils can be quite complex, depending on the distribution of water, the compositions of oil and brine, and mineralogy of rock surfaces. Acid and base numbers and the relationship between them provide a measure of the potential for a particular oil to alter wetting through ionic interactions. As colloids, asphaltenes can alter wetting by an additional mechanism. Near the onset of precipitation, wetting alteration occurs by surface precipitation because of the interfacial aggregation of the colloidal asphaltenes, which can precede flocculation in bulk. The influence of asphaltenes on wetting is thus strongly dependent on the environment in which they are found. Mixture refractive index is a useful measure for quantifying the stability of asphaltenes in a crude oil and thus in differentiating between macromolecular and colloidal contributions of asphaltenes to wetting alteration. Les pétroles bruts contiennent de nombreux constituants - dont les asphaltènes - qui peuvent être adsorbés sur les surfaces minérales et modifier leurs caractéristiques de mouillage. Ce qui distingue les asphaltènes des autres constituants de l'huile est leur tendance à s'agréger et même à se s

  9. PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON, cloud amount/frequency and other data from WECOMA in the Coastal Waters of Western U.S. and NE Pacific from 1989-10-08 to 1989-10-27 (NODC Accession 9200139)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD (depth, temperature, conductivity) data, plus flourescence and light transmission data, collected as part of SLIX (Surface Biological Oil Slick Experiment) by...

  10. Amphiphilic copolymers based on PEG-acrylate as surface active water viscosifiers : Towards new potential systems for enhanced oil recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raffa, Patrizio; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Picchioni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    With the purpose of investigating new potential candidates for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), amphiphilic copolymers based on Poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGA) have been prepared by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP). A P(PEGA) homopolymer, a block copolymer with styrene

  11. Super-Absorbent Polymer Gels for Oil and Grease Removal from Metal and Non-Metal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    morphology, phase transition, and functional groups of the synthesized polymers before the cleaning tests using: Infrared spectrometer ( FTIR ), UV... styrene based imbiber beads in various solvents 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 97.58 96.36 90.78 80.46 80.58 77.32 95.55 90.99 96.62 % oil

  12. Optimization of Pd-B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst preparation for palm oil hydrogenation by response surface methodology (RSM)

    OpenAIRE

    Alshaibani, A. M.; Yaakob, Z.; Alsobaai, A. M.; Sahri, M.

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used to design and evaluate the experimental variables for Pd-B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst preparation. The catalyst was prepared by impregnation and chemical reduction. Thirteen different samples of the catalyst were prepared at different KOH concentrations and annealed at various temperatures, before applying them in palm oil hydrogenation. Hydrogenation was performed on a 0.12% Pd-B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst at a temperature of 393 K, hydrogen pressure of 500 kPa and agitatio...

  13. Optimization of Pd-B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst preparation for palm oil hydrogenation by response surface methodology (RSM)

    OpenAIRE

    Alshaibani,A. M.; Yaakob,Z.; Alsobaai,A. M.; Sahri,M.

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used to design and evaluate the experimental variables for Pd-B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst preparation. The catalyst was prepared by impregnation and chemical reduction. Thirteen different samples of the catalyst were prepared at different KOH concentrations and annealed at various temperatures, before applying them in palm oil hydrogenation. Hydrogenation was performed on a 0.12% Pd-B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst at a temperature of 393 K, hydrogen pressure of 500 kPa an...

  14. Acidolysis of terebinth fruit oil with palmitic and caprylic acids in a recirculating packed bed reactor: optimization using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koçak, D.; Keskin, H.; Fadiloglu, S.; Gögüs, F.

    2016-07-01

    The acidolysis reaction of terebinth fruit oil with caprylic and palmitic acid has been investigated. The reaction was catalyzed by lipase (Lipozyme IM from Rhizomucormiehei) and carried out in recirculating packed bed reactor. The effects of reaction parameters have been analyzed using response surface methodology. Reaction time (3.5–6.5 h), enzyme load (10–20%), substrate flow rate (4–8 mL·min−1 ) and substrate mole ratios (Terebinth oil : Palmitic acid : Caprylic acid, 1:1.83:1.22–1:3.07:2.05) were evaluated. The optimum reaction conditions were 5.9 h reaction time, 10% enzyme load, 4 mL·min−1 substrate flow rate and 1:3.10:2.07 substrate mole ratio. The structured lipid obtained at these optimum conditions had 52.23% desired triacylglycerols and a lower caloric value than that of terebinth fruit oil. The melting characteristics and microstructure of the structured lipid were similar to those of commercial margarine fat extracts. The results showed that the structured lipid had the highest oxidative stability among the studied fats. (Author)

  15. Acidolysis of terebinth fruit oil with palmitic and caprylic acids in a recirculating packed bed reactor: optimization using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koçak, D.; Keskin, H.; Fadiloglu, S.; Gögüs, F.

    2016-01-01

    The acidolysis reaction of terebinth fruit oil with caprylic and palmitic acid has been investigated. The reaction was catalyzed by lipase (Lipozyme IM from Rhizomucormiehei) and carried out in recirculating packed bed reactor. The effects of reaction parameters have been analyzed using response surface methodology. Reaction time (3.5–6.5 h), enzyme load (10–20%), substrate flow rate (4–8 mL·min−1 ) and substrate mole ratios (Terebinth oil : Palmitic acid : Caprylic acid, 1:1.83:1.22–1:3.07:2.05) were evaluated. The optimum reaction conditions were 5.9 h reaction time, 10% enzyme load, 4 mL·min−1 substrate flow rate and 1:3.10:2.07 substrate mole ratio. The structured lipid obtained at these optimum conditions had 52.23% desired triacylglycerols and a lower caloric value than that of terebinth fruit oil. The melting characteristics and microstructure of the structured lipid were similar to those of commercial margarine fat extracts. The results showed that the structured lipid had the highest oxidative stability among the studied fats. (Author)

  16. Optimization of Pd-B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst preparation for palm oil hydrogenation by response surface methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Alshaibani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology was used to design and evaluate the experimental variables for Pd-B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst preparation. The catalyst was prepared by impregnation and chemical reduction. Thirteen different samples of the catalyst were prepared at different KOH concentrations and annealed at various temperatures, before applying them in palm oil hydrogenation. Hydrogenation was performed on a 0.12% Pd-B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst at a temperature of 393 K, hydrogen pressure of 500 kPa and agitation of 500 rpm for 1 h. The iodine value (IV and trans fatty acids (TFAs content responses were measured for each hydrogenated palm oil sample. The predicted models were verified for both responses and found to be statistically adequate. An optimization study was performed on the catalyst preparation variables for minimizing both IV and TFAs content. The Pd-B/γ-Al2O3 prepared under optimized conditions exhibited 47% higher conversion and 22% lower trans-isomerization selectivity than Escat 1241 commercial catalyst. The Pd-B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst preparation variables have a noticeable effect on palm oil hydrogenation conversion and trans-isomerization selectivity.

  17. Response surface methodology based optimization of diesel–n-butanol –cotton oil ternary blend ratios to improve engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmanlı, Alpaslan; Yüksel, Bedri; İleri, Erol; Deniz Karaoglan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • RSM based optimization for optimum blend ratio of diesel fuel, n-butanol and cotton oil was done. • 65.5 vol.% diesel fuel, 23.1 vol.% n-butanol and 11.4 vol.% cotton oil (DnBC) was determined. • DnBC decreased brake torque, brake power, BTE and BMEP, while increased BSFC. • DnBC decreased NO x , CO and HC emissions. - Abstract: Many studies declare that 20% biodiesel is the optimum concentration for biodiesel–diesel fuel blends to improve performance. The present work focuses on finding diesel fuel, n-butanol, and cotton oil optimum blend ratios for diesel engine applications by using the response surface method (RSM). Experimental test fuels were prepared by choosing 7 different concentrations, where phase decomposition did not occur in the phase diagram of −10 °C. Experiments were carried out at full load conditions and the constant speed (2200 rpm) of maximum brake torque to determine engine performance and emission parameters. According to the test results of the engine, optimization was done by using RSM considering engine performance and exhaust emissions parameters, to identify the rates of concentrations of components in the optimum blend of three. Confirmation tests were employed to compare the output values of concentrations that were identified by optimization. The real experiment results and the R 2 actual values that show the relation between the outputs from the optimizations and real experiments were determined in high accordance. The optimum component concentration was determined as 65.5 vol.% diesel, 23.1 vol.% n-butanol and 11.4 vol.% cotton oil (DnBC). According to engine performance tests brake torque, brake power, BTE and BMEP of DnBC decreased while BSFC increased compared to those of diesel fuel. NO x , CO and HC emissions of DnBC drastically decreased as 11.33%, 45.17% and 81.45%, respectively

  18. Observational Data Analysis and Numerical Model Assessment of the Seafloor Interaction and Mobility of Sand and Weathered Oil Agglomerates (Surface Residual Balls) in the Surf Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalyander, S.; Long, J.; Plant, N. G.; Penko, A.; Calantoni, J.; Thompson, D.; Mclaughlin, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    When weathered oil is transported ashore, such as during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, it can mix with suspended sediment in the surf zone to create heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates in the form of mats several centimeters thick and tens of meters long. Broken off pieces of these mats and smaller agglomerates formed in situ (called Surface Residual Balls, SRBs) can cause beach re-oiling months to years after the initial spill. The physical dynamics of these SRBs in the nearshore, where they are larger (cm-scale) and less dense than natural sediment, are poorly understood. In the current study, SRB mobility and seafloor interaction is investigated through a combination of laboratory and field experiments with pseudo-SRBs developed to be physically stable proxies for genuine agglomerates. Formulations for mobility prediction based on comparing estimated shear stress to the critical Shields and modified Shields parameters developed for mixed sediment beds are assessed against observations. Processes such as burial, exhumation, and interaction with bedforms (e.g., migrating ripples) are also explored. The observations suggest that incipient motion estimates based on a modified Shields parameter have some skill in predicting SRB movement, but that other forcing mechanisms such as pressure gradients may be important under some conditions. Additionally, burial and exhumation due to the relatively high mobility of sand grains are confirmed as key processes controlling SRB dynamics in the surf zone. This work has broad implications for understanding surf zone sediment transport at the short timescale associated with mobilizing sand grains and SRBs as well as at the longer timescales associated with net transport patterns, sediment budgets, and bed elevation changes.

  19. Study of long-term spilled Metula oil : degradation and persistence of petroleum biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Fingas, M.; Sigouin, L.

    2000-01-01

    In 1974, the oil tanker 'Metula' carrying 1.42 million barrels of light Arabian crude ran aground in the Strait of Magellan in Chile, spilling about 50,000 tons of light Arabian crude and 2,000 tons of Bunker C fuel, and polluting 250 km of shoreline. Since no attempt was made to recover or treat the slick, the oil was left to weather naturally. Several field surveys of the distribution of the oil have been conducted since the original spill. In this study, a total oil analysis was conducted on oil samples collected during a 1998 field visit. It was shown that the oil has gone through major alteration in chemical composition after 24 years through natural attenuation. The only location with any significant amounts of residual oil was in Punta Espora area where the oil was concentrated in two marsh areas and one in an asphalt pavement on a sheltered beach. The objective of the 1998 field visit was to obtain the latest information on oiling conditions, any changes in stranded oil and vegetative recovery in the area. All samples except those in the East Marsh showed a significant loss of n-alkanes and PAH compounds. The East Marsh showed the least degradation, while the asphalt pavement weathered most heavily. 34 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  20. In situ surface treatment of nanocrystalline MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Co, Mg, Mn, Ni) spinel ferrites using linseed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gherca, Daniel, E-mail: daniel_gherca@yahoo.com [Faculty of Chemistry, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University from Iasi, Bd. Carol I nr 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Cornei, Nicoleta [Faculty of Chemistry, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University from Iasi, Bd. Carol I nr 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Mentré, Olivier; Kabbour, Houria; Daviero-Minaud, Sylvie [Université Lille Nord de France, CNRS UMR8181, Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS ENSCL/USTL, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Pui, Aurel, E-mail: aurel@uaic.ro [Faculty of Chemistry, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University from Iasi, Bd. Carol I nr 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania)

    2013-12-15

    This paper reports the synthesis by coprecipitation method of MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles using linseed oil as the in-situ surfactant. The decomposition process of the precursors and the formation process of MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). The crystal structure and surface morphology were examined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The results demonstrate that the surface of MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with a diameter in the range 5–13 nm, is activated with hydrophilic groups of the surfactant which coat them and enhance the stability. Magnetic properties are discussed.

  1. Evaluation of energy efficiency options in steam assisted gravity drainage oil sands surface facilities via process integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreon, Carlos E.; Mahmoudkhani, Maryam; Alva-Argaez, Alberto; Bergerson, Joule

    2015-01-01

    While new technologies are being developed for extracting unconventional oil, in the near term economic benefits and footprint reduction can be achieved by enhancing the energy efficiency of existing facilities. The objective of this work is to evaluate energy efficiency opportunities for in situ extraction of Canada's oil sands resource using pinch analysis. Modifications to an original plant design are analyzed in order to estimate utility savings beyond those obtained for the initial process configuration. The modifications explored in this paper are estimated to deliver energy savings of up to 6% beyond ‘business as usual’. This corresponds to GHG emissions reduction of approximately 5%. However, in some cases, this increase in energy savings comes at the cost of increasing demand for make-up water and volume of disposal water. Surplus generation of steam beyond heating requirements in the water treatment system leads to energy inefficiencies. Additional cost and energy savings are obtained by reducing or eliminating the use of glycol in the cooling circuit. - Highlights: • Pinch analysis performed for unconventional oil recovery process to identify inefficiencies. • Both the removal of pinch violations and process modifications lead to savings. • Effect of energy savings on water consumption for the process is considered. • Greenhouse gas emissions reduction and economic benefit are estimated for the studied cases

  2. Artificial weathering of oils by rotary evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieldhouse, B.; Hollebone, B.P.; Singh, N.R.; Tong, T.S.; Mullin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil weathering has a considerable affect on the behaviour, impact and ultimate fate of an oil spill. As such, efforts have been made to study weathering as a whole using bench-scale procedures. The studies are generally divided into individual processes where the effect of other major processes are introduce as an amended sample input rather than a concurrent process. The weathering process that has the greatest effect immediately following an oil spill is evaporation, particularly for lighter oils. The rotary evaporator apparatus offers a convenient means of producing artificially weathered oil for laboratory studies. This paper reported on a study that examined the representativeness of samples obtained by this method compared to pan evaporation and the impact of changes to the apparatus or method parameters on sample chemistry. Experiments were performed on Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend no. 5 in a rotary evaporator under varying conditions of temperature and air flow at ambient pressure using 2 apparatus. The rate of mass loss increased with temperature and air flow rate as expected, but the quantitative relationships could not be defined from the data due to contributions by other uncontrolled factors. It was concluded that the rotary evaporator is not suited for evaporation rate studies, but rather for producing samples suitable for use in other studies. Chemical analysis showed that the relative abundance distributions of target n-alkane hydrocarbons varied with the degree of weathering of an oil in a consistent manner at ambient pressure, regardless of the temperature, rate of air exchange or other factors related to the apparatus and procedure. The composition of the artificially weathered oil was also consistent with that from an open pan simulation of a weathered oil slick. Loss of water content varied with the conditions of evaporation because of the differential rates of evaporation due to relative humidity considerations. It was concluded that weathering

  3. Modeling and optimization of sunflower oil methanolysis over quicklime bits in a packed bed tubular reactor using the response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miladinović, Marija R.; Stamenković, Olivera S.; Banković, Predrag T.; Milutinović-Nikolić, Aleksandra D.; Jovanović, Dušan M.; Veljković, Vlada B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sunflower oil methanolysis in a continuous packed bed reactor was optimized. • Thermally-activated, low-cost quicklime bits were used as a catalyst. • Process was optimized by 3 3 full factorial design and Box-Behnken design. • Box-Behnken design is recommended for optimizing biodiesel production processes. • FAME content in the ester phase obtained under the optimum conditions was >98%. - Abstract: The effect of the residence time (i.e. liquid flow rate through the reactor), methanol-to-oil molar ratio and reaction temperature on the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) content at the output of a continuous packed bed tubular reactor was modeled by the response surface methodology (RSM) combined with the 3 3 full factorial design (FFD) with replication or the Box-Behnken design (BBD) with five center points. The methanolysis of sunflower oil was carried out at the residence time of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 h, the methanol-to-oil molar ratios of 6:1, 12:1 and 18:1 and the reaction temperature of 40, 50 and 60 °C under the atmospheric pressure. Based on the used experimental designs, the model equations containing only linear and two-factor interaction terms were developed for predicting the FAME content, which were validated through the use of the unseen data. Applying the analysis of variance (ANOVA), all three factors were shown to have a significant influence on the FAME content. Acceptable statistical predictability and accuracy resulted from both designs since the values of the coefficient of determination were close to unity while the values of the mean relative percentage deviation were relatively low (<±10%). In addition, both designs predicted the maximum FAME content of above 99%, which agreed closely with the actual FAME content (98.8%). The same optimal reaction temperature (60 °C) and residence time (2.0 h) were determined by both designs while the BBD model suggested a slightly lower methanol-to-oil molar ratio (12.2:1) than the 3 3 FFD

  4. A quasi-exclusive European ancestry in the Senepol tropical cattle breed highlights the importance of the slick locus in tropical adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Flori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Senepol cattle breed (SEN was created in the early XX(th century from a presumed cross between a European (EUT breed (Red Poll and a West African taurine (AFT breed (N'Dama. Well adapted to tropical conditions, it is also believed trypanotolerant according to its putative AFT ancestry. However, such origins needed to be verified to define relevant husbandry practices and the genetic background underlying such adaptation needed to be characterized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We genotyped 153 SEN individuals on 47,365 SNPs and combined the resulting data with those available on 18 other populations representative of EUT, AFT and Zebu (ZEB cattle. We found on average 89% EUT, 10.4% ZEB and 0.6% AFT ancestries in the SEN genome. We further looked for footprints of recent selection using standard tests based on the extent of haplotype homozygosity. We underlined i three footprints on chromosome (BTA 01, two of which are within or close to the polled locus underlying the absence of horns and ii one footprint on BTA20 within the slick hair coat locus, involved in thermotolerance. Annotation of these regions allowed us to propose three candidate genes to explain the observed signals (TIAM1, GRIK1 and RAI14. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results do not support the accepted concept about the AFT origin of SEN breed. Initial AFT ancestry (if any might have been counter-selected in early generations due to breeding objectives oriented in particular toward meat production and hornless phenotype. Therefore, SEN animals are likely susceptible to African trypanosomes which questions the importation of SEN within the West African tsetse belt, as promoted by some breeding societies. Besides, our results revealed that SEN breed is predominantly a EUT breed well adapted to tropical conditions and confirmed the importance in thermotolerance of the slick locus.

  5. A Quasi-Exclusive European Ancestry in the Senepol Tropical Cattle Breed Highlights the Importance of the slick Locus in Tropical Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flori, Laurence; Gonzatti, Mary Isabel; Thevenon, Sophie; Chantal, Isabelle; Pinto, Joar; Berthier, David; Aso, Pedro M.; Gautier, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    Background The Senepol cattle breed (SEN) was created in the early XXth century from a presumed cross between a European (EUT) breed (Red Poll) and a West African taurine (AFT) breed (N’Dama). Well adapted to tropical conditions, it is also believed trypanotolerant according to its putative AFT ancestry. However, such origins needed to be verified to define relevant husbandry practices and the genetic background underlying such adaptation needed to be characterized. Methodology/Principal Findings We genotyped 153 SEN individuals on 47,365 SNPs and combined the resulting data with those available on 18 other populations representative of EUT, AFT and Zebu (ZEB) cattle. We found on average 89% EUT, 10.4% ZEB and 0.6% AFT ancestries in the SEN genome. We further looked for footprints of recent selection using standard tests based on the extent of haplotype homozygosity. We underlined i) three footprints on chromosome (BTA) 01, two of which are within or close to the polled locus underlying the absence of horns and ii) one footprint on BTA20 within the slick hair coat locus, involved in thermotolerance. Annotation of these regions allowed us to propose three candidate genes to explain the observed signals (TIAM1, GRIK1 and RAI14). Conclusions/Significance Our results do not support the accepted concept about the AFT origin of SEN breed. Initial AFT ancestry (if any) might have been counter-selected in early generations due to breeding objectives oriented in particular toward meat production and hornless phenotype. Therefore, SEN animals are likely susceptible to African trypanosomes which questions the importation of SEN within the West African tsetse belt, as promoted by some breeding societies. Besides, our results revealed that SEN breed is predominantly a EUT breed well adapted to tropical conditions and confirmed the importance in thermotolerance of the slick locus. PMID:22675421

  6. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  7. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  8. Yellow perch embryo-larval survival and growth in surface waters associated with oil-sands mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, L.E.; Heuvel, M.R. van den; Dixon, D.G. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Power, M. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Boerger, H.; MacKinnon, M.D.; Meer, T. Van [Syncrude Canada, Fort McMurray, Alberta (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    As part of their land reclamation strategy, Syncrude Canada Ltd. is currently developing environmentally acceptable tailings disposal methods. Fine tailings, a suspension of clay and residual bitumen, is the waste product from oil sands extraction. Fine-tailings contain naphthenic acids, a group of saturated aliphatic and alicyclic carboxylic acids, which occur naturally in petroleum and are partly responsible for the toxicity of process water. The wet landscape method involves covering fine tails with a layer of water such that a self-sustaining ecosystem can be established. A 5 ha demonstration pond with a bottom of fine-tailings was constructed and stocked with yellow perch for experimental purposes. Two other reclaimed ponds formed with oil-sands overburden material were also stocked with perch. Adult perch sampled in the fall of 1995 from the experimental and reclaimed ponds exhibited a 2-fold induction of MFO activity compared to the source lake; indicating organic compound exposure. Perch from one of the reclaimed ponds showed significantly reduced circulating reproductive hormone levels, gonad size and smaller ovarian follicles. Reproductive parameters were not different between the source lake and the remaining ponds. Paired lab and field experiments were conducted to determine if contaminants present would be detrimental to egg viability and development of larvae either through direct exposure of spawned eggs or indirectly by effecting oogenesis. An early life stage toxicity test was also performed using commercially available naphthenic acid standard. Endpoints measured were percent fertilization, percent hatch, mortality, deformities, timing of developmental periods and larval growth.

  9. Modeling BOD and COD removal from Palm Oil Mill Secondary Effluent in floating wetland by Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darajeh, Negisa; Idris, Azni; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Nourani, Abolfazl; Truong, Paul; Sairi, Nor Asrina

    2016-10-01

    While the oil palm industry has been recognized for its contribution towards economic growth and rapid development, it has also contributed to environmental pollution due to the production of huge quantities of by-products from the oil extraction process. A phytoremediation technique (floating Vetiver system) was used to treat Palm Oil Mill Secondary Effluent (POMSE). A batch study using 40 L treatment tanks was carried out under different conditions and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the treatment process. A three factor central composite design (CCD) was used to predict the experimental variables (POMSE concentration, Vetiver plant density and time). An extraordinary decrease in organic matter as measured by BOD and COD (96% and 94% respectively) was recorded during the experimental duration of 4 weeks using a density of 30 Vetiver plants. The best and lowest final BOD of 2 mg/L was obtained when using 15 Vetiver plants after 13 days for low concentration POMSE (initial BOD = 50 mg/L). The next best result of BOD at 32 mg/L was obtained when using 30 Vetiver plants after 24 days for medium concentration POMSE (initial BOD = 175 mg/L). These results confirmed the validity of the model, and the experimental value was determined to be quite close to the predicted value, implying that the empirical model derived from RSM experimental design can be used to adequately describe the relationship between the independent variables and response. The study showed that the Vetiver system is an effective method of treating POMSE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fabrication of superhydrophobic copper surface on various substrates for roll-off, self-cleaning, and water/oil separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmal, Anup Kumar; Mondal, Chanchal; Sinha, Arun Kumar; Gauri, Samiran Sona; Pal, Jaya; Aditya, Teresa; Ganguly, Mainak; Dey, Satyahari; Pal, Tarasankar

    2014-12-24

    Superhydrophobic surfaces prevent percolation of water droplets and thus render roll-off, self-cleaning, corrosion protection, etc., which find day-to-day and industrial applications. In this work, we developed a facile, cost-effective, and free-standing method for direct fabrication of copper nanoparticles to engender superhydrophobicity for various flat and irregular surfaces such as glass, transparency sheet (plastic), cotton wool, textile, and silicon substrates. The fabrication of as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces was accomplished using a simple chemical reduction of copper acetate by hydrazine hydrate at room temperature. The surface morphological studies demonstrate that the as-prepared surfaces are rough and display superhydrophobic character on wetting due to generation of air pockets (The Cassie-Baxter state). Because of the low adhesion of water droplets on the as-prepared surfaces, the surfaces exhibited not only high water contact angle (164 ± 2°, 5 μL droplets) but also superb roll-off and self-cleaning properties. Superhydrophobic copper nanoparticle coated glass surface uniquely withstands water (10 min), mild alkali (5 min in saturated aqueous NaHCO3 of pH ≈ 9), acids (10 s in dilute HNO3, H2SO4 of pH ≈ 5) and thiol (10 s in neat 1-octanethiol) at room temperature (25-35 °C). Again as-prepared surface (cotton wool) was also found to be very effective for water-kerosene separation due to its superhydrophobic and oleophilic character. Additionally, the superhydrophobic copper nanoparticle (deposited on glass surface) was found to exhibit antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  11. Chemical and biological observations after the World Prodigy oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilson, M.E.Q.

    1990-01-01

    The Greek tanker World Prodigy ran aground on Brenton Reef, Rhode Island, in the afternoon of June 23, 1989, releasing 922 metric tons. This paper reports that the Coast Guard estimated that by the fourth day after the spill some 99% of the oil had disappeared, largely through evaporation. Oil that was dissolved in the water probably disappeared by microbial metabolism and photochemical oxidation at a rate of about 0.5 per day. Precautionary closures of the shell fish beds in the upper bay were lifted within about a week, and there was no evidence suggesting tainting of shellfish. Also, there was no evidence suggesting any tainting go finfish, and no evidence suggesting any mortality of free-swimming finfish. Retrospectively, it is evident that our knowledge of the fate and effects of the oil could have been greatly improved by sampling and analysis of the oil slick itself, by more analyses for oil in the water column, and by longer-term monitoring of the benthic animals in impacted areas

  12. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  13. External hazards in the PRA of Olkiluoto 1 and 2 NPP units - Accidental oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunturivuori, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Oil transports in Finnish territorial waters have increased significantly during the last 10 years. The Gulf of Finland is at this moment a very important route of oil being transported from Russia to the Western Europe. Although the number of accidental oil spills is decreasing in amount and in size, there is a growing concern of their effects to nuclear power plants (NPPs). The amounts of oil transported on the Gulf of Bothnia are much smaller than on the Gulf of Finland. However, accidental oil spills have occurred also there, the size and amount of which are smaller, though. Accidental oil spills are often a result of grounding of a ship or collision of two ships, and often occur during harsh weather conditions like storm or dense fog. However, also coastal oil depots may break, the oil of which may spread over wide distances on the sea. The modelling of initiating events resulting from accidental oil spills includes oil spill response actions performed by the regional rescue services, alarming of the oil spill by the emergency response centre to the NPP rescue services and spill response by the NPPs rescue services. It is unclear what the consequences are if drifted oil would enter the coolant water tunnels. The effect of different oil types to the operation of the safety-related service water systems and components are being assessed. In the ultimate case, an oil spill would clog the inlet channels thus failing the ultimate heat sink of the NPP units. The licensee is evaluating what is the optimal way to operate the NPP units in the case that an oil slick is threatening the plant to ensure reactor core cooling and RHR. The continued operation of, and especially the cooling of, at least one auxiliary feedwater pump is critical in the mitigation of the initiating event. Strategies, like reversing the water flow of the cooling water channels or closing of the cooling water channels, are being evaluated. (authors)

  14. The Influence of Green Surface Modification of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber by Superheated Steam on the Mechanical Properties and Dimensional Stability of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber/Poly(butylene succinate Biocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Yee Then

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, superheated steam (SHS was used as cost effective and green processing technique to modify oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF for biocomposite applications. The purpose of this modification was to promote the adhesion between fiber and thermoplastic. The modification was carried out in a SHS oven at various temperature (200–230 °C and time (30–120 min under normal atmospheric pressure. The biocomposites from SHS-treated OPMFs and poly(butylene succinate (PBS at a weight ratio of 70:30 were prepared by melt blending technique. The mechanical properties and dimensional stability of the biocomposites were evaluated. This study showed that the SHS treatment increased the roughness of the fiber surface due to the removal of surface impurities and hemicellulose. The tensile, flexural and impact properties, as well as dimensional stability of the biocomposites were markedly enhanced by the presence of SHS-treated OPMF. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed improvement of interfacial adhesion between PBS and SHS-treated OPMF. This work demonstrated that SHS could be used as an eco-friendly and sustainable processing method for modification of OPMF in biocomposite fabrication.

  15. The influence of green surface modification of oil palm mesocarp fiber by superheated steam on the mechanical properties and dimensional stability of oil palm mesocarp fiber/poly(butylene succinate) biocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, Yoon Yee; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Ariffin, Hidayah; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Chieng, Buong Woei

    2014-08-29

    In this paper, superheated steam (SHS) was used as cost effective and green processing technique to modify oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) for biocomposite applications. The purpose of this modification was to promote the adhesion between fiber and thermoplastic. The modification was carried out in a SHS oven at various temperature (200-230 °C) and time (30-120 min) under normal atmospheric pressure. The biocomposites from SHS-treated OPMFs and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) at a weight ratio of 70:30 were prepared by melt blending technique. The mechanical properties and dimensional stability of the biocomposites were evaluated. This study showed that the SHS treatment increased the roughness of the fiber surface due to the removal of surface impurities and hemicellulose. The tensile, flexural and impact properties, as well as dimensional stability of the biocomposites were markedly enhanced by the presence of SHS-treated OPMF. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed improvement of interfacial adhesion between PBS and SHS-treated OPMF. This work demonstrated that SHS could be used as an eco-friendly and sustainable processing method for modification of OPMF in biocomposite fabrication.

  16. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of total carotenoids from peach palm fruit (Bactris gasipaes) by-products with sunflower oil using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Santos, Luis Eduardo; Pinzón-Zarate, Lina Ximena; González-Salcedo, Luis Octavio

    2015-11-01

    The present study reports on the extraction of total carotenoids from peach palm fruit by-products with sunflower oil. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). Three independent variables including ultrasonic intensity (764-1528, W/m(2)), temperature (25-45°C), and the extraction time (10-30 min). According to the results, the optimal UAE condition was obtained with an ultrasonic intensity of 1528 W/m(2), extraction temperature of 35°C and extraction time of 30 min. At these conditions, extraction maximum extraction of total carotenoids as 163.47 mg/100 g dried peel. The experimental values under optimal condition were in good consistent with the predicted values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, C.D.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

  18. Soybean oil and methyl oleate adsorption onto a steel surface investigated using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and atomic force microscopy**1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States’ 2010 annual production of soybean oil exceeded 8 million metric tons, making a significant vegetable oil surplus available for new uses, particularly as a lubricant. Investigation of soybean oil and methyl oleate adsorption onto steel using a quartz crystal microbalance with diss...

  19. Integration of Well & Core Data of Carbonate Reservoirs with Surface Seismic in Garraf Oil Field, Southern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhuder, J. J.; Muhlhl, A. A.; Basra Geologiests

    2013-05-01

    The Garraf Field is situated in Southern Iraq in Nasiriya area, is located in Mesopotamian basin. The carbonate facies are dominant in main reservoirs in Garraf field (Mishrif and Yammama Formations) which is Cretaceous in age. The structure of the reservoir in this field are low relief gentle anticlinal structure aligned in NW to SE direction, and No fault were observed and interpreted in 3D seismic section. 3D seismic survey by Iraqi Oil Exploration Company No 2 was successfully conducted on the Garraf field at 2008-2009 using recording system SERCEL 408UL and Vibrators Nomad 65. Bin size: 25*25, Fold: 36, SP Interval: 50m, Lines Interval: 300m, 3 wells were drilled Ga (1, 2, 3) and it used for seismic to well tie in Petrel. Data analysis was conducted for each reservoirs for Lithological and sedimentological studies were based on core and well data .The study showed That the Mishrif Formation deposited in a broad carbonate platform with shallowing upward regressive succession and The depositional environment is extending from outer marine to shallow middle-inner shelf settings with restricted lagoons as supported by the present of Miliolid fossils. The fragmented rudist biostromes accumulated in the middle shelf. No rudist reef is presence in the studied cores. While the Major sequences are micritic limestone of lagoonal and oolitic/peloidal grainstone sandy shoal separated by mudstone of Yamama formation. Sedimentation feature are seen on seismic attributes and it is help for understanding of sedimentation environment and suitable structure interpretation. There is good relationship between Acustic Impedance and porosity, Acustic Impedance reflects porosity or facies change of carbonate rather than fluid content. Data input used for 3D Modeling include 3D seismic and AI data, petrophysical analysis, core and thin section description. 3D structure modeling were created base on the geophysical data interpretation and Al analysis. Data analysis for Al data were

  20. Oil spill detection from TerraSAR-X dual-polarized images using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Jung, H.-S.

    2017-10-01

    Marine pollution from oil spills destroys ecosystems. In order to minimize the damage, it is important to fast cleanup it after predicting how the oil will spread. In order to predict the spread of oil spill, remote sensing technique, especially radar satellite image is widely used. In previous studies, only the back-scattering value is generally used for the detection of oil spill. However, in this study, oil spill was detected by applying ANN (Artificial Neural Network) as input data from the back-scattering value of the radar image as well as the phase information extracted from the dual polarization. In order to maximize the efficiency of oil spill detection using a back-scattering value, the speckle noise acting as an error factor should be removed first. NL-means filter was applied to multi-look image to remove it without smoothing of spatial resolution. In the coherence image, the sea has a high value and the oil spill area has a low value due to the scattering characteristics of the pulse. In order to using the characteristics of radar image, training sample was set up from NL-means filtered images(HH, VV) and coherence image, and ANN was applied to produce probability map of oil spill. In general, the value was 0.4 or less in the case of the sea, and the value was mainly in the range of 0.7 to 0.9 in the oil spill area. Using coherence images generated from different polarizations showed better detection results for relatively thin oil spill areas such as oil slick or oil sheen than using back-scattering information alone. It is expected that if the information about the look-alike of oil spill such as algae, internal wave and rainfall area is provided, the probability map can be produced with higher accuracy.

  1. Formation of water-in-diesel oil nano-emulsions using high energy method and studying some of their surface active properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Sabagh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, formations of water-in-diesel oil nano-emulsions using water/mixed nonionic surfactant/diesel oil system have been studied. The high energy emulsification method was used to form three emulsions using different water contents: 5%, 10% and 14% (v/v namely; E1, E2 and E3, respectively. These nano-emulsions were stabilized with emulsifiers having different Hydrophilic–Lipophilic Balance (HLB namely; span 80 (HLB = 4.3, emarol 85 (HLB = 11 and their mixture (SE with HLB = 10. The effect of water on the droplet size formation has been investigated. The interfacial tension and thermodynamic properties of the individual and emulsifiers blends have been studied. The interfacial tension (γ measurements at 30 °C were used to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC and surface active properties of these emulsifiers. The water droplet sizes were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS. From the obtained data, it was found that, mean sizes between 19.3 and 39 nm were obtained depending on the water content and concentration of blend emulsifiers (SE. Also, the results show that, the interfacial tension (γ gives minimum value (10.85 mN/m for SE comparing with individual emulsifier (17.13 and 12.77 mN/m for span 80 and emarol 85, respectively. The visual inspection by TEM showed that the obtained results support the data obtained by dynamic light scattering.

  2. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  3. Oil spill cleanup method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayes, F.M.

    1980-06-24

    A method for removing oil from the surface of water where an oil spill has occurred, particularly in obstructed or shallow areas, which comprises partially surrounding a hovercraft with a floating oil-collecting barrier, there being no barrier at the front of the hovercraft, moving the oil-barrier-surrounded-hovercraft into oil contaminated water, and collecting oil gathered within the barrier behind the hovercraft through a suction line which carries the oil to a storage tank aboard the hovercraft. The invention also embodies the hovercraft adapted to effect an oil spill cleanup.

  4. Validation of the natural resource damage assessment model using historical observations on oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.; Rines, H.

    1995-01-01

    The Natural Resource Damage Assessment Model for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/CME) was developed by Applied Science Associates to simulate the fate and effects of oil and chemical spills into estuarine and marine environments. The US Department of the Interior has proposed the NRDAM/CME for use in Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) regulations under CERCLA. As part of the evaluation of model performance, the NRDAM/CME has been validated with observational data from case histories of oil spills, including the Exxon Valdez, World Prodigy, Mega Borg, Apex Houston and a number of others. Primarily, the data available for validation were of oil slick trajectory and coverage (e.g., overflight maps), length of shoreline oiled, area of marshes oiled, and a number of oiled birds recovered. Model performance was dependent on the accuracy of available wind and current data (the primary forces affecting fate) and bird abundances. Where these data sources were good (relatively well quantified), model performance was excellent. Results of the model simulations also provide an interesting sensitivity analysis and indications of relative effects of oil under various spill scenarios and conditions

  5. Self-similar distribution of oil spills in European coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Jose M; Platonov, Alexei K [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Catalunya C/ J G Salgado s/n, Campus Nord, Modul B-4, E-08034, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: redondo@fa.upc.es

    2009-01-15

    Marine pollution has been highlighted thanks to the advances in detection techniques as well as increasing coverage of catastrophes (e.g. the oil tankers Amoco Cadiz, Exxon Valdez, Erika, and Prestige) and of smaller oil spills from ships. The new satellite based sensors SAR and ASAR and new methods of oil spill detection and analysis coupled with self-similar statistical techniques allow surveys of environmental pollution monitoring large areas of the ocean. We present a statistical analysis of more than 700 SAR images obtained during 1996-2000, also comparing the detected small pollution events with the historical databases of great marine accidents during 1966-2004 in European coastal waters. We show that the statistical distribution of the number of oil spills as a function of their size corresponds to Zipf's law, and that the common small spills are comparable to the large accidents due to the high frequency of the smaller pollution events. Marine pollution from tankers and ships, which has been detected as oil spills between 0.01 and 100 km{sup 2}, follows the marine transit routes. Multi-fractal methods are used to distinguish between natural slicks and spills, in order to estimate the oil spill index in European coastal waters, and in particular, the north-western Mediterranean Sea, which, due to the influence of local winds, shows optimal conditions for oil spill detection.

  6. Validation of the natural resource damage assessment model using historical observations on oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, D.; Rines, H. [Applied Science Associates, Inc., Narragansett, RI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Natural Resource Damage Assessment Model for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/CME) was developed by Applied Science Associates to simulate the fate and effects of oil and chemical spills into estuarine and marine environments. The US Department of the Interior has proposed the NRDAM/CME for use in Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) regulations under CERCLA. As part of the evaluation of model performance, the NRDAM/CME has been validated with observational data from case histories of oil spills, including the Exxon Valdez, World Prodigy, Mega Borg, Apex Houston and a number of others. Primarily, the data available for validation were of oil slick trajectory and coverage (e.g., overflight maps), length of shoreline oiled, area of marshes oiled, and a number of oiled birds recovered. Model performance was dependent on the accuracy of available wind and current data (the primary forces affecting fate) and bird abundances. Where these data sources were good (relatively well quantified), model performance was excellent. Results of the model simulations also provide an interesting sensitivity analysis and indications of relative effects of oil under various spill scenarios and conditions.

  7. A new concept for improved oil spill containment in open waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethness, E.D. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a new concept for improved oil spill containment in open waters is presented. The proposed system is a combination oil boom and wave barrier. Waveguard International has taken its extensive experience as a designer of floating breakwaters and applied this knowledge into the design of a readily transportable, readily deployable floating oil boom with integrated wave attenuation capabilities as well. The new concept is based on the attenuation of the two major natural causes of oil spill dispersion; first, horizontal dispersion caused by wind shear effects; and second, vertical entrainment into the water column caused by the mixing action of wave motion. The physical encirclement of an oil spill with a floating boom to contain horizontal dispersion is not a new concept. Existing systems, however, work best in calm water and rapidly loose efficiency as waves increase. The proposed system can not only physically surround the spill area, but is as much as 90% effective in stopping the transmission of wave energy. The oil boom thus minimizes vertical mixing of the contained oil slick

  8. Self-similar distribution of oil spills in European coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo, Jose M; Platonov, Alexei K

    2009-01-01

    Marine pollution has been highlighted thanks to the advances in detection techniques as well as increasing coverage of catastrophes (e.g. the oil tankers Amoco Cadiz, Exxon Valdez, Erika, and Prestige) and of smaller oil spills from ships. The new satellite based sensors SAR and ASAR and new methods of oil spill detection and analysis coupled with self-similar statistical techniques allow surveys of environmental pollution monitoring large areas of the ocean. We present a statistical analysis of more than 700 SAR images obtained during 1996-2000, also comparing the detected small pollution events with the historical databases of great marine accidents during 1966-2004 in European coastal waters. We show that the statistical distribution of the number of oil spills as a function of their size corresponds to Zipf's law, and that the common small spills are comparable to the large accidents due to the high frequency of the smaller pollution events. Marine pollution from tankers and ships, which has been detected as oil spills between 0.01 and 100 km 2 , follows the marine transit routes. Multi-fractal methods are used to distinguish between natural slicks and spills, in order to estimate the oil spill index in European coastal waters, and in particular, the north-western Mediterranean Sea, which, due to the influence of local winds, shows optimal conditions for oil spill detection.

  9. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  10. An oil-in-water self-assembly synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties of nano Ag@AgCl surface-sensitized K2Ti4O9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Yinghua; Lin, Shuanglong; Liu, Li; Hu, Jinshan; Cui, Wenquan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The plasmatic Ag@AgCl surface-sensitized K 2 Ti 4 O 9 composite photocatalysts. • Ag@AgCl greatly increased visible light absorption for K 2 Ti 4 O 9 . • The photocatalysts exhibited enhanced photocatalytic dye degradation. - Abstract: Nano-sized plasmonic Ag@AgCl surface-sensitized K 2 Ti 4 O 9 composite photocatalysts (hereafter designated as Ag@AgCl/K 2 Ti 4 O 9 ) was synthesized via a facile oil-in-water self-assembly method. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared materials for RhB (Rhodamine B) degradation was examined under visible light irradiation. The results reveal that the size of Ag@AgCl, which evenly dispersed on the surface of K 2 Ti 4 O 9 , distributes about 20–50 nm. The UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra indicate that Ag@AgCl/K 2 Ti 4 O 9 samples have a significantly enhanced optical absorption in 380–700 nm. The photocatalytic activities of the Ag@AgCl/K 2 Ti 4 O 9 samples increase first and then decrease with increasing amount of loading Ag@AgCl and the Ag@AgCl(20 wt.%)/K 2 Ti 4 O 9 sample exhibits the best photocatalytic activity and 94.47% RhB was degraded after irradiation for 2 h. Additionally, studies performed using radical scavengers indicated that O 2 · − and Cl 0 acted as the main reactive species. The electronic interaction was systematically studied and confirmed by the photo-electrochemical measurements

  11. Preparation and surface active properties of a-acyloxysuccinic acid derivatives from malic acid and fatty acids of crude rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sawy, A. A.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface active compounds were prepared from malic acid by esterification with acyl chloride (IIa-d, of [palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and mixed fatty acids of rice bran oil (RBO (IIe], in the presence of pyridine as catalyst, forming (IIIa-e ,  which are  converted to anionic disodium salt (IVa-e . The prepared a-acyl-oxysuccinic acid derivatives (IIIa-e was oxypropenoxylated with various moles of propylene oxide (n= 2, 4, 6 and 8 to give (V-IXa-d . These compounds were converted to nonionic surfactants with two terminal amide oxime groups  (XV-XIXa-d as molecular aggregations and surface active agents in aqueous media. The structures were confirmed by micro analysis, IR and 1H NMR spectra. The surface active properties of the prepared compounds revealed excellent results.Se han preparado compuestos de tensión superficial a partir de ácido málico por esterificación con cloruro de acilo (IIa-d de [palmítico, esteárico, oleico, linoleico y ácidos grasos mezclados de aceite de gérmen de arroz (RBO (IIe], en presencia de piridina como catalizador, formando (IIIa-e, los cuales son convertidos a sales disódicas aniónicas (IVa-e. El derivado del ácido a-acil-oxisuccínico preparado (IIIa-e fue oxipropenoxilado con varios moles de óxido de propileno (n=2, 4, 6 y 8 para dar (V-IXa-d. Estos compuestos fueron convertidos en tensioactivos no iónicos con dos grupos amida oxima terminal (XV-XIXa-d como agregaciones moleculares y agentes tensioactivos en medio acuoso. Las estructuras se confirmaron por microanálisis, IR y espectros de 1H NMR. Las propiedades tensioactivas de los compuestos preparados revelaron excelentes resultados.

  12. OIL SPILL DETECTION AND MONITORING OF ABU DHABI COASTAL ZONE USING KOMPSAT-5 SAR IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Harahsheh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abu Dhabi Government endorsed vision for its Maritime Strategy ‘A safe, secure and sustainable maritime domain for Abu Dhabi'. This research study share this vision using the concept of monitoring as tool for marine protection against any possible oil pollution. The best technology to detect and monitor oil pollution and in particularly oil spill is SAR imagery In this case study we chose KOMPSAT-5 SAR. KOMPSAT-5 carries X-band SAR for earth observation, and is capable of day-and-night imaging under all weather condition. It provides three operation modes: High Resolution Mode to provide 1 m resolution, Standard Mode to provide 3 m resolution and Wide Swath Mode to provide 20 m resolution with 100 km swath at 550 km altitude, with four modes of polarization. KOMPSAT-5 provides products for various applications; security and defense, mapping, and natural resource management, environmental monitoring, disaster monitoring and more. For our case study we chose to work with Wide Swath mode (WS with Vertical polarization (VV to cover a wide area of interest located to the north west of Abu Dhabi including some important islands like ”Zirku Island”, and areas with oil production activities. The results of data acquired on 4th May 2015 show some spot of oil spill with length estimated about 3 KM, and the daily satellite data acquisition over the period July 24 through July 31 shows serious and many oil spill events some are small, but many others are considered to be big with area size around 20 km2. In the context of oil spill pollution in the seas, we have to consider the development and increase of overseas transportation, which is an important factor for both social and economic sectors. The harmful effects of marine pollution are numerous, from the damage of marine life to the damage of the aquatic ecosystem as whole. As such, the need for oil slick detection is crucial, for the location of polluted areas and to evaluate slick drift to

  13. Oil Spill Detection and Monitoring of Abu Dhabi Coastal Zone Using KOMPSAT-5 SAR Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harahsheh, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    Abu Dhabi Government endorsed vision for its Maritime Strategy `A safe, secure and sustainable maritime domain for Abu Dhabi'. This research study share this vision using the concept of monitoring as tool for marine protection against any possible oil pollution. The best technology to detect and monitor oil pollution and in particularly oil spill is SAR imagery In this case study we chose KOMPSAT-5 SAR. KOMPSAT-5 carries X-band SAR for earth observation, and is capable of day-and-night imaging under all weather condition. It provides three operation modes: High Resolution Mode to provide 1 m resolution, Standard Mode to provide 3 m resolution and Wide Swath Mode to provide 20 m resolution with 100 km swath at 550 km altitude, with four modes of polarization. KOMPSAT-5 provides products for various applications; security and defense, mapping, and natural resource management, environmental monitoring, disaster monitoring and more. For our case study we chose to work with Wide Swath mode (WS) with Vertical polarization (VV) to cover a wide area of interest located to the north west of Abu Dhabi including some important islands like "Zirku Island", and areas with oil production activities. The results of data acquired on 4th May 2015 show some spot of oil spill with length estimated about 3 KM, and the daily satellite data acquisition over the period July 24 through July 31 shows serious and many oil spill events some are small, but many others are considered to be big with area size around 20 km2. In the context of oil spill pollution in the seas, we have to consider the development and increase of overseas transportation, which is an important factor for both social and economic sectors. The harmful effects of marine pollution are numerous, from the damage of marine life to the damage of the aquatic ecosystem as whole. As such, the need for oil slick detection is crucial, for the location of polluted areas and to evaluate slick drift to protect the coastline

  14. Projects submitted to international science and technology center by Institute of Combustion Problems. Production of powder magnet materials on the basis of natural oxide minerals for purification of the water surface from oil and petrol pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mofa, N.; Ksandopoulo, G.

    1996-01-01

    Goal: To obtain a cheap magnet sorbent with high sorbing activity to move off oil and petrol pollution from the surface of water and to purify pools and sewage waters. Task: By mechanical and chemical treatment of natural oxide compounds with a member of selected components there is synthesized a fine-dispersed powder material with micro composition structure of the particles (dielectric nucleus, conductive and magnet surface layers). Formation of surface layers is determined by the regime of mechanical and chemical treatment and alloying additives of the mixture, Properties of the treated powder depend finally on the structure and properties of synthesized surface layers organically connected between themselves and a nuclear carrier of a particle. Due to the characteristics of magnet permeability obtained oxide material is not worse than metallic powders of iron and its alloys. Besides, it has a high corrosion stability and stability of magnet properties in the humid environment and at heating up to 600 C. High sorbing activity provides absolute purification of water surface from oils at small residence times with polluted surface. Peculiarities of state of the particles surface of synthesized material provide structural stability of sorbed mass which enables moving it off from the water surface by mechanic or magnet techniques. By the method being used and feedstock synthesized magnet powder is very cheap and can be used after regeneration directly or as a construction material

  15. Assessment of sensors and aircraft for oil spill remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.; Fruhwirth, M.

    1993-01-01

    Environment Canada has assessed sensors and aircraft suitable for remote sensing, particularly the capability of sensors to detect oil and to discriminate oil from background targets. The assessment was based on past experience and technical considerations. The first sensor recommended for use is an infrared camera or an IR/UV system. This recommendation is based on the system's ability to detect oil and discriminate this from the background, and the low cost of these sensors. The laser fluorosensor is recommended as the second device, as it is the only unit capable of positively discriminating oil on water, among weeds, and in sediment or beach material. Cameras operating in the visible region of the spectrum are recommended for two functions: documentation and providing background or location imagery for other sensors. Imaging radars, be they SAR or SLAR, are recommended for long-range searches or for oil spill work at night or when fog is present. Radars are expensive and require dedicated aircraft. Passive microwave devices are currently being developed but have not been proven as an alternative to radar or for measuring slick thickness. A laser based thickness sensor is under development. Satellite systems were also assessed. Satellite sensors operating in the visible spectrum have only limited application to major oil spills. New radar sensors show limited potential. The major limitation of any satellite system is the limited coverage time that is a function of its orbit. A study of aircraft and aircraft modifications was carried out to catalog aircraft modifications necessary to operate oil spill remote sensors. A potential user could select modifications that are already approved and thus save the high costs of aircraft modification design. The modifications already approved in Canada and the US for a given aircraft provide criteria for the selection of an aircraft

  16. Evaluation of three oil spill laboratory dispersant effectiveness tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, D.; Farlow, J.; Sahatjian, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical dispersants can be used to reduce the interfacial tension of floating oil slicks so that the oils disperse more rapidly into the water column and thus pose less of a threat to shorelines, birds, and marine mammals. The laboratory test currently specified in federal regulations to measure dispersant effectiveness is not especially easy or inexpensive, and generates a rather large quantity of oily waste water. This paper describes the results of an effort by the EPA to identify a more suitable laboratory dispersant effectiveness test. EPA evaluated three laboratory methods: the Revised Standard Dispersant Effectiveness Test currently used (and required by regulation) in the United States, the swirling flask test (developed by Environment Canada), and the IFP-dilution test (used in france and other European countries). Six test oils and three dispersants were evaluated; dispersants were applied to the oil at an average 1:10 ratio (dispersant to oil) for each of the three laboratory methods. Screening efforts were used to focus on the most appropriate oil/dispersant combination for detailed study. A screening criterion was established that required a combination that gave at least 20% effectiveness results. The selected combination turned out to be Prudhoe Bay crude oil and the dispersant Corexit 9527. This combination was also most likely to be encountered in US coastal waters. The EPA evaluation concluded that the three tests gave similar precision results, but that the swirling flask test was fastest, cheapest, simplest, and required least operator skill. Further, EPA is considering conducting the dispersant effectiveness test itself, rather than having data submitted by a dispersant manufacturer, and establishing an acceptability criterion (45% efficiency) which would have to be met before a dispersant could be placed on the Product Schedule of the National Contingency Plan (NCP)

  17. Towards the development of cascaded surface plasmon resonance POF sensors exploiting gold films and synthetic recognition elements for detection of contaminants in transformer oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pesavento

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of developing a multichannel optical chemical sensor, based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs and surface plasmon resonance (SPR in a D-shaped multimode plastic optical fiber (POF, is pres