Sample records for surface normal optoelectronic

  1. Terahertz optoelectronics with surface plasmon polariton diode. (United States)

    Vinnakota, Raj K; Genov, Dentcho A


    The field of plasmonics has experience a renaissance in recent years by providing a large variety of new physical effects and applications. Surface plasmon polaritons, i.e. the collective electron oscillations at the interface of a metal/semiconductor and a dielectric, may bridge the gap between electronic and photonic devices, provided a fast switching mechanism is identified. Here, we demonstrate a surface plasmon-polariton diode (SPPD) an optoelectronic switch that can operate at exceedingly large signal modulation rates. The SPPD uses heavily doped p-n junction where surface plasmon polaritons propagate at the interface between n and p-type GaAs and can be switched by an external voltage. The devices can operate at transmission modulation higher than 98% and depending on the doping and applied voltage can achieve switching rates of up to 1 THz. The proposed switch is compatible with the current semiconductor fabrication techniques and could lead to nanoscale semiconductor-based optoelectronics.

  2. Nonlinear optical and optoelectronic studies of topological insulator surfaces (United States)

    McIver, James W.

    Since their experimental discovery in 2008, topological insulators have been catapulted to the forefront of condensed matter physics research owing to their potential to realize both exciting new technologies as well as novel electronic phases that are inaccessible in any other material class. Their exotic properties arise from a rare quantum organization of its electrons called "topological order,'' which evades the conventional broken symmetry based-classification scheme used to categorize nearly every other state of ordered matter. Instead, topologically ordered phases are classified by topological invariants, which characterize the phase of an electron's wavefunction as it moves through momentum space. When a topologically ordered phase is interfaced with an ordinary phase, such as the vacuum, a novel metallic state appears at their shared boundary. In topological insulators, this results in the formation of a two-dimensional metallic state that spans all of its surfaces. The surface state electronic spectrum is characterized by a single linearly dispersing and helically spin-polarized Dirac cone that is robust against disorder. The helical nature of the surface Dirac cone is highly novel because the Dirac electrons carry a net magnetic moment and are capable of transporting 100% spin-polarized electrical currents, which are the long-sought electronic properties needed for many spin-based electronic applications. However, owing to the small bulk band gap and intrinsic electronic doping inherent to these materials, isolating the surface electronic response from the bulk has proven to be a major experimental obstacle. In this thesis, we demonstrate the means by which light can be used to isolate and study the surface electronic response of topological insulators using optoelectronic and nonlinear optical techniques. In chapter 1, we overview the physics of topological order and topological insulators. In chapter 2, we show how polarized light can be used to

  3. Computational design of surfaces, nanostructures and optoelectronic materials (United States)

    Choudhary, Kamal

    Properties of engineering materials are generally influenced by defects such as point defects (vacancies, interstitials, substitutional defects), line defects (dislocations), planar defects (grain boundaries, free surfaces/nanostructures, interfaces, stacking faults) and volume defects (voids). Classical physics based molecular dynamics and quantum physics based density functional theory can be useful in designing materials with controlled defect properties. In this thesis, empirical potential based molecular dynamics was used to study the surface modification of polymers due to energetic polyatomic ion, thermodynamics and mechanics of metal-ceramic interfaces and nanostructures, while density functional theory was used to screen substituents in optoelectronic materials. Firstly, polyatomic ion-beams were deposited on polymer surfaces and the resulting chemical modifications of the surface were examined. In particular, S, SC and SH were deposited on amorphous polystyrene (PS), and C2H, CH3, and C3H5 were deposited on amorphous poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using molecular dynamics simulations with classical reactive empirical many-body (REBO) potentials. The objective of this work was to elucidate the mechanisms by which the polymer surface modification took place. The results of the work could be used in tailoring the incident energy and/or constituents of ion beam for obtaining a particular chemistry inside the polymer surface. Secondly, a new Al-O-N empirical potential was developed within the charge optimized many body (COMB) formalism. This potential was then used to examine the thermodynamic stability of interfaces and mechanical properties of nanostructures composed of aluminum, its oxide and its nitride. The potentials were tested for these materials based on surface energies, defect energies, bulk phase stability, the mechanical properties of the most stable bulk phase, its phonon properties as well as with a genetic algorithm based evolution theory of

  4. Laser assisted fabrication of random rough surfaces for optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brissonneau, V., E-mail: [Thales Optronique SA, Avenue Gay-Lussac, 78995 Elancourt (France); Institut Materiaux Microelectronique Nanosciences de Provence, Aix Marseille Universite, Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13397 Marseille (France); Escoubas, L. [Institut Materiaux Microelectronique Nanosciences de Provence, Aix Marseille Universite, Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13397 Marseille (France); Flory, F. [Institut Materiaux Microelectronique Nanosciences de Provence, Ecole Centrale Marseille, Marseille (France); Berginc, G. [Thales Optronique SA, Avenue Gay-Lussac, 78995 Elancourt (France); Maire, G.; Giovannini, H. [Institut Fresnel, Aix Marseille Universite, Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13397 Marseille (France)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Random rough surfaces are photofabricated using an argon ion laser. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Speckle and surface correlation function are linked. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposure beam is modified allowing tuning the correlation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theoretical examples are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental results are compared with theoretical expectation. - Abstract: Optical surface structuring shows great interest for antireflective or scattering properties. Generally, fabricated surface structures are periodical but random surfaces that offer new degrees of freedom and possibilities by the control of their statistical properties. We propose an experimental method to create random rough surfaces on silicon by laser processing followed by etching. A photoresist is spin coated onto a silicon substrate and then exposed to the scattering of a modified laser beam. The beam modification is performed by using a micromirror matrix allowing laser beam shaping. An example of tuning is presented. An image composed of two white circles with a black background is displayed and the theoretical shape of the correlation is calculated. Experimental surfaces are elaborated and the correlation function calculated from height mapping. We finally compared the experimental and theoretical correlation functions.

  5. The integration of surface micromachined devices with optoelectronics: Technology and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, M.E.; Blum, O.; Sullivan, C.T.; Shul, R.J.; Rodgers, M.S.; Sniegowski, J.J.


    Sandia National Laboratories has a substantial effort in development of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technologies. This miniaturization capability can lead to low-cost, small, high-performance systems-on-a-chip, and have many applications ranging from advanced military systems to large-volume commercial markets like automobiles, rf or land-based communications networks and equipment, or commercial electronics. One of the key challenges in realization of the microsystem is integration of several technologies including digital electronics; analog and rf electronics, optoelectronics, sensors and actuators, and advanced packaging technologies. In this work they describe efforts in integrating MEMS and optoelectronic or photonic functions and the fabrication constraints on both system components. the MEMS technology used in this work are silicon surface-machined systems fabricated using the SUMMiT (Sandia Ultraplanar Multilevel MEMS Technology) process developed at Sandia. This process includes chemical-mechanical polishing as an intermediate planarization step to allow the use of 4 or 5 levels of polysilicon.

  6. The Influence of Surface Chemistry on the Optoelectronic Properties of Semiconductor Quantum Dots (United States)

    Harris, Rachel Dory

    This dissertation describes the relationship between the surface chemistry of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots, QDs) and their optoelectronic properties, such as photoluminescence and degree of quantum confinement. We primarily focus our efforts on one particular subset of ligands known to couple strongly to the inorganic core of the QD to decrease its quantum confinement, phenyldithiocarbamates (PTCs). We focus first on the development of quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques to characterize the identity and quantity of ligands (such as PTCs and oleic acid) bound to nanocrystal surfaces. When we correlate the surface chemistry information obtained from NMR with the optical spectra of our QDs, we find that for strongly-delocalizing ligands like PTC, the spatial distribution of ligands on the QD surface affects the overall degree of delocalization. In the later chapters of this thesis, we describe two avenues for exploiting the relationship between surface coverage of exciton-delocalizing ligands and quantum confinement to design strongly coupled, hierarchical nanomaterials for efficient charge transport in films or in solution. We explore the treatment of thin lead sulfide QD films with a PTC derivative to improve their overall conductivity relative to benzoic acid, a similar molecule that does not affect confinement. Finally, we describe a potential strategy to improve the yield and rate of hole transfer to a tethered phthalocyanine molecule using dithiocarbamate and thiolate linkers.

  7. Euler characteristic and quadrilaterals of normal surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In particular, if F is an oriented, closed and connected normal surface of genus g, g ≤. 7. 2. Q. DEFINITION 1.2. Let F be a normal surface in M. Let t be a normal triangle of F that lies in a tetrahedron . The triangle t is said to link a vertex v of if t separates ∂ into two disks such that the disk containing v has no other vertices of .

  8. Surface engineered two-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional nanomaterials for electronic and optoelectronic devices (United States)

    Du, Xiang

    As the sizes of individual components in electronic and optoelectronic devices approach nano scale, the performance of the devices is often determined by surface properties due to their large surface-to-volume ratio. Surface phenomena have become one of the cornerstones in nanoelectronic industry. For this reason, research on the surface functionalization has been tremendous amount of growth over the past decades, and promises to be an increasingly important field in the future. Surface functionalization, as an effective technique to modify the surface properties of a material through a physical or chemical approach, exhibits great potential to solve the problems and challenges, and modulate the performance of nanomaterials based functional devices. Surface functionalization drives the developments and applications of modern electronic and optoelectronic devices fabricated by nanomaterials. In this thesis, I demonstrate two surface functionalization approaches, namely, surface transfer doping and H2 annealing, to effectively solve the problems and significantly enhance the performance of 2D (single structure black phosphorus (BP) and heterostructure graphene/Si Schottky junction), and quasi-1D (molybdenum trioxide (MoO 3) nanobelt) nanomaterials based functional devices, respectively. In situ photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) measurements were also carried out to explore the interfacial charge transfer occurring at the interface between the nanostructures and doping layers, and the gap states in MoO 3 thin films, which provides the underlying mechanism to understand and support our device measurement results. In the first part of this thesis, I will discuss the first surface functionalization approach, namely, surface transfer doping, to effectively modulate the ambipolar characteristics of 2D few-layer BP flakes based FETs. The ambipolar characteristics of BP transistors were effectively modulated through in situ surface functionalization with cesium carbonate (Cs2

  9. Optimization of light out-coupling in optoelectronic devices using nanostructured surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Ou, Yiyu; Argyraki, Aikaterini

    C and GaN, these developed methods could be applied to other semicon ductors such as Si, etc. Furthermore, all optoelectronic devices having an optical interface such as solar cells, photo - detectors, could benefit from these developed methods for opto - electronic performance improvement....

  10. Tuning optoelectronic properties of small semiconductor nanocrystals through surface ligand chemistry (United States)

    Lawrence, Katie N.

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (SNCs) are a class of material with one dimension reported. Furthermore, the outstanding increase in PL-QY was found to be a product of both passivation and delocalization effects. Next we used poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG)-thiolate ligands to passivate the SNC and provide unique solubility properties in both aqueous and organic solvents as well as utilized their highly conductive nature to explore inter-SNC electronic coupling. The electronic coupling was studied: 1) as a function of SNC size where the smallest SNC exhibited the largest coupling energy (170 meV) and 2) as a function of annealing temperature, where an exceptionally large (˜400 meV) coupling energy was observed. This strong electronic coupling in self-organized films could facilitate the large-scale production of highly efficient electronic materials for advanced optoelectronic device applications. Strong inter-SNC electronic coupling together with high solubility, such as that provided by PEG-thiolate-coated CdSe SNCs, can increase the stability of SNCs during solution-phase electrochemical characterization. Therefore, we utilized these properties to characterize solution-state electrochemical properties and photocatalytic activity of ternary copper indium diselenide (CuInSe2) SNCs as a function of their size and surface ligand chemistry. Electrochemical characterization of our PEG-thiolate-coated SNCs showed that the thermodynamic driving force (-?G) for oxygen reduction, which increased with decreasing bandgap, was a major contributor to the overall photocatalytic reaction. Additionally, phenol degradation efficiency was monitored in which the smallest diameter SNC and shortest chain length of PEG provided the highest efficiency. The information provided herein could be used to produce superior SNC photocatalysts for a variety of applications including oxidation of organic contaminants, conversion of water to hydrogen gas, and decomposition of crude oil or pesticides

  11. Normal Incidence for Graded Index Surfaces (United States)

    Khankhoje, Uday K.; Van Zyl, Jakob


    A plane wave is incident normally from vacuum (eta(sub 0) = 1) onto a smooth surface. The substrate has three layers; the top most layer has thickness d(sub 1) and permittivity epsilon(sub 1). The corresponding numbers for the next layer are d(sub 2); epsilon(sub 2), while the third layer which is semi-in nite has index eta(sub 3). The Hallikainen model [1] is used to relate volumetric soil moisture to the permittivity. Here, we consider the relation for the real part of the permittivity for a typical loam soil: acute epsilon(mv) = 2.8571 + 3.9678 x mv + 118:85 x mv(sup 2).

  12. Organic optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Wenping; Gong, Xiong; Zhan, Xiaowei; Fu, Hongbing; Bjornholm, Thomas


    Written by internationally recognized experts in the field with academic as well as industrial experience, this book concisely yet systematically covers all aspects of the topic.The monograph focuses on the optoelectronic behavior of organic solids and their application in new optoelectronic devices. It covers organic electroluminescent materials and devices, organic photonics, materials and devices, as well as organic solids in photo absorption and energy conversion. Much emphasis is laid on the preparation of functional materials and the fabrication of devices, from materials synthesis a

  13. Nanowire Optoelectronics


    Wang Zhihuan; Nabet Bahram


    Semiconductor nanowires have been used in a variety of passive and active optoelectronic devices including waveguides, photodetectors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), lasers, sensors, and optical antennas. We review the optical properties of these nanowires in terms of absorption, guiding, and radiation of light, which may be termed light management. Analysis of the interaction of light with long cylindrical/hexagonal structures with ...

  14. Nanowire Optoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhihuan


    Full Text Available Semiconductor nanowires have been used in a variety of passive and active optoelectronic devices including waveguides, photodetectors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs, lasers, sensors, and optical antennas. We review the optical properties of these nanowires in terms of absorption, guiding, and radiation of light, which may be termed light management. Analysis of the interaction of light with long cylindrical/hexagonal structures with subwavelength diameters identifies radial resonant modes, such as Leaky Mode Resonances, or Whispering Gallery modes. The two-dimensional treatment should incorporate axial variations in “volumetric modes,”which have so far been presented in terms of Fabry–Perot (FP, and helical resonance modes. We report on finite-difference timedomain (FDTD simulations with the aim of identifying the dependence of these modes on geometry (length, width, tapering, shape (cylindrical, hexagonal, core–shell versus core-only, and dielectric cores with semiconductor shells. This demonstrates how nanowires (NWs form excellent optical cavities without the need for top and bottommirrors. However, optically equivalent structures such as hexagonal and cylindrical wires can have very different optoelectronic properties meaning that light management alone does not sufficiently describe the observed enhancement in upward (absorption and downward transitions (emission of light inNWs; rather, the electronic transition rates should be considered. We discuss this “rate management” scheme showing its strong dimensional dependence, making a case for photonic integrated circuits (PICs that can take advantage of the confluence of the desirable optical and electronic properties of these nanostructures.

  15. Experimental analysis of surface finish in normal conducting cavities (United States)

    Zarrebini-Esfahani, A.; Aslaninejad, M.; Ristic, M.; Long, K.


    A normal conducting 805 MHz test cavity with an in built button shaped sample is used to conduct a series of surface treatment experiments. The button enhances the local fields and influences the likelihood of an RF breakdown event. Because of their smaller sizes, compared to the whole cavity surface, they allow practical investigations of the effects of cavity surface preparation in relation to RF breakdown. Manufacturing techniques and steps for preparing the buttons to improve the surface quality are described in detail. It was observed that even after the final stage of the surface treatment, defects on the surface of the cavities still could be found.

  16. Seasonality in onshore normalized wind profiles above the surface layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Jesper Nielsen; Gryning, Sven-Erik


    This work aims to study the seasonal difference in normalized wind speed above the surface layer as it is observed at the 160 m high mast at the coastal site Høvsøre at winds from the sea (westerly). Normalized and stability averaged wind speeds above the surface layer are observed to be 20 to 50......% larger in the winter/spring seasons compared to the summer/autumn seasons at winds from west within the same atmospheric stability class. A method combining the mesoscale model, COAMPS, and observations of the surface stability of the marine boundary layer is presented. The objective of the method...... is to reconstruct the seasonal signal in normalized wind speed and identify the physical process behind. The method proved reasonably successful in capturing the relative difference in wind speed between seasons, indicating that the simulated physical processes are likely candidates to the observed seasonal signal...

  17. Optoelectronics laboratory annual report, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The research projects completed or being pursued in 1994 at Optoelectronics Laboratory are described in the detailed research reports, which consist the major part of this annual report. A large amount of this work is financed, in part at least, from sources outside the University. The three-year research contract signed by the Helsinki University of Technology, its Optoelectronics Laboratory and the Academy of Finland ended in 1994. It aimed at developing advanced technologies for optoelectronic components and new semiconductor heterostructures. The research programme was divided into three subprojects: MOVPE (metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy) and materials characterisation, surface emitting lasers having vertical cavity, and cold trapping of atoms with semiconductor laser beams. The research was carried out jointly with the Photonics Division of the Electronic Materials and Components VTT Electronics and the Metrology Research Institute of the Helsinki University of Technology.

  18. RPE cell surface proteins in normal and dystrophic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, V.M.; Hall, M.O.


    Membrane-bound proteins in plasma membrane enriched fractions from cultured rat RPE were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Membrane proteins were characterized on three increasingly specific levels. Total protein was visualized by silver staining. A maximum of 102 separate proteins were counted in silver-stained gels. Glycoproteins were labeled with 3H-glucosamine or 3H-fucose and detected by autoradiography. Thirty-eight fucose-labeled and 61-71 glucosamine-labeled proteins were identified. All of the fucose-labeled proteins were labeled with glucosamine-derived radioactivity. Proteins exposed at the cell surface were labeled by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination prior to preparation of membranes for two-dimensional analysis. Forty separate 125I-labeled surface proteins were resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis/autoradiography. Comparison with the glycoprotein map showed that a number of these surface labeled proteins were glycoproteins. Two-dimensional maps of total protein, fucose-labeled, and glucosamine-labeled glycoproteins, and 125I-labeled surface proteins of membranes from dystrophic (RCS rdy-p+) and normal (Long Evans or RCS rdy+p+) RPE were compared. No differences in the total protein or surface-labeled proteins were observed. However, the results suggest that a 183K glycoprotein is more heavily glycosylated with glucosamine and fucose in normal RPE membranes as compared to membranes from dystrophic RPE

  19. Growth of contact area between rough surfaces under normal stress (United States)

    Stesky, R. M.; Hannan, S. S.


    The contact area between deforming rough surfaces in marble, alabaster, and quartz was measured from thin sections of surfaces bonded under load with low viscosity resin epoxy. The marble and alabaster samples had contact areas that increased with stress at an accelerating rate. This result suggests that the strength of the asperity contacts decreased progressively during the deformation, following some form of strain weakening relationship. This conclusion is supported by petrographic observation of the thin sections that indicate that much of the deformation was cataclastic, with minor twinning of calcite and kinking of gypsum. In the case of the quartz, the observed contact area was small and increased approximately linearly with normal stress. Only the irreversible cataclastic deformation was observed; however strain-induced birefringence and cracking of the epoxy, not observed with the other rocks, suggests that significant elastic deformation occurred, but recovered during unloading.

  20. Optoelectronic characteristics of CuO nanorods (United States)

    Xie, De-Hua; Wang, Fei-Fei; Lü, Hao; Du, Min-Yong; Xu, Wen-Jie


    Optoelectronic characteristics of p-type CuO nanorods, synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method, were investigated at different atmospheres and oxygen pressures. The CuO nanorods have lower resistance in air than in a vacuum, unlike the n-type semiconductors. This is explained in terms of the surface accumulation conduction. Measurements at different oxygen pressures indicate that oxygen has an important effect on the optoelectronic properties of p-type nanomaterials.

  1. Organic optoelectronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yongfang


    This volume reviews the latest trends in organic optoelectronic materials. Each comprehensive chapter allows graduate students and newcomers to the field to grasp the basics, whilst also ensuring that they have the most up-to-date overview of the latest research. Topics include: organic conductors and semiconductors; conducting polymers and conjugated polymer semiconductors, as well as their applications in organic field-effect-transistors; organic light-emitting diodes; and organic photovoltaics and transparent conducting electrodes. The molecular structures, synthesis methods, physicochemical and optoelectronic properties of the organic optoelectronic materials are also introduced and described in detail. The authors also elucidate the structures and working mechanisms of organic optoelectronic devices and outline fundamental scientific problems and future research directions. This volume is invaluable to all those interested in organic optoelectronic materials.

  2. Effect of substrate surface free energy on the optoelectronic and morphological properties of organolead halide perovskite solar cell materials (Presentation Recording) (United States)

    Shallcross, R. Clayton; Stanfill, James G.; Armstrong, Neal R.


    Here, we show how the surface free energy of the electron-collecting oxide contact has a very pronounced effect on the nucleation free energy of solution-processed organolead halide perovskite thin films, which influences the crystal size/orientation, band-edge energies, conductivity and, ultimately, the performance of solar cell devices. While a great deal of the research community's attention has been focused on the perovskite deposition methodology (e.g., starting precursors, annealing conditions, etc.), we demonstrate how the surface free energy of the oxide contact itself can be modified to control morphology and optoelectronic properties of the resulting hybrid perovskite thin films. The surface free energy of high-quality oxide contacts deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) is modified by functionalization with a variety of self-assembled monolayers. We explore a number of deposition methodologies (e.g., a variety of single step and sequential step approaches) and their effect on the morphological and electronic properties of the resulting perovskite thin films deposited on these modified oxide contacts. Standard atomic force microscopy (AFM) and its conductive analog (cAFM) show how the oxide surface free energy ultimately affects the nanoscale morphology and charge transport characteristics of these semiconductor films. Photoelectron spectroscopy is used to elucidate the chemical composition (e.g., X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy - XPS), band edge energies (e.g., ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy - UPS), and the presence of gap states above the valence band (high sensitivity UPS measurements near the Fermi energy) of the hybrid perovskite materials as a function of the oxide surface free energy.

  3. Stability analysis of rough surfaces in adhesive normal contact (United States)

    Rey, Valentine; Bleyer, Jeremy


    This paper deals with adhesive frictionless normal contact between one elastic flat solid and one stiff solid with rough surface. After computation of the equilibrium solution of the energy minimization principle and respecting the contact constraints, we aim at studying the stability of this equilibrium solution. This study of stability implies solving an eigenvalue problem with inequality constraints. To achieve this goal, we propose a proximal algorithm which enables qualifying the solution as stable or unstable and that gives the instability modes. This method has a low computational cost since no linear system inversion is required and is also suitable for parallel implementation. Illustrations are given for the Hertzian contact and for rough contact.

  4. A comparative study on surface morphological investigations of ferric oxide for LPG and opto-electronic humidity sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Satyendra; Verma, Nidhi [Nanomaterials and Sensors Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007, U.P. (India); Yadav, B.C., E-mail: [Nanomaterials and Sensors Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007, U.P. (India); Department of Applied Physics, School for Physical Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow 226025, U.P. (India); Prakash, Rajiv [School of Materials Science and Technology, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Flower-like, elliptical and spherical shaped surface morphologies of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structural and surface morphological investigations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relationship between the surface morphology and sensing property. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Advancement in sensitivity of LPG sensor in comparison to prior work. - Abstract: In the present work nanostructured ferric oxides were synthesized via hydroxide precipitation method without using any surfactant and size selection medium. The surface morphologies and structure of samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structural analysis confirmed the formation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with {alpha}-phase and rhombohedral structure. Optical and thermal properties were investigated by using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Pelletizations of materials were done using hydraulic press and these pellets were investigated with the exposition of liquefied petroleum gas. Variations in resistance of the pellet with time for different concentrations of LPG were recorded at room temperature (27 Degree-Sign C). The maximum value of average sensitivity was found {approx}5 for 5 vol.% of LPG. Our results show that the LPG sensing behavior was inspired by the different kinds of surface morphologies of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and inferred that the spherical porous nanoparticles synthesized via hydroxide precipitation process (S-3) had best response to LPG.

  5. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M


    Optoelectronics Circuits Manual covers the basic principles and characteristics of the best known types of optoelectronic devices, as well as the practical applications of many of these optoelectronic devices. The book describes LED display circuits and LED dot- and bar-graph circuits and discusses the applications of seven-segment displays, light-sensitive devices, optocouplers, and a variety of brightness control techniques. The text also tackles infrared light-beam alarms and multichannel remote control systems. The book provides practical user information and circuitry and illustrations.

  6. A comparative study on surface morphological investigations of ferric oxide for LPG and opto-electronic humidity sensors (United States)

    Singh, Satyendra; Verma, Nidhi; Yadav, B. C.; Prakash, Rajiv


    In the present work nanostructured ferric oxides were synthesized via hydroxide precipitation method without using any surfactant and size selection medium. The surface morphologies and structure of samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structural analysis confirmed the formation of Fe2O3 with α-phase and rhombohedral structure. Optical and thermal properties were investigated by using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Pelletizations of materials were done using hydraulic press and these pellets were investigated with the exposition of liquefied petroleum gas. Variations in resistance of the pellet with time for different concentrations of LPG were recorded at room temperature (27 °C). The maximum value of average sensitivity was found ˜5 for 5 vol.% of LPG. Our results show that the LPG sensing behavior was inspired by the different kinds of surface morphologies of Fe2O3 and inferred that the spherical porous nanoparticles synthesized via hydroxide precipitation process (S-3) had best response to LPG.

  7. Enhancing optoelectronic properties of SiC-grown graphene by a surface layer of colloidal quantum dots (United States)

    Makarovsky, Oleg; Turyanska, Lyudmila; Mori, Nobuya; Greenaway, Mark; Eaves, Laurence; Patané, Amalia; Fromhold, Mark; Lara-Avila, Samuel; Kubatkin, Sergey; Yakimova, Rositsa


    We report a simultaneous increase of carrier concentration, mobility and photoresponsivity when SiC-grown graphene is decorated with a surface layer of colloidal PbS quantum dots, which act as electron donors. The charge on the ionised dots is spatially correlated with defect charges on the SiC-graphene interface, thus enhancing both electron carrier density and mobility. This charge-correlation model is supported by Monte Carlo simulations of electron transport and used to explain the unexpected 3-fold increase of mobility with increasing electron density. The enhanced carrier concentration and mobility give rise to Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in the magnetoresistance, which provide an estimate of the electron cyclotron mass in graphene at high densities and Fermi energies up to 1.2  ×  1013 cm-2 and 400 meV, respectively.

  8. Normalization. (United States)

    Cuevas, Eduardo J.


    Discusses cornerstone of Montessori theory, normalization, which asserts that if a child is placed in an optimum prepared environment where inner impulses match external opportunities, the undeviated self emerges, a being totally in harmony with its surroundings. Makes distinctions regarding normalization, normalized, and normality, indicating how…

  9. Stable phase CdS nanoparticles for optoelectronics: a study on surface morphology, structural and optical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Suresh


    Full Text Available This work presents a study on the surface morphology, structure and optical behavior of stable phase cadmium sulphide (CdS nanoparticles synthesized via co-precipitation technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis has been employed to study a cluster formation in the aggregated nanoparticles. An image analysis approach using ImageJ has been used to measure the size of nanoparticles from the SEM micrographs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR analysis identified absorption peaks of Cd–S stretching along with moisture content. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis showed that CdS nanoparticles crystallized in wurtzite structure with a preferential orientation along (0 0 2 plane. The particle size, microstrain and lattice constants have been evaluated using XRD data. The lattice parameters of these nanoparticles were found to be shorter than the bulk value which led to lattice contraction. The optical absorption study showed a blue shift in the fundamental absorption edge indicating a quantum size effect.

  10. Optoelectronic tweezers for medical diagnostics (United States)

    Kremer, Clemens; Neale, Steven; Menachery, Anoop; Barrett, Mike; Cooper, Jonathan M.


    Optoelectronic tweezers (OET) allows the spatial patterning of electric fields through selected illumination of a photoconductive surface. This enables the manipulation of micro particles and cells by creating non-uniform electrical fields that then produce dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces. The DEP responses of cells differ and can produce negative or positive (repelled or attracted to areas of high electric field) forces. Therefore OET can be used to manipulate individual cells and separate different cell types from each other. Thus OET has many applications for medical diagnostics, demonstrated here with work towards diagnosing Human African Trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness.

  11. Determination of Optimum Viewing Angles for the Angular Normalization of Land Surface Temperature over Vegetated Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huazhong Ren


    Full Text Available Multi-angular observation of land surface thermal radiation is considered to be a promising method of performing the angular normalization of land surface temperature (LST retrieved from remote sensing data. This paper focuses on an investigation of the minimum requirements of viewing angles to perform such normalizations on LST. The normally kernel-driven bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF is first extended to the thermal infrared (TIR domain as TIR-BRDF model, and its uncertainty is shown to be less than 0.3 K when used to fit the hemispheric directional thermal radiation. A local optimum three-angle combination is found and verified using the TIR-BRDF model based on two patterns: the single-point pattern and the linear-array pattern. The TIR-BRDF is applied to an airborne multi-angular dataset to retrieve LST at nadir (Te-nadir from different viewing directions, and the results show that this model can obtain reliable Te-nadir from 3 to 4 directional observations with large angle intervals, thus corresponding to large temperature angular variations. The Te-nadir is generally larger than temperature of the slant direction, with a difference of approximately 0.5~2.0 K for vegetated pixels and up to several Kelvins for non-vegetated pixels. The findings of this paper will facilitate the future development of multi-angular thermal infrared sensors.

  12. Semiconductor opto-electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, TS; Ellis, B


    Semiconductor Opto-Electronics focuses on opto-electronics, covering the basic physical phenomena and device behavior that arise from the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and electrons in a solid. The first nine chapters of this book are devoted to theoretical topics, discussing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with solids, dispersion theory and absorption processes, magneto-optical effects, and non-linear phenomena. Theories of photo-effects and photo-detectors are treated in detail, including the theories of radiation generation and the behavior of semiconductor lasers a

  13. Perspectives in optoelectronics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jha, Sudhanshu S


    ..., optoelectronics is playing a major role in both applied as well as basic sciences. In years to come, i t is destined to change the face of information technology and robotics, involving optical sensing and control, information storage, signal and image processing, communications, and computing. Because of the possibility of using large bandwidths availa...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 31, 2014 ... 1. INTRODUCTION. The direct band gab semiconductor offer much stronger absorption coefficient; therefore, the porous silicon has better optoelectronic properties than bulk silicon[1].The silicon ultraviolet photodetectors have many dramatic limitations, like the low quantum efficiency in the deep UV.

  15. Preliminary surface analysis of etched, bleached, and normal bovine enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruse, N.D.; Smith, D.C.; Torneck, C.D.; Titley, K.C.


    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) and secondary ion-mass spectroscopic (SIMS) analyses were performed on unground un-pumiced, unground pumiced, and ground labial enamel surfaces of young bovine incisors exposed to four different treatments: (1) immersion in 35% H2O2 for 60 min; (2) immersion in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s; (3) immersion in 35% H2O2 for 60 min, in distilled water for two min, and in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s; (4) immersion in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s, in distilled water for two min, and in 35% H2O2 for 60 min. Untreated unground un-pumiced, unground pumiced, and ground enamel surfaces, as well as synthetic hydroxyapatite surfaces, served as controls for intra-tooth evaluations of the effects of different treatments. The analyses indicated that exposure to 35% H2O2 alone, besides increasing the nitrogen content, produced no other significant change in the elemental composition of any of the enamel surfaces investigated. Exposure to 37% H3PO4, however, produced a marked decrease in calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and an increase in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentrations in unground un-pumiced specimens only, and a decrease in C concentration in ground specimens. These results suggest that the reported decrease in the adhesive bond strength of resin to 35% H2O2-treated enamel is not caused by a change in the elemental composition of treated enamel surfaces. They also suggest that an organic-rich layer, unaffected by acid-etching, may be present on the unground un-pumiced surface of young bovine incisors. This layer can be removed by thorough pumicing or by grinding. An awareness of its presence is important when young bovine teeth are used in a model system for evaluation of resin adhesiveness

  16. Measurement of tendon reflexes by surface electromyography in normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, J.; van Crevel, H.


    A simple method for measuring the tendon reflexes was developed. A manually operated, electronic reflex hammer was applied that enabled measurement of the strength of tendon taps. Reflex responses were recorded by surface electromyography. Stimulus-response relations and latencies of tendon reflexes

  17. Lining cells on normal human vertebral bone surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.B.; Lloyd, E.L.


    Thoracic vertebrae from two individuals with no bone disease were studied with the electron microscope to determine cell morphology in relation to bone mineral. The work was undertaken to determine if cell morphology or spatial relationships between the bone lining cells and bone mineral could account for the relative infrequency of bone tumors which arise at this site following radium intake, when compared with other sites, such as the head of the femur. Cells lining the vertebral mineral were found to be generally rounded in appearance with varied numbers of cytoplasmic granules, and they appeared to have a high density per unit of surface area. These features contrasted with the single layer of flattened cells characteristic of the bone lining cells of the femur. A tentative discussion of the reasons for the relative infrequency of tumors in the vertebrae following radium acquisition is presented

  18. Optoelectronic Particle-Fallout Sensor (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Curtis; Mogan, Paul A.; Youngquist, Robert C.; Moerk, John S.; Haskell, William D.; Cox, Robert B.; Rose, Kenneth A.


    Portable optoelectronic system monitors fallout of small particles (dust and fibers) onto surface at given location during extended time. Data on accumulated fallout downloaded from system to computer for display and analysis. Typical display is plot of signal proportional to amount of accumulated fallout as function of time and read to determine when contamination occurs. In many cases, possible to establish correlations between accumulations of particles and activities in vicinity. Also capable of signaling alarm in event contamination by fallout exceeds specified level. System made very inexpensively and used to monitor accumulation of dust and fibers associated with motion of air in variety of environments. Phenomena monitored indirectly by use of system might include circulation of air in buildings, and human and animal activity. Also serves as auxiliary intrusion monitor (though probably not real-time alarm) in sealed room because motion of intruder inevitably stirs up some dust.

  19. Semiconductor nanowires: optics and optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, R. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Lieber, C.M. [Harvard University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, and Division of Engineering Applied Sciences, Cambridge, MA (United States)


    Single crystalline semiconductor nanowires are being extensively investigated due to their unique electronic and optical properties and their potential use in novel electronic and photonic devices. The unique properties of nanowires arise owing to their anisotropic geometry, large surface to volume ratio, and carrier and photon confinement in two dimensions (1D system). Currently, tremendous efforts are being devoted to rational synthesis of nanowire structures with control over their composition, structure, dopant concentration, characterization, fundamental properties, and assembly into functional devices. In this article we will review the progress made in the area of nanowire optics and optoelectronic devices, including diodes, lasers, detectors, and waveguides, and will outline the general challenges that must be overcome and some potential solutions in order to continue the exponential progress in this exciting area of research. (orig.)

  20. Nano crystals for Electronic and Optoelectronic Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, T.; Cloutier, S.G.; Ivanov, I; Knappenberger Jr, K.L.; Robel, I.; Zhang, F


    Electronic and optoelectronic devices, from computers and smart cell phones to solar cells, have become a part of our life. Currently, devices with featured circuits of 45 nm in size can be fabricated for commercial use. However, further development based on traditional semiconductor is hindered by the increasing thermal issues and the manufacturing cost. During the last decade, nano crystals have been widely adopted in various electronic and optoelectronic applications. They provide alternative options in terms of ease of processing, low cost, better flexibility, and superior electronic/optoelectronic properties. By taking advantage of solution-processing, self-assembly, and surface engineering, nano crystals could serve as new building blocks for low-cost manufacturing of flexible and large area devices. Tunable electronic structures combined with small exciton binding energy, high luminescence efficiency, and low thermal conductivity make nano crystals extremely attractive for FET, memory device, solar cell, solid-state lighting/display, photodetector, and lasing applications. Efforts to harness the nano crystal quantum tunability have led to the successful demonstration of many prototype devices, raising the public awareness to the wide range of solutions that nano technology can provide for an efficient energy economy. This special issue aims to provide the readers with the latest achievements of nano crystals in electronic and optoelectronic applications, including the synthesis and engineering of nano crystals towards the applications and the corresponding device fabrication, characterization and computer modeling.

  1. Steps towards silicon optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starovoytov, A


    This thesis addresses the issue of a potential future microelectronics technology, namely the possibility of utilising the optical properties of nanocrystalline silicon for optoelectronic circuits. The subject is subdivided into three chapters. Chapter 1 is an introduction. It formulates the oncoming problem for microelectronic development, explains the basics of Integrated Optoelectronics, introduces porous silicon as a new light-emitting material and gives a brief review of other competing light-emitting material systems currently under investigation. Examples of existing porous silicon devices are given. Chapter 2 reviews the basic physics relevant to the subject of this thesis and in-forms on the present situation in this field of research, including both experimental and theoretical knowledge gained up-to-date. The chapter provides the necessary background for correct interpretation of the results reported in Chapter 3 and for a realistic decision on the direction for future work. Chapter 3 describes my own experimental and computational results within the framework of the subject, obtained at De Montfort University. These include: one-step preparation of laterally structured porous silicon with photoluminescence and microscopy characterisation, Raman spectroscopy of porous silicon, a polarisation study of the photoluminescence from porous silicon, computer simulations of the conductivity of two-component media and of laser focused atomic deposition for nanostructure fabrication. Thus, this thesis makes a dual contribution to the chosen field: it summarises the present knowledge on the possibility of utilising optical properties of nanocrystalline silicon in silicon-based electronics, and it reports new results within the framework of the subject. The main conclusion is that due to its promising optoelectronic properties nanocrystalline silicon remains a prospective competitor for the cheapest and fastest microelectronics of the next century. (author)

  2. Semiconductor characterization for optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miner, C.J. [Bell Northern Research Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    Scanning reflectance spectroscopy, scanning photoluminescence, and double crystal x-ray diffraction mapping are all specialized non-destructive characterization tools which monitor the advanced materials used in the development of high speed optoelectronics. Each technology was described and their application in the assessment of III-V semiconductor composition, layer thickness and defect density was demonstrated. The new techniques have been optimized for speed, to make high spatial resolution mapping practical. Since the tests are non-destructive, frequent monitoring is possible. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Deformable paper origami optoelectronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau


    Deformable optoelectronic devices are provided, including photodetectors, photodiodes, and photovoltaic cells. The devices can be made on a variety of paper substrates, and can include a plurality of fold segments in the paper substrate creating a deformable pattern. Thin electrode layers and semiconductor nanowire layers can be attached to the substrate, creating the optoelectronic device. The devices can be highly deformable, e.g. capable of undergoing strains of 500% or more, bending angles of 25° or more, and/or twist angles of 270° or more. Methods of making the deformable optoelectronic devices and methods of using, e.g. as a photodetector, are also provided.

  4. Laser pulse transient method for measuring the normal spectral emissivity of samples with arbitrary surface quality (United States)

    Jeromen, A.; Grabec, I.; Govekar, E.


    A laser pulse transient method for measuring normal spectral emissivity is described. In this method, a laser pulse ( λ=1064 nm) irradiates the top surface of a flat specimen. A two-dimensional temperature response of the bottom surface is measured with a calibrated thermographic camera. By solving an axisymmetric boundary value heat conduction problem, the normal spectral emissivity at 1064 nm is determined by using an iterative nonlinear least-squares estimation procedure. The method can be applied to arbitrary sample surface quality. The method is tested on a nickel specimen and used to determine the normal spectral emissivity of AISI 304 stainless steel. The expanded combined uncertainty of the method has been estimated to be 18%.

  5. InP based optoelectronics (United States)

    Pütz, Norbert


    Optoelectronic devices involving epitaxial layers grown by MOCVD within the GaInAsP and GaInAlAs material systems lattice matched to InP are reviewed. Besides discrete long wavelength (1 MOCVD technique are presented.

  6. Radiation effects in optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.E.; Wiczer, J.J.


    Purpose of this report is to provide not only a summary of radiation damage studies at Sandia National Laboratories, but also of those in the literature on the components of optoelectronic systems: light emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, photodetectors, optical fibers, and optical isolators. This review of radiation damage in optoelectronic components is structured according to device type. In each section, a brief discussion of those device properties relevant to radiation effects is given

  7. Reconfigurable Integrated Optoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Soref


    Full Text Available Integrated optics today is based upon chips of Si and InP. The future of this chip industry is probably contained in the thrust towards optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs and photonic integrated circuits (PICs manufactured in a high-volume foundry. We believe that reconfigurable OEICs and PICs, known as ROEICs and RPICs, constitute the ultimate embodiment of integrated photonics. This paper shows that any ROEIC-on-a-chip can be decomposed into photonic modules, some of them fixed and some of them changeable in function. Reconfiguration is provided by electrical control signals to the electro-optical building blocks. We illustrate these modules in detail and discuss 3D ROEIC chips for the highest-performance signal processing. We present examples of our module theory for RPIC optical lattice filters already constructed, and we propose new ROEICs for directed optical logic, large-scale matrix switching, and 2D beamsteering of a phased-array microwave antenna. In general, large-scale-integrated ROEICs will enable significant applications in computing, quantum computing, communications, learning, imaging, telepresence, sensing, RF/microwave photonics, information storage, cryptography, and data mining.

  8. Metamaterial mirrors in optoelectronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Esfandyarpour, Majid


    The phase reversal that occurs when light is reflected from a metallic mirror produces a standing wave with reduced intensity near the reflective surface. This effect is highly undesirable in optoelectronic devices that use metal films as both electrical contacts and optical mirrors, because it dictates a minimum spacing between the metal and the underlying active semiconductor layers, therefore posing a fundamental limit to the overall thickness of the device. Here, we show that this challenge can be circumvented by using a metamaterial mirror whose reflection phase is tunable from that of a perfect electric mirror († = €) to that of a perfect magnetic mirror († = 0). This tunability in reflection phase can also be exploited to optimize the standing wave profile in planar devices to maximize light-matter interaction. Specifically, we show that light absorption and photocurrent generation in a sub-100 nm active semiconductor layer of a model solar cell can be enhanced by ∼20% over a broad spectral band. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  9. Crystalline Molybdenum Oxide Thin-Films for Application as Interfacial Layers in Optoelectronic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis; dos Reis, Roberto; Chen, Gong


    The ability to control the interfacial properties in metal-oxide thin films through surface defect engineering is vital to fine-tune their optoelectronic properties and thus their integration in novel optoelectronic devices. This is exemplified in photovoltaic devices based on organic, inorganic...... with structural characterizations, this work addresses a novel method for tuning, and correlating, the optoelectronic properties and microstructure of device-relevant MoOx layers....

  10. Multi-material optoelectronic fiber devices (United States)

    Sorin, F.; Yan, Wei; Volpi, Marco; Page, Alexis G.; Nguyen Dang, Tung; Qu, Y.


    The recent ability to integrate materials with different optical and optoelectronic properties in prescribed architectures within flexible fibers is enabling novel opportunities for advanced optical probes, functional surfaces and smart textiles. In particular, the thermal drawing process has known a series of breakthroughs in recent years that have expanded the range of materials and architectures that can be engineered within uniform fibers. Of particular interest in this presentation will be optoelectronic fibers that integrate semiconductors electrically addressed by conducting materials. These long, thin and flexible fibers can intercept optical radiation, localize and inform on a beam direction, detect its wavelength and even harness its energy. They hence constitute ideal candidates for applications such as remote and distributed sensing, large-area optical-detection arrays, energy harvesting and storage, innovative health care solutions, and functional fabrics. To improve performance and device complexity, tremendous progresses have been made in terms of the integrated semiconductor architectures, evolving from large fiber solid-core, to sub-hundred nanometer thin-films, nano-filaments and even nanospheres. To bridge the gap between the optoelectronic fiber concept and practical applications however, we still need to improve device performance and integration. In this presentation we will describe the materials and processing approaches to realize optoelectronic fibers, as well as give a few examples of demonstrated systems for imaging as well as light and chemical sensing. We will then discuss paths towards practical applications focusing on two main points: fiber connectivity, and improving the semiconductor microstructure by developing scalable approaches to make fiber-integrated single-crystal nanowire based devices.

  11. Cell and fiber attachment to demineralized dentin from normal root surfaces. (United States)

    Hanes, P J; Polson, A M; Ladenheim, S


    The study assessed connective tissue and epithelial responses to dentin specimens (obtained from normal roots of human teeth) after surface demineralization. Rectangular dental specimens with opposite faces of root and pulpal dentin were prepared from beneath root surfaces covered by periodontal ligament. One-half of the specimens were treated with citric acid, pH 1, for 3 minutes, while the remainder served as untreated control specimens. Specimens were implanted vertically into incisional wounds on the dorsal surface of rats with one end of the implant protruding through the skin. Four specimens in each group were available 1, 3, 5 and 10 days after implantation. Histologic and histometric analyses included counts of adhering cells, evaluation of connective tissue fiber relationships and assessment of epithelial migration. Analyses within each group comparing root and pulpal surfaces showed no differences between any of the parameters. Comparisons between experimental and control groups showed that demineralized surfaces had a greater number of cells attached, fiber attachment occurred and epithelial downgrowth was inhibited. The fiber attachment to experimental specimens differed morphologically from fiber attachment to normal root surfaces: the number of fibers attached per unit length and the diameter of attached fibers were significantly less on experimental specimens. Demineralized specimens at 10 days had a distinct eosinophilic surface zone. Surface demineralization of dentin predisposed toward a cell and fiber attachment system which inhibited migration of epithelium.

  12. Selecting the induction heating for normalization of deposited surfaces of cylindrical parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Валеріївна Бережна


    Full Text Available The machine parts recovered by electric contact surfacing with metal strip are characterized by high loading of the surface layer, which has a significant impact on their performance. Therefore, the improvement of the operational stability of fast-wearing machine parts through the use of combined treatment technologies is required. Not all the work-piece but just the worn zones are subjected to recovery with electric contact surfacing; the tape thickness and depth of the heat affected zone being not more than a few millimeters. Therefore, the most optimal in this case is the use of a local surface heating method of high frequency currents. This method has economical benefits because there is no need to heat the entire work-piece. The induction heating mode at a constant power density has been proposed and analytically investigated. The ratios that make it possible to determine the main heating parameters ensuring calculation of the inductor for the normalization of the reconstructed surface of cylindrical parts have been given. These parameters are: specific power, frequency and warm-up time. The proposed induction heating mode is intermediate between the quenching and cross-cutting heating and makes it possible to simultaneously obtain the required temperatures at the surface and at the predetermined depth of the heated layer of cylindrical parts with the normalization of their surfaces restored with electric contact surfacing

  13. Normal Contacts of Lubricated Fractal Rough Surfaces at the Atomic Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solhjoo, Soheil; Vakis, Antonis I.

    The friction of contacting interfaces is a function of surface roughness and applied normal load. Under boundary lubrication, this frictional behavior changes as a function of lubricant wettability, viscosity, and density, by practically decreasing the possibility of dry contact. Many studies on

  14. Ge-on-Si optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jifeng, E-mail: [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Camacho-Aguilera, Rodolfo; Bessette, Jonathan T.; Sun, Xiaochen [Microphotonics Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wang Xiaoxin [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Cai Yan; Kimerling, Lionel C.; Michel, Jurgen [Microphotonics Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)


    Electronic-photonic synergy has become an increasingly clear solution to enhance the bandwidth and improve the energy efficiency of information systems. Monolithic integration of optoelectronic devices is the ideal solution for large-scale electronic-photonic synergy. Due to its pseudo-direct gap behavior in optoelectronic properties and compatibility with Si electronics, epitaxial Ge-on-Si has become an attractive solution for monolithic optoelectronics. In this paper we will review recent progress in Ge-on-Si optoelectronics, including photodetectors, electroabsorption modulators, and lasers. The performance of these devices has been enhanced by band-engineering such as tensile strain and n-type doping, which transforms Ge towards a direct gap material. Selective growth reduces defect density and facilitates monolithic integration at the same time. Ge-on-Si photodetectors have approached or exceeded the performance of their III-V counterparts, with bandwidth-efficiency product > 30 GHz for p-i-n photodiodes and bandwidth-gain product > 340 GHz for avalanche photodiodes. Enhanced Franz-Keldysh effect in tensile-strained Ge offers ultralow energy photonic modulation with < 30 fJ/bit energy consumption and > 100 GHz intrinsic bandwidth. Room temperature optically-pumped lasing as well as electroluminescence has also been achieved from the direct gap transition of band-engineered Ge-on-Si waveguides. These results indicate that band-engineered Ge-on-Si is promising to achieve monolithic active optoelectronic devices on a Si platform.

  15. Semiconductor optoelectronic infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollingworth, A.R.


    We use spectroscopy to study infrared optoelectronic inter and intraband semiconductor carrier dynamics. The overall aim of this thesis was to study both III-V and Pb chalcogenide material systems in order to show their future potential use in infrared emitters. The effects of bandstructure engineering have been studied in the output characteristics of mid-IR III-V laser diodes to show which processes (defects, radiative, Auger and phonon) dominate and whether non-radiative processes can be suppressed. A new three-beam pump probe experiment was used to investigate interband recombination directly in passive materials. Experiments on PbSe and theory for non-parabolic near-mirror bands and non-degenerate statistics were in good agreement. Comparisons with HgCdTe showed a reduction in the Auger coefficient of 1-2 orders of magnitude in the PbSe. Using Landau confinement to model spatial confinement in quantum dots (QDs) 'phonon bottlenecking' was studied. The results obtained from pump probe and cyclotron resonance saturation measurements showed a clear suppression in the cooling of carriers when Landau level separation was not resonant with LO phonon energy. When a bulk laser diode was placed in a magnetic field to produce a quasi quantum wire device the resulting enhanced differential gain and reduced Auger recombination lowered I th by 30%. This result showed many peaks in the light output which occurred when the LO phonon energy was a multiple of the Landau level separation. This showed for the first time evidence of the phonon bottleneck in a working laser device. A new technique called time resolved optically detected cyclotron resonance, was used as a precursor to finding the carrier dynamics within a spatially confined quantum dot. By moving to the case of a spatial QD using an optically detected intraband resonance it was possible to measure the energy separation interband levels and conduction and valence sublevels within the dot simultaneously. Furthermore

  16. Nano electro-mechanical optoelectronic tunable VCSEL. (United States)

    Huang, Michael C Y; Zhou, Ye; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J


    We report a novel electrostatic actuated nano-electromechanical optoelectronic (NEMO) tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) centered at 850 nm. By integrating a movable, single-layer (230 nm), high-index-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) as the VCSEL top mirror, single mode emission (SMSR >40 dB) and continuous wavelength tuning (~2.5 nm) was obtained at room temperature under CW operation. The small footprint of HCG enables the scaling down of each of the cantilever dimensions by a factor of 10, leading to 1000 times reduction in mass, which potentially increases the mechanical resonant frequency and tuning speed.

  17. An introduction to optoelectronic sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Tajani, Antonella; Cutolo, Antonello


    This invaluable book offers a comprehensive overview of the technologies and applications of optoelectronic sensors. Based on the R&D experience of more than 70 engineers and scientists, highly representative of the Italian academic and industrial community in this area, this book provides a broad and accurate description of the state-of-the-art optoelectronic technologies for sensing. The most innovative approaches, such as the use of photonic crystals, squeezed states of light and microresonators for sensing, are considered. Application areas range from environment to medicine and healthcare

  18. Standard Test Methods for Total Normal Emittance of Surfaces Using Inspection-Meter Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 These test methods cover determination of the total normal emittance (Note) of surfaces by means of portable, inspection-meter instruments. Note 1—Total normal emittance (εN) is defined as the ratio of the normal radiance of a specimen to that of a blackbody radiator at the same temperature. The equation relating εN to wavelength and spectral normal emittance [εN (λ)] is where: L b(λ, T) = Planck's blackbody radiation function = c1π −1λ−5(ec2/λT − 1)−1, c1 = 3.7415 × 10−16 W·m 2, c2 = 1.4388 × 10−2 m·K, T = absolute temperature, K, λ = wavelength, m, Lb(λ, T)dλ = Δπ −1T4, and Δ = Stefan-Boltzmann constant = 5.66961 × 10 −8 W·m2·K−4 1.2 These test methods are intended for measurements on large surfaces when rapid measurements must be made and where a nondestructive test is desired. They are particularly useful for production control tests. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measu...

  19. Renal function maturation in children: is normalization to surface area valid?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutland, M.D.; Hassan, I.M.; Que, L.


    Full text: Gamma camera DTPA renograms were analysed to measure renal function by the rate at which the kidneys took up tracer from the blood. This was expressed either directly as the fractional uptake rate (FUR), which is not related to body size, or it was converted to a camera-based GFR by the formula GFR blood volume x FUR, and this GFR was normalized to a body surface area of 1.73 m2. Most of the patients studied had one completely normal kidney, and one kidney with reflux but normal function and no large scars. The completely normal kidneys contributed, on average, 50% of the total renal function. The results were considered in age bands, to display the effect of age on renal function. The camera-GFR measurements showed the conventional results of poor renal function in early childhood, with a slow rise to near-adult values by the age of 2 years, and somewhat low values throughout childhood. The uptake values showed a different pattern, with renal function rising to adult equivalent values by the age of 4 months, and with children having better renal function than adults throughout most of their childhood. The standard deviations expressed as coefficients of variation (CV) were smaller for the FUR technique than the GFR (Wilcoxon rank test, P < 0.01). These results resemble recent published measurements of absolute DMSA uptake, which are also unrelated to body size and show early renal maturation. The results also suggest that the reason children have lower serum creatinine levels than adults is that they have better renal function. If this were confirmed, it would raise doubts about the usefulness of normalizing renal function to body surface area in children

  20. Optoelectronic Implementation of Neural Networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 9. Optoelectronic Implementation of Neural Networks - Use of Optics in Computing. R Ramachandran. General Article Volume 3 Issue 9 September 1998 pp 45-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. SiGe/Si electronics and optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, K.L.; Karunasiri, R.P.G. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    Recently, there is an increased interest in the use of SiGe layered material for integration with Si technology. SiGe offers the opportunity for the first time to realize the advantages of heterojunctions in Si-based technology. In this article, the present status of the SiGe epitaxial growth techniques will be discussed from the point of view of device application. New directions will be presented. Next, electronic devices to be reviewed include bipolars and field effect transistors. The progress of tunneling devices will also be discussed. Then, the realization of quantum wells and superlattices for optoelectronics will be discussed. Then, the realization of quantum wells and superlattices for optoelectronics will be discussed. These will include Si-based detectors and modulators based on interband and intersubband transitions. One of the focuses will be the normal incidence operation for intersubband devices. Finally, the current status in the quest of light emitters will be briefly addressed. 44 refs., 15 figs.

  2. Trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume maturation in normal brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ducharme


    Full Text Available This is a report of developmental trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume in the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development. The quality-controlled sample included 384 individual typically-developing subjects with repeated scanning (1–3 per subject, total scans n=753 from 4.9 to 22.3 years of age. The best-fit model (cubic, quadratic, or first-order linear was identified at each vertex using mixed-effects models, with statistical correction for multiple comparisons using random field theory. Analyses were performed with and without controlling for total brain volume. These data are provided for reference and comparison with other databases. Further discussion and interpretation on cortical developmental trajectories can be found in the associated Ducharme et al.׳s article “Trajectories of cortical thickness maturation in normal brain development – the importance of quality control procedures” (Ducharme et al., 2015 [1].

  3. Internal structure of normal maize starch granules revealed by chemical surface gelatinization. (United States)

    Pan, D D; Jane, J I


    Normal maize starch was fractionated into two sizes: large granules with diameters more than 5 microns and small granules with diameters less than 5 microns. The large granules were surface gelatinized by treating them with an aqueous LiCl solution (13 M) at 22-23 degrees C. Surface-gelatinized remaining granules were obtained by mechanical blending, and gelatinized surface starch was obtained by grinding with a mortar and a pestle. Starches of different granular sizes and radial locations, obtained after different degrees of surface gelatinization, were subjected to scanning electron microscopy, iodine potentiometric titration, gel-permeation chromatography, and amylopectin branch chain length analysis. Results showed that the remaining granules had a rough surface with a lamella structure. Amylose was more concentrated at the periphery than at the core of the granule. Amylopectin had longer long B-chains at the core than at the periphery of the granule. Greater proportions of the long B-chains were present at the core than at the periphery of the granule.

  4. Optoelectronics Research Center (United States)


    Transmission through a Subwavelength Circular Aperture Coupled to a Surrounding Concentric Metal Grating by Surface Plasmon Excitation, Phys. Stat. Sol. C6...ground plane acts as a mirror at optical frequencies. Fig. 1(a) is a photograph of two samples under test. Fig 1(b) and 1(c) show the schematic...pho- tomixing efficiency. Typically, dual wavelength emission from quantum well (QW) lasers re- quires two separate gratings to be incorporated into

  5. Normal appearance of the prostate and seminal tract: MR imaging using an endorectal surface coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myeong Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Moo Sang; Choi, Pil Sik; Hong, Sung Joon; Lee, Yeon Hee; Choi, Hak Yong [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To assess the ability of MR imaging with an endorectal surface coil for the depiction of normal anatomical structure of prostate and its adjacent organs. MR imaging using an endorectal surface coil was performed in 23 male patients(age ; 20-75) to evaluate various prostatic and vasovesicular disorders, i. e, 14 cases of ejaculatory problems, 3 cases of hypogonadism, and 4 cases of prostatic cancers and 2 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia. MR images were obtained with axial, sagittal and coronal fast spin echo long TR/TE images and axial spin echo short TR/TE images. Field of views was 10-12 cm and scan thickness was 3-5 mm. Depiction of normal anatomcial structures was excellent in all cases. On T2WI, zonal anatomy of the prostate and prostatic urethra, urethral crest, and ejaculatory duct were cleary visualized. On T1WI, periprostatic fat plane is more cleary visualized. On transverse images, periprostatic structures were well visualized on T1WI,and on T2WI, anterior fibromuscular stroma, transition zone and peripheral zone could be readily differentiated. Coronal images were more helpful in visualization of both central and peripheral zones. Vas deferens, ejaculatory duct and vermontanum were also more easily defined on these images. Sagittal images was helpful in the depiction of anterior fibromuscular stroma, central zone and peripheral zone with prostatic urethra and ejaculatory duct in a single plane. High resolution MR imaging with an endorectal surface coil can readily visualize the normal anatomy of the prostate and its related structures and may be useful in the evaluation of various diseases of prostate and vasvesicular system.

  6. On the discrepancy in measurement of Q using surface waves and normal modes (United States)

    Meschede, M.; Romanowicz, B. A.


    We revisit the decade-old unsolved problem of why measurements of the quality factor (Q) for fundamental mode propagating Rayleigh waves differs by up to 20% from that measured using normal modes, in the frequency band where both approaches are possible. Surface wave measurements consistently yield lower Q values than modes. Since it is unclear which measurement is more accurate, this is currently a limitation on the resolution of 1D average Q profiles in the Earth, compounded by the fact that the measurement bias may not only affect the region of the spectrum where both methods are available but every Q measurement that is based upon one or the other of the mentioned techniques. We investigate the effect of elastic focussing and defocussing on long time series using a spectral element method that we have shown to be accurate enough for the relevant period ranges and the necessarily long time series. While previous investigations are based upon approximate methods that are only valid for smooth 3D models and weak heterogeneities, the SEM allows us to estimate the effect of more realistic distributions of heterogeneities on amplitude measurements, and therefore Q. Our investigations show a bias towards lower Q in the first arriving surface wave trains and a bias towards higher Q in later arrivals which could explain the mode surface-wave discrepancy. Heuristically this can be explained by the fact that energy that has been scattered off the great circle path is brought back into the great circle after multiple-orbits, leading to increased amplitude in late arrivals. Further we reinvestigate the effects of noise that predominantly influences the later part of the seismogram, the effect of post-processing as well as mode amplitude modulations that could potentially bias the measurements. We plan to present preliminary results on applying our insights to debias real data and reduce the error bounds on 1D Q models from normal modes and surface waves.

  7. Identification of surface species by vibrational normal mode analysis. A DFT study (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Jian; Genest, Alexander; Rösch, Notker


    Infrared spectroscopy is an important experimental tool for identifying molecular species adsorbed on a metal surface that can be used in situ. Often vibrational modes in such IR spectra of surface species are assigned and identified by comparison with vibrational spectra of related (molecular) compounds of known structure, e. g., an organometallic cluster analogue. To check the validity of this strategy, we carried out a computational study where we compared the normal modes of three C2Hx species (x = 3, 4) in two types of systems, as adsorbates on the Pt(111) surface and as ligands in an organometallic cluster compound. The results of our DFT calculations reproduce the experimental observed frequencies with deviations of at most 50 cm-1. However, the frequencies of the C2Hx species in both types of systems have to be interpreted with due caution if the coordination mode is unknown. The comparative identification strategy works satisfactorily when the coordination mode of the molecular species (ethylidyne) is similar on the surface and in the metal cluster. However, large shifts are encountered when the molecular species (vinyl) exhibits different coordination modes on both types of substrates.

  8. Mid-infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Krier, Anthony


    The practical realisation of optoelectronic devices operating in the 2–10 µm (mid-infrared) wavelength range offers potential applications in a variety of areas from environmental gas monitoring around oil rigs and landfill sites to the detection of pharmaceuticals, particularly narcotics. In addition, an atmospheric transmission window exists between 3 µm and 5 µm that enables free-space optical communications, thermal imaging applications and the development of infrared measures for "homeland security". Consequently, the mid-infrared is very attractive for the development of sensitive optical sensor instrumentation. Unfortunately, the nature of the likely applications dictates stringent requirements in terms of laser operation, miniaturisation and cost that are difficult to meet. Many of the necessary improvements are linked to a better ability to fabricate and to understand the optoelectronic properties of suitable high-quality epitaxial materials and device structures. Substantial progress in these m...

  9. Optoelectronic device for hematocrit measurements (United States)

    Pluta, M.; Milewska, D.; Mazikowski, A.


    An optoelectronic system for measurements of hematocrit level (HCT) in the whole human blood is presented. Proposed system integrates a dedicated optoelectronic sensor, a microcontroller and a small LCD display in a low cost, battery-powered, handheld device. Chosen method for determining blood hematocrit level is based on optical properties of whole blood in visible and NIR wavelength range. Measurements with the use of proposed system require blood samples (small drop in the range of microliters) which is placed in the micro cuvette. Then, absorption of the sample is measured at wavelengths of 570 nm and 880 nm. Prototype of the device was build and tested. Test results confirmed proper operation of the device with correct metrological parameters in application to HCT level measurements. Such a portable device can be used as a tool of bedside diagnosis, which becomes interesting alternative to full laboratory tests.

  10. Distribution of Different Sized Ocular Surface Vessels in Diabetics and Normal Individuals. (United States)

    Banaee, Touka; Pourreza, Hamidreza; Doosti, Hassan; Abrishami, Mojtaba; Ehsaei, Asieh; Basiry, Mohsen; Pourreza, Reza


    To compare the distribution of different sized vessels using digital photographs of the ocular surface of diabetic and normal individuals. In this cross-sectional study, red-free conjunctival photographs of diabetic and normal individuals, aged 30-60 years, were taken under defined conditions and analyzed using a Radon transform-based algorithm for vascular segmentation. The image areas occupied by vessels (AOV) of different diameters were calculated. The main outcome measure was the distribution curve of mean AOV of different sized vessels. Secondary outcome measures included total AOV and standard deviation (SD) of AOV of different sized vessels. Two hundred and sixty-eight diabetic patients and 297 normal (control) individuals were included, differing in age (45.50 ± 5.19 vs. 40.38 ± 6.19 years, P distribution curves of mean AOV differed between patients and controls (smaller AOV for larger vessels in patients; P distribution curve of vessels compared to controls. Presence of diabetes mellitus is associated with contraction of larger vessels in the conjunctiva. Smaller vessels dilate with diabetic retinopathy. These findings may be useful in the photographic screening of diabetes mellitus and retinopathy.

  11. High efficiency optoelectronic terahertz sources (United States)

    Lampin, Jean-François; Peytavit, Emilien; Akalin, Tahsin; Ducournau, G.; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gael


    We have developed a new generation of optoelectronic large bandwidth terahertz sources based on TEM horn antennas monolithically integrated with several types of photodetectors: low-temperature grown GaAs (LTG-GaAs) planar photoconductors, vertically integrated LTG-GaAs photoconductors on silicon substrate and uni-travelling-carrier photodiodes. Results of pulsed (time-domain) and photomixing (CW, frequency domain) experiments are presented.

  12. The normalization of surface anisotropy effects present in SEVIRI reflectances by using the MODIS BRDF method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proud, Simon Richard; Zhang, Qingling; Schaaf, Crystal


    A modified version of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) algorithm is presented for use in the angular normalization of surface reflectance data gathered by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI......) aboard the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites. We present early and provisional daily nadir BRDF-adjusted reflectance (NBAR) data in the visible and near-infrared MSG channels. These utilize the high temporal resolution of MSG to produce BRDF retrievals with a greatly reduced...... acquisition period than the comparable MODIS products while, at the same time, removing many of the angular perturbations present within the original MSG data. The NBAR data are validated against reflectance data from the MODIS instrument and in situ data gathered at a field location in Africa throughout 2008...

  13. Lasers and optoelectronics fundamentals, devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Maini, Anil K


    With emphasis on the physical and engineering principles, this book provides a comprehensive and highly accessible treatment of modern lasers and optoelectronics. Divided into four parts, it explains laser fundamentals, types of lasers, laser electronics & optoelectronics, and laser applications, covering each of the topics in their entirety, from basic fundamentals to advanced concepts. Key features include: exploration of technological and application-related aspects of lasers and optoelectronics, detailing both existing and emerging applications in industry, medical diag

  14. Small Molecule Organic Optoelectronic Devices (United States)

    Bakken, Nathan

    Organic optoelectronics include a class of devices synthesized from carbon containing 'small molecule' thin films without long range order crystalline or polymer structure. Novel properties such as low modulus and flexibility as well as excellent device performance such as photon emission approaching 100% internal quantum efficiency have accelerated research in this area substantially. While optoelectronic organic light emitting devices have already realized commercial application, challenges to obtain extended lifetime for the high energy visible spectrum and the ability to reproduce natural white light with a simple architecture have limited the value of this technology for some display and lighting applications. In this research, novel materials discovered from a systematic analysis of empirical device data are shown to produce high quality white light through combination of monomer and excimer emission from a single molecule: platinum(II) bis(methyl-imidazolyl)toluene chloride (Pt-17). Illumination quality achieved Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates (x = 0.31, y = 0.38) and color rendering index (CRI) > 75. Further optimization of a device containing Pt-17 resulted in a maximum forward viewing power efficiency of 37.8 lm/W on a plain glass substrate. In addition, accelerated aging tests suggest high energy blue emission from a halogen-free cyclometalated platinum complex could demonstrate degradation rates comparable to known stable emitters. Finally, a buckling based metrology is applied to characterize the mechanical properties of small molecule organic thin films towards understanding the deposition kinetics responsible for an elastic modulus that is both temperature and thickness dependent. These results could contribute to the viability of organic electronic technology in potentially flexible display and lighting applications. The results also provide insight to organic film growth kinetics responsible for optical

  15. Body surface area in normal-weight, overweight, and obese adults. A comparison study. (United States)

    Verbraecken, Johan; Van de Heyning, Paul; De Backer, Wilfried; Van Gaal, Luc


    Values for body surface area (BSA) are commonly used in medicine, particularly to calculate doses of chemotherapeutic agents and index cardiac output. Various BSA formulas have been developed over the years. The DuBois and DuBois (Arch Intern Med 1916;17:863-71) BSA equation is the most widely used, although derived from only 9 subjects. More recently, Mosteller (N Engl J Med 1987;317:1098) produced a simple formula, [weight (kg) x height (cm)/3600](1/2), which could be easily remembered and evaluated on a pocket calculator, but validation data in adults are rare. The purpose of the present study was to examine the BSA based on Mosteller's formula in normal-weight (body mass index [BMI], 20-24.9 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI, 25-29.9 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI, >/=30 kg/m(2)) adults (>18 years old) in comparison with other empirically derived formulas (DuBois and DuBois, Boyd [The growth of the surface area of the human body. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press; 1935], Gehan and George [Cancer Chemother Rep 1970;54:225-35], US Environmental Protection Agency [Development of statistical distributions or ranges of standard factors used in exposure assessments Washington, EPA/600/8-85-010. Office of Health and Environmental Assessment; 1985), Haycock et al [J Pediatr 1978;93:62-6], Mattar [Crit Care Med 1989;17:846-7], Livingston and Scott [Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001;281:E586-91]) and with the new 3-dimensional-derived formula of Yu et al (Appl Ergon. 2003;34:273-8). One thousand eight hundred sixty-eight patients were evaluated (397 normal weight [BMI, 23 +/- 1 kg/m(2); age, 50 +/- 14 years; M/F, 289/108], 714 overweight [BMI, 27 +/- 1 kg/m(2); age, 52 +/- 11 years; M/F, 594/120], and 757 obese [BMI, 36 +/- 6 kg/m(2); age, 53 +/- 11 years; M/F, 543/215]). The overall BSA was 2.04 +/- 0.24 m(2): 1.81 +/- 0.19 m(2) in normal-weight, 1.99 +/- 0.16 m(2) in overweight, and 2.21 +/- 0.22 m(2) in obese subjects. These values were significantly higher in overweight

  16. High Quality Superconductor–Normal Metal Junction Made on the Surface of MoS2 Flakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Qihong; Liang, Lei; Ali El Yumin, Abdurrahman; Lu, Jianming; Zheliuk, Oleksandr; Ye, Jianting


    A superconductor–normal metal (SN) junction is fabricated on the surface of a few-layer MoS2 flake. Superconductivity is induced by ionic liquid gating, and an h-BN flake is used to locally separate ionic liquid from the surface of MoS2. The h-BN covered channel remains semiconducting, therefore an

  17. Assessment of dental plaque by optoelectronic methods (United States)

    Negrutiu, Meda-Lavinia; Sinescu, Cosmin; Bortun, Cristina Maria; Levai, Mihaela-Codrina; Topala, Florin Ionel; Crǎciunescu, Emanuela Lidia; Cojocariu, Andreea Codruta; Duma, Virgil Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.


    The formation of dental biofilm follows specific mechanisms of initial colonization on the surface, microcolony formation, development of organized three dimensional community structures, and detachment from the surface. The structure of the plaque biofilm might restrict the penetration of antimicrobial agents, while bacteria on a surface grow slowly and display a novel phenotype; the consequence of the latter is a reduced sensitivity to inhibitors. The aim of this study was to evaluate with different optoelectronic methods the morphological characteristics of the dental biofilm. The study was performed on samples from 25 patients aged between 18 and 35 years. The methods used in this study were Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) working at 870 nm for in vivo evaluations and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for validations. For each patient a sample of dental biofilm was obtained directly from the vestibular surface of the teeth's. SD-OCT produced C- and B-scans that were used to generate three dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the sample. The results were compared with SEM evaluations. The biofilm network was dramatically destroyed after the professional dental cleaning. OCT noninvasive methods can act as a valuable tool for the 3D characterization of dental biofilms.

  18. Comparing the Effects of Particulate Matter on the Ocular Surfaces of Normal Eyes and a Dry Eye Rat Model. (United States)

    Han, Ji Yun; Kang, Boram; Eom, Youngsub; Kim, Hyo Myung; Song, Jong Suk


    To compare the effect of exposure to particulate matter on the ocular surface of normal and experimental dry eye (EDE) rat models. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were used as the particulate matter. Rats were divided into 4 groups: normal control group, TiO2 challenge group of the normal model, EDE control group, and TiO2 challenge group of the EDE model. After 24 hours, corneal clarity was compared and tear samples were collected for quantification of lactate dehydrogenase, MUC5AC, and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations. The periorbital tissues were used to evaluate the inflammatory cell infiltration and detect apoptotic cells. The corneal clarity score was greater in the EDE model than in the normal model. The score increased after TiO2 challenge in each group compared with each control group (normal control vs. TiO2 challenge group, 0.0 ± 0.0 vs. 0.8 ± 0.6, P = 0.024; EDE control vs. TiO2 challenge group, 2.2 ± 0.6 vs. 3.8 ± 0.4, P = 0.026). The tear lactate dehydrogenase level and inflammatory cell infiltration on the ocular surface were higher in the EDE model than in the normal model. These measurements increased significantly in both normal and EDE models after TiO2 challenge. The tumor necrosis factor-α levels and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells were also higher in the EDE model than in the normal model. TiO2 nanoparticle exposure on the ocular surface had a more prominent effect in the EDE model than it did in the normal model. The ocular surface of dry eyes seems to be more vulnerable to fine dust of air pollution than that of normal eyes.

  19. Optoelectronics with 2D semiconductors (United States)

    Mueller, Thomas


    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals, such as graphene and layered transition-metal dichalcogenides, are currently receiving a lot of attention for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In this talk, I will review our research activities on electrically driven light emission, photovoltaic energy conversion and photodetection in 2D semiconductors. In particular, WSe2 monolayer p-n junctions formed by electrostatic doping using a pair of split gate electrodes, type-II heterojunctions based on MoS2/WSe2 and MoS2/phosphorene van der Waals stacks, 2D multi-junction solar cells, and 3D/2D semiconductor interfaces will be presented. Upon optical illumination, conversion of light into electrical energy occurs in these devices. If an electrical current is driven, efficient electroluminescence is obtained. I will present measurements of the electrical characteristics, the optical properties, and the gate voltage dependence of the device response. In the second part of my talk, I will discuss photoconductivity studies of MoS2 field-effect transistors. We identify photovoltaic and photoconductive effects, which both show strong photoconductive gain. A model will be presented that reproduces our experimental findings, such as the dependence on optical power and gate voltage. We envision that the efficient photon conversion and light emission, combined with the advantages of 2D semiconductors, such as flexibility, high mechanical stability and low costs of production, could lead to new optoelectronic technologies.

  20. Research surface resistance of copper normal and abnormal skin-effects depending on the frequency of electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutovyi, V.A.; Komir, A.I.


    The results of the frequency dependence of surface resistance of copper in diffuse and specular reflection of electrons from the conductive surface of the high-frequency resonance of the system depending on the frequency of the electromagnetic field in the normal and anomalous skin effect. Found, the surface resistance of copper is reduced by more than 10 times at the temperature of liquid helium, as compared with a surface resistivity at room temperature, at frequencies f ≤ 173 MHz, for diffuse reflection of conduction electrons from the surface of the conductive layer, and the specular reflection - at frequencies f ≤ 346 MHz

  1. Normal motor nerve conduction studies using surface electrode recording from the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, deltoid, and biceps. (United States)

    Buschbacher, Ralph Michael; Weir, Susan Karolyi; Bentley, John Greg; Cottrell, Erika


    Proximal peripheral nerve conduction studies can provide useful information to the clinician. The difficulty of measuring the length of the proximal nerve as well as a frequent inability to stimulate at 2 points along the nerve adds a challenge to the use of electrodiagnosis for this purpose. The purpose of this article is to present normal values for the suprascapular, axillary, and musculocutaneous nerves using surface electrodes while accounting for side-to-side variability. Prospective, observational study. Patients were evaluated in outpatient, private practices affiliated with tertiary care systems in the United States and Malaysia. One hundred volunteers were recruited and completed bilateral testing. Exclusion criteria included age younger than 18 years; previous shoulder surgery/atrophy; symptoms of numbness, tingling, or abnormal sensations in the upper extremity; peripheral neuropathy; or presence of a cardiac pacemaker. Nerve conduction studies to bilateral supraspinatus, infraspinatus, deltoid, and biceps brachii muscles were performed with documented technique. Distal latency, amplitude, and area were recorded. Side-to-side comparisons were made. A mixed linear model was fit to the independent variables of gender, race, body mass index, height, and age with each recorded value. Distal latency, amplitude, area, and side-to-side variability of nerve conduction studies of the suprascapular, axillary, and musculocutaneous nerves with correlation to significant independent variables. Data are presented showing normal distal latency, amplitude, and area values subcategorized by clinically significant variables, as well as acceptable side-to-side variability. Increased height correlated with increased distal latency in all the nerves tested. Amplitudes were larger in the infraspinatus recordings from women, while the amplitudes from the biceps and deltoid were greater in men. A larger body mass index was associated with a smaller amplitude in the deltoid in

  2. Normal incidence sound transmission loss evaluation by upstream surface impedance measurements. (United States)

    Panneton, Raymond


    A method is developed to obtain the normal incidence sound transmission loss of noise control elements used in piping systems from upstream surface impedance measurements only. The noise control element may be a small material specimen in an impedance tube, a sealing part in an automotive hollow body network, an expansion chamber, a resonator, or a muffler. The developments are based on a transfer matrix (four-pole) representation of the noise control element and on the assumption that only plane waves propagate upstream and downstream the element. No assumptions are made on its boundary conditions, dimensions, shape, and material properties (i.e., the element may be symmetrical or not along its thickness, homogeneous or not, isotropic or not). One-load and two-load procedures are also proposed to identify the transfer matrix coefficients needed to obtain the true transmission loss of the tested element. The method can be used with a classical two-microphone impedance tube setup (i.e., no additional downstream tube and downstream acoustical measurements). The method is tested on three different noise control elements: two impedance tube multilayered specimens and one expansion chamber. The results found using the developed method are validated using numerical simulations.

  3. 2D Organic Materials for Optoelectronic Applications. (United States)

    Yang, Fangxu; Cheng, Shanshan; Zhang, Xiaotao; Ren, Xiaochen; Li, Rongjin; Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping


    The remarkable merits of 2D materials with atomically thin structures and optoelectronic attributes have inspired great interest in integrating 2D materials into electronics and optoelectronics. Moreover, as an emerging field in the 2D-materials family, assembly of organic nanostructures into 2D forms offers the advantages of molecular diversity, intrinsic flexibility, ease of processing, light weight, and so on, providing an exciting prospect for optoelectronic applications. Herein, the applications of organic 2D materials for optoelectronic devices are a main focus. Material examples include 2D, organic, crystalline, small molecules, polymers, self-assembly monolayers, and covalent organic frameworks. The protocols for 2D-organic-crystal-fabrication and -patterning techniques are briefly discussed, then applications in optoelectronic devices are introduced in detail. Overall, an introduction to what is known and suggestions for the potential of many exciting developments are presented. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Optoelectronics of Molecules and Polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André


    Optoelectronic devices are being developed at an extraordinary rate. Organic light emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices and electro-optical modulators are pivotal to the future of displays, photosensors and solar cells, and communication technologies. This book details the theories underlying the relevant mechanisms in organic materials and covers, at a basic level, how the organic components are made. The first part of this book introduces the fundamental theories used to detail ordered solids and localised energy levels. The methods used to determine energy levels in perfectly ordered molecular and macromolecular systems are discussed, making sure that the effects of quasi-particles are not missed. The function of excitons and their transfer between two molecules are studied, and the problems associated with interfaces and charge injection into resistive media are presented. The second part details technological aspects such as the fabrication of devices based on organic materials by dry etching. The princ...

  5. Transparent Electrodes for Efficient Optoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Masis, Monica


    With the development of new generations of optoelectronic devices that combine high performance and novel functionalities (e.g., flexibility/bendability, adaptability, semi or full transparency), several classes of transparent electrodes have been developed in recent years. These range from optimized transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), which are historically the most commonly used transparent electrodes, to new electrodes made from nano- and 2D materials (e.g., metal nanowire networks and graphene), and to hybrid electrodes that integrate TCOs or dielectrics with nanowires, metal grids, or ultrathin metal films. Here, the most relevant transparent electrodes developed to date are introduced, their fundamental properties are described, and their materials are classified according to specific application requirements in high efficiency solar cells and flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This information serves as a guideline for selecting and developing appropriate transparent electrodes according to intended application requirements and functionality.

  6. Cell and fiber attachment to demineralized dentin. A comparison between normal and periodontitis-affected root surfaces. (United States)

    Polson, A M; Hanes, P J


    The purpose of the present study was to compare and contrast cellular, connective tissue, and epithelial responses to dentin specimens derived from the roots of either normal or periodontitis-affected human teeth after surface demineralization. Rectangular dentin specimens, with opposite faces of root and pulpal dentin, were derived from beneath root surfaces covered by periodontal ligament (normal) or calculus-covered areas of periodontitis-affected teeth. In each of the groups, the specimens were treated with citric acid (pH 1 for 3 min), whereupon they were implanted transcutaneously into incisional wounds on the dorsal surface of rats with one end of the implant protruding through the skin. 4 specimens were available in each group at 10 days after implantation. Histologic and histometric analyses of the root surfaces of the implants included counts of adhering cells, evaluation of connective tissue fiber relationships, and assessment of epithelial migration. New connective tissue attachment with inhibition of epithelial migration occurred in both groups. Cementum formation was not present. Comparisons between the groups showed no significant differences regarding length of implant surface adjacent to connective tissue, number of attached cells, or density and diameter of attached fibers. The fiber attachment system which had developed on these demineralized surfaces seemed intrinsic to the connective tissue location, and differed morphologically from corresponding fibers attaching the root surface in a normal periodontium. It was concluded that there were no observable differences between the new connective tissue attachment systems which developed on demineralized dentin from either normal or periodontitis-affected root surfaces.

  7. Low -Dimensional Halide Perovskites and Their Advanced Optoelectronic Applications (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Yang, Xiaokun; Deng, Hui; Qiao, Keke; Farooq, Umar; Ishaq, Muhammad; Yi, Fei; Liu, Huan; Tang, Jiang; Song, Haisheng


    Metal halide perovskites are crystalline materials originally developed out of scientific curiosity. They have shown great potential as active materials in optoelectronic applications. In the last 6 years, their certified photovoltaic efficiencies have reached 22.1%. Compared to bulk halide perovskites, low-dimensional ones exhibited novel physical properties. The photoluminescence quantum yields of perovskite quantum dots are close to 100%. The external quantum efficiencies and current efficiencies of perovskite quantum dot light-emitting diodes have reached 8% and 43 cd A-1, respectively, and their nanowire lasers show ultralow-threshold room-temperature lasing with emission tunability and ease of synthesis. Perovskite nanowire photodetectors reached a responsivity of 10 A W-1 and a specific normalized detectivity of the order of 1012 Jones. Different from most reported reviews focusing on photovoltaic applications, we summarize the rapid progress in the study of low-dimensional perovskite materials, as well as their promising applications in optoelectronic devices. In particular, we review the wide tunability of fabrication methods and the state-of-the-art research outputs of low-dimensional perovskite optoelectronic devices. Finally, the anticipated challenges and potential for this exciting research are proposed.

  8. Arrays of surface-normal electroabsorption modulators for the generation and signal processing of microwave photonics signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noharet, Bertrand; Wang, Qin; Platt, Duncan; Junique, Stéphane; Marpaung, D.A.I.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.


    The development of an array of 16 surface-normal electroabsorption modulators operating at 1550nm is presented. The modulator array is dedicated to the generation and processing of microwave photonics signals, targeting a modulation bandwidth in excess of 5GHz. The hybrid integration of the

  9. Molecular coatings of nitride semiconductors for optoelectronics, electronics, and solar energy harvesting

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Tien Khee


    Gallium nitride based semiconductors are provided having one or more passivated surfaces. The surfaces can have a plurality of thiol compounds attached thereto for enhancement of optoelectronic properties and/or solar water splitting properties. The surfaces can also include wherein the surface has been treated with chemical solution for native oxide removal and / or wherein the surface has attached thereto a plurality of nitrides, oxides, insulating compounds, thiol compounds, or a combination thereof to create a treated surface for enhancement of optoelectronic properties and / or solar water splitting properties. Methods of making the gallium nitride based semiconductors are also provided. Methods can include cleaning a native surface of a gallium nitride semiconductor to produce a cleaned surface, etching the cleaned surface to remove oxide layers on the surface, and applying single or multiple coatings of nitrides, oxides, insulating compounds, thiol compounds, or a combination thereof attached to the surface.

  10. Radiation effects in optoelectronic devices. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, C.E.; Wiczer, J.J.


    Purpose of this report is to provide not only a summary of radiation damage studies at Sandia National Laboratories, but also of those in the literature on the components of optoelectronic systems: light emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, photodetectors, optical fibers, and optical isolators. This review of radiation damage in optoelectronic components is structured according to device type. In each section, a brief discussion of those device properties relevant to radiation effects is given.

  11. Transparent heat-spreader for optoelectronic applications (United States)

    Minano, Juan Carlos; Benitez, Pablo


    An optoelectronic cooling system is equally applicable to an LED collimator or a photovoltaic solar concentrator. A transparent fluid conveys heat from the optoelectronic chip to a hollow cover over the system aperture. The cooling system can keep a solar concentrator chip at the same temperature as found for a one-sun flat-plate solar cell. Natural convection or forced circulation can operate to convey heat from the chip to the cover.

  12. Metal oxides for optoelectronic applications (United States)

    Yu, Xinge; Marks, Tobin J.; Facchetti, Antonio


    Metal oxides (MOs) are the most abundant materials in the Earth's crust and are ingredients in traditional ceramics. MO semiconductors are strikingly different from conventional inorganic semiconductors such as silicon and III-V compounds with respect to materials design concepts, electronic structure, charge transport mechanisms, defect states, thin-film processing and optoelectronic properties, thereby enabling both conventional and completely new functions. Recently, remarkable advances in MO semiconductors for electronics have been achieved, including the discovery and characterization of new transparent conducting oxides, realization of p-type along with traditional n-type MO semiconductors for transistors, p-n junctions and complementary circuits, formulations for printing MO electronics and, most importantly, commercialization of amorphous oxide semiconductors for flat panel displays. This Review surveys the uniqueness and universality of MOs versus other unconventional electronic materials in terms of materials chemistry and physics, electronic characteristics, thin-film fabrication strategies and selected applications in thin-film transistors, solar cells, diodes and memories.

  13. Nuclear physics and optoelectronics presence in industry, medicine and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robu, Maria; Peteu, Gh.


    This paper reveals applications of Nuclear Physics and Optoelectronics in numerous fields of interest in industry, medicine, environment. In the first part of the work basic elements are analyzed, among which: - the large possibilities offered by the investigation, analysis and testing techniques based on nuclear physics and optoelectronics; - the superior qualitative and quantitative characteristics of these techniques, with varied applicability in fields from industry, medicine and environment. These applications refers to: - elemental analyses of content and impurities; - non-destructive testing with X and gamma radiations; - investigations with radioactive and activable tracers in trophic chains as for instance, ground-vegetation-products-consumers-environment, including also the systemic pollution factors; - complex investigations in the interface tritium-vegetation-environment-humans; - techniques and radiopharmaceutical products for medical investigations; - determinations and automatic control for levels, density, thickness, humidity, surfaces covering; - monitoring by means of remote sensing for the evaluation of the environment, vegetation and pollution factors; - applications and production of laser and UV installations; - connections through optical fibres resistant to radiations; - imaging and medical bioengineering; - advances in X ray, laser and ultrasonic radiology; - monitoring with radiations beams. In the final part, there are presented examples of optoelectronics and nuclear physics applications in fields in industry, medicine and environment, with special stress on their basic characteristics and efficiency. (authors)

  14. Web-Enabled Optoelectronic Particle-Fallout Monitor (United States)

    Lineberger, Lewis P.


    A Web-enabled optoelectronic particle- fallout monitor has been developed as a prototype of future such instruments that (l) would be installed in multiple locations for which assurance of cleanliness is required and (2) could be interrogated and controlled in nearly real time by multiple remote users. Like prior particle-fallout monitors, this instrument provides a measure of particles that accumulate on a surface as an indication of the quantity of airborne particulate contaminants. The design of this instrument reflects requirements to: Reduce the cost and complexity of its optoelectronic sensory subsystem relative to those of prior optoelectronic particle fallout monitors while maintaining or improving capabilities; Use existing network and office computers for distributed display and control; Derive electric power for the instrument from a computer network, a wall outlet, or a battery; Provide for Web-based retrieval and analysis of measurement data and of a file containing such ancillary data as a log of command attempts at remote units; and Use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) for maximum performance and minimal network overhead.

  15. Investigation, study and practice of optoelectronic MOOCs (United States)

    Shi, Jianhua; Liu, Wei; Lei, Bing; Yao, Tianfu; Fu, Sihua


    MOOC(Massive Open Online Course) is a new teaching model that has been springing up since 2012. The typical characters are short teaching video, massive learners, flexible place and time to study, etc. Although MOOC is very popular now, opto-electronic MOOCs are not much enough to meet the need of online learners. In this paper, the phylogeny, the current situation and the characters of MOOC were described, the most famous MOOCs' websites, such as Udacity, Coursera, edX, Chinese College MOOC, xuetangx, were introduced, the opto-electronic MOOCs come from these famous MOOCs' website were investigated extensively and studied deeply, the "Application of Opto-electronic Technology MOOC" which was established by our group is introduced, and some conclusions are obtained. These conclusions can give some suggestions to the online learners who are interested in opto-electronic and the teachers who are teaching the opto-electronic curriculums. The preparation of "Opto-electronic Technology MOOC" is described in short.

  16. Effects of vegetation types on soil moisture estimation from the normalized land surface temperature versus vegetation index space (United States)

    Zhang, Dianjun; Zhou, Guoqing


    Soil moisture (SM) is a key variable that has been widely used in many environmental studies. Land surface temperature versus vegetation index (LST-VI) space becomes a common way to estimate SM in optical remote sensing applications. Normalized LST-VI space is established by the normalized LST and VI to obtain the comparable SM in Zhang et al. (Validation of a practical normalized soil moisture model with in situ measurements in humid and semiarid regions [J]. International Journal of Remote Sensing, DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2015.1055610). The boundary conditions in the study were set to limit the point A (the driest bare soil) and B (the wettest bare soil) for surface energy closure. However, no limitation was installed for point D (the full vegetation cover). In this paper, many vegetation types are simulated by the land surface model - Noah LSM 3.2 to analyze the effects on soil moisture estimation, such as crop, grass and mixed forest. The locations of point D are changed with vegetation types. The normalized LST of point D for forest is much lower than crop and grass. The location of point D is basically unchanged for crop and grass.

  17. Optoelectronic microdevices for combined phototherapy (United States)

    Zharov, Vladimir P.; Menyaev, Yulian A.; Hamaev, V. A.; Antropov, G. M.; Waner, Milton


    In photomedicine in some of cases radiation delivery to local zones through optical fibers can be changed for the direct placing of tiny optical sources like semiconductor microlasers or light diodes in required zones of ears, nostrils, larynx, nasopharynx cochlea or alimentary tract. Our study accentuates the creation of optoelectronic microdevices for local phototherapy and functional imaging by using reflected light. Phototherapeutic micromodule consist of the light source, microprocessor and miniature optics with different kind of power supply: from autonomous with built-in batteries to remote supply by using pulsed magnetic field and supersmall coils. The developed prototype photomodule has size (phi) 8X16 mm and work duration with built-in battery and light diode up several hours at the average power from several tenths of mW to few mW. Preliminary clinical tests developed physiotherapeutic micrimodules in stomatology for treating the inflammation and in otolaryngology for treating tonsillitis and otitis are presented. The developed implanted electro- optical sources with typical size (phi) 4X0,8 mm and with remote supply were used for optical stimulation of photosensitive retina structure and electrostimulation of visual nerve. In this scheme the superminiature coil with 30 electrical integrated levels was used. Such devices were implanted in eyes of 175 patients with different vision problems during clinical trials in Institute of Eye's Surgery in Moscow. For functional imaging of skin layered structure LED arrays coupled photodiodes arrays were developed. The possibilities of this device for study drug diffusion and visualization small veins are discussed.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) experiment on the Mars Phoenix Lander consists of one instrument component plus command electronics. This SSI Imaging Operations RDR...

  19. Epidermal Inorganic Optoelectronics for Blood Oxygen Measurement. (United States)

    Li, Haicheng; Xu, Yun; Li, Xiaomin; Chen, Ying; Jiang, Yu; Zhang, Changxing; Lu, Bingwei; Wang, Jian; Ma, Yinji; Chen, Yihao; Huang, Yin; Ding, Minquang; Su, Honghong; Song, Guofeng; Luo, Yi; Feng, X


    Flexible and stretchable optoelectronics, built-in inorganic semiconductor materials, offer a wide range of unprecedented opportunities and will redefine the conventional rigid optoelectronics in biological application and medical measurement. However, a significant bottleneck lies in the brittleness nature of rigid semiconductor materials and the performance's extreme sensitivity to the light intensity variation due to human skin deformation while measuring physical parameters. In this study, the authors demonstrate a systematic strategy to design an epidermal inorganic optoelectronic device by using specific strain-isolation design, nanodiamond thinning, and hybrid transfer printing. The authors propose all-in-one suspension structure to achieve the stretchability and conformability for surrounding environment, and they propose a two-step transfer printing method for hybrid integrating III-V group emitting elements, Si-based photodetector, and interconnects. Owing to the excellent flexibility and stretchability, such device is totally conformal to skin and keeps the constant light transmission between emitting element and photodetector as well as the signal stability due to skin deformation. This method opens a route for traditional inorganic optoelectronics to achieve flexibility and stretchability and improve the performance of optoelectronics for biomedical application. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Surface profiling of normally responding and nonreleasing basophils by flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Poulsen, Lars Kærgaard; Jensen, Bettina Margrethe

    a maximum release blood mononuclear cells were purified by density centrifugation and using flow cytometry, basophils, defined as FceRIa+CD3-CD14-CD19-CD56-,were analysed for surface expression of relevant markers. All samples were compensated and analysed in logicle display. All gates......c, C3aR, C5aR CCR3, FPR1, ST2, CRTH2 on anti-IgE respondsive and nonreleasing basophils by flow cytometry, thereby generating a surface profile of the two phenotypes. Methods Fresh buffy coat blood (

  1. Optoelectronic properties of semiconductor nanostructures (United States)

    Maher, Kristin Nicole

    Semiconductor nanostructures have unique optical and electronic properties that have inspired research into their technological applications and basic science. This thesis presents approaches to the fabrication and characterization of optoelectronic devices incorporating individual semiconductor nanostructures. Nanowires of the II-VI semiconductors CdSe and CdS were synthesized using nanoparticle-catalysed solution-liquid-solid growth. Single-component nanowires and heterostructure nanowires with axial compositional modulation were generated using this method. Individual nanowires and nanocrystals were then incorporated into devices with a three-terminal field-effect transistor geometry. An experimental platform was developed which allows for simultaneous electrical characterization of devices and measurement of their optical properties. This setup enables the measurement of spatially and spectrally resolved electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL) from individual nanostructures and nanostructure devices. It also allows the measurement of photon coincidence histograms for emitted light and the acquisition of photocurrent images via laser scanning microscopy. Electroluminescence was observed from individual CdSe nanocrystals contacted by gold electrodes. Concomitant transport measurements at low temperature showed clear evidence of Coulomb blockade at low bias voltage, with light only emitted from devices exhibiting asymmetric tunnel couplings between the nanocrystal and electrodes. Combined analyses of the data indicate that the resistances of the tunnel barriers are bias voltage dependent and that light emission results from the inelastic scattering of tunneling electrons. Three-terminal devices incorporating individual CdSe nanoNvires exhibited EL localized near the positively-biased electrode. Characterization of these devices by scanning photocurrent microscopy (SPCM) and Kelvin probe microscopy (KPM) indicates that while there are n-type Schottky


    Coal mining is a major resource extraction activity on the Appalachian Mountains. The increased size and frequency of a specific type of surface mining, known as mountain top removal-valley fill, has in recent years raised various environmental concerns. During mountainto...

  3. Contemporary optoelectronics materials, metamaterials and device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sukhoivanov, Igor


    This book presents a collection of extended contributions on the physics and application of optoelectronic materials and metamaterials.   The book is divided into three parts, respectively covering materials, metamaterials and optoelectronic devices.  Individual chapters cover topics including phonon-polariton interaction, semiconductor and nonlinear organic materials, metallic, dielectric and gyrotropic metamaterials, singular optics, parity-time symmetry, nonlinear plasmonics, microstructured optical fibers, passive nonlinear shaping of ultrashort pulses, and pulse-preserving supercontinuum generation. The book contains both experimental and theoretical studies, and each contribution is a self-contained exposition of a particular topic, featuring an extensive reference list.  The book will be a useful resource for graduate and postgraduate students, researchers and engineers involved in optoelectronics/photonics, quantum electronics, optics, and adjacent areas of science and technology.

  4. Optoelectronic lessons as an interdisciplinary lecture (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Wu, Maocheng; Gu, Jihua


    It is noticed that more and more students in college are passionately curious about the optoelectronic technology, since optoelectronic technology has advanced extremely quickly during the last five years and its applications could be found in a lot of domains. The students who are interested in this area may have different educational backgrounds and their majors cover science, engineering, literature and social science, etc. Our course "History of the Optoelectronic Technology" is set up as an interdisciplinary lecture of the "liberal education" at our university, and is available for all students with different academic backgrounds from any departments of our university. The main purpose of the course is to show the interesting and colorful historical aspects of the development of this technology, so that the students from different departments could absorb the academic nourishment they wanted. There are little complex derivations of physical formulas through the whole lecture, but there are still some difficulties about the lecture which is discussed in this paper.

  5. Perovskite Materials: Solar Cell and Optoelectronic Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bin [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Xiao, Kai [ORNL


    Hybrid organometallic trihalide perovskites are promising candidates in the applications for next-generation, high-performance, low-cost optoelectronic devices, including photovoltaics, light emitting diodes, and photodetectors. Particularly, the solar cells based on this type of materials have reached 22% lab scale power conversion efficiency in only about seven years, comparable to the other thin film photovoltaic technologies. Hybrid perovskite materials not only exhibit superior optoelectronic properties, but also show many interesting physical properties such as ion migration and defect physics, which may allow the exploration of more device functionalities. In this article, the fundamental understanding of the interrelationships between crystal structure, electronic structure, and material properties is discussed. Various chemical synthesis and processing methods for superior device performance in solar cells and optoelectronic devices are reviewed.

  6. Navier-Stokes Computations of a Wing-Flap Model With Blowing Normal to the Flap Surface (United States)

    Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.


    A computational study of a generic wing with a half span flap shows the mean flow effects of several blown flap configurations. The effort compares and contrasts the thin-layer, Reynolds averaged, Navier-Stokes solutions of a baseline wing-flap configuration with configurations that have blowing normal to the flap surface through small slits near the flap side edge. Vorticity contours reveal a dual vortex structure at the flap side edge for all cases. The dual vortex merges into a single vortex at approximately the mid-flap chord location. Upper surface blowing reduces the strength of the merged vortex and moves the vortex away from the upper edge. Lower surface blowing thickens the lower shear layer and weakens the merged vortex, but not as much as upper surface blowing. Side surface blowing forces the lower surface vortex farther outboard of the flap edge by effectively increasing the aerodynamic span of the flap. It is seen that there is no global aerodynamic penalty or benefit from the particular blowing configurations examined.

  7. Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) Modelling of Severe Acute Mucositis using a Novel Oral Mucosal Surface Organ at Risk. (United States)

    Dean, J A; Welsh, L C; Wong, K H; Aleksic, A; Dunne, E; Islam, M R; Patel, A; Patel, P; Petkar, I; Phillips, I; Sham, J; Schick, U; Newbold, K L; Bhide, S A; Harrington, K J; Nutting, C M; Gulliford, S L


    A normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model of severe acute mucositis would be highly useful to guide clinical decision making and inform radiotherapy planning. We aimed to improve upon our previous model by using a novel oral mucosal surface organ at risk (OAR) in place of an oral cavity OAR. Predictive models of severe acute mucositis were generated using radiotherapy dose to the oral cavity OAR or mucosal surface OAR and clinical data. Penalised logistic regression and random forest classification (RFC) models were generated for both OARs and compared. Internal validation was carried out with 100-iteration stratified shuffle split cross-validation, using multiple metrics to assess different aspects of model performance. Associations between treatment covariates and severe mucositis were explored using RFC feature importance. Penalised logistic regression and RFC models using the oral cavity OAR performed at least as well as the models using mucosal surface OAR. Associations between dose metrics and severe mucositis were similar between the mucosal surface and oral cavity models. The volumes of oral cavity or mucosal surface receiving intermediate and high doses were most strongly associated with severe mucositis. The simpler oral cavity OAR should be preferred over the mucosal surface OAR for NTCP modelling of severe mucositis. We recommend minimising the volume of mucosa receiving intermediate and high doses, where possible. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Surface and protein analyses of normal human cell attachment on PIII-modified chitosan membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saranwong, N. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Inthanon, K. [Human and Animal Cell Technology Research Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wongkham, W., E-mail: [Human and Animal Cell Technology Research Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wanichapichart, P. [Nanotechnology Center of Excellence and Membrane Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkla 90110 (Thailand); Suwannakachorn, D. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)


    Surface of chitosan membrane was modified with argon (Ar) and nitrogen (N) plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) for human skin fibroblasts F1544 cell attachment. The modified surfaces were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cell attachment patterns were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to quantify levels of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The results showed that Ar PIII had an enhancement effect on the cell attachment while N-PIII had an inhibition effect. Filopodial analysis revealed more microfilament cytoplasmic spreading on the edge of cells attached on the Ar-treated membranes than N-treated membranes. Higher level FAK was found in Ar-treated membranes than that in N-treated membranes.

  9. Normal loads program for aerodynamic lifting surface theory. [evaluation of spanwise and chordwise loading distributions (United States)

    Medan, R. T.; Ray, K. S.


    A description of and users manual are presented for a U.S.A. FORTRAN 4 computer program which evaluates spanwise and chordwise loading distributions, lift coefficient, pitching moment coefficient, and other stability derivatives for thin wings in linearized, steady, subsonic flow. The program is based on a kernel function method lifting surface theory and is applicable to a large class of planforms including asymmetrical ones and ones with mixed straight and curved edges.

  10. Energy conversion efficiency in nanotube optoelectronics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Francois Leonard; Stewart, Derek A.


    We present theoretical performance estimates for nanotube optoelectronic devices under bias. Current-voltage characteristics of illuminated nanotube p-n junctions are calculated using a self-consistent nonequilibrium Green's function approach. Energy conversion rates reaching tens of percent are predicted for incident photon energies near the band gap energy. In addition, the energy conversion rate increases as the diameter of the nanotube is reduced, even though the quantum efficiency shows little dependence on nanotube radius. These results indicate that the quantum efficiency is not a limiting factor for use of nanotubes in optoelectronics.

  11. How Can Polarization States of Reflected Light from Snow Surfaces Inform Us on Surface Normals and Ultimately Snow Grain Size Measurements? (United States)

    Schneider, A. M.; Flanner, M.; Yang, P.; Yi, B.; Huang, X.; Feldman, D.


    The Snow Grain Size and Pollution (SGSP) algorithm is a method applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data to estimate snow grain size from space-borne measurements. Previous studies validate and quantify potential sources of error in this method, but because it assumes flat snow surfaces, however, large scale variations in surface normals can cause biases in its estimates due to its dependence on solar and observation zenith angles. To address these variations, we apply the Monte Carlo method for photon transport using data containing the single scattering properties of different ice crystals to calculate polarization states of reflected monochromatic light at 1500nm from modeled snow surfaces. We evaluate the dependence of these polarization states on solar and observation geometry at 1500nm because multiple scattering is generally a mechanism for depolarization and the ice crystals are relatively absorptive at this wavelength. Using 1500nm thus results in a higher number of reflected photons undergoing fewer scattering events, increasing the likelihood of reflected light having higher degrees of polarization. In evaluating the validity of the model, we find agreement with previous studies pertaining to near-infrared spectral directional hemispherical reflectance (i.e. black-sky albedo) and similarities in measured bidirectional reflectance factors, but few studies exist modeling polarization states of reflected light from snow surfaces. Here, we present novel results pertaining to calculated polarization states and compare dependences on solar and observation geometry for different idealized snow surfaces. If these dependencies are consistent across different ice particle shapes and sizes, then these findings could inform the SGSP algorithm by providing useful relationships between measurable physical quantities and solar and observation geometry to better understand variations in snow surface normals from remote sensing observations.

  12. Surface relaxations as a tool to distinguish the dynamic interfacial properties of films formed by normal and diseased meibomian lipids. (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi As; Yokoi, Norihiko; Ivanova, Slavyana; Tonchev, Vesselin; Nencheva, Yana; Krastev, Rumen


    The surface properties of human meibomian lipids (MGS), the major constituent of the tear film (TF) lipid layer, are of key importance for TF stability. The dynamic interfacial properties of films by MGS from normal eyes (nMGS) and eyes with meibomian gland dysfunction (dMGS) were studied using a Langmuir surface balance. The behavior of the samples during dynamic area changes was evaluated by surface pressure-area isotherms and isocycles. The surface dilatational rheology of the films was examined in the frequency range 10(-5) to 1 Hz by the stress-relaxation method. A significant difference was found, with dMGS showing slow viscosity-dominated relaxation at 10(-4) to 10(-3) Hz, whereas nMGS remained predominantly elastic over the whole range. A Cole-Cole plot revealed two characteristic processes contributing to the relaxation, fast (on the scale of characteristic time τ 100 s), the latter prevailing in dMGS films. Brewster angle microscopy revealed better spreading of nMGS at the air-water interface, whereas dMGS layers were non-uniform and patchy. The distinctions in the interfacial properties of the films in vitro correlated with the accelerated degradation of meibum layer pattern at the air-tear interface and with the decreased stability of TF in vivo. These results, and also recent findings on the modest capability of meibum to suppress the evaporation of the aqueous subphase, suggest the need for a re-evaluation of the role of MGS. The probable key function of meibomian lipids might be to form viscoelastic films capable of opposing dilation of the air-tear interface. The impact of temperature on the meibum surface properties is discussed in terms of its possible effect on the normal structure of the film.

  13. Normal emission photoelectron diffraction: a new technique for determining surface structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevan, S.D.


    One technique, photoelectron diffraction (PhD) is characterized. It has some promise in surmounting some of the problems of LEED. In PhD, the differential (angle-resolved) photoemission cross-section of a core level localized on an adsorbate atom is measured as a function of some final state parameter. The photoemission final state consists of two components, one of which propagates directly to the detector and another which scatters off the surface and then propagates to the detector. These are added coherently, and interference between the two manifests itself as cross-section oscillations which are sensitive to the local structure around the absorbing atom. We have shown that PhD deals effectively with two- and probably also three-dimensionally disordered systems. Its non-damaging and localized, atom-specific nature gives PhD a good deal of promise in dealing with molecular overlayer systems. It is concluded that while PhD will never replace LEED, it may provide useful, complementary and possibly also more accurate surface structural information

  14. Environmental scanning electron microscopy of the surface of normal and vitrified leaves of Gypsophila paniculata (Babies Breath) cultured in vitro. (United States)

    Gribble, K; Sarafis, V; Nailon, J; Holford, P; Uwins, P


    Leaf surfaces of non-tissue-cultured, vitrified and non-vitrified plantlets of Gypsophila paniculata (Babies Breath) were examined using an environmental scanning electron microscope. Non-tissue-cultured plants had a complete epidermal surface, recessed stomata and wax present on the leaf surface. The surface of tissue-cultured plantlets appeared similar to non-tissue-cultured plants excepting stomata were slightly protruding and less wax appeared to be present. In both non-tissue-cultured and tissue-cultured plants stomata were found both opened and closed and were observed closing. In contrast vitrified plantlets had abnormal, malformed stomata which appeared non-functional. The ventral surfaces of leaves seemed more normal than the dorsal, this may be due to the former receiving more light. Additionally, discontinuities were found in the epidermis. Often epidermal holes were found in association with stomatal apertures. It is suggested that the main cause of desiccation of vitrified G. paniculata plantlets ex vitro is due to loss of water from the discontinuity in epidermis and not because of non-functional stomata. Liquid water could be seen through the epidermal holes indicating that at least some of the extra water in vitrified plantlets is contained in the intercellular spaces.

  15. Optoelectronic line transmission an introduction to fibre optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Raymond L


    Optoelectronic Line Transmission: An Introduction to Fibre Optics presents a basic introduction as well as a background reference manual on fiber optic transmission. The book discusses the basic principles of optical line transmission; the advantages and disadvantages of optical fibers and optoelectronic signalling; the practical applications of optoelectronics; and the future of optoelectronics. The text also describes the theories of optical line transmission; fibers and cables for optical transmission; transmitters including light-emitting diodes and lasers; and receivers including photodi

  16. Comparative study of normal and branched alkane monolayer films adsorbed on a solid surface. I. Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Ann Dorrit; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Diama, A.


    their backbone and squalane has, in addition, six methyl side groups. Upon adsorption, there are significant differences as well as similarities in the behavior of these molecular films. Both molecules form ordered structures at low temperatures; however, while the melting point of the two-dimensional (2D......The structure of a monolayer film of the branched alkane squalane (C30H62) adsorbed on graphite has been studied by neutron diffraction and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and compared with a similar study of the n-alkane tetracosane (n-C24H52). Both molecules have 24 carbon atoms along...... temperature. The neutron diffraction data show that the translational order in the squalane monolayer is significantly less than in the tetracosane monolayer. The authors' MD simulations suggest that this is caused by a distortion of the squalane molecules upon adsorption on the graphite surface. When...

  17. Functionalized polyfluorenes for use in optoelectronic devices (United States)

    Chichak, Kelly Scott [Clifton Park, NY; Lewis, Larry Neil [Scotia, NY; Cella, James Anthony [Clifton Park, NY; Shiang, Joseph John [Niskayuna, NY


    The present invention relates to process comprising reacting a polyfluorenes comprising at least one structural group of formula I ##STR00001## with an iridium (III) compound of formula II ##STR00002## The invention also relates to the polyfluorenes, which are products of the reaction, and the use of the polyfluorenes in optoelectronic devices.

  18. High-performance optoelectronic bus system (United States)

    Fa, Jinghuai; Zhao, Chunhe; Liu, Jian; Chen, Ray T.


    In order to utilize the high speed of optical interconnects and overcome the latencyproblem of a large bus structure, we proposed an architecture of optoelectronic hierarchical bus system. Waveguide hologram implementations, and its associated cache coherence problem are addressed. In our configuration, bus hierarchy is controlled with electronic programmable plates. Optical signals can be transmitted on all-optical paths without intermediate conversions.

  19. Fast Feature-Recognizing Optoelectronic System (United States)

    Thakoor, S.; Thakoor, A. P.


    Proposed optoelectronic system recognizes features or classifies images by processing outputs of photosensors rapidly, in parallel, through circuits developed in research on neural networks. Array of photoconductive elements serve as photomodulated connections in electronic neural network, which provides high speed data compression to generate feature vector. System able to "learn" new patterns for subsequent recognition. Potential applications in robotic vision systems and pattern recognition.

  20. Monocrystalline halide perovskite nanostructures : For optoelectronic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoram, P.


    Halide perovskites are a promising class of materials for incorporation in optoelectronics with higher efficiency and lower cost. The solution processability of these materials provides unique opportunities for simple nanostructure fabrication. In the first half of the thesis (chapter 2 and 3) we

  1. Optoelectronics technologies for Virtual Reality systems (United States)

    Piszczek, Marek; Maciejewski, Marcin; Pomianek, Mateusz; Szustakowski, Mieczysław


    Solutions in the field of virtual reality are very strongly associated with optoelectronic technologies. This applies to both process design and operation of VR applications. Technologies such as 360 cameras and 3D scanners significantly improve the design work. What is more, HMD displays with high field of view or optoelectronic Motion Capture systems and 3D cameras guarantee an extraordinary experience in immersive VR applications. This article reviews selected technologies from the perspective of their use in a broadly defined process of creating and implementing solutions for virtual reality. There is also the ability to create, modify and adapt new approaches that show team own work (SteamVR tracker). Most of the introduced examples are effectively used by authors to create different VR applications. The use of optoelectronic technology in virtual reality is presented in terms of design and operation of the system as well as referring to specific applications. Designers and users of VR systems should take a close look on new optoelectronics solutions, as they can significantly contribute to increased work efficiency and offer completely new opportunities for virtual world reception.

  2. Visual and opto-electronic autocollimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fesenko A .V.


    Full Text Available The article presents advantages of optical-electronic autocollimator to the visual ones. The possibility is shown to upgrade existing visual systems by replacing the autocollimating eyepieces by the units containing multielement detectors and connecting them to the computer. The brief characteristics of autocollimating eyepieces and modern optoelectronic autocollimators are given.

  3. Photoemission from optoelectronic materials and their nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Kamakhya Prasad; Bhattacharya, Sitangshu


    This monograph investigates photoemission from optoelectronic materials and their nanostructures. It contains open-ended research problems which form an integral part of the text and are useful for graduate courses as well as aspiring Ph.D.'s and researchers..

  4. The relationship between the incisor position and lingual surface morphology in normal occlusion. (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yuh; Ezura, Akira; Nomintsetseg, Batbayar


    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the morphological characteristics of maxillary incisors and the anterior occlusion. The study materials comprised dental casts and lateral cephalograms of 26 modern Mongolian females with Angle Class I normal occlusion (mean age, 21 years 5 months). Computed tomography (CT) images of the dental casts were taken with an X-ray micro-CT system (SMX-100CT, Shimadzu, Kyoto Japan). The thickness of the marginal ridges and incisal edges, and the overjet and overbite, was measured on the three-dimensional images of the dental casts. On the lateral cephalogram, maxillary incisor to sella-nasion plane angle (U1 to SN angle), maxillary incisor to nasion-point A plane distance (U1 to NA distance), mandibular incisor to nasion-point B plane distance (L1 to NB distance), incisor mandibular plane angle, and interincisal angle were measured by tracing the left incisors of the maxilla and mandible. Spearman's single rank correlation coefficients were used to investigate any correlation between measurement items for each maxillary incisor. The thickness of the marginal ridges and incisal edges was positively correlated with the overbite. The thickness of the incisal edges was positively correlated with the irregularity index of the maxilla. There were significant negative correlations between overbite and U1 to SN angle, U1 to NA distance, and L1 to NB distance. Significant positive correlations were noted between the overbite and the overjet. In conclusion, there was no strong relationship between the morphological characteristics of maxillary incisors and the anterior occlusion.

  5. Commercialization issues and funding opportunities for high-performance optoelectronic computing modules (United States)

    Hessenbruch, John M.; Guilfoyle, Peter S.


    Low power, optoelectronic integrated circuits are being developed for high speed switching and data processing applications. These high performance optoelectronic computing modules consist of three primary components: vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, diffractive optical interconnect elements, and detector/amplifier/laser driver arrays. Following the design and fabrication of an HPOC module prototype, selected commercial funding sources will be evaluated to support a product development stage. These include the formation of a strategic alliance with one or more microprocessor or telecommunications vendors, and/or equity investment from one or more venture capital firms.

  6. Production considerations necessary to produce large quantities of optoelectronic devices by MOCVD epitaxy (United States)

    Boldish, Steven I.


    Production requirements for Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) of optoelectronic devices are demanding. The MOCVD facilities and reactor can be viewed as a system with several critical parts that must be designed properly for the system to function successfully. An MOCVD system is described. Issues are reviewed which pertain to good surface morphology. Exhaust system considerations are described since these may frequently be overlooked in bringing a system into service. Finally a practical noncontact method for determining the liquid level of the metal organic (MO) source material is introduced. All of these issues are important for the production of optoelectronic devices.

  7. Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties of Silver Nanowires Films: Effect of Capping Agent and Deposition Technique. (United States)

    Lopez-Diaz, D; Merino, C; Velázquez, M M


    Silver nanowires 90 nm in diameter and 9 µm in length have been synthesized using different capping agents: polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and alkyl thiol of different chain lengths. The nanowire structure is not influenced by the displacement of PVP by alkyl thiols, although alkyl thiols modify the lateral aggregation of nanowires. We examined the effect of the capping agent and the deposition method on the optical and electrical properties of films prepared by Spray and the Langmuir-Schaefer methodologies. Our results revealed that nanowires capped with PVP and C8-thiol present the best optoelectronic properties. By using different deposition techniques and by modifying the nanowire surface density, we can modulate the optoelectronic properties of films. This strategy allows obtaining films with the optoelectronic properties required to manufacture touch screens and electromagnetic shielding.

  8. Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties of Silver Nanowires Films: Effect of Capping Agent and Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lopez-Diaz


    Full Text Available Silver nanowires 90 nm in diameter and 9 µm in length have been synthesized using different capping agents: polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and alkyl thiol of different chain lengths. The nanowire structure is not influenced by the displacement of PVP by alkyl thiols, although alkyl thiols modify the lateral aggregation of nanowires. We examined the effect of the capping agent and the deposition method on the optical and electrical properties of films prepared by Spray and the Langmuir-Schaefer methodologies. Our results revealed that nanowires capped with PVP and C8-thiol present the best optoelectronic properties. By using different deposition techniques and by modifying the nanowire surface density, we can modulate the optoelectronic properties of films. This strategy allows obtaining films with the optoelectronic properties required to manufacture touch screens and electromagnetic shielding.

  9. Light-matter Interactions in Semiconductors and Metals: From Nitride Optoelectronics to Quantum Plasmonics (United States)

    Narang, Prineha

    This thesis puts forth a theory-directed approach coupled with spectroscopy aimed at the discovery and understanding of light-matter interactions in semiconductors and metals. The first part of the thesis presents the discovery and development of Zn-IV nitride materials. The commercial prominence in the optoelectronics industry of tunable semiconductor alloy materials based on nitride semiconductor devices, specifically InGaN, motivates the search for earth-abundant alternatives for use in efficient, high-quality optoelectronic devices. II-IV-N2 compounds, which are closely related to the wurtzite-structured III-N semiconductors, have similar electronic and optical properties to InGaN namely direct band gaps, high quantum efficiencies and large optical absorption coefficients. The choice of different group II and group IV elements provides chemical diversity that can be exploited to tune the structural and electronic properties through the series of alloys. The first theoretical and experimental investigation of the ZnSnxGe1--xN2 series as a replacement for III-nitrides is discussed here. The second half of the thesis shows ab-initio calculations for surface plasmons and plasmonic hot carrier dynamics. Surface plasmons, electromagnetic modes confined to the surface of a conductor-dielectric interface, have sparked renewed interest because of their quantum nature and their broad range of applications. The decay of surface plasmons is usually a detriment in the field of plasmonics, but the possibility to capture the energy normally lost to heat would open new opportunities in photon sensors, energy conversion devices and switching. A theoretical understanding of plasmon-driven hot carrier generation and relaxation dynamics in the ultrafast regime is presented here. Additionally calculations for plasmon-mediated upconversion as well as an energy-dependent transport model for these non-equilibrium carriers are shown. Finally, this thesis gives an outlook on the

  10. Milestone Completion Report WBS ECP/VTK-m FY17Q3 [MS-17/02] Faceted Surface Normals STDA05-3.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreland, Kenneth D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The FY17Q3 milestone of the ECP/VTK-m project includes the completion of a VTK-m filter that computes normal vectors for surfaces. Normal vectors are those that point perpendicular to the surface and are an important direction when rendering the surface. The implementation includes the parallel algorithm itself, a filter module to simplify integrating it into other software, and documentation in the VTK-m Users’ Guide. With the completion of this milestone, we are able to necessary information to rendering systems to provide appropriate shading of surfaces. This milestone also feeds into subsequent milestones that progressively improve the approximation of surface direction.

  11. Two-dimensional echocardiographic right ventricle measurements adjusted to body mass index and surface area in a normal population. (United States)

    Eslami, Masood; Larti, Farnoush; Larry, Mehrdad; Molaee, Parisa; Badkoobeh, Roya Sattarzadeh; Tavoosi, Anahita; Safari, Saeed; Parsa, Amir Farhang Zand


    To determine reference echocardiographic values in a normal population and assess their correlation with body mass index (BMI) and body surface area. An expert cardiologist performed two-dimensional echocardiography with triplicate right ventricle (RV) size measurements in 80 subjects with normal heart condition. Results were correlated with anthropometric data. Base-to-apex length in four-chamber view (RVD3) and above-pulmonic valve in short-axis view in males, as well as mid-RV diameter in standard four-chamber view (RVD), basal RV diameter, and mid RV diameter in RV-focused four-chamber view in females, were significantly correlated with BMI. All RV variables were significantly correlated with BMI in 20-30-year-old subjects. All RV variables except RVD3 and above-aortic valve in short-axis view (proximal) were significantly correlated with BMI in 35-55-year-old subjects. All RV parameters were significantly correlated with body surface area, except for RVD and in 20-35-year-old subjects. RV echocardiographic values must be adjusted to anthropometric characteristics for proper diagnosis and management of cardiac disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 45:204-210, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Inflammatory Cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor α Confers Precancerous Phenotype in an Organoid Model of Normal Human Ovarian Surface Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kwong


    Full Text Available In this study, we established an in vitro organoid model of normal human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE cells. The spheroids of these normal HOSE cells resembled epithelial inclusion cysts in human ovarian cortex, which are the cells of origin of ovarian epithelial tumor. Because there are strong correlations between chronic inflammation and the incidence of ovarian cancer, we used the organoid model to test whether protumor inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α would induce malignant phenotype in normal HOSE cells. Prolonged treatment of tumor necrosis factor α induced phenotypic changes of the HOSE spheroids, which exhibited the characteristics of precancerous lesions of ovarian epithelial tumors, including reinitiation of cell proliferation, structural disorganization, epithelial stratification, loss of epithelial polarity, degradation of basement membrane, cell invasion, and overexpression of ovarian cancer markers. The result of this study provides not only an evidence supporting the link between chronic inflammation and ovarian cancer formation but also a relevant and novel in vitro model for studying of early events of ovarian cancer.

  13. A tunable hemispherical platform for non-stretching curved flexible electronics and optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Jinda; Ju, Y. Sungtaek, E-mail: [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of California, 420 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)


    One major challenge in incorporating flexible electronics or optoelectronics on curved surfaces is the requirement of significant stretchability. We report a tunable platform for incorporating flexible and yet non-stretching device layers on a hemisphere. In this configuration, an array of planar petals contractively maps onto the surface of an inflatable hemisphere through elastocapillary interactions mediated by an interface liquid. A mechanical model is developed to elucidate the dependence of the conformality of the petal structures on their elastic modulus and thickness and the liquid surface tension. The modeling results are validated against experimental results obtained using petal structures of different thicknesses, restoring elastic spring elements of different spring constants, and liquids with different surface tension coefficients. Our platform will enable facile integration of non-stretching electronic and optoelectronic components prepared using established planar fabrication techniques on tunable hemispherical surfaces.

  14. Electrical and optoelectronic properties of two-dimensional materials (United States)

    Wang, Qiaoming

    Electrical and optoelectronic properties of bulk semiconductor materials have been extensively explored in last century. However, when reduced to one-dimensional and two-dimensional, many semiconductors start to show unique electrical and optoelectronic behaviors. In this dissertation, electrical and optoelectronic properties of one-dimensional (nanowires) and two-dimensional semiconductor materials are investigated by various techniques, including scanning photocurrent microscopy, scanning Kelvin probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and finite-element simulations. In our work, gate-tunable photocurrent in ZnO nanowires has been observed under optical excitation in the visible regime, which originates from the nanowire/substrate interface states. This gate tunability in the visible regime can be used to enhance the photon absorption efficiency, and suppress the undesirable visible-light photodetection in ZnO-based solar cells. The power conversion efficiency of CuInSe2/CdS core-shell nanowire solar cells has been investigated. The highest power conversion efficiency per unit area/volume is achieved with core diameter of 50 nm and the thinnest shell thickness. The existence of the optimal geometrical parameters is due to a combined effect of optical resonances and carrier transport/dynamics. Significant current crowding in two-dimensional black phosphorus field-effect transistors has been found, which has been significantly underestimated by the commonly used transmission-line model. This current crowding can lead to Joule heating close to the contacts. New van der Waals metal-semiconductor junctions have been mechanically constructed and systematically studied. The photocurrent on junction area has been demonstrated to originate from the photothermal effect rather than the photovoltaic effect. Our findings suggest that a reasonable control of interface/surface state properties can enable new and beneficial functionalities in nanostructures. We

  15. Optoelectronic investigation of nanodiamond interactions with human blood (United States)

    Ficek, M.; Wróbel, M. S.; Wasowicz, M.; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M.


    We present optoelectronic investigation of in vitro interactions of whole human blood with different nanodiamond biomarkers. Plasmo-chemical modifications of detonation nanodiamond particles gives the possibility for controlling their surface for biological applications. Optical investigations reveal the biological activity of nanodiamonds in blood dependent on its surface termination. We compare different types of nanodiamonds: commercial non-modified detonation nanodiamonds, and nanodiamonds modified by MW PACVD method with H2-termination, and chemically modified nanodiamond with O2-termination. The absorption spectra, and optical microscope investigations were conducted. The results indicate haemocompatibility of non-modified detonation nanodiamond as well as modified nanodiamonds, which enables their application for drug delivery, as well as sensing applications.

  16. Bioinspired Transparent Laminated Composite Film for Flexible Green Optoelectronics. (United States)

    Lee, Daewon; Lim, Young-Woo; Im, Hyeon-Gyun; Jeong, Seonju; Ji, Sangyoon; Kim, Yong Ho; Choi, Gwang-Mun; Park, Jang-Ung; Lee, Jung-Yong; Jin, Jungho; Bae, Byeong-Soo


    Herein, we report a new version of a bioinspired chitin nanofiber (ChNF) transparent laminated composite film (HCLaminate) made of siloxane hybrid materials (hybrimers) reinforced with ChNFs, which mimics the nanofiber-matrix structure of hierarchical biocomposites. Our HCLaminate is produced via vacuum bag compressing and subsequent UV-curing of the matrix resin-impregnated ChNF transparent paper (ChNF paper). It is worthwhile to note that this new type of ChNF-based transparent substrate film retains the strengths of the original ChNF paper and compensates for ChNF paper's drawbacks as a flexible transparent substrate. As a result, compared with high-performance synthetic plastic films, such as poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(ether sulfone), poly(ethylene naphthalate), and polyimide, our HCLaminate is characterized to exhibit extremely smooth surface topography, outstanding optical clarity, high elastic modulus, high dimensional stability, etc. To prove our HCLaminate as a substrate film, we use it to fabricate flexible perovskite solar cells and a touch-screen panel. As far as we know, this work is the first to demonstrate flexible optoelectronics, such as flexible perovskite solar cells and a touch-screen panel, actually fabricated on a composite film made of ChNF. Given its desirable macroscopic properties, we envision our HCLaminate being utilized as a transparent substrate film for flexible green optoelectronics.

  17. Optical Near-field Interactions and Forces for Optoelectronic Devices (United States)

    Kohoutek, John Michael

    Throughout history, as a particle view of the universe began to take shape, scientists began to realize that these particles were attracted to each other and hence came up with theories, both analytical and empirical in nature, to explain their interaction. The interaction pair potential (empirical) and electromagnetics (analytical) theories, both help to explain not only the interaction between the basic constituents of matter, such as atoms and molecules, but also between macroscopic objects, such as two surfaces in close proximity. The electrostatic force, optical force, and Casimir force can be categorized as such forces. A surface plasmon (SP) is a collective motion of electrons generated by light at the interface between two mediums of opposite signs of dielectric susceptibility (e.g. metal and dielectric). Recently, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has been exploited in many areas through the use of tiny antennas that work on similar principles as radio frequency (RF) antennas in optoelectronic devices. These antennas can produce a very high gradient in the electric field thereby leading to an optical force, similar in concept to the surface forces discussed above. The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) was introduced in the 1980s at IBM. Here we report on its uses in measuring these aforementioned forces and fields, as well as actively modulating and manipulating multiple optoelectronic devices. We have shown that it is possible to change the far field radiation pattern of an optical antenna-integrated device through modification of the near-field of the device. This modification is possible through change of the local refractive index or reflectivity of the "hot spot" of the device, either mechanically or optically. Finally, we have shown how a mechanically active device can be used to detect light with high gain and low noise at room temperature. It is the aim of several of these integrated and future devices to be used for applications in molecular sensing

  18. Optoelectronic Devices Advanced Simulation and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Piprek, Joachim


    Optoelectronic devices transform electrical signals into optical signals and vice versa by utilizing the sophisticated interaction of electrons and light within micro- and nano-scale semiconductor structures. Advanced software tools for design and analysis of such devices have been developed in recent years. However, the large variety of materials, devices, physical mechanisms, and modeling approaches often makes it difficult to select appropriate theoretical models or software packages. This book presents a review of devices and advanced simulation approaches written by leading researchers and software developers. It is intended for scientists and device engineers in optoelectronics, who are interested in using advanced software tools. Each chapter includes the theoretical background as well as practical simulation results that help to better understand internal device physics. The software packages used in the book are available to the public, on a commercial or noncommercial basis, so that the interested r...

  19. Glass-Forming Organic Semiconductors for Optoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Organic electronics and optoelectronics are newly emerging fields of science and technology that cover chemistry, physics, and materials science. Electronic and optoelectronic devices using organic materials are attractive because of the materials characteristics, potentially low cost, and capability of large-area, flexible device fabrication. Such devices as OLEDs, OPVs, and OFETs involve charge transport as a main process in their operation processes, and therefore, require high-performance charge-transporting materials. This review article focuses on charge-transporting materials for use in OLEDs, OPVs, and OFETs. We have tried to arrange the charge-transporting materials in order by classifying them on the basis of their molecular structures. Molecular design concepts for charge-transporting materials and their charge-transport properties are discussed.

  20. A monolithically integrated magneto-optoelectronic circuit (United States)

    Saha, D.; Basu, D.; Bhattacharya, P.


    The monolithic integration of a spin valve, an amplifier, and a light emitting diode to form a magneto-optoelectronic integrated circuit on GaAs is demonstrated. The circuit converts the spin polarization information in the channel of the spin valve to an amplified change in light intensity with a gain of 20. The monolithic circuit therefore operates as a magnetoelectronic switch which modulates the light intensity of the light emitting diode.

  1. Normal and anomalous transport phenomena in two-dimensional NaCl, MoS2 and honeycomb surfaces (United States)

    Mbemmo, A. M. Fopossi; Kenmoé, G. Djuidjé; Kofané, T. C.


    Understanding the effects of anisotropy and substrate shape on the stochastic processes is critically needed for the improvement of the quality of the transport information. The effect of biharmonic force on the transport phenomena of a particle in two-dimensional is investigated in the framework of three representative substrate lattices: NaCl, MoS2 and honeycomb. We focus on the particles drift velocity, to characterize the transport properties in the system. Normal and anomalous transport are identified for a particular set of the system parameters such as the biharmonic parameter, the bias force, the phase-lag of two signals, as well as the noise amplitude. According to the direction ψ where the bias force is applied, we determine the biharmonic parameter ɛ for the presence of anomalous transport and show that for the NaCl surface, the anomalous transport is observed for 2 transport is generated for 0 ⩽ ɛ 30 °.

  2. Exceptional Optoelectronic Properties of Hydrogenated Bilayer Silicene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Huang


    Full Text Available Silicon is arguably the best electronic material, but it is not a good optoelectronic material. By employing first-principles calculations and the cluster-expansion approach, we discover that hydrogenated bilayer silicene (BS shows promising potential as a new kind of optoelectronic material. Most significantly, hydrogenation converts the intrinsic BS, a strongly indirect semiconductor, into a direct-gap semiconductor with a widely tunable band gap. At low hydrogen concentrations, four ground states of single- and double-sided hydrogenated BS are characterized by dipole-allowed direct (or quasidirect band gaps in the desirable range from 1 to 1.5 eV, suitable for solar applications. At high hydrogen concentrations, three well-ordered double-sided hydrogenated BS structures exhibit direct (or quasidirect band gaps in the color range of red, green, and blue, affording white light-emitting diodes. Our findings open opportunities to search for new silicon-based light-absorption and light-emitting materials for earth-abundant, high-efficiency, optoelectronic applications.

  3. New Development of Membrane Base Optoelectronic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Hamui


    Full Text Available It is known that one factor that affects the operation of optoelectronic devices is the effective protection of the semiconductor materials against environmental conditions. The permeation of atmospheric oxygen and water molecules into the device structure induces degradation of the electrodes and the semiconductor. As a result, in this communication we report the fabrication of semiconductor membranes consisting of Magnesium Phthalocyanine-allene (MgPc-allene particles dispersed in Nylon 11 films. These membranes combine polymer properties with organic semiconductors properties and also provide a barrier effect for the atmospheric gas molecules. They were prepared by high vacuum evaporation and followed by thermal relaxation technique. For the characterization of the obtained membranes, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS were used to determine the chemical and microstructural properties. UV-ViS, null ellipsometry, and visible photoluminescence (PL at room temperature were used to characterize the optoelectronic properties. These results were compared with those obtained for the organic semiconductors: MgPc-allene thin films. Additionally, semiconductor membranes devices have been prepared, and a study of the device electronic transport properties was conducted by measuring electrical current density-voltage (J-V characteristics by four point probes with different wavelengths. The resistance properties against different environmental molecules are enhanced, maintaining their semiconductor functionality that makes them candidates for optoelectronic applications.

  4. Studies on Impingement Effects of Low Density Jets on Surfaces — Determination of Shear Stress and Normal Pressure (United States)

    Sathian, Sarith. P.; Kurian, Job


    This paper presents the results of the Laser Reflection Method (LRM) for the determination of shear stress due to impingement of low-density free jets on flat plate. For thin oil film moving under the action of aerodynamic boundary layer the shear stress at the air-oil interface is equal to the shear stress between the surface and air. A direct and dynamic measurement of the oil film slope is measured using a position sensing detector (PSD). The thinning rate of oil film is directly measured which is the major advantage of the LRM over LISF method. From the oil film slope history, direct calculation of the shear stress is done using a three-point formula. For the full range of experiment conditions Knudsen numbers varied till the continuum limit of the transition regime. The shear stress values for low-density flows in the transition regime are thus obtained using LRM and the measured values of shear show fair agreement with those obtained by other methods. Results of the normal pressure measurements on a flat plate in low-density jets by using thermistors as pressure sensors are also presented in the paper. The normal pressure profiles obtained show the characteristic features of Newtonian impact theory for hypersonic flows.

  5. PLZT Electrooptic Ceramic Photonic Devices for Surface-Normal Operation in Trenches Cut Across Arrays of Optical Fiber (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Katsuhiko


    Simple Pb_1-x La_x(Zr_y Ti_z)_1-x/4 O3 (PLZT) electrooptic ceramic photonic device arrays for surface-normal operation have been developed for application to polarization-controller arrays and Fabry-Pérot tunable filter arrays. These arrays are inserted in trenches cut across fiber arrays. Each element of the arrayed structure corresponds to one optical beam and takes the form of a cell. Each sidewall of the cell (width: 50-80 μm) is coated to form an electrode. The arrays have 16 elements at a pitch of 250 μm. The phase modulator has about 1 dB of loss and a half-wavelength voltage of 120 V. A cascade of two PLZT phase modulators (thickness: 300 μm), with each attached to a polyimide lambda/2 plate (thickness:15 μm), is capable of converting an arbitrary polarization to the transverse-electric (TE) or transverse-magnetic (TM) polarization. The response time is 1 μs. The Fabry-Pérot tunable filters have a thickness of 50 μm . The front and back surfaces of each cell are coated by 99%-reflective mirror. The free spectral range (FSR) of the filters is about 10 nm, tunable range is about 10 nm, loss is 2.2 dB, and finesse is 150. The tuning speed of these devices is high, taking only 1 μs.

  6. Loss of surface horizon of an irrigated soil detected by radiometric images of normalized difference vegetation index. (United States)

    Fabian Sallesses, Leonardo; Aparicio, Virginia Carolina; Costa, Jose Luis


    The use of the soil in the Humid Pampa of Argentina has changed since the mid-1990s from agricultural-livestock production (that included pastures with direct grazing) to a purely agricultural production. Also, in recent years the area under irrigation by central pivot has been increased to 150%. The waters used for irrigation are sodium carbonates. The combination of irrigation and rain increases the sodium absorption ratio of soil (SARs), consequently raising the clay dispersion and reducing infiltration. This implies an increased risk of soil loss. A reduction in the development of white clover crop (Trifolium repens L.) was observed at an irrigation plot during 2015 campaign. The clover was planted in order to reduce the impact of two maize (Zea mays L.) campaigns under irrigation, which had increased soil SAR and deteriorated soil structure. SPOT-5 radiometric normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images were used to determine two zones of high and low production. In each zone, four random points were selected for further geo-referenced field sampling. Two geo-referenced measures of effective depth and surface soil sampling were carried out in each point. Texture of soil samples was determined by Pipette Method of Sedimentation Analysis. Data exploratory analysis showed that low production zone had a media effective depth = 80 cm and silty clay loam texture, while high production zone had a media effective depth > 140 cm and silt loam texture. The texture class of the low production zone did not correspond to prior soil studies carried out by the INTA (National Institute of Agricultural Technology), which showed that those soil textures were silt loam at surface and silty clay loam at sub-surface. The loss of the A horizon is proposed as a possible explanation, but further research is required. Besides, the need of a soil cartography actualization, which integrates new satellite imaging technologies and geo-referenced measurements with soil sensors is

  7. Differential Proteomic Analysis of Human Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Cultured on Normal Tissue Culture Surface and Hyaluronan-Coated Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzyy Yue Wong


    Full Text Available Our previous results showed that hyaluronan (HA preserved human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PDMSC in a slow cell cycling mode similar to quiescence, the pristine state of stem cells in vivo, and HA was found to prevent murine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells from senescence. Here, stable isotope labeling by amino acid in cell culture (SILAC proteomic profiling was used to evaluate the effects of HA on aging phenomenon in stem cells, comparing (1 old and young passage PDMSC cultured on normal tissue culture surface (TCS; (2 old passage on HA-coated surface (CHA compared to TCS; (3 old and young passage on CHA. The results indicated that senescence-associated protein transgelin (TAGLN was upregulated in old TCS. Protein CYR61, reportedly senescence-related, was downregulated in old CHA compared to old TCS. The SIRT1-interacting Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT increased by 2.23-fold in old CHA compared to old TCS, and is 0.48-fold lower in old TCS compared to young TCS. Results also indicated that components of endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD pathway were upregulated in old CHA compared to old TCS cells, potentially for overcoming stress to maintain cell function and suppress senescence. Our data points to pathways that may be targeted by HA to maintain stem cells youth.

  8. Secondary treatment of films of colloidal quantum dots for optoelectronics and devices produced thereby (United States)

    Semonin, Octavi Escala; Luther, Joseph M; Beard, Matthew C; Chen, Hsiang-Yu


    A method of forming an optoelectronic device. The method includes providing a deposition surface and contacting the deposition surface with a ligand exchange chemical and contacting the deposition surface with a quantum dot (QD) colloid. This initial process is repeated over one or more cycles to form an initial QD film on the deposition surface. The method further includes subsequently contacting the QD film with a secondary treatment chemical and optionally contacting the surface with additional QDs to form an enhanced QD layer exhibiting multiple exciton generation (MEG) upon absorption of high energy photons by the QD active layer. Devices having an enhanced QD active layer as described above are also disclosed.

  9. Optoelectronic Device and System Development for Imaging Through Turbulence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fainman, Y


    Identified a candidate algorithm suitable for imaging through turbulence. The phase diversity algorithm demonstrate good performance mapped the phase diversity algorithms onto an opto-electronic (OE) architecture...

  10. Graphene optoelectronics synthesis, characterization, properties, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    bin M Yusoff, Abdul Rashid


    This first book on emerging applications for this innovative material gives an up-to-date account of the many opportunities graphene offers high-end optoelectronics.The text focuses on potential as well as already realized applications, discussing metallic and passive components, such as transparent conductors and smart windows, as well as high-frequency devices, spintronics, photonics, and terahertz devices. Also included are sections on the fundamental properties, synthesis, and characterization of graphene. With its unique coverage, this book will be welcomed by materials scientists, solid-

  11. Performance Evaluation of an Integrated Optoelectronic Receiver


    A. Vera-Marquina; J. Martínez-Castillo; I.E. Zaldivar-Huerta; A. Díaz-Sanchez


    This work describes the optical and electrical characterization of an integrated optoelectronic receiver. The receiver is composed of a photodiode and a transimpedance amplifier, both fabricated in silicon technology using a 0.8 μm BiCMOS process. The total area occupied by the photodiode is of 10,000 μm2. In a first step, the generated photocurrent of the photodiode is measured for the wavelengths of 780 nm and 830 nm at different levels of optical power. In a second step, the responsivity a...

  12. Coherent optoelectronics with single quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zrenner, A; Ester, P; Michaelis de Vasconcellos, S; Huebner, M C; Lackmann, L; Stufler, S [Universitaet Paderborn, Department Physik, Warburger Strasse 100, D-33098 Paderborn (Germany); Bichler, M [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail:


    The optical properties of semiconductor quantum dots are in many respects similar to those of atoms. Since quantum dots can be defined by state-of-the-art semiconductor technologies, they exhibit long-term stability and allow for well-controlled and efficient interactions with both optical and electrical fields. Resonant ps excitation of single quantum dot photodiodes leads to new classes of coherent optoelectronic functions and devices, which exhibit precise state preparation, phase-sensitive optical manipulations and the control of quantum states by electrical fields.

  13. Feature issue introduction: halide perovskites for optoelectronics. (United States)

    White, Thomas P; Deleporte, Emmanuelle; Sum, Tze-Chien


    This joint Optics Express and Optical Materials Express feature issue presents a collection of nine papers on the topic of halide perovskites for optoelectronics. Perovskite materials have attracted significant attention over the past four years, initially for their outstanding performance in thin film solar cells, but more recently for applications in light-emitting devices (LEDs and lasers), photodetectors and nonlinear optics. At the same time, there is still much more to learn about the fundamental properties of these materials, and how these depend on composition, processing, and exposure to the environment. This feature issue provides a snapshot of some of the latest research in this rapidly-evolving multidisciplinary field.

  14. Smart Optoelectronic Sensors and Intelligent Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Y. YURISH


    Full Text Available Light-to-frequency converters are widely used in various optoelectronic sensor systems. However, a further frequency-to-digital conversion is a bottleneck in such systems due to a broad frequency range of light-to-frequency converters’ outputs. This paper describes an effective OEM design approach, which can be used for smart and intelligent sensor systems design. The design is based on novel, multifunctional integrated circuit of Universal Sensors & Transducers Interface especially designed for such sensor applications. Experimental results have confirmed an efficiency of this approach and high metrological performances.

  15. Modeling guided wave excitation in plates with surface mounted piezoelectric elements: coupled physics and normal mode expansion (United States)

    Ren, Baiyang; Lissenden, Cliff J.


    Guided waves have been extensively studied and widely used for structural health monitoring because of their large volumetric coverage and good sensitivity to defects. Effectively and preferentially exciting a desired wave mode having good sensitivity to a certain defect is of great practical importance. Piezoelectric discs and plates are the most common types of surface-mounted transducers for guided wave excitation and reception. Their geometry strongly influences the proportioning between excited modes as well as the total power of the excited modes. It is highly desirable to predominantly excite the selected mode while the total transduction power is maximized. In this work, a fully coupled multi-physics finite element analysis, which incorporates the driving circuit, the piezoelectric element and the wave guide, is combined with the normal mode expansion method to study both the mode tuning and total wave power. The excitation of circular crested waves in an aluminum plate with circular piezoelectric discs is numerically studied for different disc and adhesive thicknesses. Additionally, the excitation of plane waves in an aluminum plate, using a stripe piezoelectric element is studied both numerically and experimentally. It is difficult to achieve predominant single mode excitation as well as maximum power transmission simultaneously, especially for higher order modes. However, guidelines for designing the geometry of piezoelectric elements for optimal mode excitation are recommended.

  16. Segmentation of Planar Surfaces from Laser Scanning Data Using the Magnitude of Normal Position Vector for Adaptive Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjae Kim


    Full Text Available Diverse approaches to laser point segmentation have been proposed since the emergence of the laser scanning system. Most of these segmentation techniques, however, suffer from limitations such as sensitivity to the choice of seed points, lack of consideration of the spatial relationships among points, and inefficient performance. In an effort to overcome these drawbacks, this paper proposes a segmentation methodology that: (1 reduces the dimensions of the attribute space; (2 considers the attribute similarity and the proximity of the laser point simultaneously; and (3 works well with both airborne and terrestrial laser scanning data. A neighborhood definition based on the shape of the surface increases the homogeneity of the laser point attributes. The magnitude of the normal position vector is used as an attribute for reducing the dimension of the accumulator array. The experimental results demonstrate, through both qualitative and quantitative evaluations, the outcomes’ high level of reliability. The proposed segmentation algorithm provided 96.89% overall correctness, 95.84% completeness, a 0.25 m overall mean value of centroid difference, and less than 1° of angle difference. The performance of the proposed approach was also verified with a large dataset and compared with other approaches. Additionally, the evaluation of the sensitivity of the thresholds was carried out. In summary, this paper proposes a robust and efficient segmentation methodology for abstraction of an enormous number of laser points into plane information.

  17. Root surface areas of maxillary permanent teeth in anterior normal overbite and anterior open bite assessed using cone-beam computed tomography. (United States)

    Suteerapongpun, Piyadanai; Sirabanchongkran, Supassara; Wattanachai, Tanapan; Sriwilas, Patiyut; Jotikasthira, Dhirawat


    The aim of this study was to compare the root surface areas of the maxillary permanent teeth in Thai patients exhibiting anterior normal overbite and in those exhibiting anterior open bite, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT images of maxillary permanent teeth from 15 patients with anterior normal overbite and 18 patients with anterior open bite were selected. Three-dimensional tooth models were constructed using Mimics Research version 17.0. The cementoenamel junction was marked manually. The root surface area was calculated automatically by 3-Matic Research version 9.0. The root surface areas of each tooth type from both types of bite were compared using the independent t-test ( P <.05). The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to assess intraobserver reliability. The mean root surface areas of the maxillary central and lateral incisors in individuals with anterior open bite were significantly less than those in those with normal bite. The mean root surface area of the maxillary second premolar in individuals with anterior open bite was significantly greater than in those with normal bite. Anterior open-bite malocclusion might affect the root surface area, so orthodontic force magnitudes should be carefully determined.

  18. Optoelectronic pH Meter: Further Details (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Anderson, Mejody M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.


    A collection of documents provides further detailed information about an optoelectronic instrument that measures the pH of an aqueous cell-culture medium to within 0.1 unit in the range from 6.5 to 7.5. The instrument at an earlier stage of development was reported in Optoelectronic Instrument Monitors pH in a Culture Medium (MSC-23107), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 9 (September 2004), page 4a. To recapitulate: The instrument includes a quartz cuvette through which the medium flows as it is circulated through a bioreactor. The medium contains some phenol red, which is an organic pH-indicator dye. The cuvette sits between a light source and a photodetector. [The light source in the earlier version comprised red (625 nm) and green (558 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs); the light source in the present version comprises a single green- (560 nm)-or-red (623 nm) LED.] The red and green are repeatedly flashed in alternation. The responses of the photodiode to the green and red are processed electronically to obtain the ratio between the amounts of green and red light transmitted through the medium. The optical absorbance of the phenol red in the green light varies as a known function of pH. Hence, the pH of the medium can be calculated from the aforesaid ratio.

  19. Nano-optoelectronics. Concepts, physics and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundmann, M. (ed.) [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentelle Physik 2 - Halbleiterphysik


    In Part I of this book the underlying concepts of nano-optoelectronics, namely semiconductor heterostructures (Chap. 1) and stress-engineering of semiconductors (Chap. 2), are covered. In Part II the new physics in nanostructures is discussed. The first contributions focus on the structural properties investigated by transmission electron microscopy, planar and cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and X-ray diffraction (Chaps. 3-6). In Chap. 7 the theory of electronic and optical properties of quantum dots is discussed. In Chap. 8 the electronic properties of quantum dots are investigated using magnetotunneling spectroscopy. In Chaps. 9-11 optical properties are discussed with focus on the dielectric function, interband transitions and condensation phenomena, respectively. The application of these novel properties in nano-optoelectronic devices is the focal point of Part III. In Chap. 12 the theory of quantum dot lasers is presented. The following contributions focus on experimental results on active devices, i.e., lasers (Chaps. 13-17) with focus on long-wavelength, red, blue/UV, high power, and mid-infrared (inter-sublevel) emission as well as amplifiers (Chap. 18). (orig.)

  20. Optoelectronic inventory system for special nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieradzki, F.H.


    In support of the Department of Energy's Dismantlement Program, the Optoelectronics Characterization and Sensor Development Department 2231 at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico has developed an in situ nonintrusive Optoelectronic Inventory System (OIS) that has the potential for application wherever periodic inventory of selected material is desired. Using a network of fiber-optic links, the OIS retrieves and stores inventory signatures from data storage devices (which are permanently attached to material storage containers) while inherently providing electromagnetic pulse immunity and electrical noise isolation. Photovoltaic cells (located within the storage facility) convert laser diode optic power from a laser driver to electrical energy. When powered and triggered, the data storage devices sequentially output their digital inventory signatures through light-emitting diode/photo diode data links for retrieval and storage in a mobile data acquisition system. An item's exact location is determined through fiber-optic network and software design. The OIS provides an on-demand method for obtaining acceptable inventory reports while eliminating the need for human presence inside the material storage facility. By using modularization and prefabricated construction with mature technologies and components, an OIS installation with virtually unlimited capacity can be tailored to the customer's requirements

  1. Rapid Methods For Multiply Determining Potent Xenobiotics Based On The Optoelectronic Imaging (United States)

    Snopok, B.

    Some predictions concerning the technological expansion for the optoelectronic imaging systems for the screening potent xenobiotics are made based on the analysis of the state-of-the-art "multivariate" array technology. Emphasis is placed on the multiparameter aspect of such systems performance, in particular, the additional value of the scattered light under surface plasmon resonance conditions when forming chemical images for composite multicomponent media using the multisensor arrays.

  2. Surface-EMG analysis for the quantification of thigh muscle dynamic co-contractions during normal gait. (United States)

    Strazza, Annachiara; Mengarelli, Alessandro; Fioretti, Sandro; Burattini, Laura; Agostini, Valentina; Knaflitz, Marco; Di Nardo, Francesco


    The research purpose was to quantify the co-contraction patterns of quadriceps femoris (QF) vs. hamstring muscles during free walking, in terms of onset-offset muscular activation, excitation intensity, and occurrence frequency. Statistical gait analysis was performed on surface-EMG signals from vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), and medial hamstrings (MH), in 16315 strides walked by 30 healthy young adults. Results showed full superimpositions of MH with both VL and RF activity from terminal swing, 80 to 100% of gait cycle (GC), to the successive loading response (≈0-15% of GC), in around 90% of the considered strides. A further superimposition was detected during the push-off phase both between VL and MH activation intervals (38.6±12.8% to 44.1±9.6% of GC) in 21.9±13.6% of strides, and between RF and MH activation intervals (45.9±5.3% to 50.7±9.7 of GC) in 32.7±15.1% of strides. These findings led to identify three different co-contractions among QF and hamstring muscles during able-bodied walking: in early stance (in ≈90% of strides), in push-off (in 25-30% of strides) and in terminal swing (in ≈90% of strides). The co-contraction in terminal swing is the one with the highest levels of muscle excitation intensity. To our knowledge, this analysis represents the first attempt for quantification of QF/hamstring muscles co-contraction in young healthy subjects during normal gait, able to include the physiological variability of the phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Introduction to organic electronic and optoelectronic materials and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Sam-Shajing


    Introduction to Optoelectronic Materials, N. Peyghambarian and M. Fallahi Introduction to Optoelectronic Device Principles, J. Piprek Basic Electronic Structures and Charge Carrier Generation in Organic Optoelectronic Materials, S.-S. Sun Charge Transport in Conducting Polymers, V.N. Prigodin and A.J. Epstein Major Classes of Organic Small Molecules for Electronic and Optoelectronics, X. Meng, W. Zhu, and H. Tian Major Classes of Conjugated Polymers and Synthetic Strategies, Y. Li and J. Hou Low Energy Gap, Conducting, and Transparent Polymers, A. Kumar, Y. Ner, and G.A. Sotzing Conjugated Polymers, Fullerene C60, and Carbon Nanotubes for Optoelectronic Devices, L. Qu, L. Dai, and S.-S. Sun Introduction of Organic Superconducting Materials, H. Mori Molecular Semiconductors for Organic Field-Effect Transistors, A. Facchetti Polymer Field-Effect Transistors, H.G.O. Sandberg Organic Molecular Light-Emitting Materials and Devices, F. So and J. Shi Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes: Devices and Materials, X. Gong and ...

  4. Dental impression technique using optoelectronic devices (United States)

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Barua, Souman; Topala, Florin Ionel; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Gabor, Alin Gabriel; Zaharia, Cristian; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian G.


    INTRODUCTION: The use of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) as a non-invasive and high precision quantitative information providing tool has been well established by researches within the last decade. The marginal discrepancy values can be scrutinized in optical biopsy made in three dimensional (3D) micro millimetre scale and reveal detailed qualitative and quantitative information of soft and hard tissues. OCT-based high resolution 3D images can provide a significant impact on finding recurrent caries, restorative failure, analysing the precision of crown preparation, and prosthetic elements marginal adaptation error with the gingiva and dental hard tissues. During the CAD/CAM process of prosthodontic restorations, the circumvent of any error is important for the practitioner and the technician to reduce waste of time and material. Additionally, OCT images help to achieve a new or semi-skilled practitioner to analyse their crown preparation works and help to develop their skills faster than in a conventional way. The aim of this study is to highlight the advantages of OCT in high precision prosthodontic restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 25 preparations of frontal and lateral teeth were performed for 7 different patients. The impressions of the prosthetic fields were obtained both using a conventional optoelectronic system (Apolo Di, Syrona) and a Spectral Domain using OCT (Dental prototype, working at 860 nm). For the conventional impression technique the preparation margins were been prelevated by gingival impregnated cords. No specific treatments were performed by the OCT impression technique. RESULTS: The scanning performed by conventional optoelectronic system proved to be quick and accurate in terms of impression technology. The results were represented by 3D virtual models obtained after the scanning procedure was completed. In order to obtain a good optical impression a gingival retraction cord was inserted between the prepared tooth and the gingival

  5. Metal Complexes for Organic Optoelectronic Applications (United States)

    Huang, Liang

    Organic optoelectronic devices have drawn extensive attention by over the past two decades. Two major applications for Organic optoelectronic devices are efficient organic photovoltaic devices(OPV) and organic light emitting diodes (OLED). Organic Solar cell has been proven to be compatible with the low cost, large area bulk processing technology and processed high absorption efficiencies compared to inorganic solar cells. Organic light emitting diodes are a promising approach for display and solid state lighting applications. To improve the efficiency, stability, and materials variety for organic optoelectronic devices, several emissive materials, absorber-type materials, and charge transporting materials were developed and employed in various device settings. Optical, electrical, and photophysical studies of the organic materials and their corresponding devices were thoroughly carried out. In this thesis, Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the background knowledge of OPV and OLED research fields presented. Chapter 2 discusses new porphyrin derivatives- azatetrabenzylporphyrins for OPV and near infrared OLED applications. A modified synthetic method is utilized to increase the reaction yield of the azatetrabenzylporphyrin materials and their photophysical properties, electrochemical properties are studied. OPV devices are also fabricated using Zinc azatetrabenzylporphyrin as donor materials. Pt(II) azatetrabenzylporphyrin were also synthesized and used in near infra-red OLED to achieve an emission over 800 nm with reasonable external quantum efficiencies. Chapter 3, discusses the synthesis, characterization, and device evaluation of a series of tetradentate platinum and palladium complexesfor single doped white OLED applications and RGB white OLED applications. Devices employing some of the developed emitters demonstrated impressively high external quantum efficiencies within the range of 22%-27% for various emitter concentrations. And the palladium complex, i

  6. Optoelectronic circuits in nanometer CMOS technology

    CERN Document Server

    Atef, Mohamed


    This book describes the newest implementations of integrated photodiodes fabricated in nanometer standard CMOS technologies. It also includes the required fundamentals, the state-of-the-art, and the design of high-performance laser drivers, transimpedance amplifiers, equalizers, and limiting amplifiers fabricated in nanometer CMOS technologies. This book shows the newest results for the performance of integrated optical receivers, laser drivers, modulator drivers and optical sensors in nanometer standard CMOS technologies. Nanometer CMOS technologies rapidly advanced, enabling the implementation of integrated optical receivers for high data rates of several Giga-bits per second and of high-pixel count optical imagers and sensors. In particular, low cost silicon CMOS optoelectronic integrated circuits became very attractive because they can be extensively applied to short-distance optical communications, such as local area network, chip-to-chip and board-to-board interconnects as well as to imaging and medical...

  7. Optoelectronic iron detectors for pharmaceutical flow analysis. (United States)

    Rybkowska, Natalia; Koncki, Robert; Strzelak, Kamil


    Compact flow-through optoelectronic detectors fabricated by pairing of light emitting diodes have been applied for development of economic flow analysis systems dedicated for iron ions determination. Three analytical methods with different chromogens selectively recognizing iron ions have been compared. Ferrozine and ferene S based methods offer higher sensitivity and slightly lower detection limits than method with 1,10-phenantroline, but narrower ranges of linear response. Each system allows detection of iron in micromolar range of concentration with comparable sample throughput (20 injections per hour). The developed flow analysis systems have been successfully applied for determination of iron in diet supplements. The utility of developed analytical systems for iron release studies from drug formulations has also been demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Limit characteristics of digital optoelectronic processor (United States)

    Kolobrodov, V. G.; Tymchik, G. S.; Kolobrodov, M. S.


    In this article, the limiting characteristics of a digital optoelectronic processor are explored. The limits are defined by diffraction effects and a matrix structure of the devices for input and output of optical signals. The purpose of a present research is to optimize the parameters of the processor's components. The developed physical and mathematical model of DOEP allowed to establish the limit characteristics of the processor, restricted by diffraction effects and an array structure of the equipment for input and output of optical signals, as well as to optimize the parameters of the processor's components. The diameter of the entrance pupil of the Fourier lens is determined by the size of SLM and the pixel size of the modulator. To determine the spectral resolution, it is offered to use a concept of an optimum phase when the resolved diffraction maxima coincide with the pixel centers of the radiation detector.

  9. Electroactive and Optoelectronically Active Graphene Nanofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Qijin

    As an atomic-scale-thick two-dimensional material, graphene has emerged as one of the most miracle materials and has generated intensive interest in physics, chemistry and even biology in the last decade [1, 2]. Nanoscale engineering and functionalization of graphene is a crucial step for many...... applications ranging from catalysis, electronic devices, sensors to advanced energy conversion and storage [3]. This talk highlights our recent studies on electroactive and optoelectronically active graphene ultrathin films for chemical sensors and energy technology. The presentation includes a general theme...... for functionalization of graphene nanosheets, followed by showing several case studies. Our systems cover redox-active nanoparticles, electroactive supramolecular ensembles and redox enzymes which are integrated with graphene nanosheets as building blocks for the construction of functional thin films or graphene papers....

  10. Computational modeling of semiconductor nanostructures for optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veprek, Ratko G.


    This dissertation deals with parts of the theory and its numerical implementation of a novel simulator tdkp/AQUA, suitable for the unified simulation of nanostructures for optoelectronics of any dimensionality. Here, the calculation of realistic electronic band structure, including strain and polarization effects, and the optical properties of nanostructures are covered. The presented theory is based on a continuum formulation of the physical behavior of the involved semiconductor crystal. As a central novelty, the k*p envelope function method for the band structure calculation is formulated absolutely spurious solution free by ensuring a mathematical consistent formulation retaining the elliptical nature of the equation. The optical properties are calculated within a density matrix formalism. Many-body effects due to Coulomb interactions between charge carriers are included on the level of the screened Hartree-Fock theory. At the end, an analysis of GaN-nanocolumn LEDs using the developed simulator is presented. (orig.)

  11. Implantable optoelectronic probes for in vivo optogenetics (United States)

    Iseri, Ege; Kuzum, Duygu


    More than a decade has passed since optics and genetics came together and lead to the emerging technologies of optogenetics. The advent of light-sensitive opsins made it possible to optically trigger the neurons into activation or inhibition by using visible light. The importance of spatiotemporally isolating a segment of a neural network and controlling nervous signaling in a precise manner has driven neuroscience researchers and engineers to invest great efforts in designing high precision in vivo implantable devices. These efforts have focused on delivery of sufficient power to deep brain regions, while monitoring neural activity with high resolution and fidelity. In this review, we report the progress made in the field of hybrid optoelectronic neural interfaces that combine optical stimulation with electrophysiological recordings. Different approaches that incorporate optical or electrical components on implantable devices are discussed in detail. Advantages of various different designs as well as practical and fundamental limitations are summarized to illuminate the future of neurotechnology development.

  12. Integrated NEMS and optoelectronics for sensor applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaplewski, David A.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Olsson, Roy H., III; Bogart, Gregory R. (Symphony Acoustics, Rio Rancho, NM); Krishnamoorthy, Uma; Warren, Mial E.; Carr, Dustin Wade (Symphony Acoustics, Rio Rancho, NM); Okandan, Murat; Peterson, Kenneth Allen


    This work utilized advanced engineering in several fields to find solutions to the challenges presented by the integration of MEMS/NEMS with optoelectronics to realize a compact sensor system, comprised of a microfabricated sensor, VCSEL, and photodiode. By utilizing microfabrication techniques in the realization of the MEMS/NEMS component, the VCSEL and the photodiode, the system would be small in size and require less power than a macro-sized component. The work focused on two technologies, accelerometers and microphones, leveraged from other LDRD programs. The first technology was the nano-g accelerometer using a nanophotonic motion detection system (67023). This accelerometer had measured sensitivity of approximately 10 nano-g. The Integrated NEMS and optoelectronics LDRD supported the nano-g accelerometer LDRD by providing advanced designs for the accelerometers, packaging, and a detection scheme to encapsulate the accelerometer, furthering the testing capabilities beyond bench-top tests. A fully packaged and tested die was never realized, but significant packaging issues were addressed and many resolved. The second technology supported by this work was the ultrasensitive directional microphone arrays for military operations in urban terrain and future combat systems (93518). This application utilized a diffraction-based sensing technique with different optical component placement and a different detection scheme from the nano-g accelerometer. The Integrated NEMS LDRD supported the microphone array LDRD by providing custom designs, VCSELs, and measurement techniques to accelerometers that were fabricated from the same operational principles as the microphones, but contain proof masses for acceleration transduction. These devices were packaged at the end of the work.

  13. Two-dimensional gold nanoparticle arrays. A platform for molecular optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangold, Markus Andreas


    In my research, I study the optoelectronic properties of two-dimensional, hexagonal gold nanoparticle arrays formed by self-assembly. When the nanoparticle arrays are embedded in a matrix of alkane thiols, the photoresponse is dominated by a bolometric conductance increase. At room temperature, I observe a strong enhancement of the bolometric photoconductance when the surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles is excited. At cryogenic temperatures, the bolometric conductance enhancement leads to a redistribution of the potential landscape which dominates the optoelectronic response of the nanoparticle arrays. When optically active oligo(phenylene vinylene) (OPV) molecules are covalently bound to the nanoparticles, an increased photoconductance due to the resonant excitation of the OPV is observed. The results suggest that the charge carriers, which are resonantly excited in the OPV molecules, directly contribute to the current flow through the nanoparticle arrays. Thus, the conductance of OPV in its excited state is measured in the presented experiments. (orig.)

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nano fibers for High Efficiency Optoelectronic Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zainizan Sahdan; Mohd Firdaus Malek; Mohamad Rusop


    Recently wide band gap materials have been researched extensively for high efficiency optoelectronic applications such as light emitting devices, laser diodes and solar cells [1]. Zinc Oxide (ZnO) is the most promising candidate for its band gap energy approaching 3.37 eV and excitonic binding energy as high as 60 meV . It is also very sensitive at UV wavelength and potentially used for UV sensing applications. In high efficiency optoelectronic devices, two main factors need to be considered are the surface-to-volume ratio and carrier transit time. In thin films fabrication, annealing would improve the structural and crystal properties. We have reported the effects of annealing time on the ZnO nano structures [2]. Therefore, we move forward by varying the annealing time to study the effects on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nano fibers. (author)

  15. Technical quality assessment of an optoelectronic system for movement analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapienza University of Rome (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy))" >Di Marco, R; Sapienza University of Rome (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy))" >Patanè, F; Sapienza University of Rome (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy))" >Cappa, P; Rossi, S


    The Optoelectronic Systems (OS) are largely used in gait analysis to evaluate the motor performances of healthy subjects and patients. The accuracy of marker trajectories reconstruction depends on several aspects: the number of cameras, the dimension and position of the calibration volume, and the chosen calibration procedure. In this paper we propose a methodology to evaluate the effects of the mentioned sources of error on the reconstruction of marker trajectories. The novel contribution of the present work consists in the dimension of the tested calibration volumes, which is comparable with the ones normally used in gait analysis; in addition, to simulate trajectories during clinical gait analysis, we provide non-default paths for markers as inputs. Several calibration procedures are implemented and the same trial is processed with each calibration file, also considering different cameras configurations. The RMSEs between the measured trajectories and the optimal ones are calculated for each comparison. To investigate the significant differences between the computed indices, an ANOVA analysis is implemented. The RMSE is sensible to the variations of the considered calibration volume and the camera configurations and it is always inferior to 43 mm

  16. Integral optoelectronic switch based on DMOS-transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Politanskyy L. F.


    Full Text Available The characteristics of optoelectronic couples photodiodes-DMOS-transistor are studied in the paper. There was developed a mathematical model of volt-ampere characteristic of the given optoelectronic couple which allows to determine interrelation of its electric parameters with constructive and electrophysical parameters of photodiodes and DMOS-transistors. There was suggested a construction of integral optoelectronic switch, based on DMOS-transistors on the silicon with dielectric insulation structures (SDIS. Possible is the optic control of executive devices, connected both to the source and drain circuits of the switching transistor.

  17. Coronary anatomy characteristics in patients with isolated right bundle branch block versus subjects with normal surface electrocardiogram. (United States)

    Pakbaz, Marziyeh; Kazemisaeid, Ali; Yaminisharif, Ahmad; Davoodi, Gholamreza; Tokaldany, Masoumeh Lotfi; Hakki, Elham


    Isolated right bundle branch block is a common finding in the general population. It may be associated with variations in detailed coronary anatomy characteristics. The aim of this study was to investigate the coronary anatomy in patients with isolated right bundle branch block and to compare that with normal individuals. In this case-control study we investigated the coronary anatomy by reviewing angiographic films in two groups of normal coronary artery patients: patients with right bundle branch block (RBBB) (n = 92) and those with normal electrocardiograms (n = 184). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of diminutive left anterior descending artery, dominancy, number of obtuse marginal artery, diagonal, acute marginal artery, the position of the first septal versus diagonal branch, presence of ramus artery, and size of left main artery. The number of septal branches was higher in the case group (p-value right circulatory system was more common in both groups but cases showed more tendency to follow this pattern (p-value = 0.021). The frequency of the normal conus branch was higher in the cases versus controls (p-value = 0.009). Coronary anatomy characteristics are somewhat different in subjects with RBBB compared to normal individuals.

  18. Functional Carbon Nanocomposite, Optoelectronic, and Catalytic Coatings (United States)

    Liang, Yu Teng

    Over the past couple decades, fundamental research into carbon nanomaterials has produced a steady stream of groundbreaking physical science. Their record setting mechanical strength, chemical stability, and optoelectronic performance have fueled many optimistic claims regarding the breadth and pace of carbon nanotube and graphene integration. However, present synthetic, processing, and economic constraints have precluded these materials from many practical device applications. To overcome these limitations, novel synthetic techniques, processing methodologies, device geometries, and mechanistic insight were developed in this dissertation. The resulting advancements in material production and composite device performance have brought carbon nanomaterials ever closer to commercial implementation. For improved materials processing, vacuum co-deposition was first demonstrated as viable technique for forming carbon nanocomposite films without property distorting covalent modifications. Co-deposited nanoparticle, carbon nanotube, and graphene composite films enabled rapid device prototyping and compositional optimization. Cellulosic polymer stabilizers were then shown to be highly effective carbon nanomaterial dispersants, improving graphene production yields by two orders of magnitude in common organic solvents. By exploiting polarity interactions, iterative solvent exchange was used to further increase carbon nanomaterial dispersion concentrations by an additional order of magnitude, yielding concentrated inks. On top of their low causticity, these cellulosic nanomaterial inks have highly tunable viscosities, excellent film forming capacity, and outstanding thermal stability. These processing characteristics enable the efficient scaling of carbon nanomaterial coatings and device production using existing roll-to-roll fabrication techniques. Utilizing these process improvements, high-performance gas sensing, energy storage, transparent conductor, and photocatalytic

  19. Plantar pressure differences among adults with mild flexible flatfoot, severe flexible flatfoot and normal foot when walking on level surface, walking upstairs and downstairs. (United States)

    Zhai, Jun Na; Wang, Jue; Qiu, Yu Sheng


    [Purpose] This study observed the plantar pressure between flexible flatfoot and normal foot on different walking conditions to find out if flexible flatfoot needs the treatment and how the plantar pressure change while walking upstairs and downstairs. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen adults with mild flexible flatfoot, fifteen adults with severe flexible flatfoot and fifteen adults with normal foot were examined while walking on a level surface, walking up and down 10 cm and 20 cm stairs. The max force and the arch index were acquired using the RSscan system. The repeated measures ANOVA was performed to analyze the data. [Results] Compared with normal foot, both max force and arch index of severe flatfoot were significantly increased on different walking conditions. When walking down 10 cm and 20 cm stairs, the plantar data of both normal foot and flatfoot were significantly increased. [Conclusion] The plantar pressure of severe flexible flatfoot were significantly larger than that of normal foot on different walking conditions. In addition, the arches of both normal foot and flatfoot were obviously deformed when walking downstairs. It is therefore necessary to be treated for severe flexible flatfoot to prevent further deformation.

  20. Monolithic optoelectronic integrated broadband optical receiver with graphene photodetectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chuantong


    Full Text Available Optical receivers with potentially high operation bandwidth and low cost have received considerable interest due to rapidly growing data traffic and potential Tb/s optical interconnect requirements. Experimental realization of 65 GHz optical signal detection and 262 GHz intrinsic operation speed reveals the significance role of graphene photodetectors (PDs in optical interconnect domains. In this work, a novel complementary metal oxide semiconductor post-backend process has been developed for integrating graphene PDs onto silicon integrated circuit chips. A prototype monolithic optoelectronic integrated optical receiver has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, this is a firstly reported broadband optical receiver benefiting from natural broadband light absorption features of graphene material. This work is a perfect exhibition of the concept of monolithic optoelectronic integration and will pave way to monolithically integrated graphene optoelectronic devices with silicon ICs for three-dimensional optoelectronic integrated circuit chips.

  1. Integrated graphene-based devices for optoelectronic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui

    Graphene opens up for novel optoelectronic applications thanks to its high carrier mobility, ultralarge absorption bandwidth, and extremely fast material response. Here I present novel integrated grapheneplasmonic waveguide modulator showing high modulation depth, thus giving a promising way...

  2. Basic opto-electronics on silicon for sensor applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joppe, J.L.; Bekman, H.H.P.Th.; de Krijger, A.J.T.; Albers, H.; Chalmers, J.; Chalmers, J.D.; Holleman, J.; Ikkink, T.J.; Ikkink, T.; van Kranenburg, H.; Zhou, M.-J.; Zhou, Ming-Jiang; Lambeck, Paul


    A general platform for integrated opto-electronic sensor systems on silicon is proposed. The system is based on a hybridly integrated semiconductor laser, ZnO optical waveguides and monolithic photodiodes and electronic circuiry.

  3. Optoelectronic Infrastructure for RF/Optical Phased Arrays Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optoelectronic integrated circuits offer radiation-hard solutions for satellite systems with much improved SWPB (size, weight, power and bandwidth). The phased array...

  4. Device-packaging method and apparatus for optoelectronic circuits (United States)

    Zortman, William A.; Henry, Michael David; Jarecki, Jr., Robert L.


    An optoelectronic device package and a method for its fabrication are provided. The device package includes a lid die and an active die that is sealed or sealable to the lid die and in which one or more optical waveguides are integrally defined. The active die includes one or more active device regions, i.e. integral optoelectronic devices or etched cavities for placement of discrete optoelectronic devices. Optical waveguides terminate at active device regions so that they can be coupled to them. Slots are defined in peripheral parts of the active dies. At least some of the slots are aligned with the ends of integral optical waveguides so that optical fibers or optoelectronic devices inserted in the slots can optically couple to the waveguides.

  5. Optoelectronic Infrastructure for RF/Optical Phased Arrays, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optoelectronic integrated holds the key to higher performance, reduced mass and radiation-hard space systems. A special need is increased flexibility of phased...

  6. Basic Opto-electronics on Silicon for Sensor Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joppe, J.L.; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Krijger, A.J.T. de; Lambeck, P.V.; Chalmers, J.; Holleman, J.; Ikkink, T.; Kranenburg, H. van; Zhou, M.J.


    A general platform for integrated opto-electronic sensor systems on silicon is proposed. The system is based on a hybridly integrated semiconductor laser, ZnO optical waveguides and monolithic photodiodes and electronic circuiry.

  7. Monolithic optoelectronic integrated broadband optical receiver with graphene photodetectors (United States)

    Cheng, Chuantong; Huang, Beiju; Mao, Xurui; Zhang, Zanyun; Zhang, Zan; Geng, Zhaoxin; Xue, Ping; Chen, Hongda


    Optical receivers with potentially high operation bandwidth and low cost have received considerable interest due to rapidly growing data traffic and potential Tb/s optical interconnect requirements. Experimental realization of 65 GHz optical signal detection and 262 GHz intrinsic operation speed reveals the significance role of graphene photodetectors (PDs) in optical interconnect domains. In this work, a novel complementary metal oxide semiconductor post-backend process has been developed for integrating graphene PDs onto silicon integrated circuit chips. A prototype monolithic optoelectronic integrated optical receiver has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, this is a firstly reported broadband optical receiver benefiting from natural broadband light absorption features of graphene material. This work is a perfect exhibition of the concept of monolithic optoelectronic integration and will pave way to monolithically integrated graphene optoelectronic devices with silicon ICs for three-dimensional optoelectronic integrated circuit chips.

  8. Quantum dot optoelectronic devices: lasers, photodetectors and solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang; Chen, Siming; Seeds, Alwyn; Liu, Huiyun


    Nanometre-scale semiconductor devices have been envisioned as next-generation technologies with high integration and functionality. Quantum dots, or the so-called ‘artificial atoms’, exhibit unique properties due to their quantum confinement in all 3D. These unique properties have brought to light the great potential of quantum dots in optoelectronic applications. Numerous efforts worldwide have been devoted to these promising nanomaterials for next-generation optoelectronic devices, such as lasers, photodetectors, amplifiers, and solar cells, with the emphasis on improving performance and functionality. Through the development in optoelectronic devices based on quantum dots over the last two decades, quantum dot devices with exceptional performance surpassing previous devices are evidenced. This review describes recent developments in quantum dot optoelectronic devices over the last few years. The paper will highlight the major progress made in 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers, quantum dot infrared photodetectors, and quantum dot solar cells. (topical review)

  9. Opto-electronic devices from block copolymers and their oligomers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadziioannou, G


    This paper presents research activities towards the development of polymer materials and devices for optoelectronics, An approach to controlling the conjugation length and transferring the luminescence properties of organic molecules to polymers through black copolymers containing well-defined

  10. Optoelectronic properties of individually positioned InAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbeck, Jan; Brenneis, Andreas; Treu, Julian; Hertenberger, Simon; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Koblmueller, Gregor; Holleitner, Alexander [Walter Schottky Institut and Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany)


    Small bandgap semiconducting nanowires offer a promising approach to fabricating nanoscale light-sensitive devices like broadband solar cells or mid-infrared photodetectors. We discuss the optoelectronic properties of individually positioned InAs nanowires on p-Si(111) substrates. The substrates exhibit a top layer of SiO{sub 2} which is structured via e-beam lithography creating holes in the oxide with a diameter of ∝80 nm. The nanowires are then grown vertically on the patterned substrates by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. To fabricate optoelectronic devices, the nanowires are subsequently contacted via a thin, semitransparent metal film evaporated on top of an insulating layer (BCB). The p-Si substrate forms the second contact of the optoelectronic two-terminal devices. We discuss spatially resolved photocurrent measurements which give insights into the interplay of optoelectronic dynamics in single nanowires and in the Si-substrates.

  11. Optoelectronic device with nanoparticle embedded hole injection/transport layer (United States)

    Wang, Qingwu [Chelmsford, MA; Li, Wenguang [Andover, MA; Jiang, Hua [Methuen, MA


    An optoelectronic device is disclosed that can function as an emitter of optical radiation, such as a light-emitting diode (LED), or as a photovoltaic (PV) device that can be used to convert optical radiation into electrical current, such as a photovoltaic solar cell. The optoelectronic device comprises an anode, a hole injection/transport layer, an active layer, and a cathode, where the hole injection/transport layer includes transparent conductive nanoparticles in a hole transport material.

  12. Electron microscopy study of advanced heterostructures for optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katcki, J.; Ratajczak, J.; Phillipp, F.; Muszalski, J.; Bugajski, M.; Chen, J.X.; Fiore, A


    The application of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to the investigation of optoelectronic devices are reviewed. Special attention was paid to the electron microscopy assessment of the growth perfection of such crucial elements of the devices like quantum wells, quantum dots, distributed Bragg reflectors as well as electrical contacts. Using these examples, the most important issues of the application of electron microscopy to characterization of optoelectronic devices are discussed.

  13. Normalized lift: an energy interpretation of the lift coefficient simplifies comparisons of the lifting ability of rotating and flapping surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Burgers

    Full Text Available For a century, researchers have used the standard lift coefficient C(L to evaluate the lift, L, generated by fixed wings over an area S against dynamic pressure, ½ρv(2, where v is the effective velocity of the wing. Because the lift coefficient was developed initially for fixed wings in steady flow, its application to other lifting systems requires either simplifying assumptions or complex adjustments as is the case for flapping wings and rotating cylinders.This paper interprets the standard lift coefficient of a fixed wing slightly differently, as the work exerted by the wing on the surrounding flow field (L/ρ·S, compared against the total kinetic energy required for generating said lift, ½v(2. This reinterpreted coefficient, the normalized lift, is derived from the work-energy theorem and compares the lifting capabilities of dissimilar lift systems on a similar energy footing. The normalized lift is the same as the standard lift coefficient for fixed wings, but differs for wings with more complex motions; it also accounts for such complex motions explicitly and without complex modifications or adjustments. We compare the normalized lift with the previously-reported values of lift coefficient for a rotating cylinder in Magnus effect, a bat during hovering and forward flight, and a hovering dipteran.The maximum standard lift coefficient for a fixed wing without flaps in steady flow is around 1.5, yet for a rotating cylinder it may exceed 9.0, a value that implies that a rotating cylinder generates nearly 6 times the maximum lift of a wing. The maximum normalized lift for a rotating cylinder is 1.5. We suggest that the normalized lift can be used to evaluate propellers, rotors, flapping wings of animals and micro air vehicles, and underwater thrust-generating fins in the same way the lift coefficient is currently used to evaluate fixed wings.

  14. Emissive polymeric materials for optoelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiang, Joseph John [Niskayuna, NY; Chichak, Kelly Scott [Clifton Park, NY; Cella, James Anthony [Clifton Park, NY; Lewis, Larry Neil [Scotia, NY; Janora, Kevin Henry [Schenectady, NY


    Polymers including at least one structural unit derived from a compound of formula I or including at least one pendant group of formula II may be used in optoelectronic devices ##STR00001## wherein R.sup.1, R.sup.3, R.sup.4 and R.sup.6 are independently hydrogen, alkyl, alkoxy, oxaalkyl, alkylaryl, aryl, arylalkyl, heteroaryl, substituted alkyl; substituted alkoxy, substituted oxaalkyl, substituted alkylaryl, substituted aryl, substituted arylalkyl, or substituted heteroaryl; R.sup.1a is hydrogen or alkyl; R.sup.2 is alkylene, substituted alkylene, oxaalkylene, CO, or CO.sub.2; R.sup.2a is alkylene; R.sup.5 is independently at each occurrence hydrogen, alkyl, alkylaryl, aryl, arylalkyl, alkoxy, carboxy, substituted alkyl; substituted alkylaryl, substituted aryl, substituted arylalkyl, or substituted alkoxy, X is halo, triflate, --B(OR.sup.1a).sub.2, or ##STR00002## located at the 2, 5- or 2, 7-positions; and L is derived from phenylpyridine, tolylpyridine, benzothienylpyridine, phenylisoquinoline, dibenzoquinozaline, fluorenylpyridine, ketopyrrole, 2-(1-naphthyl)benzoxazole)), 2-phenylbenzoxazole, 2-phenylbenzothiazole, coumarin, thienylpyridine, phenylpyridine, benzothienylpyridine, 3-methoxy-2-phenylpyridine, thienylpyridine, phenylimine, vinylpyridine, pyridylnaphthalene, pyridylpyrrole, pyridylimidazole, phenylindole, derivatives thereof or combinations thereof.

  15. Functionalized polyfluorenes for use in optoelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chichak, Kelly Scott [Clifton Park, NY; Lewis, Larry Neil [Scotia, NY; Cella, James Anthony [Clifton Park, NY; Shiang, Joseph John [Niskayuna, NY


    The present invention relates to process comprising reacting a polyfluorenes comprising at least one structural group of formula I ##STR00001## with an iridium (III) compound of formula II ##STR00002## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are independently alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl or a combination thereof; R.sup.5is H or CHO; R.sup.3 and R.sup.4 are independently hydrogen, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl or a combination thereof; R.sup.11 and R.sup.12 taken together form a substituted or unsubstituted monocyclic or bicyclic heteroaromatic ring; R.sup.13 is independently at each occurrence halo, nitro, hydroxy, amino, alkyl, aryl, arylalkyl, alkoxy, substituted alkoxy, substituted alkyl, substituted aryl, or substituted arylalkyl; Ar is aryl, heteroaryl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, or a combination thereof; X is selected from a direct bond, alky, substituted alkyl, and combinations thereof; Y is CHO or NH.sub.2; Z is CHO or NH.sub.2 where Z does not equal Y; and p is 0, 1 or 2. The invention also relates to the polyfluorenes, which are products of the reaction, and the use of the polyfluorenes in optoelectronic devices.

  16. Recent trend in graphene for optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Bin, E-mail: [National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Graduate Institute of Management, Taiwan (China); Liu, John S., E-mail: [National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Graduate Institute of Technology Management, Taiwan (China); Lin Pang, E-mail: [National Chiao Tung University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiwan (China)


    This study analyzes the scientific knowledge diffusion paths of graphene for optoelectronics (GFO), where graphene offers wide applications due to its thinness, high conductivity, excellent transparency, chemical stability, robustness, and flexibility. Our investigation is based on the main path analysis which establishes the citation links among the literature data in order to trace the significant sequence of knowledge development in this emerging field. We identify the main development paths of GFO up to the year 2012, along which a series of influential papers in this field are identified. The main path graph shows that knowledge diffusion occurs in key subareas, including reduced graphene oxide, chemical vapor deposition, and exfoliation techniques, which are developed for the preparation and applications of GFO. The applications cover solar cells, laser devices, sensing devices, and LCD. In addition, the main theme of GFO research evolves in sequence from small-graphene-sample preparation, to large-scale film growth, and onto prototype device fabrication. This evolution reflects a strong industrial demand for a new transparent-conductive film technology.

  17. A silicon microbench concept for optoelectronic packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocha, M.D.; Strand, O.T.; Kerns, J.A.


    Optoelectronics (o/e) is currently too expensive for widespread application. We believe that the packaging (or fiber pigtailing) process must be automated to realize a significant reduction in the cost of o.e packages. We are addressing issues of automating the fiber pigtailing process on silicon waferboards or microbenches. This paper focuses on reflowing solders for the attachment of o/e components. We have recently developed miniature polysilicon heaters which are integrated on silicon microbenches. These miniature heaters avoid the problem of raising the entire microbench to the solder melting point to attach components. Most importantly, these miniature heaters are completely compatible with automating the attachment process. Designing silicon microbenches with on-board heaters requires some care. The thermal properties of the microbench itself along with all coatings and any heatsinking materials must be understood. The heaters must operate in a current and voltage regime compatible with the overall characteristics of the o.e package. Inadvertently reflowing solder in unanticipated locations may occur unless the thermal behavior of the microbench thoroughly known. This paper describes the design and fabrication of our microbenches and an experimental and theoretical study on these silicon microbenches which gives a complete picture of their thermal behavior.

  18. Hybrid optoelectronic device with multiple bistable outputs (United States)

    Costazo-Caso, Pablo A.; Jin, Yiye; Gelh, Michael; Granieri, Sergio; Siahmakoun, Azad


    Optoelectronic circuits which exhibit optical and electrical bistability with hysteresis behavior are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The systems are based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), bipolar junction transistors (BJT), PIN photodiodes (PD) and laser diodes externally modulated with integrated electro-absorption modulators (LD-EAM). The device operates based on two independent phenomena leading to both electrical bistability and optical bistability. The electrical bistability is due to the series connection of two p-i-n structures (SOA, BJT, PD or LD) in reverse bias. The optical bistability is consequence of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) in the multi-quantum well (MQW) structure in the intrinsic region of the device. This effect produces the optical modulation of the transmitted light through the SOA (or reflected from the PD). Finally, because the optical transmission of the SOA (in reverse bias) and the reflected light from the PD are so small, a LD-EAM modulated by the voltage across these devices are employed to obtain a higher output optical power. Experiments show that the maximum switching frequency is in MHz range and the rise/fall times lower than 1 us. The temporal response is mainly limited by the electrical capacitance of the devices and the parasitic inductances of the connecting wires. The effects of these components can be reduced in current integration technologies.

  19. Laser processing of components for polymer mircofluidic and optoelectronic products (United States)

    Gillner, Arnold; Bremus-Koebberling, Elke A.; Wehner, Martin; Russek, Ulrich A.; Berden, Thomas


    Miniaturization is one of the keywords for the production of customer oriented and highly integrated consumer products like mobile phones, portables and other products from the daily life and there are some first silicon made products like pressure sensors, acceleration sensors and micro fluidic components, which are built in automobiles, washing machines and medical products. However, not all applications can be covered with this material, because of the limitations in lateral and 3-dimensional structuring, the mechanical behavior, the functionality and the costs of silicon. Therefore other materials, like polymers have been selected as suitable candidates for cost effective mass products. This holds especially for medical and optical applications, where the properties of selected polymers, like biocompatibility, inert chemical behavior and high transparency can be used. For this material laser micro processing offers appropriate solutions for structuring as well as for packaging with high flexibility, material variety, structure size, processing speed and easy integration into existing fabrication plants. The paper presents recent results and industrial applications of laser micro processing for polymer micro fluidic devices, like micro analysis systems, micro reactors and medical micro implants, where excimer radiation is used for lateral structuring and diode lasers have used for joining and packaging. Similar technologies have been applied to polymer waveguides to produce passive optoelectronic components for high speed interconnection with surface roughness less than 20 nm and low attenuation. The paper also reviews the technical and economical limitations and the potential of the technology for other micro products.

  20. Recent Achievements on Photovoltaic Optoelectronic Tweezers Based on Lithium Niobate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel García-Cabañes


    Full Text Available This review presents an up-dated summary of the fundamentals and applications of optoelectronic photovoltaic tweezers for trapping and manipulation of nano-objects on the surface of lithium niobate crystals. It extends the contents of previous reviews to cover new topics and developments which have emerged in recent years and are marking the trends for future research. Regarding the theoretical description of photovoltaic tweezers, detailed simulations of the electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic forces acting on different crystal configurations are discussed in relation to the structure of the obtained trapping patterns. As for the experimental work, we will pay attention to the manipulation and patterning of micro-and nanoparticles that has experimented an outstanding progress and relevant applications have been reported. An additional focus is now laid on recent work about micro-droplets, which is a central topic in microfluidics and optofluidics. New developments in biology and biomedicine also constitute a relevant part of the review. Finally, some topics partially related with photovoltaic tweezers and a discussion on future prospects and challenges are included.

  1. Surface structures of normal paraffins and cyclohexane monolayers and thin crystals grown on the (111) crystal face of platinum. A low-energy electron diffraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firment, L.E.; Somorjai, G.A.


    The surfaces of the normal paraffins (C 3 --C 8 ) and cyclohexane have been studied using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). The samples were prepared by vapor deposition on the (111) face of a platinum single crystal in ultrahigh vacuum, and were studied both as thick films and as adsorbed monolayers. These molecules form ordered monolayers on the clean metal surface in the temperature range 100--220 K and at a vapor flux corresponding to 10 -7 Torr. In the adsorbed monolayers of the normal paraffins (C 4 --C 8 ), the molecules lie with their chain axes parallel to the Pt surface and Pt[110]. The paraffin monolayer structures undergo order--disorder transitions as a function of temperature. Multilayers condensed upon the ordered monolayers maintained the same orientation and packing as found in the monolayers. The surface structures of the growing organic crystals do not corresond to planes in their reported bulk crystal structures and are evidence for epitaxial growth of pseudomorphic crystal forms. Multilayers of n-octane and n-heptane condensed upon disordered monolayers have also grown with the (001) plane of the triclinic bulk crystal structures parallel to the surface. n-Butane has three monolayer structures on Pt(111) and one of the three is maintained during growth of the crystal. Cyclohexane forms an ordered monolayer, upon which a multilayer of cyclohexane grows exhibiting the (001) surface orientation of the monoclinic bulk crystal structure. Surface structures of saturated hydrocarbons are found to be very susceptible to electron beam induced damage. Surface charging interferes with LEED only at sample thicknesses greater than 200 A

  2. Photonic Structure-Integrated Two-Dimensional Material Optoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjiao Wang


    Full Text Available The rapid development and unique properties of two-dimensional (2D materials, such as graphene, phosphorene and transition metal dichalcogenides enable them to become intriguing candidates for future optoelectronic applications. To maximize the potential of 2D material-based optoelectronics, various photonic structures are integrated to form photonic structure/2D material hybrid systems so that the device performance can be manipulated in controllable ways. Here, we first introduce the photocurrent-generation mechanisms of 2D material-based optoelectronics and their performance. We then offer an overview and evaluation of the state-of-the-art of hybrid systems, where 2D material optoelectronics are integrated with photonic structures, especially plasmonic nanostructures, photonic waveguides and crystals. By combining with those photonic structures, the performance of 2D material optoelectronics can be further enhanced, and on the other side, a high-performance modulator can be achieved by electrostatically tuning 2D materials. Finally, 2D material-based photodetector can also become an efficient probe to learn the light-matter interactions of photonic structures. Those hybrid systems combine the advantages of 2D materials and photonic structures, providing further capacity for high-performance optoelectronics.

  3. Optoelectronic Investigation of Sb-Doped Cu(In, Ga)Se2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, Lorelle M.; Kuciauskas, Darius; Dippo, Patricia; Li, Jian V.; Bowers, Karen; To, Bobby; DeHart, Clay; Ramanathan, Kannan


    Doping Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films with Sb can provide large grains at lower processing temperatures than are normally required. In this study, we incorporated Sb into the precursor of a two-step selenization process. We saw enhanced grain size and improved device performance compared to similarly processed CIGS films made without Sb. The optoelectronic properties of the Sb-doped CIGS films were examined with photoluminescence (PL) and admittance spectroscopy. These techniques allowed us to evaluate the origin of a lower-energy PL peak that is not typically seen in CIGS.

  4. Tenskinmetric Evaluation of Surface Energy Changes in Adult Skin: Evidence from 834 Normal Subjects Monitored in Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Dal Bosco


    Full Text Available To evaluate the influence of the skin aging critical level on the adult skin epidermal functional state, an improved analytical method based on the skin surface energetic measurement (TVS modeling was developed. Tenskinmetric measurements were carried out non-invasively in controlled conditions by contact angle method using only a water-drop as reference standard liquid. Adult skin was monitored by TVS Observatory according to a specific and controlled thermal protocol (Camianta protocol in use at the interconnected “Mamma Margherita Terme spa” of Terme Euganee. From June to November 2013, the surface free energy and the epidermal hydration level of adult skin were evaluated on arrival of 265 male and 569 female adult volunteers (51–90 years of age and when they departed 2 weeks later. Sensitive measurements were carried out at 0.1 mN/m. High test compliance was obtained (93.2% of all guests. Very interesting results are obtained. The high sensitivity and discrimination power of tenskinmetry combined with a thermal Camianta protocol demonstrate the possibility to evaluate at baseline level the surface energetic changes and the skin reactivity which occurs on adult skin.

  5. Research on the application of optoelectronics to nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirosaki, Hidekazu; Mitsuda, Hiromichi; Kurata, Toshikazu [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Seika, Kyoto (Japan); Soramoto, Seiki; Maekawa, Tatsuyuki


    Optoelectronics, which is based on technologies such as laser diodes and optical fibers, is approaching the realm of practical application in the fields of optical fiber communications and compact disks etc,. In addition, laser enrichment, a type of uranium enrichment technique used in the nuclear field, can also be regarded as a product of optoelectronics. Application of optoelectronics in a wide range of fields is likely to continue in the future, and research is being conducted on coherent optical communication, optical integrated circuits, optical computers and other subjects in hopes of attaining practical application of these technologies in the future. On the other hand, digital control equipment and other related devices have been installed and data transfer using optical fibers has been implemented on a partial basis at nuclear power plants, and optoelectronics is anticipated to be applied on an even broader scale in the future, thereby creating the potential for improving plant reliability. In this research, we conducted an investigative study of technologies relating to optoelectronics, and proposed a remote monitoring system for manually operated valves that employs optical switches. Moreover, we conducted theoretical verification tests on the proposed system and carried out a feasibility study relating to application to nuclear power plants. As a result, the proposed system was found to be effective, and confirmed to have the potential of realization as a valve switching monitoring system. (author)

  6. Research on the application of optoelectronics to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirosaki, Hidekazu; Mitsuda, Hiromichi; Kurata, Toshikazu; Soramoto, Seiki; Maekawa, Tatsuyuki.


    Optoelectronics, which is based on technologies such as laser diodes and optical fibers, is approaching the realm of practical application in the fields of optical fiber communications and compact disks etc,. In addition, laser enrichment, a type of uranium enrichment technique used in the nuclear field, can also be regarded as a product of optoelectronics. Application of optoelectronics in a wide range of fields is likely to continue in the future, and research is being conducted on coherent optical communication, optical integrated circuits, optical computers and other subjects in hopes of attaining practical application of these technologies in the future. On the other hand, digital control equipment and other related devices have been installed and data transfer using optical fibers has been implemented on a partial basis at nuclear power plants, and optoelectronics is anticipated to be applied on an even broader scale in the future, thereby creating the potential for improving plant reliability. In this research, we conducted an investigative study of technologies relating to optoelectronics, and proposed a remote monitoring system for manually operated valves that employs optical switches. Moreover, we conducted theoretical verification tests on the proposed system and carried out a feasibility study relating to application to nuclear power plants. As a result, the proposed system was found to be effective, and confirmed to have the potential of realization as a valve switching monitoring system. (author)

  7. MRI of the shoulder joint with surface coils at 1. 5 Tesla. Normal anatomy and possible clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, D.; Steinbrich, W.; Krestin, G.; Koebke, J.; Kummer, B.; Bunke, J.


    High spatial resolution magnetic resonance images of the shoulder were obtained in axial, sagittal and coronal orientations using a 1.5 T imaging system and anatomically shaped, wrap-around surface coils. Variations in scapular position induced by patient positioning change the relationship of the planes to the shoulder anatomy and make reproducibility of sagittal and coronal planes difficult. We, therefore, use - after axial orientation - image-oblique planes perpendicular and parallel to the glenoid fossa. In this manner MRI can visualise the anatomic structures of the shoulder including rotator cuff, long biceps tendon, articular capsule, articular cartilage, muscles and bones due to the high soft tissue contrast of MRI.

  8. Silver nanoparticle based surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy of diabetic and normal rat pancreatic tissue under near-infrared laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H; Shi, H; Chen, W; Yu, Y; Lin, D; Xu, Q; Feng, S; Lin, J; Huang, Z; Li, Y; Chen, R


    This paper presents the use of high spatial resolution silver nanoparticle based near-infrared surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) from rat pancreatic tissue to obtain biochrmical information about the tissue. A high quality SERS signal from a mixture of pancreatic tissues and silver nanoparticles can be obtained within 10 s using a Renishaw micro-Raman system. Prominent SERS bands of pancreatic tissue were assigned to known molecular vibrations, such as the vibrations of DNA bases, RNA bases, proteins and lipids. Different tissue structures of diabetic and normal rat pancreatic tissues have characteristic features in SERS spectra. This exploratory study demonstrated great potential for using SERS imaging to distinguish diabetic and normal pancreatic tissues on frozen sections without using dye labeling of functionalized binding sites. (letter)

  9. Characterization of Semiconductor Nanocrystal Assemblies as Components of Optoelectronic Devices (United States)

    Malfavon-Ochoa, Mario

    dispersions of core and core/shell NCs will be shown to produce close packed assemblies of NCs forming near-wavelength luminescent superstructures separated in space. We show the dominant contribution of a two-monolayer thick sharp interface CdS shell to the diffraction efficiency, and necessarily the refractive index, of the NCs, independent of core size. Utilization of these gratings as in-coupling elements at various positions within a device architecture are also examined. These new observations were achieved by unprecedented control of NC architecture during dispersion processing, while maintaining high luminescence, made possible by optimized NC surface passivation. These studies enable the formation of new LED architectures, and new optoelectronic devices based on angle resolved, monochromatic fluorescence from diffraction gratings prepared from simple solution processing approaches. Further, the novel observation of angle amplified interfering fluorescence from these features is argued to be a result of long range radiative coupling and superradiance enabled by the monodispersity and high-quality NC surface passivation described herein.

  10. Gallium antimonide texturing for enhanced light extraction from infrared optoelectronics devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Wassweiler


    Full Text Available The use of gallium antimonide (GaSb is increasing, especially for optoelectronic devices in the infrared wavelengths. It has been demonstrated in gallium nitride (GaN devices operating at ultraviolet (UV wavelengths, that surface textures increase the overall device efficiency. In this work, we fabricated eight different surface textures in GaSb to be used in enhancing efficiency in infrared wavelength devices. Through chemical etching with hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and tartaric acid we characterize the types of surface textures formed and the removal rate of entire layers of GaSb. Through optimization of the etching recipes we lower the reflectivity from 35.7% to 1% at 4 μm wavelength for bare and textured GaSb, respectively. In addition, we simulate surface textures using ray optics in finite element method solver software to provide explanation of our experimental findings.

  11. Holocene Time-slip history of normal fault scarps in western Turkey: 36Cl surface exposure dating (United States)

    Mozafari Amiri, N.; Sümer, Ö.; Tikhomirov, D.; Özkaymak, Ç.; Uzel, B.; Ivy-Ochs, S.; Vockenhuber, C.; Sözbilir, H.; Akçar, N.


    Bedrock fault scarps built in carbonates are the most direct evidence of past earthquakes to reconstruct long-term seismic outline using 36Cl cosmogenic nuclides. The western Anatolia is an active seismic region, in which several major graben systems are formed mainly in carbonates commenced by roughly N-S extensional regime since the early Miocene. The oldest known earthquake in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East dates back to 464 B.C. However, to evaluate the earthquake pattern, a complete seismic data over a large time-scale is required. For modelling of seismic periods, a Matlab® code is used based on acceleration of production rate of 36Cl following exposure of fresh material to cosmic rays. By measuring the amount of cosmogenic 36Cl versus height on the fault surface, the timing of significant ruptures and vertical displacements are explored. The best scenario is obtained with the minimum difference between the modelled and measured 36Cl. An ideal target spot is a minimum-eroded surface with length of at least two meters from the intersection of the fault with colluvium. After continuous marking of 10 cm height and 15 cm width on the fault, the samples of 3 cm thick are collected. The geometrical factors of scarp dip, scarp height, top surface dip and colluvium dip are measured. Topographic shielding, density of the fault scarp and colluvium are also estimated. Afterwards, the samples are physically and chemically prepared in laboratory for elemental analysis and AMS measurements. In this study, we collected 584 samples from seven major faults in western Anatolia. Our first results indicate five earthquake sequences in the Priene-Sazlı fault since early Holocene with a recurrence interval of approximately 2000 years and slip of 1.3 to 2.9 meters. The two most recent ruptures are correlated with 1955 and 68 AD earthquakes. A slip rate of roughly 1 mm/yr throughout the activity periods is estimated. Regarding the rupture length, the fault has potential

  12. Methods and analysis of processing signals of incremental optoelectronic transducer. (United States)

    Szcześniak, Adam; Szcześniak, Zbigniew


    This article is a presentation of designed methods which interpolate signals from the optoelectronic transducer. This enables a way to distinguish the motion direction of the optoelectronic transducer and also to increase its accuracy. In this article methods based on logic functions, logic functions and RC circuits, phase processing were analyzed. In methods which are based on processing logic functions of transducer's signals there is a possibility of two times and four times increase in the transducer glass scale. The presented method of generating and processing sine signals with 18 degrees of the shift enables the reception of square signals with five times higher frequency compared to the basic signals. This method is universal and it can be used to the different scale of frequency multiplication of the optoelectronic transducer. The simulations of the methods were performed by using the MATLAB-SIMULINK software.

  13. Integrated optoelectronic materials and circuits for optical interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutcheson, L.D.


    Conventional interconnect and switching technology is rapidly becoming a critical issue in the realization of systems using high speed silicon and GaAs based technologies. In recent years clock speeds and on-chip density for VLSI/VHSIC technology has made packaging these high speed chips extremely difficult. A strong case can be made for using optical interconnects for on-chip/on-wafer, chip-to-chip and board-to-board high speed communications. GaAs integrated optoelectronic circuits (IOC's) are being developed in a number of laboratories for performing Input/Output functions at all levels. In this paper integrated optoelectronic materials, electronics and optoelectronic devices are presented. IOC's are examined from the standpoint of what it takes to fabricate the devices and what performance can be expected

  14. History of modern optics ad optoelectronics development in China

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Shouyun


    This book presents a collection of memoir papers on the development of modern and contemporary optics and optoelectronics in China from the 18th to 20th centuries. The papers were written by famous scientists in China, including members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering, sharing their experience in different fields of optics and optoelectronics development. This is a unique book in understanding the natural science history of optics and optoelectronics. It gives you the general idea about how the western optical science spread to China in the 17th to 18th century; the cradle of the contemporary optics in China; Birth, development and application of lasers in China; high energy and high power lasers for laser antiballistic missile and laser nuclear fusion; development of Chinese optical communication and optical information storage; laser and infrared optics research for space science; development of Chinese optical instruments, etc.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kolasha


    Full Text Available Spacecraft optoelectronic modules traditionally have aluminum alloy or titanium alloy casing which substantial weight increases fuel consumption required to put them into orbit and, consequently, total cost of the project. Carbon fiber reinforced polymer based composite constructive materials is an efficient solution that allows reducing weight and dimensions of large optoelectronic modules 1,5–3 times and the coefficient of linear thermal expansion 15–20 times if compared with metals. Optical characteristic is a crucial feature of carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer that determines composite material interaction with electromagnetic emission within the optical range. This work was intended to develop a method to evaluate Carbon fiber reinforced polymer optoelectronic modules casing effect on lens scattering by computer simulation with Zemax application software package. Degrees of scattered, reflected and absorbed radiant flux effect on imaging quality are described here. The work included experimental study in order to determine bidirectional reflectance distribution function by goniometric method for LUP-0.1 carbon fabric check test pieces of EDT-69U epoxy binder with EPOFLEX-0.4 glue layer and 5056-3.5-23-A aluminium honeycomb filler. The scattered emission was registered within a hemisphere above the check test piece surface. Optical detection direction was determined with zenith (0º < θ < 90º and azimuth (0º < φ < 180º angles with 10° increment. The check test piece surface was proved to scatter emission within a narrow angle range (approximately 20° with clear directivity. Carbon fiber reinforced polymers was found to feature integrated reflectance coefficient 3 to 4 times greater than special coatings do. 

  16. Optoelectronic devices product assurance guideline for space application (United States)

    Bensoussan, A.; Vanzi, M.


    New opportunities are emerging for the implementation of hardware sub-systems based on OptoElectronic Devices (OED) for space application. Since the end of this decade the main players for space systems namely designers and users including Industries, Agencies, Manufacturers and Laboratories are strongly demanding of adequate strategies to qualify and validate new optoelectronics products and sub-systems [1]. The long term space application mission will require to address either inter-satellite link (free space communication, positioning systems, tracking) or intra-satellite connectivity/flexibility/reconfigurability or high volume of data transfer between equipment installed into payload.

  17. High bandgap III-V alloys for high efficiency optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberi, Kirstin; Mascarenhas, Angelo; Wanlass, Mark


    High bandgap alloys for high efficiency optoelectronics are disclosed. An exemplary optoelectronic device may include a substrate, at least one Al.sub.1-xIn.sub.xP layer, and a step-grade buffer between the substrate and at least one Al.sub.1-xIn.sub.xP layer. The buffer may begin with a layer that is substantially lattice matched to GaAs, and may then incrementally increase the lattice constant in each sequential layer until a predetermined lattice constant of Al.sub.1-xIn.sub.xP is reached.

  18. The construction of bilingual teaching of optoelectronic technology (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Enming; Yang, Fan; Li, Qingbo; Zhu, Zheng; Li, Cheng; Sun, Peng


    This paper combines the characteristics of optoelectronic technology with that of bilingual teaching. The course pays attention to integrating theory with practice, and cultivating learners' ability. Reform and exploration have been done in the fields of teaching materials, teaching content, teaching methods, etc. The concrete content mainly includes five parts: selecting teaching materials, establishing teaching syllabus, choosing suitable teaching method, making multimedia courseware and improving the test system, which can arouse students' interest in their study and their autonomous learning ability to provide beneficial references for improving the quality of talents of optoelectronic bilingual courses.

  19. Optoelectronic Infrastructure for Radio Frequency and Optical Phased Arrays (United States)

    Cai, Jianhong


    Optoelectronic integrated circuits offer radiation-hardened solutions for satellite systems in addition to improved size, weight, power, and bandwidth characteristics. ODIS, Inc., has developed optoelectronic integrated circuit technology for sensing and data transfer in phased arrays. The technology applies integrated components (lasers, amplifiers, modulators, detectors, and optical waveguide switches) to a radio frequency (RF) array with true time delay for beamsteering. Optical beamsteering is achieved by controlling the current in a two-dimensional (2D) array. In this project, ODIS integrated key components to produce common RF-optical aperture operation.

  20. Curriculum system for experimental teaching in optoelectronic information (United States)

    Di, Hongwei; Chen, Zhenqiang; Zhang, Jun; Luo, Yunhan


    The experimental curriculum system is directly related to talent training quality. Based on the careful investigation of the developing request of the optoelectronic information talents in the new century, the experimental teaching goal and the content, the teaching goal was set to cultivate students' innovative consciousness, innovative thinking, creativity and problem solving ability. Through straightening out the correlation among the experimental teaching in the main courses, the whole structure design was phased out, as well as the hierarchical curriculum connotation. According to the ideas of "basic, comprehensive, applied and innovative", the construction of experimental teaching system called "triple-three" was put forward for the optoelectronic information experimental teaching practice.

  1. Locating critical points on multi-dimensional surfaces by genetic algorithm: test cases including normal and perturbed argon clusters (United States)

    Chaudhury, Pinaki; Bhattacharyya, S. P.


    It is demonstrated that Genetic Algorithm in a floating point realisation can be a viable tool for locating critical points on a multi-dimensional potential energy surface (PES). For small clusters, the standard algorithm works well. For bigger ones, the search for global minimum becomes more efficient when used in conjunction with coordinate stretching, and partitioning of the strings into a core part and an outer part which are alternately optimized The method works with equal facility for locating minima, local as well as global, and saddle points (SP) of arbitrary orders. The search for minima requires computation of the gradient vector, but not the Hessian, while that for SP's requires the information of the gradient vector and the Hessian, the latter only at some specific points on the path. The method proposed is tested on (i) a model 2-d PES (ii) argon clusters (Ar 4-Ar 30) in which argon atoms interact via Lennard-Jones potential, (iii) Ar mX, m=12 clusters where X may be a neutral atom or a cation. We also explore if the method could also be used to construct what may be called a stochastic representation of the reaction path on a given PES with reference to conformational changes in Ar n clusters.

  2. Electrical and optoelectronic properties of gallium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flannery, Lorraine Barbara


    substrates using the CARS25 RF source. The chemical concentration of Mg, [Mg] and the hole density, p H were found to increase both with layer thickness and Mg cell temperature in material grown at 700 deg C. A maximum free hole density, p H and mobility, μ H of 4.8 x 10 17 cm -3 and 10.7 cm 2 V -1 s -1 respectively were obtained for a 2.1 μm layer grown at a Mg cell temperature of 507 deg C. Photoconductive UV detectors were successfully fabricated from the highest quality n and p-type GaN layers grown by MBE on sapphire substrates. The p-type UV devices represented the first Mg doped p-type GaN based UV photoconductive detectors grown on sapphire substrates produced by the MBE growth method. The performances of both the n and p-type detectors were assessed by measurement of their optoelectronic and electrical properties and some conclusions were drawn regarding their operating principles. (author)

  3. Early developmental expression of a normally tumor-associated and drug-inhibited cell surface-located NADH oxidase (ENOX2) in non-cancer cells. (United States)

    Cho, NaMi; Morré, D James


    Full length mRNA to a drug-inhibited cell surface NADH oxidase, tNOX or ENOX2, is present in both non-cancer and cancer cells but is translated only in cancer cells as alternatively spliced variants. ENOX2 is a growth-related protein of the external plasma membrane surface that is shed into the circulation and is inhibited by a series of quinone site inhibitors with anticancer activity. To test the possibility that ENOX2 expression might be important to early stages of non-cancer cell development, the expression of the protein was monitored in chicken embryos during their development. Polyclonal antisera to a 34 kDa human serum form of ENOX2 cross-immunoreactive with the drug-responsive NADH oxidase of chicken hepatoma cells was used. The protein was identified based on drug-responsive enzymatic activities and analyses by western blots. The drug-responsive activity was associated with plasma membranes and sera of early chicken embryos and with chicken hepatoma plasma membranes but was absent from plasma membranes prepared from livers or from sera of normal adult chickens and from late embryo stages. The findings suggest that ENOX2 may fulfill some functions essential to the growth of early embryos which are lost in late embryo stages and absent from normal adult cells but which then reappear in cancer.

  4. 77 FR 65713 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products... (United States)


    ... Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Institution... certain optoelectronic devices for fiber optic communications, components thereof, and products containing... optoelectronic devices for fiber optic communications, components thereof, and products containing the same that...

  5. Optoelectronic Evaluation and Loss Analysis of PEDOT:PSS/Si Hybrid Heterojunction Solar Cells (United States)

    Yang, Zhenhai; Fang, Zebo; Sheng, Jiang; Ling, Zhaoheng; Liu, Zhaolang; Zhu, Juye; Gao, Pingqi; Ye, Jichun


    The organic/silicon (Si) hybrid heterojunction solar cells (HHSCs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential advantages in high efficiency and low cost. However, as a newly arisen photovoltaic device, its current efficiency is still much worse than commercially available Si solar cells. Therefore, a comprehensive and systematical optoelectronic evaluation and loss analysis on this HHSC is therefore highly necessary to fully explore its efficiency potential. Here, a thoroughly optoelectronic simulation is provided on a typical planar polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/Si HHSC. The calculated spectra of reflection and external quantum efficiency (EQE) match well with the experimental results in a full-wavelength range. The losses in current density, which are contributed by both optical losses (i.e., reflection, electrode shield, and parasitic absorption) and electrical recombination (i.e., the bulk and surface recombination), are predicted via carefully addressing the electromagnetic and carrier-transport processes. In addition, the effects of Si doping concentrations and rear surface recombination velocities on the device performance are fully investigated. The results drawn in this study are beneficial to the guidance of designing high-performance PEDOT:PSS/Si HHSCs.

  6. Massive ordering and alignment of cylindrical micro-objects by photovoltaic optoelectronic tweezers. (United States)

    Elvira, Iris; Muñoz-Martínez, Juan F; Barroso, Álvaro; Denz, Cornelia; Ramiro, José B; García-Cabañes, Angel; Agulló-López, Fernando; Carrascosa, Mercedes


    Optical tools for manipulation and trapping of micro- and nano-objects are a fundamental issue for many applications in nano- and biotechnology. This work reports on the use of one such method, known as photovoltaic optoelectronics tweezers, to orientate and organize cylindrical microcrystals, specifically elongated zeolite L, on the surface of Fe-doped LiNbO 3 crystal plates. Patterns of aligned zeolites have been achieved through the forces and torques generated by the bulk photovoltaic effect. The alignment patterns with zeolites parallel or perpendicular to the substrate surface are highly dependent on the features of light distribution and crystal configuration. Moreover, dielectrophoretic chains of zeolites with lengths up to 100 μm have often been observed. The experimental results of zeolite trapping and alignment have been discussed and compared together with theoretical simulations of the evanescent photovoltaic electric field and the dielectrophoretic potential. They demonstrate the remarkable capabilities of the optoelectronic photovoltaic method to orientate and pattern anisotropic microcrystals. The combined action of patterning and alignment offers a unique tool to prepare functional nanostructures with potential applications in a variety of fields such as nonlinear optics or plasmonics.

  7. Opto-electronic properties of charged conjugated molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fratiloiu, S.


    The aim of this thesis is to provide fundamental insight into the nature and opto-electronic properties of charge carriers on conjugated oligomers and polymers. Electronic structure, optical absorption properties and distribution of charge carriers along the chains of different conjugated materials

  8. Advances in wide bandgap SiC for optoelectronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Ou, Yiyu; Argyraki, Aikaterini


    Silicon carbide (SiC) has played a key role in power electronics thanks to its unique physical properties like wide bandgap, high breakdown field, etc. During the past decade, SiC is also becoming more and more active in optoelectronics thanks to the progress in materials growth and nanofabrication...

  9. Opto-electronics on Single Nanowire Quantum Dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kouwen, M.P.


    An important goal for nanoscale opto-electronics is the transfer of single electron spin states into single photon polarization states (and vice versa), thereby interfacing quantum transport and quantum optics. Such an interface enables new experiments in the field of quantum information processing.

  10. Poly(organylsilylene)s - perspective materials for optoelectronics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nešpůrek, Stanislav


    Roč. 49, č. 5 (1999), s. 859-870 ISSN 0011-4626. [Czech-Chinese Workshop Advanced Materials for Optoelectronics . Prague, 13.06.1998-17.06.1998] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/98/0700 Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.328, year: 1999

  11. Surface area normalized dissolution to study differences in itraconazole-copovidone solid dispersions prepared by spray-drying and hot melt extrusion. (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Vivekanand; Trasi, Niraj S; Zemlyanov, Dmitry Y; Taylor, Lynne S


    Amorphous solid dispersions of itraconazole (ITZ) and copovidone (PVPVA 64) at 1:1 to 1:9 drug-polymer ratios were prepared using spray-drying (SD) and hot melt (HM) extrusion for comparative evaluation. Surface area normalized dissolution studies were carried out using a modified intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) assembly and rate of release of drug as well as polymer were quantified using ultraviolet spectroscopy. The melt quenched amorphous form of ITZ provided an 18-fold dissolution advantage over the crystalline form. In general, dispersions prepared by either SD or HM showed similar dissolution profiles in terms of drug release. Both drug-controlled and polymer-controlled ITZ dissolution rates were observed, depending on the drug loading, where a switch from a drug-controlled to a polymer-controlled regime was observed when the drug loading was approximately 20% or lower. The impact of the spray drying solvent composition was studied and found to have a large effect on the drug release rate for dispersions containing a drug loading of 20%. Electron microscopy showed differences in surface morphology (scanning) and internal structure (transmission) in these dispersions as a function of solvent system. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed differences in the surface composition of drug and polymer whereby poorly dissolving systems showed drug enrichment. This study provides insight into the complex interplay between formulation, processing and performance of amorphous solid dispersion systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fabrication, Morphological and Optoelectronic Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of MSM photodetector. We investigated the surface morphological and the structural properties of the porous silicon by optical microscopy, atomic force microscope (AFM) and X-ray diffraction. The metal–semiconductor–metal photodetector were fabricated by using Sb as ...

  13. Histochemical evidence for the differential surface labeling, uptake, and intracellular transport of a colloidal gold-labeled insulin complex by normal human blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, G.A.; Wolken, K.W.


    A colloidal gold-labeled insulin-bovine serum albumin (GIA) reagent has been developed for the ultrastructural visualization of insulin binding sites on the cell surface and for tracing the pathway of intracellular insulin translocation. When applied to normal human blood cells, it was demonstrated by both visual inspection and quantitative analysis that the extent of surface labeling, as well as the rate and degree of internalization of the insulin complex, was directly related to cell type. Further, the pathway of insulin (GIA) transport via round vesicles and by tubulo-vesicles and saccules and its subsequent fate in the hemic cells was also related to cell variety. Monocytes followed by neutrophils bound the greatest amount of labeled insulin. The majority of lymphocytes bound and internalized little GIA, however, between 5-10% of the lymphocytes were found to bind considerable quantities of GIA. Erythrocytes rarely bound the labeled insulin complex, while platelets were noted to sequester large quantities of the GIA within their extracellular canalicular system. GIA uptake by the various types of leukocytic cells appeared to occur primarily by micropinocytosis and by the direct opening of cytoplasmic tubulo-vesicles and saccules onto the cell surface in regions directly underlying surface-bound GIA. Control procedures, viz., competitive inhibition of GIA labeling using an excess of unlabeled insulin in the incubation medium, preincubation of the GIA reagent with an antibody directed toward porcine insulin, and the incorporation of 125I-insulin into the GIA reagent, indicated the specificity and selectivity of the GIA histochemical procedure for the localization of insulin binding sites

  14. Constructing Fluorine-Free and Cost-Effective Superhydrophobic Surface with Normal-Alcohol-Modified Hydrophobic SiO2 Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Ye, Hui; Zhu, Liqun; Li, Weiping; Liu, Huicong; Chen, Haining


    Superhydrophobic coatings have drawn much attention in recent years for their wide potential applications. However, a simple, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly approach is still lacked. Herein, a promising approach using nonhazardous chemicals was proposed, in which multiple hydrophobic functionalized silica nanoparticles (SiO 2 NPs) were first prepared as core component, through the efficient reaction between amino group containing SiO 2 NPs and the isocyanate containing hydrophobic surface modifiers synthesized by normal alcohols, followed by simply spraying onto various substrates for superhydrophobic functionalization. Furthermore, to further improve the mechanical durability, an organic-inorganic composite superhydrophobic coating was fabricated by incorporating cross-linking agent (polyisocyanate) into the mixture of hydrophobic-functionalized SiO 2 NPs and hydroxyl acrylic resin. The hybrid coating with cross-linked network structures is very stable with excellent mechanical durability, self-cleaning property and corrosion resistance.

  15. Exploration on the training mode of application-oriented talents majoring in optoelectronic information (United States)

    Lv, Hao; Liu, Aimei; Zhang, Shengyi; Xiao, Yongjun


    The optoelectronic information major is a strong theoretical and practical specialty. In view of the problems existing in the application-oriented talents training in the optoelectronic information specialty. Five aspects of the talent cultivation plan, the teaching staff, the teaching content, the practical teaching and the scientific research on the training mode of application-oriented talents majoring in optoelectronic information are putted forward. It is beneficial to the specialty construction of optoelectronic information industry which become close to the development of enterprises, and the depth of the integration of school and enterprise service regional economic optoelectronic information high-end skilled personnel base.

  16. Relationship of EchocardiographicZScores Adjusted for Body Surface Area to Age, Sex, Race, and Ethnicity: The Pediatric Heart Network Normal Echocardiogram Database. (United States)

    Lopez, Leo; Colan, Steven; Stylianou, Mario; Granger, Suzanne; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Frommelt, Peter; Pearson, Gail; Camarda, Joseph; Cnota, James; Cohen, Meryl; Dragulescu, Andreea; Frommelt, Michele; Garuba, Olukayode; Johnson, Tiffanie; Lai, Wyman; Mahgerefteh, Joseph; Pignatelli, Ricardo; Prakash, Ashwin; Sachdeva, Ritu; Soriano, Brian; Soslow, Jonathan; Spurney, Christopher; Srivastava, Shubhika; Taylor, Carolyn; Thankavel, Poonam; van der Velde, Mary; Minich, LuAnn


    Published nomograms of pediatric echocardiographic measurements are limited by insufficient sample size to assess the effects of age, sex, race, and ethnicity. Variable methodologies have resulted in a wide range of Z scores for a single measurement. This multicenter study sought to determine Z scores for common measurements adjusted for body surface area (BSA) and stratified by age, sex, race, and ethnicity. Data collected from healthy nonobese children ≤18 years of age at 19 centers with a normal echocardiogram included age, sex, race, ethnicity, height, weight, echocardiographic images, and measurements performed at the Core Laboratory. Z score models involved indexed parameters (X/BSA α ) that were normally distributed without residual dependence on BSA. The models were tested for the effects of age, sex, race, and ethnicity. Raw measurements from models with and without these effects were compared, and race, and ethnicity for all outcomes, but all effects were clinically insignificant based on comparisons of models with and without the effects, resulting in Z scores independent of age, sex, race, and ethnicity for each measurement. Echocardiographic Z scores based on BSA were derived from a large, diverse, and healthy North American population. Age, sex, race, and ethnicity have small effects on the Z scores that are statistically significant but not clinically important. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Synthesis of Continuous Conductive PEDOT:PSS Nanofibers by Electrospinning: A Conformal Coating for Optoelectronics. (United States)

    Bessaire, Bastien; Mathieu, Maillard; Salles, Vincent; Yeghoyan, Taguhi; Celle, Caroline; Simonato, Jean-Pierre; Brioude, Arnaud


    A process to synthesize continuous conducting nanofibers were developed using PEDOT:PSS as a conducting polymer and an electrospinning method. Experimental parameters were carefully explored to achieve reproducible conductive nanofibers synthesis in large quantities. In particular, relative humidity during the electrospinning process was proven to be of critical importance, as well as doping post-treatment involving glycols and alcohols. The synthesized fibers were assembled as a mat on glass substrates, forming a conductive and transparent electrode and their optoelectronic have been fully characterized. This method produces a conformable conductive and transparent coating that is well-adapted to nonplanar surfaces, having very large aspect ratio features. A demonstration of this property was made using surfaces having deep trenches and high steps, where conventional transparent conductive materials fail because of a lack of conformability.

  18. Research on the processing technology of medium-caliber aspheric lens in the optoelectronic integrated test system (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Yu, Xin-ying; Wang, Wei


    In the optoelectronic integrated test system, surface profile and finish of the optical element are put forward higher request. Taking an aspherical quartz glass lens with a diameter of 200mm as example, taking Preston hypothesis as the theoretical basis, analyze the influence of surface quality of various process parameters, including the workpiece and the tool axis spindle speed, wheel type, concentration polishing, polishing mold species, dwell time, polishing pressure and other parameters. Using CNC method for the surface profile and surface quality of the lens were investigated. Taking profilometer measurement results as a guide, by testing and simulation analysis, process parameters were improved constantly in the process of manufacturing. Mid and high frequency error were trimmed and improved so that the surface form gradually converged to the required accuracy. The experimental results show that the final accuracy of the surface is less than 2µm and the surface finish is, which fulfils the accuracy requirement of aspherical focusing lens in optical system.

  19. Temperature-Induced Lattice Relaxation of Perovskite Crystal Enhances Optoelectronic Properties and Solar Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Banavoth, Murali


    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite crystals have recently become one of the most important classes of photoactive materials in the solar cell and optoelectronic communities. Albeit improvements have focused on state-of-the-art technology including various fabrication methods, device architectures, and surface passivation, progress is yet to be made in understanding the actual operational temperature on the electronic properties and the device performances. Therefore, the substantial effect of temperature on the optoelectronic properties, charge separation, charge recombination dynamics, and photoconversion efficiency are explored. The results clearly demonstrated a significant enhancement in the carrier mobility, photocurrent, charge carrier lifetime, and solar cell performance in the 60 ± 5 °C temperature range. In this temperature range, perovskite crystal exhibits a highly symmetrical relaxed cubic structure with well-aligned domains that are perpendicular to a principal axis, thereby remarkably improving the device operation. This finding provides a new key variable component and paves the way toward using perovskite crystals in highly efficient photovoltaic cells.

  20. Comparison of Placido disc and Scheimpflug image-derived topography-guided excimer laser surface normalization combined with higher fluence CXL: the Athens Protocol, in progressive keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ


    Full Text Available Anastasios John Kanellopoulos,1,2 George Eye Institute, Athens, Greece; 2New York University School of Medicine, Department of Opthalmology, NY, NY, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of two alternative corneal topography data sources used in topography-guided excimer laser normalization, combined with corneal collagen cross-linking in the management of keratoconus using the Athens protocol, ie, a Placido disc imaging device and a Scheimpflug imaging device.Methods: A total of 181 consecutive patients with keratoconus who underwent the Athens protocol between 2008 and 2011 were studied preoperatively and at months 1, 3, 6, and 12 postoperatively for visual acuity, keratometry, and anterior surface corneal irregularity indices. Two groups were formed, depending on the primary source used for topoguided photoablation, ie, group A (Placido disc and group B (Scheimpflug rotating camera. One-year changes in visual acuity, keratometry, and seven anterior surface corneal irregularity indices were studied in each group.Results: Changes in visual acuity, expressed as the difference between postoperative and preoperative corrected distance visual acuity were +0.12 ± 0.20 (range +0.60 to -0.45 for group A and +0.19 ± 0.20 (range +0.75 to -0.30 for group B. In group A, K1 (flat keratometry changed from 45.202 ± 3.782 D to 43.022 ± 3.819 D, indicating a flattening of -2.18 D, and K2 (steep keratometry changed from 48.670 ± 4.066 D to 45.865 ± 4.794 D, indicating a flattening of -2.805 D. In group B, K1 (flat keratometry changed from 46.213 ± 4.082 D to 43.190 ± 4.398 D, indicating a flattening of -3.023 D, and K2 (steep keratometry changed from 50.774 ± 5.210 D to 46.380 ± 5.006 D, indicating a flattening of -4.394 D. For group A, the index of surface variance decreased to -5.07% and the index of height decentration to -26.81%. In group B, the index of surface variance

  1. Recent advances in flexible and wearable organic optoelectronic devices (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Shen, Yang; Li, Yanqing; Tang, Jianxin


    Flexible and wearable optoelectronic devices have been developing to a new stage due to their unique capacity for the possibility of a variety of wearable intelligent electronics, including bendable smartphones, foldable touch screens and antennas, paper-like displays, and curved and flexible solid-state lighting devices. Before extensive commercial applications, some issues still have to be solved for flexible and wearable optoelectronic devices. In this regard, this review concludes the newly emerging flexible substrate materials, transparent conductive electrodes, device architectures and light manipulation methods. Examples of these components applied for various kinds of devices are also summarized. Finally, perspectives about the bright future of flexible and wearable electronic devices are proposed. Project supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (No. 2016YFB0400700).

  2. Widrow-cellular neural network and optoelectronic implementation (United States)

    Bal, Abdullah

    A new type of optoelectronic cellular neural network has been developed by providing the capability of coefficients adjusment of cellular neural network (CNN) using Widrow based perceptron learning algorithm. The new supervised cellular neural network is called Widrow-CNN. Despite the unsupervised CNN, the proposed learning algorithm allows to use the Widrow-CNN for various image processing applications easily. Also, the capability of CNN for image processing and feature extraction has been improved using basic joint transform correlation architecture. This hardware application presents high speed processing capability compared to digital applications. The optoelectronic Widrow-CNN has been tested for classic CNN feature extraction problems. It yields the best results even in case of hard feature extraction problems such as diagonal line detection and vertical line determination.

  3. Low-Dimensional Nano structures for Optoelectronic Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, W.; Faraone, L.; Hoe Tan, H.; Lu, W.


    In recent years, low-dimensional (zero-, one-, and two-dimensional) nano structures have attracted wide attention and become a focus of scientific research and engineering application. This is due to their novel physical and chemical properties caused by size and quantum effects, as well as potential applications in various kinds of devices, for example, optoelectronics, nano electronics, and so forth. This special issue is intended to bring the most recent advances in the field of low-dimensional nano structures for optoelectronic applications. As expected, the research articles in this special issue cover a wide range of topics in this research field, ranging from theoretical simulation to material synthesis, to material characterization, to device fabrication, and to device characterization

  4. Integrated Optoelectronic Networks for Application-Driven Multicore Computing (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0102 Integrated Optoelectronic Networks for Application- Driven Multicore Computing Sudeep Pasricha COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY...601 S HOWES ST FORT COLINS, CO 805212807 05/08/2017 Final Report DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. Air Force Research...Laboratory AF Office Of Scientific Research (AFOSR)/RTA1 5/25/2017 a. REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT

  5. Quantum Transport and Optoelectronics in Gapped Graphene Nanodevices (United States)


    heat , while energy retained in the electronic subsystem can be used to drive an optoelectronic circuit. In graphene, energy relaxation pathways are...underlying mechanism was under debate between the photovoltaic (PV) effect, where the photogenerated electron-hole pairs are separated by a built-in...challenging to detect and control the thermalization process in graphene, or more generally, in any solid-state systems . We take a novel approach to

  6. Opto-electronics on Single Nanowire Quantum Dots


    Van Kouwen, M.P.


    An important goal for nanoscale opto-electronics is the transfer of single electron spin states into single photon polarization states (and vice versa), thereby interfacing quantum transport and quantum optics. Such an interface enables new experiments in the field of quantum information processing. Single and entangled photon-pair generation can be used for quantum cryptography. Furthermore, photons can be used in the readout of a quantum computer based on electron spins. Semiconducting nano...

  7. The Cellulose Nanofibers for Optoelectronic Conversion and Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Luo


    Full Text Available Cellulose widely exists in plant tissues. Due to the large pores between the cellulose units, the regular paper is nontransparent that cannot be used in the optoelectronic devices. But some chemical and physical methods such as 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO oxidation can be used to improve the pores scale between the cellulose units to reach nanometer level. The cellulose nanofibers (CNFs have good mechanical strength, flexibility, thermostability, and low thermal expansion. The paper made of these nanofibers represent a kind of novel nanostructured material with ultrahigh transparency, ultrahigh haze, conductivity, biodegradable, reproducible, low pollution, environment friendly and so on. These advantages make the novel nanostructured paper apply in the optoelectronic device possible, such as electronics energy storage devices. This kind of paper is considered most likely to replace traditional materials like plastics and glass, which is attracting widespread attention, and the related research has also been reported. The purpose of this paper is to review CNFs which are applied in optoelectronic conversion and energy storage.

  8. Optoelectronics-related competence building in Japanese and Western firms (United States)

    Miyazaki, Kumiko


    In this paper, an analysis is made of how different firms in Japan and the West have developed competence related to optoelectronics on the basis of their previous experience and corporate strategies. The sample consists of a set of seven Japanese and four Western firms in the industrial, consumer electronics and materials sectors. Optoelectronics is divided into subfields including optical communications systems, optical fibers, optoelectronic key components, liquid crystal displays, optical disks, and others. The relative strengths and weaknesses of companies in the various subfields are determined using the INSPEC database, from 1976 to 1989. Parallel data are analyzed using OTAF U.S. patent statistics and the two sets of data are compared. The statistical analysis from the database is summarized for firms in each subfield in the form of an intra-firm technology index (IFTI), a new technique introduced to assess the revealed technology advantage of firms. The quantitative evaluation is complemented by results from intensive interviews with the management and scientists of the firms involved. The findings show that there is a marked variation in the way firms' technological trajectories have evolved giving rise to strength in some and weakness in other subfields for the different companies, which are related to their accumulated core competencies, previous core business activities, organizational, marketing, and competitive factors.

  9. Advances in graphene-based optoelectronics, plasmonics and photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha; Nguyen, Van Hieu


    Since the early works on graphene it has been remarked that graphene is a marvelous electronic material. Soon after its discovery, graphene was efficiently utilized in the fabrication of optoelectronic, plasmonic and photonic devices, including graphene-based Schottky junction solar cells. The present work is a review of the progress in the experimental research on graphene-based optoelectronics, plasmonics and photonics, with the emphasis on recent advances. The main graphene-based optoelectronic devices presented in this review are photodetectors and modulators. In the area of graphene-based plasmonics, a review of the plasmonic nanostructures enhancing or tuning graphene-light interaction, as well as of graphene plasmons is presented. In the area of graphene-based photonics, we report progress on fabrication of different types of graphene quantum dots as well as functionalized graphene and graphene oxide, the research on the photoluminescence and fluorescence of graphene nanostructures as well as on the energy exchange between graphene and semiconductor quantum dots. In particular, the promising achievements of research on graphene-based Schottky junction solar cells is presented. (review)

  10. Optoelectronic and Photovoltaic Properties of the Air-Stable Organohalide Semiconductor (CH 3 NH 3 ) 3 Bi 2 I 9

    KAUST Repository

    Abulikemu, Mutalifu


    Lead halide perovskite materials have shown excellent optoelectronic as well as photovoltaic properties. However, the presence of lead and the chemical instability relegate lead halide perovskites to research applications only. Here, we investigate an emerging lead-free and air stable compound (CH3NH3)3Bi2I9 as a non-toxic potential alternative to lead halide perovskites. We have synthesized thin films, powders and millimeter-scale single crystals of (CH3NH3)3Bi2I9 and investigated their structural and optoelectronic properties. We demonstrate that the degree of crystallinity strongly affects the optoelectronic properties of the material, resulting in significantly different band gaps in polycrystalline thin films and single crystals. Surface photovoltage spectroscopy reveals outstanding photocharge generation in the visible (<700 nm), while transient absorption spectroscopy and space charge limited current measurements point to a long exciton lifetime and a high carrier mobility, respectively, similar to lead halide perovskites, pointing to the remarkable potential of this semiconductor. Photovoltaic devices fabricated using this material yield low power conversion efficiency (PCE) to date, but the PCE is expected to rise with improvements in thin film processing and device engineering.

  11. Defect-Based Modulation of Optoelectronic Properties for Biofunctionalized Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanosheets. (United States)

    Shakourian-Fard, Mehdi; Heydari, Hadiseh; Kamath, Ganesh


    Defect engineering potentially allows for dramatic tuning of the optoelectronic properties of two-dimensional materials. With the help of DFT calculations, a systematic study of DNA nucleobases adsorbed on hexagonal boron-nitride nanoflakes (h-BNNFs) with boron (V B ) and nitrogen (V N ) monovacancies is presented. The presence of V N and V B defects increases the binding strength of nucleobases by 9 and 34 kcal mol -1 , respectively (h-BNNF-V B >h-BNNF-V N >h-BNNF). A more negative electrostatic potential at the V B site makes the h-BNNF-V B surface more reactive than that of h-BNNF-V N , enabling H-bonding interactions with nucleobases. This binding energy difference affects the recovery time-a significant factor for developing DNA biosensors-of the surfaces in the order h-BNNF-V B >h-BNNF-V N >h-BNNF. The presence of V B and V N defect sites increases the electrical conductivity of the h-BNNF surface, V N defects being more favorable than V B sites. The blueshift of absorption peaks of the h-BNNF-V B -nucleobase complexes, in contrast to the redshift observed for h-BNNF-V N -nucleobase complexes, is attributed to their observed differences in binding energies, the HOMO-LUMO energy gap and other optoelectronic properties. Time-dependent DFT calculations reveal that the monovacant boron-nitride-sheet-nucleobase composites absorb visible light in the range 300-800 nm, thus making them suitable for light-emitting devices and sensing nucleobases in the visible region. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Altered B Cell Homeostasis in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder and Normalization of CD5 Surface Expression on Regulatory B Cells in Treatment Responders. (United States)

    Ahmetspahic, Diana; Schwarte, Kathrin; Ambrée, Oliver; Bürger, Christian; Falcone, Vladislava; Seiler, Katharina; Kooybaran, Mehrdad Rahbar; Grosse, Laura; Roos, Fernand; Scheffer, Julia; Jörgens, Silke; Koelkebeck, Katja; Dannlowski, Udo; Arolt, Volker; Scheu, Stefanie; Alferink, Judith


    Pro-inflammatory activity and cell-mediated immune responses have been widely observed in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Besides their well-known function as antibody-producers, B cells play a key role in inflammatory responses by secreting pro- and anti-inflammatory factors. However, homeostasis of specific B cell subsets has not been comprehensively investigated in MDD. In this study, we characterized circulating B cells of distinct developmental steps including transitional, naïve-mature, antigen-experienced switched, and non-switched memory cells, plasmablasts and regulatory B cells by multi-parameter flow cytometry. In a 6-weeks follow-up, circulating B cells were monitored in a small group of therapy responders and non-responders. Frequencies of naïve lgD + CD27 - B cells, but not lgD + CD27 + memory B cells, were reduced in severely depressed patients as compared to healthy donors (HD) or mildly to moderately depressed patients. Specifically, B cells with immune-regulatory capacities such as CD1d + CD5 + B cells and CD24 + CD38 hi transitional B cells were reduced in MDD. Also Bm1-Bm5 classification in MDD revealed reduced Bm2' cells comprising germinal center founder cells as well as transitional B cells. We further found that reduced CD5 surface expression on transitional B cells was associated with severe depression and normalized exclusively in clinical responders. This study demonstrates a compromised peripheral B cell compartment in MDD with a reduction in B cells exhibiting a regulatory phenotype. Recovery of CD5 surface expression on transitional B cells in clinical response, a molecule involved in activation and down-regulation of B cell responses, further points towards a B cell-dependent process in the pathogenesis of MDD.

  13. Silver Nanoparticle Controlled Synthesis and Implications in Spectroscopy, Biomedical and Optoelectronics Applications (United States)

    Stamplecoskie, Kevin

    This thesis describes the photochemical synthesis of silver nano particles, several ways to make these particles as well as control the size and shape of the colloidal particles. Understanding the primary reactions in photochemical nanoparticle formation has lead to important contributions to the overall mechanism of metal nanoparticle synthesis. The size and shape control of the particles is shown to have important implications for the Raman spectrum of surface bound molecules. The particles have also been used in antibacterial properties where it was shown that silver nanoparticles are more antibacterial than the corresponding silver cation, while remaining non-toxic to several common cell lines. The particles were also shown to have some interesting properties that can be exploited in lithography and optoelectronics.

  14. Nanocellulose-based Translucent Diffuser for Optoelectronic Device Applications with Dramatic Improvement of Light Coupling. (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Tassi, Nancy G; Zhu, Hongli; Fang, Zhiqiang; Hu, Liangbing


    Nanocellulose is a biogenerated and biorenewable organic material. Using a process based on 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)/NaClO/NaBr system, a highly translucent and light-diffusive film consisting of many layers of nanocellulose fibers and wood pulp microfibers was made. The film demonstrates a combination of large optical transmittance of ∼90% and tunable diffuse transmission of up to ∼78% across the visible and near-infrared spectra. The detailed characterizations of the film indicate the combination of high optical transmittance and haze is due to the film's large packing density and microstructured surface. The superior optical properties make the film a translucent light diffuser and applicable for improving the efficiencies of optoelectronic devices such as thin-film silicon solar cells and organic light-emitting devices.

  15. Blends of conjugated rigid-rod polymers: Novel supramolecular materials for electronics, optoelectronics and photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenekhe, S.A. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)


    Selected examples of binary blends of conjugated polymers will be presented to illustrate the vast scope of their supramolecular structures and electronic, optical, nonlinear optical, and optoelectronic properties.

  16. Graduate studies on optoelectronics in Argentina: an experience (United States)

    Fernández, Juan C.; Garea, María. T.; Isaurralde, Silvia; Perez, Liliana I.; Raffo, Carlos A.


    The number of graduate programs in Optoelectronics in Argentina is scarce. The current Optics and Photonics Education Directory lists only three programs. One of them was launched in 2001 in the Facultad de Ingeniería (College of Engineering), Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA). This was the first graduate program in the field, leading to a Master Degree in Optoelectronics. This decision arose from the demand of telecommunications industries and several estate- or private-funded research institutions working with us in the fields of lasers, optics, remote sensing, etc. A great bonus was the steady work, during several decades, of research groups in the College on the development of different type of lasers and optical non destructive tests and their engineering applications. As happened in many engineering graduate programs in Argentina at that time, few non full-time students could finish their studies, which called for 800 hours of traditional lecture-recitation classes, and the Master Thesis. In recent years Argentine Education authorities downsized the Master programs to 700 hours of blended learning and we redesigned the Graduate Optoelectronic Engineering Program to meet the challenge, dividing it in two successive one year programs, the first aimed at a professional training for almost immediate insertion in the labor market (called Especialización en Ingeniería Optoelectrónica), and the second (called Maestría en Ingeniería Optoelectrónica y Fotónica) aimed at a more academic and research target to comply with the UBA standards for Master degrees. The present work is a presentation of the new program design, which has begun in the current year.

  17. Optoelectronic sensor device for monitoring ethanol concentration in winemaking applications (United States)

    Jiménez-Márquez, F.; Vázquez, J.; Úbeda, J.; Rodríguez-Rey, J.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.


    The supervision of key variables such as sugar, alcohol, released CO2 and microbiological evolution in fermenting grape must is of great importance in the winemaking industry. However, the fermentation kinetics is assessed by monitoring the evolution of the density as it varies during a fermentation, since density is an indicator of the total amount of sugars, ethanol and glycerol. Even so, supervising the fermentation process is an awkward and non-comprehensive task, especially in wine cellars where production rates are massive, and enologists usually measure the density of the extracted samples from each fermentation tank manually twice a day. This work aims at the design of a fast, low-cost, portable and reliable optoelectronic sensor for measuring ethanol concentration in fermenting grape must samples. Different sets of model solutions, which contain ethanol, fructose, glucose, glycerol dissolved in water and emulate the grape must composition at different stages of the fermentation, were prepared both for calibration and validation. The absorption characteristics of these model solutions were analyzed by a commercial spectrophotometer in the NIR region, in order to identify key wavelengths from which valuable information regarding the sample composition can be extracted. Finally, a customized optoelectronic prototype based on absorbance measurements at two wavelengths belonging to the NIR region was designed, fabricated and successfully tested. The system, whose optoelectronics is reduced after a thorough analysis to only two LED lamps and their corresponding paired photodiodes operating at 1.2 and 1.3 μm respectively, calculates the ethanol content by a multiple linear regression.

  18. Graphene and Two-Dimensional Materials for Optoelectronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bablich


    Full Text Available This article reviews optoelectronic devices based on graphene and related two-dimensional (2D materials. The review includes basic considerations of process technology, including demonstrations of 2D heterostructure growth, and comments on the scalability and manufacturability of the growth methods. We then assess the potential of graphene-based transparent conducting electrodes. A major part of the review describes photodetectors based on lateral graphene p-n junctions and Schottky diodes. Finally, the progress in vertical devices made from 2D/3D heterojunctions, as well as all-2D heterostructures is discussed.

  19. Wonder of nanotechnology quantum optoelectronic devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Razeghi, Manijeh; von Klitzing, Klaus


    When you look closely, Nature is nanotechnology at its finest. From a single cell, a factory all by itself, to complex systems, such as the nervous system or the human eye, each is composed of specialized nanostructures that exist to perform a specific function. This same beauty can be mirrored when we interact with the tiny physical world that is the realm of quantum mechanics.The Wonder of Nanotechnology: Quantum Optoelectronic Devices and Applications, edited by Manijeh Razeghi, Leo Esaki, and Klaus von Klitzing focuses on the application of nanotechnology to modern semiconductor optoelectr

  20. All-optoelectronic continuous wave THz imaging for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebert, Karsten J; Loeffler, Torsten; Quast, Holger; Thomson, Mark; Bauer, Tobias; Leonhardt, Rainer; Czasch, Stephanie; Roskos, Hartmut G


    We present an all-optoelectronic THz imaging system for ex vivo biomedical applications based on photomixing of two continuous-wave laser beams using photoconductive antennas. The application of hyperboloidal lenses is discussed. They allow for f-numbers less than 1/2 permitting better focusing and higher spatial resolution compared to off-axis paraboloidal mirrors whose f-numbers for practical reasons must be larger than 1/2. For a specific histological sample, an analysis of image noise is discussed

  1. Optoelectronic imaging of speckle using image processing method (United States)

    Wang, Jinjiang; Wang, Pengfei


    A detailed image processing of laser speckle interferometry is proposed as an example for the course of postgraduate student. Several image processing methods were used together for dealing with optoelectronic imaging system, such as the partial differential equations (PDEs) are used to reduce the effect of noise, the thresholding segmentation also based on heat equation with PDEs, the central line is extracted based on image skeleton, and the branch is removed automatically, the phase level is calculated by spline interpolation method, and the fringe phase can be unwrapped. Finally, the imaging processing method was used to automatically measure the bubble in rubber with negative pressure which could be used in the tire detection.

  2. Acousto-optic collinear filter with optoelectronic feedback (United States)

    Mantsevich, S. N.; Balakshy, V. I.; Kuznetsov, Yu. I.


    A spectral optoelectronic system combining a collinear acousto-optic cell fabricated of calcium molybdate single crystal and a positive electronic feedback is proposed first and examined theoretically and experimentally. The feedback signal is formed at the cell output due to the optical heterodyning effect with the use of an unconventional regime of cell operation. It is shown that the feedback enables controlling spectral characteristics of the acousto-optic cell, resulting in enhancing the spectral resolution and the accuracy of optical wavelength determination. In the experiment, maximal filter passband narrowing was as great as 37 times.

  3. Gamma spectroscopy and optoelectronic imaging with hybrid photon detector

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C; Piedigrossi, D; Rosso, E; Cenceelli, V; De Notaristefani, F; Masini, Gérald; Puertolas, D; Cindolo, F; Mares, J A; Nikl, M; Abreu, M; Rato-Mendes, P; Sousa, P


    Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPD) detect light via photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards silicon PIN-anodes, where they are absorbed and generate electronic signals. We have developed two specific types of HPDs: (1) Hybrid photomultiplier tubes for photon counting and gamma spectroscopy; (2) Imaging silicon pixel array tubes for optoelectronic cameras. This paper will illustrate the main achievements, which we obtained in the last years, and will describe and discuss our present main R&D efforts, in particular, in the biomedical imaging field. (27 refs).

  4. MOVPE. Is there any other technology for optoelectronics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, R.L. [Solid State Materials Department/Solid State Laboratories, Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Palo Alto (United States)


    This paper examines the role that MOVPE (metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy) plays in optoelectronics technology. Its role today accounts for 15% of the grown devices. However, the technology`s contribution over the industry is uneven ranging from as much as 100% in the case of solar cells and photocathodes to only a few percent in today`s LED production. Total usage of MOVPE, and its usage for LEDs, are expected to increase with time to a total contribution to the industry of as much as 25% by the year 2000

  5. Laser processing of thin films for optoelectronic devices (United States)

    Sugiura, Hideo


    This paper reviews the laser processing of II-VI and III-V compound semiconductors for optoelectronic devices. when a laser beam scanning system is combined with MBE or MOCVD apparatus, the resultant growth process is called laser-assisted epitaxy. Laser irradiation of the films has various effects, depending on the growth conditions: doping efficiency, film growth rate, and film composition are affected. Using these effects, laser-assisted epitaxy has been used to make photodetectors, laser diodes, and integrated devices for multiwavelength transmission.

  6. Lipoxin A4 stimulates calcium-activated chloride currents and increases airway surface liquid height in normal and cystic fibrosis airway epithelia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)


    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease characterised by a deficit in epithelial Cl(-) secretion which in the lung leads to airway dehydration and a reduced Airway Surface Liquid (ASL) height. The endogenous lipoxin LXA(4) is a member of the newly identified eicosanoids playing a key role in ending the inflammatory process. Levels of LXA(4) are reported to be decreased in the airways of patients with CF. We have previously shown that in normal human bronchial epithelial cells, LXA(4) produced a rapid and transient increase in intracellular Ca(2+). We have investigated, the effect of LXA(4) on Cl(-) secretion and the functional consequences on ASL generation in bronchial epithelial cells obtained from CF and non-CF patient biopsies and in bronchial epithelial cell lines. We found that LXA(4) stimulated a rapid intracellular Ca(2+) increase in all of the different CF bronchial epithelial cells tested. In non-CF and CF bronchial epithelia, LXA(4) stimulated whole-cell Cl(-) currents which were inhibited by NPPB (calcium-activated Cl(-) channel inhibitor), BAPTA-AM (chelator of intracellular Ca(2+)) but not by CFTRinh-172 (CFTR inhibitor). We found, using confocal imaging, that LXA(4) increased the ASL height in non-CF and in CF airway bronchial epithelia. The LXA(4) effect on ASL height was sensitive to bumetanide, an inhibitor of transepithelial Cl(-) secretion. The LXA(4) stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+), whole-cell Cl(-) currents, conductances and ASL height were inhibited by Boc-2, a specific antagonist of the ALX\\/FPR2 receptor. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence for a novel role of LXA(4) in the stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+) signalling leading to Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) secretion and enhanced ASL height in non-CF and CF bronchial epithelia.

  7. Nanostructure of highly aromatic graphene nanosheets -- From optoelectronics to electrochemical energy storage applications (United States)

    Biswas, Sanjib

    The exceptional electrical properties along with intriguing physical and chemical aspects of graphene nanosheets can only be realized by nanostructuring these materials through the homogeneous and orderly distribution of these nanosheets without compromising the aromaticity of the native basal plane. Graphene nanosheets prepared by direct exfoliation as opposed to the graphene oxide route are necessary in order to preserve the native chemical properties of graphene basal planes. This research has been directed at optimally combining the diverse physical and chemical aspects of graphene nanosheets such as particle size, surface area and edge chemistry to fabricate nanostructured architectures for optoelectronics and high power electrochemical energy storage applications. In the first nanostructuring effort, a monolayer of these ultrathin, highly hydrophobic graphene nanosheets was prepared on a large area substrate via self-assembly at the liquid-liquid interface. Driven by the minimization of interfacial energy these planar graphene nanosheets produce a close packed monolayer structure at the liquid-liquid interface. The resulting monolayer film exhibits high electrical conductivity of more than 1000 S/cm and an optical transmission of more than 70-80% between wavelengths of 550 nm and 2000 nm making it an ideal candidate for optoelectronic applications. In the second part of this research, nanostructuring was used to create a configuration suitable for supercapacitor applications. A free standing, 100% binder free multilayer, flexible film consisting of monolayers of graphene nanosheets was prepared by utilizing the van der Waals forces of attraction between the basal plans of the graphene nanosheets coupled with capillary driven and drying-induced collapse. A major benefit in this approach is that the graphene nanosheet's attractive physical and chemical characteristics can be synthesized into an architecture consisting of large and small nanosheets to create an

  8. Optoelectronic polarimeter controlled by a graphical user interface of Matlab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilardy, J M; Torres, R; Jimenez, C J


    We show the design and implementation of an optical polarimeter using electronic control. The polarimeter has a software with a graphical user interface (GUI) that controls the optoelectronic setup and captures the optical intensity measurement, and finally, this software evaluates the Stokes vector of a state of polarization (SOP) by means of the synchronous detection of optical waves. The proposed optoelectronic polarimeter can determine the Stokes vector of a SOP in a rapid and efficient way. Using the polarimeter proposed in this paper, the students will be able to observe (in an optical bench) and understand the different interactions of the SOP when the optical waves pass through to the linear polarizers and retarder waves plates. The polarimeter prototype could be used as a main tool for the students in order to learn the theory and experimental aspects of the SOP for optical waves via the Stokes vector measurement. The proposed polarimeter controlled by a GUI of Matlab is more attractive and suitable to teach and to learn the polarization of optical waves. (paper)

  9. Enhanced fabrication process of zinc oxide nanowires for optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García Núñez, C., E-mail: [Grupo de Electrónica y Semiconductores, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Pau, J.L.; Ruíz, E.; García Marín, A.; García, B.J.; Piqueras, J. [Grupo de Electrónica y Semiconductores, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Shen, G.; Wilbert, D.S.; Kim, S.M.; Kung, P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)


    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) based ultraviolet (UV) sensors have been fabricated using different assembly techniques to form functional structures, aiming at the improvement of the performance of NW-based sensors for optoelectronic applications. NWs with diameters and lengths varying between 90–870 nm and 2–20 μm, respectively, were synthesized by controlling the growth conditions in a chemical vapor transport system. Optical properties of NWs were studied by means of transmission spectroscopy. Electrical properties of single ZnO NW-based sensors were analyzed in dark and under UV illumination (at photon wavelength of λ < 370 nm) as a function of the NW diameter. Results of the study indicate that reduction of the NW diameter below 200 nm leads to an improvement of the photocurrent (at λ < 370 nm) up to 10{sup 2} μA and a decrease of the decay time around 150 s. These enhancements may help to improve the performance of ZnO-based optoelectronic devices. - Highlights: • ZnO nanowires (NWs) with diameters 90–870 nm were grown by chemical vapor transport. • ZnO NWs showed strong absorption in the UV range. • Different assembly techniques were tested for preparing ZnO NW-based UV sensors. • Sensor photoresponses were around 10{sup 3} A/W. • Reducing NW diameter below 200 nm improved sensor photosensitivity.

  10. Study and practice of flipped classroom in optoelectronic technology curriculum (United States)

    Shi, Jianhua; Lei, Bing; Liu, Wei; Yao, Tianfu; Jiang, Wenjie


    "Flipped Classroom" is one of the most popular teaching models, and has been applied in more and more curriculums. It is totally different from the traditional teaching model. In the "Flipped Classroom" model, the students should watch the teaching video afterschool, and in the classroom only the discussion is proceeded to improve the students' comprehension. In this presentation, "Flipped Classroom" was studied and practiced in opto-electronic technology curriculum; its effect was analyzed by comparing it with the traditional teaching model. Based on extensive and deep investigation, the phylogeny, the characters and the important processes of "Flipped Classroom" are studied. The differences between the "Flipped Classroom" and the traditional teaching model are demonstrated. Then "Flipped Classroom" was practiced in opto-electronic technology curriculum. In order to obtain high effectiveness, a lot of teaching resources were prepared, such as the high-quality teaching video, the animations and the virtual experiments, the questions that the students should finish before and discussed in the class, etc. At last, the teaching effect was evaluated through analyzing the result of the examination and the students' surveys.

  11. Coherent and ultrafast optoelectronics in III-V semiconductor compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerst, M.; Nagel, M.; Awad, M.; Waechter, M.; Kurz, H. [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Dekorsy, T. [Universitaet Konstanz, Fachbereich Physik, 78457 Konstanz (Germany)


    III-V compound semiconductors offer a fascinating multitude of phenomena which have become accessible via ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy. Coherent vibronic and electronic dynamics are prepared by excitation with taylored femtosecond laser pulses. The analysis of their temporal dephasing or decay provides deep insights into the interaction between electronic and vibronic degrees of freedom and the surrounding bath in high purity quantum structures. In contrast to coherent electronic or vibronic states, deliberately introduced growth defects can be used to drastically shorten the lifetime of optically excited carriers. Sub-picosecond carrier lifetimes open the possibility to realize ultrafast saturable absorbers and optoelectronic transducer elements. They are particularly important as key elements in THz technology, such as efficient THz emitters, detectors, and for on-chip THz technology. This paper summarizes the most distinguished results relevant in the context of ultrafast optoelectronics and THz technology obtained in close collaboration with the Paul-Drude-Institute Berlin over the past decade. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Laser applications in the electronics and optoelectronics industry in Japan (United States)

    Washio, Kunihiko


    This paper explains current status and technological trends in laser materials processing applications in electronics and optoelectronics industry in Japan. Various laser equipment based on solid state lasers or gas lasers such as excimer lasers or CO2 lasers has been developed and applied in manufacturing electronic and optoelectronic devices to meet the strong demands for advanced device manufacturing technologies for high-performance, lightweight, low power-consumption portable digital electronic appliances, cellular mobile phones, personal computers, etc. Representative applications of solid-state lasers are, opaque and clear defects repairing of photomasks for LSIs and LCDs, trimming of thick-film chip resistors and low resistance metal resistors, laser cutting and drilling of thin films for high-pin count semiconductor CSP packages, laser patterning of thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells, and laser welding of electronic components such as hard-disk head suspensions, optical modules, miniature relays and lithium ion batteries. Compact and highly efficient diode- pumped and Q-switched solid-state lasers in second or third harmonic operation mode are now being increasingly incorporated in various laser equipment for fine material processing. Representative applications of excimer lasers are, sub-quarter micron design-rule LSI lithography and low- temperature annealing of poly-silicon TFT LCD.

  13. Development of an optoelectronic holographic platform for otolaryngology applications (United States)

    Harrington, Ellery; Dobrev, Ivo; Bapat, Nikhil; Flores, Jorge Mauricio; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John; Cheng, Jeffery Tao; Scarpino, Chris; Ravicz, Michael


    In this paper, we present advances on our development of an optoelectronic holographic computing platform with the ability to quantitatively measure full-field-of-view nanometer-scale movements of the tympanic membrane (TM). These measurements can facilitate otologists' ability to study and diagnose hearing disorders in humans. The holographic platform consists of a laser delivery system and an otoscope. The control software, called LaserView, is written in Visual C++ and handles communication and synchronization between hardware components. It provides a user-friendly interface to allow viewing of holographic images with several tools to automate holography-related tasks and facilitate hardware communication. The software uses a series of concurrent threads to acquire images, control the hardware, and display quantitative holographic data at video rates and in two modes of operation: optoelectronic holography and lensless digital holography. The holographic platform has been used to perform experiments on several live and post-mortem specimens, and is to be deployed in a medical research environment with future developments leading to its eventual clinical use.

  14. Simultaneous topographical, electrical and optical microscopy of optoelectronic devices at the nanoscale

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Naresh


    Novel optoelectronic devices rely on complex nanomaterial systems where the nanoscale morphology and local chemical composition are critical to performance. However, the lack of analytical techniques that can directly probe these structure-property relationships at the nanoscale presents a major obstacle to device development. In this work, we present a novel method for non-destructive, simultaneous mapping of the morphology, chemical composition and photoelectrical properties with <20 nm spatial resolution by combining plasmonic optical signal enhancement with electrical-mode scanning probe microscopy. We demonstrate that this combined approach offers subsurface sensitivity that can be exploited to provide molecular information with a nanoscale resolution in all three spatial dimensions. By applying the technique to an organic solar cell device, we show that the inferred surface and subsurface composition distribution correlates strongly with the local photocurrent generation and explains macroscopic device performance. For instance, the direct measurement of fullerene phase purity can distinguish between high purity aggregates that lead to poor performance and lower purity aggregates (fullerene intercalated with polymer) that result in strong photocurrent generation and collection. We show that the reliable determination of the structure-property relationship at the nanoscale can remove ambiguity from macroscopic device data and support the identification of the best routes for device optimisation. The multi-parameter measurement approach demonstrated herein is expected to play a significant role in guiding the rational design of nanomaterial-based optoelectronic devices, by opening a new realm of possibilities for advanced investigation via the combination of nanoscale optical spectroscopy with a whole range of scanning probe microscopy modes.

  15. Integration of optoelectronics and MEMS by free-space micro-optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report represents the completion of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate combining microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with optoelectronic components as a means of realizing compact optomechanical subsystems. Some examples of possible applications are laser beam scanning, switching and routing and active focusing, spectral filtering or shattering of optical sources. The two technologies use dissimilar materials with significant compatibility problems for a common process line. This project emphasized a hybrid approach to integrating optoelectronics and MEMS. Significant progress was made in developing processing capabilities for adding optical function to MEMS components, such as metal mirror coatings and through-vias in the substrate. These processes were used to demonstrate two integration examples, a MEMS discriminator driven by laser illuminated photovoltaic cells and a MEMS shutter or chopper. Another major difficulty with direct integration is providing the optical path for the MEMS components to interact with the light. The authors explored using folded optical paths in a transparent substrate to provide the interconnection route between the components of the system. The components can be surface-mounted by flip-chip bonding to the substrate. Micro-optics can be fabricated into the substrate to reflect and refocus the light so that it can propagate from one device to another and them be directed out of the substrate into free space. The MEMS components do not require the development of transparent optics and can be completely compatible with the current 5-level polysilicon process. They report progress on a MEMS-based laser scanner using these concepts.

  16. Proceedings of the international conference on optoelectronic science and engineering '90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da-Heng, W.


    This book covers the International Conference on Optoelectric Science and Engineering '90. Topics addressed included: optoelectronic intelligent sensors, optoelectronic tests, analysis, measurement and control, laser devices and their applications, infrared optics, low level light technology, fiber optics, photovoltaics and solar energy systems, image processing, optical disk information storage, and pattern recognition and robot vision

  17. Mitotic Events in Cerebellar Granule Progenitor Cells that Expand Cerebellar Surface Area Are Critical for Normal Cerebellar Cortical Lamination in Mice


    Chang, Joshua C.; Leung, Mark; Gokozan, Hamza Numan; Gygli, Patrick Edwin; Catacutan, Fay Patsy; Czeisler, Catherine; Otero, José Javier


    Late embryonic and postnatal cerebellar folial surface area expansion promotes cerebellar cortical cytoarchitectural lamination. We developed a streamlined sampling scheme to generate unbiased estimates of murine cerebellar surface area and volume using stereological principles. We demonstrate that during the proliferative phase of the external granule layer (EGL) and folial surface area expansion, EGL thickness does not change and thus is a topological proxy for progenitor self-renewal. The ...

  18. German-Chinese cooperative Bachelor in engineering physics/optoelectronics (United States)

    Wick, Michael; Lindner, Gerhard; Zimmer, Katja; Zheng, Jihong; Xu, Boqing; Wang, Ning; Schreiner, Rupert; Fuhrmann, Thomas; Seebauer, Gudrun


    The University of Shanghai for Science and Technology (USST), the Coburg University of Applied Sciences and Arts (CUASA) and the OTH Regensburg, University of Applied Sciences (OTHR) established an English taught international cooperative bachelor program in the area of Engineering Physics/Optoelectronics. Students from China study their first four semesters at USST. They continue their studies in Germany for the last three semesters, including an internship and a bachelor thesis, graduating with a Chinese and a German bachelor degree. Students from Germany study their third and fourth semester at USST to gain international experience. While the first cohort of Chinese students is currently in Germany, the second cohort of German students is in Shanghai. Up to now the feedback regarding this study program is completely positive, thus it is planned to develop it further.

  19. Optoelectronic analogue signal transfer for LHC detectors, 1991

    CERN Document Server

    Dowell, John D; Homer, R J; Jovanovic, P; Kenyon, I; Staley, R; Webster, K; Da Via, C; Feyt, J; Nappey, P; Stefanini, G; Dwir, B; Reinhart, F K; Davies, J; Green, N; Stewart, W; Young, T; Hall, G; Akesson, T; Jarlskog, G; Kröll, S; Nickerson, R; Jaroslawski, S; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee


    We propose to study and develop opto-electronic analogue front-ends based on electro-optic intensity modulators. These devices translate the detector electrical analogue signals into optical signals which are then transferred via optical fibres to photodetector receivers at the remote readout. In comparison with conventional solutions based on copper cables, this technique offers the advantages of high speed, very low power dissipation and transmission losses, compactness and immunity to electromagnetic interference. The linearity and dynamic range that can be obtained are more than adequate for central tracking detectors, and the proposed devices have considerable radiation- hardness capabilities. The large bandwidth and short transit times offer possibilities for improved triggering schemes. The proposed R&D programme is aimed at producing multi-channel "demonstrator" units for evaluation both in laboratory and beam tests. This will allow the choice of the most effective technology. A detailed study wil...

  20. Transparent electrode of nanoscale metal film for optoelectronic devices (United States)

    Lee, Illhwan; Lee, Jong-Lam


    This paper reviews the principles, impediments, and recent progress in the development of ultrathin flexible Ag electrodes for use in flexible optoelectronic devices. Thin Ag-based electrodes are promising candidates for next-generation flexible transparent electrodes. Thin Ag-based electrodes that have a microcavity structure show the best device performance, but have relatively low optical transmittance (OT) due to reflection and absorption of photons by the thin Ag; this trait causes problems such as spectral narrowing and change of emission color with viewing angle in white organic light-emitting diodes. Thinning the Ag electrode to overcome these problems. This ultrathin Ag electrode has a high OT, while providing comparable sheet resistance similar to indium tin oxide. As the OT of the electrode increases, the cavity is weakened, so the spectral width of the emission and the angular color stability are increased.

  1. Properties and potential optoelectronic applications of lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (United States)

    Kovalenko, Maksym V.; Protesescu, Loredana; Bodnarchuk, Maryna I.


    Semiconducting lead halide perovskites (LHPs) have not only become prominent thin-film absorber materials in photovoltaics but have also proven to be disruptive in the field of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs). The most important feature of LHP NCs is their so-called defect-tolerance—the apparently benign nature of structural defects, highly abundant in these compounds, with respect to optical and electronic properties. Here, we review the important differences that exist in the chemistry and physics of LHP NCs as compared with more conventional, tetrahedrally bonded, elemental, and binary semiconductor NCs (such as silicon, germanium, cadmium selenide, gallium arsenide, and indium phosphide). We survey the prospects of LHP NCs for optoelectronic applications such as in television displays, light-emitting devices, and solar cells, emphasizing the practical hurdles that remain to be overcome.

  2. Molecular beam epitaxy for high-efficiency nitride optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffernan, J.; Kauer, M.; Windle, J.; Hooper, S.E.; Bousquet, V.; Zellweger, C.; Barnes, J.M. [Sharp Laboratories of Europe, Edmund Halley Road, Oxford Science Park, Oxford OX4 4GB (United Kingdom)


    We review the significant progress made in the development of nitride laser diodes by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We report on our recent result of room temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN quantum well laser diodes grown by MBE. Ridge waveguide lasers fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates have a continuous-wave threshold current of 125 mA, corresponding to a threshold current density of 5.7 kA cm{sup -2}. The lasers have a threshold voltage of 8.6 V and a lifetime of several minutes. We outline the further technical challenges associated with demonstrating lifetimes of several thousand hours and present an assessment of the potential of MBE as a growth method for commercial quality nitride optoelectronic devices. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Advanced Opto-Electronics (LIDAR and Microsensor Development) (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern C. (Technical Monitor); Spangler, Lee H.


    Our overall intent in this aspect of the project were to establish a collaborative effort between several departments at Montana State University for developing advanced optoelectronic technology for advancing the state-of-the-art in optical remote sensing of the environment. Our particular focus was on development of small systems that can eventually be used in a wide variety of applications that might include ground-, air-, and space deployments, possibly in sensor networks. Specific objectives were to: 1) Build a field-deployable direct-detection lidar system for use in measurements of clouds, aerosols, fish, and vegetation; 2) Develop a breadboard prototype water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system based on highly stable, tunable diode laser technology developed previously at MSU. We accomplished both primary objectives of this project, in developing a field-deployable direct-detection lidar and a breadboard prototype of a water vapor DIAL system. Paper summarizes each of these accomplishments.

  4. Microbeam High Angular Resolution Diffraction Applied to Optoelectronic Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimirov, A.; Bilderback, D. H.; Sirenko, A. A.; Cai, Z.-H.; Lai, B.


    Collimating perfect crystal optics in a combination with the X-ray focusing optics has been applied to perform high angular resolution microbeam diffraction and scattering experiments on micron-size optoelectronic devices produced by modern semiconductor technology. At CHESS, we used capillary optics and perfect Si/Ge crystal(s) arrangement to perform X-ray standing waves, high angular-resolution diffraction and high resolution reciprocal space mapping analysis. At the APS, 2ID-D microscope beamline, we employed a phase zone plate producing a beam with the size of 240 nm in the horizontal plane and 350 nm in the vertical (diffraction) plane and a perfect Si (004) analyzer crystal to perform diffraction analysis of selectively grown InGaAsP and InGaAlAs-based waveguides with arc sec angular resolution

  5. Gallium Nitride Based Semiconductors for Short Wavelength Optoelectronics (United States)

    Denbaars, S. P.

    In this article we review the key technologies for GaN based materials and devices. Developments in the methods for thin film deposition by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and resulting film properties are highlighted. Breakthroughs in materials growth has enabled extremely high efficiency blue and green GaN LEDs to be achieved for the first time. GaN LEDs complete the primary color spectrum and have enabled bright and reliable full-color solid state displays to be realized. Recently, room temperature operation of pulsed current injection blue-violet lasers emitting at 417 nm has further increased possible applications for GaN based optoelectronic devices.

  6. Delay dynamics of neuromorphic optoelectronic nanoscale resonators: Perspectives and applications (United States)

    Romeira, Bruno; Figueiredo, José M. L.; Javaloyes, Julien


    With the recent exponential growth of applications using artificial intelligence (AI), the development of efficient and ultrafast brain-like (neuromorphic) systems is crucial for future information and communication technologies. While the implementation of AI systems using computer algorithms of neural networks is emerging rapidly, scientists are just taking the very first steps in the development of the hardware elements of an artificial brain, specifically neuromorphic microchips. In this review article, we present the current state of the art of neuromorphic photonic circuits based on solid-state optoelectronic oscillators formed by nanoscale double barrier quantum well resonant tunneling diodes. We address, both experimentally and theoretically, the key dynamic properties of recently developed artificial solid-state neuron microchips with delayed perturbations and describe their role in the study of neural activity and regenerative memory. This review covers our recent research work on excitable and delay dynamic characteristics of both single and autaptic (delayed) artificial neurons including all-or-none response, spike-based data encoding, storage, signal regeneration and signal healing. Furthermore, the neural responses of these neuromorphic microchips display all the signatures of extended spatio-temporal localized structures (LSs) of light, which are reviewed here in detail. By taking advantage of the dissipative nature of LSs, we demonstrate potential applications in optical data reconfiguration and clock and timing at high-speeds and with short transients. The results reviewed in this article are a key enabler for the development of high-performance optoelectronic devices in future high-speed brain-inspired optical memories and neuromorphic computing.

  7. Scanning tunneling microscopy studies of diamond films and optoelectronic materials (United States)

    Perez, Jose M.


    In this report, we report on progress achieved from 12/1/92 to 10/1/93 under the grant entitled 'Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Studies of Diamond Films and Optoelectronic Materials'. We have set-up a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond film growth system and a Raman spectroscopy system to study the nucleation and growth of diamond films with atomic resolution using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). A unique feature of the diamond film growth system is that diamond films can be transferred directly to the ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber of a scanning tunneling microscope without contaminating the films by exposure to air. The University of North Texas (UNT) provided $20,000 this year as matching funds for the NASA grant to purchase the diamond growth system. In addition, UNT provided a Coherent Innova 90S Argon ion laser, a Spex 1404 double spectrometer, and a Newport optical table costing $90,000 to set-up the Raman spectroscopy system. The CVD diamond growth system and Raman spectroscopy system will be used to grow and characterize diamond films with atomic resolution using STM as described in our proposal. One full-time graduate student and one full-time undergraduate student are supported under this grant. In addition, several graduate and undergraduate students were supported during the summer to assist in setting-up the diamond growth and Raman spectroscopy systems. We have obtained research results concerning STM of the structural and electronic properties of CVD grown diamond films, and STM and scanning tunneling spectroscopy of carbon nanotubes. In collaboration with the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) group at UNT, we have also obtained results concerning the optoelectronic material siloxene. These results were published in refereed scientific journals, submitted for publication, and presented as invited and contributed talks at scientific conferences.

  8. Optoelectronic fowl adenovirus detection based on local electric field enhancement on graphene quantum dots and gold nanobundle hybrid. (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Rahin; Mogus, Jack; Chand, Rohit; Nagy, Eva; Neethirajan, Suresh


    An optoelectronic sensor is a rapid diagnostic tool that allows for an accurate, reliable, field-portable, low-cost device for practical applications. In this study, template-free In situ gold nanobundles (Au NBs) were fabricated on an electrode for optoelectronic sensing of fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs). Au NB film was fabricated on carbon electrodes working area using L(+) ascorbic acid, gold chroloauric acid and poly-l-lysine (PLL) through modified layer-by-layer (LbL) method. A scanning electron microscopic (SEM) image of the Au NBs revealed a NB-shaped Au structure with many kinks on its surface, which allow local electric field enhancement through light-matter interaction with graphene quantum dots (GQDs). Here, GQDs were synthesized through an autoclave-assisted method. Characterization experiments revealed blue-emissive, well-dispersed GQDs that were 2-3nm in size with the fluorescence emission peak of GQDs located at 405nm. Both Au NBs and GQDs were conjugated with target FAdVs specific antibodies that bring them close to each other with the addition of target FAdVs through antibody-antigen interaction. At close proximity, light-matter interaction between Au NBs and QDs produces a local electric signal enhancement under Ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) light irradiation that allows the detection of very low concentrations of target virus even in complex biological media. A proposed optoelectronic sensor showed a linear relationship between the target FAdVs and the electric signal up to 10 Plaque forming unit (PFU)/mL with a limit of detection (LOD) of 8.75 PFU/mL. The proposed sensing strategy was 100 times more sensitive than conventional ELISA method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte


    BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease...

  10. Optoelectronic holographic otoscope for measurement of nano-displacements in tympanic membranes (United States)

    Del Socorro Hernández-Montes, Maria; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J.; Hulli, Nesim; Harrington, Ellery; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Ravicz, Michael E.; Santoyo, Fernando Mendoza


    Current methodologies for characterizing tympanic membrane (TM) motion are usually limited to either average acoustic estimates (admittance or reflectance) or single-point mobility measurements, neither of which suffices to characterize the detailed mechanical response of the TM to sound. Furthermore, while acoustic and single-point measurements may aid in diagnosing some middle-ear disorders, they are not always useful. Measurements of the motion of the entire TM surface can provide more information than these other techniques and may be superior for diagnosing pathology. We present advances in our development of a new compact optoelectronic holographic otoscope (OEHO) system for full field-of-view characterization of nanometer-scale sound-induced displacements of the TM surface at video rates. The OEHO system consists of a fiber optic subsystem, a compact otoscope head, and a high-speed image processing computer with advanced software for recording and processing holographic images coupled to a computer-controlled sound-stimulation and recording system. A prototype OEHO system is in use in a medical research environment to address basic science questions regarding TM function. The prototype provides real-time observation of sound-induced TM displacement patterns over a broad frequency range. Representative time-averaged and stroboscopic holographic interferometry results in animals and human cadaver samples are shown, and their potential utility is discussed.

  11. Interpreting sea surface slicks on the basis of the normalized radar cross-section model using RADARSAT-2 copolarization dual-channel SAR images (United States)

    Ivonin, D. V.; Skrunes, S.; Brekke, C.; Ivanov, A. Yu.


    A simple automatic multipolarization technique for discrimination of main types of thin oil films (of thickness less than the radio wave skin depth) from natural ones is proposed. It is based on a new multipolarization parameter related to the ratio between the damping in the slick of specially normalized resonant and nonresonant signals calculated using the normalized radar cross-section model proposed by Kudryavtsev et al. (2003a). The technique is tested on RADARSAT-2 copolarization (VV/HH) synthetic aperture radar images of slicks of a priori known provenance (mineral oils, e.g., emulsion and crude oil, and plant oil served to model a natural slick) released during annual oil-on-water exercises in the North Sea in 2011 and 2012. It has been shown that the suggested multipolarization parameter gives new capabilities in interpreting slicks visible on synthetic aperture radar images while allowing discrimination between mineral oil and plant oil slicks.

  12. Optoelectronic characterisation of an individual ZnO nanowire in contact with a micro-grid template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Wei; Gao Hong; Xu Ling-Ling; Ma Jia-Ning; Zhang E; Wei Ping; Lin Jia-Qi


    Optoelectronic characterisation of an individual ZnO nanowire in contact with a micro-grid template has been studied. The low-cost micro-grid template made by photolithography is used to fabricate the ohmic contact metal electrodes. The current increases linearly with the bias, indicating good ohmic contacts between the nanowire and the electrodes. The resistivity of the ZnO nanowire is calculated to be 3.8 Ω·cm. We investigate the photoresponses of an individual ZnO nanowire under different light illumination using light emitting diodes (λ = 505 nm, 460 nm, 375 nm) as excitation sources in atmosphere. When individual ZnO nanowire is exposured to different light irradiation, we find that it is extremely sensitive to UV illumination; the conductance is much larger upon UV illumination than that in the dark at room temperature. This phenomenon may be related to the surface oxygen molecule adsorbtion, which indicates their potential application to the optoelectronic switching device. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  13. Enhanced Optoelectronic Conversion Efficiency of CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot/Graphene/Silver Nanowire Hybrid Thin Films (United States)

    Liu, Bo-Tau; Wu, Kuan-Han; Lee, Rong-Ho


    In this study, we prepared the reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) hybrid films on a three-layer scaffold that the QD layer was sandwiched between the two rGO layers. The photocurrent was induced by virtue of the facts that the rGO quenched the photoluminescence of QDs and transferred the excited energy. The quenching mechanism was attributed to the surface energy transfer, supported in our experimental results. We found that the optoelectronic conversion efficiency of the hybrid films can be significantly improved by incorporating the silver nanowires (AgNWs) into the QD layer. Upon increasing AgNW content, the photocurrent density increased from 22.1 to 80.3 μA cm-2, reaching a near 3.6-fold enhancement compared to the pristine rGO-QD hybrid films. According to the analyses of photoluminescence spectra, shape effect, and electrochemical impedance spectra, the enhancement on the optoelectronic conversion efficiency arise mainly from the strong quenching ability of silver and the rapid electron transfer of AgNWs.

  14. Consolidation of the optoelectronic properties of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite single crystals. (United States)

    Wenger, Bernard; Nayak, Pabitra K; Wen, Xiaoming; Kesava, Sameer V; Noel, Nakita K; Snaith, Henry J


    Ultralow trap densities, exceptional optical and electronic properties have been reported for lead halide perovskites single crystals; however, ambiguities in basic properties, such as the band gap, and the electronic defect densities in the bulk and at the surface prevail. Here, we synthesize single crystals of methylammonium lead bromide (CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 ), characterise the optical absorption and photoluminescence and show that the optical properties of single crystals are almost identical to those of polycrystalline thin films. We observe significantly longer lifetimes and show that carrier diffusion plays a substantial role in the photoluminescence decay. Contrary to many reports, we determine that the trap density in CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 perovskite single crystals is 10 15  cm -3 , only one order of magnitude lower than in the thin films. Our enhanced understanding of optical properties and recombination processes elucidates ambiguities in earlier reports, and highlights the discrepancies in the estimation of trap densities from electronic and optical methods.Metal halide perovskites for optoelectronic devices have been extensively studied in two forms: single-crystals or polycrystalline thin films. Using spectroscopic approaches, Wenger et al. show that polycrystalline thin films possess similar optoelectronic properties to single crystals.

  15. The effect of bridge exercise accompanied by the abdominal drawing-in maneuver on an unstable support surface on the lumbar stability of normal adults. (United States)

    Gong, Wontae


    [Purpose] The present study sought to investigate the influence on static and dynamic lumbar stability of bridge exercise accompanied by an abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) performed on an uneven support surface. [Subjects] A total of 30 participants were divided into an experimental group (15 participants) and a control group (15 participants). [Methods] The experimental group performed bridge exercise on an unstable surface, whereas the control group performed bridge exercise on a stable surface. The respective bridge exercises were performed for 30 minutes, 3 times per week, for 6 weeks. The static lumbar stability (SLS) and dynamic lumbar stability (DLS) of both the experimental group and the control group were measured using a pressure biofeedback unit. [Results] In the comparison of the initial and final results of the experimental and control groups, only the SLS and DLS of the experimental group were found to be statistically significant. [Conclusion] The results of the present study show that when using bridge exercise to improve SLS and DLS, performing the bridge exercise accompanied by ADIM on an uneven surface is more effective than performing the exercise on a stable surface.

  16. Mitotic events in cerebellar granule progenitor cells that expand cerebellar surface area are critical for normal cerebellar cortical lamination in mice. (United States)

    Chang, Joshua C; Leung, Mark; Gokozan, Hamza Numan; Gygli, Patrick Edwin; Catacutan, Fay Patsy; Czeisler, Catherine; Otero, José Javier


    Late embryonic and postnatal cerebellar folial surface area expansion promotes cerebellar cortical cytoarchitectural lamination. We developed a streamlined sampling scheme to generate unbiased estimates of murine cerebellar surface area and volume using stereologic principles. We demonstrate that, during the proliferative phase of the external granular layer (EGL) and folial surface area expansion, EGL thickness does not change and thus is a topological proxy for progenitor self-renewal. The topological constraints indicate that, during proliferative phases, migration out of the EGL is balanced by self-renewal. Progenitor self-renewal must, therefore, include mitotic events yielding 2 cells in the same layer to increase surface area (β events) and mitotic events yielding 2 cells, with 1 cell in a superficial layer and 1 cell in a deeper layer (α events). As the cerebellum grows, therefore, β events lie upstream of α events. Using a mathematical model constrained by the measurements of volume and surface area, we could quantify intermitotic times for β events on a per-cell basis in postnatal mouse cerebellum. Furthermore, we found that loss of CCNA2, which decreases EGL proliferation and secondarily induces cerebellar cortical dyslamination, shows preserved α-type events. Thus, CCNA2-null cerebellar granule progenitor cells are capable of self-renewal of the EGL stem cell niche; this is concordant with prior findings of extensive apoptosis in CCNA2-null mice. Similar methodologies may provide another layer of depth to the interpretation of results from stereologic studies.

  17. 78 FR 16296 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products... (United States)


    ... Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination... United States after importation of certain optoelectronic devices for fiber optic communications... Fiber IP (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. of Singapore (``Avago Fiber IP''); Avago General IP and Avago...

  18. GaN nano-membrane for optoelectronic and electronic device applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.


    The ~25nm thick threading dislocation free GaN nanomembrane was prepared using ultraviolet electroless chemical etching method offering the possibility of flexible integration of (Al,In,Ga)N optoelectronic and electronic devices.

  19. A multi-GHz chaotic optoelectronic oscillator based on laser terminal voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C. Y.; Choi, Daeyoung; Locquet, A.; Wishon, Michael J.; Citrin, D. S.; Merghem, K.; Ramdane, Abderrahim; Martinez, A.; Lelarge, François


    A multi-GHz chaotic optoelectronic oscillator based on an external cavity semiconductor laser (ECL) is demonstrated. Unlike the standard optoelectronic oscillators for microwave applications, we do not employ the dynamic light output incident on a photodiode to generate the microwave signal, but instead generate the microwave signal directly by measuring the terminal voltage V(t) of the laser diode of the ECL under constant-current operation, thus obviating the photodiode entirely.

  20. Impact of gate fan-in and fan-out limits on optoelectronic digital circuits. (United States)

    Ji, L; Heuring, V P


    The impact of gate fan-in and fan-out limits on digital circuit delay is discussed with a set of benchmark circuits. This research presents the advantages of exploiting the ability of optoelectronic gates to perform both logic operations and optical interconnections with systematic optimization. It is possible for gate-level optical interconnected optoelectronic circuits to compete with their pure silicon counterparts in terms of the combinational circuit delay and system clock rate.

  1. Performance Evaluation of an Optoelectronic Oscillator Based on a Band-Pass Microwave Photonic Filter Architecture


    A. G. Correa-Mena; I. E. Zaldivar-Huerta; M. W. Lee; A. Garcia-Juarez; L. A. Garcia-Delgado


    The experimental performance evaluation of an optoelectronic oscillator based on a band-pass microwave photonic filter architecture is carried out. The novelty of this proposal resides in the fact that the architecture used allows enhancing the free spectral range of the optoelectronic oscillator. Considering the optical spectral characteristics of the multimode laser diode used as an optical source, the length and the chromatic dispersion parameter of the optical fiber which acts as a feedba...

  2. Optoelectronic Picosecond Detection of Synchrotron X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Stephen M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)


    The goal of this research program was to develop a detector that would measure x-ray time profiles with picosecond resolution. This was specifically aimed for use at x-ray synchrotrons, where x-ray pulse profiles have Gaussian time spreads of 50-100 ps (FWHM), so the successful development of such a detector with picosecond resolution would permit x-ray synchrotron studies to break through the pulse width barrier. That is, synchrotron time-resolved studies are currently limited to pump-probe studies that cannot reveal dynamics faster than ~50 ps, whereas the proposed detector would push this into the physically important 1 ps domain. The results of this research effort, described in detail below, are twofold: 1) the original plan to rely on converting electronic signals from a semiconductor sensor into an optical signal proved to be insufficient for generating signals with the necessary time resolution and sensitivity to be widely applicable; and 2) an all-optical method was discovered whereby the x-rays are directly absorbed in an optoelectronic material, lithium tantalate, which can then be probed by laser pulses with the desired picosecond sensitivity for detection of synchrotron x-rays. This research program has also produced new fundamental understanding of the interaction of x-rays and optical lasers in materials that has now created a viable path for true picosecond detection of synchrotron x-rays.

  3. Hybrid optoelectronic correlator architecture for shift-invariant target recognition. (United States)

    Monjur, Mehjabin Sultana; Tseng, Shih; Tripathi, Renu; Donoghue, John James; Shahriar, M S


    In this paper, we present theoretical details and the underlying architecture of a hybrid optoelectronic correlator (HOC) that correlates images using spatial light modulators (SLMs), detector arrays, and field programmable gate array (FPGA). The proposed architecture bypasses the need for nonlinear materials such as photorefractive polymer films by using detectors instead, and the phase information is yet conserved by the interference of plane waves with the images. However, the output of such an HOC has four terms: two convolution signals and two cross-correlation signals. By implementing a phase stabilization and scanning circuit, the convolution terms can be eliminated, so that the behavior of an HOC becomes essentially identical to that of a conventional holographic correlator (CHC). To achieve the ultimate speed of such a correlator, we also propose an integrated graphic processing unit, which would perform all the electrical processes in a parallel manner. The HOC architecture along with the phase stabilization technique would thus be as good as a CHC, capable of high-speed image recognition in a translation-invariant manner.

  4. Transferrable monolithic III-nitride photonic circuit for multifunctional optoelectronics (United States)

    Shi, Zheng; Gao, Xumin; Yuan, Jialei; Zhang, Shuai; Jiang, Yan; Zhang, Fenghua; Jiang, Yuan; Zhu, Hongbo; Wang, Yongjin


    A monolithic III-nitride photonic circuit with integrated functionalities was implemented by integrating multiple components with different functions into a single chip. In particular, the III-nitride-on-silicon platform is used as it integrates a transmitter, a waveguide, and a receiver into a suspended III-nitride membrane via a wafer-level procedure. Here, a 0.8-mm-diameter suspended device architecture is directly transferred from silicon to a foreign substrate by mechanically breaking the support beams. The transferred InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well diode (MQW-diode) exhibits a turn-on voltage of 2.8 V with a dominant electroluminescence peak at 453 nm. The transmitter and receiver share an identical InGaN/GaN MQW structure, and the integrated photonic circuit inherently works for on-chip power monitoring and in-plane visible light communication. The wire-bonded monolithic photonic circuit on glass experimentally demonstrates in-plane data transmission at 120 Mb/s, paving the way for diverse applications in intelligent displays, in-plane light communication, flexible optical sensors, and wearable III-nitride optoelectronics.

  5. Advanced packaging concepts for low-cost optoelectronic devices (United States)

    Bernabé, Stéphane


    The multiplication of fibre optic networks during the years 1980 to 2000 has led to the development of specific packaging designs for laser modules, e.g. butterfly or TO-can coaxial packages. Since the beginning of years 2000, it has become necessary for packaging designers to deal with new requirements in term of module size, cost, thermal and electrical performances, particularly concerning the HF design. From these new requirements, new quasi-standards have appeared: TO-based TOSAs, XMD, and so on... However, these solutions are still based on traditional technologies : die soldering, 3D active alignment, Kovar packages, laser welding, single-chip devices, discrete micro-optics., unsuitable for mass production at very low cost. Today, the challenge for optoelectronic industry is thus to achieve a mutation of the packaging and assembly concepts, similar to the one the microlelectronic industry has done thirty years ago, by introducing advanced packaging technologies in order to address emerging markets and need, such as FTTx and Very Short Reach optical links, at the targeted costs. This will be also done by pushing ahead the integration of several optical function on the same chip or optical board. Some of these emerging technologies, such as optical MCM (Multi Chip Module), passive alignment, new materials for thermal management, flip-chip hybridisation, are key concepts to manage this next step and are reviewed in this paper. These concepts have already been applied in some industrial products and should spread in the next years.

  6. Flexible Synthetic Semiconductor Applied in Optoelectronic Organic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre F. S. Guedes


    Full Text Available The synthesis and application of new nanostructured organic materials, for the development of technology based on organic devices, have taken great interest from the scientific community. The greatest interest in studying organic semiconductor materials has been connected to its already known potential applications, such as: batteries, organic solar cells, flexible organic solar cells, organic light emitting diodes, organic sensors and others. Phototherapy makes use of different radiation sources, and the treatment of hyperbilirubinemia the most common therapeutic intervention occurs in the neonatal period. In this work we developed an organic optoelectronic sensor capable of detecting and determining the radiation dose rate emitted by the radiation source of neonatal phototherapy equipment. The sensors were developed using optically transparent substrate with Nanostructured thin film layers of Poly(9-Vinylcarbazole covered by a layer of Poly(P-Phenylene Vinylene. The samples were characterized by UV-Vis Spectroscopy, Electrical Measurements and SEM. With the results obtained from this study can be developed dosimeters organics to the neonatal phototherapy equipment.

  7. Light Management in Optoelectronic Devices with Disordered and Chaotic Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Yasser


    With experimental realization, energy harvesting capabilities of chaotic microstructures were explored. Incident photons falling into chaotic trajectories resulted in energy buildup for certain frequencies. As a consequence, many fold enhancement in light trapping was observed. These ellipsoid like chaotic microstructures demonstrated 25% enhancement in light trapping at 450nm excitation and 15% enhancement at 550nm excitation. Optimization of these structures can drive novel chaos-assisted energy harvesting systems. In subsequent sections of the thesis, prospect of broadband light extraction from white light emitting diodes were investigated, which is an unchallenged but quintessential problem in solid-state lighting. Size dependent scattering allows microstructures to interact strongly with narrow-band light. If disorder is introduced in spread and sizes of microstructures, broadband light extraction is possible. A novel scheme with Voronoi tessellation to quantify disorder in physical systems was also introduced, and a link between voronoi disorder and state disorder of statistical mechanics was established. Overall, in this thesis some nascent concepts regarding disorder and chaos were investigated to efficiently manage electromagnetic waves in optoelectronic devices.

  8. Radiation-hard Optoelectronics for LHC detector upgrades.

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00375195; Newbold, Dave

    A series of upgrades foreseen for the LHC over the next decade will allow the proton-proton collisions to reach the design center of mass energy of 14 TeV and increase the luminosity to five times (High Luminosity-LHC) the design luminosity by 2027. Radiation-tolerant high-speed optical data transmission links will continue to play an important role in the infrastructure of particle physics experiments over the next decade. A new generation of optoelectronics that meet the increased performance and radiation tolerance limits imposed by the increase in the intensity of the collisions at the interaction points are currently being developed. This thesis focuses on the development of a general purpose bi-directional 5 Gb/s radiation tolerant optical transceiver, the Versatile Transceiver (VTRx), for use by the LHC experiments over the next five years, and on exploring the radiation-tolerance of state-of-the art silicon photonics modulators for HL-LHC data transmission applications. The compliance of the VTRx ...

  9. Optoelectronic properties of doped hydrothermal ZnO thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Asad J.


    Group III impurity doped ZnO thin films were deposited on MgAl2O3 substrates using a simple low temperature two-step deposition method involving atomic layer deposition and hydrothermal epitaxy. Films with varying concentrations of either Al, Ga, or In were evaluated for their optoelectronic properties. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of dopants within the ZnO films. While Al and Ga-doped films showed linear incorporation rates with the addition of precursors salts in the hydrothermal growth solution, In-doped films were shown to saturate at relatively low concentrations. It was found that Ga-doped films showed the best performance in terms of electrical resistivity and optical absorbance when compared to those doped with In or Al, with a resistivity as low as 1.9 mΩ cm and an optical absorption coefficient of 441 cm−1 at 450 nm.

  10. Bismuth Silver Oxysulfide for Photoconversion Applications: Structural and Optoelectronic Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Baqais, Amal Ali Abdulallh


    Single-phase bismuth silver oxysulfide, BiAgOS, was prepared by a hydrothermal method. Its structural, morphological and optoelectronic properties were investigated and compared with bismuth copper oxysulfide (BiCuOS). Rietveld refinement of the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements revealed that the BiAgOS and BiCuOS crystals have the same structure as ZrSiCuAs: the tetragonal space group P4/nmm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses confirmed that the BiAgOS has a high purity, in contrast with BiCuOS, which tends to have Cu vacancies. The Ag has a monovalent oxidation state, whereas Cu is present in the oxidation states of +1 and +2 in the BiCuOS system. Combined with experimental measurements, density functional theory calculations employing the range-separated hybrid HSE06 exchange-correlation functional with spin-orbit coupling quantitatively elucidated photophysical properties such as ab-sorption coefficients, effective masses and dielectric constants. BiCuOS and BiAgOS were found to have indirect bandgaps of 1.1 and 1.5 eV, respectively. Both possess high dielectric constants and low electron and hole effective masses. Therefore, these materials are expected to have high exciton dissociation capabilities and excellent carrier diffusion properties. This study reveals that BiAgOS is a promising candidate for photoconversion applications.

  11. The design, fabrication, and characterization of silicon-germanium optoelectronic devices grown by molecular beam epitaxy (United States)

    Sustersic, Nathan Anthony

    In recent years, Ge and SiGe devices have been actively investigated for potential optoelectronic applications such as germanium solar cells for long wavelength absorption, quantum-dot intermediate band solar cells (IBSCs), quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) and germanium light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Current research into SiGe based optoelectronic devices is heavily based on nanostructures which employ quantum confinement and is at a stage where basic properties are being studied in order to optimize growth conditions necessary for incorporation into future devices. Ge and SiGe based devices are especially attractive due to ease of monolithic integration with current Si-based CMOS processing technology, longer carrier lifetime, and reduced phonon scattering. Defect formation and transformation was studied in SiGe layers grown on Si and Ge (100) substrates. The epitaxial layers were grown with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and characterized by X-ray measurements in order to study the accommodation of elastic strain energy in the layers. The accommodation of elastic strain energy specifies the amount of point defects created on the growth surface which may transform into extended crystalline defects in the volume of the layers. An understanding of crystalline defects in high lattice mismatched epitaxial structures is critical in order to optimize growth procedures so that epitaxial structures can be optimized for specific devices such as Ge based solar cells. Considering the optimization of epitaxial layers based on the structural transformation of point defects, Ge solar cells were fabricated and investigated using current-voltage measurements and quantum efficiency data. These Ge solar cells, optimized for long wavelength absorption, were fabricated to be employed in a bonded Ge/Si solar cell device. The doping of self-assembled Ge quantum dot structures grown on Si (100) was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photoluminescence (PL

  12. Optoelectronic properties of four azobenzene-based iminopyridine ligands for photovoltaic application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz El alamy


    Full Text Available Because of organic π-conjugated materials’ optoelectronic properties and potential applications in a wide range of electronic and optoelectronic devices, such as organic solar cells, these materials, including both polymers and oligomers, have been widely studied in recent years. This work reposts a theoretical study using the DFT method on four azobenzene-based iminopyridines. The theoretical ground-state geometry, electronic structure and optoelectronic parameters (highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO energy levels, open-circuit voltage (Voc and oscillator strengths (O.S of the studied molecules were obtained using the density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent (TDDFT approaches. The effects of the structure length and substituents on the geometric and optoelectronic properties of these materials are discussed to investigate the relationship between the molecular structure and the optoelectronic properties. The results of this study are consistent with the experimental ones and suggest that these materials as good candidates for use in photovoltaic devices. Keywords: π-conjugated materials, azobenzene, optoelectronic properties, DFT calculations, HOMO-LUMO gap

  13. Time-dependent transport of a localized surface plasmon through a linear array of metal nanoparticles: Precursor and normal mode contributions (United States)

    Compaijen, P. J.; Malyshev, V. A.; Knoester, J.


    We theoretically investigate the time-dependent transport of a localized surface plasmon excitation through a linear array of identical and equidistantly spaced metal nanoparticles. Two different signals propagating through the array are found: one traveling with the group velocity of the surface plasmon polaritons of the system and damped exponentially, and the other running with the speed of light and decaying in a power-law fashion, as x-1 and x-2 for the transversal and longitudinal polarizations, respectively. The latter resembles the Sommerfeld-Brillouin forerunner and has not been identified in previous studies. The contribution of this signal dominates the plasmon transport at large distances. In addition, even though this signal is spread in the propagation direction and has the lateral dimension larger than the wavelength, the field profile close to the chain axis does not change with distance, indicating that this part of the signal is confined to the array.

  14. Graphene oxide as a multi-functional p-dopant of transparent single-walled carbon nanotube films for optoelectronic devices (United States)

    Han, Joong Tark; Kim, Jun Suk; Jo, Sae Byeok; Kim, Sung Hun; Kim, Jong Soo; Kang, Boseok; Jeong, Hee Jin; Jeong, Seung Yol; Lee, Geon-Woong; Cho, Kilwon


    Modulation of electronic structures and surface properties of transparent carbon nanotube films is a challenging issue for their application in optoelectronic devices. Here, we report, for the first time, that graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets play the role of a p-doping agent and surface energy modifier of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-based transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs). The deposition of highly oxidized, small-sized (i.e., diameter of less than 500 nm) GO nanosheets onto a SWCNT network film reduces the sheet resistance of the pristine film to 60% of its original value by p-doping. The modified TCEs exhibit an outstanding optoelectronic feature of high conductivity with high transparency. Moreover, the wettability of the electrode surface was also noticeably increased, which is advantageous for the solution-based processing of organic electronics. Furthermore, the organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells with the GO-doped SWCNT anodes on flexible substrates were successfully demonstrated. In stark contrast to a power conversion efficiency of 0.44% for pristine SWCNT anodes, GO-doped SWCNT anodes show a drastically enhanced power conversion efficiency of 2.7%.Modulation of electronic structures and surface properties of transparent carbon nanotube films is a challenging issue for their application in optoelectronic devices. Here, we report, for the first time, that graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets play the role of a p-doping agent and surface energy modifier of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-based transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs). The deposition of highly oxidized, small-sized (i.e., diameter of less than 500 nm) GO nanosheets onto a SWCNT network film reduces the sheet resistance of the pristine film to 60% of its original value by p-doping. The modified TCEs exhibit an outstanding optoelectronic feature of high conductivity with high transparency. Moreover, the wettability of the electrode surface was also noticeably increased, which is

  15. Thin film technologies for optoelectronic components in fiber optic communication (United States)

    Perinati, Agostino


    will grow at an annual average rate of 22 percent from 1.3 million fiber-km in 1995 to 3.5 million fiber-km in 2000. The worldwide components market-cable, transceivers and connectors - 6.1 billion in 1994, is forecasted to grow and show a 19 percent combined annual growth rate through the year 2000 when is predicted to reach 17.38 billion. Fiber-in-the-loop and widespread use of switched digital services will dominate this scenario being the fiber the best medium for transmitting multimedia services. As long as communication will partially replace transportation, multimedia services will push forward technology for systems and related components not only for higher performances but for lower cost too in order to get the consumers wanting to buy the new services. In the long distance transmission area (trunk network) higher integration of electronic and optoelectronic functions are required for transmitter and receiver in order to allow for higher system speed, moving from 2.5 Gb/s to 5, 10, 40 Gb/s; narrow band wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) filters are required for higher transmission capacity through multiwavelength technique and for optical amplifier. In the access area (distribution network) passive components as splitters, couplers, filters are needed together with optical amplifiers and transceivers for point-to-multipoint optical signal distribution: main issue in this area is the total cost to be paid by the customer for basic and new services. Multimedia services evolution, through fiber to the home and to the desktop approach, will be mainly affected by the availability of technologies suitable for component consistent integration, high yield manufacturing processes and final low cost. In this paper some of the optoelectronic components and related thin film technologies expected to mainly affect the fiber optic transmission evolution, either for long distance telecommunication systems or for subscriber network, are presented.

  16. Defectively N-glycosylated and non-O-glycosylated aminopeptidase N (CD13) is normally expressed at the cell surface and has full enzymatic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norén, K; Hansen, Gert Helge; Clausen, H


    In order to study the effects of the absence of O-glycosylation and modifications of N-glycosylation on a class II membrane protein, pig and human aminopeptidase N (CD13) were stably expressed in the ldl(D) cell line. This cell line carries a UDP-Gal/UDP-GalNAc-epimerase deficiency which blocks...... of the glycoprotein aminopeptidase N can be synthesized and the effects of altered glycosylation can be studied. It is demonstrated that aminopeptidase N carries "mucin-type" O-glycans and that this is predominantly located in the stalk, which connects the catalytic headgroup to the membrane anchor. Normally...... glycosylated aminopeptidase N is present in the plasma membrane of the ldl(D) cells. This is also the case for the non-O-glycosylated and defectively N-glycosylated forms. This is in line with the finding that the intracellular transport APN is unaffected by the absence of O-glycosylation or by changes in N...

  17. Assessing of organic content in surface sediments of Suez Gulf, Egypt depending on normal alkanes, terpanes and steranes biological markers indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedel Aziz Elfadly


    Full Text Available The Semi-enclosed Suez Gulf records various signals of high anthropic pressures from surrounding regions and the industrialized Suez countries. The sedimentary hydrocarbons have been studied in 6 coastal stations located in the Gulf of Suez. Non-aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS to assess organic content in surface sediments of Suez Gulf, Egypt depending on alkanes, terpanes and steranes biological markers indicators. The results showed that the hydrocarbons are originated from multiple terrestrial inputs, biogenic, pyrolytic. Several ratios of hydrocarbons indicated the predominance of petrogenic in combination with biogenic hydrocarbons. Al-Attaqa harbor, Suez oil processing company, Al-Nasr Oil Company, AL-Kabanon and EL-Sukhna of Loloha Beach are the main sources of petroleum contamination.

  18. Tungsten oxides as interfacial layers for improved performance in hybrid optoelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilopoulou, M., E-mail: [Institute of Microelectronics, NCSR Demokritos, Terma Patriarchou Grigoriou, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Palilis, L.C.; Georgiadou, D.G.; Argitis, P. [Institute of Microelectronics, NCSR Demokritos, Terma Patriarchou Grigoriou, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Kennou, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26500, Patras (Greece); Kostis, I. [Department of Electronics, Technological and Educational Institute of Pireaus, 12244 Aegaleo (Greece); Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, University of the Aegean, 83200 Karlovassi (Greece); Papadimitropoulos, G. [Institute of Microelectronics, NCSR Demokritos, Terma Patriarchou Grigoriou, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Stathopoulos, N.A. [Department of Electronics, Technological and Educational Institute of Pireaus, 12244 Aegaleo (Greece); Iliadis, A.A. [Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, University of the Aegean, 83200 Karlovassi (Greece); Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Maryland, College Park (United States); Konofaos, N. [Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, University of the Aegean, 83200 Karlovassi (Greece); Davazoglou, D. [Institute of Microelectronics, NCSR Demokritos, Terma Patriarchou Grigoriou, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Sygellou, L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26500, Patras (Greece)


    Tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) films with thicknesses ranging from 30 to 100 nm were grown by Hot Filament Vapor Deposition (HFVD). Films were studied by X-Ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) and were found to be stoichiometric. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Samples had a granular form with grains in the order of 100 nm. The surface roughness was found to increase with film thickness. HFVD WO{sub 3} films were used as conducting interfacial layers in advanced hybrid organic-inorganic optoelectronic devices. Hybrid-Organic Light Emitting Diodes (Hy-OLEDs) and Organic Photovoltaics (Hy-OPVs) were fabricated with these films as anode and/or as cathode interfacial conducting layers. The Hy-OLEDs showed significantly higher current density and a lower turn-on voltage when a thin WO{sub 3} layer was inserted at the anode/polymer interface, while when inserted at the cathode/polymer interface the device performance was found to deteriorate. The improvement was attributed to a more efficient hole injection and transport from the Fermi level of the anode to the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) of a yellow emitting copolymer (YEP). On the other hand, the insertion of a thin WO{sub 3} layer at the cathode/polymer interface of Hy-OPV devices based on a polythiophene-fullerene bulk-heterojunction blend photoactive layer resulted in an increase of the produced photogenerated current, more likely due to improved electron extraction at the Al cathode.

  19. Optoelectronic properties and depth profile of charge transport in nanocrystal films (United States)

    Aigner, Willi; Bienek, Oliver; Desta, Derese; Wiggers, Hartmut; Stutzmann, Martin; Pereira, Rui N.


    We investigate the charge transport in nanocrystal (NC) films using field effect transistors (FETs) of silicon NCs. By studying films with various thicknesses in the dark and under illumination with photons with different penetration depths (UV and red light), we are able to predictably change the spatial distribution of charge carriers across the films' profile. The experimental data are compared with photoinduced charge carrier generation rates computed using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations complemented with optical measurements. This enables us to understand the optoelectronic properties of NC films and the depth profile dependence of the charge transport properties. From electrical measurements, we extract the total (bulk) photoinduced charge carrier densities (nphoto) and the photoinduced charge carrier densities in the FETs channel (nphoto*). We observe that the values of nphoto and their dependence on film thickness are similar for UV and red light illumination, whereas a significant difference is observed for the values of nphoto*. The dependencies of nphoto and nphoto* on film thickness and illumination wavelength are compared with data from FDTD simulations. Combining experimental data and simulation results, we find that charge carriers in the top rough surface of the films cannot contribute to the macroscopic charge transport. Moreover, we conclude that below the top rough surface of NC films, the efficiency of charge transport, including the charge carrier mobility, is homogeneous across the film thickness. Our work shows that the use of NC films as photoactive layers in applications requiring harvesting of strongly absorbed photons such as photodetectors and photovoltaics demands a very rigorous control over the films' roughness.

  20. Relationship between mean body surface temperature measured by use of infrared thermography and ambient temperature in clinically normal pigs and pigs inoculated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. (United States)

    Loughmiller, J A; Spire, M F; Dritz, S S; Fenwick, B W; Hosni, M H; Hogge, S B


    To determine the relationship between ambient temperature and mean body surface temperature (MBST) measured by use of infrared thermography (IRT) and to evaluate the ability of IRT to detect febrile responses in pigs following inoculation with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. 28 crossbred barrows. Pigs (n = 4) were subjected to ambient temperatures ranging from 10 to 32 C in an environmental chamber. Infrared thermographs were obtained, and regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between ambient temperature and MBST. The remaining pigs were assigned to groups in an unbalanced randomized complete block design (6 A pleuropneumoniae-inoculated febrile pigs [increase in rectal temperature > or = 1.67 C], 6 A pleuropneumoniae-inoculated nonfebrile pigs [increase in rectal temperature temperatures were obtained for the period from 2 hours before to 18 hours after inoculation, and results were analyzed by use of repeated-measures ANOVA. A significant linear relationship was observed between ambient temperature and MBST (slope, 0.40 C). For inoculated febrile pigs, a treatment X method interaction was evident for rectal temperature and MBST, whereas inoculated nonfebrile pigs only had increased rectal temperatures, compared with noninoculated pigs. A method X time interaction resulted from the longer interval after inoculation until detection of an increase in MBST by use of IRT. Infrared thermography can be adjusted to account for ambient temperature and used to detect changes in MBST and radiant heat production attributable to a febrile response in pigs.

  1. Increased Optoelectronic Quality and Uniformity of Hydrogenated p-InP Thin Films

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hsin-Ping


    The thin-film vapor-liquid-solid (TF-VLS) growth technique presents a promising route for high quality, scalable and cost-effective InP thin films for optoelectronic devices. Towards this goal, careful optimization of material properties and device performance is of utmost interest. Here, we show that exposure of polycrystalline Zn-doped TF-VLS InP to a hydrogen plasma (in the following referred to as hydrogenation) results in improved optoelectronic quality as well as lateral optoelectronic uniformity. A combination of low temperature photoluminescence and transient photocurrent spectroscopy were used to analyze the energy position and relative density of defect states before and after hydrogenation. Notably, hydrogenation reduces the intra-gap defect density by one order of magnitude. As a metric to monitor lateral optoelectronic uniformity of polycrystalline TF-VLS InP, photoluminescence and electron beam induced current mapping reveal homogenization of the grain versus grain boundary upon hydrogenation. At the device level, we measured more than 260 TF-VLS InP solar cells before and after hydrogenation to verify the improved optoelectronic properties. Hydrogenation increased the average open-circuit voltage (VOC) of individual TF-VLS InP solar cells by up to 130 mV, and reduced the variance in VOC for the analyzed devices.

  2. Evidence of Tailoring the Interfacial Chemical Composition in Normal Structure Hybrid Organohalide Perovskites by a Self-Assembled Monolayer. (United States)

    Will, Johannes; Hou, Yi; Scheiner, Simon; Pinkert, Ute; Hermes, Ilka M; Weber, Stefan A L; Hirsch, Andreas; Halik, Marcus; Brabec, Christoph; Unruh, Tobias


    Current-voltage hysteresis is a major issue for normal architecture organo-halide perovskite solar cells. In this manuscript we reveal a several-angstrom thick methylammonium iodide-rich interface between the perovskite and the metal oxide. Surface functionalization via self-assembled monolayers allowed us to control the composition of the interface monolayer from Pb poor to Pb rich, which, in parallel, suppresses hysteresis in perovskite solar cells. The bulk of the perovskite films is not affected by the interface engineering and remains highly crystalline in the surface-normal direction over the whole film thickness. The subnanometer structural modifications of the buried interface were revealed by X-ray reflectivity, which is most sensitive to monitor changes in the mass density of only several-angstrom thin interfacial layers as a function of substrate functionalization. From Kelvin probe force microscopy study on a solar cell cross section, we further demonstrate local variations of the potential on different electron-transporting layers within a solar cell. On the basis of these findings, we present a unifying model explaining hysteresis in perovskite solar cells, giving an insight into one crucial aspect of hysteresis for the first time and paving way for new strategies in the field of perovskite-based opto-electronic devices.

  3. Optoelectronic properties of Black-Silicon generated through inductively coupled plasma (ICP) processing for crystalline silicon solar cells (United States)

    Hirsch, Jens; Gaudig, Maria; Bernhard, Norbert; Lausch, Dominik


    The optoelectronic properties of maskless inductively coupled plasma (ICP) generated black silicon through SF6 and O2 are analyzed by using reflection measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quasi steady state photoconductivity (QSSPC). The results are discussed and compared to capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) and industrial standard wet chemical textures. The ICP process forms parabolic like surface structures in a scale of 500 nm. This surface structure reduces the average hemispherical reflection between 300 and 1120 nm up to 8%. Additionally, the ICP texture shows a weak increase of the hemispherical reflection under tilted angles of incidence up to 60°. Furthermore, we report that the ICP process is independent of the crystal orientation and the surface roughness. This allows the texturing of monocrystalline, multicrystalline and kerf-less wafers using the same parameter set. The ICP generation of black silicon does not apply a self-bias on the silicon sample. Therefore, the silicon sample is exposed to a reduced ion bombardment, which reduces the plasma induced surface damage. This leads to an enhancement of the effective charge carrier lifetime up to 2.5 ms at 1015 cm-3 minority carrier density (MCD) after an atomic layer deposition (ALD) with Al2O3. Since excellent etch results were obtained already after 4 min process time, we conclude that the ICP generation of black silicon is a promising technique to substitute the industrial state of the art wet chemical textures in the solar cell mass production.

  4. Estimation of Dynamic Errors in Laser Optoelectronic Dimension Gauges for Geometric Measurement of Details

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasanov Zimfir


    Full Text Available The article reviews the capabilities and particularities of the approach to the improvement of metrological characteristics of fiber-optic pressure sensors (FOPS based on estimation estimation of dynamic errors in laser optoelectronic dimension gauges for geometric measurement of details. It is shown that the proposed criteria render new methods for conjugation of optoelectronic converters in the dimension gauge for geometric measurements in order to reduce the speed and volume requirements for the Random Access Memory (RAM of the video controller which process the signal. It is found that the lower relative error, the higher the interrogetion speed of the CCD array. It is shown that thus, the maximum achievable dynamic accuracy characteristics of the optoelectronic gauge are determined by the following conditions: the parameter stability of the electronic circuits in the CCD array and the microprocessor calculator; linearity of characteristics; error dynamics and noise in all electronic circuits of the CCD array and microprocessor calculator.

  5. Tuning the optoelectronic properties of amorphous MoOx films by reactive sputtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis; Fabrim, Zacarias Eduardo; Ahmadpour, Mehrad


    In this letter, we report on the effect of oxygen partial pressure and sputtering power on amorphous DC-sputtered MoOx films. We observe abrupt changes in the optoelectronic properties of the reported films by increasing the oxygen partial pressure from 1.00 ? 10?3 mbar to 1.37 ? 10?3 mbar during...... significantly the microstructure of the studied films. The presence of states within the band gap due to the lack of oxygen is the most probable mechanism for generat- ing a change in electrical conductivity as well as optical absorption in DC-sputtered MoOx. The large tuning range of the optoelectronic...... properties in these films holds strong promise for their implementation in optoelectronic devices....

  6. Optoelectronics in TESLA, LHC and pi-of-the-sky experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, Ryszard; Simrock, Stefan; Wrochna, Grzegorz


    Optical and optoelectronics technologies are more and more widely used in the biggest world experiments of high energy and nuclear physics, as well as in the astronomy. The paper is a kind of a broad digest describing the usage of optoelectronics is such experiments and information about some of the involved teams. The described experiments include: TESLA linear accelerator and FEL, Compact Muon Solenoid at LHC and recently started pi-of-the-sky global gamma ray bursts (with associated optical flashes) observation experiment. Optoelectronics and photonics offer several key features which are either extending the technical parameters of existing solutions or adding quite new practical application possibilities. Some of these favorable features of photonic systems are: high selectivity of optical sensors, immunity to some kinds of noise processes, extremely broad bandwidth exchangeable for either terabit rate transmission or ultrashort pulse generation, parallel image processing capability, etc. The following g...

  7. Rare-Earth Implanted MOS Devices for Silicon Photonics Microstructural, Electrical and Optoelectronic Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Rebohle, Lars


    The book concentrates on the microstructural, electric and optoelectronic properties of rare-earth implanted MOS structures and their use as light emitters in potential applications. It describes the structural formation processes in the gate oxide during fabrication and under operation, how this microstructure development will affect the electrical device performance and how both microstructure and electrical characteristics determine the optoelectronic features of the light emitters. However, most of the discussed physical processes as well as the described fabrication methods and device characterization techniques are of general interest and are beyond the scope of this type of light emitter. The book will be of value to engineers, physicists, and scientists dealing either with Si based photonics in particular or optoelectronic device fabrication and characterization in general.

  8. Two-Dimensional Semiconductor Optoelectronics Based on van der Waals Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Yoon Lee


    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D semiconductors such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs and black phosphorous have drawn tremendous attention as an emerging optical material due to their unique and remarkable optical properties. In addition, the ability to create the atomically-controlled van der Waals (vdW heterostructures enables realizing novel optoelectronic devices that are distinct from conventional bulk counterparts. In this short review, we first present the atomic and electronic structures of 2D semiconducting TMDCs and their exceptional optical properties, and further discuss the fabrication and distinctive features of vdW heterostructures assembled from different kinds of 2D materials with various physical properties. We then focus on reviewing the recent progress on the fabrication of 2D semiconductor optoelectronic devices based on vdW heterostructures including photodetectors, solar cells, and light-emitting devices. Finally, we highlight the perspectives and challenges of optoelectronics based on 2D semiconductor heterostructures.

  9. Influence of Molecular Conformations and Microstructure on the Optoelectronic Properties of Conjugated Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Botiz, Ioan


    It is increasingly obvious that the molecular conformations and the long-range arrangement that conjugated polymers can adopt under various experimental conditions in bulk, solutions or thin films, significantly impact their resulting optoelectronic properties. As a consequence, the functionalities and efficiencies of resulting organic devices, such as field-effect transistors, light-emitting diodes, or photovoltaic cells, also dramatically change due to the close structure/property relationship. A range of structure/optoelectronic properties relationships have been investigated over the last few years using various experimental and theoretical methods, and, further, interesting correlations are continuously revealed by the scientific community. In this review, we discuss the latest findings related to the structure/optoelectronic properties interrelationships that exist in organic devices fabricated with conjugated polymers in terms of charge mobility, absorption, photoluminescence, as well as photovoltaic properties. © 2014 by the authors.

  10. Influence of Molecular Conformations and Microstructure on the Optoelectronic Properties of Conjugated Polymers (United States)

    Botiz, Ioan; Stingelin, Natalie


    It is increasingly obvious that the molecular conformations and the long-range arrangement that conjugated polymers can adopt under various experimental conditions in bulk, solutions or thin films, significantly impact their resulting optoelectronic properties. As a consequence, the functionalities and efficiencies of resulting organic devices, such as field-effect transistors, light-emitting diodes, or photovoltaic cells, also dramatically change due to the close structure/property relationship. A range of structure/optoelectronic properties relationships have been investigated over the last few years using various experimental and theoretical methods, and, further, interesting correlations are continuously revealed by the scientific community. In this review, we discuss the latest findings related to the structure/optoelectronic properties interrelationships that exist in organic devices fabricated with conjugated polymers in terms of charge mobility, absorption, photoluminescence, as well as photovoltaic properties. PMID:28788568

  11. Optoelectronic measurement system for testing the optical parameters of infrared seeker (United States)

    He, Wenjun; Liu, Zhiying; Fu, Yuegang


    We propose an optoelectronic measurement system for testing the optical parameters of infrared seeker, such as the position of the image plane, the size of the diffused spot, and the diameter of the scanning circle. The measurement method and operating principle of the optoelectronic measurement system have been introduced. The source of the stray light in the optoelectronic measurement system have been analyzed by using FRED software, and the stray light have been restricted effectively by a co-centered mica plate which closes to the substrate of pinhole. Experimental results show that the test error for the size of the diffused spot is less than +/-0.01 mm, the test errors for the position of the image plane and the diameter of the scanning circle are less than +/-0.02 mm.

  12. Influence of Molecular Conformations and Microstructure on the Optoelectronic Properties of Conjugated Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Botiz


    Full Text Available It is increasingly obvious that the molecular conformations and the long-range arrangement that conjugated polymers can adopt under various experimental conditions in bulk, solutions or thin films, significantly impact their resulting optoelectronic properties. As a consequence, the functionalities and efficiencies of resulting organic devices, such as field-effect transistors, light-emitting diodes, or photovoltaic cells, also dramatically change due to the close structure/property relationship. A range of structure/optoelectronic properties relationships have been investigated over the last few years using various experimental and theoretical methods, and, further, interesting correlations are continuously revealed by the scientific community. In this review, we discuss the latest findings related to the structure/optoelectronic properties interrelationships that exist in organic devices fabricated with conjugated polymers in terms of charge mobility, absorption, photoluminescence, as well as photovoltaic properties.

  13. One-dimensional CuO nanowire: synthesis, electrical, and optoelectronic devices application (United States)

    Luo, Lin-Bao; Wang, Xian-He; Xie, Chao; Li, Zhong-Jun; Lu, Rui; Yang, Xiao-Bao; Lu, Jian


    In this work, we presented a surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT)-assisted approach to the synthesis of one-dimensional copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) for nanodevices applications. The as-prepared CuO NWs have diameter and the length of 50 ~ 200 nm and 5 ~ 20 μm, respectively, with a preferential growth orientation along [1 [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] 0] direction. Interestingly, nanofield-effect transistor (nanoFET) based on individual CuO NW exhibited typical p-type electrical conduction, with a hole mobility of 0.129 cm2V-1 s-1 and hole concentration of 1.34 × 1018 cm-3, respectively. According to first-principle calculations, such a p-type electrical conduction behavior was related to the oxygen vacancies in CuO NWs. What is more, the CuO NW device was sensitive to visible light illumination with peak sensitivity at 600 nm. The responsitivity, conductive gain, and detectivity are estimated to be 2.0 × 102 A W-1, 3.95 × 102 and 6.38 × 1011 cm Hz1/2 W-1, respectively, which are better than the devices composed of other materials. Further study showed that nanophotodetectors assembled on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate can work under different bending conditions with good reproducibility. The totality of the above results suggests that the present CuO NWs are potential building blocks for assembling high-performance optoelectronic devices.

  14. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw


    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  15. Recent developments of truly stretchable thin film electronic and optoelectronic devices. (United States)

    Zhao, Juan; Chi, Zhihe; Yang, Zhan; Chen, Xiaojie; Arnold, Michael S; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Jiarui; Chi, Zhenguo; Aldred, Matthew P


    Truly stretchable electronics, wherein all components themselves permit elastic deformation as the whole devices are stretched, exhibit unique advantages over other strategies, such as simple fabrication process, high integrity of entire components and intimate integration with curvilinear surfaces. In contrast to the stretchable devices using stretchable interconnectors to integrate with rigid active devices, truly stretchable devices are realized with or without intentionally employing structural engineering (e.g. buckling), and the whole device can be bent, twisted, or stretched to meet the demands for practical applications, which are beyond the capability of conventional flexible devices that can only bend or twist. Recently, great achievements have been made toward truly stretchable electronics. Here, the contribution of this review is an effort to provide a panoramic view of the latest progress concerning truly stretchable electronic devices, of which we give special emphasis to three kinds of thin film electronic and optoelectronic devices: (1) thin film transistors, (2) electroluminescent devices (including organic light-emitting diodes, light-emitting electrochemical cells and perovskite light-emitting diodes), and (3) photovoltaics (including organic photovoltaics and perovskite solar cells). We systematically discuss the device design and fabrication strategies, the origin of device stretchability and the relationship between the electrical and mechanical behaviors of the devices. We hope that this review provides a clear outlook of these attractive stretchable devices for a broad range of scientists and attracts more researchers to devote their time to this interesting research field in both industry and academia, thus encouraging more intelligent lifestyles for human beings in the coming future.

  16. One-dimensional CuO nanowire: synthesis, electrical, and optoelectronic devices application (United States)


    In this work, we presented a surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT)-assisted approach to the synthesis of one-dimensional copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) for nanodevices applications. The as-prepared CuO NWs have diameter and the length of 50 ~ 200 nm and 5 ~ 20 μm, respectively, with a preferential growth orientation along [1 1¯ 0] direction. Interestingly, nanofield-effect transistor (nanoFET) based on individual CuO NW exhibited typical p-type electrical conduction, with a hole mobility of 0.129 cm2V-1 s-1 and hole concentration of 1.34 × 1018 cm-3, respectively. According to first-principle calculations, such a p-type electrical conduction behavior was related to the oxygen vacancies in CuO NWs. What is more, the CuO NW device was sensitive to visible light illumination with peak sensitivity at 600 nm. The responsitivity, conductive gain, and detectivity are estimated to be 2.0 × 102 A W-1, 3.95 × 102 and 6.38 × 1011 cm Hz1/2 W-1, respectively, which are better than the devices composed of other materials. Further study showed that nanophotodetectors assembled on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate can work under different bending conditions with good reproducibility. The totality of the above results suggests that the present CuO NWs are potential building blocks for assembling high-performance optoelectronic devices. PMID:25489288

  17. One-dimensional CuO nanowire: synthesis, electrical, and optoelectronic devices application. (United States)

    Luo, Lin-Bao; Wang, Xian-He; Xie, Chao; Li, Zhong-Jun; Lu, Rui; Yang, Xiao-Bao; Lu, Jian


    In this work, we presented a surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT)-assisted approach to the synthesis of one-dimensional copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) for nanodevices applications. The as-prepared CuO NWs have diameter and the length of 50 ~ 200 nm and 5 ~ 20 μm, respectively, with a preferential growth orientation along [1 [Formula: see text] 0] direction. Interestingly, nanofield-effect transistor (nanoFET) based on individual CuO NW exhibited typical p-type electrical conduction, with a hole mobility of 0.129 cm(2)V(-1) s(-1) and hole concentration of 1.34 × 10(18) cm(-3), respectively. According to first-principle calculations, such a p-type electrical conduction behavior was related to the oxygen vacancies in CuO NWs. What is more, the CuO NW device was sensitive to visible light illumination with peak sensitivity at 600 nm. The responsitivity, conductive gain, and detectivity are estimated to be 2.0 × 10(2) A W(-1), 3.95 × 10(2) and 6.38 × 10(11) cm Hz(1/2) W(-1), respectively, which are better than the devices composed of other materials. Further study showed that nanophotodetectors assembled on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate can work under different bending conditions with good reproducibility. The totality of the above results suggests that the present CuO NWs are potential building blocks for assembling high-performance optoelectronic devices.

  18. Design of optoelectronic system to meter of electrical current to the habitation house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camas, J.; Flores, M.; Anzuelo, G.; Garcia, C.; Juarez, N.; Torres, W.; Mota, R.


    In this work, we present an optoelectronic digital meter of electrical current. The development of this design is described step by step with diagram to blocks. The advantage over conventional meters of CFE (Comision Federal de electricidad) and the design proposed are analyzed. Information in the optoelectronic design is controlled by Microcontroller PIC16F877. This Microcontroller uses an external crystal as an oscillator with a 4 MHz frequency. The information is shown in a LCD (Liquid Crystal Display). In addition, to quantify the electrical current was necessary an interruption of light. (Author)

  19. Phase noise analysis of clock recovery based on an optoelectronic phase-locked loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Mørk, Jesper; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo


    A detailed theoretical analysis of a clock-recovery (CR) scheme based on an optoelectronic phase-locked loop is presented. The analysis emphasizes the phase noise performance, taking into account the noise of the input data signal, the local voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), and the laser...... employed in the loop. The effects of loop time delay and the laser transfer function are included in the stochastic differential equations describing the system, and a detailed timing jitter analysis of this type of optoelectronic CR for high-speed optical-time-division-multiplexing systems is performed...

  20. Recent Advances in Electronic and Optoelectronic Devices Based on Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxiao Ye


    Full Text Available Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D TMDCs offer several attractive features for use in next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices. Device applications of TMDCs have gained much research interest, and significant advancement has been recorded. In this review, the overall research advancement in electronic and optoelectronic devices based on TMDCs are summarized and discussed. In particular, we focus on evaluating field effect transistors (FETs, photovoltaic cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs, photodetectors, lasers, and integrated circuits (ICs using TMDCs.

  1. Comparison Of Selected Characteristics Of Brushless DC Motors For Optoelectronic Sensors Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zieleźnicki Jan


    Full Text Available Thanks to their advantageous properties such as higher durability, reliability and wide scope of speed achievable with a given load, brushless DC motors are often used in Line-of-Sight stabilization systems of the optoelectronic aircraft gimbals. Since there are many sub-types and configurations of such motors, choosing the optimal structure is not a trivial issue. This paper presents the selection process of a motor with properties that would make it ideal for use in an optoelectronic gimbal drive.

  2. Investigation of structural and optoelectronic properties of BaThO3 (United States)

    Murtaza, G.; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Amin, B.; Afaq, A.; Maqbool, M.; Maqssod, J.; Khan, I.; Zahid, M.


    Structural and optoelectronic properties of BaThO3 cubic perovskite are calculated using all electrons full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. Wide and direct band gap, 5.7 eV, of the compound predicts that it can be effectively used in UV based optoelectronic devices. Different characteristic peaks in the wide UV range emerges mainly due to the transition of electrons between valance band state O-p and conduction band states Ba-d, Ba-f, Th-f and Th-d.

  3. Improving the security of optoelectronic delayed feedback system by parameter modulation and system coupling (United States)

    Liu, Lingfeng; Miao, Suoxia; Cheng, Mengfan; Gao, Xiaojing


    A coupled system with varying parameters is proposed to improve the security of optoelectronic delayed feedback system. This system is coupled by two parameter-varied optoelectronic delayed feedback systems with chaotic modulation. Dynamics performance results show that this system has a higher complexity compared to the original one. Furthermore, this system can conceal the time delay effectively against the autocorrelation function and delayed mutual information method and can increase the dimension space of secure parameters to resist brute-force attack by introducing the digital chaotic systems.

  4. Optimizing the Recognition of Surface Crystallography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frank, Luděk; Mika, Filip; Müllerová, Ilona


    Roč. 21, S4 (2015), s. 124-129 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : surface crystallography Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2015

  5. Asymmetric transmission of surface plasmon polaritons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuzmiak, Vladimír; Maradudin, A.


    Roč. 86, č. 4 (2012), s. 043805 ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12009 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : one-way duffarction grating * scattering * surface plasmon polarirton Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.042, year: 2012

  6. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  7. Piezophototronic Effect in Single-Atomic-Layer MoS 2 for Strain-Gated Flexible Optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wenzhuo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA 30332-0245 USA; Wang, Lei [Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York NY 10027 USA; Yu, Ruomeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA 30332-0245 USA; Liu, Yuanyue [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO 80401 USA; Wei, Su-Huai [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO 80401 USA; Hone, James [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York NY 10027 USA; Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA 30332-0245 USA; Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100083 Beijing China


    Strain-gated flexible optoelectronics are reported based on monolayer MoS2. Utilizing the piezoelectric polarization created at metal-MoS2 interface to modulate the separation/transport of photogenerated carriers, the piezophototronic effect is applied to implement atomic-layer-thick phototransistor. Coupling between piezoelectricity and photogenerated carriers may enable the development of novel optoelectronics.

  8. Bandgap tunable Csx(CH3NH3)1-xPbI3perovskite nanowires by aqueous solution synthesis for optoelectronic devices. (United States)

    Dong, Dongdong; Deng, Hui; Hu, Chao; Song, Huaibing; Qiao, Keke; Yang, Xiaokun; Zhang, Jian; Cai, Fensha; Tang, Jiang; Song, Haisheng


    To date, all the lead halide based full-inorganic or organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have been synthesized from organic solvent, such as N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), by a solution method. Herein, water has been utilized as a 'green' solvent to develop an efficient synthetic route to grow various kinds of lead halide perovskite nanowires (NWs). By controlling the proportion of the hybrid cations, Cs x (CH 3 NH 3 ) 1-x PbI 3 perovskite NWs were successfully synthesized. Every Cs x (CH 3 NH 3 ) 1-x PbI 3 perovskite NW demonstrated single crystal characteristics with uniform stoichiometric element distribution. Because of the controllable cation composition, the NW bandgaps could be finely tuned from 1.5 to 1.7 eV. Transient photoluminescence spectra showed superior NW quality when compared with those of the conventional DMF-based NWs. Based on the abovementioned high quality single Cs 0.5 (CH 3 NH 3 ) 0.5 PbI 3 perovskite NW, a reliable single-NW photodetector was fabricated to investigate the optoelectronic application. It demonstrated a responsivity of 23 A/W, exceeding most of the reported values in the perovskite nanowire photoconductive detectors, and the shot-noise normalized detectivity was 2.5 × 10 11 Jones comparable to the parameters of the commercial silicon-based nanowires. The green and robust synthesis method, finely tunable NW bandgaps, and superior optoelectronic properties are expected to open a new door for the development of perovskite optoelectronic devices.

  9. Influence of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Enhancement of Optoelectronic Properties of PFO-Based Light Emitting Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Ali Al-Asbahi


    Full Text Available Improvement on optoelectronic properties of poly (9,9′-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2.7-diyl- (PFO- based light emitting diode upon incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs is demonstrated. The PFO/TiO2 nanocomposites with different weight ratios between 5 and 35 wt.% were prepared using solution blending method before they were spin coated onto Indium Tin Oxide substrate. Then a thin Al layer was deposited onto the nanocomposite layer to act as top electrode. The nanocomposites were tested as emissive layer in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs. The TiO2 NPs played the most crucial role in facilitating charge transport and electrical injection and thus improved device performance in terms of turn-on voltage, electroluminescence spectra (EL, luminance, and luminance efficiency. The best composition was OLED with 5 wt.% TiO2 NPs content having moderate surface roughness and well distribution of NPs. The device performance was reduced at higher TiO2 NPs content due to higher surface roughness and agglomeration of TiO2 NPs. This work demonstrated the importance of optimum TiO2 NPs content with uniform distribution and controlled surface roughness of the emissive layer for better device performance.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of novel 4-Tetra-4-Tolylsulfonyl ZnPc thin films for optoelectronic applications (United States)

    Khalil, Salah; Tazarki, Helmi; Souli, Mehdi; Guasch, Cathy; Jamoussi, Bassem; Kamoun, Najoua


    Novel 4-Tetra-4-Tolylsulfonyl:zinc phthalocyanine and simple zinc phthalocyanine were synthesized. Our materials were grown on glass substrates by spin coating technique. Thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electronic micrograph (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), spectrophotometer and Hall effect measurement. X-ray spectra reveal that 4-Tetra-4-Tolylsulfonyl:zinc phthalocyanine (4T4TS:ZnPc) and zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) thin films have a monoclinic crystalline structure in β phase. The surface properties and chemical composition were detailed using XPS measurement. SEM were used to investigate the surface morphology for 4T4TS:ZnPc and ZnPc thin films. Atomic force microscopy images have shown a decrease in surface roughness after substitution. Optical properties were investigated by measuring transmission and reflection spectra. Electrical properties were studied and the different electrical parameters was measured and compared on glass, silicon and tin dioxide substrates by Hall Effect technique. All obtained results indicate an improvement in physical properties of 4T4TS:ZnPc which allows used it in optoelectronic applications.

  11. MOVPE growth and characterisation of ZnO properties for optoelectronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleynik, N.


    In this work a new Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) method was developed for the growth and doping of high-quality ZnO films. ZnO is a unique optoelectronic material for the effective light generation in the green to the UV spectral range. Optoelectronic applications of ZnO require impurity-free monocrystalline films with smooth surfaces and low concentration of the defects in the crystal lattice. At the beginning of this work only few reports on MOVPE growth of polycrystalline ZnO existed. The low quality of ZnO is attributed to the lack of an epitaxially matched substrate, and gas-phase prereactions between the Zn- and O-precursors. To achieve control over the ZnO quality, several O-precursors were tested for the growth on GaN/Si(111) or GaN/Sapphire substrates at different reactor temperatures and pressures. ZnO layers with XRD rocking curve FWHMs of the (0002) reflection of 180'' and narrow cathodoluminescence of 1.3 meV of the dominant I{sub 8} emission were synthesized using a two-step growth procedure. In this procedure, ZnO is homoepitaxially grown at high temperature using N{sub 2}O as O-precursor on a low temperature grown ZnO buffer layer using tertiary-butanol as O-precursor. p-Type doping of ZnO, which usually exhibits n-type behaviour, is very difficult. This doping asymmetry represents an issue for ZnO-based devices. Beginning from 1992, a growing number of reports have been claiming a fabrication of p-type ZnO, but, due to the missing reproducibilty, they are still questionable. Native defects, non-stoichiometry, and hydrogen are sources of n-type conductivity of ZnO. Together with a low solubility of the potential p-type dopants and deep position of impurity levels, these factors partly explain p-type doping difficulties in ZnO. However, there is no fully described mechanism of the ZnO doping asymmetry yet. In this work, NH{sub 3}, unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMHy), diisobutylamine, and NO nitrogen precursors were studied

  12. Accuracy of dielectric-dependent hybrid functionals in the prediction of optoelectronic properties of metal oxide semiconductors: a comprehensive comparison with many-body GW and experiments (United States)

    Gerosa, M.; E Bottani, C.; Di Valentin, C.; Onida, G.; Pacchioni, G.


    Understanding the electronic structure of metal oxide semiconductors is crucial to their numerous technological applications, such as photoelectrochemical water splitting and solar cells. The needed experimental and theoretical knowledge goes beyond that of pristine bulk crystals, and must include the effects of surfaces and interfaces, as well as those due to the presence of intrinsic defects (e.g. oxygen vacancies), or dopants for band engineering. In this review, we present an account of the recent efforts in predicting and understanding the optoelectronic properties of oxides using ab initio theoretical methods. In particular, we discuss the performance of recently developed dielectric-dependent hybrid functionals, providing a comparison against the results of many-body GW calculations, including G 0 W 0 as well as more refined approaches, such as quasiparticle self-consistent GW. We summarize results in the recent literature for the band gap, the band level alignment at surfaces, and optical transition energies in defective oxides, including wide gap oxide semiconductors and transition metal oxides. Correlated transition metal oxides are also discussed. For each method, we describe successes and drawbacks, emphasizing the challenges faced by the development of improved theoretical approaches. The theoretical section is preceded by a critical overview of the main experimental techniques needed to characterize the optoelectronic properties of semiconductors, including absorption and reflection spectroscopy, photoemission, and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS).

  13. Performance and calibration of the CHORUS scintillating fiber tracker and opto-electronics readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annis, P.; Aoki, S.; Brunner, J.; De Jong, M.; Fabre, J.P.; Ferreira, R.; Flegel, W.; Frekers, D.; Gregoire, G.; Herin, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Konijn, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Macina, D.; Meijer Drees, R.; Meinhard, H.; Michel, L.; Mommaert, C.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Niwa, K.; Niu, E.; Panman, J.; Riccardi, F.; Rondeshagen, D.; Sato, O.; Stefanini, G.; Vander Donckt, M.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Winter, K.; Wong, H.T.


    An essential component of the CERN WA95/CHORUS experiment is a scintillating fiber tracker system for precise track reconstruction of particles. The tracker design, its opto-electronics readout and calibration system are discussed. Performances of the detector are presented. (orig.)

  14. Ultrafast Phase Comparator for Phase-Locked Loop-Based Optoelectronic Clock Recovery Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Agis, F.; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Kurimura, S.


    The authors report on a novel application of a chi((2)) nonlinear optical device as an ultrafast phase comparator, an essential element that allows an optoelectronic phase-locked loop to perform clock recovery of ultrahigh-speed optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM) signals. Particular interest...

  15. Optoelectronic properties of higher acenes, their BN analogue and substituted derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armaković, Stevan, E-mail: [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 4, 21000, Novi Sad (Serbia); Armaković, Sanja J. [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 3, 21000, Novi Sad (Serbia); Holodkov, Vladimir [Educons University, Faculty of Sport and Tourism - TIMS, Radnička 30a, 21000, Novi Sad (Serbia); Pelemiš, Svetlana [University of East Sarajevo, Faculty of Technology, Karakaj bb, 75400, Zvornik, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegovina)


    We have investigated optoelectronic properties of higher acenes: pentacene, hexacene, heptacene, octacene, nonacene, decacene and their boron-nitride (BN) analogues, within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). We have also investigated the optoelectronic properties of acenes modified by BN substitution. Calculated optoelectronic properties encompasses: oxidation and reduction potentials, electron and hole reorganization energies and energy difference between excited first singlet and triplet states ΔE(S{sub 1}−T{sub 1}). Oxidation and reduction potentials indicate significantly better stability of BN analogues, comparing with their all-carbon relatives. Although higher acenes possess lower electron and hole reorganization energies, with both best values much lower than 0.1 eV, their BN analogues also have competitive values of reorganization energies, especially for holes for which reorganization energy is also lower than 0.1 eV. On the other hand ΔE(S{sub 1}−T{sub 1}) is much better for BN analogues, having values that indicate that BN analogues are possible applicable for thermally activated delayed fluorescence. - Highlights: • Optoelectronic properties of structures based on higher acenes have been investigated. • Oxidation and reduction potentials together with reorganization energies are calculated. • TADF is analyzed through calculation of ΔE(S{sub 1}−T{sub 1}), which is much better for BN analogues. • Reorganization energies of acenes improve with the increase of number of benzene rings.

  16. The Femoral Epicondylar Frame to track femoral rotation in optoelectronic gait analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zurcher, A.W.; Wolterbeek, N.; Valstar, E.R.; Nelissen, R.G.H.H.; Poll, R.G.; Harlaar, J.


    Relative movement of skin markers to underlying bone limits a valid interpretation of axial femorotibial rotation in noninvasive optoelectronic gait analysis. A distal femoral clamp is a practical solution for thigh marker placement, however, existing devices are still susceptible to measurement

  17. Developing Topological Insulator Fiber Based Photon Pairs Source for Ultrafast Optoelectronic Applications (United States)



  18. (Nanotechnology Initiative) Revision of Quantum Engineering of Nanostructures for Optoelectronic Devices with Optimum Performance (United States)


    based on Quantum Dots and Resonant- Tunneling Diodes Coupled with Conductive Polymers Growth and Properties of Tin Oxide Nanowires and the Effect...Physical Limit for Nanoscale Optoelectronic Device Three-color Photodetector based on Quantum Dots and Resonant- tunneling Diodes coupled with...Bottleneck Effects in Rectangular Graphene Quantum Dots Interface Optical Phonon Modes in Wurtzite Quantum Heterostructures Multi-Color Photodetector

  19. An optoelectronic detector for elastic and diffractive scattering measurements in the TOTEM experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Buénerd, M; Vescovi, C


    An optoelectronic detector based on a fast phosphor scintillator optically coupled to an image intensifier combined with a CMOS photosensitive array is described and discussed in the perspective of elastic and diffractive scattering measurement in the TOTEM experimental program at the CERN LHC. (10 refs).

  20. 78 FR 77166 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products... (United States)


    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-860] Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...

  1. High-resolution biosensor based on localized surface plasmons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piliarik, Marek; Šípová, Hana; Kvasnička, Pavel; Galler, N.; Krenn, J. R.; Homola, Jiří


    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2012), s. 672-680 ISSN 1094-4087 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200670701; GA MŠk OC09058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : optical biosenzor * surface plasmon resonance * localized surface plasmon Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.546, year: 2012

  2. Normal shoulder: MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieft, G.J.; Bloem, J.L.; Obermann, W.R.; Verbout, A.J.; Rozing, P.M.; Doornbos, J.


    Relatively poor spatial resolution has been obtained in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the shoulder because the shoulder can only be placed in the periphery of the magnetic field. The authors have devised an anatomically shaped surface coil that enables MR to demonstrate normal shoulder anatomy in different planes with high spatial resolution. In the axial plane anatomy analogous to that seen on computed tomographic (CT) scans can be demonstrated. Variations in scapular position (produced by patient positioning) may make reproducibility of sagittal and coronal plane images difficult by changing the relationship of the plane to the shoulder anatomy. Oblique planes, for which the angle is chosen from the axial image, have the advantage of easy reproducibility. Obliquely oriented structures and relationships are best seen in oblique plane images and can be evaluated in detail.

  3. Evaluation of the structural, optical and electrical properties of AZO thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition for optoelectronics (United States)

    Kumar, K. Deva Arun; Valanarasu, S.; Rosario, S. Rex; Ganesh, V.; Shkir, Mohd.; Sreelatha, C. J.; AlFaify, S.


    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films for electrode applications were deposited on glass substrates using chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The influence of deposition time on the structural, morphological, and opto-electrical properties of AZO films were investigated. Structural studies confirmed that all the deposited films were hexagonal wurtzite structure with polycrystalline nature and exhibited (002) preferential orientation. There is no other impurity phases were detected for different deposition time. Surface morphological images shows the spherically shaped grains are uniformly arranged on to the entire film surface. The EDS spectrum confirms the presence of Zn, O and Al elements in deposited AZO film. The observed optical transmittance is high (87%) in the visible region, and the calculated band gap value is 3.27 eV. In this study, the transmittance value is decreased with increasing deposition time. The room temperature PL spectrum exposed that AZO thin film deposited at (60 min) has good optical quality with less defect density. The minimum electrical resistivity and maximum carrier concentration values were observed as 8.53 × 10-3(Ω cm) and 3.53 × 1018 cm-3 for 60 min deposited film, respectively. The obtained figure of merit (ϕ) value 3.05 × 10-3(Ω/sq)- 1 is suggested for an optoelectronic device.

  4. High energy electron irradiation effects on Ga-doped ZnO thin films for optoelectronic space applications (United States)

    Serrao, Felcy Jyothi; Sandeep, K. M.; Bhat, Shreesha; Dharmaprakash, S. M.


    Gallium-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films of thickness 394 nm were prepared by a simple, cost-effective sol-gel spin coating method. The effect of 8 MeV electron beam irradiation with different irradiation doses ranging from 0 to 10 kGy on the structural, optical and electrical properties was investigated. Electron irradiation influences the changes in the structural properties and surface morphology of GZO thin films. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the polycrystalline nature of the GZO films is unaffected by the high energy electron irradiation. The grain size and the surface roughness were found maximum for the GZO film irradiated with 10 kGy electron dosage. The average transmittance of GZO thin films decreased after electron irradiation. The optical band gap of Ga-doped ZnO films was decreased with the increase in the electron dosage. The electrical resistivity of GZO films decreased from 4.83 × 10-3 to 8.725 × 10-4 Ω cm, when the electron dosage was increased from 0 to 10 kGy. The variation in the optical and electrical properties in the Ga-doped ZnO thin films due to electron beam irradiation in the present study is useful in deciding their compatibility in optoelectronic device applications in electron radiation environment.

  5. Free-standing optoelectronic graphene-CdS-graphene oxide composite paper produced by vacuum-assisted self-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yong-Feng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Carbon Materials, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Taiyuan (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Liu, Yan-Zhen; Shen, Wen-Zhong; Yang, Yong-Gang; Wang, Mao-Zhang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Carbon Materials, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Taiyuan (China); Wen, Yue-Fang [Zhejiang University, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Hangzhou (China)


    Free-standing optoelectronic graphene-CdS-graphene oxide (G-CdS-GO) composite papers were prepared by vacuum-assisted self-assembly. G-CdS hybrids were first prepared by a hydrothermal method and GO acts as a dispersant which makes it easier to disperse them to form relatively stable aqueous suspensions for fabricating paper. Transmission electron microscopy shows that CdS quantum dots (QDs) with an average size of approximately 1-2 nm were distributed uniformly on the graphene sheets. Photoluminescence measurements for the as-prepared G-CdS-GO composite paper showed that the surface defect related emissions of attached CdS QDs decrease and blue shift obviously due to the change in particle size and the interaction of the surface of the CdS QDs with both the GO and the graphene sheets. The resulting paper holds great potential for applications in thin film solar cells, sensors, diodes, and so on. (orig.)

  6. Enhanced Optoelectronic Performance of a Passivated Nanowire-Based Device: Key Information from Real-Space Imaging Using 4D Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Jafar Iqbal


    Managing trap states and understanding their role in ultrafast charge-carrier dynamics, particularly at surface and interfaces, remains a major bottleneck preventing further advancements and commercial exploitation of nanowire (NW)-based devices. A key challenge is to selectively map such ultrafast dynamical processes on the surfaces of NWs, a capability so far out of reach of time-resolved laser techniques. Selective mapping of surface dynamics in real space and time can only be achieved by applying four-dimensional scanning ultrafast electron microscopy (4D S-UEM). Charge carrier dynamics are spatially and temporally visualized on the surface of InGaN NW arrays before and after surface passivation with octadecylthiol (ODT). The time-resolved secondary electron images clearly demonstrate that carrier recombination on the NW surface is significantly slowed down after ODT treatment. This observation is fully supported by enhancement of the performance of the light emitting device. Direct observation of surface dynamics provides a profound understanding of the photophysical mechanisms on materials\\' surfaces and enables the formulation of effective surface trap state management strategies for the next generation of high-performance NW-based optoelectronic devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Testing for normality

    CERN Document Server

    Thode, Henry C


    Describes the selection, design, theory, and application of tests for normality. Covers robust estimation, test power, and univariate and multivariate normality. Contains tests ofr multivariate normality and coordinate-dependent and invariant approaches.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Kozhevnikov


    Full Text Available Designing remote sensing of the Earth devices is requires a lot of attention to evaluation lens distortion level and providing the required accuracy values of geometric calibration of optoelectronic systems at all. Test- objects known as most common tools for optical systems geometric calibration. The purpose of the research was creating an automatically method of distortion correction coefficients calculating with a 3 μm precision in the measurement process. The method of geometric calibration of the internal orientation elements of the optical system based on the electronic test object is proposed. The calculation of the test string brightness image from its multispectral image and filtered signal extrema position determination are presented. Ratio of magnitude of the distortion and interval center is given. Three variants of electronic test-objects with different step and element size are considered. Оptimal size of calibration element was defined as 3×3 pixels due to shape of the subpixels with the aspect ratio of the radiating areas about 1 : 3. It is advisable to use IPS as an electronic test object template. An experimental test and measurement stand functional diagram based on the collimator and optical bench «OSK-2CL» is showed. It was determined that test objects with a grid spacing of 4 and 8 pixels can’t provide tolerable image because of non-collimated emission of active sites and scattering on optical surfaces – the shape of the elements is substantially disrupted. Test-object with a 12 pixels grid spacing was used to distortion level analyzing as most suitable.Ratio of coordinate increment and element number graphs for two photographic lenses (Canon EF-S 17-85 f/4-5.6 IS USM and EF-S 18-55 f/3.5-5.6 IS II are presented. A calculation of the distortion values in edge zones was held, which were respectively 43 μm and 51.6 μm. The technique and algorithm of software implementation is described. Possible directions of the

  9. Time-resolved opto-electronic properties of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl): Fullerene heterostructures detected by Kelvin force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermak, Jan; Rezek, Bohuslav; Cimrova, Vera; Fejfar, Antonin; Purkrt, Adam; Vanecek, Milan; Kocka, Jan


    Thin blend polymer films made of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (electron donor) and fullerene derivatives as electron acceptors ([6,6]-thienylC61 butyric acid methyl ester and [6,6]-thienylC71 butyric acid methyl ester) are prepared by the spin-coating technique on indium tin oxide covered glass substrates. Time-resolved photo-induced changes of surface potentials are detected by Kelvin force microscopy (KFM). Changes of surface potentials by 10-150 mV reveal different quality and kinetics of charge generation in the two blends in short (minutes) and long (hours) time periods. This is attributed to a combination of electron accumulation, trapping, and organic material degradation under ambient conditions. As KFM characterizes the blend films directly without metal contact layer, it reveals differences in the opto-electronic behavior of the blends, which are not detected by common photovoltaic cell characterization.

  10. A whole-process progressive training mode to foster optoelectronic students' innovative practical ability (United States)

    Zhong, Hairong; Xu, Wei; Hu, Haojun; Duan, Chengfang


    This article analyzes the features of fostering optoelectronic students' innovative practical ability based on the knowledge structure of optoelectronic disciplines, which not only reveals the common law of cultivating students' innovative practical ability, but also considers the characteristics of the major: (1) The basic theory is difficult, and the close combination of science and technology is obvious; (2)With the integration of optics, mechanics, electronics and computer, the system technology is comprehensive; (3) It has both leading-edge theory and practical applications, so the benefit of cultivating optoelectronic students is high ; (4) The equipment is precise and the practice is costly. Considering the concept and structural characteristics of innovative and practical ability, and adhering to the idea of running practice through the whole process, we put forward the construction of three-dimensional innovation and practice platform which consists of "Synthetically Teaching Laboratory + Innovation Practice Base + Scientific Research Laboratory + Major Practice Base + Joint Teaching and Training Base", and meanwhile build a whole-process progressive training mode to foster optoelectronic students' innovative practical ability, following the process of "basic experimental skills training - professional experimental skills training - system design - innovative practice - scientific research project training - expanded training - graduation project": (1) To create an in - class practical ability cultivation environment that has distinctive characteristics of the major, with the teaching laboratory as the basic platform; (2) To create an extra-curricular innovation practice activities cultivation environment that is closely linked to the practical application, with the innovation practice base as a platform for improvement; (3) To create an innovation practice training cultivation environment that leads the development of cutting-edge, with the scientific

  11. The Normal Distribution From Binomial to Normal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. The Normal Distribution From Binomial to Normal. S Ramasubramanian. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 15-24. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  12. Reliability and validity of optoelectronic method for biophotonical measurements (United States)

    Karpienko, Katarzyna; Wróbel, Maciej S.; UrniaŻ, Rafał


    Reliability and validity of measurements is of utmost importance when assessing measuring capability of instruments developed for research. In order to perform an experiment which is legitimate, used instruments must be both reliable and valid. Reliability estimates the degree of precision of measurement, the extent to which a measurement is internally consistent. Validity is the usefulness of an instrument to perform accurate measurements of quantities it was designed to measure. Statistical analysis for reliability and validity control of low-coherence interferometry method for refractive index measurements of biological fluids is presented. The low-coherence interferometer is sensitive to optical path difference between interfering beams. This difference depends on the refractive index of measured material. To assess the validity and reliability of proposed method for blood measurements, the statistical analysis of the method was performed on several substances with known refractive indices. Analysis of low-coherence interferograms considered the mean distances between fringes. Performed statistical analysis for validity and reliability consisted of Grubb's test for outliers, Shapiro-Wilk test for normal distribution, T-Student test, standard deviation, coefficient of determination and r-Pearson correlation. Overall the tests proved high statistical significance of measurement method with confidence level measurement method.

  13. Preserving π-conjugation in covalently functionalized carbon nanotubes for optoelectronic applications (United States)

    Setaro, Antonio; Adeli, Mohsen; Glaeske, Mareen; Przyrembel, Daniel; Bisswanger, Timo; Gordeev, Georgy; Maschietto, Federica; Faghani, Abbas; Paulus, Beate; Weinelt, Martin; Arenal, Raul; Haag, Rainer; Reich, Stephanie


    Covalent functionalization tailors carbon nanotubes for a wide range of applications in varying environments. Its strength and stability of attachment come at the price of degrading the carbon nanotubes sp2 network and destroying the tubes electronic and optoelectronic features. Here we present a non-destructive, covalent, gram-scale functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes by a new [2+1] cycloaddition. The reaction rebuilds the extended π-network, thereby retaining the outstanding quantum optoelectronic properties of carbon nanotubes, including bright light emission at high degree of functionalization (1 group per 25 carbon atoms). The conjugation method described here opens the way for advanced tailoring nanotubes as demonstrated for light-triggered reversible doping through photochromic molecular switches and nanoplasmonic gold-nanotube hybrids with enhanced infrared light emission.

  14. Optoelectronic ally automated system for carbon nanotubes synthesis via arc-discharge in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bera, Debasis; Brinley, Erik; Kuiry, Suresh C.; McCutchen, Matthew; Seal, Sudipta; Heinrich, Helge; Kabes, Bradley


    The method of arc discharge in the solution is unique and inexpensive route for synthesis of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon onions, and other carbon nanostructures. Such a method can be used for in situ synthesis of CNTs decorated with nanoparticles. Herein, we report a simple and inexpensive optoelectronically automated system for arc discharge in solution synthesis of CNTs. The optoelectronic system maintains a constant gap between the two electrodes allowing a continuous synthesis of the carbon nanostructures. The system operates in a feedback loop consisting of an electrode-gap detector and an analog electronic unit, as controller. This computerized feeding system of the anode was used for in situ nanoparticles incorporated CNTs. For example, we have successfully decorated CNTs with ceria, silica, and palladium nanoparticles. Characterizations of nanostructures are performed using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy

  15. State-of-the-art photodetectors for optoelectronic integration at telecommunication wavelength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eng Png Ching


    Full Text Available Photodetectors hold a critical position in optoelectronic integrated circuits, and they convert light into electricity. Over the past decades, high-performance photodetectors (PDs have been aggressively pursued to enable high-speed, large-bandwidth, and low-noise communication applications. Various material systems have been explored and different structures designed to improve photodetection capability as well as compatibility with CMOS circuits. In this paper, we review state-of-theart photodetection technologies in the telecommunications spectrum based on different material systems, including traditional semiconductors such as InGaAs, Si, Ge and HgCdTe, as well as recently developed systems such as low-dimensional materials (e.g. graphene, carbon nanotube, etc. and noble metal plasmons. The corresponding material properties, fundamental mechanisms, fabrication, theoretical modelling and performance of the typical PDs are presented, including the emerging directions and perspectives of the PDs for optoelectronic integration applications are discussed.

  16. Performance Evaluation of an Optoelectronic Oscillator Based on a Band-Pass Microwave Photonic Filter Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Correa-Mena


    Full Text Available The experimental performance evaluation of an optoelectronic oscillator based on a band-pass microwave photonic filter architecture is carried out. The novelty of this proposal resides in the fact that the architecture used allows enhancing the free spectral range of the optoelectronic oscillator. Considering the optical spectral characteristics of the multimode laser diode used as an optical source, the length and the chromatic dispersion parameter of the optical fiber which acts as a feedback loop, it is possible to determine the appearance of a series of spectrally pure microwave signals widely spaced. In particular, the experimental results show a phase noise as low as -92.69 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset frequency from the 2.26 GHz carrier for an optical delay line of 25.24 km and a Q factor of 2.04×109.

  17. Fluorene-based macromolecular nanostructures and nanomaterials for organic (opto)electronics. (United States)

    Xie, Ling-Hai; Yang, Su-Hui; Lin, Jin-Yi; Yi, Ming-Dong; Huang, Wei


    Nanotechnology not only opens up the realm of nanoelectronics and nanophotonics, but also upgrades organic thin-film electronics and optoelectronics. In this review, we introduce polymer semiconductors and plastic electronics briefly, followed by various top-down and bottom-up nano approaches to organic electronics. Subsequently, we highlight the progress in polyfluorene-based nanoparticles and nanowires (nanofibres), their tunable optoelectronic properties as well as their applications in polymer light-emitting devices, solar cells, field-effect transistors, photodetectors, lasers, optical waveguides and others. Finally, an outlook is given with regard to four-element complex devices via organic nanotechnology and molecular manufacturing that will spread to areas such as organic mechatronics in the framework of robotic-directed science and technology.

  18. Morphogenesis and Optoelectronic Properties of Supramolecular Assemblies of Chiral Perylene Diimides in a Binary Solvent System. (United States)

    Shang, Xiaobo; Song, Inho; Ohtsu, Hiroyoshi; Tong, Jiaqi; Zhang, Haoke; Oh, Joon Hak


    Chiral supramolecular structures are attracting great attention due to their specific properties and high potential in chiral sensing and separation. Herein, supramolecular assembling behaviors of chiral perylene diimides have been systematically investigated in a mixed solution of tetrahydrofuran and water. They exhibit remarkably different morphologies and chiral aggregation behaviors depending on the mixing ratio of the solvents, i.e., the fraction of water. The morphogenesis and optoelectronic properties of chiral supramolecular structures have been thoroughly studied using a range of experimental and theoretical methods to investigate the morphological effects of chiral supramolecular assemblies on the electrical performances and photogenerated charge-carrier behaviors. In addition, chiral perylene diimides have been discriminated by combining vibrational circular dichroism with theoretical calculations, for the first time. The chiral supramolecular nanostructures developed herein strongly absorb visible spectral region and exhibit high photoresponsivity and detectivity, opening up new opportunities for practical applications in optoelectronics.

  19. Lessons learned in tuning the optoelectronic properties of phosphorescent iridium(iii) complexes. (United States)

    Henwood, Adam F; Zysman-Colman, Eli


    This perspective illustrates our approach in the design of heteroleptic cationic iridium(iii) complexes for optoelectronic applications, especially as emitters in electroluminescent devices. We discuss changes in the photophysical properties of the complexes as a consequence of modification of the electronics of either the cyclometalating (C^N) or the ancillary (N^N) ligands. We then broach the impact on these properties as a function of modification of the structure of both types of ligands. We explain trends in the optoelectronic behaviour of the complexes using a combination of rationally designed structure-property relationship studies and theoretical modelling that serves to inform subsequent ligand design. However, we have found cases where the design paradigms do not always hold true. Nevertheless, all these studies contribute to the lessons we have learned in the design of heteroleptic cationic phosphorescent iridium(iii) complexes.

  20. Effect of methyl substitution on optoelectronic properties of 1,3,6,8-tetraphenyl pyrenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Yanling


    Full Text Available Geometric structures of the ground states and excited states,frontier molecular orbitals,ionization potentials,electron affinities,reorganization energies,and absorption and emission spectra of three novel methyl-substituted 1,3,6,8-tetra-phenylpyrenes were studied theoretically by quantum-chemical methods,such as density functional theory (DFT.The results show that the position of methyl substituent on benzene ring has much effect on the optoelectronic properties of methyl-substituted 1,3,6,8-tetra-phenylpyrenes.Interestingly,the geometric structures and optoelectronic properties of the designed compound 1,3,6,8-tetra-p-tolylpyrene (TPPy are similar to those of 1,3,6,8-tetrakis(3,5-dimethylphenylpyrene (TDMPPy,which is worthy of being further researched.

  1. Facile fabrication of boron nitride nanosheets-amorphous carbon hybrid film for optoelectronic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Shanhong


    A novel boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs)-amorphous carbon (a-C) hybrid film has been deposited successfully on silicon substrates by simultaneous electrochemical deposition, and showed a good integrity of this B-C-N composite film by the interfacial bonding. This synthesis can potentially provide the facile control of the B-C-N composite film for the potential optoelectronic devices. This journal is

  2. Stereo-microvision. Development of an opto-electronic operating microscope. (United States)

    Reinhardt, H F; Horstmann, G A; Spink, R; Amrein, E I; Forrer, P


    A novel opto-electronic operating microscope has been designed and clinically tested. It consists of a small camera microscope, a central electronic unit, and a stereoscopic video monitor. Advanced miniaturization permitted ergonomics superior to those of conventional optomechanical microscopes. Electronic imaging facilitates coupling to an ultrasound navigation system which enables the neurosurgeon to verify the location of the focus in real time, correlated with CT and MRI pictures. A fully computerized, digital operating microscope will now be developed based on this prototype.

  3. Practice and thinking on examination way reform of optoelectronic detection technology course (United States)

    Yu, Xue-lian; Zhang, Jia-cheng; Shen, Tao; Xiong, Yan-ling; Yang, Wen-long


    Choosing a reasonable examination way is beneficial to the cultivation of high quality talents. Recently, the conventional college examination methods involve writing and oral test, which is extremely focused on academic performance and caused the separation between teachers and examinations. Optoelectronic detection technology is a specialized course with strong applicability. Therefore, we proposed a diverse form and scientific content method. It is proved that the students receive better learning effect and improve learning and engineering practice ability compared with the traditional assessment methods.

  4. Design and test of optoelectronic system of alignment control based on CCD camera (United States)

    Anisimov, A. G.; Gorbachyov, A. A.; Krasnyashchikh, A. V.; Pantushin, A. N.; Timofeev, A. N.


    In this work, design, implementation and test of a system intended for positioning of the elements of turbine units relative to the line of shaft with high precision, are discussed. A procedure of the conversion of coordinates from the instrument system into the system connected with the practical position of the axis of turbine has been devised. It is shown that optoelectronic systems of aligment built by autoreflexive scheme can be used for high precision measurements.

  5. Semiconducting {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} towards optoelectronics and photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Yoshihito [Department of Energy Science and Technology, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail:


    This article explains some recent studies on a mechanism of luminescence from {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} and its applications to optoelectronics and photonics. A luminescence at 0.805 eV (i.e. the A-band) can be understood to be originated from dissolution process of indirect excitons. Photonic crystals using {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} with a high refractive index are one of the promising applications to realize high performance photonic circuits.

  6. Optisystem: An Alternative to Optoelectronics and Fiber Optics Teaching E-Laboratory


    Nor Iza binti Mohd Rawi; Md Zaini Jamaludin; Fairuz Abdullah


    This paper introduces the OptiSystem software as an alternative to support the Optoelectronics and Fiber Optics laboratory in Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN). In recent years, communication engineering has been focusing on wireless technology and optical communication to achieve seamless and high-speed connectivity. Hence, this paper presents the advantages and effects of implementing e-learning in this elective subject to complement the learning process in order to produce a high quality...

  7. Direct olefination of fluorinated benzothiadiazoles: a new entry to optoelectronic materials. (United States)

    Xiao, Yu-Lan; Zhang, Bo; He, Chun-Yang; Zhang, Xingang


    Fluorinated olefin-containing benzothiadiazoles have important applications in optoelectronic materials. Herein, we reported the direct olefination of fluorinated benzothiadiazoles, as catalyzed by palladium. The reaction proceeds under mild reaction conditions and shows high functional-group compatibility. A preliminary study of the properties of the resulting symmetrical and unsymmetrical olefin-containing fluorinated benzothiadiazoles in red-light-emitting dyes has also been conducted. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Irradiation of new optoelectronic components for HL-LHC data transmission links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr-Storey, S Seif El; Detraz, S; Olantera, L; Sigaud, C; Soos, C; Troska, J; Vasey, F


    Candidate optoelectronic components for use in future data-transmission links at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) were irradiated with 20 MeV neutrons at the University Cyclotron in Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium and 24 GeV protons at the CERN PS irradiation facility. The results from this test for multi-channel transmitters, Germanium photodiodes, and Silicon photonics modulators are presented here

  9. Organic-inorganic hybrid lead halide perovskites for optoelectronic and electronic applications. (United States)

    Zhao, Yixin; Zhu, Kai


    Organic and inorganic hybrid perovskites (e.g., CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3)), with advantages of facile processing, tunable bandgaps, and superior charge-transfer properties, have emerged as a new class of revolutionary optoelectronic semiconductors promising for various applications. Perovskite solar cells constructed with a variety of configurations have demonstrated unprecedented progress in efficiency, reaching about 20% from multiple groups after only several years of active research. A key to this success is the development of various solution-synthesis and film-deposition techniques for controlling the morphology and composition of hybrid perovskites. The rapid progress in material synthesis and device fabrication has also promoted the development of other optoelectronic applications including light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, and transistors. Both experimental and theoretical investigations on organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have enabled some critical fundamental understandings of this material system. Recent studies have also demonstrated progress in addressing the potential stability issue, which has been identified as a main challenge for future research on halide perovskites. Here, we review recent progress on hybrid perovskites including basic chemical and crystal structures, chemical synthesis of bulk/nanocrystals and thin films with their chemical and physical properties, device configurations, operation principles for various optoelectronic applications (with a focus on solar cells), and photophysics of charge-carrier dynamics. We also discuss the importance of further understanding of the fundamental properties of hybrid perovskites, especially those related to chemical and structural stabilities.

  10. Transferable, conductive TiO{sub 2} nanotube membranes for optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guohua [School of Energy and Environment, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Department of Micro and Nano Systems Technology, Vestfold University College, Horten 3184 (Norway); Chen, Ting [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Sun, Yunlan; Chen, Guang [School of Energy and Environment, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Wang, Kaiying, E-mail: [Department of Micro and Nano Systems Technology, Vestfold University College, Horten 3184 (Norway)


    Graphical abstract: An optoelectronic device with vertical architecture offers straight conducting filaments for electron transportation. - Highlights: • Highly porous TiO{sub 2} nanotube membranes are prepared by two-step anodization. • An optoelectronic device is integrated with photocurrent transportation along the nanotube axial. • Straight conducting nano-filaments are beneficial for electron transportation. • Photoconductive performances are demonstrated under front/back-illumination. - Abstract: We report a facile approach for preparing free-standing and crystalline TiO{sub 2} nanotube membranes (TNMs) by taking advantage of differential mechanical stress between two anodic layers. The membrane exhibits visible light transmittance (∼40%) and UV absorption (∼99%) with good flexibility, which is favorable to integrate with substrates in optoelectronics. A sandwich-type device is assembled through stacking the membrane and substrates. The dependence of current-perpendicular-to-membrane vs applied voltage shows a remarkable photoconductive performance for both front and back illumination. The photocurrent value increases ∼2 or 3 orders magnitude under UV light radiation as compared to that in darkness. The photoresponse is arisen from high internal gain caused by hole trapping along the nanotube walls. This work is crucial for understanding intrinsic optical properties of nanostructured membranes.

  11. Cultivation of students' engineering designing ability based on optoelectronic system course project (United States)

    Cao, Danhua; Wu, Yubin; Li, Jingping


    We carry out teaching based on optoelectronic related course group, aiming at junior students majored in Optoelectronic Information Science and Engineering. " Optoelectronic System Course Project " is product-designing-oriented and lasts for a whole semester. It provides a chance for students to experience the whole process of product designing, and improve their abilities to search literature, proof schemes, design and implement their schemes. In teaching process, each project topic is carefully selected and repeatedly refined to guarantee the projects with the knowledge integrity, engineering meanings and enjoyment. Moreover, we set up a top team with professional and experienced teachers, and build up learning community. Meanwhile, the communication between students and teachers as well as the interaction among students are taken seriously in order to improve their team-work ability and communicational skills. Therefore, students are not only able to have a chance to review the knowledge hierarchy of optics, electronics, and computer sciences, but also are able to improve their engineering mindset and innovation consciousness.

  12. Optical and Optoelectronic Property Analysis of Nanomaterials inside Transmission Electron Microscope. (United States)

    Fernando, Joseph F S; Zhang, Chao; Firestein, Konstantin L; Golberg, Dmitri


    In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) allows one to investigate nanostructures at high spatial resolution in response to external stimuli, such as heat, electrical current, mechanical force and light. This review exclusively focuses on the optical, optoelectronic and photocatalytic studies inside TEM. With the development of TEMs and specialized TEM holders that include in situ illumination and light collection optics, it is possible to perform optical spectroscopies and diverse optoelectronic experiments inside TEM with simultaneous high resolution imaging of nanostructures. Optical TEM holders combining the capability of a scanning tunneling microscopy probe have enabled nanomaterial bending/stretching and electrical measurements in tandem with illumination. Hence, deep insights into the optoelectronic property versus true structure and its dynamics could be established at the nanometer-range precision thus evaluating the suitability of a nanostructure for advanced light driven technologies. This report highlights systems for in situ illumination of TEM samples and recent research work based on the relevant methods, including nanomaterial cathodoluminescence, photoluminescence, photocatalysis, photodeposition, photoconductivity and piezophototronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Size-tunable band alignment and optoelectronic properties of transition metal dichalcogenide van der Waals heterostructures (United States)

    Zhao, Yipeng; Yu, Wangbing; Ouyang, Gang


    2D transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC)-based heterostructures exhibit several fascinating properties that can address the emerging market of energy conversion and storage devices. Current achievements show that the vertical stacked TMDC heterostructures can form type II band alignment and possess significant optoelectronic properties. However, a detailed analytical understanding of how to quantify the band alignment and band offset as well as the optimized power conversion efficiency (PCE) is still lacking. Herein, we propose an analytical model to exhibit the PCEs of TMDC van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures and explore the intrinsic mechanism of photovoltaic conversion based on the detailed balance principle and atomic-bond-relaxation correlation mechanism. We find that the PCE of monolayer MoS2/WSe2 can be up to 1.70%, and that of the MoS2/WSe2 vdW heterostructures increases with thickness, owing to increasing optical absorption. Moreover, the results are validated by comparing them with the available evidence, providing realistic efficiency targets and design principles. Highlights • Both electronic and optoelectronic models are developed for vertical stacked MoS2/WSe2 heterostructures. • The underlying mechanism on size effect of electronic and optoelectronic properties for vertical stacked MoS2/WSe2 heterostructures is clarified. • The macroscopically measurable quantities and the microscopical bond identities are connected.

  14. Two-Dimensional SiS Layers with Promising Electronic and Optoelectronic Properties: Theoretical Prediction. (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Hui; Zhang, Yueyu; Yin, Wan-Jian; Gong, X G; Yakobson, Boris I; Wei, Su-Huai


    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors can be very useful for novel electronic and optoelectronic applications because of their good material properties. However, all current 2D materials have shortcomings that limit their performance. As a result, new 2D materials are highly desirable. Using atomic transmutation and differential evolution global optimization methods, we identified two group IV-VI 2D materials, Pma2-SiS and silicene sulfide. Pma2-SiS is found to be both chemically, energetically, and thermally stable. Most importantly, Pma2-SiS has shown good electronic and optoelectronic properties, including direct bandgaps suitable for solar cells, good mobility for nanoelectronics, good flexibility of property tuning by layer control and applied strain, and good air stability as well. Therefore, Pma2-SiS is expected to be a promising 2D material in the field of 2D electronics and optoelectronics. The designing principles demonstrated in identifying these two tantalizing examples have great potential to accelerate the finding of new functional 2D materials.

  15. Doping dependent crystal structures and optoelectronic properties of n-type CdSe:Ga nanowries. (United States)

    Hu, Zhizhong; Zhang, Xiujuan; Xie, Chao; Wu, Chunyan; Zhang, Xiaozhen; Bian, Liang; Wu, Yiming; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yuping; Jie, Jiansheng


    Although CdSe nanostructures possess excellent electrical and optical properties, efforts to make nano-optoelectronic devices from CdSe nanostructures have been hampered by the lack of efficient methods to rationally control their structural and electrical characteristics. Here, we report CdSe nanowires (NWs) with doping dependent crystal structures and optoelectronic properties by using gallium (Ga) as the efficient n-type dopant via a simple thermal co-evaporation method. The phase change of CdSe NWs from wurtzite to zinc blende with increased doping level is observed. Systematical measurements on the transport properties of the CdSe:Ga NWs reveal that the NW conductivity could be tuned in a wide range of near nine orders of magnitude by adjusting the Ga doping level and a high electron concentration up to 4.5 × 10(19) cm(-3) is obtained. Moreover, high-performance top-gate field-effect transistors are constructed based on the individual CdSe:Ga NWs by using high-κ HfO(2) as the gate dielectric. The great potential of the CdSe:Ga NWs as high-sensitive photodetectors and nanoscale light emitters is also exploited, revealing the promising applications of the CdSe:Ga NWs in new-generation nano-optoelectronics.

  16. Organic 2D Optoelectronic Crystals: Charge Transport, Emerging Functions, and Their Design Perspective. (United States)

    Park, Sang Kyu; Kim, Jin Hong; Park, Soo Young


    2D organic semiconductor crystals are emerging as a fascinating platform with regard to their applications in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), attributed to their enhanced charge transport efficiency and their new optoelectronic functions, based on their unique morphological features. Advances in material processing techniques have not only enabled easy fabrication of few-monolayered 2D nanostructures but also facilitated exploration of the interesting properties induced by characteristic 2D morphologies. However, to date, only a limited number of representative organic semiconductors have been utilized in organic 2D optoelectronics. Therefore, in order to further spur this research, an intuitive crystal engineering principle for realizing organic 2D crystals is required. In this regard, here, not only the important implications of applying 2D structures to OFET devices are discussed but also a crystal engineering protocol is provided that first predicts molecular arrangements depending on the molecular factors, which is followed by realizing 2D supramolecular synthon networks for different molecular packing motifs. It is expected that 2D organic semiconductor crystals developed by this approach will pave a promising way toward next-generation organic 2D optoelectronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Filterless low-phase-noise frequency-quadrupled microwave generation based on a multimode optoelectronic oscillator (United States)

    Teng, Yichao; Zhang, Pin; Zhang, Baofu; Chen, Yiwang


    A scheme to realize low-phase-noise frequency-quadrupled microwave generation without any filter is demonstrated. In this scheme, a multimode optoelectronic oscillator is mainly contributed by dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators, fiber, photodetector, and microwave amplifier. The local source signal is modulated by a child MZM (MZMa), which is worked at maximum transmission point. Through properly adjusting the bias voltages of the other child MZM (MZMb) and the parent MZM (MZMc), optical carrier is effectively suppressed and second sidebands are retained, then the survived optical signal is fed back to the photodetector and MZMb to form an optoelectronic hybrid resonator and realize frequency-quadrupled signal generation. Due to the high Q-factor and mode selection effect of the optoelectronic hybrid resonator, compared with the source signal, the generated frequency-quadrupled signal has a lower phase noise. The approach has verified by experiments, and 18, 22, and 26 GHz frequency-quadrupled signal are generated by 4.5, 5.5, and 6.5 GHz local source signals. Compared with 4.5 GHz source signal, the phase noise of generated 18 GHz signal at 10 kHz frequency offset has 26.5 dB reduction.

  18. A doping-free approach to carbon nanotube electronics and optoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Mao Peng


    Full Text Available The electronic properties of conventional semiconductor are usually controlled by doping, which introduces carriers into the semiconductor but also distortion and scattering centers to the otherwise perfect lattice, leading to increased scattering and power consumption that becomes the limiting factors for the ultimate performance of the next generation electronic devices. Among new materials that have been considered as potential replacing channel materials for silicon, carbon nanotubes (CNTs have been extensively studied and shown to have all the remarkable electronic properties that an ideal electronic material should have, but controlled doping in CNTs has been proved to be challenging. In this article we will review a doping-free approach for constructing nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices and integrated circuits. This technique relies on a unique property of CNTs, i.e. high quality ohmic contacts can be made to both the conduction band and valence band of a semiconducting CNT. High performance nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices have been fabricated using CNTs with this method and performance approach to that of quantum limit. In principle high performance electronic devices and optoelectronic devices can be integrated on the same carbon nanotube with the same footing, and this opens new possibilities for electronics beyond the Moore law in the future.

  19. Chemical synthesis and characterization of CdSe thin films deposited by SILAR technique for optoelectronic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.B. Chaudhari


    Full Text Available CdSe thin films were deposited on the glass substrate by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method. Different sets of the film are prepared by changing the number of immersion cycles as 30, 40, 50 and 60. Further the effect of a number of immersion cycles on the characteristic structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the films are studied. The XRD studies revealed that the deposited films showed hexagonal structure with most prominent reflection along (1 0 1 plane. Moreover, the peak intensity of (1 0 1 plane is found to be increased as the number of immersion cycles is increased. All the thin films look relatively smooth and homogeneous covering the entire surface area in FESEM image. Optical properties of the CdSe thin films for a different number of immersion cycles were studied, which indicates that the absorbance increases with the increase in the immersion cycles. Furthermore, the optical band-gap in conjunction with the electrical resistivity was found to get decreased with increase in the immersion cycles. A good correlation between the number of immersion cycles and the physical properties indicates a simple method to manipulate the CdSe material properties for optoelectronic applications.

  20. Multi-phase structures of boron-doped copper tin sulfide nanoparticles synthesized by chemical bath deposition for optoelectronic devices (United States)

    Rakspun, Jariya; Kantip, Nathakan; Vailikhit, Veeramol; Choopun, Supab; Tubtimtae, Auttasit


    We investigated the influence of boron doping on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of copper tin sulfide (CTS) nanoparticles coated on a WO3 surface and synthesized using chemical bath deposition. Boron doping at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 wt% was investigated. The X-ray diffraction pattern of CTS showed the presence of monoclinic Cu2Sn3S7, cubic Cu2SnS3, and orthorhombic Cu4SnS4. Boron doping influenced the preferred orientation of the nanoparticles for all phase structures and produced a lattice strain effect and changes in the dislocation density. Increasing the concentration of boron in CTS from 0.5 wt% to 2.0 wt% reduced the band gap for all phases of CTS from 1.46 to 1.29 eV and reduced the optical transmittance. Optical constants, such as the refractive index, extinction coefficient, and dissipation factor, were also obtained for B-doped CTS. The dispersion behavior of the refractive index was investigated in terms of a single oscillator model and the physical parameters were determined. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the successful synthesis of CTS nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammetry indicated that optimum boron doping (<1.5 wt% for all phases) resulted in desirable p-n junction behavior for optoelectronic applications.

  1. A Multi-Wavelength Opto-Electronic Patch Sensor to Effectively Detect Physiological Changes against Human Skin Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangwen Yan


    Full Text Available Different skin pigments among various ethnic group people have an impact on spectrometric illumination on skin surface. To effectively capture photoplethysmographic (PPG signals, a multi-wavelength opto-electronic patch sensor (OEPS together with a schematic architecture of electronics were developed to overcome the drawback of present PPG sensor. To perform a better in vivo physiological measurement against skin pigments, optimal illuminations in OEPS, whose wavelength is compatible with a specific skin type, were optimized to capture a reliable physiological sign of heart rate (HR. A protocol was designed to investigate an impact of five skin types in compliance with Von Luschan’s chromatic scale. Thirty-three healthy male subjects between the ages of 18 and 41 were involved in the protocol implemented by means of the OEPS system. The results show that there is no significant difference (p: 0.09, F = 3.0 in five group tests with the skin types across various activities throughout a series of consistent measurements. The outcome of the present study demonstrates that the OEPS, with its multi-wavelength illumination characteristics, could open a path in multiple applications of different ethnic groups with cost-effective health monitoring.

  2. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo


    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  3. Glass, plastic, and semiconductors: packaging techniques for miniature optoelectronic components (United States)

    Pocha, Michael D.; Garrett, Henry E.; Patel, Rajesh R.; Jones, Leslie M., III; Larson, Michael C.; Emanuel, Mark A.; Bond, Steven W.; Deri, Robert J.; Drayton, R. F.; Petersen, Holly E.; Lowry, Mark E.


    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have extensive experience with the design and development of miniature photonic systems which require novel packaging schemes. Over the years we have developed silicon micro-optical benches to serve as a stable platform for precision mounting of optical and electronic components. We have developed glass ball lenses that can be fabricated in-situ on the microbench substrate. We have modified commercially available molded plastic fiber ribbon connectors (MT) and added thin film multilayer semiconductor coatings to create potentially low-cost wavelength combiners and wavelength selective filters. We have fabricated both vertical-cavity and in-plane semiconductor lasers and amplifiers, and have packaged these and other components into several miniature photonics systems. For example, we have combined the silicon optical bench with standard electronic packaging techniques and our custom-made wavelength-selective filters to develop a four-wavelength wavelength-division-multiplexing transmitter module mounted in a standard 120-pin ceramic PGA package that couples light from several vertical-cavity-surface-emitting-laser arrays into one multimode fiber-ribbon array. The coupling loss can be as low as 2 dB, and the transmitters can be operated at over 1.25 GHz. While these systems were not designed for biomedical or environmental applications, the concepts and techniques are general and widely applicable.

  4. Synthesis of In0.1Ga0.9N/GaN structures grown by MOCVD and MBE for high speed optoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Bandar


    In this work, we report a comparative investigation of InxGa1-xN (SL) and InxGa1-xN/GaN (MQW) structures with an indium content equivalent to x=10%. Both structures are grown on (0001) sapphire substrates using MOCVD and MBE growth techniques. Optical properties are evaluated for samples using PL characteristics. Critical differences between the resulting epitaxy are observed. Microstructures have been assessed in terms of crystalline quality, density of dislocations and surface morphology. We have focused our study towards the fabrication of vertical PIN photodiodes. The technological process has been optimized as a function of the material structure. From the optical and electrical characteristics, this study demonstrates the benefit of InGaN/GaN MQW grown by MOCVD in comparison with MBE for high speed optoelectronic applications.

  5. Study of application and key technology of the high-energy laser weapon in optoelectronic countermeasure (United States)

    Qu, Zhou; Xing, Hao; Wang, Dawei; Wang, Qiugui


    High-energy Laser weapon is a new-style which is developing rapidly nowadays. It is a one kind of direction energy weapon which can destroy the targets or make them invalid. High-energy Laser weapon has many merits such as concentrated energy, fast transmission, long operating range, satisfied precision, fast shift fire, anti-electromagnetic interference, reusability, cost-effectiveness. High-energy Laser weapon has huge potential for modern warfare since its laser beam launch attack to the target by the speed of light. High-energy Laser weapon can be deployed by multiple methods such as skyborne, carrier borne, vehicle-mounted, foundation, space platform. Besides the connection with command and control system, High-energy Laser weapon is consist of high-energy laser and beam steering. Beam steering is comprised of Large diameter launch system and Precision targeting systems. Meanwhile, beam steering includes the distance measurement of target location, detection system of television and infrared sensor, adaptive optical system of Laser atmospheric distortion correction. The development of laser technology is very fast in recent years. A variety of laser sources have been regarded as the key component in many optoelectronic devices. For directed energy weapon, the progress of laser technology has greatly improved the tactical effectiveness, such as increasing the range and strike precision. At the same time, the modern solid-state laser has become the ideal optical source for optical countermeasure, because it has high photoelectric conversion efficiency and small volume or weight. However, the total performance is limited by the mutual cooperation between different subsystems. The optical countermeasure is a complex technique after many years development. The key factor to evaluate the laser weapon can be formulated as laser energy density to target. This article elaborated the laser device technology of optoelectronic countermeasure and Photoelectric tracking

  6. An integrated and multi-purpose microscope for the characterization of atomically thin optoelectronic devices (United States)

    De Sanctis, Adolfo; Jones, Gareth F.; Townsend, Nicola J.; Craciun, Monica F.; Russo, Saverio


    Optoelectronic devices based on graphene and other two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), are the focus of wide research interest. They can be the key to improving bandwidths in telecommunications, capacity in data storage, and new features in consumer electronics, safety devices, and medical equipment. The characterization of these emerging atomically thin materials and devices strongly relies on a set of measurements involving both optical and electronic instrumentation ranging from scanning photocurrent mapping to Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Furthermore, proof-of-concept devices are usually fabricated from micro-meter size flakes, requiring microscopy techniques to characterize them. Current state-of-the-art commercial instruments offer the ability to characterize individual properties of these materials with no option for the in situ characterization of a wide enough range of complementary optical and electrical properties. Presently, the requirement to switch atomically thin materials from one system to another often radically affects the properties of these uniquely sensitive materials through atmospheric contamination. Here, we present an integrated, multi-purpose instrument dedicated to the optical and electrical characterization of devices based on 2D materials which is able to perform low frequency electrical measurements, scanning photocurrent mapping, and Raman, absorption, and PL spectroscopy in one single setup with full control over the polarization and wavelength of light. We characterize this apparatus by performing multiple measurements on graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and Si. The performance and resolution of each individual measurement technique is found to be equivalent to that of commercially available instruments. Contrary to nowadays' commercial systems, a significant advantage of the developed instrument is that for the first time the integration of a wide

  7. Exploring single-layered SnSe honeycomb polymorphs for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications (United States)

    Ul Haq, Bakhtiar; AlFaify, S.; Ahmed, R.; Butt, Faheem K.; Laref, A.; Shkir, Mohd.


    Single-layered tin selenide that shares the same structure with phosphorene and possesses intriguing optoelectronic properties has received great interest as a two-dimensional material beyond graphene and phosphorene. Herein, we explore the optoelectronic response of the newly discovered stable honeycomb derivatives (such as α , β , γ , δ , and ɛ ) of single-layered SnSe in the framework of density functional theory. The α , β , γ , and δ derivatives of a SnSe monolayer have been found to exhibit an indirect band gap, however, the dispersion of their band-gap edges demonstrates multiple direct band gaps at a relatively high energy. The ɛ -SnSe, however, features an intrinsic direct band gap at the high-symmetry Γ point. Their energy band gaps (0.53, 2.32, 1.52, 1.56, and 1.76 eV for α -, β -, γ -, δ -, and ɛ -SnSe, respectively), calculated at the level of the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson approach, mostly fall right in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum and are in good agreement with the available literature. The optical spectra of these two-dimensional (2D) SnSe polymorphs (besides β -SnSe) are highly anisotropic and possess strictly different optical band gaps along independent diagonal components. They show high absorption in the visible and UV ranges. Similarly, the reflectivity, refraction, and optical conductivities inherit strong anisotropy from the dielectric functions as well and are highly visible-UV polarized along the cartesian coordinates, showing them to be suitable for optical filters, polarizers, and shields against UV radiation. Our investigations suggest these single-layered SnSe allotropes as a promising 2D material for next-generation nanoscale optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications beyond graphene and phosphorene.

  8. Recent Developments of an Opto-Electronic THz Spectrometer for High-Resolution Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Ducournau


    Full Text Available A review is provided of sources and detectors that can be employed in the THz range before the description of an opto-electronic source of monochromatic THz radiation. The realized spectrometer has been applied to gas phase spectroscopy. Air-broadening coefficients of HCN are determined and the insensitivity of this technique to aerosols is demonstrated by the analysis of cigarette smoke. A multiple pass sample cell has been used to obtain a sensitivity improvement allowing transitions of the volatile organic compounds to be observed. A solution to the frequency metrology is presented and promises to yield accurate molecular line center measurements.

  9. Recent Developments of an Opto-Electronic THz Spectrometer for High-Resolution Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Hindle, Francis; Yang, Chun; Mouret, Gael; Cuisset, Arnaud; Bocquet, Robin; Lampin, Jean-François; Blary, Karine; Peytavit, Emilien; Akalin, Tahsin; Ducournau, Guillaume


    A review is provided of sources and detectors that can be employed in the THz range before the description of an opto-electronic source of monochromatic THz radiation. The realized spectrometer has been applied to gas phase spectroscopy. Air-broadening coefficients of HCN are determined and the insensitivity of this technique to aerosols is demonstrated by the analysis of cigarette smoke. A multiple pass sample cell has been used to obtain a sensitivity improvement allowing transitions of the volatile organic compounds to be observed. A solution to the frequency metrology is presented and promises to yield accurate molecular line center measurements.

  10. Recent Developments of an Opto-Electronic THz Spectrometer for High-Resolution Spectroscopy (United States)

    Hindle, Francis; Yang, Chun; Mouret, Gael; Cuisset, Arnaud; Bocquet, Robin; Lampin, Jean-François; Blary, Karine; Peytavit, Emilien; Akalin, Tahsin; Ducournau, Guillaume


    A review is provided of sources and detectors that can be employed in the THz range before the description of an opto-electronic source of monochromatic THz radiation. The realized spectrometer has been applied to gas phase spectroscopy. Air-broadening coefficients of HCN are determined and the insensitivity of this technique to aerosols is demonstrated by the analysis of cigarette smoke. A multiple pass sample cell has been used to obtain a sensitivity improvement allowing transitions of the volatile organic compounds to be observed. A solution to the frequency metrology is presented and promises to yield accurate molecular line center measurements. PMID:22291552

  11. Photon management of GaN-based optoelectronic devices via nanoscaled phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Yu-Lin


    Photon management is essential in improving the performances of optoelectronic devices including light emitting diodes, solar cells and photo detectors. Beyond the advances in material growth and device structure design, photon management via nanoscaled phenomena have also been demonstrated as a promising way for further modifying/improving the device performance. The accomplishments achieved by photon management via nanoscaled phenomena include strain-induced polarization field management, crystal quality improvement, light extraction/harvesting enhancement, radiation pattern control, and spectrum management. In this review, we summarize recent development, challenges and underlying physics of photon management in GaN-based light emitting diodes and solar cells. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel soluble fluorene-thienothiadiazole and fluorene-carbazole copolymers for optoelectronics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cimrová, Věra; Kmínek, Ivan; Výprachtický, Drahomír


    Roč. 295, č. 1 (2010), s. 65-70 ISSN 1022-1360. [Prague Meetings on Macromolecules /73./ New Frontiers in Macromolecular Science: From Macromolecular Concepts of Living Matter to Polymers for Better Quality of Life. Prague, 05.07.2009-09.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06031; GA AV ČR IAA4050409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : fluorene – thienothiadiazole copolymers * photovoltaics * fluorene-carbazole copolymers Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics , Electrical Engineering

  13. Nonlinearity, optoelectronic properties, and their correlations for some mixed ternary defect chalcopyrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S Dutta


    The refractive index, optical nonlinearity, lowest energy band gap, and other related parameters of some mixed defect ternary chalcopyrites are calculated using Levine's bond charge model and its modification developed by Samanta et al. for multinary and mixed compounds. The dependence of the band gap energy on the average quantum number, molecular weight, and anion displacement parameter is shown for the first time, which will be very useful for designing various optoelectronic and nonlinear laser devices. (laser applications and other aspects of quantum electronics)

  14. Curriculum design and German student exchange for Sino-German Bachelor program majored in optoelectronics engineering (United States)

    Zheng, Jihong; Fuhrmann, Thomas; Xu, Boqing; Schreiner, Rupert; Jia, Hongzhi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ning; Seebauer, Gudrun; Zhu, Jiyan


    Different higher education backgrounds in China and Germany led to challenges in the curriculum design at the beginning of our cooperative bachelor program in Optoelectronics Engineering. We see challenges in different subject requirements from both sides and in the German language requirements for Chinese students. The curriculum was optimized according to the ASIIN criteria, which makes it acceptable and understandable by both countries. German students are integrated into the Chinese class and get the same lectures like their Chinese colleagues. Intercultural and curriculum challenges are successfully solved. The results are summarized to provide an example for other similar international programs.

  15. Photonic information processing beyond Turing: an optoelectronic implementation of reservoir computing. (United States)

    Larger, L; Soriano, M C; Brunner, D; Appeltant, L; Gutierrez, J M; Pesquera, L; Mirasso, C R; Fischer, I


    Many information processing challenges are difficult to solve with traditional Turing or von Neumann approaches. Implementing unconventional computational methods is therefore essential and optics provides promising opportunities. Here we experimentally demonstrate optical information processing using a nonlinear optoelectronic oscillator subject to delayed feedback. We implement a neuro-inspired concept, called Reservoir Computing, proven to possess universal computational capabilities. We particularly exploit the transient response of a complex dynamical system to an input data stream. We employ spoken digit recognition and time series prediction tasks as benchmarks, achieving competitive processing figures of merit.

  16. Fabrication of heteroepitaxial templates for GaN-based optoelectronic devices


    Lang, Teemu


    In this work the growth of GaN and AlGaN thin-films by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on sapphire substrates is studied. The objective of the study is to improve the performance of optoelectronic devices by reducing the density of threading dislocations (TDs) in nitride semiconductor films. The quality of the thin-films is analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A new multistep method for the growth of...

  17. Optoelectronic performance of poly(p-phenylenevinylene)-based heterostructures evaluated by scanning probe techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jan; Rezek, Bohuslav; Cimrová, Věra; Výprachtický, Drahomír; Hörhold, H. H.; Ledinský, Martin; Fejfar, Antonín


    Roč. 246, 11-12 (2009), s. 2828-2831 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD202/09/H041; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06040; GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06031 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : organic bulk-heterojunction * atomic force microscopy * Kelvin force microscopy * Raman scattering * optoelectronic Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.150, year: 2009

  18. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system


    Kaminski Stanislaw; Kaminski Piotr; Kaminska Dorota; Trzcinski Jerzy


    The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size ...

  19. Carbon dots—Emerging light emitters for bioimaging, cancer therapy and optoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hola, Katerina


    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Carbon dots represent an emerging class of fluorescent materials and provide a broad application potential in various fields of biomedicine and optoelectronics. In this review, we introduce various synthetic strategies and basic photoluminescence properties of carbon dots, and then address their advanced in vitro and in vivo bioapplications including cell imaging, photoacoustic imaging, photodynamic therapy and targeted drug delivery. We further consider the applicability of carbon dots as components of light emitting diodes, which include carbon dot based electroluminescence, optical down-conversion, and hybrid plasmonic devices. The review concludes with an outlook towards future developments of these emerging light-emitting materials.

  20. Photoluminescent behavior of propylene carbonate and poly (methylmethacrylate) blend for transparent optoelectronic devices (United States)

    Safna Hussan K., P.; Thayyil, Mohamed Shahin; Deshpande, S. K.; Jinitha T., V.


    Polymer blend formed by propylene carbonate with poly (methylmethacrylate) bypassed the degradation of PMMA. The miscibility of the blend was studied by SEM and XRD. The transparency and also the absorbance of the film were measured victimization UV-Vis spectroscopy and showed that it is transparent above 90%. It was found from the emission spectroscopy that, it exhibits strong luminescence. Thus, the blend can be used as a matrix to entrap novel conducting materials (rare earth metals, complexes, ionic liquids, conducting materials etc.,) to get a stable miscible, transparent, conducting and luminescent glass film for optoelectronic devices.

  1. Femtosecond optical response of Y-Ba-Cu-O films and their applications in optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolewski, R.; Shi, L.; Gong, T.; Xiong, W.; Weng, X.; Kostoulas, Y.; Fauchet, P.M. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)


    The authors report systematic studies of the femtosecond transient reflectivity in Y-Ba-Cu-0 (YBCO) thin films at temperatures ranging from 12 to 300 K. By using a 2-eV-pump/white-light-probe technique, they have very accurately measured the ultrafast optical response of YBCO as a function of the optical frequency, film oxygen content, and excitation intensity. The results shed new light on the thermomodulation model, routinely used to interpret time-domain reflectivity data in high-temperature superconductors. They also review the current state of the art in the ultrafast optoelectronic response of YBCO.

  2. Novel nanostructures of ZnO for nanoscale photonics, optoelectronics, piezoelectricity, and sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.L. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    Wurtzite-structured semiconductors such as ZnO, GaN, AlN, CdSe and ZnS are important materials for nanoscale devices. Zinc oxide, for example, is a unique material that exhibits semiconducting, piezoelectric, and pyroelectric properties. Using a solid-vapor phase thermal sublimation technique, nanocombs, nanorings, nanohelixes/nanosprings, nanobows, nanobelts, nanowires, and nanocages of ZnO have been grown under specific growth conditions. This paper is about the synthesis, structure, growth mechanisms, and potential applications of these nanostructures in optoelectronics, sensors, transducers, and biomedical science. (orig.)

  3. Nanopatterned Metallic Films for Use As Transparent Conductive Electrodes in Optoelectronic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Catrysse, Peter B.


    We investigate the use of nanopatterned metallic films as transparent conductive electrodes in optoelectronic devices. We find that the physics of nanopatterned electrodes, which are often optically thin metallic films, differs from that of optically thick metallic films. We analyze the optical properties when performing a geometrical transformation that maintains the electrical properties. For one-dimensional patterns of metallic wires, the analysis favors tall and narrow wires. Our design principles remain valid for oblique incidence and readily carry over to two-dimensional patterns. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  4. A control unit for a laser module of optoelectronic computing environment with dynamic architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipinskii A. Y.


    Full Text Available The paper presents the developed control unit of laser modules of optoelectronic acousto-optic computing environment. The unit is based on ARM micro¬con¬troller of Cortex M3 family, and allows alternating between recording (erase and reading modes in accordance with a predetermined algorithm and settings — exposure time and intensity. The principal electric circuit of the presented device, the block diagram of microcontroller algorithm, and the example application of the developed control unit in the layout of the experimental setup are provided.

  5. The Electrical and Optical Properties of Organometal Halide Perovskites Relevant to Optoelectronic Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Adinolfi, Valerio


    Organometal halide perovskites are under intense study for use in optoelectronics. Methylammonium and formamidinium lead iodide show impressive performance as photovoltaic materials; a premise that has spurred investigations into light-emitting devices and photodetectors. Herein, the optical and electrical material properties of organometal halide perovskites are reviewed. An overview is given on how the material composition and morphology are tied to these properties, and how these properties ultimately affect device performance. Material attributes and techniques used to estimate them are analyzed for different perovskite materials, with a particular focus on the bandgap, mobility, diffusion length, carrier lifetime, and trap-state density.

  6. Displacement measurement using an optoelectronic oscillator with an intra-loop Michelson interferometer. (United States)

    Lee, Jehyun; Park, Sooyoung; Seo, Dae Han; Yim, Sin Hyuk; Yoon, Seokchan; Cho, D


    We report on measurement of small displacements with sub-nanometer precision using an optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) with an intra-loop Michelson interferometer. In comparison with conventional homodyne and heterodyne detection methods, where displacement appears as a power change or a phase shift, respectively, in the OEO detection, the displacement produces a shift in the oscillation frequency. In comparison with typical OEO sensors, where the frequency shift is proportional to the OEO oscillation frequency in radio-frequency domain, the frequency shift in our method with an intra-loop interferometer is proportional to an optical frequency. We constructed a hybrid apparatus and compared characteristics of the OEO and heterodyne detection methods.

  7. Mixed-mode oscillations via canard explosions in light-emitting diodes with optoelectronic feedback (United States)

    Marino, F.; Ciszak, M.; Abdalah, S. F.; Al-Naimee, K.; Meucci, R.; Arecchi, F. T.


    Chaotically spiking attractors in semiconductor lasers with optoelectronic feedback have been recently observed to be the result of canard phenomena in three-dimensional phase space (incomplete homoclinic scenarios). Since light-emitting diodes display the same dynamics and are much more easily controllable, we use one of these systems to complete the attractor analysis demonstrating experimentally and theoretically the occurrence of complex sequences of periodic mixed-mode oscillations. In particular, we investigate the transition between periodic and chaotic mixed-mode states and analyze the effects of the unavoidable experimental noise on these transitions.

  8. Extreme Radiation Hardness and Space Qualification of AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ke-Xun; MacNeil, Lawrence; Balakrishnan, Kathik; Hultgren, Eric; Goebel, John; Bilenko, Yuri; Yang, Jinwei; Sun, Wenhong; Shatalov, Max; Hu, Xuhong; Gaska, Remis


    Unprecedented radiation hardness and environment robustness are required in the new generation of high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments and deep space exploration. National Ignition Facility (NIF) break-even shots will have a neutron yield of 10 15 or higher. The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) mission instruments will be irradiated with a total fluence of 10 12 protons/cm 2 during the space journey. In addition, large temperature variations and mechanical shocks are expected in these applications under extreme conditions. Hefty radiation and thermal shields are required for Si and GaAs based electronics and optoelectronics devices. However, for direct illumination and imaging applications, shielding is not a viable option. It is an urgent task to search for new semiconductor technologies and to develop radiation hard and environmentally robust optoelectronic devices. We will report on our latest systematic experimental studies on radiation hardness and space qualifications of AlGaN optoelectronic devices: Deep UV Light Emitting Diodes (DUV LEDs) and solarblind UV Photodiodes (PDs). For custom designed AlGaN DUV LEDs with a central emission wavelength of 255 nm, we have demonstrated its extreme radiation hardness up to 2 x 10 12 protons/cm 2 with 63.9 MeV proton beams. We have demonstrated an operation lifetime of over 26,000 hours in a nitrogen rich environment, and 23,000 hours of operation in vacuum without significant power drop and spectral shift. The DUV LEDs with multiple packaging styles have passed stringent space qualifications with 14 g random vibrations, and 21 cycles of 100K temperature cycles. The driving voltage, current, emission spectra and optical power (V-I-P) operation characteristics exhibited no significant changes after the space environmental tests. The DUV LEDs will be used for photoelectric charge management in space flights. For custom designed AlGaN UV photodiodes with a central response wavelength of 255 nm, we have

  9. The Role of Surface Tension in the Crystallization of Metal Halide Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Zhumekenov, Ayan A.


    The exciting intrinsic properties discovered in single crystals of metal halide perovskites still await their translation into optoelectronic devices. The poor understanding and control of the crystallization process of these materials are current bottlenecks retarding the shift towards single crystal-based optoelectronics. Here we theoretically and experimentally elucidate the role of surface tension in the rapid synthesis of perovskite single crystals by inverse temperature crystallization (ITC). Understanding the nucleation and growth mechanisms enabled us to exploit surface tension to direct the growth of monocrystalline films of perovskites (AMX3, where A = CH3NH3+ or MA; M = Pb2+, Sn2+; X = Br-, I-) on the solution surface. We achieve up to 1 cm2-sized monocrystalline films with thickness on the order of the charge carrier diffusion length (~5-10 µm). Our work paves the way to control the crystallization process of perovskites, including thin film deposition, which is essential to advance the performance benchmarks of perovskite optoelectronics.

  10. Optoelectronic study and annealing stability of room temperature pulsed laser ablated ZnSe polycrystalline thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Taj Muhammad, E-mail:; Zakria, M.; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Shakoor, Rana I.


    In principal, we described stability of the room temperature ZnSe thin films with thermal annealing deposited onto glass by pulsed laser deposition technique using third harmonic 355 nm of Nd: YAG laser beam. Optoelectronic analysis and stability with thermal annealing was described in terms of structural and optical properties. These properties were investigated via X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscope, Raman, Fourier transform infrared and photoluminescence spectroscopies. From the strong reflection corresponding to the (1 1 1) plane (2θ=27.48°) and the longitudinal optical “LO” phonon modes at 250 cm{sup −1} and 500 cm{sup −1} in the X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra, a polycrystalline zincblende structure of the film was established. At 300 and 350 °C annealing temperatures, the film crystallites were preferentially oriented with the (1 1 1) plane parallel to the substrate and became amorphous at 400 °C. Atomic force microscopic images showed that the morphologies of ZnSe films became smooth with root mean squared roughness 9.86 nm after annealing at 300 and 350 °C while a rougher surface was observed for the amorphous film at 400 °C. Fourier transform infrared study illustrated the chemical nature and Zn–Se bonding in the deposited films. For the as-deposited and annealed samples at 300 and 350 °C, scanning electron micrographs revealed mono-dispersed indistinguishable ZnSe grains and smooth morphological structure which changed to a cracking and bumpy surface after annealing at 400 °C. The physical phenomenon of annealing induced morphological changes could be explained in terms of “structure zone model”. Excitonic emission at 456 nm was observed for both as-deposited and annealed film at 350 °C. The transmission spectrum shows oscillatory behavior because of the thin film interference and exhibited a high degree of transparency down to a wavelength ∼500 nm in the IR region. Energy band-gap was

  11. Corners of normal matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The structure of general normal matrices is far more complicated than that of two special kinds — hermitian and unitary. There are many interesting theorems for hermitian and unitary matrices whose extensions to arbitrary normal matrices have proved to be extremely recalcitrant (see e.g., [1]). The problem whose study we ...

  12. Normalized medical information visualization. (United States)

    Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Ricardo; Muñoz, Adolfo; Somolinos, Roberto; Castro, Antonio; Velázquez, Iker; Moreno, Oscar; García-Pacheco, José L; Pascual, Mario; Salvador, Carlos H


    A new mark-up programming language is introduced in order to facilitate and improve the visualization of ISO/EN 13606 dual model-based normalized medical information. This is the first time that visualization of normalized medical information is addressed and the programming language is intended to be used by medical non-IT professionals.

  13. Baby Poop: What's Normal? (United States)

    ... I'm breast-feeding my newborn and her bowel movements are yellow and mushy. Is this normal for baby poop? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. Yellow, mushy bowel movements are perfectly normal for breast-fed babies. Still, ...

  14. Selection of physiological parameters for optoelectronic system supporting behavioral therapy of autistic children (United States)

    Landowska, A.; Karpienko, K.; Wróbel, M.; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M.


    In this article the procedure of selection of physiological parameters for optoelectronic system supporting behavioral therapy of autistic children is proposed. Authors designed and conducted an experiment in which a group of 30 health volunteers (16 females and 14 males) were examined. Under controlled conditions people were exposed to a stressful situation caused by the picture or sound (1kHz constant sound, which was gradually silenced and finished with a shot sound). For each of volunteers, a set of physiological parameters were recorded, including: skin conductance, heart rate, peripheral temperature, respiration rate and electromyography. The selected characteristics were measured in different locations in order to choose the most suitable one for the designed therapy supporting system. The bio-statistical analysis allowed us to discern the proper physiological parameters that are most associated to changes due to emotional state of a patient, such as: skin conductance, temperatures and respiration rate. This allowed us to design optoelectronic sensors network for supporting behavioral therapy of children with autism.

  15. Rare earth doped III-nitride semiconductors for spintronic and optoelectronic applications (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Palai, Ratnakar


    Since last four decades the information and communication technologies are relying on the semiconductor materials. Currently a great deal of attention is being focused on adding spin degree-of-freedom into semiconductor to create a new area of solid-state electronics, called spintronics. In spintronics not only the current but also its spin state is controlled. Such materials need to be good semiconductors for easy integration in typical integrated circuits with high sensitivity to the spin orientation, especially room temperature ferromagnetism being an important desirable property. GaN is considered to be the most important semiconductor after silicon. It is widely used for the production of green, blue, UV, and white LEDs in full color displays, traffic lights, automotive lightings, and general room lighting using white LEDs. GaN-based systems also show promise for microwave and high power electronics intended for radar, satellite, wireless base stations and spintronic applications. Rare earth (Yb, Eu, Er, and Tm) doped GaN shows many interesting optoelectronic and magnetoptic properties e. g. sharp emission from UV through visible to IR, radiation hardness, and ferromagnetism. The talk will be focused on fabrication, optoelectronic (photoluminescence, cathodeluminescence, magnetic, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) properties of some rare earth doped GaN and InGaN semiconductor nanostructures grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and future applications.

  16. Optoelectronic insights into the photovoltaic losses from photocurrent, voltage, and energy perspectives (United States)

    Shang, Aixue; An, Yidan; Ma, Dong; Li, Xiaofeng


    Photocurrent and voltage losses are the fundamental limitations for improving the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. It is indeed that a comprehensive and quantitative differentiation of the performance degradation in solar cells will promote the understanding of photovoltaic physics as well as provide a useful guidance to design highly-efficient and cost-effective solar cells. Based on optoelectronic simulation that addresses electromagnetic and carrier-transport responses in a coupled finite-element method, we report a detailed quantitative analysis of photocurrent and voltage losses in solar cells. We not only concentrate on the wavelength-dependent photocurrent loss, but also quantify the variations of photocurrent and operating voltage under different forward electrical biases. Further, the device output power and power losses due to carrier recombination, thermalization, Joule heat, and Peltier heat are studied through the optoelectronic simulation. The deep insight into the gains and losses of the photocurrent, voltage, and energy will contribute to the accurate clarifications of the performance degradation of photovoltaic devices, enabling a better control of the photovoltaic behaviors for high performance.

  17. Analysis on the dynamic error for optoelectronic scanning coordinate measurement network (United States)

    Shi, Shendong; Yang, Linghui; Lin, Jiarui; Guo, Siyang; Ren, Yongjie


    Large-scale dynamic three-dimension coordinate measurement technique is eagerly demanded in equipment manufacturing. Noted for advantages of high accuracy, scale expandability and multitask parallel measurement, optoelectronic scanning measurement network has got close attention. It is widely used in large components jointing, spacecraft rendezvous and docking simulation, digital shipbuilding and automated guided vehicle navigation. At present, most research about optoelectronic scanning measurement network is focused on static measurement capacity and research about dynamic accuracy is insufficient. Limited by the measurement principle, the dynamic error is non-negligible and restricts the application. The workshop measurement and positioning system is a representative which can realize dynamic measurement function in theory. In this paper we conduct deep research on dynamic error resources and divide them two parts: phase error and synchronization error. Dynamic error model is constructed. Based on the theory above, simulation about dynamic error is carried out. Dynamic error is quantized and the rule of volatility and periodicity has been found. Dynamic error characteristics are shown in detail. The research result lays foundation for further accuracy improvement.

  18. Optoelectronic studies on heterocyclic bases of deoxyribonucleic acid for DNA photonics. (United States)

    El-Diasty, Fouad; Abdel-Wahab, Fathy


    The optoelectronics study of large molecules, particularly π-stacking molecules, such as DNA is really an extremely difficult task. We perform first electronic structure calculations on the heterocyclic bases of 2'-deoxyribonucleic acid based on Lorentz-Fresnel dispersion theory. In the UV-VIS range of spectrum, many of the optoelectronic parameters for DNA four bases namely adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine are calculated and discussed. The results demonstrate that adenine has the highest hyperpolarizability, whereas thymine has the lowest hyperpolarizability. Cytosine has the lower average oscillator energy and the higher lattice energy. Thymine infers the most stable nucleic base with the lower phonon energy. Thymine also has the highest average oscillator energy and the lower lattice energy. Moreover, the four nucleic acid bases have large band gap energies less than 5 eV with a semiconducting behavior. Guanine shows the smallest band gap and the highest Fermi level energy, whereas adenine elucidates the highest band gap energy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The impact of semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries on downstream perfluorinated chemical contamination in Taiwanese rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)], E-mail:; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Lo, Chao-Chun [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)


    This study provides the first evidence on the influence of the semiconductor and electronics industries on perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) contamination in receiving rivers. We have quantified ten PFCs, including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs: PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs: PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA) in semiconductor, electronic, and optoelectronic industrial wastewaters and their receiving water bodies (Taiwan's Keya, Touchien, and Xiaoli rivers). PFOS was found to be the major constituent in semiconductor wastewaters (up to 0.13 mg/L). However, different PFC distributions were found in electronics plant wastewaters; PFOA was the most significant PFC, contributing on average 72% to the effluent water samples, followed by PFOS (16%) and PFDA (9%). The distribution of PFCs in the receiving rivers was greatly impacted by industrial sources. PFOS, PFOA and PFDA were predominant and prevalent in all the river samples, with PFOS detected at the highest concentrations (up to 5.4 {mu}g/L). - The semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries are the primary source of PFC contamination in downstream aqueous environments.

  20. Opto-electronic DNA chip-based integrated card for clinical diagnostics. (United States)

    Marchand, Gilles; Broyer, Patrick; Lanet, Véronique; Delattre, Cyril; Foucault, Frédéric; Menou, Lionel; Calvas, Bernard; Roller, Denis; Ginot, Frédéric; Campagnolo, Raymond; Mallard, Frédéric


    Clinical diagnostics is one of the most promising applications for microfluidic lab-on-a-chip or lab-on-card systems. DNA chips, which provide multiparametric data, are privileged tools for genomic analysis. However, automation of molecular biology protocol and use of these DNA chips in fully integrated systems remains a great challenge. Simplicity of chip and/or card/instrument interfaces is amongst the most critical issues to be addressed. Indeed, current detection systems for DNA chip reading are often complex, expensive, bulky and even limited in terms of sensitivity or accuracy. Furthermore, for liquid handling in the lab-on-cards, many devices use complex and bulky systems, either to directly manipulate fluids, or to ensure pneumatic or mechanical control of integrated valves. All these drawbacks prevent or limit the use of DNA-chip-based integrated systems, for point-of-care testing or as a routine diagnostics tool. We present here a DNA-chip-based protocol integration on a plastic card for clinical diagnostics applications including: (1) an opto-electronic DNA-chip, (2) fluid handling using electrically activated embedded pyrotechnic microvalves with closing/opening functions. We demonstrate both fluidic and electric packaging of the optoelectronic DNA chip without major alteration of its electronical and biological functionalities, and fluid control using novel electrically activable pyrotechnic microvalves. Finally, we suggest a complete design of a card dedicated to automation of a complex biological protocol with a fully electrical fluid handling and DNA chip reading.

  1. The impact of semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries on downstream perfluorinated chemical contamination in Taiwanese rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Lo, Chao-Chun


    This study provides the first evidence on the influence of the semiconductor and electronics industries on perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) contamination in receiving rivers. We have quantified ten PFCs, including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs: PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs: PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA) in semiconductor, electronic, and optoelectronic industrial wastewaters and their receiving water bodies (Taiwan's Keya, Touchien, and Xiaoli rivers). PFOS was found to be the major constituent in semiconductor wastewaters (up to 0.13 mg/L). However, different PFC distributions were found in electronics plant wastewaters; PFOA was the most significant PFC, contributing on average 72% to the effluent water samples, followed by PFOS (16%) and PFDA (9%). The distribution of PFCs in the receiving rivers was greatly impacted by industrial sources. PFOS, PFOA and PFDA were predominant and prevalent in all the river samples, with PFOS detected at the highest concentrations (up to 5.4 μg/L). - The semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries are the primary source of PFC contamination in downstream aqueous environments

  2. Structural phase transition and opto-electronic properties of NaZnAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djied, A.; Seddik, T.; Merabiha, O. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique, Université de Mascara, 29000 (Algeria); Murtaza, G. [Materials Modeling Lab, Department of Physics, Islamia College University, Peshawar (Pakistan); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique, Université de Mascara, 29000 (Algeria); Ahmed, R., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Bin-Omran, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Uğur, Ş. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Gazi University, 06500 Teknikokullar, Ankara (Turkey); Bouhemadou, A. [Laboratory for Developing New Materials and their Characterization, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University Setif 1, 19000 Setif (Algeria)


    Highlights: • First competent characterizations of NaZnAs at the level of FP-LAPW+lo. • NaZnAs, a potential alternative candidate to III-V for photovoltaic applications. • NaZnAs, a cheaper and abundantly available direct band gap semiconductor. • Potential material for solar radiation absorber from infrared to ultraviolet. - Abstract: In this study, we predict the structural phase transitions as well as opto-electronic properties of the filled-tetrahedral (Nowotny-Juza) NaZnAs compound. Calculations employ the full potential (FP) linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) plus local orbitals (lo) scheme. The exchange-correlation potential is treated within the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew-Burke and Ernzerhof (GGA-PBE). In addition, Tran and Blaha (TB) modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential is also used to obtain more accurate optoelectronic properties. Geometry optimization is performed to obtain reliable total energies and other structural parameters for each NaZnAs phase. In our study, the sequence of the structural phase transition on compression is Cu{sub 2}Sb-type → β → α phase. NaZnAs is a direct (Γ-Γ) band gap semiconductor for all the structural phases. However, compared to PBE-GGA, the mBJ approximation reproduces better fundamental band gaps. Moreover, for insight into its potential for photovoltaic applications, different optical parameters are studied.

  3. Ti doped amorphous carbon (Al/Ti-a:C/p-Si/Al) photodiodes for optoelectronic applications (United States)

    Aslan, Naim; Koç, Mümin Mehmet; Dere, Ayşegül; Arif, Bilal; Erkovan, Mustafa; Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Yakuphanoglu, Fahrettin


    Electrochemical deposition technique was used to fabricate titanium doped amorphous carbon (Ti doped a:C) Al/Ti-a:C/p-Si/Al photodiode. The effects of illumination on the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the Al/a:C/p-Si/Al doped Ti diode for optoelectronic applications were investigated. The reverse current of the diode increased with the increasing illumination intensities when the bias voltage was applied. By using the forward bias I-V characteristics, the ideality factor (n) and barrier height (Φb) of Al/Ti-a:C/p-Si photodiode structure was found as 1,84 and 0,50 eV, respectively. In addition, the capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G-V) measurements of the diode were studied in the frequency range of 100 kHz-600 kHz. The measured values of the capacitance decreased with the increasing frequency. The photoelectrical properties of Al/Ti-a:C/p-Si/Al device indicates that the photodiode investigated in this paper has great potential to be used in optoelectronic device applications and in industry.

  4. Materials and devices for silicon-based optoelectronics. Materials Research Society symposium proceedings Volume 486

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polman, A.; Coffa, S.; Soref, R.


    The field of Si-based optoelectronics is greatly expanding and attracting increased interest from the scientific community. This interest is largely motivated by the possibility of combining, on the same substrate, the excellent data-processing performances of Si-based electronic functions with the unrivaled capability of light in the transmission of information. In fact, experimental efforts have led to several breakthroughs that promise new approaches and potential commercialization of low-cost Si-based photonic devices. Physical properties and optical performance of various materials (nanocrystals, porous Si, Er-doped Si and SiGe, to mention just a few examples) are now reasonably well understood, and the requirements necessary for efficient device performances have been elucidated. The field has clearly shifted its focus from the pure engineering of materials to the use of these properties to develop and optimize novel optical devices. Experimental and theoretical contributions from academia, research laboratories and industry are presented here and highlight both the state of the art as well as future trends in this rapidly developing field. Topics include: Si-based integrated optoelectronics--state of the art and perspectives; waveguides and modulators; integrated and discrete light sources and detectors; properties and applications of silicon nanocrystals; materials for IR and visible light emission; and new materials and device concepts.

  5. Bridging Photonics and Optoelectronics Curriculum for the Solar Photovoltaic and LED Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Su


    Full Text Available The gap between learning courses and practical demands has existed in Taiwanese solar photovoltaic and LED industries; therefore, this study attempts to analyze the existing curriculum design of universities. This study collected the current 103 course programs from all optoelectronics-related departments in Taiwanese 36 colleges and universities and sorted these curriculums by three domains of education objectives theory. This theoretical framework was verified on the basis of samples from 150 Taiwanese industrial experts and 354 optoelectronics-related undergraduates and postgraduates. We found that the levels of correlation among the independent variables including cognitive, affective, and skill-based domains and the dependent variable employability are all positively related to each other. We also found the currently curriculum design in Taiwanese universities rarely fit into theory of education objectives from the results of multiple regression analysis. Industrial and student’s group also have few consistent ideas on courses within the curriculum. Finally in order to bridge the gap between learning and practical application, the study provides an idea on curriculum design and suggests that curriculum review should be executed by industrial experts to confirm the courses related to the employability.

  6. Investigation of charge transport and electromagnetic effects in advanced microelectronics and optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, T.; Booth, T.; Gray, M. [and others


    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The next generation of electronic microchips will utilize components with sub-micron feature size and optoelectronic devices with picosecond response time. Fundamental understanding of the device performance can only be obtained through first principles physics modeling of charge transport and electromagnetic effects in realistic geometries with material interfaces and dispersive properties. We have developed a general model incorporating important physics such as charge transport processes in materials with multilevel band structures and electromagnetic effects to simulate device characteristics. Accurate treatment of material interfaces and boundaries is included. The Monte Carlo charge transport is coupled self-consistently to Maxwell`s equations to accurately model scattering processes in the presence of an externally biased potential. This detailed multidimensional simulation capability is compared with and verified by experimental data, and could become an industrial standard for benchmarking and improving the {open_quotes}reduced model{close_quotes} codes used for semiconductor design. Specific tasks are the extension of existing capabilities in particle-in-cell plasma simulation technique and Monte Carlo charge transport to study the physics of charged particle dynamics in realistic microelectronic devices, such as bipolar semiconductors, heterojunction transistors, and optoelectronic switches. Our approach has been based on the coupled particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo technique, which can simultaneously treat both electromagnetic wave propagation and charged-particle transport.

  7. Multifunctional Material with Efficient Optoelectronic Integrated Molecular Switches Based on a Flexible Thin Film/Crystal. (United States)

    Xu, Chang; Zhang, Wan-Ying; Ye, Qiong; Fu, Da-Wei


    Switchable materials, due to their potential applications in the fields of sensors, photonic devices, digital processing, etc., have been developed drastically. However, they still face great challenges in effectively inducing multiple molecular switching. Herein organic-inorganic hybrid compounds, an emerging class of hydrosoluble optoelectronic-active materials, welcome a new member with smart unique optical/electrical (fluorescence/dielectric) dual switches (switching ON/OFF), that is, [C 5 H 13 NBr][Cd 3 Br 7 ] (1) in the form of both a bulk crystal and an ultraflexible monodirectional thin film, which simultaneously exhibits fast dielectric/fluorescent dual switching triggered by an optical/thermal/electric signal with a high signal-to-noise ratio of 35 (the highest one in the known optical/dielectric dual molecular switches). Additionally, the exceptional stability/fatigue resistance as well as the fantastic extensibility/compactness of thin films (more than 10000 times folding over 90°), makes 1 an ideal candidate for single-molecule intelligent wearable devices and seamlessly integrated optoelectronic multiswitchable devices. This opens up a new route toward advanced light/electric high-performance switches/memories based on organic-inorganic hybrid compounds.

  8. An Opto-Electronic Sensor for Detecting Soil Microarthropods and Estimating Their Size in Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor I. Gedeon


    Full Text Available Methods to estimate density of soil-dwelling arthropods efficiently, accurately and continuously are critical for investigating soil biological activity and evaluating soil management practices. Soil-dwelling arthropods are currently monitored manually. This method is invasive, and time- and labor-consuming. Here we describe an infrared opto-electronic sensor for detection of soil microarthropods in the size range of 0.4–10 mm. The sensor is built in a novel microarthropod trap designed for field conditions. It allows automated, on-line, in situ detection and body length estimation of soil microarthropods. In the opto-electronic sensor the light source is an infrared LED. Two plano-convex optical lenses are placed along the virtual optical axis. One lens on the receiver side is placed between the observation space at 0.5–1 times its focal length from the sensor, and another emitter side lens is placed between the observation space and the light source in the same way. This paper describes the setup and operating mechanism of the sensor and the control unit, and through basic tests it demonstrates its potential in automated detection of soil microarthropods. The sensor may be used for monitoring activities, especially for remote observation activities in soil and insect ecology or pest control.

  9. Optoelectronic devices based on electrically tunable p-n diodes in a monolayer dichalcogenide (United States)

    Baugher, Britton W. H.; Churchill, Hugh O. H.; Yang, Yafang; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo


    The p-n junction is the functional element of many electronic and optoelectronic devices, including diodes, bipolar transistors, photodetectors, light-emitting diodes and solar cells. In conventional p-n junctions, the adjacent p- and n-type regions of a semiconductor are formed by chemical doping. Ambipolar semiconductors, such as carbon nanotubes, nanowires and organic molecules, allow for p-n junctions to be configured and modified by electrostatic gating. This electrical control enables a single device to have multiple functionalities. Here, we report ambipolar monolayer WSe2 devices in which two local gates are used to define a p-n junction within the WSe2 sheet. With these electrically tunable p-n junctions, we demonstrate both p-n and n-p diodes with ideality factors better than 2. Under optical excitation, the diodes demonstrate a photodetection responsivity of 210 mA W-1 and photovoltaic power generation with a peak external quantum efficiency of 0.2%, promising values for a nearly transparent monolayer material in a lateral device geometry. Finally, we demonstrate a light-emitting diode based on monolayer WSe2. These devices provide a building block for ultrathin, flexible and nearly transparent optoelectronic and electronic applications based on ambipolar dichalcogenide materials.

  10. Capacity-oriented curriculum system of optoelectronics in the context of large category cultivation (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Hu, Zhangfang; Zhang, Yi


    In order to cultivate the innovative talents with the comprehensive development to meet the talents demand for development of economic society, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications implements cultivation based on broadening basic education and enrolment in large category of general education. Optoelectronic information science and engineering major belongs to the electronic engineering category. The "2 +2" mode is utilized for personnel training, where students are without major in the first and second year and assigned to a major within the major categories in the end of the second year. In the context of the comprehensive cultivation, for the changes in the demand for professionals in the global competitive environment with the currently rapid development, especially the demand for the professional engineering technology personnel suitable to industry and development of local economic society, the concept of CDIO engineering ability cultivation is used for reference. Thus the curriculum system for the three-node structure optoelectronic information science and engineering major is proposed, which attaches great importance to engineering practice and innovation cultivation under the background of the comprehensive cultivation. The conformity between the curriculum system and the personnel training objectives is guaranteed effectively, and the consistency between the teaching philosophy and the teaching behavior is enhanced. Therefore, the idea of major construction is clear with specific characteristics.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of Au-MWCNT/PEDOT: PSS composite film for optoelectronic applications (United States)

    Jasna, M.; Anjana, R.; Jayaraj, M. K.


    Recently, flexible organic optoelectronics have got great attention because of their light weight, mechanical flexibility and cost effective fabrication process. Conjugated polymers like PEDOT: PSS are widely used for the transparent electrode applications due to its chemical stability, high conductivity, flexibility and optical transparency in the visible region. Conductivity of the PEDOT: PSS polymer can be enhanced by adding organic solvents or conducting nano fillers like CNT, graphene, etc. Carbon nanotubes are good nano fillers to enhance the conductivity and mechanical strength of PEDOT: PSS composite film. Inthe present work, the effect of gold nano particles in PEDOT: PSS/CNT composite is studied. The conductivity enhancement in PEDOT: PSS/CNT thin films can be attributed to the formation of CNT network in the polymer matrix and conformational change of the PEDOT from benzoid to quinoid structure. Even though the conductivity was enhanced, the transparency of the composite thin films decreased with increase in CNT concentration. To overcome this problem, gold nano particles were attached to CNT walls via chemical route. AuMWCNT/PEDOT: PSS composite films were prepared by spin coating method. TEM images confirmed the decoration of gold nano particles on CNT walls. Electrical and optical properties of the composite films were studied. This simple solution processed conducting films are suitable for optoelectronic applications

  12. Making nuclear 'normal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehlen, Peter; Elmiger, Bruno


    The mechanics of the Swiss NPPs' 'come and see' programme 1995-1999 were illustrated in our contributions to all PIME workshops since 1996. Now, after four annual 'waves', all the country has been covered by the NPPs' invitation to dialogue. This makes PIME 2000 the right time to shed some light on one particular objective of this initiative: making nuclear 'normal'. The principal aim of the 'come and see' programme, namely to give the Swiss NPPs 'a voice of their own' by the end of the nuclear moratorium 1990-2000, has clearly been attained and was commented on during earlier PIMEs. It is, however, equally important that Swiss nuclear energy not only made progress in terms of public 'presence', but also in terms of being perceived as a normal part of industry, as a normal branch of the economy. The message that Swiss nuclear energy is nothing but a normal business involving normal people, was stressed by several components of the multi-prong campaign: - The speakers in the TV ads were real - 'normal' - visitors' guides and not actors; - The testimonials in the print ads were all real NPP visitors - 'normal' people - and not models; - The mailings inviting a very large number of associations to 'come and see' activated a typical channel of 'normal' Swiss social life; - Spending money on ads (a new activity for Swiss NPPs) appears to have resulted in being perceived by the media as a normal branch of the economy. Today we feel that the 'normality' message has well been received by the media. In the controversy dealing with antinuclear arguments brought forward by environmental organisations journalists nowadays as a rule give nuclear energy a voice - a normal right to be heard. As in a 'normal' controversy, the media again actively ask themselves questions about specific antinuclear claims, much more than before 1990 when the moratorium started. The result is that in many cases such arguments are discarded by journalists, because they are, e.g., found to be

  13. Normality in Analytical Psychology (United States)

    Myers, Steve


    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  14. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy (United States)

    ... an inner lining called the endometrium. Normal female reproductive system anatomy. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Type: Color, Medical Illustration Source: National Cancer Institute Creator: Terese Winslow (Illustrator) AV Number: CDR609921 Date Created: November 17, 2014 Date Added: ...

  15. Normal growth and development (United States)

    A child's growth and development can be divided into four periods: Infancy Preschool years Middle childhood years Adolescence Soon after birth, an infant normally loses about 5% to 10% of their birth weight. By about age ...

  16. Normal pressure hydrocephalus (United States)

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  17. Normal Functioning Family (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  18. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (United States)

    ... improves the chance of a good recovery. Without treatment, symptoms may worsen and cause death. What research is being done? The NINDS conducts and supports research on neurological disorders, including normal pressure hydrocephalus. Research on disorders such ...

  19. Correlation of Defect-Related Optoelectronic Properties in Zn5(OH6(CO32/ZnO Nanostructures with Their Quasi-Fractal Dimensionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antonio Paramo


    Full Text Available Hydrozincite (Zn5(OH6(CO32 is, among others, a popular precursor used to synthesize nanoscale ZnO with complex morphologies. For many existing and potential applications utilizing nanostructures, performance is determined by the surface and subsurface properties. Current understanding of the relationship between the morphology and the defect properties of nanocrystalline ZnO and hydrozincite systems is still incomplete. Specifically, for the latter nanomaterial the structure-property correlations are largely unreported in the literature despite the extensive use of hydrozincite in the synthesis applications. In our work, we addressed this issue by studying precipitated nanostructures of Zn5(OH6(CO32 with varying quasi-fractal dimensionalities containing relatively small amounts of a ZnO phase. Crystal morphology of the samples was accurately controlled by the growth time. We observed a strong correlation between the morphology of the samples and their optoelectronic properties. Our results indicate that a substantial increase of the free surface in the nanocrystal samples generates higher relative concentration of defects, consistent with the model of defect-rich surface and subsurface layers.

  20. Bianchi surfaces: integrability in an arbitrary parametrization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieszporski, Maciej; Sym, Antoni


    We discuss integrability of normal field equations of arbitrarily parametrized Bianchi surfaces. A geometric definition of the Bianchi surfaces is presented as well as the Baecklund transformation for the normal field equations in an arbitrarily chosen surface parametrization.

  1. Real-time opto-electronic verification of patient position in breast cancer radiotherapy. (United States)

    Baroni, G; Ferrigno, G; Orecchia, R; Pedotti, A


    The clinical application of an opto-electronic system for real-time three-dimensional (3D) control of patient position in breast cancer radiotherapy is described. The specific features of the motion analysis technology (shape recognition of passive markers) are detailed, and the outcomes of its clinical use for quantitative position control and immobility verification of the thoracic irradiation field during breast cancer treatment are reported. The position control system is based on the ELITEtrade mark opto-electronic motion analyzer, which provides in real time the 3D coordinates of a set of passive markers (plastic hemispheres 3 mm in diameter) previously placed on selected landmarks on the patient's skin. The system-dedicated hardware performs marker recognition by means of 2D correlation of shape with a predefined marker modeling mask. This feature ensures a high accuracy, even with small marker dimensions, and successful analysis in a noisy environment (due to room light, reflexes, etc.). The patient repositioning control was based on a comparison between the current positions of the markers and a corresponding reference configuration. The resulting marker displacements were graphically displayed in real time for immediate control. This information was not provided to the operator as a repositioning tool. Instead, the kinematic data was stored for subsequent off-line analysis aimed at quantifying the different factors contributing to patient mis-positioning (initial repositioning errors, patient's breathing, and random movements) when conventional means for patient alignment (laser centering) and immobilization (casting techniques) are used. Clinical application of the system revealed median 3D localization errors for the directly controlled anatomical landmarks of around 4.5 mm. This value is proposed to represent the intrinsic accuracy of conventional laser-centering techniques in breast cancer radiotherapy, including the effects of patient body

  2. Nanostructure and optoelectronic phenomena in germanium-transparent conductive oxide (Ge:TCO) composites (United States)

    Shih, Grace Hwei-Pyng

    Nanostructured composites are attracting intense interest for electronic and optoelectronic device applications, specifically as active elements in thin film photovoltaic (PV) device architectures. These systems implement fundamentally different concepts of enhancing energy conversion efficiencies compared to those seen in current commercial devices. This is possible through considerable flexibility in the manipulation of device-relevant properties through control of the interplay between the nanostructure and the optoelectronic response. In the present work, inorganic nanocomposites of semiconductor Ge embedded in transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) as well as Ge in zinc oxide (ZnO) were produced by a single step RF-magnetron sputter deposition process. It is shown that, by controlling the design of the nanocomposites as well as heat treatment conditions, decreases in the physical dimensions of Ge nanophase size provided an effective tuning of the optical absorption and charge transport properties. This effect of changes in the optical properties of nanophase semiconductors with respect to size is known as the quantum confinement effect. Variation in the embedding matrix material between ITO and ZnO with corresponding characterization of optoelectronic properties exhibit notable differences in the presence and evolution of an interfacial oxide within these composites. Further studies of interfacial structures were performed using depth-profiling XPS and Raman spectroscopy, while study of the corresponding electronic effects were performed using room temperature and temperature-dependent Hall Effect. Optical absorption was noted to shift to higher onset energies upon heat treatment with a decrease in the observed Ge domain size, indicating quantum confinement effects within these systems. This contrasts to previous investigations that have involved the introduction of nanoscale Ge into insulating, amorphous oxides. Comparison of these different matrix

  3. Agreement between fiber optic and optoelectronic systems for quantifying sagittal plane spinal curvature in sitting. (United States)

    Cloud, Beth A; Zhao, Kristin D; Breighner, Ryan; Giambini, Hugo; An, Kai-Nan


    Spinal posture affects how individuals function from a manual wheelchair. There is a need to directly quantify spinal posture in this population to ultimately improve function. A fiber optic system, comprised of an attached series of sensors, is promising for measuring large regions of the spine in individuals sitting in a wheelchair. The purpose of this study was to determine the agreement between fiber optic and optoelectronic systems for measuring spinal curvature, and describe the range of sagittal plane spinal curvatures in natural sitting. Able-bodied adults (n = 26, 13 male) participated. Each participant assumed three sitting postures: natural, slouched (accentuated kyphosis), and extension (accentuated lordosis) sitting. Fiber optic (ShapeTape) and optoelectronic (Optotrak) systems were applied to the skin over spinous processes from S1 to C7 and used to measure sagittal plane spinal curvature. Regions of kyphosis and lordosis were identified. A Cobb angle-like method was used to quantify lordosis and kyphosis. Generalized linear model and Bland-Altman analyses were used to assess agreement. A strong correlation exists between curvature values obtained with Optotrak and ShapeTape (R(2) = 0.98). The mean difference between Optotrak and ShapeTape for kyphosis in natural, extension, and slouched postures was 4.30° (95% LOA: -3.43 to 12.04°), 3.64° (95% LOA: -1.07 to 8.36°), and 4.02° (95% LOA: -2.80 to 10.84°), respectively. The mean difference for lordosis, when present, in natural and extension postures was 2.86° (95% LOA: -1.18 to 6.90°) and 2.55° (95% LOA: -3.38 to 8.48°), respectively. In natural sitting, the mean ± SD of kyphosis values was 35.07 ± 6.75°. Lordosis was detected in 8/26 participants: 11.72 ± 7.32°. The fiber optic and optoelectronic systems demonstrate acceptable agreement for measuring sagittal plane thoracolumbar spinal curvature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A 2-10 GHz GaAs MMIC opto-electronic phase detector for optical microwave signal generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Marlene; Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Petersen, Anders Kongstad


    Optical transmission of microwave signals becomes increasingly important. Techniques using beat between optical carriers of semiconductor lasers are promising if efficient optical phase locked loops are realized. A highly efficient GaAs MMIC optoelectronic phase detector for a 2-10 GHz OPLL...

  5. 16 Gb/s PAM4 UWOC system based on 488-nm LD with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques. (United States)

    Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Tsai, Wen-Shing; Cheng, Ming-Te; Ho, Chun-Ming; Wang, Yun-Chieh; Yang, Zih-Yi; Chen, De-Yu


    A 16 Gb/s four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) system based on 488-nm laser diode (LD) with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques is proposed and successfully demonstrated. Experimental results show that such a 1.8-GHz 488-nm blue light LD with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques is enough forceful for a 16 Gb/s PAM4 signal underwater link. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to successfully adopt a 488-nm LD transmitter with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques in a PAM4 UWOC system. By adopting a 488-nm LD transmitter with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques, good bit error rate performance (offline processed by Matlab) and clear eye diagrams (measured in real-time) are achieved over a 10-m underwater link. The proposed system has the potential to play a vital role in the future UWOC infrastructure by effectively providing high transmission rate (16 Gb/s) and long underwater transmission distance (10 m).

  6. Chemical nanotechnology talks IV (CNT4): Emerging applications in electronics, optoelectronics, energy and sensors. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Characterization of nanoparticles, nanocrystals, liquid crystals and semiconductive, conductive and conjugated polymers (PAA, polycarbonates, PANI, sulfonated PS, polyphenylenevinylene, polythiophen). Applications of this polymers, blends and nanocomposites with this polymers in electronics (capacitors, field effect transistors, batteries) and optoelectronics (LEDs, solar cells).

  7. Design of optoelectronic imaging system with high resolution and large field-of-view based on dual CMOS (United States)

    Cheng, Hanglin; Hao, Qun; Hu, Yao; Cao, Jie; Wang, Shaopu; Li, Lin


    With the advantages of high resolution, large field of view and compacted size, optoelectronic imaging sensors are widely used in many fields, such as robot's navigation, industrial measurement and remote sensing. Many researchers pay more attention to improve the comprehensive performances of imaging sensors, including large field of view (FOV), high resolution, compact size and high imaging efficiency, etc. One challenge is the tradeoff between high resolution and large field of view simultaneously considering compacted size. In this paper, we propose an optoelectronic imaging system combining the lenses of short focal length and long focal length based on dual CMOS to simulate the characters of human eyes which observe object within large FOV in high resolution. We design and optimize the two lens, the lens of short focal length is used to search object in a wide field and the long one is responsible for high resolution imaging of the target area. Based on a micro-CMOS imaging sensor with low voltage differential transmission technology-MIPI (Mobile Industry Processor Interface), we design the corresponding circuits to realize collecting optical information with high speed. The advantage of the interface is to help decreasing power consumption, improving transmission efficiency and achieving compacted size of imaging sensor. Meanwhile, we carried out simulations and experiments to testify the optoelectronic imaging system. The results show that the proposed method is helpful to improve the comprehensive performances of optoelectronic imaging sensors.

  8. Probing individal subcells of fully printed and coated polymer tandem solar cells using multichromatic opto-electronic characterization methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Dam, Henrik Friis


    In this study, a method to opto-electronically probe the individual junctions and carrier transport across interfaces in fully printed and coated tandem polymer solar cells is described, enabling the identification of efficiency limiting printing/coating defects. The methods used are light beam...

  9. Fluid involvement in normal faulting (United States)

    Sibson, Richard H.


    Evidence of fluid interaction with normal faults comes from their varied role as flow barriers or conduits in hydrocarbon basins and as hosting structures for hydrothermal mineralisation, and from fault-rock assemblages in exhumed footwalls of steep active normal faults and metamorphic core complexes. These last suggest involvement of predominantly aqueous fluids over a broad depth range, with implications for fault shear resistance and the mechanics of normal fault reactivation. A general downwards progression in fault rock assemblages (high-level breccia-gouge (often clay-rich) → cataclasites → phyllonites → mylonite → mylonitic gneiss with the onset of greenschist phyllonites occurring near the base of the seismogenic crust) is inferred for normal fault zones developed in quartzo-feldspathic continental crust. Fluid inclusion studies in hydrothermal veining from some footwall assemblages suggest a transition from hydrostatic to suprahydrostatic fluid pressures over the depth range 3-5 km, with some evidence for near-lithostatic to hydrostatic pressure cycling towards the base of the seismogenic zone in the phyllonitic assemblages. Development of fault-fracture meshes through mixed-mode brittle failure in rock-masses with strong competence layering is promoted by low effective stress in the absence of thoroughgoing cohesionless faults that are favourably oriented for reactivation. Meshes may develop around normal faults in the near-surface under hydrostatic fluid pressures to depths determined by rock tensile strength, and at greater depths in overpressured portions of normal fault zones and at stress heterogeneities, especially dilational jogs. Overpressures localised within developing normal fault zones also determine the extent to which they may reutilise existing discontinuities (for example, low-angle thrust faults). Brittle failure mode plots demonstrate that reactivation of existing low-angle faults under vertical σ1 trajectories is only likely if

  10. Optoelectronic instrumentation enhancement using data mining feedback for a 3D measurement system (United States)

    Flores-Fuentes, Wendy; Sergiyenko, Oleg; Gonzalez-Navarro, Félix F.; Rivas-López, Moisés; Hernandez-Balbuena, Daniel; Rodríguez-Quiñonez, Julio C.; Tyrsa, Vera; Lindner, Lars


    3D measurement by a cyber-physical system based on optoelectronic scanning instrumentation has been enhanced by outliers and regression data mining feedback. The prototype has applications in (1) industrial manufacturing systems that include: robotic machinery, embedded vision, and motion control, (2) health care systems for measurement scanning, and (3) infrastructure by providing structural health monitoring. This paper presents new research performed in data processing of a 3D measurement vision sensing database. Outliers from multivariate data have been detected and removal to improve artificial intelligence regression algorithm results. Physical measurement error regression data has been used for 3D measurements error correction. Concluding, that the joint of physical phenomena, measurement and computation is an effectiveness action for feedback loops in the control of industrial, medical and civil tasks.

  11. Multi-Axis Force/Torque Sensor Based on Simply-Supported Beam and Optoelectronics. (United States)

    Noh, Yohan; Bimbo, Joao; Sareh, Sina; Wurdemann, Helge; Fraś, Jan; Chathuranga, Damith Suresh; Liu, Hongbin; Housden, James; Althoefer, Kaspar; Rhode, Kawal


    This paper presents a multi-axis force/torque sensor based on simply-supported beam and optoelectronic technology. The sensor's main advantages are: (1) Low power consumption; (2) low-level noise in comparison with conventional methods of force sensing (e.g., using strain gauges); (3) the ability to be embedded into different mechanical structures; (4) miniaturisation; (5) simple manufacture and customisation to fit a wide-range of robot systems; and (6) low-cost fabrication and assembly of sensor structure. For these reasons, the proposed multi-axis force/torque sensor can be used in a wide range of application areas including medical robotics, manufacturing, and areas involving human-robot interaction. This paper shows the application of our concept of a force/torque sensor to flexible continuum manipulators: A cylindrical MIS (Minimally Invasive Surgery) robot, and includes its design, fabrication, and evaluation tests.

  12. Investigation on the learning interest of senior undergraduate students in optoelectronics specialty (United States)

    Wu, Shenjiang; Wang, Na; Li, Dangjuan; Liu, Chanlao


    With the increasing number of the graduate students, many of them have some troubles in job finding. This situation make a huge pressure on the senior students and loss them the interesting in study. This work investigate the reasons by questionnaire survey, panel discussion, interview, etc. to achieve the factors influence their learning interesting. The main reason of students do not have the motivation on study is that they do not understand the development and competition of photoelectric specialty, lack of innovation and entrepreneurship training, hysteresis of the learning knowledge and practical application. Finally, the paper gives some suggestions through teaching reform on how to improve students' learning enthusiasm. This work will contribute to the teaching and training of senior undergraduate students of optoelectronics specialty.

  13. Cooperation and competition in business on example of Internet research of opto-electronic companies (United States)

    Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata


    Based on findings from earlier studies which showed that links to academic web sites contain important information, the following study examines the practicability of using co-link data to describe cooperation and competition in optoelec-tronic business. The analysis was based on 32 companies and organizations which were found in an issue of a specialist magazine. For the purpose of the research three search engines - Google, Yahoo! and MSN Search were used. Assuming that a number of co-links to a pair of Web sites is a measure of the similarity between the two companies, the study aims at search for the sets of companies that would be similar to one another. The method applied is the MDS - multidimensional scaling that allows to present results of the analysis on a 2D map.

  14. Investigation of the Optoelectronic Properties of Ti-doped Indium Tin Oxide Thin Film. (United States)

    Pu, Nen-Wen; Liu, Wei-Sheng; Cheng, Huai-Ming; Hu, Hung-Chun; Hsieh, Wei-Ting; Yu, Hau-Wei; Liang, Shih-Chang


    : In this study, direct-current magnetron sputtering was used to fabricate Ti-doped indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films. The sputtering power during the 350-nm-thick thin-film production process was fixed at 100 W with substrate temperatures increasing from room temperature to 500 °C. The Ti-doped ITO thin films exhibited superior thin-film resistivity (1.5 × 10 - ⁴ Ω/cm), carrier concentration (4.1 × 10 21 cm - ³), carrier mobility (10 cm²/Vs), and mean visible-light transmittance (90%) at wavelengths of 400-800 nm at a deposition temperature of 400 °C. The superior carrier concentration of the Ti-doped ITO alloys (>10 21 cm - ³) with a high figure of merit (81.1 × 10 - ³ Ω - ¹) demonstrate the pronounced contribution of Ti doping, indicating their high suitability for application in optoelectronic devices.

  15. Electrical properties of a new sulfur-containing polymer for optoelectronic application (United States)

    ElAkemi, ElMehdi; Jaballah, Nejmeddine; Ouada, Hafedh Ben; Majdoub, Mustapha


    An original polythiophene derivative was characterized to develop the optoelectronic properties of sulfur-containing π-conjugated polymer. The optical properties of the polymer were investigated by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Investigations of the electrical characteristics of polymer diodes are reported. We present current-voltage characteristics and impedance spectroscopy measurements performed on partially sulfur-containing thin films in sandwich structure ITO/sulfur-containing polymer/Al. The conduction mechanisms in these layers are identified to be a space-charge-limited current. The AC electrical transport of the sulfur-containing polymer is studied as a function of frequency (100 Hz-10 MHz) and temperature in impedance spectroscopy analyses. We interpreted Cole-Cole plots in terms of the equivalent circuit model as a single parallel resistance and a capacitance network in series with a relatively small resistance. The evolution of the electrical parameters deduced from fitting of the experimental data is discussed.

  16. Multi-Axis Force/Torque Sensor Based on Simply-Supported Beam and Optoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohan Noh


    Full Text Available This paper presents a multi-axis force/torque sensor based on simply-supported beam and optoelectronic technology. The sensor’s main advantages are: (1 Low power consumption; (2 low-level noise in comparison with conventional methods of force sensing (e.g., using strain gauges; (3 the ability to be embedded into different mechanical structures; (4 miniaturisation; (5 simple manufacture and customisation to fit a wide-range of robot systems; and (6 low-cost fabrication and assembly of sensor structure. For these reasons, the proposed multi-axis force/torque sensor can be used in a wide range of application areas including medical robotics, manufacturing, and areas involving human–robot interaction. This paper shows the application of our concept of a force/torque sensor to flexible continuum manipulators: A cylindrical MIS (Minimally Invasive Surgery robot, and includes its design, fabrication, and evaluation tests.

  17. Direct evaluation of intrinsic optoelectronic performance of organic photovoltaic cells with minimizing impurity and degradation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, Akinori [Division of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan, PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Tsuji, Masashi; Seki, Shu [Division of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)


    A correlation between the photovoltaic performance and dynamics of transient photoconductivity is investigated by flash-photolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity (FP-TRMC). This electrode-less technique offers chances to mitigate barriers for direct, speedy, and robust evaluation of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) film. We examined the blend ratio, process (solvent and thermal annealing), and impurity (a metal complex of Pd) and degradation effects in BHJ films consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and methanofullerene (PCBM). The minimum charge carrier mobility of 0.22 cm{sup 2}V{sup -1}s{sup -1} was found in P3HT:PCBM = 1:1 film along with 3.26% power conversion efficiency. The revealed good correlation is not only applicable to process optimization, but also expected as a facile screening method to survey the potential of optoelectronic materials. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Effects of Iodine Doping on Optoelectronic and Chemical Properties of Polyterpenol Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Bazaka


    Full Text Available Owing to their amorphous, highly cross-liked nature, most plasma polymers display dielectric properties. This study investigates iodine doping as the means to tune optoelectronic properties of plasma polymer derived from a low-cost, renewable resource, i.e., Melaleuca alternifolia oil. In situ exposure of polyterpenol to vapors of electron-accepting dopant reduced the optical band gap to 1.5 eV and increased the conductivity from 5.05 × 10−8 S/cm to 1.20 × 10−6 S/cm. The increased conductivity may, in part, be attributed to the formation of charge-transfer complexes between the polymer chain and halogen, which act as a cation and anion, respectively. Higher levels of doping notably increased the refractive index, from 1.54 to 1.70 (at 500 nm, and significantly reduced the transparency of films.

  19. Optoelectronic devices, low temperature preparation methods, and improved electron transport layers

    KAUST Repository

    Eita, Mohamed S.


    An optoelectronic device such as a photovoltaic device which has at least one layer, such as an electron transport layer, which comprises a plurality of alternating, oppositely charged layers including metal oxide layers. The metal oxide can be zinc oxide. The plurality of layers can be prepared by layer-by-layer processing in which alternating layers are built up step-by-step due to electrostatic attraction. The efficiency of the device can be increased by this processing method compared to a comparable method like sputtering. The number of layers can be controlled to improve device efficiency. Aqueous solutions can be used which is environmentally friendly. Annealing can be avoided. A quantum dot layer can be used next to the metal oxide layer to form a quantum dot heterojunction solar device.

  20. Optoelectronic Plethysmography has Improved our Knowledge of Respiratory Physiology and Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lanini


    Full Text Available It is well known that the methods actually used to track thoraco-abdominal volume displacement have several limitations. This review evaluates the clinical usefulness of measuring chest wall kinematics by optoelectronic plethysmography [OEP]. OEP provides direct measurements (both absolute and its variations of the volume of the chest wall and its compartments, according to the model of Ward and Macklem, without requiring calibration or subject cooperation. The system is non invasive and does not require a mouthpiece or nose-clip which may modify the pattern of breathing, making the subject aware of his breathing. Also, the precise assessment of compartmental changes in chest wall volumes, combined with pressure measurements, provides a detailed description of the action and control of the different respiratory muscle groups and assessment of chest wall dynamics in a number of physiological and clinical experimental conditions.

  1. Field Effect Optoelectronic Modulation of Quantum-Confined Carriers in Black Phosphorus. (United States)

    Whitney, William S; Sherrott, Michelle C; Jariwala, Deep; Lin, Wei-Hsiang; Bechtel, Hans A; Rossman, George R; Atwater, Harry A


    We report measurements of the infrared optical response of thin black phosphorus under field-effect modulation. We interpret the observed spectral changes as a combination of an ambipolar Burstein-Moss (BM) shift of the absorption edge due to band-filling under gate control, and a quantum confined Franz-Keldysh (QCFK) effect, phenomena that have been proposed theoretically to occur for black phosphorus under an applied electric field. Distinct optical responses are observed depending on the flake thickness and starting carrier concentration. Transmission extinction modulation amplitudes of more than two percent are observed, suggesting the potential for use of black phosphorus as an active material in mid-infrared optoelectronic modulator applications.

  2. Morphology, photophysics and optoelectronics of P3HT nanoparticles and TiO2 nanorods composite (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Long; Yuan, Hongchun; Xiao, Jin; Xiong, Chao; Zhu, Xifang


    Morphology and photophysics of polymers are critical to the performance of organic optoelectronics. In this work, poly(3-thiophene) (P3HT) nanoparticles were successfully fabricated by the miniemulsion and reprecipitation methods. The P3HT nanoparticles demonstrated uniform distribution with the domain size of ˜40 nm. The photophysics of P3HT nanoparticles was investigated by absorption and steady-state and time-resolved PL spectroscopy. P3HT nanoparticles showed more ordered and longer conjugation length than pristine P3HT. At the same time, P3HT nanoparticles showed aggregate species which are favorable for interchain charge transfer. The organic/inorganic hybrid photodetectors based on P3HT and TiO2 nanorods were fabricated. The superior performance of the photodetector based on P3HT nanoparticle and TiO2 nanorods comes from the efficient charge transfer and large donor/acceptor interface.

  3. Interactive teaching and learning with smart phone app in Optoelectronic Instruments course (United States)

    Hu, Yao; Hao, Qun; Zhou, Ya; Huang, Yifan


    Optoelectronic Instruments is a comprehensive professional course for senior students majored in optical engineering and similar specialties. Due to the low lecturer/ student ratio, typically less than 1:100, most of the students gave up the chance of one-to-one communication with the lecturers even when they were confused about the principle or applications of the instruments. A smart phone App Rain Classroom associated with messaging App Wechat is introduced. It enables the lecturers to receive instant feedback from students through bullet screen, push preview and review materials and post in-class quiz. Investigation also shows that 76% of the students enjoyed the new interactive tool, acknowledging its help in understanding the topic better, improving in-class interaction, and after class communications.

  4. Recognition of Cuneiform Inscription Signs by use of a Hybrid-Optoelectronic Correlator Device (United States)

    Demoli, Nazif; Kamps, Jörn; Krüger, Sven; Gruber, Hartmut; Wernicke, Günther


    A hybrid-optoelectronic correlator device and an algorithm are proposed for recognizing cuneiform inscription signs. The device is based on the extended correlator architecture with three liquid-crystal display(s) (LCD)s and three light detectors: one CCD camera for capturing the input image, one LCD for displaying the input image, two LCDs for the complex correlation filter (amplitude and phase parts), and two detectors for measuring the total and peak intensities of the output correlation information. The recognition algorithm is designed to allow automatic as well as real-time processing. The recognition results are given for the cuneiform signs impressed on an original clay tablet. The investigated tablet (VAT 12890 of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin, Germany) was found in Bogazk öy (Hattusha) and dates from the 14th century B.C. It is a fragment of the Epic of Gilgamesh in the Akkadian language with a large number of the sign samples.

  5. Predictive methods of some optoelectronic properties for blends based on quaternized polysulfones (United States)

    Dobos, Adina Maria; Filimon, Anca


    Blends based on quaternized polysulfones were investigated in terms of optical and electronic properties. By applying the Bicerano formalism the refractive index and dielectric constant were evaluated. Also, the dielectric constant of these blends was studied as a function of temperature and frequency. As the result of the main chain structure and charged groups, an increase in theoretical values of the refractive index and dielectric constant with increasing of the ionic quaternized units content in the polymer blend occurs. Additionally, decrease in the dielectric constant with the increase of frequency and decrease of temperature was observed. Refractive index and dielectric constant values indicate that the analyzed samples are transparent and can be used in obtaining of materials with applications involving a small polarizability. Thus, the results are important in prediction of the special optoelectronic features of new polymers blends to obtain high-performance materials with applications in electronic and biomedical fields.

  6. Sidemode suppression for coupled optoelectronic oscillator by optical pulse power feedforward. (United States)

    Dai, Yitang; Wang, Ruixin; Yin, Feifei; Dai, Jian; Yu, Lan; Li, Jianqiang; Xu, Kun


    Multiple sidemodes have been observed in a coupled optoelectronic oscillator (COEO) when the contained actively mode-locked fiber ring laser employs erbium-doped fiber (EDF). We propose that such sidemodes can be suppressed significantly by an optical pulse power feedforward scheme, through which the mode-locked optical pulse is reversely intensity-modulated by itself, resulting in a fast power limiting. Experimentally we show that sidemodes are suppressed as much as 40 dB in a 10-GHz COEO. The additional noise induced by the power feedforward technique is analyzed numerically. We show that for a COEO with a typical cavity length, the feedforward contribution to final single-side band (SSB) noise is minor and neglectable.

  7. Chemical and Structural Diversity in Eumelanins – Unexplored Bio-Optoelectronic Materials** (United States)

    d’Ischia, Marco; Napolitano, Alessandra; Pezzella, Alessandro; Meredith, Paul; Sarna, Tadeusz


    Eumelanins, the characteristic black insoluble and heterogeneous bio-polymers of human skin, hair and eyes, have intrigued and challenged generations of chemists, physicists and biologists because of their unique structural and optoelectronic properties. Recently, an organic chemistry approach has been combined with advanced spectroscopic and imaging techniques, theoretical calculations and methods of condensed matter physics to gradually force these materials to reveal their secrets. Here we review the latest advances in the field with a view to showing how the emerging knowledge is not only helping us explain eumelanin functionality, but may also be translated into effective strategies for exploiting their properties to create a new class of biologically inspired high tech materials. PMID:19294706

  8. Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of Cubic CsPbF3 for Novel Applications (United States)

    Murtaza, G.; Iftikhar, Ahmad; Maqbool, M.; A. Rahnamaye Aliabad, H.; Afaq, A.


    Chemical bonding as well as structural, electronic and optical properties of CsPbF3 are calculated using the highly accurate full potential linearized augmented plane-wave method within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The calculated lattice constant is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The electron density plots reveal strong ionic bonding in Cs-F and strong covalent bonding in Pb-F. The calculations show that the material is a direct and wide bandgap semiconductor with a fundamental gap at the R-symmetry point. Optical properties such as the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function, refractive index, extinction coefficient, reflectivity, optical conductivity and absorption coefficient are also calculated. Based on the calculated wide and direct bandgap, as well as other optical properties of the compound, it is predicted that CsPbF3 is suitable for optoelectronic devices and anti-reflecting coatings.

  9. An optoelectronic detecting based environment perception experiment for primer students using multiple-layer laser scanner (United States)

    Wang, Shifeng; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Dai, Xiang; Gong, Dawei


    One of the motivations of OptoBot Lab is to train primer students into qualified engineers or researchers. The series training programs have been designed by supervisors and implemented with tutoring for students to test and practice their knowledge from textbooks. An environment perception experiment using a 32 layers laser scanner is described in this paper. The training program design and laboratory operation is introduced. The four parts of the experiments which are preparation, sensor calibration, 3D space reconstruction, and object recognition, are the participating students' main tasks for different teams. This entire program is one of the series training programs that play significant role in establishing solid research skill foundation for opto-electronic students.

  10. How the new optoelectronic design automation industry is taking advantage of preexisting EDA standards (United States)

    Nesmith, Kevin A.; Carver, Susan


    With the advancements in design processes down to the sub 7nm levels, the Electronic Design Automation industry appears to be coming to an end of advancements, as the size of the silicon atom becomes the limiting factor. Or is it? The commercial viability of mass-producing silicon photonics is bringing about the Optoelectronic Design Automation (OEDA) industry. With the science of photonics in its infancy, adding these circuits to ever-increasing complex electronic designs, will allow for new generations of advancements. Learning from the past 50 years of the EDA industry's mistakes and missed opportunities, the photonics industry is starting with electronic standards and extending them to become photonically aware. Adapting the use of pre-existing standards into this relatively new industry will allow for easier integration into the present infrastructure and faster time to market.

  11. 1st International Conference on Opto-Electronics and Applied Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Indrani


    The Proceedings of First International Conference on Opto-Electronics and Applied Optics 2014, IEM OPTRONIX 2014 presents the research contributions presented in the conference by researchers from both India and abroad. Contributions from established scientists as well as students are included. The book is organized to enable easy access to various topics of interest.   The first part includes the Keynote addresses by Phillip Russell, Max Planck Institute of the Light Sciences, Erlangen, Germany and Lorenzo Pavesi, University of Trento, Italy.   The second part focuses on the Plenary Talks given by eminent scientists, namely, Azizur Rahman, City University London, London; Bishnu Pal, President, The Optical Society of India; Kamakhya Ghatak, National Institute of Technology, Agartala; Kehar Singh, Former Professor, India Institute of Technology Delhi; Mourad Zghal, SUPCOM, University of Carthage, Tunisia; Partha Roy Chaudhuri, IIT Kharagpur; S K. Bhadra, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kol...

  12. Study on numerical analysis and experiment simulation approaches for radiation effects of typical optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Benqi; Zhang Yong; Xiao Zhigang; Huang Fang; Wang Zujun; Huang Shaoyan; Mao Yongze; Wang Feng


    The numerical analysis and experimental simulation approaches were studied for radiation effects of typical optoelectronic devices, such as Si solar cells and CCDs. At first, the damage mechanism of ionization and displacement effects on solar cells and CCDs was analyzed. Secondly, the output characteristics of Si solar cell by 1 MeV electron radiation was calculated with the two-dimensional device simulation software MEDICI, such as the short circuit current I sc , the open-circuit voltage V oc and the maximum power P max . The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental values in a certain range of electron fluence. Meanwhile, the ionization radiation experiment was carried out on the commercial linear CCD by 60 Co γ source with our self-designed test system, and some valuable results of dark voltage and saturation voltage varied with total dose for TCD132D were gotten. (author)

  13. Beam test results for the upgraded LHCb RICH opto-electronic readout system

    CERN Multimedia

    Carniti, Paolo


    The LHCb experiment is devoted to high-precision measurements of CP violation and search for New Physics by studying the decays of beauty and charmed hadrons produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Two RICH detectors are currently installed and operating successfully, providing a crucial role in the particle identification system of the LHCb experiment. Starting from 2019, the LHCb experiment will be upgraded to operate at higher luminosity, extending its potential for discovery and study of new phenomena. Both the RICH detectors will be upgraded and the entire opto-electronic system has been redesigned in order to cope with the new specifications, namely higher readout rates, and increased occupancies. The new photodetectors, readout electronics, mechanical assembly and cooling system have reached the final phase of development and their performance was thoroughly and successfully validated during several beam test sessions in 2014 and 2015 at the SPS facility at CERN. Details of the test setup and perf...

  14. OMVPE Growth of Quaternary (Al,Ga,In)N for UV Optoelectronics (title change from A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    We report the growth and characterization of quaternary AlGaInN. A combination of photoluminescence (PL), high-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) characterizations enables us to explore the contours of constant PL peak energy and lattice parameter as functions of the quaternary compositions. The observation of room temperature PL emission at 351nm (with 20% Al and 5% In) renders initial evidence that the quaternary could be used to provide confinement for GaInN (and possibly GaN). AlGaInN/GrdnN MQW heterostructures have been grown; both XRD and PL measurements suggest the possibility of incorporating this quaternary into optoelectronic devices.

  15. Optoelectronic system of online measurements of unburned carbon in coal fly ash (United States)

    Golas, Janusz; Jankowski, Henryk; Niewczas, Bogdan; Piechna, Janusz; Skiba, Antoni; Szkutnik, Wojciech; Szkutnik, Zdzislaw P.; Wartak, Ryszarda; Worek, Cezary


    Carbon-in-ash level is an important consideration for combustion efficiency as well as ash marketing. The optoelectronic analyzing system for on-line determination and monitoring of the u burned carbon content of ash samples is presented. The apparatus operates on the principle that carbon content is proportional to the reflectance of IR light. Ash samples are collected iso kinetically from the flue gas duct and placed in a sample tube with a flat glass bottom. The same is then exposed to a light. The reflectance intensity is used by the system's computer to determine residual carbon content from correlation curves. The sample is then air purged back to the duct or to the attached sample canister to enable laboratory check analysis. The total cycle time takes between 5 and 10 minutes. Real time result of carbon content with accuracy 0.3-0.7 percent are reported and can be used for boiler controlling.

  16. Optoelectronic technology profiles: motivating and developing research skills in undergraduate students (United States)

    Kane, D. M.


    A case study is described of the redesign of an assessment task - the writing of an Optoelectronic Technology profile - to achieve improved outcomes in student education and capability development, in particular, research skills. Attention is drawn to the value of a formally scheduled discussion between teacher and student around controlling the scope of the profile via an appropriately constructed "brief", and the selection and evaluation of the reference resources to be used in completing the task. Student motivation is improved through "student publishing" and encouraging students to regard their technology profile as an example of their work that can be shown to potential employers, possibly as part of a portfolio. Students have the choice as to whether they will also use the technology profile task as a vehicle to develop teamwork experience and skills.

  17. In Situ Raman Spectroscopy of COOH-Functionalized SWCNTs Trapped with Optoelectronic Tweezers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Pauzauskie


    Full Text Available Optoelectronic tweezers (OETs were used to trap and deposit aqueous dispersions of carboxylic-acid-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube bundles. Dark-field video microscopy was used to visualize the dynamics of the bundles both with and without virtual electrodes, showing rapid accumulation of carbon nanotubes when optical virtual electrodes are actuated. Raman microscopy was used to probe SWCNT materials following deposition onto metallic fiducial markers as well as during trapping. The local carbon nanotube concentration was observed to increase rapidly during trapping by more than an order of magnitude in less than one second due to localized optical dielectrophoresis forces. This combination of enrichment and spectroscopy with a single laser spot suggests a broad range of applications in physical, chemical, and biological sciences.

  18. Numerical and Experimental Study of Optoelectronic Trapping on Iron-Doped Lithium Niobate Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Gazzetto


    Full Text Available Optoelectronic tweezers (OET are a promising technique for the realization of reconfigurable systems suitable to trap and manipulate microparticles. In particular, dielectrophoretic (DEP forces produced by OET represent a valid alternative to micro-fabricated metal electrodes, as strong and spatially reconfigurable electrical fields can be induced in a photoconductive layer by means of light-driven phenomena. In this paper we report, and compare with the experimental data, the results obtained by analyzing the spatial configurations of the DEP-forces produced by a 532 nm laser beam, with Gaussian intensity distribution, impinging on a Fe-doped Lithium Niobate substrate. Furthermore, we also present a promising preliminary result for water-droplets trapping, which could open the way to the application of this technique to biological samples manipulation.

  19. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte


    provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...... of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...

  20. Optoelectronics in TESLA, LHC, and pi-of-the-sky experiments (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Simrock, Stefan


    Optical and optoelectronics technologies are more and more widely used in the biggest world experiments of high energy and nuclear physics, as well as in the astronomy. The paper is a kind of a broad digest describing the usage of optoelectronics is such experiments and information about some of the involved teams. The described experiments include: TESLA linear accelerator and FEL, Compact Muon Solenoid at LHC and recently started π-of-the-sky global gamma ray bursts (with asociated optical flashes) observation experiment. Optoelectornics and photonics offer several key features which are either extending the technical parameters of existing solutions or adding quite new practical application possibilities. Some of these favorable features of photonic systems are: high selectivity of optical sensors, immunity to some kinds of noise processes, extremely broad bandwidth exchangeable for either terabit rate transmission or ultrashort pulse generation, parallel image processing capability, etc. The following groups of photonic components and systems were described: (1) discrete components applications like: LED, PD, LD, CCD and CMOS cameras, active optical crystals and optical fibers in radiation dosimetry, astronomical image processing and for building of more complex photonic systems; (2) optical fiber networks serving as very stable phase distribution, clock signal distribution, distributed dosimeters, distributed gigabit transmission for control, diagnostics and data acquisition/processing; (3) fast and stable coherent femtosecond laser systems with active optical components for electro-optical sampling and photocathode excitation in the RF electron gun for linac; The parameters of some of these systems were quoted and discussed. A number of the debated solutions seems to be competitive against the classical ones. Several future fields seem to emerge involving direct coupling between the ultrafast photonic and the VLSI FPGA based technologies.