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Sample records for surface nir signal

  1. Dynamic topographical pattern classification of multichannel prefrontal NIRS signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schudlo, Larissa C.; Power, Sarah D.; Chau, Tom

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an optical imaging technique that has recently been considered for brain-computer interface (BCI) applications. To date, NIRS-BCI studies have primarily made use of temporal features of brain activity, derived from the time-course of optical signals measured from discrete locations, to differentiate mental states. However, functional brain imaging studies have indicated that the spatial distribution of haemodynamic activity is also rich in information. Thus, the progression of a response over both time and space may be valuable to brain state classification. In this paper, we investigate the implication of including spatiotemporal features in the single-trial classification of haemodynamic events for a two-class problem by exploiting this information from dynamic NIR topograms. Approach. The value of spatiotemporal information was explored through a comparative analysis of four different classification schemes performed on multichannel NIRS data collected from the prefrontal cortex during a mental arithmetic activation task and rest. Employing a linear discriminant classifier, data were analysed using spatiotemporal features, temporal features, and a collective pool of spatiotemporal and temporal features. We also considered a majority vote combination of three classifiers; each established using one of the above feature sets. Lastly, two separate task durations (20 and 10 s) were considered for feature extraction. Main results. With features from the longer task interval, the highest overall classification accuracy was achieved using the majority voting classifier (76.1 ± 8.4%), which was greater than the accuracy obtained using temporal features alone (73.5 ± 8.5%) (F3,144 = 7.04, p = 0.0002). While results from the shorter task duration were lower overall, the classifier employing only spatiotemporal features (with an average accuracy of 67.9 ± 9.3%) achieved a higher average accuracy than the rate obtained

  2. Recovering fNIRS brain signals: physiological interference suppression with independent component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Shi, M.; Sun, J.; Yang, C.; Zhang, Yajuan; Scopesi, F.; Makobore, P.; Chin, C.; Serra, G.; Wickramasinghe, Y. A. B. D.; Rolfe, P.

    2015-02-01

    Brain activity can be monitored non-invasively by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which has several advantages in comparison with other methods, such as flexibility, portability, low cost and fewer physical restrictions. However, in practice fNIRS measurements are often contaminated by physiological interference arising from cardiac contraction, breathing and blood pressure fluctuations, thereby severely limiting the utility of the method. Hence, further improvement is necessary to reduce or eliminate such interference in order that the evoked brain activity information can be extracted reliably from fNIRS data. In the present paper, the multi-distance fNIRS probe configuration has been adopted. The short-distance fNIRS measurement is treated as the virtual channel and the long-distance fNIRS measurement is treated as the measurement channel. Independent component analysis (ICA) is employed for the fNIRS recordings to separate the brain signals and the interference. Least-absolute deviation (LAD) estimator is employed to recover the brain activity signals. We also utilized Monte Carlo simulations based on a five-layer model of the adult human head to evaluate our methodology. The results demonstrate that the ICA algorithm has the potential to separate physiological interference in fNIRS data and the LAD estimator could be a useful criterion to recover the brain activity signals.

  3. Enhanced surface structuring by ultrafast XUV/NIR dual action

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakubczak, Krzysztof; Mocek, Tomáš; Chalupský, Jaromír; Lee, G.H.; Kim, T.K.; Park, S.B.; Nam, Ch. H.; Hájková, Věra; Toufarová, Martina; Juha, Libor; Rus, Bedřich

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 5 (2011), s. 1-12 ISSN 1367-2630 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100702; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk LA08024; GA ČR GC202/07/J008 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100100911 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : XUV beam * ultrafast NIR laser pulses * high-order harmonics * laser-induced periodic surface structures Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.177, year: 2011 http://iopscience.iop.org/1367-2630/13/5/053049

  4. Automatic detection of noisy channels in fNIRS signal based on correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Mosquera, Carlos; Borragán, Guillermo; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-09-15

    fNIRS signals can be contaminated by distinct sources of noise. While most of the noise can be corrected using digital filters, optimized experimental paradigms or pre-processing methods, few approaches focus on the automatic detection of noisy channels. In the present study, we propose a new method that detect automatically noisy fNIRS channels by combining the global correlations of the signal obtained from sliding windows (Cui et al., 2010) with correlation coefficients extracted experimental conditions defined by triggers. The validity of the method was evaluated on test data from 17 participants, for a total of 16 NIRS channels per subject, positioned over frontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, parietal and occipital areas. Additionally, the detection of noisy channels was tested in the context of different levels of cognitive requirement in a working memory N-back paradigm. Bad channels detection accuracy, defined as the proportion of bad NIRS channels correctly detected among the total number of channels examined, was close to 91%. Under different cognitive conditions the area under the Receiver Operating Curve (AUC) increased from 60.5% (global correlations) to 91.2% (local correlations). Our results show that global correlations are insufficient for detecting potentially noisy channels when the whole data signal is included in the analysis. In contrast, adding specific local information inherent to the experimental paradigm (e.g., cognitive conditions in a block or event-related design), improved detection performance for noisy channels. Also, we show that automated fNIRS channel detection can be achieved with high accuracy at low computational cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Time-Frequency Characterization of Cerebral Hemodynamics of Migraine Sufferers as Assessed by NIRS Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Molinari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a noninvasive system for the real-time monitoring of the concentration of oxygenated (O2Hb and reduced (HHb hemoglobin in the brain cortex. O2Hb and HHb concentrations vary in response to cerebral autoregulation. Sixty-eight women (14 migraineurs without aura, 49 migraineurs with aura, and 5 controls performed breath-holding and hyperventilation during NIRS recordings. Signals were processed using the Choi-Williams time-frequency transform in order to measure the power variation of the very-low frequencies (VLF: 20–40 mHz and of the low frequencies (LF: 40–140 mHz. Results showed that migraineurs without aura present different LF and VLF power levels than controls and migraineurs with aura. The accurate power measurement of the time-frequency analysis allowed for the discrimination of the subjects' hemodynamic patterns. The time-frequency analysis of NIRS signals can be used in clinical practice to assess cerebral hemodynamics.

  6. Time-Frequency Characterization of Cerebral Hemodynamics of Migraine Sufferers as Assessed by NIRS Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liboni William

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a noninvasive system for the real-time monitoring of the concentration of oxygenated ( and reduced (HHb hemoglobin in the brain cortex. and HHb concentrations vary in response to cerebral autoregulation. Sixty-eight women (14 migraineurs without aura, 49 migraineurs with aura, and 5 controls performed breath-holding and hyperventilation during NIRS recordings. Signals were processed using the Choi-Williams time-frequency transform in order to measure the power variation of the very-low frequencies (VLF: 20–40 mHz and of the low frequencies (LF: 40–140 mHz. Results showed that migraineurs without aura present different LF and VLF power levels than controls and migraineurs with aura. The accurate power measurement of the time-frequency analysis allowed for the discrimination of the subjects' hemodynamic patterns. The time-frequency analysis of NIRS signals can be used in clinical practice to assess cerebral hemodynamics.

  7. Comparison of causality analysis on simultaneously measured fMRI and NIRS signals during motor tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Abdul Rauf; Muthalib, Makii; Perrey, Stephane; Galka, Andreas; Granert, Oliver; Wolff, Stephan; Deuschl, Guenther; Raethjen, Jan; Heute, Ulrich; Muthuraman, Muthuraman

    2013-01-01

    Brain activity can be measured using different modalities. Since most of the modalities tend to complement each other, it seems promising to measure them simultaneously. In to be presented research, the data recorded from Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS), simultaneously, are subjected to causality analysis using time-resolved partial directed coherence (tPDC). Time-resolved partial directed coherence uses the principle of state space modelling to estimate Multivariate Autoregressive (MVAR) coefficients. This method is useful to visualize both frequency and time dynamics of causality between the time series. Afterwards, causality results from different modalities are compared by estimating the Spearman correlation. In to be presented study, we used directionality vectors to analyze correlation, rather than actual signal vectors. Results show that causality analysis of the fMRI correlates more closely to causality results of oxy-NIRS as compared to deoxy-NIRS in case of a finger sequencing task. However, in case of simple finger tapping, no clear difference between oxy-fMRI and deoxy-fMRI correlation is identified.

  8. Signal processing for a single detector MOEMS based NIR micro spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberer, Andreas; Grüger, Heinrich; Zimmer, Fabian; Schenk, Harald; Kenda, Andreas; Frank, Albert; Scherf, Werner

    2005-10-01

    The examination of spectra in the NIR range is necessary for applications like process control, element analysis or medical systems. Typically integrated NIR spectrometers are based on optical setups with diffraction grating and detector arrays. The main disadvantage is price and availability of NIR array InGaAs-based detectors. The implementation of a scanning grating chip realized in a MOEMS technology which integrates the diffractive element makes it possible to detect spectra with single detectors time resolved. Either simple InGaAs photodiodes or cooled detectors may be used. The set up is a shrinked Czerny-Turner spectrometer. The light is coupled in by an optical fibre. After focussing the light passes the scanning grating moving at 150-500 Hz in a sinusoidal way. There it is split off in the different wavelength, the monochrome intensity is caught by a second mirror and led to the detector. The detector signal is amplified by a transimpedance stage and converted to digital with 12 bit resolution. The main part of the signal processing is done by a digital signal processor, which is used to unfold the sinusoidal position and calculate the final spectra. The data rate can be up to 3 MHz, then a spectrum is acquired every 2ms by using a 500Hz Mirror. Using the DSP, the spectrometer can operate autarkic without any PC. Then the spectrum is display on a 160 x 80 pixel graphic LCD. A keypad is used to control the functions. For communication a USB port is included, additional interfaces can be realized by a 16-pin expansion port, which is freely programmable, by the system firmware.

  9. NIR-FT Raman, FT-IR and surface-enhanced Raman scattering and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 122; Issue 4. NIR-FT Raman, FT-IR and surface-enhanced Raman scattering and DFT based theoretical studies on the adsorption behaviour of (S)-Phenylsuccinic acid on silver nanoparticles. D Sajan V Bena Jothy Thomas Kuruvilla I Hubert Joe. Full Papers Volume ...

  10. Temporal Comparison Between NIRS and EEG Signals During a Mental Arithmetic Task Evaluated with Self-Organizing Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Katsunori; Sakatani, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous monitoring of brain activity with near-infrared spectroscopy and electroencephalography allows spatiotemporal reconstruction of the hemodynamic response regarding the concentration changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin that are associated with recorded brain activity such as cognitive functions. However, the accuracy of state estimation during mental arithmetic tasks is often different depending on the length of the segment for sampling of NIRS and EEG signals. This study compared the results of a self-organizing map and ANOVA, which were both used to assess the accuracy of state estimation. We conducted an experiment with a mental arithmetic task performed by 10 participants. The lengths of the segment in each time frame for observation of NIRS and EEG signals were compared with the 30-s, 1-min, and 2-min segment lengths. The optimal segment lengths were different for NIRS and EEG signals in the case of classification of feature vectors into the states of performing a mental arithmetic task and being at rest.

  11. Location of Bare Soil Surface and Soil Line on the RED-NIR Spectral Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroleva, P. V.; Rukhovich, D. I.; Rukhovich, A. D.; Rukhovich, D. D.; Kulyanitsa, A. L.; Trubnikov, A. V.; Kalinina, N. V.; Simakova, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Soil as a separate natural body occupies certain area with its own set of spectral characteristics within the RED-NIR spectral space. This is an ellipse-shaped area, and its semi-major axis is the soil line for a satellite image. The spectral area for a bare soil surface is neighboring to the areas of black carbon, straw, vegetating plants, and missing RED-NIR values. A reliable separation of the bare soil surface within the spectral space is possible with the technology of spectral neighborhood of soil line. The accuracy of this method is 90%. The determination of the bare soil surface using vegetation indices, both relative (NDVI), and perpendicular (PVI), is incorrect; the accuracy of these methods does not exceed 65%, and for most of the survey seasons it may be lower than 50%. The flat part of the "tasseled cap" described as the soil line, is not a synonym for the area of the bare soil surface. The bare soil surface on the RED-NIR plots occupies significantly smaller areas than the area of soil line according to Kauth and Thomas.

  12. The Utility of Using a Near-Infrared (NIR) Camera to Measure Beach Surface Moisture

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    Nelson, S.; Schmutz, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    Surface moisture content is an important factor that must be considered when studying aeolian sediment transport in a beach environment. A few different instruments and procedures are available for measuring surface moisture content (i.e. moisture probes, LiDAR, and gravimetric moisture data from surface scrapings); however, these methods can be inaccurate, costly, and inapplicable, particularly in the field. Near-infrared (NIR) spectral band imagery is another technique used to obtain moisture data. NIR imagery has been predominately used through remote sensing and has yet to be used for ground-based measurements. Dry sand reflects infrared radiation given off by the sun and wet sand absorbs IR radiation. All things considered, this study assesses the utility of measuring surface moisture content of beach sand with a modified NIR camera. A traditional point and shoot digital camera was internally modified with the placement of a visible light-blocking filter. Images were taken of three different types of beach sand at controlled moisture content values, with sunlight as the source of infrared radiation. A technique was established through trial and error by comparing resultant histogram values using Adobe Photoshop with the various moisture conditions. The resultant IR absorption histogram values were calibrated to actual gravimetric moisture content from surface scrapings of the samples. Overall, the results illustrate that the NIR spectrum modified camera does not provide the ability to adequately measure beach surface moisture content. However, there were noted differences in IR absorption histogram values among the different sediment types. Sediment with darker quartz mineralogy provided larger variations in histogram values, but the technique is not sensitive enough to accurately represent low moisture percentages, which are of most importance when studying aeolian sediment transport.

  13. Realistic head model design and 3D brain imaging of NIRS signals using audio stimuli on preterm neonates for intra-ventricular hemorrhage diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Marc; Mahmoudzadeh, Mahdi; Kazemi, Kamran; Kongolo, Guy; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Grebe, Reinhard; Wallois, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose an auditory stimulation and near infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) hemodynamic changes acquisition protocol for preterm neonates. This study is designed to assess the specific characteristics of neurovascular coupling to auditory stimuli in healthy and ill neonate brains. The method could lead to clinical application in intra-ventricular hemorrhage (IVH) diagnosis along with other techniques such as EEG. We propose a realistic head model creation with all useful head structures and brain tissues including the neonate fontanel for more accurate results from NIRS signals modeling. We also design a 3D imaging tool for dynamic mapping and analysis of brain activation onto the cortex surface. Results show significant differences in oxy-hemoglobin between healthy neonates and subjects with IVH.

  14. Mechanical indentation improves cerebral blood oxygenation signal quality of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during breath holding

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    Vogt, William C.; Romero, Edwin; LaConte, Stephen M.; Rylander, Christopher G.

    2013-03-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a well-known technique for non-invasively measuring cerebral blood oxygenation, and many studies have demonstrated that fNIRS signals can be related to cognitive function. However, the fNIRS signal is attenuated by the skin, while scalp blood content has been reported to influence cerebral oxygenation measurements. Mechanical indentation has been shown to increase light transmission through soft tissues by causing interstitial water and blood flow away from the compressed region. To study the effects of indentation on fNIRS, a commercial fNIRS system with 16 emitter/detector pairs was used to measure cerebral blood oxygenation at 2 Hz. This device used diffuse reflectance at 730 nm and 850 nm to calculate deoxy- and oxy-hemoglobin concentrations. A borosilicate glass hemisphere was epoxied over each sensor to function as both an indenter and a lens. After placing the indenter/sensor assembly on the forehead, a pair of plastic bands was placed on top of the fNIRS headband and strapped to the head to provide uniform pressure and tightened to approx. 15 N per strap. Cerebral blood oxygenation was recorded during a breath holding regime (15 second hold, 15 second rest, 6 cycles) in 4 human subjects both with and without the indenter array. Results showed that indentation increased raw signal intensity by 85 +/- 35%, and that indentation increased amplitude of hemoglobin changes during breath cycles by 313% +/- 105%. These results suggest that indentation improves sensing of cerebral blood oxygenation, and may potentially enable sensing of deeper brain tissues.

  15. Real-Time Subject-Independent Pattern Classification of Overt and Covert Movements from fNIRS Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Neethu; Zaidi, Ali Danish; Rana, Mohit; Prasad, Vinod A; Guan, Cuntai; Birbaumer, Niels; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2016-01-01

    Recently, studies have reported the use of Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) for developing Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) by applying online pattern classification of brain states from subject-specific fNIRS signals. The purpose of the present study was to develop and test a real-time method for subject-specific and subject-independent classification of multi-channel fNIRS signals using support-vector machines (SVM), so as to determine its feasibility as an online neurofeedback system. Towards this goal, we used left versus right hand movement execution and movement imagery as study paradigms in a series of experiments. In the first two experiments, activations in the motor cortex during movement execution and movement imagery were used to develop subject-dependent models that obtained high classification accuracies thereby indicating the robustness of our classification method. In the third experiment, a generalized classifier-model was developed from the first two experimental data, which was then applied for subject-independent neurofeedback training. Application of this method in new participants showed mean classification accuracy of 63% for movement imagery tasks and 80% for movement execution tasks. These results, and their corresponding offline analysis reported in this study demonstrate that SVM based real-time subject-independent classification of fNIRS signals is feasible. This method has important applications in the field of hemodynamic BCIs, and neuro-rehabilitation where patients can be trained to learn spatio-temporal patterns of healthy brain activity.

  16. Real-Time Subject-Independent Pattern Classification of Overt and Covert Movements from fNIRS Signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethu Robinson

    Full Text Available Recently, studies have reported the use of Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS for developing Brain-Computer Interface (BCI by applying online pattern classification of brain states from subject-specific fNIRS signals. The purpose of the present study was to develop and test a real-time method for subject-specific and subject-independent classification of multi-channel fNIRS signals using support-vector machines (SVM, so as to determine its feasibility as an online neurofeedback system. Towards this goal, we used left versus right hand movement execution and movement imagery as study paradigms in a series of experiments. In the first two experiments, activations in the motor cortex during movement execution and movement imagery were used to develop subject-dependent models that obtained high classification accuracies thereby indicating the robustness of our classification method. In the third experiment, a generalized classifier-model was developed from the first two experimental data, which was then applied for subject-independent neurofeedback training. Application of this method in new participants showed mean classification accuracy of 63% for movement imagery tasks and 80% for movement execution tasks. These results, and their corresponding offline analysis reported in this study demonstrate that SVM based real-time subject-independent classification of fNIRS signals is feasible. This method has important applications in the field of hemodynamic BCIs, and neuro-rehabilitation where patients can be trained to learn spatio-temporal patterns of healthy brain activity.

  17. Dynamic topographical pattern classification of multichannel prefrontal NIRS signals: II. Online differentiation of mental arithmetic and rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schudlo, Larissa C.; Chau, Tom

    2014-02-01

    Objective. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has recently gained attention as a modality for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), which may serve as an alternative access pathway for individuals with severe motor impairments. For NIRS-BCIs to be used as a real communication pathway, reliable online operation must be achieved. Yet, only a limited number of studies have been conducted online to date. These few studies were carried out under a synchronous paradigm and did not accommodate an unconstrained resting state, precluding their practical clinical implication. Furthermore, the potentially discriminative power of spatiotemporal characteristics of activation has yet to be considered in an online NIRS system. Approach. In this study, we developed and evaluated an online system-paced NIRS-BCI which was driven by a mental arithmetic activation task and accommodated an unconstrained rest state. With a dual-wavelength, frequency domain near-infrared spectrometer, measurements were acquired over nine sites of the prefrontal cortex, while ten able-bodied participants selected letters from an on-screen scanning keyboard via intentionally controlled brain activity (using mental arithmetic). Participants were provided dynamic NIR topograms as continuous visual feedback of their brain activity as well as binary feedback of the BCI's decision (i.e. if the letter was selected or not). To classify the hemodynamic activity, temporal features extracted from the NIRS signals and spatiotemporal features extracted from the dynamic NIR topograms were used in a majority vote combination of multiple linear classifiers. Main results. An overall online classification accuracy of 77.4 ± 10.5% was achieved across all participants. The binary feedback was found to be very useful during BCI use, while not all participants found value in the continuous feedback provided. Significance. These results demonstrate that mental arithmetic is a potent mental task for driving an online system

  18. Applying support vector machine on hybrid fNIRS/EEG signal to classify driver's conditions (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thien; Ahn, Sangtae; Jang, Hyojung; Jun, Sung C.; Kim, Jae G.

    2016-03-01

    Driver's condition plays a critical role in driving safety. The fact that about 20 percent of automobile accidents occurred due to driver fatigue leads to a demand for developing a method to monitor driver's status. In this study, we acquired brain signals such as oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin and neuronal electrical activity by a hybrid fNIRS/EEG system. Experiments were conducted with 11 subjects under two conditions: Normal condition, when subjects had enough sleep, and sleep deprivation condition, when subject did not sleep previous night. During experiment, subject performed a driving task with a car simulation system for 30 minutes. After experiment, oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin changes were derived from fNIRS data, while beta and alpha band relative power were calculated from EEG data. Decrement of oxy-hemoglobin, beta band power, and increment of alpha band power were found in sleep deprivation condition compare to normal condition. These features were then applied to classify two conditions by Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (FLDA). The ratio of alpha-beta relative power showed classification accuracy with a range between 62% and 99% depending on a subject. However, utilization of both EEG and fNIRS features increased accuracy in the range between 68% and 100%. The highest increase of accuracy is from 63% using EEG to 99% using both EEG and fNIRS features. In conclusion, the enhancement of classification accuracy is shown by adding a feature from fNIRS to the feature from EEG using FLDA which provides the need of developing a hybrid fNIRS/EEG system.

  19. Assessment of SNPP VIIRS VIS NIR Radiometric Calibration Stability Using Aqua MODIS and Invariant Surface Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Cao, Changyong; Chiang, Kwo-Fu

    2016-01-01

    The first Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite. As a primary sensor, it collects imagery and radiometric measurements of the land, atmosphere, cryosphere, and oceans in the spectral regions from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared. NASA's National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) VIIRS Characterization Support Team has been actively involved in the VIIRS radiometric and geometric calibration to support its Science Team Principal Investigators for their independent quality assessment of VIIRS Environmental Data Records. This paper presents the performance assessment of the radiometric calibration stability of the VIIRS VIS and NIR spectral bands using measurements from SNPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS simultaneous nadir overpasses and over the invariant surface targets at the Libya-4 desert and Antarctic Dome Concordia snow sites. The VIIRS sensor data records (SDRs) used in this paper are reprocessed by the NASA SNPP Land Product Evaluation and Analysis Tool Element. This paper shows that the reprocessed VIIRS SDRs have been consistently calibrated from the beginning of the mission, and the calibration stability is similar to or better than MODIS. Results from different approaches indicate that the calibrations of the VIIRS VIS and NIR spectral bands are maintained to be stable to within 1% over the first three-year mission. The absolute calibration differences between VIIRS and MODIS are within 2%, with an exception for the 0.865-m band, after correction of their spectral response differences.

  20. Signal Processing in Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS: Methodological Differences Lead to Different Statistical Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mischa D. Pfeifer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though research in the field of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS has been performed for more than 20 years, consensus on signal processing methods is still lacking. A significant knowledge gap exists between established researchers and those entering the field. One major issue regularly observed in publications from researchers new to the field is the failure to consider possible signal contamination by hemodynamic changes unrelated to neurovascular coupling (i.e., scalp blood flow and systemic blood flow. This might be due to the fact that these researchers use the signal processing methods provided by the manufacturers of their measurement device without an advanced understanding of the performed steps. The aim of the present study was to investigate how different signal processing approaches (including and excluding approaches that partially correct for the possible signal contamination affect the results of a typical functional neuroimaging study performed with fNIRS. In particular, we evaluated one standard signal processing method provided by a commercial company and compared it to three customized approaches. We thereby investigated the influence of the chosen method on the statistical outcome of a clinical data set (task-evoked motor cortex activity. No short-channels were used in the present study and therefore two types of multi-channel corrections based on multiple long-channels were applied. The choice of the signal processing method had a considerable influence on the outcome of the study. While methods that ignored the contamination of the fNIRS signals by task-evoked physiological noise yielded several significant hemodynamic responses over the whole head, the statistical significance of these findings disappeared when accounting for part of the contamination using a multi-channel regression. We conclude that adopting signal processing methods that correct for physiological confounding effects might yield more

  1. Signal Processing in Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS): Methodological Differences Lead to Different Statistical Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Mischa D; Scholkmann, Felix; Labruyère, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Even though research in the field of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has been performed for more than 20 years, consensus on signal processing methods is still lacking. A significant knowledge gap exists between established researchers and those entering the field. One major issue regularly observed in publications from researchers new to the field is the failure to consider possible signal contamination by hemodynamic changes unrelated to neurovascular coupling (i.e., scalp blood flow and systemic blood flow). This might be due to the fact that these researchers use the signal processing methods provided by the manufacturers of their measurement device without an advanced understanding of the performed steps. The aim of the present study was to investigate how different signal processing approaches (including and excluding approaches that partially correct for the possible signal contamination) affect the results of a typical functional neuroimaging study performed with fNIRS. In particular, we evaluated one standard signal processing method provided by a commercial company and compared it to three customized approaches. We thereby investigated the influence of the chosen method on the statistical outcome of a clinical data set (task-evoked motor cortex activity). No short-channels were used in the present study and therefore two types of multi-channel corrections based on multiple long-channels were applied. The choice of the signal processing method had a considerable influence on the outcome of the study. While methods that ignored the contamination of the fNIRS signals by task-evoked physiological noise yielded several significant hemodynamic responses over the whole head, the statistical significance of these findings disappeared when accounting for part of the contamination using a multi-channel regression. We conclude that adopting signal processing methods that correct for physiological confounding effects might yield more realistic results

  2. Multimodal investigation of fMRI and fNIRS derived breath hold BOLD signals with an expanded balloon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emir, U E; Ozturk, C; Akin, A

    2008-01-01

    Multimodal investigation of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals, using both functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), may give further insight to the underlying physiological principles and the detailed transient dynamics of the vascular response. Utilizing a breath hold task (BHT), we measured deoxy-hemoglobin (HbR) and oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) changes via fNIRS and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes by fMRI. Measurements were taken in four volunteers asynchronously and carefully aligned for comparative analysis. In order to describe the main stimulus in BHT, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO 2 ) parameter was integrated into the balloon model as the driving function of cerebral blood flow (CBF) which led to the development of an expanded balloon model (EBM). During BHT, the increase in HbR was observed later than the BOLD peak and coincided temporally with its post-stimulus undershoot. Further investigation of these transients with a PaCO 2 integrated balloon model suggests that post-stimulus undershoot measured by fMRI is dominated by slow return of cerebral blood volume (CBV). This was confirmed by fNIRS measurements. In addition, the BOLD signal decreased with the increase of the initial level of PaCO 2 derived from EBM, indicating an effect of basal CBF level on the BOLD signal. In conclusion, a multimodal approach with an appropriate biophysical model gave a comprehensive description of the hemodynamic response during BHT

  3. A hybrid BCI based on EEG and fNIRS signals improves the performance of decoding motor imagery of both force and speed of hand clenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xuxian; Xu, Baolei; Jiang, Changhao; Fu, Yunfa; Wang, Zhidong; Li, Hongyi; Shi, Gang

    2015-06-01

    Objective. In order to increase the number of states classified by a brain-computer interface (BCI), we utilized a motor imagery task where subjects imagined both force and speed of hand clenching. Approach. The BCI utilized simultaneously recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals. The time-phase-frequency feature was extracted from EEG, whereas the HbD [the difference of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) and deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb)] feature was used to improve the classification accuracy of fNIRS. The EEG and fNIRS features were combined and optimized using the joint mutual information (JMI) feature selection criterion; then the extracted features were classified with the extreme learning machines (ELMs). Main results. In this study, the averaged classification accuracy of EEG signals achieved by the time-phase-frequency feature improved by 7%, to 18%, more than the single-type feature, and improved by 15% more than common spatial pattern (CSP) feature. The HbD feature of fNIRS signals improved the accuracy by 1%, to 4%, more than Hb, HbO, or HbT (total hemoglobin). The EEG-fNIRS feature for decoding motor imagery of both force and speed of hand clenching achieved an accuracy of 89% ± 2%, and improved the accuracy by 1% to 5% more than the sole EEG or fNIRS feature. Significance. Our novel motor imagery paradigm improves BCI performance by increasing the number of extracted commands. Both the time-phase-frequency and the HbD feature improve the classification accuracy of EEG and fNIRS signals, respectively, and the hybrid EEG-fNIRS technique achieves a higher decoding accuracy for two-class motor imagery, which may provide the framework for future multi-modal online BCI systems.

  4. Gold nanoshell-decorated silicone surfaces for the near-infrared (NIR) photothermal destruction of the pathogenic bacterium E. faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khantamat, Orawan; Li, Chien-Hung; Yu, Fei; Jamison, Andrew C; Shih, Wei-Chuan; Cai, Chengzhi; Lee, T Randall

    2015-02-25

    Catheter-related infections (CRIs) are associated with the formation of pathogenic biofilms on the surfaces of silicone catheters, which are ubiquitous in medicine. These biofilms provide protection against antimicrobial agents and facilitate the development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The application of photothermal agents on catheter surfaces is an innovative approach to overcoming biofilm-generated CRIs. Gold nanoshells (AuNSs) represent a promising photothermal tool, because they can be used to generate heat upon exposure to near-infrared (NIR) radiation, are biologically inert at physiological temperatures, and can be engineered for the photothermal ablation of cells and tissue. In this study, AuNSs functionalized with carboxylate-terminated organosulfur ligands were attached to model catheter surfaces and tested for their effectiveness at killing adhered Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) bacteria. The morphology of the AuNSs was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), while the elemental composition was characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Furthermore, optical and photothermal properties were acquired by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and thermographic imaging with an infrared camera, respectively. Bacterial survival studies on AuNS-modified surfaces irradiated with and without NIR light were evaluated using a colony-formation assay. These studies demonstrated that AuNS-modified surfaces, when illuminated with NIR light, can effectively kill E. faecalis on silicone surfaces.

  5. Surface Weather, Signal Service and Weather Bureau

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Weather, Signal Service and Weather Bureau (SWSSWB) Records primarily created by the United States Army Signal Service from 1819 until the paid and voluntary...

  6. Preliminary study of muscle contraction assessment by NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmetti, Andrea; Giardini, Mario E.; Lago, Paolo; Pavesi, Roberta; Zambarbieri, Daniela; Maestri, R.; Felicetti, G.

    1998-01-01

    NIR spectroscopy allows monitoring of muscle oxygenation and perfusion during contraction. The knowledge of modifications of blood characteristics in body tissues has relevant clinical interest. A compact and reliable device, which makes use of two laser diodes at 750 and 810 nm coupled with the skin surface through optical fibers, was tested. NIR and surface EMG signals during isokinetic contractions were studied. A set of parameters was analyzed in order to obtain information about metabolic modifications during muscle fatigue.

  7. Rapid Discrimination of Chlorpheniramine Maleate and Assessment of Its Surface Content Uniformity in a Pharmaceutical Formulation by NIR-CI Coupled with Statistical Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luwei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrated that near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI was a rapid and nondestructive technique for discrimination of chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM and assessment of its surface content uniformity (SCU in a pharmaceutical formulation. The characteristic wavenumber method was used for discriminating CPM distribution on the tablet surface. To assess the surface content uniformity of CPM, binary image and statistical measurement were proposed. Furthermore, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used as reference method for accurately determining volume content of CPM in the sample. Moreover, HPLC was performed to assess volume content uniformity (VCU of CPM in whole region and part region of the tablets. The NIR-CI result showed that the spatial distribution of CPM was heterogeneous on the tablet surface. Through the comparison of content uniformity of CPM determined by NIR-CI and HPLC, respectively, it demonstrated that a high degree of VCU did not imply a high degree of SCU of the samples. These results indicate that HPLC method is not suitable for testing SCU, and this has been verified by NIR-CI. This study proves the feasibility of NIR-CI for rapid discrimination of CPM and assessment of its SCU, which is helpful for the quality control of commercial CPM tablets.

  8. Medical applications of VIS/NIR spectroscopy of human tissue surfaces by a novel portable instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Thomas; Stock, Volker; Schmidt, Wolf-Dieter; Liebold, Kristin; Fassler, Dieter; Wollina, Uwe; Fritzsch, Uwe; Gessner, Thomas

    2001-11-01

    In medical diagnostics, non invasive optical techniques will become common at a variety of applications because they contribute to objectivity and precision. The spectral properties of human tissue are an important field of interest. They offer opportunities of detection of skin diseases and of evaluation of chronic wounds. In the visible range, the hemoglobin absorption corresponds to blood microcirculation and the melanin absorption to the skin-type. Two types of diode-array equipment will be described: a combined VIS-NIR spectrometer system from J&M Aalen/Germany (400 nm to 1600 nm) and a stand-alone spectrometer from COLOUR CONTROL Farbmesstechnik Chemnitz/Germany (400 nm to 1000 nm). Non-contacting sensing is essential for investigating chronic wounds (no disturbances of blood microcirculation by contact pressure). The spectroscopic VIS-NIR readings of chronic wounds mainly depend on the absorption of hemoglobin and water. Multivariate analysis was applied for an objective spectral classification of eight different wound scores. Some results regarding spectral measurements of wounds and skin will be discussed. The spectrometer of COLOUR CONTROL was tested in dental surgery. To select dentures, its color has to be determined exactly to meet beauty culture demands. Color determination by dentist is not sufficient enough because of possible metameric effects of illumination. Results of spectral evaluation of denture material and human teeth will be given. Medical examination requires portable and ease equipment suitable for precise measurements. This is solved by a modular measurement system comprising microcomputer, display, light source, fiber probe, and diode-array spectrometer. It is efficient to process primary spectral data to appropriate medical interpretations.

  9. Surface electromyogram signals classification based on bispectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosco, Eugenio; Lopez, Natalia; Soria, Carlos; di Sciascio, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This paper bispectrum is used to classify human arm movements and control a robotic arm based on upper limb's surface electromyogram signals (sEMG). We use bispectrum based on third-order cumulant to parameterize sEMG signals and classify elbow flexion and extension, forearm pronation and supination, and rest states by an artificial neural network (ANN). Finally, a robotic manipulator is controlled based on classification and parameters extracted from the signals. All this process is made in real-time using QNX ® operative system.

  10. Moving Average Convergence Divergence filter preprocessing for real-time event-related peak activity onset detection : application to fNIRS signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durantin, Gautier; Scannella, Sebastien; Gateau, Thibault; Delorme, Arnaud; Dehais, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    Real-time solutions for noise reduction and signal processing represent a central challenge for the development of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI). In this paper, we introduce the Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD) filter, a tunable digital passband filter for online noise reduction and onset detection without preliminary learning phase, used in economic markets analysis. MACD performance was tested and benchmarked with other filters using data collected with functional Near Infrared Spectoscopy (fNIRS) during a digit sequence memorization task. This filter has a good performance on filtering and real-time peak activity onset detection, compared to other techniques. Therefore, MACD could be implemented for efficient BCI design using fNIRS.

  11. VIS and NIR land surface albedo sensitivity of the Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model to forcing leaf area index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, C.; Kiang, N. Y.; Ni-Meister, W.; Yang, W.; Schaaf, C.; Aleinov, I. D.; Jonas, J.; Zhao, F. A.; Yao, T.; Wang, Z.; Sun, Q.; Carrer, D.

    2016-12-01

    Land surface albedo is a major controlling factor in vegetation-atmosphere transfers, modifying the components of the energy budget, the ecosystem productivity and patterns of regional and global climate. General Circulation Models (GCMs) are coupled to Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) to solve vegetation albedo by using simple schemes prescribing albedo based on vegetation classification, and approximations of canopy radiation transport for multiple plant functional types (PFTs). In this work, we aim at evaluating the sensitivity of the NASA Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (TBM), a demographic DGVM coupled to the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM, in estimating VIS and NIR surface albedo by using variable forcing leaf area index (LAI). The Ent TBM utilizes a new Global Vegetation Structure Dataset (GVSD) to account for geographically varying vegetation tree heights and densities, as boundary conditions to the gap-probability based Analytical Clumped Two-Stream (ACTS) canopy radiative transfer scheme (Ni-Meister et al., 2010). Land surface and vegetation characteristics for the Ent GVSD are obtained from a number of earth observation platforms and algorithms, including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover and plant functional types (PFTs) (Friedl et al., 2010), soil albedo derived from MODIS (Carrer et al., 2014), and vegetation height from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on board ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) (Simard et al., 2011; Tang et al., 2014). Three LAI products are used as input to ACTS/Ent TBM: MODIS MOD15A2H product (Yang et al., 2006), Beijing Normal University LAI (Yuan et al., 2011), and Global Data Sets of Vegetation (LAI3g) (Zhu et al. 2013). The sensitivity of the Ent TBM VIS and NIR albedo to the three LAI products is assessed, compared against the previous GISS GCM vegetation classification and prescribed Lambertian albedoes (Matthews, 1984), and against

  12. Signal Integrity Applications of an EBG Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATEKOVITS, L.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic band-gap (EBG surfaces have found applications in mitigation of parallel-plate noise that occurs in high speed circuits. A 2D periodic structure previously introduced by the same authors is dimensioned here for adjusting EBG parameters in view of meeting applications requirements by decreasing the phase velocity of the propagating waves. This adjustment corresponds to decreasing the lower bound of the EBG spectra. The positions of the EBGs' in frequency are determined through full-wave simulation, by solving the corresponding eigenmode equation and by imposing the appropriate boundary conditions on all faces of the unit cell. The operation of a device relying on a finite surface is also demonstrated. Obtained results show that the proposed structure fits for the signal integrity related applications as verified also by comparing the transmission along a finite structure of an ideal signal line and one with an induced discontinuity.

  13. Optical NIR monitoring of skeletal muscle contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Paolo; Gelmetti, Andrea; Pavesi, Roberta; Zambarbieri, Daniela

    1996-12-01

    NIR spectroscopy allows monitoring of muscle oxygenation and perfusion during contraction. The knowledge of modifications of blood characteristics in body tissues has relevant clinical interest. A compact and reliable device, which makes use of two laser diodes at 750 and 810 nm coupled with the skin surface through optical fibers, was tested. NIR and surface EMG signals during isometric contractions both in normal and ischaemic conditions were analyzed. A set of parameters from the 750/810 spectroscopic curve was analyzed. Two different categories depending on the recovery rate from maximal voluntary contraction to basal oxygenation conditions were found. This behavior can give information about metabolic modifications during muscle fatigue. Interesting results in testing isokinetic rehabilitation training were also obtained.

  14. Feasibility of detecting aflatoxin B1 on inoculated maize kernels surface using Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Heitschmidt, Gerald W; Windham, William R; Feldner, Peggy; Ni, Xinzhi; Chu, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using a visible/near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system with a wavelength range between 400 and 1000 nm to detect and differentiate different levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) artificially titrated on maize kernel surface was examined. To reduce the color effects of maize kernels, image analysis was limited to a subset of original spectra (600 to 1000 nm). Residual staining from the AFB1 on the kernels surface was selected as regions of interest for analysis. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce the dimensionality of hyperspectral image data, and then a stepwise factorial discriminant analysis (FDA) was performed on latent PCA variables. The results indicated that discriminant factors F2 can be used to separate control samples from all of the other groups of kernels with AFB1 inoculated, whereas the discriminant factors F1 can be used to identify maize kernels with levels of AFB1 as low as 10 ppb. An overall classification accuracy of 98% was achieved. Finally, the peaks of β coefficients of the discrimination factors F1 and F2 were analyzed and several key wavelengths identified for differentiating maize kernels with and without AFB1 , as well as those with differing levels of AFB1 inoculation. Results indicated that Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging technology combined with the PCA-FDA was a practical method to detect and differentiate different levels of AFB1 artificially inoculated on the maize kernels surface. However, indicated the potential to detect and differentiate naturally occurring toxins in maize kernel. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Robust Features Of Surface Electromyography Signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, M I; Miskon, M F; Yaacob, M R

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, application of robotics in human life has been explored widely. Robotics exoskeleton system are one of drastically areas in recent robotic research that shows mimic impact in human life. These system have been developed significantly to be used for human power augmentation, robotics rehabilitation, human power assist, and haptic interaction in virtual reality. This paper focus on solving challenges in problem using neural signals and extracting human intent. Commonly, surface electromyography signal (sEMG) are used in order to control human intent for application exoskeleton robot. But the problem lies on difficulty of pattern recognition of the sEMG features due to high noises which are electrode and cable motion artifact, electrode noise, dermic noise, alternating current power line interface, and other noise came from electronic instrument. The main objective in this paper is to study the best features of electromyography in term of time domain (statistical analysis) and frequency domain (Fast Fourier Transform).The secondary objectives is to map the relationship between torque and best features of muscle unit activation potential (MaxPS and RMS) of biceps brachii. This project scope use primary data of 2 male sample subject which using same dominant hand (right handed), age between 20–27 years old, muscle diameter 32cm to 35cm and using single channel muscle (biceps brachii muscle). The experiment conduct 2 times repeated task of contraction and relaxation of biceps brachii when lifting different load from no load to 3kg with ascending 1kg The result shows that Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) has less error than mean value of reading compare to root mean square (RMS) value. Thus, Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) show the linear relationship against torque experience by elbow joint to lift different load. As the conclusion, the best features is MaxPS because it has the lowest error than other features and

  16. Robust Features Of Surface Electromyography Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, M. I.; Miskon, M. F.; Yaacob, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, application of robotics in human life has been explored widely. Robotics exoskeleton system are one of drastically areas in recent robotic research that shows mimic impact in human life. These system have been developed significantly to be used for human power augmentation, robotics rehabilitation, human power assist, and haptic interaction in virtual reality. This paper focus on solving challenges in problem using neural signals and extracting human intent. Commonly, surface electromyography signal (sEMG) are used in order to control human intent for application exoskeleton robot. But the problem lies on difficulty of pattern recognition of the sEMG features due to high noises which are electrode and cable motion artifact, electrode noise, dermic noise, alternating current power line interface, and other noise came from electronic instrument. The main objective in this paper is to study the best features of electromyography in term of time domain (statistical analysis) and frequency domain (Fast Fourier Transform).The secondary objectives is to map the relationship between torque and best features of muscle unit activation potential (MaxPS and RMS) of biceps brachii. This project scope use primary data of 2 male sample subject which using same dominant hand (right handed), age between 20-27 years old, muscle diameter 32cm to 35cm and using single channel muscle (biceps brachii muscle). The experiment conduct 2 times repeated task of contraction and relaxation of biceps brachii when lifting different load from no load to 3kg with ascending 1kg The result shows that Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) has less error than mean value of reading compare to root mean square (RMS) value. Thus, Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) show the linear relationship against torque experience by elbow joint to lift different load. As the conclusion, the best features is MaxPS because it has the lowest error than other features and show

  17. Surface Electromyography Signal Processing and Classification Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rubana H.; Reaz, Mamun B. I.; Ali, Mohd Alauddin Bin Mohd; Bakar, Ashrif A. A.; Chellappan, Kalaivani; Chang, Tae. G.

    2013-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) signals are becoming increasingly important in many applications, including clinical/biomedical, prosthesis or rehabilitation devices, human machine interactions, and more. However, noisy EMG signals are the major hurdles to be overcome in order to achieve improved performance in the above applications. Detection, processing and classification analysis in electromyography (EMG) is very desirable because it allows a more standardized and precise evaluation of the neurophysiological, rehabitational and assistive technological findings. This paper reviews two prominent areas; first: the pre-processing method for eliminating possible artifacts via appropriate preparation at the time of recording EMG signals, and second: a brief explanation of the different methods for processing and classifying EMG signals. This study then compares the numerous methods of analyzing EMG signals, in terms of their performance. The crux of this paper is to review the most recent developments and research studies related to the issues mentioned above. PMID:24048337

  18. A 980 nm laser-activated upconverted persistent probe for NIR-to-NIR rechargeable in vivo bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhenluan; Li, Xiaolong; Li, Youbin; Jiang, Mingyang; Ren, Guozhong; Liu, Hongrong; Zeng, Songjun; Hao, Jianhua

    2017-06-01

    Long-lasting persistent luminescent nanoparticles (PLNPs) with efficient near-infrared (NIR) emission have emerged as a new generation of probes for in vivo optical bioimaging owing to their advantages of zero-autofluorescence benefited from the self-sustained emission after excitation, deep penetration depth, and a high signal-to-noise ratio. However, most of the PLNPs are charged by ultraviolet (UV) or visible light, remarkably limiting their applications for in vivo long-term bioimaging. Here we demonstrate 980 nm laser activated upconversion-PLNPs (UC-PLNPs) with efficient NIR emission. The NIR-emitting UC-PLNPs (Zn 3 Ga 2 GeO 8 :Yb/Er/Cr) were synthesized by a sol-gel method with subsequent calcination. Owing to the efficient energy-transfer between Er and Cr ions, these UC-PLNPs present long-lasting up to 15 h NIR emission at 700 nm after the excitation of a 980 nm laser; in which both excitation and emission bands fall within the biological transparent window. The results of in vitro/in vivo toxicity assessments indicate that UC-PLNPs after surface modification present low biotoxicity and side effects in living animals. More importantly, the synthesized UC-PLNPs can be effectively recharged by 980 nm laser to restore in vivo persistent bioimaging signals and can also be employed as nanoprobes for in vivo UC optical bioimaging. This is the first demonstration of rechargeable UC-PLNPs for NIR-to-NIR in vivo bioimaging. We believe that the synthesized UC-PLNPs by combining UC and persistent luminescence properties into a single host may have potential applications in the bioimaging area and pave the way for widely using PLNPs for in vivo renewable long-lasting bioimaging.

  19. Detection Of Volatile Oil Content Of Single-Grainzanthoxylum Seed Based on Nir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Wang, Yiming; Wu, Jingzhu; Zhu, Shiping

    A NIR model was established to predict the volatile oil content of single particle red Zanthoxylum seed in this paper. With the characteristic of irregular surface, A single Zanthoxylum seed will reflect the great difference in response to spectrum signals the entire spectrum detection and exceptional sample rejection method were employed before model optimization. As a result, the NIR model for predicting the content of volatile oil were built up by 74 red Zanthoxylum seed and results indicated: the NIR model of the single grain Zanthoxylum seed had good stability and predictability (RSD3). Results of this paper suggested that NIR could be used as a quick and convenient method for predicting the volatile oil content of Zanthoxylum seed, which is useful for breeding and the quality evaluation of it.

  20. An integrated framework for joint HRF and drift estimation and HbO/HbR signal improvement in fNIRS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Adnan; Seghouane, Abd-Krim

    2014-11-01

    Nonparametric hemodynamic response function (HRF) estimation in functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) data plays an important role when investigating the temporal dynamics of a brain region response during activations. Assuming the drift arising from both physical and physiological effects in fNIRS data is Lipschitz continuous; a novel algorithm for joint HRF and drift estimation is derived in this paper. The proposed algorithm estimates the HRF by applying a first-order differencing to the fNIRS time series samples in order to remove the drift effect. An estimate of the drift is then obtained using a wavelet thresholding technique applied to the residuals generated by removing the estimated induced activation response from the fNIRS time-series. It is shown that the proposed HRF estimator is √N consistent whereas the estimator of the drift is asymptotically optimal. The de-drifted fNIRS oxygenated (HbO) and deoxygenated (HbR) hemoglobin responses are then obtained by removing the corresponding estimated drifts from the fNIRS time-series. Its performance is assessed using both simulated and real fNIRS data sets. The application results reveal that the proposed joint HRF and drift estimation method is efficient both computationally and in terms of accuracy. In comparison to traditional model based methods used for HRF estimation, the proposed novel method avoids the selection of a model to remove the drift component. As a result, the proposed method finds an optimal estimate of the fNIRS drift and offers a model-free approach to de-drift the HbO/HbR responses.

  1. Ultrasensitive NIR-SERRS Probes with Multiplexed Ratiometric Quantification for In Vivo Antibody Leads Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Homan; Jeong, Sinyoung; Jo, Ahla; Chang, Hyejin; Yang, Jin-Kyoung; Jeong, Cheolhwan; Kyeong, San; Lee, Youn Woo; Samanta, Animesh; Maiti, Kaustabh Kumar; Cha, Myeong Geun; Kim, Taek-Keun; Lee, Sukmook; Jun, Bong-Hyun; Chang, Young-Tae; Chung, Junho; Lee, Ho-Young; Jeong, Dae Hong; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2018-02-01

    Immunotargeting ability of antibodies may show significant difference between in vitro and in vivo. To select antibody leads with high affinity and specificity, it is necessary to perform in vivo validation of antibody candidates following in vitro antibody screening. Herein, a robust in vivo validation of anti-tetraspanin-8 antibody candidates against human colon cancer using ratiometric quantification method is reported. The validation is performed on a single mouse and analyzed by multiplexed surface-enhanced Raman scattering using ultrasensitive and near infrared (NIR)-active surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering nanoprobes (NIR-SERRS dots). The NIR-SERRS dots are composed of NIR-active labels and Au/Ag hollow-shell assembled silica nanospheres. A 93% of NIR-SERRS dots is detectable at a single-particle level and signal intensity is 100-fold stronger than that from nonresonant molecule-labeled spherical Au NPs (80 nm). The result of SERRS-based antibody validation is comparable to that of the conventional method using single-photon-emission computed tomography. The NIR-SERRS-based strategy is an alternate validation method which provides cost-effective and accurate multiplexing measurements for antibody-based drug development. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Sediment denitrifier community composition and nirS gene expression investigated with functional gene microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, C.A.; Jackson, G.A.; Ward, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    A functional gene microarray was used to investigate denitrifier community composition and nitrite reductase (nirS) gene expression in sediments along the estuarine gradient in Chesapeake Bay, USA. The nirS oligonucleotide probe set was designed to represent a sequence database containing 539...... Chesapeake Bay clones, as well as sequences from many other environments. Greatest nirS diversity was detected at the freshwater station at the head of the bay and least diversity at the higher salinity station near the mouth of the Bay. The most common OTUs from the sequence database were detected...... on the array with high signal strength in most samples. One of the most abundant OTUs, CB2-S-138, was identified as dominant at the mid-bay site by both microarray and quantitative PCR assays, but it comprised a much smaller fraction of the assemblage in the north and south bay samples. cDNA (transcribed from...

  3. NIR Analysis for Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been found to be a useful technique to characterize raw materials and finished textile products, and NIR methods and techniques continue to find increasingly diverse and wide-ranging quantitative and qualitative applications in the textile industry. NIR methods ...

  4. Homotopy based Surface Reconstruction with Application to Acoustic Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ojaswa; Anton, François

    2011-01-01

    This work introduces a new algorithm for surface reconstruction in a"e(3) from spatially arranged one-dimensional cross sections embedded in a"e(3). This is generally the case with acoustic signals that pierce an object non-destructively. Continuous deformations (homotopies) that smoothly...... homotopies that can generate a C (2) surface. An algorithm to generate surface from acoustic sonar signals is presented with results. Reconstruction accuracies of the homotopies are compared by means of simulations performed on basic geometric primitives....

  5. Microprocessor-based simulator of surface ECG signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MartInez, A E; Rossi, E; Siri, L Nicola

    2007-01-01

    In this work, a simulator of surface electrocardiogram recorded signals (ECG) is presented. The device, based on a microcontroller and commanded by a personal computer, produces an analog signal resembling actual ECGs, not only in time course and voltage levels, but also in source impedance. The simulator is a useful tool for electrocardiograph calibration and monitoring, to incorporate as well in educational tasks and in clinical environments for early detection of faulty behaviour

  6. Surface wave multipath signals in near-field microwave imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Paul M; Shubitidze, Fridon; Fanning, Margaret W; Kmiec, Maciej; Epstein, Neil R; Paulsen, Keith D

    2012-01-01

    Microwave imaging techniques are prone to signal corruption from unwanted multipath signals. Near-field systems are especially vulnerable because signals can scatter and reflect from structural objects within or on the boundary of the imaging zone. These issues are further exacerbated when surface waves are generated with the potential of propagating along the transmitting and receiving antenna feed lines and other low-loss paths. In this paper, we analyze the contributions of multi-path signals arising from surface wave effects. Specifically, experiments were conducted with a near-field microwave imaging array positioned at variable heights from the floor of a coupling fluid tank. Antenna arrays with different feed line lengths in the fluid were also evaluated. The results show that surface waves corrupt the received signals over the longest transmission distances across the measurement array. However, the surface wave effects can be eliminated provided the feed line lengths are sufficiently long independently of the distance of the transmitting/receiving antenna tips from the imaging tank floor. Theoretical predictions confirm the experimental observations.

  7. Surface Wave Multipath Signals in Near-Field Microwave Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Meaney

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave imaging techniques are prone to signal corruption from unwanted multipath signals. Near-field systems are especially vulnerable because signals can scatter and reflect from structural objects within or on the boundary of the imaging zone. These issues are further exacerbated when surface waves are generated with the potential of propagating along the transmitting and receiving antenna feed lines and other low-loss paths. In this paper, we analyze the contributions of multi-path signals arising from surface wave effects. Specifically, experiments were conducted with a near-field microwave imaging array positioned at variable heights from the floor of a coupling fluid tank. Antenna arrays with different feed line lengths in the fluid were also evaluated. The results show that surface waves corrupt the received signals over the longest transmission distances across the measurement array. However, the surface wave effects can be eliminated provided the feed line lengths are sufficiently long independently of the distance of the transmitting/receiving antenna tips from the imaging tank floor. Theoretical predictions confirm the experimental observations.

  8. Pharmaceutical applications using NIR technology in the cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Luiz; Borges, Marco A.

    2017-05-01

    NIR technology has been available for a long time, certainly more than 50 years. Without any doubt, it has found many niche applications, especially in the pharmaceutical, food, agriculture and other industries due to its flexibility. There are a number of advantages over other existing analytical technologies we can list, for example virtually no need for sample preparation; usually NIR does not demand sample destruction and subsequent discard; NIR provides fast results; NIR does not require extensive operator training and carries small operating costs. However, the key point about NIR technology is the fact that it's more related to statistics than chemistry or, in other words, we are more concerned about analyzing and distinguishing features within the data than looking deep into the chemical entities themselves. A simple scan reading in the NIR range usually involves huge inflows of data points. Usually we decompose the signals into hundreds of predictor variables and use complex algorithms to predict classes or quantify specific content. NIR is all about math, especially by converting chemical information into numbers. Easier said than done. A NIR signal is a very complex one. Usually the signal responses are not specific to a particular material, rather, each grouṕs responses add up, thus providing low specificity of a spectral reading. This paper proposes a simple and efficient method to analyze and compare NIR spectra for the purpose of identifying the presence of active pharmaceutical ingredients in finished products using low cost NIR scanning devices connected to the internet cloud.

  9. Feasibility of detecting aflatoxin B1 on inoculated maize kernels surface using Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feasibility of using a visible/near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system with a wavelength range between 400 and 1000 nm to detect and differentiate different levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) artificially titrated on maize kernel surface was examined. To reduce the color effects of maize kernels, ...

  10. Surface sensing and signaling networks in plant pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Yanjun; Naqvi, Naweed I

    2016-09-01

    Pathogenic fungi have evolved highly varied and remarkable strategies to invade and infect their plant hosts. Typically, such fungal pathogens utilize highly specialized infection structures, morphologies or cell types produced from conidia or ascospores on the cognate host surfaces to gain entry therein. Such diverse infection strategies require intricate coordination in cell signaling and differentiation in phytopathogenic fungi. Here, we present an overview of our current understanding of cell signaling and infection-associated development that primes host penetration in the top ten plant pathogenic fungi, which utilize specific receptors to sense and respond to different surface cues, such as topographic features, hydrophobicity, hardness, plant lipids, phytohormones, and/or secreted enzymes. Subsequently, diverse signaling components such as G proteins, cyclic AMP/Protein Kinase A and MAP kinases are activated to enable the differentiation of infection structures. Recent studies have also provided fascinating insights into the spatio-temporal dynamics and specialized sequestration and trafficking of signaling moieties required for proper development of infection structures in phytopathogenic fungi. Molecular insight in such infection-related morphogenesis and cell signaling holds promise for identifying novel strategies for intervention of fungal diseases in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Design of new multi-channel electrodes for surface electromyography signals for signal-processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilby, J; Prasad, K; Mawston, G

    2016-08-01

    This paper covers the design aspects of a new multi-channel electrode for the acquisition of surface electromyography signals from a selected muscle. The new multi-channel electrode has 11 pins where the monopolar signals produced will be configured in a software either as Linear array or Laplacian configuration. The design specification of the pre-amplifier ideally was to have a voltage gain of 500 with bandpass filtering of 5 Hz-1 kHz. The final design of the pre-amplifier circuit using an INA 118 instrumentation amplifier was built and tested to give values for voltage gain of 484 with bandpass filtering of 6.8 Hz-1.02 kHz. The software configuration that gives clearer and more defined signals in terms of motor unit action potentials for future signal processing is the Laplacian rather than Linear array.

  12. Improving NIR snow pit stratigraphy observations by introducing a controlled NIR light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J.; Marshall, H.; Rutter, N.; Karlson, A.

    2013-12-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) photography in a prepared snow pit measures mm-/grain-scale variations in snow structure, as reflectivity is strongly dependent on microstructure and grain size at the NIR wavelengths. We explore using a controlled NIR light source to maximize signal to noise ratio and provide uniform incident, diffuse light on the snow pit wall. NIR light fired from the flash is diffused across and reflected by an umbrella onto the snow pit; the lens filter transmits NIR light onto the spectrum-modified sensor of the DSLR camera. Lenses are designed to refract visible light properly, not NIR light, so there must be a correction applied for the subsequent NIR bright spot. To avoid interpolation and debayering algorithms automatically performed by programs like Adobe's Photoshop on the images, the raw data are analyzed directly in MATLAB. NIR image data show a doubling of the amount of light collected in the same time for flash over ambient lighting. Transitions across layer boundaries in the flash-lit image are detailed by higher camera intensity values than ambient-lit images. Curves plotted using median intensity at each depth, normalized to the average profile intensity, show a separation between flash- and ambient-lit images in the upper 10-15 cm; the ambient-lit image curve asymptotically approaches the level of the flash-lit image curve below 15cm. We hypothesize that the difference is caused by additional ambient light penetrating the upper 10-15 cm of the snowpack from above and transmitting through the wall of the snow pit. This indicates that combining NIR ambient and flash photography could be a powerful technique for studying penetration depth of radiation as a function of microstructure and grain size. The NIR flash images do not increase the relative contrast at layer boundaries; however, the flash more than doubles the amount of recorded light and controls layer noise as well as layer boundary transition noise.

  13. SURFACE ELECTROMYOGRAPHY IN BIOMECHANICS: APPLICATIONS AND SIGNAL ANALYSIS ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEAK GRAłIELA-FLAVIA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface electromyography (SEMG is a technique for detecting and recording the electrical activity of the muscles using surface electrodes. The EMG signal is used in biomechanics mainly as an indicator of the initiation of muscle activation, as an indicator of the force produced by a contracting muscle, and as an index ofthe fatigue occurring within a muscle. EMG, used as a method of investigation, can tell us if the muscle is active or not, if the muscle is more or less active, when it is on or off, how much active is it, and finally, if it fatigues.The purpose of this article is to discuss some specific EMG signal analysis aspects with emphasis on comparison type analysis and frequency fatigue analysis.

  14. Investigating the resetting of OSL signals in rock surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew S.; Jain, Mayank

    2011-01-01

    signals in grains and slices from five different cobbles/boulders collected from a modern beach is investigated. All the rock surfaces are presumed to have been exposed to daylight for a prolonged period of time (weeks to years). Feldspar was identified as the preferred dosimeter because quartz extracts...... factors were derived for two samples. These indicate that, for instance, bleaching at a depth of 2 mm into these samples occurs at about ∼28% of the rate at the surface. We conclude that it should be possible to derive meaningful burial doses of >1 Gy from such cobbles; younger samples would probably...

  15. Synthesis and characterization of Ni0.4Co2.6O4 spinel mixed oxides powder: study of its surface properties by voltammetry, x-ray, ftir, UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhtar Guene

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical studies were carried out on Ni0.4Co2.6O4 powders prepared by sol-gel via propionic acid method using cyclic and steady state voltammetries. The oxide surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis-NIR and FTIR spectroscopies. The results showed that the formation of homogeneous oxide with a single spinel phase occurred at 350°C. The surface redox couple NiOOH/Ni(OH2 is confined on the surface material l.

  16. Surface code—biophysical signals for apoptotic cell clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, Mona; Maueröder, Christian; Brauner, Jan M; Chaurio, Ricardo; Herrmann, Martin; Muñoz, Luis E; Janko, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death and the clearance of dying cells play an important and physiological role in embryonic development and normal tissue turnover. In contrast to necrosis, apoptosis proceeds in an anti-inflammatory manner. It is orchestrated by the timed release and/or exposure of so-called ‘find-me’, ‘eat me’ and ‘tolerate me’ signals. Mononuclear phagocytes are attracted by various ‘find-me’ signals, including proteins, nucleotides, and phospholipids released by the dying cell, whereas the involvement of granulocytes is prevented via ‘stay away’ signals. The exposure of anionic phospholipids like phosphatidylserine (PS) by apoptotic cells on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane is one of the main ‘eat me’ signals. PS is recognized by a number of innate receptors as well as by soluble bridging molecules on the surface of phagocytes. Importantly, phagocytes are able to discriminate between viable and apoptotic cells both exposing PS. Due to cytoskeleton remodeling PS has a higher lateral mobility on the surfaces of apoptotic cells thereby promoting receptor clustering on the phagocyte. PS not only plays an important role in the engulfment process, but also acts as ‘tolerate me’ signal inducing the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines by phagocytes. An efficient and fast clearance of apoptotic cells is required to prevent secondary necrosis and leakage of intracellular danger signals into the surrounding tissue. Failure or prolongation of the clearance process leads to the release of intracellular antigens into the periphery provoking inflammation and development of systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease like systemic lupus erythematosus. Here we review the current findings concerning apoptosis-inducing pathways, important players of apoptotic cell recognition and clearance as well as the role of membrane remodeling in the engulfment of apoptotic cells by phagocytes. (paper)

  17. Cu-Fe-S Nanocrystals Exhibiting Tunable Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance in the Visible to NIR Spectral Ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabka, Grzegorz; Bujak, Piotr; Ostrowski, Andrzej; Tomaszewski, Waldemar; Lisowski, Wojciech; Sobczak, Janusz W; Pron, Adam

    2016-07-05

    Cu-Fe-S nanocrystals exhibiting a strong localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect were synthesized for the first time. The elaborated reproducible preparation procedure involved copper(II) oleate, iron(III) stearate, and sulfur powder dissolved in oleylamine (OLA) as precursors. The wavelength of the plasmonic resonance maximum could be tuned by changing the Cu/Fe ratio in the resulting nanocrystals, being the most energetic for the 1:1 ratio (486 nm) and undergoing a bathochromic shift to ca. 1200 nm with an increase to 6:1. LSPR could also be observed in nanocrystals prepared from the same metal precursors and sulfur powder dissolved in 1-octadecene (ODE), provided that the sulfur precursor was taken in excess. Detailed analysis of the reaction mixture by chromatographic techniques, supplemented by mass spectrometry and (1)H NMR spectroscopy enabled the identification of the true chemical nature of the sulfur precursor in S/OLA, namely, (C18H35NH3(+))(C18H35NH-S8(-)), a reactive product of the reduction of elemental sulfur by the amine groups of OLA. In the case of the S/ODE precursor, the true precursors are much less reactive primary or secondary thioethers and dialkyl polysulfides.

  18. Application of higher order statistics to surface electromyogram signal classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarpour, Kianoush; Sharafat, Ahmad R; Firoozabadi, S Mohammad P

    2007-10-01

    We propose a novel approach for surface electromyogram (sEMG) signal classification. This approach utilizes higher order statistics of sEMG signal to classify four primitive motions, i.e., elbow flexion, elbow extension, forearm supination, and forearm pronation. In documented research, the sEMG signal generated during isometric contraction is modeled by a stationary process whose probability density function (pdf) is assumed to be either Gaussian or Laplacian. In this paper, using Negentropy, we demonstrate that the level of non-Gaussianity of sEMG signal recorded in muscular forces below 25% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) is significant. Therefore, application of higher order statistics in sEMG signal processing is justified, due to the fact that more useful information can be extracted from the corresponding higher order statistics. An accurate classification is achieved by using the sequential forward selection (SFS) method for reducing of the dimensionality of feature space and the K-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier. The results indicate that the proposed approach provides higher sEMG correct classification rates as compared to the existing methods.

  19. Validating an image-based fNIRS approach with fMRI and a working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeakumar, Sobanawartiny; Huppert, Theodore J; Magnotta, Vincent A; Buss, Aaron T; Spencer, John P

    2017-02-15

    In the current study, we extend a previous methodological pipeline by adding a novel image reconstruction approach to move functional near-infrared (fNIRS) signals from channel-space on the surface of the head to voxel-space within the brain volume. We validate this methodology by comparing voxel-wise fNIRS results to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results from a visual working memory (VWM) task using two approaches. In the first approach, significant voxel-wise correlations were observed between fNIRS and fMRI measures for all experimental conditions across brain regions in the fronto-parieto-temporal cortices. In the second approach, we conducted separate multi-factorial ANOVAs on fNIRS and fMRI measures and then examined the correspondence between main and interaction effects within common regions of interest. Both fMRI and fNIRS showed similar trends in activation within the VWM network when the number of items held in working memory increases. These results validate the image-based fNIRS approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Advanced biofeedback from surface electromyography signals using fuzzy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a fuzzy inference-based biofeedback system and investigate its effects when inducing active (shoulder elevation) and passive (relax) pauses on the trapezius muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during computer work. Surface EMG signals were recorded from...... clavicular, descending (bilateral) and ascending parts of the trapezius muscles during computer work. The fuzzy system readjusted itself based on the history of previous inputs. The effect of feedback was assessed in terms of muscle activation regularity and amplitude. Active pause resulted in non...

  1. Diversity of nitrite reductase (nirK and nirS) gene fragments in forested upland and wetland soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priemé, Anders; Braker, Gesche; Tiedje, James M.

    2002-01-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of nitrite reductase gene (nirK and nirS) fragments from denitrifying prokaryotes in forested upland and marsh soil was investigated using molecular methods. nirK gene fragments could be amplified from both soils, whereas nirS gene fragments could be amplified only from...... the marsh soil. PCR products were cloned and screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and representative fragments were sequenced. The diversity of nirK clones was lower than the diversity of nirS clones. Among the 54 distinct nirK RFLP patterns identified in the two soils, only one...... marsh clones and all upland clones. Only a few of the nirK clone sequences branched with those of known denitrifying bacteria. The nirS clones formed two major clusters with several subclusters, but all nirS clones showed less than 80% identity to nirS sequences from known denitrifying bacteria. Overall...

  2. Maturation of the cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase NirS from Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires transient interactions between the three proteins NirS, NirN and NirF.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicke, Tristan; Schnitzer, Tobias; Münch, Karin; Adamczack, Julia; Haufschildt, Kristin; Buchmeier, Sabine; Kucklick, Martin; Felgenträger, Undine; Jänsch, Lothar; Riedel, Katharina; Layer, Gunhild

    2013-01-01

    The periplasmic cytochrome cd 1 nitrite reductase NirS occurring in denitrifying bacteria such as the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa contains the essential tetrapyrrole cofactors haem c and haem d 1. Whereas the haem?c is incorporated into NirS by the cytochrome c maturation system I, nothing is known about the insertion of the haem d 1 into NirS. Here, we show by co-immunoprecipitation that NirS interacts with the potential haem d 1 insertion protein NirN in?vivo. This NirS?NirN inter...

  3. NIRS in Space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David L.; Condon, Estelle (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Proponents of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) have been exceptionally successful in applying NIRS techniques to many instances of organic material analyses. While this research and development began in the 1950s, in recent years, stimulation of advancements in instrumentation is allowing NIRS to begin to find its way into the food processing systems, into food quality and safety, textiles and much more. And, imaging high spectral resolution spectrometers are now being evaluated for the rapid scanning of foodstuffs, such as the inspection of whole chicken carcasses for fecal contamination. The imaging methods are also finding their way into medical applications, such as the non-intrusive monitoring of blood oxygenation in newborns. Can these scientific insights also be taken into space and successfully used to measure the Earth's condition? Is there an analog between the organic analyses in the laboratory and clinical settings and the study of Earth's living biosphere? How are the methods comparable and how do they differ?

  4. 3D NIR-II Molecular Imaging Distinguishes Targeted Organs with High-Performance NIR-II Bioconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shoujun; Herraiz, Sonia; Yue, Jingying; Zhang, Mingxi; Wan, Hao; Yang, Qinglai; Ma, Zhuoran; Wang, Yan; He, Jiahuan; Antaris, Alexander L; Zhong, Yeteng; Diao, Shuo; Feng, Yi; Zhou, Ying; Yu, Kuai; Hong, Guosong; Liang, Yongye; Hsueh, Aaron J; Dai, Hongjie

    2018-02-15

    Greatly reduced scattering in the second near-infrared (NIR-II) region (1000-1700 nm) opens up many new exciting avenues of bioimaging research, yet NIR-II fluorescence imaging is mostly implemented by using nontargeted fluorophores or wide-field imaging setups, limiting the signal-to-background ratio and imaging penetration depth due to poor specific binding and out-of-focus signals. A newly developed high-performance NIR-II bioconjugate enables targeted imaging of a specific organ in the living body with high quality. Combined with a home-built NIR-II confocal set-up, the enhanced imaging technique allows 900 µm-deep 3D organ imaging without tissue clearing techniques. Bioconjugation of two hormones to nonoverlapping NIR-II fluorophores facilitates two-color imaging of different receptors, demonstrating unprecedented multicolor live molecular imaging across the NIR-II window. This deep tissue imaging of specific receptors in live animals allows development of noninvasive molecular imaging of multifarious models of normal and neoplastic organs in vivo, beyond the traditional visible to NIR-I range. The developed NIR-II fluorescence microscopy will become a powerful imaging technique for deep tissue imaging without any physical sectioning or clearing treatment of the tissue. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Modeling of surface myoelectric signals--Part II: Model-based signal interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merletti, R; Roy, S H; Kupa, E; Roatta, S; Granata, A

    1999-07-01

    Experimental electromyogram (EMG) data from the human biceps brachii were simulated using the model described in [10] of this work. A multichannel linear electrode array, spanning the length of the biceps, was used to detect monopolar and bipolar signals, from which double differential signals were computed, during either voluntary or electrically elicited isometric contractions. For relatively low-level voluntary contractions (10%-30% of maximum force) individual firings of three to four-different motor units were identified and their waveforms were closely approximated by the model. Motor unit parameters such as depth, size, fiber orientation and length, location of innervation and tendonous zones, propagation velocity, and source width were estimated using the model. Two applications of the model are described. The first analyzes the effects of electrode rotation with respect to the muscle fiber direction and shows the possibility of conduction velocity (CV) over- and under-estimation. The second focuses on the myoelectric manifestations of fatigue during a sustained electrically elicited contraction and the interrelationship between muscle fiber CV, spectral and amplitude variables, and the length of the depolarization zone. It is concluded that a) surface EMG detection using an electrode array, when combined with a model of signal propagation, provides a useful method for understanding the physiological and anatomical determinants of EMG waveform characteristics and b) the model provides a way for the interpretation of fatigue plots.

  6. The influence of laser pulse duration and energy on ICP-MS signal intensity, elemental fractionation, and particle size distribution in NIR fs-LA-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwakar, Prasoon K.; Harilal, Sivanandan S.; LaHaye, Nicole L.; Hassanein, Ahmed; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2015-01-01

    Laser parameters, typically wavelength, pulse width, irradiance, repetition rate, and pulse energy, are critical parameters which influence the laser ablation process and thereby influence the LA-ICP-MS signal. In recent times, femtosecond laser ablation has gained popularity owing to the reduction in fractionation related issues and improved analytical performance which can provide matrix-independent sampling. The advantage offered by fs-LA is due to shorter pulse duration of the laser as compared to the phonon relaxation time and heat diffusion time. Hence the thermal effects are minimized in fs-LA. Recently, fs-LA-ICP-MS demonstrated improved analytical performance as compared to ns-LA-ICP-MS, but detailed mechanisms and processes are still not clearly understood. Improvement of fs-LA-ICP-MS over ns-LA-ICP-MS elucidates the importance of laser pulse duration and related effects on the ablation process. In this study, we have investigated the influence of laser pulse width (40 fs to 0.3 ns) and energy on LA-ICP-MS signal intensity and repeatability using a brass sample. Experiments were performed in single spot ablation mode as well as rastering ablation mode to monitor the Cu/Zn ratio. The recorded ICP-MS signal was correlated with total particle counts generated during laser ablation as well as particle size distribution. Our results show the importance of pulse width effects in the fs regime that becomes more pronounced when moving from femtosecond to picosecond and nanosecond regimes. PMID:26664120

  7. Large area compatible broadband superabsorber surfaces in the VIS-NIR spectrum utilizing metal-insulator-metal stack and plasmonic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereshgi, Sina Abedini; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2016-08-08

    Plasmonically enhanced absorbing structures have been emerging as strong candidates for photovoltaic (PV) devices. We investigate metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures that are suitable for tuning spectral absorption properties by modifying layer thicknesses. We have utilized gold and silver nanoparticles to form the top metal (M) region, obtained by dewetting process compatible with large area processes. For the middle (I) and bottom (M) layers, different dielectric materials and metals are investigated. Optimum MIM designs are discussed. We experimentally demonstrate less than 10 percent reflection for most of the visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) spectrum. In such stacks, computational analysis shows that the bottom metal is responsible for large portion of absorption with a peak of 80 percent at 1000 nm wavelength for chromium case.

  8. On children's dyslexia with NIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhuo; Li, Chengjun; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Yao, Bin; Song, Ranran; Wu, Hanrong

    2003-12-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a kind of prevalent psychologic disease. Some functional imaging technologies, such as FMRI and PET, have been used to study the brain activities of dyslexics. NIRS is a kind of novel technology which is more and more widely being used for study of the cognitive psychology. However, there aren"t reports about the dyslexic research using NIRS to be found until now. This paper introduces a NIRS system of four measuring channels. Brain activities of dyslexic subjects and normal subjects during reading task were studied with the NIRS system. Two groups of subjects, the group of dyslexia and the group of normal, were appointed to perform two reading tasks. At the same time, their cortical activities were measured with the NIRS system. This experimental result indicates that the brain activities of the dyslexic group were significantly higher than the control group in BA 48 and that NIRS can be used for the study of human brain activity.

  9. Self-Assembly High-Performance UV-vis-NIR Broadband β-In2Se3/Si Photodetector Array for Weak Signal Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhaoqiang; Yao, Jiandong; Wang, Bing; Yang, Yibin; Yang, Guowei; Li, Jingbo

    2017-12-20

    The emergence of a rich variety of layered materials has attracted considerable attention in recent years because of their exciting properties. However, the applications of layered materials in optoelectronic devices are hampered by the low light absorption of monolayers/few layers, the lack of p-n junction, and the challenges for large-scale production. Here, we report a scalable production of β-In 2 Se 3 /Si heterojunction arrays using pulsed-laser deposition. Photodetectors based on the as-produced heterojunction array are sensitive to a broadband wavelength from ultraviolet (370 nm) to near-infrared (808 nm), showing a high responsivity (5.9 A/W), a decent current on/off ratio (∼600), and a superior detectivity (4.9 × 10 12 jones), simultaneously. These figures-of-merits are among the best values of the reported heterojunction-based photodetectors. In addition, these devices can further enable the detection of weak signals, as successfully demonstrated with weak light sources including a flashlight, lighter, and fluorescent light. Device physics modeling shows that their high performance is attributed to the strong light absorption of the relatively thick β-In 2 Se 3 film (20.3 nm) and the rational energy band structures of β-In 2 Se 3 and Si, which allows efficient separation of photoexcited electron-hole pairs. These results offer a new insight into the rational design of optoelectronic devices from the synergetic effect of layered materials as well as mature semiconductor technology.

  10. Classification of Steps on Road Surface Using Acceleration Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Takahashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce a road monitoring cost, we propose a system to monitor extensively road condition by cyclists with a smartphone. In this paper, we propose two methods towards road monitoring. First is to classify road signals to four road conditions. Second is to extract road signal from a smartphone's accelerometer in three positions: pants' side pocket, chest pocket and a bag in a front basket. In pants' side pocket, road signal is extracted by Independent Component Analysis. In chest pocket and bag in a front basket, road signal is extracted by selecting 1-axis affected from gravitational acceleration. In the experiment of the classification method, overall accuracy was 75%. The experimental results of the extraction methods with correlation coefficient showed the overall accuracy were more than 0.7 in pants' side pocket and chest pocket, the overall accuracy was less than 0.3 in bag in a front basket.

  11. Avoiding thermal injury during near-infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT): the importance of NIR light power density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Shuhei; Nagaya, Tadanobu; Ogata, Fusa; Maruoka, Yasuhiro; Sato, Kazuhide; Nakamura, Yuko; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2017-12-22

    Near-infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a newly-established cancer treatment which employs the combination of an antibody-photoabsorber conjugate (APC) and NIR light. When NIR light is absorbed by APC-bound tissues, a certain amount of heat is generated locally. For the most part this results in a subclinical rise in skin temperature, however, excessive light exposure may cause non-specific thermal damage. In this study, we investigated the potential for thermal damage caused by NIR-PIT by measuring surface temperature. Two sources of light, laser and light emitting diode (LED), were compared in a mouse tumor model. First, we found that the skin was heated rapidly by NIR light regardless of whether laser or LED light sources were used. Air cooling at the surface reduced the rise in temperature. There were no associations between the rise of skin temperature and tumor volume of the treated tumor, or APC concentration. Second, we investigated the extent of thermal damage to the skin at various light doses. We detected burn injuries 1 day after NIR-PIT, when the NIR light was at a power density higher than 600 mW/cm 2 . Successful treatments at lower power density could be achieved if the total light energy absorbed by the tumor was the same, i.e. by extending the duration of light exposure. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that thermal injury after NIR-PIT can be avoided by either employing a cooling system or by lowering the power density of the light source and prolonging the exposure time such that the total energy is constant. Thus, thermal damage is preventable side effect of NIR-PIT.

  12. Ultra Fast Optical Sectioning: Signal preserving filtering and surface reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Poel, Mike van der; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    In 3D surface scanning it is desirable to lter away bad data without altering the quality of the remaining good data. Filtering of raw scanner data before surface reconstruction can minimize the induced er- ror and improve on the probability of reconstructing the true surface. If outliers consist...... to extract high quality 3D surface points from 2D images recorded at over 3000 fps. The scanner has been developed for digital impression taking in the dental area. Our work relates to future in-ear scanning for tting custom hearing aids without impression taking....

  13. Estimation of Upper Limb Joint Angle Using Surface EMG Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Mon Aung

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the development of robot-assisted rehabilitation systems for upper limb rehabilitation therapy, human electromyogram (EMG is widely used due to its ability to detect the user intended motion. EMG is one kind of biological signal that can be recorded to evaluate the performance of skeletal muscles by means of a sensor electrode. Based on recorded EMG signals, user intended motion could be extracted via estimation of joint torque, force or angle. Therefore, this estimation becomes one of the most important factors to achieve accurate user intended motion. In this paper, an upper limb joint angle estimation methodology is proposed. A back propagation neural network (BPNN is developed to estimate the shoulder and elbow joint angles from the recorded EMG signals. A Virtual Human Model (VHM is also developed and integrated with BPNN to perform the simulation of the estimated angle. The relationships between sEMG signals and upper limb movements are observed in this paper. The effectiveness of our developments is evaluated with four healthy subjects and a VHM simulation. The results show that the methodology can be used in the estimation of joint angles based on EMG.

  14. Arrays of surface-normal electroabsorption modulators for the generation and signal processing of microwave photonics signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noharet, Bertrand; Wang, Qin; Platt, Duncan; Junique, Stéphane; Marpaung, D.A.I.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.

    2011-01-01

    The development of an array of 16 surface-normal electroabsorption modulators operating at 1550nm is presented. The modulator array is dedicated to the generation and processing of microwave photonics signals, targeting a modulation bandwidth in excess of 5GHz. The hybrid integration of the

  15. NIR Detector Signal Chain Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objectives of this proposal are twofold: 1) develop a suite of flight software tools for utilizing the advanced capabilities inherent in the guide-mode features...

  16. Cell surface topology creates high Ca2+ signalling microdomains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasen, Jens Christian; Olsen, Lars Folke; Hallett, Maurice B

    2010-01-01

    20 microM Ca2+ to be activated. In this paper, we have resolved this apparent paradox by showing that the surface topology of cells represents an important and hitherto unrecognized feature for generating microdomains of high Ca2+ in cells. We show that whereas the standard modeling assumption...... of a smooth cell surface predicts only moderate localized effects, the more realistic "wrinkled" surface topology predicts that Ca2+ concentrations up to 80 microM can persist within the folds of membranes for significant times. This intra-wrinkle location may account for 5% of the total cell volume. Using......-wrinkle location is also a strategic location at which Ca2+ acts as a regulator of the cortical cytoskeleton and plasma membrane expansion....

  17. Recording and conditioning of surface EMG signal for decomposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pošusta, A.; Otáhal, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 30 (2012), s. 28-31 ISSN 1801-1217 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS501210509; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LH12070 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : surface electromyography * decomposition * EMG Lab * prosthetics Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  18. Electrokinetic effect combined with surface-charge assumption: a possible generation mechanism of coseismic EM signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hengxin; Wen, Jian; Huang, Qinghua; Chen, Xiaofei

    2015-02-01

    According to field observations, electromagnetic (EM) signals accompanying seismic waves can be recorded. The orders of magnitude of observed coseismic electric and magnetic signals associated with earthquakes are usually around 1 to 101 mV km-1 and 10-2 to 1 nT, respectively. In this paper, we carry out numerical simulation of coseismic EM signals associated with seismic waves due to electrokinetic effect and compare with field observations. The seismic source is represented by a finite fault measuring 15 × 9 km2 with a max slip displacement 1.5 m, corresponding to a Mw 5.9 earthquake. While using the EM surface boundary condition of continuous horizontal EM components, the magnetic signals only accompany the late-arriving S waves at receiver near the ground surface. This is obviously different from field observations. Thus, we adopt another EM surface boundary condition which assumes the ground surface carries surface charge. For the used half-space model, a surface-charge density magnitude |Qsc| in excess of 10-4 C m-2 is sufficient to make horizontal magnetic components clearly show up at the whole time duration of seismic waves. When |Qsc| increases, the contribution of surface-charge density to coseismic EM signals becomes more and more dominant comparing with that of the seismically induced streaming-current. We estimate the Qsc expected at the Earth's surface might be a value between -5 × 10-4 and -0.1 C m-2 by the comparison between numerical results and field observations. The vertical magnetic signals only accompany the late-arriving seismic waves, because they are theoretically only induced by SH wave. The field observation results of vertical magnetic signals may be resulted from the scattering effect or the seismic dynamo effect. We conclude that electrokinetic effect combined with surface-charge assumption is one possible generation mechanism of the observed coseismic EM signals.

  19. On the terminology of the spectral vegetation index (NIR – SWIR)/(NIR + SWIR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lel; Zhang, Li; Wylie, Bruce K.; Rover, Jennifer R.

    2011-01-01

    The spectral vegetation index (ρNIR – ρSWIR)/(ρNIR + ρSWIR), where ρNIR and ρSWIR are the near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) reflectances, respectively, has been widely used to indicate vegetation moisture condition. This index has multiple names in the literature, including infrared index (II), normalized difference infrared index (NDII), normalized difference water index (NDWI), normalized difference moisture index (NDMI), land surface water index (LSWI), and normalized burn ratio (NBR), etc. After reviewing each term’s definition, associated sensors, and channel specifications, we found that the index consists of three variants, differing only in the SWIR region (1.2–1.3 µm, 1.55–1.75 µm, or 2.05–2.45 µm). Thus, three terms are sufficient to represent these three SWIR variants; other names are redundant and therefore unnecessary. Considering the spectral representativeness, the term’s popularity, and the “rule of priority” in scientific nomenclature, NDWI, NDII, and NBR, each corresponding to the three SWIR regions, are more preferable terms.

  20. An Improved Response Surface Methodology Algorithm with an Application to Traffic Signal Optimization for Urban Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Prepared ca. 1995. This paper illustrates the use of the simulation-optimization technique of response surface methodology (RSM) in traffic signal optimization of urban networks. It also quantifies the gains of using the common random number (CRN) va...

  1. Fluctuations of noiselike signals reflected from a rough surface at the output of a correlation receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, E. P.

    2005-11-01

    The frequency and time averaging of the fluctuations that occur in the cross-correlation function of a radiated noiselike acoustic signal with the signal received after its reflection from a rough water surface is considered. The variance and temporal correlation function are calculated for the output effect of a correlation receiver for different ratios between the averaging time and the time correlation interval of fluctuations, the band width of the radiated signal, and the frequency correlation interval of the transfer function fluctuations.

  2. NIR annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The fourth annual report of the Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Radiooekologie (NIR) is intended to describe the scientific work of the institute and its members in 1987. The central part of this publication are the fourteen reports on scientific activities, to be divided into four large categories: - Behaviour of tritium in the atmosphere and the soil - on this, important new knowledge was gained in 1987 in an experiment in Canada on the release of this substance; - Investigations in the radioecology of iodine 129, the dependence of its mobility in the soil on humus substances and microorganisms, and its enrichment in the human thyroid gland; - Establishment of transfer factors in the food chain for fission products like cesium 137, cesium 134 and strontium 90 - this being a field where exact knowledge has regained great importance after the accident at Chernobyl; - Aerosol-physical investigations: on the one hand, to obtain data on the propagation of nutrient aerosols and aerosols carrying harmful substances in areas with vegetation, and on the other hand to measure 'snow-out' and 'fog-out' coefficients. To this are added a number of papers on the stability of the decontamination substance for cesium 137 - ammonium-iron-hexacyanoferrate (AIHCF) - in the soil, on the translocation of cesium in apple-trees, and on the improvement of the analytics for uranium and plutonium in environmental specimens. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Empirical recurrence rates for ground motion signals on planetary surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Panning, Mark

    2018-03-01

    We determine the recurrence rates of ground motion events as a function of sensed velocity amplitude at several terrestrial locations, and make a first interplanetary comparison with measurements on the Moon, Mars, Venus and Titan. This empirical approach gives an intuitive order-of-magnitude guide to the observed ground motion (including both tectonic and ocean- and atmosphere-forced signals) of these locations as a guide to instrument expectations on future missions, without invoking interior models and specific sources: for example a Venera-14 observation of possible ground motion indicates a microseismic environment mid-way between noisy and quiet terrestrial locations. Quiet terrestrial regions see a peak velocity amplitude in mm/s roughly equal to 0.3*N(-0.7), where N is the number of "events" (half-hour intervals in which a given peak ground motion is exceeded) observed per year. The Apollo data show endogenous seismic signals for a given recurrence rate that are typically about 10,000 times smaller in amplitude than a quiet site on Earth, although local thermally-induced moonquakes are much more common. Viking data masked for low-wind periods appear comparable with a quiet terrestrial site, whereas a Venera observation of microseisms suggests ground motion more similar to a more active terrestrial location. Recurrence rate plots from in-situ measurements provide a context for seismic instrumentation on future planetary missions, e.g. to guide formulation of data compression schemes. While even small geophones can discriminate terrestrial activity rates, observations with guidance accelerometers are typically too insensitive to provide meaningful constraints (i.e. a non-zero number of "events") on actual ground motion observations unless operated for very long periods.

  4. Statistical and signal processing concepts in surface metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1986-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of a simple two-scale model of surface roughness for testing and specifying the topographic figure and finish of synchrotron-radiation mirrors. In this approach the effects of figure and finish are described in terms of their slope distribution and power spectrum, respectively, which are then combined with the system point spread function to produce a composite image. The result can be used to predict mirror performance or to translate design requirements into manufacturing specifications. Pacing problems in this approach are the development of a practical long-trace slope-profiling instrument and realistic statistical models for figure and finish errors

  5. DMPD: Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface Toll-likereceptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17275324 Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface Toll... Show Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface Toll-likereceptors. PubmedID 172...75324 Title Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface

  6. The Probing Radio Signal Polarization Effect on Separation Efficiency of Surface Target Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Pinchuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was a quantitative analysis of the level of interference with radar monitoring characteristics of surface targets, caused by the scattered electromagnetic field, arising due to the interaction between radio waves and sea surface, which is a study aspect a radiooceanography encompasses. Backscatter signal, arising from the interaction of radio waves and sea surface, extends in a direction opposite the probing radar signal of spread marine and coastal radar stations.With radar sounding of sea surface at high incidence angles of radio waves, a basic physical mechanism to form the received signal is resonant (Bragg scattering, and at small incidence angles of radio waves it is quasi-specular reflection. Consequently, the energy of electromagnetic radiation, backscattered by the sea surface, depends on the type of wave polarization: for horizontal polarization it is less than for vertical one.The paper presents a mathematical model, which describes dependence of interference level caused by interaction between radio waves and sea surface, on the radio wave polarization for the case when the same polarization is used to sent-out and receive a radio wave.To determine the noise reduction to be achievable with radar monitoring the surface targets by selecting the polarization of the probing radar signal, a signal/noise ratio is analyzed for its different polarizations.It is shown that in order to reduce the noise level caused by the interaction between radio waves and sea surface, it is possible to use the differences in the level of scattered radio signals of different polarization: with horizontally-polarized radar operation at incidence angles of 75°- 85° a signal/noise ratio is by 20-35 dB higher than that of vertically- polarized one.

  7. fNIRS-based brain-computer interfaces: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseer, Noman; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2015-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a communication system that allows the use of brain activity to control computers or other external devices. It can, by bypassing the peripheral nervous system, provide a means of communication for people suffering from severe motor disabilities or in a persistent vegetative state. In this paper, brain-signal generation tasks, noise removal methods, feature extraction/selection schemes, and classification techniques for fNIRS-based BCI are reviewed. The most common brain areas for fNIRS BCI are the primary motor cortex and the prefrontal cortex. In relation to the motor cortex, motor imagery tasks were preferred to motor execution tasks since possible proprioceptive feedback could be avoided. In relation to the prefrontal cortex, fNIRS showed a significant advantage due to no hair in detecting the cognitive tasks like mental arithmetic, music imagery, emotion induction, etc. In removing physiological noise in fNIRS data, band-pass filtering was mostly used. However, more advanced techniques like adaptive filtering, independent component analysis (ICA), multi optodes arrangement, etc. are being pursued to overcome the problem that a band-pass filter cannot be used when both brain and physiological signals occur within a close band. In extracting features related to the desired brain signal, the mean, variance, peak value, slope, skewness, and kurtosis of the noised-removed hemodynamic response were used. For classification, the linear discriminant analysis method provided simple but good performance among others: support vector machine (SVM), hidden Markov model (HMM), artificial neural network, etc. fNIRS will be more widely used to monitor the occurrence of neuro-plasticity after neuro-rehabilitation and neuro-stimulation. Technical breakthroughs in the future are expected via bundled-type probes, hybrid EEG-fNIRS BCI, and through the detection of initial dips.

  8. fNIRS-based brain-computer interfaces: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noman eNaseer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A brain-computer interface (BCI is a communication system that allows the use of brain activity to control computers or other external devices. It can, by bypassing the peripheral nervous system, provide a means of communication for people suffering from severe motor disabilities or in a persistent vegetative state. In this paper, brain-signal generation tasks, noise removal methods, feature extraction/selection schemes, and classification techniques for fNIRS-based BCI are reviewed. The most common brain areas for fNIRS BCI are the primary motor cortex and the prefrontal cortex. In relation to the motor cortex, motor imagery tasks were preferred to motor execution tasks since possible proprioceptive feedback could be avoided. In relation to the prefrontal cortex, fNIRS showed a significant advantage due to no hair in detecting the cognitive tasks like mental arithmetic, music imagery, emotion induction, etc. In removing physiological noise in fNIRS data, band-pass filtering was mostly used. However, more advanced techniques like adaptive filtering, independent component analysis, multi optodes arrangement, etc. are being pursued to overcome the problem that a band-pass filter cannot be used when both brain and physiological signals occur within a close band. In extracting features related to the desired brain signal, the mean, variance, peak value, slope, skewness, and kurtosis of the noised-removed hemodynamic response were used. For classification, the linear discriminant analysis method provided simple but good performance among others: support vector machine, hidden Markov model, artificial neural network, etc. fNIRS will be more widely used to monitor the occurrence of neuro-plasticity after neuro-rehabilitation and neuro-stimulation. Technical breakthroughs in the future are expected via bundled-type probes, hybrid EEG-fNIRS BCI, and through the detection of initial dips.

  9. Dynamic Filtering Improves Attentional State Prediction with fNIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrivel, Angela R.; Weissman, Daniel H.; Noll, Douglas C.; Huppert, Theodore; Peltier, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Brain activity can predict a person's level of engagement in an attentional task. However, estimates of brain activity are often confounded by measurement artifacts and systemic physiological noise. The optimal method for filtering this noise - thereby increasing such state prediction accuracy - remains unclear. To investigate this, we asked study participants to perform an attentional task while we monitored their brain activity with functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We observed higher state prediction accuracy when noise in the fNIRS hemoglobin [Hb] signals was filtered with a non-stationary (adaptive) model as compared to static regression (84% +/- 6% versus 72% +/- 15%).

  10. Secondary ions mass spectrometric signal enhancement of peptides on enlarged-gold nanoparticle surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Pil; Lee, Tae Geol

    2012-06-05

    A high surface coverage of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is a prerequisite for enhancing the peptide signal intensity in time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Here, we demonstrate the TOF-SIMS signal amplification of peptides on a surface by enlarging surface-confined AuNPs using the NH(2)OH/Au(3+) seeding method. Because of the increased surface area and spherical structure of the Au, the SIMS intensity of the peptides became significantly enhanced on the enlarged-AuNPs surface, especially at high concentrations of peptide solution (>10 μM), compared to that of the bare gold surface or submonolyer of AuNPs. We are confident that this will be a useful method for diagnosis and bioassay with high sensitivity in a label-free manner.

  11. Multipoint-NIR-measurements in pharmaceutical powder applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkilae, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, multipoint near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is used in studying particulate pharmaceutical ingredients and their mixing and granulation processes. Homogeneous mixing of active pharmaceutical ingredients with excipients is essential in getting the correct dosage in the tableting phase. The basic principles of NIR spectroscopy and the associated molecular vibrations are briefly reviewed in the beginning of the work, followed by a summary of typical applications of NIR spectroscopy. A multipoint NIR measurement system developed at VTT is presented in this work. It consists of a spectral camera with fiber-optic inputs, a fiber-optic light source and twelve fiber-optic probes. The performance of the system in the laboratory is thoroughly reported, including signal-to-noise ratio, stability and probe-to-probe variability. The system was also tested in a fluidized bed granulator at Helsinki University. Eight probes were attached in two rows into the granulator, and several granulations were run. The mixing period in the beginning of the granulation process was clearly visible, as well as the changes in the moisture level during liquid spraying and final drying. The study shows that multipoint NIR spectroscopy is a valuable tool in monitoring the granulation process. In particular, it gives information about the macroscopic homogeneity of the fluidized bed. (orig.)

  12. Multipoint-NIR-measurements in pharmaceutical powder applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkilae, A.

    2009-01-15

    In this paper, multipoint near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is used in studying particulate pharmaceutical ingredients and their mixing and granulation processes. Homogeneous mixing of active pharmaceutical ingredients with excipients is essential in getting the correct dosage in the tableting phase. The basic principles of NIR spectroscopy and the associated molecular vibrations are briefly reviewed in the beginning of the work, followed by a summary of typical applications of NIR spectroscopy. A multipoint NIR measurement system developed at VTT is presented in this work. It consists of a spectral camera with fiber-optic inputs, a fiber-optic light source and twelve fiber-optic probes. The performance of the system in the laboratory is thoroughly reported, including signal-to-noise ratio, stability and probe-to-probe variability. The system was also tested in a fluidized bed granulator at Helsinki University. Eight probes were attached in two rows into the granulator, and several granulations were run. The mixing period in the beginning of the granulation process was clearly visible, as well as the changes in the moisture level during liquid spraying and final drying. The study shows that multipoint NIR spectroscopy is a valuable tool in monitoring the granulation process. In particular, it gives information about the macroscopic homogeneity of the fluidized bed. (orig.)

  13. Signal Processing for Determining Water Height in Steam Pipes with Dynamic Surface Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced signal processing method based on the filtered Hilbert envelope of the auto-correlation function of the wave signal has been developed to monitor the height of condensed water through the steel wall of steam pipes with dynamic surface conditions. The developed signal processing algorithm can also be used to estimate the thickness of the pipe to determine the cut-off frequency for the low pass filter frequency of the Hilbert Envelope. Testing and analysis results by using the developed technique for dynamic surface conditions are presented. A multiple array of transducers setup and methodology are proposed for both the pulse-echo and pitch-catch signals to monitor the fluctuation of the water height due to disturbance, water flow, and other anomaly conditions.

  14. Detection of the ODMR signal of a nitrogen vacancy centre in nanodiamond in propagating surface plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Baiaty, Zahraa; Cumming, Benjamin P.; Gan, Xiaosong; Gu, Min

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate that the optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) signal of a nitrogen vacancy (NV) centre can be coupled to propagating surface plasmons for the detection of the NV centre spin states, and of external magnetic fields. By coupling the spin dependent luminescence signal of a NV centre in a nanodiamond (ND) to a chemically synthesized silver nanowire, we demonstrate the readout of the ODMR signal as a reduction in the surface plasmon polariton intensity, with improved contrast in comparison to the emission from the NV centre. Furthermore, on the application of a permanent magnetic field from zero to 13 G, we demonstrate that the Zeeman splitting of the magnetic spin states of the nitrogen vacancy centre ground states can also be detected in the coupled surface plasmons. This is an important step in the development of a compact on-chip information processing system utilizing the nitrogen vacancy in nanodiamond as an on-chip source with efficient magnetometry sensing properties.

  15. A Two-Dimensional Biodegradable Niobium Carbide (MXene) for Photothermal Tumor Eradication in NIR-I and NIR-II Biowindows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Han; Gao, Shanshan; Dai, Chen; Chen, Yu; Shi, Jianlin

    2017-11-15

    Conventionally, ceramics-based materials, fabricated by high-temperature solid-phase reaction and sintering, are preferred as bone scaffolds in hard-tissue engineering because of their tunable biocompatibility and mechanical properties. However, their possible biomedical applications have rarely been considered, especially the cancer phototherapeutic applications in both the first and second near-infrared light (NIR-I and NIR-II) biowindows. In this work, we explore, for the first time as far as we know, a novel kind of 2D niobium carbide (Nb 2 C), MXene, with highly efficient in vivo photothermal ablation of mouse tumor xenografts in both NIR-I and NIR-II windows. The 2D Nb 2 C nanosheets (NSs) were fabricated by a facile and scalable two-step liquid exfoliation method combining stepwise delamination and intercalation procedures. The ultrathin, lateral-nanosized Nb 2 C NSs exhibited extraordinarily high photothermal conversion efficiency (36.4% at NIR-I and 45.65% at NIR-II), as well as high photothermal stability. The Nb 2 C NSs intrinsically feature unique enzyme-responsive biodegradability to human myeloperoxidase, low phototoxicity, and high biocompatibility. Especially, these surface-engineered Nb 2 C NSs present highly efficient in vivo photothermal ablation and eradication of tumor in both NIR-I and NIR-II biowindows. This work significantly broadens the application prospects of 2D MXenes by rationally designing their compositions and exploring related physiochemical properties, especially on phototherapy of cancer.

  16. Analysis of cutting force signals by wavelet packet transform for surface roughness monitoring in CNC turning

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Plaza, E.; Núñez López, P. J.

    2018-01-01

    On-line monitoring of surface finish in machining processes has proven to be a substantial advancement over traditional post-process quality control techniques by reducing inspection times and costs and by avoiding the manufacture of defective products. This study applied techniques for processing cutting force signals based on the wavelet packet transform (WPT) method for the monitoring of surface finish in computer numerical control (CNC) turning operations. The behaviour of 40 mother wavelets was analysed using three techniques: global packet analysis (G-WPT), and the application of two packet reduction criteria: maximum energy (E-WPT) and maximum entropy (SE-WPT). The optimum signal decomposition level (Lj) was determined to eliminate noise and to obtain information correlated to surface finish. The results obtained with the G-WPT method provided an in-depth analysis of cutting force signals, and frequency ranges and signal characteristics were correlated to surface finish with excellent results in the accuracy and reliability of the predictive models. The radial and tangential cutting force components at low frequency provided most of the information for the monitoring of surface finish. The E-WPT and SE-WPT packet reduction criteria substantially reduced signal processing time, but at the expense of discarding packets with relevant information, which impoverished the results. The G-WPT method was observed to be an ideal procedure for processing cutting force signals applied to the real-time monitoring of surface finish, and was estimated to be highly accurate and reliable at a low analytical-computational cost.

  17. Correlation characteristics of signals reflected by the wavy surface of ocean in mirror direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitkovskiy, Y. Y.; Nosov, A. V.; Savelyev, V. V.

    1985-06-01

    An experimental study was carried out to determine the correlation characteristics of pseudonoise signals reflected from a wave-covered surface in the mirror direction. The major measured quantity was the reciprocal correlation coefficient between the transmitted signal and the reflected signal. The transmitter was lowered from a ship on a 150 m cable. The receiver and preamplifier were lowered to the same depth from a buoy which was allowed to drift from the ship to a distance of 100-500 m, the changing distance changing the angle of the beam reflected from the surface of the ocean back down to the hydrophone. The radiator transmitted a pulsed signal with a pseudonoise carrier. The results were interpreted within the framework of ordinary correlation theory by processing several recordings, calculating the sign and ordinary correlation coefficients to determine the variation in sign correlation coefficient as a function of the ordinary correlation coefficient. Graphs of the average variation are presented. It was found that the medium did not distort the signal as it propagated through the water mass (within the limits of experimental accuracy). The correlation coefficient between the transmitted and reflected signals is thus determined entirely by the characteristics of reradiation of the sound by the wavecovered surface.

  18. A Variance Distribution Model of Surface EMG Signals Based on Inverse Gamma Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hideaki; Furui, Akira; Kurita, Yuichi; Tsuji, Toshio

    2017-11-01

    Objective: This paper describes the formulation of a surface electromyogram (EMG) model capable of representing the variance distribution of EMG signals. Methods: In the model, EMG signals are handled based on a Gaussian white noise process with a mean of zero for each variance value. EMG signal variance is taken as a random variable that follows inverse gamma distribution, allowing the representation of noise superimposed onto this variance. Variance distribution estimation based on marginal likelihood maximization is also outlined in this paper. The procedure can be approximated using rectified and smoothed EMG signals, thereby allowing the determination of distribution parameters in real time at low computational cost. Results: A simulation experiment was performed to evaluate the accuracy of distribution estimation using artificially generated EMG signals, with results demonstrating that the proposed model's accuracy is higher than that of maximum-likelihood-based estimation. Analysis of variance distribution using real EMG data also suggested a relationship between variance distribution and signal-dependent noise. Conclusion: The study reported here was conducted to examine the performance of a proposed surface EMG model capable of representing variance distribution and a related distribution parameter estimation method. Experiments using artificial and real EMG data demonstrated the validity of the model. Significance: Variance distribution estimated using the proposed model exhibits potential in the estimation of muscle force. Objective: This paper describes the formulation of a surface electromyogram (EMG) model capable of representing the variance distribution of EMG signals. Methods: In the model, EMG signals are handled based on a Gaussian white noise process with a mean of zero for each variance value. EMG signal variance is taken as a random variable that follows inverse gamma distribution, allowing the representation of noise superimposed onto this

  19. ECG artifact cancellation in surface EMG signals by fractional order calculus application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljković, Nadica; Popović, Nenad; Djordjević, Olivera; Konstantinović, Ljubica; Šekara, Tomislav B

    2017-03-01

    New aspects for automatic electrocardiography artifact removal from surface electromyography signals by application of fractional order calculus in combination with linear and nonlinear moving window filters are explored. Surface electromyography recordings of skeletal trunk muscles are commonly contaminated with spike shaped artifacts. This artifact originates from electrical heart activity, recorded by electrocardiography, commonly present in the surface electromyography signals recorded in heart proximity. For appropriate assessment of neuromuscular changes by means of surface electromyography, application of a proper filtering technique of electrocardiography artifact is crucial. A novel method for automatic artifact cancellation in surface electromyography signals by applying fractional order calculus and nonlinear median filter is introduced. The proposed method is compared with the linear moving average filter, with and without prior application of fractional order calculus. 3D graphs for assessment of window lengths of the filters, crest factors, root mean square differences, and fractional calculus orders (called WFC and WRC graphs) have been introduced. For an appropriate quantitative filtering evaluation, the synthetic electrocardiography signal and analogous semi-synthetic dataset have been generated. The examples of noise removal in 10 able-bodied subjects and in one patient with muscle dystrophy are presented for qualitative analysis. The crest factors, correlation coefficients, and root mean square differences of the recorded and semi-synthetic electromyography datasets showed that the most successful method was the median filter in combination with fractional order calculus of the order 0.9. Statistically more significant (p ECG peak reduction was obtained by the median filter application compared to the moving average filter in the cases of low level amplitude of muscle contraction compared to ECG spikes. The presented results suggest that the

  20. Signal Evaluation System of Flexible Array Ect Probes for Inspecting Complexly Shaped Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, H.; Nishimizu, A.; Tooma, M.; Ouchi, H.; Yoshida, I.; Nonaka, Y.; Otani, K.

    2011-06-01

    We developed a signal evaluation system of flexible array eddy current testing (ECT) probes for inspecting complexly shaped metal surfaces. Our probes employ excitation and pickup coil pairs arrayed on a bendable substrate to measure curved targets. Since the developed probes produce signals due to the change in the relative position between the coil pair, an evaluation module for flaw signal identification is integrated into the system. The identification utilizes signal phase combination of the coil pairs. It is represented as a two-dimensional diagram constituting the phase values of two of the coil pairs with different positions. The phase of signals around flaws is significantly affected by their orientations. The diagram is therefore capable of separating flaw information from other information and of imaging flaw positions. We applied the system to complex geometric mock-ups. Flaw signals were successfully identified and the images obtained for identified positions could be used to efficiently measure the length of surface flaws by the 12 decibel down method.

  1. The pattern of anthropogenic signal emergence in Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fyke, J.G.; Vizcaino, M.; Lipscomb, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Surface mass balance (SMB) trends influence observed Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) mass loss, but the component of these trends related to anthropogenic forcing is unclear. Here we study the simulated spatial pattern of emergence of an anthropogenically derived GrIS SMB signal between 1850 and 2100

  2. Radar signal pre-processing to suppress surface bounce and multipath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W; Mast, Jeffrey E; Beer, N. Reginald

    2013-12-31

    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across the surface and that travels down the surface. The imaging and detection system pre-processes that return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. The imaging and detection system then generates synthetic aperture radar images from real aperture radar images generated from the pre-processed return signal. The imaging and detection system then post-processes the synthetic aperture radar images to improve detection of subsurface objects. The imaging and detection system identifies peaks in the energy levels of the post-processed image frame, which indicates the presence of a subsurface object.

  3. Secondary ion mass spectrometric signal enhancement of phosphatidylcholine dioleoyl on enlarged nanoparticles surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, A.; Mochalova, M.; Denisov, N.; Nadtochenko, V.

    2014-10-01

    A silicon wafer surface coverage of nanoparticles (NPs) can enhance the L-α-phosphatidylcholine dioleoyl (DOPC) signal intensity in time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). A ToF-SIMS mass spectrometer was used with a pulsed primary beam of focused 30 keV Bi3+ ions. The signal enhancing effect has been studied for metallic (Ag, Au, Pb), semiconductor (TiO2), dielectric (SiO2) and hybrid (Au/TiO2NPs, core-shell Au/SiO2) nanoparticles. Ag NPs can attenuate secondary ions signal, whereas all other studied NPs show the signal enhancement. The emission of DOPC lipid secondary ions immobilized on core-shell Au/SiO2NPs was enhanced up to 42 times. This technique is a simple preparatory method enabling an overall increase in molecular lipid ions.

  4. Near Infrared (nir) Imaging for Nde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, G. G.; Pallav, P.; Hutchins, D. A.

    2008-02-01

    A novel application of near infrared (NIR) signals is presented, which can be used to provide images of many different materials and objects. It is effectively a very low cost non-ionising alternative to many applications currently being investigated using electromagnetic waves at other frequencies, such as THz and X-ray imaging. This alternative technique can be realised by very simple and inexpensive electronics and is inherently far more portable and easy to use. Transmission imaging results from this technique are presented from examples industrial quality control, food inspection and various security applications, and the results compared to existing techniques. In addition, this technique can be used in through-transmission mode on biological and medical samples, and images are presented that differentiate between not only flesh and bone, but also various types of soft tissue.

  5. Development of a low-cost NIR instrument for minced meat analysis: Part 1 - Spectrophotometer and sample presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feasibility of using a compact, low-cost NIR spectrophotometer to predict moisture (MC) and total fat content of minced pork was demonstrated. Results were compared with those obtained using two research type instruments with high signal to noise ratio (S/N). The NIR measuring head of the compac...

  6. Electrical signals guided entrapment and controlled release of antibiotics on titanium surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaowen; Wu, Huiping; Li, Yuanyuan; Wei, Xiaoquan; Du, Yumin

    2013-05-01

    Electrical signals are used to trigger the entrapment and release of antibiotics on the surface of titanium plate. The entrapment of antibiotics relies on the electrochemically induced pH gradient generated at the titanium surface that allows the gelation of an aminopolysaccharide chitosan and codeposition of vancomycin, a common antibiotic, within chitosan gel. The release of vancomycin is controlled by an anodic signal imposed to the titanium plate that causes a pH decrease and erosion of chitosan gel. We show that the on demand entrapment and release of vancomycin at the surface of titanium plate is fundamentally altered and controlled by voltage. We expect that this rapid, mild and facile electrochemical process for antibiotics loading and release will find applications in controlled drug release from titanium implants. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Generating passive NIR images from active LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrom, Shea; Broadwater, Joshua

    2016-05-01

    Many modern LIDAR platforms contain an integrated RGB camera for capturing contextual imagery. However, these RGB cameras do not collect a near-infrared (NIR) color channel, omitting information useful for many analytical purposes. This raises the question of whether LIDAR data, collected in the NIR, can be used as a substitute for an actual NIR image in this situation. Generating a LIDAR-based NIR image is potentially useful in situations where another source of NIR, such as satellite imagery, is not available. LIDAR is an active sensing system that operates very differently from a passive system, and thus requires additional processing and calibration to approximate the output of a passive instrument. We examine methods of approximating passive NIR images from LIDAR for real-world datasets, and assess differences with true NIR images.

  8. Intracellular Disassembly of Self-Quenched Nanoparticles Turns NIR Fluorescence on for Sensing Furin Activity in Cells and in Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yue; Zhang, Jia; Cao, Qinjingwen; An, Linna; Liang, Gaolin

    2015-06-16

    There has been no report on enzyme-controlled disassembly of self-quenched NIR fluorescent nanoparticles turning fluorescence on for specific detection/imaging of the enzyme's activity in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we reported the rational design of new NIR probe 1 whose fluorescence signal was self-quenched upon reduction-controlled condensation and subsequent assembly of its nanoparticles (i.e., 1-NPs). Then disassembly of 1-NPs by furin turned the fluorescence on. Employing this enzymatic strategy, we successfully applied 1-NPs for NIR detection of furin in vitro and NIR imaging furin activity in living cells. Moreover, we also applied 1-NPs for discriminative NIR imaging of MDA-MB-468 tumors in nude mice. This NIR probe 1 might be further developed for tumor-targeted imaging in routine preclinical studies or even in patients in the future.

  9. RssAB signaling coordinates early development of surface multicellularity in Serratia marcescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Huan Tsai

    Full Text Available Bacteria can coordinate several multicellular behaviors in response to environmental changes. Among these, swarming and biofilm formation have attracted significant attention for their correlation with bacterial pathogenicity. However, little is known about when and where the signaling occurs to trigger either swarming or biofilm formation. We have previously identified an RssAB two-component system involved in the regulation of swarming motility and biofilm formation in Serratia marcescens. Here we monitored the RssAB signaling status within single cells by tracing the location of the translational fusion protein EGFP-RssB following development of swarming or biofilm formation. RssAB signaling is specifically activated before surface migration in swarming development and during the early stage of biofilm formation. The activation results in the release of RssB from its cognate inner membrane sensor kinase, RssA, to the cytoplasm where the downstream gene promoters are located. Such dynamic localization of RssB requires phosphorylation of this regulator. By revealing the temporal activation of RssAB signaling following development of surface multicellular behavior, our findings contribute to an improved understanding of how bacteria coordinate their lifestyle on a surface.

  10. Secondary ion mass spectrometric signal enhancement of phosphatidylcholine dioleoyl on enlarged nanoparticles surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulin, A. [N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, RAS, Kosigin str. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Mochalova, M. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskii per. 9, Dolgoprudny, Moscow 141700 (Russian Federation); Denisov, N. [Institute of Problem of Chemical Physics, RAS, Semenov av. 1, Chernogolovka, 142432 (Russian Federation); Nadtochenko, V., E-mail: nadtochenko@gmail.com [N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, RAS, Kosigin str. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskii per. 9, Dolgoprudny, Moscow 141700 (Russian Federation); Institute of Problem of Chemical Physics, RAS, Semenov av. 1, Chernogolovka, 142432 (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TOF-SIMS mass-spectra of DOPC lipid on enlarged nanoparticles surface were studied. • Metallic, semiconductor, dielectric and hybrid nanoparticles were examined. • Effect of nanoparticles on mass-spectral peaks intensity was investigated. • The highest signal enhancement of 42 times was found for hybrid core–shell Au/SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. - Abstract: A silicon wafer surface coverage of nanoparticles (NPs) can enhance the L-α-phosphatidylcholine dioleoyl (DOPC) signal intensity in time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). A ToF-SIMS mass spectrometer was used with a pulsed primary beam of focused 30 keV Bi{sub 3}{sup +} ions. The signal enhancing effect has been studied for metallic (Ag, Au, Pb), semiconductor (TiO{sub 2}), dielectric (SiO{sub 2}) and hybrid (Au/TiO{sub 2}NPs, core–shell Au/SiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles. Ag NPs can attenuate secondary ions signal, whereas all other studied NPs show the signal enhancement. The emission of DOPC lipid secondary ions immobilized on core–shell Au/SiO{sub 2}NPs was enhanced up to 42 times. This technique is a simple preparatory method enabling an overall increase in molecular lipid ions.

  11. Secondary ion mass spectrometric signal enhancement of phosphatidylcholine dioleoyl on enlarged nanoparticles surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, A.; Mochalova, M.; Denisov, N.; Nadtochenko, V.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TOF-SIMS mass-spectra of DOPC lipid on enlarged nanoparticles surface were studied. • Metallic, semiconductor, dielectric and hybrid nanoparticles were examined. • Effect of nanoparticles on mass-spectral peaks intensity was investigated. • The highest signal enhancement of 42 times was found for hybrid core–shell Au/SiO 2 nanoparticles. - Abstract: A silicon wafer surface coverage of nanoparticles (NPs) can enhance the L-α-phosphatidylcholine dioleoyl (DOPC) signal intensity in time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). A ToF-SIMS mass spectrometer was used with a pulsed primary beam of focused 30 keV Bi 3 + ions. The signal enhancing effect has been studied for metallic (Ag, Au, Pb), semiconductor (TiO 2 ), dielectric (SiO 2 ) and hybrid (Au/TiO 2 NPs, core–shell Au/SiO 2 ) nanoparticles. Ag NPs can attenuate secondary ions signal, whereas all other studied NPs show the signal enhancement. The emission of DOPC lipid secondary ions immobilized on core–shell Au/SiO 2 NPs was enhanced up to 42 times. This technique is a simple preparatory method enabling an overall increase in molecular lipid ions

  12. Identification of Spurious Signals from Permeable Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Leonard V.; Boyd, David D., Jr.; Nark, Douglas M.; Wiedemann, Karl E.

    2017-01-01

    Integral forms of the permeable surface formulation of the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) equation often require an input in the form of a near field Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solution to predict noise in the near or far field from various types of geometries. The FW-H equation involves three source terms; two surface terms (monopole and dipole) and a volume term (quadrupole). Many solutions to the FW-H equation, such as several of Farassat's formulations, neglect the quadrupole term. Neglecting the quadrupole term in permeable surface formulations leads to inaccuracies called spurious signals. This paper explores the concept of spurious signals, explains how they are generated by specifying the acoustic and hydrodynamic surface properties individually, and provides methods to determine their presence, regardless of whether a correction algorithm is employed. A potential approach based on the equivalent sources method (ESM) and the sensitivity of Formulation 1A (Formulation S1A) is also discussed for the removal of spurious signals.

  13. DSC, FT-IR, NIR, NIR-PCA and NIR-ANOVA for determination of chemical stability of diuretic drugs: impact of excipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumieniczek Anna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that drugs can directly react with excipients. In addition, excipients can be a source of impurities that either directly react with drugs or catalyze their degradation. Thus, binary mixtures of three diuretics, torasemide, furosemide and amiloride with different excipients, i.e. citric acid anhydrous, povidone K25 (PVP, magnesium stearate (Mg stearate, lactose, D-mannitol, glycine, calcium hydrogen phosphate anhydrous (CaHPO4 and starch, were examined to detect interactions. High temperature and humidity or UV/VIS irradiation were applied as stressing conditions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, FT-IR and NIR were used to adequately collect information. In addition, chemometric assessments of NIR signals with principal component analysis (PCA and ANOVA were applied.

  14. Decadal changes of surface elevation over permafrost area estimated using reflected GPS signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Larson, Kristine M.

    2018-02-01

    Conventional benchmark-based survey and Global Positioning System (GPS) have been used to measure surface elevation changes over permafrost areas, usually once or a few times a year. Here we use reflected GPS signals to measure temporal changes of ground surface elevation due to dynamics of the active layer and near-surface permafrost. Applying the GPS interferometric reflectometry technique to the multipath signal-to-noise ratio data collected by a continuously operating GPS receiver mounted deep in permafrost in Barrow, Alaska, we can retrieve the vertical distance between the antenna and reflecting surface. Using this unique kind of observables, we obtain daily changes of surface elevation during July and August from 2004 to 2015. Our results show distinct temporal variations at three timescales: regular thaw settlement within each summer, strong interannual variability that is characterized by a sub-decadal subsidence trend followed by a brief uplift trend, and a secular subsidence trend of 0.26 ± 0.02 cm year-1 during 2004 and 2015. This method provides a new way to fully utilize data from continuously operating GPS sites in cold regions for studying dynamics of the frozen ground consistently and sustainably over a long time.

  15. Surface EMG signals based motion intent recognition using multi-layer ELM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhui; Qi, Lin; Wang, Xiao

    2017-11-01

    The upper-limb rehabilitation robot is regard as a useful tool to help patients with hemiplegic to do repetitive exercise. The surface electromyography (sEMG) contains motion information as the electric signals are generated and related to nerve-muscle motion. These sEMG signals, representing human's intentions of active motions, are introduced into the rehabilitation robot system to recognize upper-limb movements. Traditionally, the feature extraction is an indispensable part of drawing significant information from original signals, which is a tedious task requiring rich and related experience. This paper employs a deep learning scheme to extract the internal features of the sEMG signals using an advanced Extreme Learning Machine based auto-encoder (ELMAE). The mathematical information contained in the multi-layer structure of the ELM-AE is used as the high-level representation of the internal features of the sEMG signals, and thus a simple ELM can post-process the extracted features, formulating the entire multi-layer ELM (ML-ELM) algorithm. The method is employed for the sEMG based neural intentions recognition afterwards. The case studies show the adopted deep learning algorithm (ELM-AE) is capable of yielding higher classification accuracy compared to the Principle Component Analysis (PCA) scheme in 5 different types of upper-limb motions. This indicates the effectiveness and the learning capability of the ML-ELM in such motion intent recognition applications.

  16. Onset Detection in Surface Electromyographic Signals: A Systematic Comparison of Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Flachenecker

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Various methods to determine the onset of the electromyographic activity which occurs in response to a stimulus have been discussed in the literature over the last decade. Due to the stochastic characteristic of the surface electromyogram (SEMG, onset detection is a challenging task, especially in weak SEMG responses. The performance of the onset detection methods were tested, mostly by comparing their automated onset estimations to the manually determined onsets found by well-trained SEMG examiners. But a systematic comparison between methods, which reveals the benefits and the drawbacks of each method compared to the other ones and shows the specific dependence of the detection accuracy on signal parameters, is still lacking. In this paper, several classical threshold-based approaches as well as some statistically optimized algorithms were tested on large samples of simulated SEMG data with well-known signal parameters. Rating between methods is performed by comparing their performance to that of a statistically optimal maximum likelihood estimator which serves as reference method. In addition, performance was evaluated on real SEMG data obtained in a reaction time experiment. Results indicate that detection behavior strongly depends on SEMG parameters, such as onset rise time, signal-to-noise ratio or background activity level. It is shown that some of the threshold-based signal-power-estimation procedures are very sensitive to signal parameters, whereas statistically optimized algorithms are generally more robust.

  17. Nanometer scale titanium surface texturing are detected by signaling pathways involving transient FAK and Src activations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian F Zambuzzi

    Full Text Available It is known that physico/chemical alterations on biomaterial surfaces have the capability to modulate cellular behavior, affecting early tissue repair. Such surface modifications are aimed to improve early healing response and, clinically, offer the possibility to shorten the time from implant placement to functional loading. Since FAK and Src are intracellular proteins able to predict the quality of osteoblast adhesion, this study evaluated the osteoblast behavior in response to nanometer scale titanium surface texturing by monitoring FAK and Src phosphorylations.Four engineered titanium surfaces were used for the study: machined (M, dual acid-etched (DAA, resorbable media microblasted and acid-etched (MBAA, and acid-etch microblasted (AAMB. Surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, interferometry, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Thereafter, those 4 samples were used to evaluate their cytotoxicity and interference on FAK and Src phosphorylations. Both Src and FAK were investigated by using specific antibody against specific phosphorylation sites.The results showed that both FAK and Src activations were differently modulated as a function of titanium surfaces physico/chemical configuration and protein adsorption.It can be suggested that signaling pathways involving both FAK and Src could provide biomarkers to predict osteoblast adhesion onto different surfaces.

  18. [EMD Time-Frequency Analysis of Raman Spectrum and NIR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-yu; Fang, Yi-ming; Tan, Feng; Tong, Liang; Zhai, Zhe

    2016-02-01

    This paper analyzes the Raman spectrum and Near Infrared Spectrum (NIR) with time-frequency method. The empirical mode decomposition spectrum becomes intrinsic mode functions, which the proportion calculation reveals the Raman spectral energy is uniform distributed in each component, while the NIR's low order intrinsic mode functions only undertakes fewer primary spectroscopic effective information. Both the real spectrum and numerical experiments show that the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) regard Raman spectrum as the amplitude-modulated signal, which possessed with high frequency adsorption property; and EMD regards NIR as the frequency-modulated signal, which could be preferably realized high frequency narrow-band demodulation during first-order intrinsic mode functions. The first-order intrinsic mode functions Hilbert transform reveals that during the period of empirical mode decomposes Raman spectrum, modal aliasing happened. Through further analysis of corn leaf's NIR in time-frequency domain, after EMD, the first and second orders components of low energy are cut off, and reconstruct spectral signal by using the remaining intrinsic mode functions, the root-mean-square error is 1.001 1, and the correlation coefficient is 0.981 3, both of these two indexes indicated higher accuracy in re-construction; the decomposition trend term indicates the absorbency is ascending along with the decreasing to wave length in the near-infrared light wave band; and the Hilbert transform of characteristic modal component displays, 657 cm⁻¹ is the specific frequency by the corn leaf stress spectrum, which could be regarded as characteristic frequency for identification.

  19. Analysis of Muscle Fatigue Progression using Cyclostationary Property of Surface Electromyography Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthick, P A; Venugopal, G; Ramakrishnan, S

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of neuromuscular fatigue finds various applications ranging from clinical studies to biomechanics. Surface electromyography (sEMG) signals are widely used for these studies due to its non-invasiveness. During cyclic dynamic contractions, these signals are nonstationary and cyclostationary. In recent years, several nonstationary methods have been employed for the muscle fatigue analysis. However, cyclostationary based approach is not well established for the assessment of muscle fatigue. In this work, cyclostationarity associated with the biceps brachii muscle fatigue progression is analyzed using sEMG signals and Spectral Correlation Density (SCD) functions. Signals are recorded from fifty healthy adult volunteers during dynamic contractions under a prescribed protocol. These signals are preprocessed and are divided into three segments, namely, non-fatigue, first muscle discomfort and fatigue zones. Then SCD is estimated using fast Fourier transform accumulation method. Further, Cyclic Frequency Spectral Density (CFSD) is calculated from the SCD spectrum. Two features, namely, cyclic frequency spectral area (CFSA) and cyclic frequency spectral entropy (CFSE) are proposed to study the progression of muscle fatigue. Additionally, degree of cyclostationarity (DCS) is computed to quantify the amount of cyclostationarity present in the signals. Results show that there is a progressive increase in cyclostationary during the progression of muscle fatigue. CFSA shows an increasing trend in muscle fatiguing contraction. However, CFSE shows a decreasing trend. It is observed that when the muscle progresses from non-fatigue to fatigue condition, the mean DCS of fifty subjects increases from 0.016 to 0.99. All the extracted features found to be distinct and statistically significant in the three zones of muscle contraction (p < 0.05). It appears that these SCD features could be useful in the automated analysis of sEMG signals for different neuromuscular conditions.

  20. Seismic signal in Olkiluoto. Preliminary comparison of underground and surface recordings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M.

    2015-02-01

    Seismic hazard studies in Finland relate to nuclear power plant sites on the Earth's surface. The impact of seismic waves is different on structures on the surface than underground. The purpose of this study is to approximate how ground motions recorded in the ONKALO compare with those on the surface above the ONKALO. Broadband seismometers were installed on the surface and at the depth of 400 m inside the ONKALO in November 2013. The operation time of the seismometers was about nine months. The analysed signals included background noise, teleseismic earthquakes, regional earthquake, local explosions and explosions from the ONKALO site. The studies in Olkiluoto demonstrated that, in general, there is a de-amplification of ground motions in the ONKALO relative to those on the surface, or there is no significant difference between the recordings. The result is likely associated with the type of the seismic source and the relatively shallow depth (400 m) of the underground station. Observed relative amplification related only to nearfield events: the recorded velocity amplitudes on the surface were 2 - 10 times larger than underground. One opposite relation was found in the study: the vertical component of the velocity amplitude of a regional earthquake seems to be about three times larger in ONKALO than on the surface between frequencies 50 Hz and 80 Hz. Definite conclusions concerning amplification or de-amplification cannot be based on the result of this study. In practice, any set of recordings cannot give a comprehensive description of the possible variations, like how the wavefield reflected from the surface interacts with the wavefield coming towards the surface. Numerical modeling is suggested for further studies of this subject. (orig.)

  1. Generation of synthetic surface electromyography signals under fatigue conditions for varying force inputs using feedback control algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, G; Deepak, P; Ghosh, Diptasree M; Ramakrishnan, S

    2017-11-01

    Surface electromyography is a non-invasive technique used for recording the electrical activity of neuromuscular systems. These signals are random, complex and multi-component. There are several techniques to extract information about the force exerted by muscles during any activity. This work attempts to generate surface electromyography signals for various magnitudes of force under isometric non-fatigue and fatigue conditions using a feedback model. The model is based on existing current distribution, volume conductor relations, the feedback control algorithm for rate coding and generation of firing pattern. The result shows that synthetic surface electromyography signals are highly complex in both non-fatigue and fatigue conditions. Furthermore, surface electromyography signals have higher amplitude and lower frequency under fatigue condition. This model can be used to study the influence of various signal parameters under fatigue and non-fatigue conditions.

  2. Diversity of nitrite reductase genes (nirS) in the denitrifying water column of the coastal Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, D.A.; Francis, C.A.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Ward, B.B.

    are investigated. Nitrite reduction to nitric oxide is the key step in the denitrification pathway, and is catalyzed by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is encoded by the genes nirS and nirK. The diversity and distribution of nirS genes in relation to nitrite...

  3. Motor unit action potential conduction velocity estimated from surface electromyographic signals using image processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Fabiano Araujo; Carvalho, João Luiz Azevedo; Miosso, Cristiano Jacques; de Andrade, Marcelino Monteiro; da Rocha, Adson Ferreira

    2015-09-17

    In surface electromyography (surface EMG, or S-EMG), conduction velocity (CV) refers to the velocity at which the motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) propagate along the muscle fibers, during contractions. The CV is related to the type and diameter of the muscle fibers, ion concentration, pH, and firing rate of the motor units (MUs). The CV can be used in the evaluation of contractile properties of MUs, and of muscle fatigue. The most popular methods for CV estimation are those based on maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). This work proposes an algorithm for estimating CV from S-EMG signals, using digital image processing techniques. The proposed approach is demonstrated and evaluated, using both simulated and experimentally-acquired multichannel S-EMG signals. We show that the proposed algorithm is as precise and accurate as the MLE method in typical conditions of noise and CV. The proposed method is not susceptible to errors associated with MUAP propagation direction or inadequate initialization parameters, which are common with the MLE algorithm. Image processing -based approaches may be useful in S-EMG analysis to extract different physiological parameters from multichannel S-EMG signals. Other new methods based on image processing could also be developed to help solving other tasks in EMG analysis, such as estimation of the CV for individual MUs, localization and tracking of innervation zones, and study of MU recruitment strategies.

  4. Analysis of concentric and eccentric contractions in biceps brachii muscles using surface electromyography signals and multifractal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Kiran; Swaminathan, Ramakrishnan

    2016-06-23

    Muscle contractions can be categorized into isometric, isotonic (concentric and eccentric) and isokinetic contractions. The eccentric contractions are very effective for promoting muscle hypertrophy and produce larger forces when compared to the concentric or isometric contractions. Surface electromyography signals are widely used for analyzing muscle activities. These signals are nonstationary, nonlinear and exhibit self-similar multifractal behavior. The research on surface electromyography signals using multifractal analysis is not well established for concentric and eccentric contractions. In this study, an attempt has been made to analyze the concentric and eccentric contractions associated with biceps brachii muscles using surface electromyography signals and multifractal detrended moving average algorithm. Surface electromyography signals were recorded from 20 healthy individuals while performing a single curl exercise. The preprocessed signals were divided into concentric and eccentric cycles and in turn divided into phases based on range of motion: lower (0°-90°) and upper (>90°). The segments of surface electromyography signal were subjected to multifractal detrended moving average algorithm, and multifractal features such as strength of multifractality, peak exponent value, maximum exponent and exponent index were extracted in addition to conventional linear features such as root mean square and median frequency. The results show that surface electromyography signals exhibit multifractal behavior in both concentric and eccentric cycles. The mean strength of multifractality increased by 15% in eccentric contraction compared to concentric contraction. The lowest and highest exponent index values are observed in the upper concentric and lower eccentric contractions, respectively. The multifractal features are observed to be helpful in differentiating surface electromyography signals along the range of motion as compared to root mean square and median

  5. NIR FRET Fluorophores for Use as an Implantable Glucose Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed DWEIK

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of an in vivo optical sensor requires the utilization of Near Infra Red (NIR fluorophores due to their ability to operate within the biological tissue window. Alexa Fluor 750 (AF750 and Alexa Fluor 680 (AF680 were examined as potential NIR fluorophores for an in vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET glucose biosensor. AF680 and AF750 found to be a FRET pair and percent energy transfer was calculated. Next, the tested dye pair was utilized in a competitive binding assay in order to detect glucose. Concanavalin A (Con A and dextran have binding affinity, but in the presence of glucose, glucose displaces dextran due to its higher affinity to Con A than dextran. Finally, the percent signal transfer through porcine skin was examined. The results showed with approximately 4.0 mm porcine skin thickness, 1.98 % of the fluorescence was transmitted and captured by the detector.

  6. Taking NIRS-BCIs outside the lab: towards achieving robustness against environment noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Tiago H; Guirgis, Mirna; Power, Sarah; Chau, Tom T

    2011-04-01

    This paper reported initial findings on the effects of environmental noise and auditory distractions on the performance of mental state classification based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals recorded from the prefrontal cortex. Characterization of the performance losses due to environmental factors could provide useful information for the future development of NIRS-based brain-computer interfaces that can be taken beyond controlled laboratory settings and into everyday environments. Experiments with a hidden Markov model-based classifier showed that while significant performance could be attained in silent conditions, only chance levels of sensitivity and specificity were obtained in noisy environments. In order to achieve robustness against environment noise, two strategies were proposed and evaluated. First, physiological responses harnessed from the autonomic nervous system were used as complementary information to NIRS signals. More specifically, four physiological signals (electrodermal activity, skin temperature, blood volume pulse, and respiration effort) were collected in synchrony with the NIRS signals as the user sat at rest and/or performed music imagery tasks. Second, an acoustic monitoring technique was proposed and used to detect startle noise events, as both the prefrontal cortex and ANS are known to involuntarily respond to auditory startle stimuli. Experiments with eight participants showed that with a startle noise compensation strategy in place, performance comparable to that observed in silent conditions could be recovered with the hybrid ANS-NIRS system.

  7. Ternary surface monolayers for ultrasensitive (zeptomole) amperometric detection of nucleic acid hybridization without signal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Campuzano, Susana; Halford, Colin; Haake, David A; Wang, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    A ternary surface monolayer, consisting of coassembled thiolated capture probe, mercaptohexanol and dithiothreitol, is shown to offer dramatic improvements in the signal-to-noise characteristics of electrochemical DNA hybridization biosensors based on common self-assembled monolayers. Remarkably low detection limits down to 40 zmol (in 4 μL samples) as well as only 1 CFU Escherichia coli per sensor are thus obtained without any additional amplification step in connection to the commonly used horseradish peroxidase/3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine system. Such dramatic improvements in the detection limits (compared to those of common binary alkanethiol interfaces and to those of most electrochemical DNA sensing strategies without target or signal amplification) are attributed primarily to the remarkably higher resistance to nonspecific adsorption. This reflects the highly compact layer (with lower pinhole density) produced by the coupling of the cyclic- and linear-configuration "backfillers" that leads to a remarkably low background noise even in the presence of complex sample matrixes. A wide range of surface compositions have been investigated, and the ternary mixed monolayer has been systematically optimized. Detailed impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies shed useful insights into the surface coverage. The impressive sensitivity and high specificity of the simple developed methodology indicate great promise for a wide range of nucleic acid testing, including clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, food safety, and forensic analysis.

  8. Ternary Surface Monolayers for Ultrasensitive (Zeptomole) Amperometric Detection of Nucleic-Acid Hybridization without Signal Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Campuzano, Susana; Halford, Colin; Haake, David A.; Wang, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A ternary surface monolayer, consisting of co-assembled thiolated capture probe (SHCP) mercaptohexanol (MCH) and dithiothreitol (DTT), is shown to offer dramatic improvements in the signal-to-noise characteristics of electrochemical DNA hybridization biosensors based on common self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Remarkably low detection limits down to 40 zmole (in 4 μL samples) as well as only 1 CFU E. coli per sensor are thus obtained without any additional amplification step in connection to the commonly used horseradish peroxidase/3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (HRP/TMB) system. Such dramatic improvements in the detection limits (compared to common binary alkanethiol interfaces and to most electrochemical DNA sensing strategies without target or signal amplification) are attributed primarily to the remarkably higher resistance to non-specific adsorption. This reflects the highly compact layer (with lower pinhole density) produced by the coupling of the cyclic- and linear-configuration ‘backfillers’ that leads to a remarkably low background noise even in the presence of complex sample matrices. A wide range of surface compositions have been investigated and the ternary mixed monolayer has been systematically optimized. Detailed impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies shed useful insights into the surface coverage. The impressive sensitivity and high specificity of the simple developed methodology indicate great promise for a wide range of nucleic acid testing, including clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, food safety and forensic analysis. PMID:20883023

  9. Determination of elastic mechanical characteristics of surface coatings from analysis of signals obtained by impulse excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaguly, E.; Craştiu, I.; Deac, S.; Gozman-Pop, C.; Drăgănescu, G.; Bereteu, L.

    2018-01-01

    Most of the surface coatings are based on the synthetic polymers, which are substances composed from very large molecules that form tough, flexible, adhesive films when applied to surfaces. The other components of surface coverings materials are pigments that provide colour, opacity, gloss and other properties. Surface coatings are two-phase composite materials: constitute a polymer matrix on the one side, and on the other side of the pigments and additives dispersed in the matrix. Their role is not only aesthetically but also to ensure anticorrosive protection or even improve some mechanical properties of coated surfaces. In this paper it will follow, starting from the mechanical properties of the substrate, the metallic sheet in general, to determine the new properties of the assembly of substrate and the two coating layers, also the determination of mechanical properties of the layers. From the analysis of vibroacoustic signals obtained by the impulse excitation of the sample, one can determine the elasticity modulus. These results come to validate the results based on finite element analysis (FEA) of the same samples.

  10. Hemodynamic response to Interictal Epileptiform Discharges addressed by personalized EEG-fNIRS recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni ePellegrino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed at studying the hemodynamic response (HR to Interictal Epileptic Discharges (IEDs using patient-specific and prolonged simultaneous ElectroEncephaloGraphy (EEG and functional Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (fNIRS recordings. Methods: The epileptic generator was localized using Magnetoencephalography source imaging. fNIRS montage was tailored for each patient, using an algorithm to optimize the sensitivity to the epileptic generator. Optodes were glued using collodion to achieve prolonged acquisition with high quality signal. fNIRS data analysis was handled with no a priori constraint on HR time course, averaging fNIRS signals to similar IEDs. Cluster-permutation analysis was performed on 3D reconstructed fNIRS data to identify significant spatio-temporal HR clusters. Standard (GLM with fixed HRF and cluster-permutation EEG-fMRI analyses were performed for comparison purposes. Results: fNIRS detected HR to IEDs for 8/9 patients. It mainly consisted oxy-hemoglobin increases (7 patients, followed by oxy-hemoglobin decreases (6 patients. HR was lateralized in 6 patients and lasted from 8.5 to 30s. Standard EEG-fMRI analysis detected an HR in 4/9 patients (4/9 without enough IEDs, 1/9 unreliable result. The cluster-permutation EEG-fMRI analysis restricted to the region investigated by fNIRS showed additional strong and non-canonical BOLD responses starting earlier than the IEDs and lasting up to 30s. Conclusions: i EEG-fNIRS is suitable to detect the HR to IEDs and can outperform EEG-fMRI because of prolonged recordings and greater chance to detect IEDs; ii cluster-permutation analysis unveils additional HR features underestimated when imposing a canonical HR function iii the HR is often bilateral and lasts up to 30s.

  11. Greenhouse cooling by NIR-reflection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemming, S.; Kempkes, F.; Braak, van der N.; Dueck, T.A.; Marissen, A.

    2007-01-01

    Wageningen UR investigated the potential of several NIR-filtering methods to be applied in horticulture. In this paper the analysis of the optical properties of available NIR-filtering materials is given including a calculation method to quantify the energy reduction under these materials and to

  12. Present status of NIRS ECR ion sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Iwata, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Ogawa, H.; Hojo, S.; Sakamoto, Y.; Honma, T.; Takasugi, W.; Wakaisami, M.; Yoshida, Y.; Kubo, T.; Kato, Y.; Biri, S.; Drentje, A. G.

    Four ECR ion sources have been operated in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Two ECR ion sources supply various ion species for the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). The 10GHz NIRS-ECR ion source mainly produces C2+ ions for the heavy-ion therapy. Ions of Si, Ar, Fe,

  13. Silence on Shangri-La: Attenuation of Huygens acoustic signals suggests surface volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Leese, Mark R.; Hathi, Brijen; Zarnecki, John C.; Hagermann, Axel; Rosenberg, Phil; Towner, Martin C.; Garry, James; Svedhem, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Characterize and understand acoustic instrument performance on the surface of Titan. Methods. The Huygens probe measured the speed of sound in Titan's atmosphere with a 1 MHz pulse time-of-flight transducer pair near the bottom of the vehicle. We examine the fraction of pulses correctly received as a function of time. Results. This system returned good data from about 11 km altitude, where the atmosphere became thick enough to effectively transmit the sound, down to the surface just before landing: these data have been analyzed previously. After an initial transient at landing, the instrument operated nominally for about 10 min, recording pulses much as during descent. The fraction of pulses detected then declined and the transmitted sound ceased to be detected altogether, despite no indication of instrument or probe configuration changes. Conclusions. The most likely explanation appears to be absorption of the signal by polyatomic gases with relaxation losses at the instrument frequency, such as ethane, acetylene and carbon dioxide. These vapors, detected independently by the GCMS instrument, were evolved from the surface material by the warmth leaking from the probe, and confirm the nature of the surface materials as 'damp' with a cocktail of volatile compounds. Some suggestions for future missions are considered. Practice implications. None.

  14. MIMO High Frequency Surface Wave Radar Using Sparse Frequency FMCW Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengguan Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The heavily congested radio frequency environment severely limits the signal bandwidth of the high frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR. Based on the concept of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar, we propose a MIMO sparse frequency HFSWR system to synthesize an equivalent large bandwidth waveform in the congested HF band. The utilized spectrum of the proposed system is discontinuous and irregularly distributed between different transmitting sensors. We investigate the sparse frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW signal and the corresponding deramping based receiver and signal processor specially. A general processing framework is presented for the proposed system. The crucial step is the range-azimuth processing and the sparsity of the carrier frequency causes the two-dimensional periodogram to fail when applied here. Therefore, we introduce the iterative adaptive approach (IAA in the range-azimuth imaging. Based on the initial 1D IAA algorithm, we propose a modified 2D IAA which particularly fits the deramping processing based range-azimuth model. The proposed processing framework for MIMO sparse frequency FMCW HFSWR with the modified 2D IAA applied is shown to have a high resolution and be able to provide an accurate and clear range-azimuth image which benefits the following detection process.

  15. Experimental Proof of the Characteristics of Short-Range FM Radar Converted Signal Spectrum for a Smooth Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodņevs Deniss

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a natural experiment of the spectral processing of 4.3 GHz Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave Radar (FMCWR converted signal. The FMCWR antennas are fixed above a smooth reflective surface. The converted signal spectrum is theoretically calculated and compared with the experimental data.

  16. The Activity of Surface Electromyographic Signal of Selected Muscles during Classic Rehabilitation Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhuang Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Prone bridge, unilateral bridge, supine bridge, and bird-dog are classic rehabilitation exercises, which have been advocated as effective ways to improve core stability among healthy individuals and patients with low back pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of seven selected muscles during rehabilitation exercises through the signal of surface electromyographic. Approaches. We measured the surface electromyographic signals of four lower limb muscles, two abdominal muscles, and one back muscle during rehabilitation exercises of 30 healthy students and then analyzed its activity level using the median frequency method. Results. Different levels of muscle activity during the four rehabilitation exercises were observed. The prone bridge and unilateral bridge caused the greatest muscle fatigue; however, the supine bridge generated the lowest muscle activity. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 between left and right body side muscles in the median frequency slope during the four rehabilitation exercises of seven muscles. Conclusions. The prone bridge can affect the low back and lower limb muscles of most people. The unilateral bridge was found to stimulate muscles much more active than the supine bridge. The bird-dog does not cause much fatigue to muscles but can make most selected muscles active.

  17. Evolutionary and functional perspectives on signaling from neuronal surface to nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Samuel M.; Li, Boxing; Tsien, Richard W., E-mail: richard.tsien@nyumc.org; Ma, Huan, E-mail: mahuan@gmail.com

    2015-04-24

    Reliance on Ca{sup 2+} signaling has been well-preserved through the course of evolution. While the complexity of Ca{sup 2+} signaling pathways has increased, activation of transcription factors including CREB by Ca{sup 2+}/CaM-dependent kinases (CaMKs) has remained critical for long-term plasticity. In C. elegans, the CaMK family is made up of only three members, and CREB phosphorylation is mediated by CMK-1, the homologue of CaMKI. CMK-1 nuclear translocation directly regulates adaptation of thermotaxis behavior in response to changes in the environment. In mammals, the CaMK family has been expanded from three to ten members, enabling specialization of individual elements of a signal transduction pathway and increased reliance on the CaMKII subfamily. This increased complexity enables private line communication between Ca{sup 2+} sources at the cell surface and specific cellular targets. Using both new and previously published data, we review the mechanism of a γCaMKII-CaM nuclear translocation. This intricate pathway depends on a specific role for multiple Ca{sup 2+}/CaM-dependent kinases and phosphatases: α/βCaMKII phosphorylates γCaMKII to trap CaM; CaN dephosphorylates γCaMKII to dispatch it to the nucleus; and PP2A induces CaM release from γCaMKII so that CaMKK and CaMKIV can trigger CREB phosphorylation. Thus, while certain basic elements have been conserved from C. elegans, evolutionary modifications offer opportunities for targeted communication, regulation of key nodes and checkpoints, and greater specificity and flexibility in signaling.

  18. Evolutionary and functional perspectives on signaling from neuronal surface to nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Samuel M; Li, Boxing; Tsien, Richard W; Ma, Huan

    2015-04-24

    Reliance on Ca(2+) signaling has been well-preserved through the course of evolution. While the complexity of Ca(2+) signaling pathways has increased, activation of transcription factors including CREB by Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent kinases (CaMKs) has remained critical for long-term plasticity. In C. elegans, the CaMK family is made up of only three members, and CREB phosphorylation is mediated by CMK-1, the homologue of CaMKI. CMK-1 nuclear translocation directly regulates adaptation of thermotaxis behavior in response to changes in the environment. In mammals, the CaMK family has been expanded from three to ten members, enabling specialization of individual elements of a signal transduction pathway and increased reliance on the CaMKII subfamily. This increased complexity enables private line communication between Ca(2+) sources at the cell surface and specific cellular targets. Using both new and previously published data, we review the mechanism of a γCaMKII-CaM nuclear translocation. This intricate pathway depends on a specific role for multiple Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent kinases and phosphatases: α/βCaMKII phosphorylates γCaMKII to trap CaM; CaN dephosphorylates γCaMKII to dispatch it to the nucleus; and PP2A induces CaM release from γCaMKII so that CaMKK and CaMKIV can trigger CREB phosphorylation. Thus, while certain basic elements have been conserved from C. elegans, evolutionary modifications offer opportunities for targeted communication, regulation of key nodes and checkpoints, and greater specificity and flexibility in signaling. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. fMRI Validation of fNIRS Measurements During a Naturalistic Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, J Adam; Ono, Yumie; Nomoto, Yasunori; Shimada, Sotaro; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Zhang, Xian; Bronner, Shaw; Hirsch, Joy

    2015-06-15

    We present a method to compare brain activity recorded with near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in a dance video game task to that recorded in a reduced version of the task using fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging). Recently, it has been shown that fNIRS can accurately record functional brain activities equivalent to those concurrently recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging for classic psychophysical tasks and simple finger tapping paradigms. However, an often quoted benefit of fNIRS is that the technique allows for studying neural mechanisms of complex, naturalistic behaviors that are not possible using the constrained environment of fMRI. Our goal was to extend the findings of previous studies that have shown high correlation between concurrently recorded fNIRS and fMRI signals to compare neural recordings obtained in fMRI procedures to those separately obtained in naturalistic fNIRS experiments. Specifically, we developed a modified version of the dance video game Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) to be compatible with both fMRI and fNIRS imaging procedures. In this methodology we explain the modifications to the software and hardware for compatibility with each technique as well as the scanning and calibration procedures used to obtain representative results. The results of the study show a task-related increase in oxyhemoglobin in both modalities and demonstrate that it is possible to replicate the findings of fMRI using fNIRS in a naturalistic task. This technique represents a methodology to compare fMRI imaging paradigms which utilize a reduced-world environment to fNIRS in closer approximation to naturalistic, full-body activities and behaviors. Further development of this technique may apply to neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, late states of dementia, or those with magnetic susceptibility which are contraindicated for fMRI scanning.

  20. Association of Concurrent fNIRS and EEG Signatures in Response to Auditory and Visual Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling-Chia; Sandmann, Pascale; Thorne, Jeremy D; Herrmann, Christoph S; Debener, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has been proven reliable for investigation of low-level visual processing in both infants and adults. Similar investigation of fundamental auditory processes with fNIRS, however, remains only partially complete. Here we employed a systematic three-level validation approach to investigate whether fNIRS could capture fundamental aspects of bottom-up acoustic processing. We performed a simultaneous fNIRS-EEG experiment with visual and auditory stimulation in 24 participants, which allowed the relationship between changes in neural activity and hemoglobin concentrations to be studied. In the first level, the fNIRS results showed a clear distinction between visual and auditory sensory modalities. Specifically, the results demonstrated area specificity, that is, maximal fNIRS responses in visual and auditory areas for the visual and auditory stimuli respectively, and stimulus selectivity, whereby the visual and auditory areas responded mainly toward their respective stimuli. In the second level, a stimulus-dependent modulation of the fNIRS signal was observed in the visual area, as well as a loudness modulation in the auditory area. Finally in the last level, we observed significant correlations between simultaneously-recorded visual evoked potentials and deoxygenated hemoglobin (DeoxyHb) concentration, and between late auditory evoked potentials and oxygenated hemoglobin (OxyHb) concentration. In sum, these results suggest good sensitivity of fNIRS to low-level sensory processing in both the visual and the auditory domain, and provide further evidence of the neurovascular coupling between hemoglobin concentration changes and non-invasive brain electrical activity.

  1. Deriving surface soil moisture from reflected GNSS signal observations from a grassland site in southwestern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work assesses the estimation of surface volumetric soil moisture (VSM using the global navigation satellite system interferometric reflectometry (GNSS-IR technique. Year-round observations were acquired from a grassland site in southwestern France using an antenna consecutively placed at two contrasting heights above the ground surface (3.3 and 29.4 m. The VSM retrievals are compared with two independent reference datasets: in situ observations of soil moisture, and numerical simulations of soil moisture and vegetation biomass from the ISBA (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere land surface model. Scaled VSM estimates can be retrieved throughout the year removing vegetation effects by the separation of growth and senescence periods and by the filtering of the GNSS-IR observations that are most affected by vegetation. Antenna height has no significant impact on the quality of VSM estimates. Comparisons between the VSM GNSS-IR retrievals and the in situ VSM observations at a depth of 5 cm show good agreement (R2 =  0.86 and RMSE  =  0.04 m3 m−3. It is shown that the signal is sensitive to the grass litter water content and that this effect triggers differences between VSM retrievals and in situ VSM observations at depths of 1 and 5 cm, especially during light rainfall events.

  2. Deriving surface soil moisture from reflected GNSS signal observations from a grassland site in southwestern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sibo; Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Darrozes, José; Roussel, Nicolas; Frappart, Frédéric; Bouhours, Gilles

    2018-03-01

    This work assesses the estimation of surface volumetric soil moisture (VSM) using the global navigation satellite system interferometric reflectometry (GNSS-IR) technique. Year-round observations were acquired from a grassland site in southwestern France using an antenna consecutively placed at two contrasting heights above the ground surface (3.3 and 29.4 m). The VSM retrievals are compared with two independent reference datasets: in situ observations of soil moisture, and numerical simulations of soil moisture and vegetation biomass from the ISBA (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere) land surface model. Scaled VSM estimates can be retrieved throughout the year removing vegetation effects by the separation of growth and senescence periods and by the filtering of the GNSS-IR observations that are most affected by vegetation. Antenna height has no significant impact on the quality of VSM estimates. Comparisons between the VSM GNSS-IR retrievals and the in situ VSM observations at a depth of 5 cm show good agreement (R2 = 0.86 and RMSE = 0.04 m3 m-3). It is shown that the signal is sensitive to the grass litter water content and that this effect triggers differences between VSM retrievals and in situ VSM observations at depths of 1 and 5 cm, especially during light rainfall events.

  3. Assessing the Impact of Sublimation on the Stable Water Isotope Signal of Surface Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, D. P.; Ehrenfeucht, S.; Marchant, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Sublimation is often a significant, if not the dominant, mechanism for ablation in polar and high elevation glacial systems. Previous field studies on firn and ice have suggested that sublimation can enrich the stable water isotope (δD and δ18O) signatures of these exposed materials. Several additional studies have attempted to replicate this effect through laboratory experiments. However, neither the magnitude of alteration caused by sublimation nor the maximum depth at which ice is affected are well-constrained. The effect of sublimation-induced alteration on the original meteoric signal relative to other post-depositional processes is additionally unknown. Here, we present the results of an experimental study on the effect of sublimation on stable water isotope ratios in surface ice. Using high-resolution data, we attempt to assess the suitability of δD and δ18O in near-surface and exposed ice for use as paleoclimate proxies. This type of analysis is particularly useful for future studies of ice from hyper-arid polar regions like the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys, and may be extended to icy planetary bodies, including surface ice on Mars.

  4. Real-time intelligent pattern recognition algorithm for surface EMG signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahed Mehran

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electromyography (EMG is the study of muscle function through the inquiry of electrical signals that the muscles emanate. EMG signals collected from the surface of the skin (Surface Electromyogram: sEMG can be used in different applications such as recognizing musculoskeletal neural based patterns intercepted for hand prosthesis movements. Current systems designed for controlling the prosthetic hands either have limited functions or can only be used to perform simple movements or use excessive amount of electrodes in order to achieve acceptable results. In an attempt to overcome these problems we have proposed an intelligent system to recognize hand movements and have provided a user assessment routine to evaluate the correctness of executed movements. Methods We propose to use an intelligent approach based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS integrated with a real-time learning scheme to identify hand motion commands. For this purpose and to consider the effect of user evaluation on recognizing hand movements, vision feedback is applied to increase the capability of our system. By using this scheme the user may assess the correctness of the performed hand movement. In this work a hybrid method for training fuzzy system, consisting of back-propagation (BP and least mean square (LMS is utilized. Also in order to optimize the number of fuzzy rules, a subtractive clustering algorithm has been developed. To design an effective system, we consider a conventional scheme of EMG pattern recognition system. To design this system we propose to use two different sets of EMG features, namely time domain (TD and time-frequency representation (TFR. Also in order to decrease the undesirable effects of the dimension of these feature sets, principle component analysis (PCA is utilized. Results In this study, the myoelectric signals considered for classification consists of six unique hand movements. Features chosen for EMG signal

  5. Estimation of muscle fatigue using surface electromyography and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taelman, Joachim; Vanderhaegen, Joke; Robijns, Mieke; Naulaers, Gunnar; Spaepen, Arthur; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    This study looks at various parameters, derived from surface electromyography (sEMG) and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and their relationship in muscle fatigue during a static elbow flexion until exhaustion as well as during a semidynamic exercise.We found a linear increasing trend for a corrected amplitude parameter and a linear decreasing slope for the frequency content of the sEMG signal. The tissue oxygenation index (TOI) extracted from NIRS recordings showed a four-phase response for all the subjects. A strong correlation between frequency content of the sEMG signal and TOI was established. We can conclude that both sEMG and NIRS give complementary information concerning muscle fatigue.

  6. Benchmarking surface signals when growing GaP on Si in CVD ambients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doescher, Henning

    2010-10-26

    agree very well with InP(100) surface reconstructions, as well as the development of the corresponding RAS signatures, gained by benchmarking the optical in situ signals with STM and LEED results. APD quantification by RAS was greatly improved by an empirical correction of the in situ spectra taking thin film interferences into account. In addition, optical model calculations were developed to extract the anisotropy of the GaP/Si(100) heterointerface from the RAS signals by separation of surface, bulk and interface contributions. The quantitative in situ analysis concept was compared to and supported by low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) experiments, which were established for APD quantification and APD visualization on a mesoscopic length scale, as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Benchmarking of all of these methods served to improve the MOVPE process consisting of Si substrate conditioning and GaP nucleation and growth. (orig.)

  7. A model for the biosynthesis and transport of plasma membrane-associated signaling receptors to the cell surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Claudia Popescu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular protein transport is emerging as critical in determining the outcome of receptor-activated signal transduction pathways. In plants, relatively little is known about the nature of the molecular components and mechanisms involved in coordinating receptor synthesis and transport to the cell surface. Recent advances in this field indicate that signaling pathways and intracellular transport machinery converge and coordinate to render receptors competent for signaling at their plasma membrane activity sites. The biogenesis and transport to the cell surface of signaling receptors appears to require both general trafficking and receptor-specific factors. Several molecular determinants, residing or associated with compartments of the secretory pathway and known to influence aspects in receptor biogenesis, are discussed and integrated into a predictive cooperative model for the functional expression of signaling receptors at the plasma membrane.

  8. Application of the wavelet packet transform to vibration signals for surface roughness monitoring in CNC turning operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Plaza, E.; Núñez López, P. J.

    2018-01-01

    The wavelet packet transform method decomposes a time signal into several independent time-frequency signals called packets. This enables the temporary location of transient events occurring during the monitoring of the cutting processes, which is advantageous in monitoring condition and fault diagnosis. This paper proposes the monitoring of surface roughness using a single low cost sensor that is easily implemented in numerical control machine tools in order to make on-line decisions on workpiece surface finish quality. Packet feature extraction in vibration signals was applied to correlate the sensor signals to measured surface roughness. For the successful application of the WPT method, mother wavelets, packet decomposition level, and appropriate packet selection methods should be considered, but are poorly understood aspects in the literature. In this novel contribution, forty mother wavelets, optimal decomposition level, and packet reduction methods were analysed, as well as identifying the effective frequency range providing the best packet feature extraction for monitoring surface finish. The results show that mother wavelet biorthogonal 4.4 in decomposition level L3 with the fusion of the orthogonal vibration components (ax + ay + az) were the best option in the vibration signal and surface roughness correlation. The best packets were found in the medium-high frequency DDA (6250-9375 Hz) and high frequency ADA (9375-12500 Hz) ranges, and the feed acceleration component ay was the primary source of information. The packet reduction methods forfeited packets with relevant features to the signal, leading to poor results for the prediction of surface roughness. WPT is a robust vibration signal processing method for the monitoring of surface roughness using a single sensor without other information sources, satisfactory results were obtained in comparison to other processing methods with a low computational cost.

  9. The influence of graphene surface configuration on molecular detection output signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shiu-Ming; Jheng, Jhe-Lun

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is detected by graphene sheet, and it is found that the resistance change is proportional to the ethanol concentration. The dynamic response of the evaporation is traced, showing longer recovery time for higher ethanol concentrations. The influence of the residual adsorbed molecules on the graphene sheet was also studied, and it was found that the resistance change is negatively proportional to the initial resistance of the graphene sheet corresponding to the effective surface area. The influence of the structure defects on the response resistance is also studied, and it was found that the structure defects enhance the resistance change. These investigations suggest a better way to extract a reliable signal for physical adsorption based material detection. (paper)

  10. Using Diurnal Temperature Signals to Infer Vertical Groundwater-Surface Water Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Dylan J; Briggs, Martin A; Lautz, Laura K; Gordon, Ryan P; McKenzie, Jeffrey M; Cartwright, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Heat is a powerful tracer to quantify fluid exchange between surface water and groundwater. Temperature time series can be used to estimate pore water fluid flux, and techniques can be employed to extend these estimates to produce detailed plan-view flux maps. Key advantages of heat tracing include cost-effective sensors and ease of data collection and interpretation, without the need for expensive and time-consuming laboratory analyses or induced tracers. While the collection of temperature data in saturated sediments is relatively straightforward, several factors influence the reliability of flux estimates that are based on time series analysis (diurnal signals) of recorded temperatures. Sensor resolution and deployment are particularly important in obtaining robust flux estimates in upwelling conditions. Also, processing temperature time series data involves a sequence of complex steps, including filtering temperature signals, selection of appropriate thermal parameters, and selection of the optimal analytical solution for modeling. This review provides a synthesis of heat tracing using diurnal temperature oscillations, including details on optimal sensor selection and deployment, data processing, model parameterization, and an overview of computing tools available. Recent advances in diurnal temperature methods also provide the opportunity to determine local saturated thermal diffusivity, which can improve the accuracy of fluid flux modeling and sensor spacing, which is related to streambed scour and deposition. These parameters can also be used to determine the reliability of flux estimates from the use of heat as a tracer. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  11. Compensation techniques in NIRS proton beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akanuma, A.; Majima, H.; Furukawa, S.

    1982-01-01

    Proton beam has the dose distribution advantage in radiation therapy, although it has little advantage in biological effects. One of the best advantages is its sharp fall off of dose after the peak. With proton beam, therefore, the dose can be given just to cover a target volume and potentially no dose is delivered thereafter in the beam direction. To utilize this advantage, bolus techniques in conjunction with CT scanning are employed in NIRS proton beam radiation therapy planning. A patient receives CT scanning first so that the target volume can be clearly marked and the radiation direction and fixation method can be determined. At the same time bolus dimensions are calculated. The bolus frames are made with dental paraffin sheets according to the dimensions. The paraffin frame is replaced with dental resin. Alginate (a dental impression material with favorable physical density and skin surface contact) is now employed for the bolus material. With fixation device and bolus on, which are constructed individually, the patient receives CT scanning again prior to a proton beam treatment in order to prove the devices are suitable. Alginate has to be poured into the frame right before each treatments. Further investigations are required to find better bolus materials and easier construction methods

  12. Compensation techniques in NIRS proton beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akanuma, A. (Univ. of Tokyo, Japan); Majima, H.; Furukawa, S.

    1982-09-01

    Proton beam has the dose distribution advantage in radiation therapy, although it has little advantage in biological effects. One of the best advantages is its sharp fall off of dose after the peak. With proton beam, therefore, the dose can be given just to cover a target volume and potentially no dose is delivered thereafter in the beam direction. To utilize this advantage, bolus techniques in conjunction with CT scanning are employed in NIRS proton beam radiation therapy planning. A patient receives CT scanning first so that the target volume can be clearly marked and the radiation direction and fixation method can be determined. At the same time bolus dimensions are calculated. The bolus frames are made with dental paraffin sheets according to the dimensions. The paraffin frame is replaced with dental resin. Alginate (a dental impression material with favorable physical density and skin surface contact) is now employed for the bolus material. With fixation device and bolus on, which are constructed individually, the patient receives CT scanning again prior to a proton beam treatment in order to prove the devices are suitable. Alginate has to be poured into the frame right before each treatments. Further investigations are required to find better bolus materials and easier construction methods.

  13. UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and microscopy of heterogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonheydt, Robert A

    2010-12-01

    This critical review article discusses the characterization of heterogeneous catalysts by UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and microscopy with special emphasis on transition metal ion containing catalysts. A review is given of the transitions, that can be observed in the UV-VIS-NIR region and the peculiarities of catalytic solids that have to be taken into account. This is followed by a short discussion of the techniques that have been developed over the years: diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, UV-VIS microscopy, in situ or operando spectroscopy, the combination of UV-VIS spectroscopy with other spectroscopic techniques, with chemometrics and with quantum chemistry. In the third part of this paper four successes of UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and microscopy are discussed; (1) coordination of transition metal ions to surface oxygens; (2) quantitative determination of the oxidation states of transition metal ions; (3) characterization of active sites and (4) study of the distribution of transition metal ions and carbocations in catalytic bodies, particles and crystals (104 references).

  14. Hybrid EEG-fNIRS Asynchronous Brain-Computer Interface for Multiple Motor Tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Paolo Buccino

    Full Text Available Non-invasive Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI have demonstrated great promise for neuroprosthetics and assistive devices. Here we aim to investigate methods to combine Electroencephalography (EEG and functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS in an asynchronous Sensory Motor rhythm (SMR-based BCI. We attempted to classify 4 different executed movements, namely, Right-Arm-Left-Arm-Right-Hand-Left-Hand tasks. Previous studies demonstrated the benefit of EEG-fNIRS combination. However, since normally fNIRS hemodynamic response shows a long delay, we investigated new features, involving slope indicators, in order to immediately detect changes in the signals. Moreover, Common Spatial Patterns (CSPs have been applied to both EEG and fNIRS signals. 15 healthy subjects took part in the experiments and since 25 trials per class were available, CSPs have been regularized with information from the entire population of participants and optimized using genetic algorithms. The different features have been compared in terms of performance and the dynamic accuracy over trials shows that the introduced methods diminish the fNIRS delay in the detection of changes.

  15. Improved micro-distribution of antibody-photon absorber conjugates after initial near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, Tadanobu; Nakamura, Yuko; Sato, Kazuhide; Harada, Toshiko; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2016-06-28

    Near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT), a targeted cancer therapy which uses an antibody-photo absorber conjugate (APC) and near infrared light exposure, dramatically improves nano-drug delivery into treated tumor beds due to enhanced vascular permeability. We investigated the micro-distribution of APCs in a variety of NIR-PIT treated tumors. Either cetuximab (cet) or trastuzumab (tra) conjugated with IR700 (cet-tra-IR700) was administered, as appropriate, to each mouse model of tumor. Tumor-bearing mice implanted with A431-GFP, MDAMB468-GFP, 3T3Her2-GFP or N87-GFP were separated into 5 groups: group 1=no treatment; group 2=cet-tra-IR700 i.v., no light exposure; group 3=cet-tra-IR700 i.v., NIR light exposure; group 4=cet-tra-IR700 i.v. and additional cet-tra-IR700 i.v. at 24h but no light exposure; group 5=cet-tra-IR700 i.v., NIR light exposure and additional cet-tra-IR700 i.v. immediately after NIR but no additional NIR light exposure. In vivo, ex vivo and microscopic fluorescence imaging was performed. Fluorescence from the surface of the tumor (s-tumor) was compared to fluorescence from deeper areas of the tumor (d-tumor). In general, there was no significant difference in the fluorescence intensity of GFP in the tumors among all groups, however the highest IR700 fluorescence intensity was consistently shown in group 5 tumors due to added APC after NIR-PIT. Fluorescence microscopy in all tumor types demonstrated that GFP relative fluorescence intensity (RFI) in s-tumor was significantly lower in group 3 and 5 (NIR-PIT groups) than in group 1, 2, and 4 (no NIR-PIT) yet there was no significant difference in d-tumor RFI among all groups. IR700 fluorescent RFI in the d-tumor was highest in group 5 (NIR-PIT+additional APC) compared to the other groups. Cell killing after NIR-PIT was primarily on the surface, however, APCs administered immediately after NIR-PIT penetrated deeper into tissue resulting in improved cell killing after a 2nd NIR-PIT session. This

  16. Pear quality characteristics by Vis / NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Nicácia P; Fachinello, José C; Galarça, Simone P; Betemps, Débora L; Pasa, Mateus S; Schmitz, Juliano D

    2012-09-01

    Recently, non-destructive techniques such as the Vis / NIR spectroscopy have been used to evaluate the characteristics of maturation and quality of pears. The study aims to validate the readings by the Vis / NIR spectroscopy as a non-destructive way to assess the qualitative characteristics of pear cultivars 'Williams', 'Packams' and 'Carrick', produced according to Brazilian conditions. The experiment was conducted at the Pelotas Federal University, UFPel, in Pelotas / RS, and the instrument used to measure the fruit quality in a non-destructive way was the NIR- Case spectrophotometer (SACMI, Imola, Italy). To determine pears' soluble solids (SS) and pulp firmness (PF), it was established calibration equations for each variety studied, done from the evaluations obtained by a non-destructive method (NIR-Case) and a destructive method. Further on, it was tested the performance of these readings by linear regressions. The results were significant for the soluble solids parameter obtained by the Vis / NIR spectroscopy; however, it did not achieve satisfactory results for the pear pulp firmness of these cultivars. It is concluded that the Vis / NIR spectroscopy, using linear regression, allows providing reliable estimates of pears' quality levels, especially for soluble solids.

  17. Independent Analysis of the Flagellum Surface and Matrix Proteomes Provides Insight into Flagellum Signaling in Mammalian-infectious Trypanosoma brucei*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberholzer, Michael; Langousis, Gerasimos; Nguyen, HoangKim T.; Saada, Edwin A.; Shimogawa, Michelle M.; Jonsson, Zophonias O.; Nguyen, Steven M.; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Hill, Kent L.

    2011-01-01

    The flagellum of African trypanosomes is an essential and multifunctional organelle that functions in motility, cell morphogenesis, and host-parasite interaction. Previous studies of the trypanosome flagellum have been limited by the inability to purify flagella without first removing the flagellar membrane. This limitation is particularly relevant in the context of studying flagellum signaling, as signaling requires surface-exposed proteins in the flagellar membrane and soluble signaling proteins in the flagellar matrix. Here we employ a combination of genetic and mechanical approaches to purify intact flagella from the African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, in its mammalian-infectious stage. We combined flagellum purification with affinity-purification of surface-exposed proteins to conduct independent proteomic analyses of the flagellum surface and matrix fractions. The proteins identified encompass a broad range of molecular functionalities, including many predicted to function in signaling. Immunofluorescence and RNA interference studies demonstrate flagellum localization and function for proteins identified and provide insight into mechanisms of flagellum attachment and motility. The flagellum surface proteome includes many T. brucei-specific proteins and is enriched for proteins up-regulated in the mammalian-infectious stage of the parasite life-cycle. The combined results indicate that the flagellum surface presents a diverse and dynamic host-parasite interface that is well-suited for host-parasite signaling. PMID:21685506

  18. Processing of cell-surface signalling anti-sigma factors prior to signal recognition is a conserved autoproteolytic mechanism that produces two functional domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaansen, Karlijn C; Otero-Asman, Joaquín R; Luirink, Joen; Bitter, Wilbert; Llamas, María A

    2015-09-01

    Cell-surface signalling (CSS) enables Gram-negative bacteria to transduce an environmental signal into a cytosolic response. This regulatory cascade involves an outer membrane receptor that transmits the signal to an anti-sigma factor in the cytoplasmic membrane, allowing the activation of an extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor. Recent studies have demonstrated that RseP-mediated proteolysis of the anti-sigma factors is key to σ(ECF) activation. Using the Pseudomonas aeruginosa FoxR anti-sigma factor, we show here that RseP is responsible for the generation of an N-terminal tail that likely contains pro-sigma activity. Furthermore, it has been reported previously that this anti-sigma factor is processed in two separate domains prior to signal recognition. Here, we demonstrate that this process is common in these types of proteins and that the processing event is probably due to autoproteolytic activity. The resulting domains interact and function together to transduce the CSS signal. However, our results also indicate that this processing event is not essential for activity. In fact, we have identified functional CSS anti-sigma factors that are not cleaved prior to signal perception. Together, our results indicate that CSS regulation can occur through both complete and initially processed anti-sigma factors. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Simultaneous fNIRS and thermal infrared imaging during cognitive task reveal autonomic correlates of prefrontal cortex activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinti, Paola; Cardone, Daniela; Merla, Arcangelo

    2015-12-01

    Functional Near Infrared-Spectroscopy (fNIRS) represents a powerful tool to non-invasively study task-evoked brain activity. fNIRS assessment of cortical activity may suffer for contamination by physiological noises of different origin (e.g. heart beat, respiration, blood pressure, skin blood flow), both task-evoked and spontaneous. Spontaneous changes occur at different time scales and, even if they are not directly elicited by tasks, their amplitude may result task-modulated. In this study, concentration changes of hemoglobin were recorded over the prefrontal cortex while simultaneously recording the facial temperature variations of the participants through functional infrared thermal (fIR) imaging. fIR imaging provides touch-less estimation of the thermal expression of peripheral autonomic. Wavelet analysis revealed task-modulation of the very low frequency (VLF) components of both fNIRS and fIR signals and strong coherence between them. Our results indicate that subjective cognitive and autonomic activities are intimately linked and that the VLF component of the fNIRS signal is affected by the autonomic activity elicited by the cognitive task. Moreover, we showed that task-modulated changes in vascular tone occur both at a superficial and at larger depth in the brain. Combined use of fNIRS and fIR imaging can effectively quantify the impact of VLF autonomic activity on the fNIRS signals.

  20. Stimulated Raman signals at conical intersections: Ab initio surface hopping simulation protocol with direct propagation of the nuclear wave function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalewski, Markus, E-mail: mkowalew@uci.edu; Mukamel, Shaul, E-mail: smukamel@uci.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States)

    2015-07-28

    Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (FSRS) signals that monitor the excited state conical intersections dynamics of acrolein are simulated. An effective time dependent Hamiltonian for two C—H vibrational marker bands is constructed on the fly using a local mode expansion combined with a semi-classical surface hopping simulation protocol. The signals are obtained by a direct forward and backward propagation of the vibrational wave function on a numerical grid. Earlier work is extended to fully incorporate the anharmonicities and intermode couplings.

  1. Stimulated Raman signals at conical intersections: Ab initio surface hopping simulation protocol with direct propagation of the nuclear wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Mukamel, Shaul

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (FSRS) signals that monitor the excited state conical intersections dynamics of acrolein are simulated. An effective time dependent Hamiltonian for two C—H vibrational marker bands is constructed on the fly using a local mode expansion combined with a semi-classical surface hopping simulation protocol. The signals are obtained by a direct forward and backward propagation of the vibrational wave function on a numerical grid. Earlier work is extended to fully incorporate the anharmonicities and intermode couplings

  2. Frequency averaging of fluctuations in the cross-correlation reception of noiselike signals reflected from a rough sea surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, V. F.; Gerasimova, T. I.; Gulin, É. P.

    2007-04-01

    For noiselike signals reflected from a rough sea surface and received by a correlation receiver, the effect achieved at the receiver output as a result of frequency averaging of signal fluctuations is considered. Expressions characterizing the effect of frequency averaging are derived by using the generalized two-scale model describing the frequency correlation of strong fluctuations of the transfer function. Results of numerical calculations for the variance of fluctuations at the output of the correlation receiver are presented for different relative values of the frequency bandwidth of noiselike signals and the frequency correlation scales for the cases of both weak and strong fluctuations.

  3. Real-time, non-invasive monitoring of hydrogel degradation using LiYF4:Yb(3+)/Tm(3+) NIR-to-NIR upconverting nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalani, Ghulam; Naccache, Rafik; Rosenzweig, Derek H; Lerouge, Sophie; Haglund, Lisbet; Vetrone, Fiorenzo; Cerruti, Marta

    2015-07-14

    To design a biodegradable hydrogel as cell support, one should know its in vivo degradation rate. A technique commonly used to track gel degradation is fluorescence spectroscopy. However, the fluorescence from conventional fluorophores quickly decays, and the fluorophores are often moderately cytotoxic. Most importantly, they require ultraviolet or visible (UV-Vis) light as the excitation source, which cannot penetrate deeply through biological tissues. Lanthanide-doped upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) are exciting alternatives to conventional fluorophores because they can convert near-infrared (NIR) to UV-Vis-NIR light via a sequential multiphoton absorption process referred to as upconversion. NIR light can penetrate up to few cm inside tissues, thus making these UCNPs much better probes than conventional fluorophores for in vivo monitoring. Also, UCNPs have narrow emission bands, high photoluminescence (PL) signal-to-noise ratio, low cytotoxicity and good physical and chemical stability. Here, we show a nanocomposite system consisting of a biodegradable, in situ thermogelling injectable hydrogel made of chitosan and hyaluronic acid encapsulating silica-coated LiYF4:Yb(3+)/Tm(3+) UCNPs. We use these UCNPs as photoluminescent tags to monitor the gel degradation inside live, cultured intervertebral discs (IVDs) over a period of 3 weeks. PL spectroscopy and NIR imaging show that NIR-to-NIR upconversion of LiYF4:Yb(3+)/Tm(3+)@SiO2 UCNPs allows for tracking of the gel degradation in living tissues. Both in vitro and ex vivo release of UCNPs follow a similar trend during the first 5 days; after this time, ex vivo release becomes faster than in vitro, indicating a faster gel degradation ex vivo. Also, the amount of released UCNPs in vitro increases continuously up to 3 weeks, while it plateaus after 15 days inside the IVDs showing a homogenous distribution of UCNPs throughout the IVD tissue. This non-invasive optical method for real time, live tissue imaging holds

  4. Mathematical model reveals role of nucleotide signaling in airway surface liquid homeostasis and its dysregulation in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandefur, Conner I; Boucher, Richard C; Elston, Timothy C

    2017-08-29

    Mucociliary clearance is composed of three components (i.e., mucin secretion, airway surface hydration, and ciliary-activity) which function coordinately to clear inhaled microbes and other foreign particles from airway surfaces. Airway surface hydration is maintained by water fluxes driven predominantly by active chloride and sodium ion transport. The ion channels that mediate electrogenic ion transport are regulated by extracellular purinergic signals that signal through G protein-coupled receptors. These purinoreceptors and the signaling pathways they activate have been identified as possible therapeutic targets for treating lung disease. A systems-level description of airway surface liquid (ASL) homeostasis could accelerate development of such therapies. Accordingly, we developed a mathematical model to describe the dynamic coupling of ion and water transport to extracellular purinergic signaling. We trained our model from steady-state and time-dependent experimental measurements made using normal and cystic fibrosis (CF) cultured human airway epithelium. To reproduce CF conditions, reduced chloride secretion, increased potassium secretion, and increased sodium absorption were required. The model accurately predicted ASL height under basal normal and CF conditions and the collapse of surface hydration due to the accelerated nucleotide metabolism associated with CF exacerbations. Finally, the model predicted a therapeutic strategy to deliver nucleotide receptor agonists to effectively rehydrate the ASL of CF airways.

  5. Transfer of environmental signals from the surface to the underground at Ascunsă Cave, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drăguşin, Virgil; Balan, Sorin; Blamart, Dominique; Lázár Forray, Ferenc; Marin, Constantin; Mirea, Ionuţ; Nagavciuc, Viorica; Orăşeanu, Iancu; Perşoiu, Aurel; Tîrlă, Laura; Tudorache, Alin; Vlaicu, Marius

    2017-10-01

    We present here the results of a 4-year environmental monitoring program at Ascunsă Cave (southwestern Romania) designed to help us understand how climate information is transferred through the karst system and archived by speleothems. The air temperature inside the cave is around 7 °C, with slight differences between the upper and lower parts of the main passage. CO2 concentrations in cave air have a seasonal signal, with summer minima and winter maxima. These might indicate the existence of an organic matter reservoir deep within the epikarst that continues to decompose over the winter, and CO2 concentrations are possibly modulated by seasonal differences in cave ventilation. The maximum values of CO2 show a rise after the summer of 2014, from around 2000 to about 3500 ppm, following a rise in surface temperature. Using two newly designed types of water-air equilibrators, we were able to determine the concentration of CO2 dissolved in drip water by measuring its concentration in the equilibrator headspace and then using Henry's law to calculate its concentration in water. This method opens the possibility of continuous data logging using infrared technology, without the need for costly and less reliable chemical determinations. The local meteoric water line (δ2H = 7.7 δ18O + 10.1), constructed using monthly aggregated rainfall samples, is similar to the global one, revealing the Atlantic as the strongly dominant vapor source. The deuterium excess values, as high as 17 ‰, indicate that precipitation has an important evaporative component, possibly given by moisture recycling over the European continent. The variability of stable isotopes in drip water is similar at all points inside the cave, suggesting that the monitored drip sites are draining a homogenous reservoir. Drip rates, as well as stable isotopes, indicate that the transfer time of water from the surface is on the order of a few days.

  6. Transfer of environmental signals from the surface to the underground at Ascunsă Cave, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Drăguşin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present here the results of a 4-year environmental monitoring program at Ascunsă Cave (southwestern Romania designed to help us understand how climate information is transferred through the karst system and archived by speleothems. The air temperature inside the cave is around 7 °C, with slight differences between the upper and lower parts of the main passage. CO2 concentrations in cave air have a seasonal signal, with summer minima and winter maxima. These might indicate the existence of an organic matter reservoir deep within the epikarst that continues to decompose over the winter, and CO2 concentrations are possibly modulated by seasonal differences in cave ventilation. The maximum values of CO2 show a rise after the summer of 2014, from around 2000 to about 3500 ppm, following a rise in surface temperature. Using two newly designed types of water–air equilibrators, we were able to determine the concentration of CO2 dissolved in drip water by measuring its concentration in the equilibrator headspace and then using Henry's law to calculate its concentration in water. This method opens the possibility of continuous data logging using infrared technology, without the need for costly and less reliable chemical determinations. The local meteoric water line (δ2H  =  7.7 δ18O + 10.1, constructed using monthly aggregated rainfall samples, is similar to the global one, revealing the Atlantic as the strongly dominant vapor source. The deuterium excess values, as high as 17 ‰, indicate that precipitation has an important evaporative component, possibly given by moisture recycling over the European continent. The variability of stable isotopes in drip water is similar at all points inside the cave, suggesting that the monitored drip sites are draining a homogenous reservoir. Drip rates, as well as stable isotopes, indicate that the transfer time of water from the surface is on the order of a few days.

  7. Optimize steam cracking with online NIR analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Descales, B.; Bages, S.; Bellet, S.; Llinas, J.R. [BP Chemicals S.N.C., Lavera (France); Loublier, M.; Maury, J.P. [Naphtachimie, Lavera (France); Martens, A. [AMS Conseil, Martigues (France)

    1995-12-01

    At Lavera, the steam cracker of Naphtachimie (a 50/50 subsidiary of BP Chemicals and Elf Atochem) was the first equipped with online NIR analysis of naphtha feedstock. The 24 furnaces of the plant produce more than 670,000 tpy of ethylene. Since 1991, these furnaces have been controlled by an in-house, online process control model that uses the 13 naphtha properties provided by the online NIR analyzer to adjust the furnaces` operating conditions in real time. The naphtha represents between 70% and 95% of the unit feedstock. With the high level of NIR spectroscopy repeatability and the robustness of in-house models based on more than 15 years of experience, optimization of steam cracker operations allows a substantial induced benefit in the range of $1 million/yr. Other NIR online applications have been installed at BP Lavera on major industrial units such as motor gasoline blending optimization and crude oil distillation monitoring. The paper describes the principle of operation, online NIR analysis, and advantages and benefits.

  8. MO-FG-BRA-02: A Feasibility Study of Integrating Breathing Audio Signal with Surface Surrogates for Respiratory Motion Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Y; Zhu, X; Zheng, D; Li, S; Ma, R; Zhang, M; Fan, Q; Wang, X; Verma, V; Zhou, S; Tang, X

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Tracking the surrogate placed on patient skin surface sometimes leads to problematic signals for certain patients, such as shallow breathers. This in turn impairs the 4D CT image quality and dosimetric accuracy. In this pilot study, we explored the feasibility of monitoring human breathing motion by integrating breathing sound signal with surface surrogates. Methods: The breathing sound signals were acquired though a microphone attached adjacently to volunteer’s nostrils, and breathing curve were analyzed using a low pass filter. Simultaneously, the Real-time Position Management™ (RPM) system from Varian were employed on a volunteer to monitor respiratory motion including both shallow and deep breath modes. The similar experiment was performed by using Calypso system, and three beacons taped on volunteer abdominal region to capture breath motion. The period of each breathing curves were calculated with autocorrelation functions. The coherence and consistency between breathing signals using different acquisition methods were examined. Results: Clear breathing patterns were revealed by the sound signal which was coherent with the signal obtained from both the RPM system and Calypso system. For shallow breathing, the periods of breathing cycle were 3.00±0.19 sec (sound) and 3.00±0.21 sec (RPM); For deep breathing, the periods were 3.49± 0.11 sec (sound) and 3.49±0.12 sec (RPM). Compared with 4.54±0.66 sec period recorded by the calypso system, the sound measured 4.64±0.54 sec. The additional signal from sound could be supplement to the surface monitoring, and provide new parameters to model the hysteresis lung motion. Conclusion: Our preliminary study shows that the breathing sound signal can provide a comparable way as the RPM system to evaluate the respiratory motion. It’s instantaneous and robust characteristics facilitate it possibly to be a either independently or as auxiliary methods to manage respiratory motion in radiotherapy.

  9. Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using Vis/NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuqi; Tang, Xuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was studied in this paper. Vis/NIR diffuse reflection spectroscopy responses to samples were measured for 6 days. Spectroscopy data were processed by stochastic resonance (SR). Principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to analyze original spectroscopy data and SNR eigen value. Results demonstrated that PCA could not totally discriminate Fuji apples using original spectroscopy data. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectrum clearly classified all apple samples. PCA using SNR spectrum successfully discriminated apple samples. Therefore, Vis/NIR spectroscopy was effective for Fuji apple storage time rapid discrimination. The proposed method is also promising in condition safety control and management for food and environmental laboratories.

  10. Quantification of fructan concentration in grasses using NIR spectroscopy and PLSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Nisha; Gislum, Rene

    2011-01-01

    Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was used to quantify fructan concentration in samples from seven grass species. Savitzky-Golay first derivative with filter width 7 and polynomial order 2 with mean centering was applied as a spectral pre-treatment method...... to remove unimportant baseline signals. In order to model the NIR spectroscopy data the partial least squares regression (PLSR) approach was used on the full spectra. Variable selection based on PLSR by jack-knifing within a cross-model validation (CMV) framework was applied in order to remove non...... quantification of fructans by NIR spectroscopy is possible and that jack-knifing PLSR within a CMV framework is an effective way to eliminate the wavelengths of no interest. Jack-knifing PLSR did not improve the predictive ability because the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) increased (1.37) compared...

  11. Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using Vis/NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuqi; Tang, Xuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was studied in this paper. Vis/NIR diffuse reflection spectroscopy responses to samples were measured for 6 days. Spectroscopy data were processed by stochastic resonance (SR). Principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to analyze original spectroscopy data and SNR eigen value. Results demonstrated that PCA could not totally discriminate Fuji apples using original spectroscopy data. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectrum clearly classified all apple samples. PCA using SNR spectrum successfully discriminated apple samples. Therefore, Vis/NIR spectroscopy was effective for Fuji apple storage time rapid discrimination. The proposed method is also promising in condition safety control and management for food and environmental laboratories. PMID:25874818

  12. Radiofrequency circuit design and performance evaluation for small animal frequency-domain NIR fluorescence optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darne, Chinmay; Zhu, Banghe; Lu, Yujie; Tan, I.-Chih; Rasmussen, John; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2011-02-01

    Herein we report on hardware development and evaluation for frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM) technique that is miniaturized for incorporation into a micro-CT gantry for hybrid CT/NIR/PET imaging. Immunity to endogenous optical properties and enhanced contrast associated with fluorophore lifetime is inherent to the FDPM measurements and enables unique opportunities for quantitative tomography when compared to the time independent (continuous wave) approach. A miniaturized radiofrequency (rf) circuitry has been developed in our laboratory for homodyne FDPM measurements that makes use of a single 100MHz oscillator to simultaneously launch optically modulated excitation light into a small animal as well as to modulate an NIR sensitive image intensifier for collection of fluorescent signals. The use of a single oscillator not only eliminates signal drift that otherwise results from the use of multiple oscillators individually driving both source and detector, but also reduces the circuit footprint for incorporation into the CT gantry. Herein, overall system performance parameters of signal-to-noise ratio, measurement precision, spatial resolution, modulation depth (ac/dc), excitation light rejection, and clinically relevant data acquisition times are presented for mouse phantom data. Image reconstruction of phantom data and integration of circuitry for hybrid CT/NIR/PET imaging is also presented towards the ultimate validation of NIR optical tomography using PET imaging as a "gold-standard" for quantification.

  13. A beam energy measurement system at NIRS-930 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, S.; Honma, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Miyahara, N.; Okada, T.; Komatsu, K.; Tsuji, N.; Yamada, S.

    2005-01-01

    A beam energy measurement system employing a set of capacitive probes has been developed at NIRS-930 cyclotron. Principle of the measurement is applying a modified-TOF method, so that the two proves are installed at one of the straight section in the beam transport line. Usually they are separated about 5.8 m, which is equivalent to the almost final path length of the beam extracted in the cyclotron. In the measurement, two beam signals are superimposed by adjusting a position of the downstream-probe along the beam direction with watching an oscilloscope screen roughly. In order to determine the beam energy accurately the signals are processed by MCA with suitable electric module. (author)

  14. Signal peptide cleavage is essential for surface expression of a regulatory T cell surface protein, leucine rich repeat containing 32 (LRRC32

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyama Hideaki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs have been implicated in certain cancers. Depletion of Tregs has been shown to increase anti-tumor immunity. Tregs also play a critical role in the suppression of autoimmune responses. The study of Tregs has been hampered by a lack of adequate surface markers. Leucine Rich Repeat Containing 32 (LRRC32, also known as Glycoprotein A Repetitions Predominant (GARP, has been postulated as a novel surface marker of activated Tregs. However, there is limited information regarding the processing of LRRC32 or the regulatory phenotype and functional activity of Tregs expressing LRRC32. Results Using naturally-occurring freshly isolated Tregs, we demonstrate that low levels of LRRC32 are present intracellularly prior to activation and that freshly isolated LRRC32+ Tregs are distinct from LRRC32- Tregs with respect to the expression of surface CD62L. Using LRRC32 transfectants of HEK cells, we demonstrate that the N-terminus of LRRC32 is cleaved prior to expression of the protein at the cell surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate using a construct containing a deleted putative signal peptide region that the presence of a signal peptide region is critical to cell surface expression of LRRC32. Finally, mixed lymphocyte assays demonstrate that LRRC32+ Tregs are more potent suppressors than LRRC32- Tregs. Conclusions A cleaved signal peptide site in LRRC32 is necessary for surface localization of native LRRC32 following activation of naturally-occurring freshly-isolated regulatory T cells. LRRC32 expression appears to alter the surface expression of activation markers of T cells such as CD62L. LRRC32 surface expression may be useful as a marker that selects for more potent Treg populations. In summary, understanding the processing and expression of LRRC32 may provide insight into the mechanism of action of Tregs and the refinement of immunotherapeutic strategies aimed at targeting these cells.

  15. Is there Place for Perfectionism in the NIR Spectral Data Reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingarian, Igor

    2017-09-01

    "Despite the crucial importance of the near-infrared spectral domain for understanding the star formation and galaxy evolution, NIR observations and data reduction represent a significant challenge. The known complexity of NIR detectors is aggravated by the airglow emission in the upper atmosphere and the water absorption in the troposphere so that up until now, the astronomical community is divided on the issue whether ground based NIR spectroscopy has a future or should it move completely to space (JWST, Euclid, WFIRST). I will share my experience of pipeline development for low- and intermediate-resolution spectrographs operated at Magellan and MMT. The MMIRS data reduction pipeline became the first example of the sky subtraction quality approaching the limit set by the Poisson photon noise and demonstrated the feasibility of low-resolution (R=1200-3000) NIR spectroscopy from the ground even for very faint (J=24.5) continuum sources. On the other hand, the FIRE Bright Source Pipeline developed specifically for high signal-to-noise intermediate resolution stellar spectra proves that systematics in the flux calibration and telluric absorption correction can be pushed down to the (sub-)percent level. My conclusion is that even though substantial effort and time investment is needed to design and develop NIR spectroscopic pipelines for ground based instruments, it will pay off, if done properly, and open new windows of opportunity in the ELT era."

  16. Hybrid EEG-fNIRS-Based Eight-Command Decoding for BCI: Application to Quadcopter Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Jawad; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid electroencephalography-functional near-infrared spectroscopy (EEG-fNIRS) scheme to decode eight active brain commands from the frontal brain region for brain-computer interface is presented. A total of eight commands are decoded by fNIRS, as positioned on the prefrontal cortex, and by EEG, around the frontal, parietal, and visual cortices. Mental arithmetic, mental counting, mental rotation, and word formation tasks are decoded with fNIRS, in which the selected features for classification and command generation are the peak, minimum, and mean ΔHbO values within a 2-s moving window. In the case of EEG, two eyeblinks, three eyeblinks, and eye movement in the up/down and left/right directions are used for four-command generation. The features in this case are the number of peaks and the mean of the EEG signal during 1 s window. We tested the generated commands on a quadcopter in an open space. An average accuracy of 75.6% was achieved with fNIRS for four-command decoding and 86% with EEG for another four-command decoding. The testing results show the possibility of controlling a quadcopter online and in real-time using eight commands from the prefrontal and frontal cortices via the proposed hybrid EEG-fNIRS interface.

  17. Hybrid EEG–fNIRS-Based Eight-Command Decoding for BCI: Application to Quadcopter Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Jawad; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid electroencephalography–functional near-infrared spectroscopy (EEG–fNIRS) scheme to decode eight active brain commands from the frontal brain region for brain–computer interface is presented. A total of eight commands are decoded by fNIRS, as positioned on the prefrontal cortex, and by EEG, around the frontal, parietal, and visual cortices. Mental arithmetic, mental counting, mental rotation, and word formation tasks are decoded with fNIRS, in which the selected features for classification and command generation are the peak, minimum, and mean ΔHbO values within a 2-s moving window. In the case of EEG, two eyeblinks, three eyeblinks, and eye movement in the up/down and left/right directions are used for four-command generation. The features in this case are the number of peaks and the mean of the EEG signal during 1 s window. We tested the generated commands on a quadcopter in an open space. An average accuracy of 75.6% was achieved with fNIRS for four-command decoding and 86% with EEG for another four-command decoding. The testing results show the possibility of controlling a quadcopter online and in real-time using eight commands from the prefrontal and frontal cortices via the proposed hybrid EEG–fNIRS interface. PMID:28261084

  18. Matrix Effects in Quantitative Assessment of Pharmaceutical Tablets Using Transmission Raman and Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparén, Anders; Hartman, Madeleine; Fransson, Magnus; Johansson, Jonas; Svensson, Olof

    2015-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy can be an alternative to near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) for nondestructive quantitative analysis of solid pharmaceutical formulations. Compared with NIR spectra, Raman spectra have much better selectivity, but subsampling was always an issue for quantitative assessment. Raman spectroscopy in transmission mode has reduced this issue, since a large volume of the sample is measured in transmission mode. The sample matrix, such as particle size of the drug substance in a tablet, may affect the Raman signal. In this work, matrix effects in transmission NIR and Raman spectroscopy were systematically investigated for a solid pharmaceutical formulation. Tablets were manufactured according to an experimental design, varying the factors particle size of the drug substance (DS), particle size of the filler, compression force, and content of drug substance. All factors were varied at two levels plus a center point, except the drug substance content, which was varied at five levels. Six tablets from each experimental point were measured with transmission NIR and Raman spectroscopy, and their concentration of DS was determined for a third of those tablets. Principal component analysis of NIR and Raman spectra showed that the drug substance content and particle size, the particle size of the filler, and the compression force affected both NIR and Raman spectra. For quantitative assessment, orthogonal partial least squares regression was applied. All factors varied in the experimental design influenced the prediction of the DS content to some extent, both for NIR and Raman spectroscopy, the particle size of the filler having the largest effect. When all matrix variations were included in the multivariate calibrations, however, good predictions of all types of tablets were obtained, both for NIR and Raman spectroscopy. The prediction error using transmission Raman spectroscopy was about 30% lower than that obtained with transmission NIR spectroscopy.

  19. Upconverting and NIR emitting rare earth based nanostructures for NIR-bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Eva; Venkatachalam, Nallusamy; Hyodo, Hiroshi; Hattori, Akito; Ebina, Yoshie; Kishimoto, Hidehiro; Soga, Kohei

    2013-12-07

    In recent years, significant progress was achieved in the field of nanomedicine and bioimaging, but the development of new biomarkers for reliable detection of diseases at an early stage, molecular imaging, targeting and therapy remains crucial. The disadvantages of commonly used organic dyes include photobleaching, autofluorescence, phototoxicity and scattering when UV (ultraviolet) or visible light is used for excitation. The limited penetration depth of the excitation light and the visible emission into and from the biological tissue is a further drawback with regard to in vivo bioimaging. Lanthanide containing inorganic nanostructures emitting in the near-infrared (NIR) range under NIR excitation may overcome those problems. Due to the outstanding optical and magnetic properties of lanthanide ions (Ln(3+)), nanoscopic host materials doped with Ln(3+), e.g. Y2O3:Er(3+),Yb(3+), are promising candidates for NIR-NIR bioimaging. Ln(3+)-doped gadolinium-based inorganic nanostructures, such as Gd2O3:Er(3+),Yb(3+), have a high potential as opto-magnetic markers allowing the combination of time-resolved optical imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of high spatial resolution. Recent progress in our research on over-1000 nm NIR fluorescent nanoprobes for in vivo NIR-NIR bioimaging will be discussed in this review.

  20. NIR optimerer produktionen af gammeldags modnede sild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Vibeke Tølbøl; Bro, Rasmus; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2005-01-01

    Måling med nærinfrarødt (NIR) lys er et godt supplement til de nuværende metoder til at følge modningen af sild saltede i tønder. Det viser resultaterne af et forskningsprojekt udført i samarbejde mellem Lykkeberg A/S, Danmarks Fiskeriundersøgelser og Den Kgl Veterinær- og Landbohøjskole. Ved hjælp...... af avanceret matematik er det nemt og hurtigt at bestemme modningsgraden af sild direkte fra en NIR måling....

  1. Using Massive Multivariate NIRS Data in Ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Greve-Pedersen, Morten; Jensen, Christian S

    variance and the heritability for each bin were estimated using a mixed model. To use all the information for prediction, since we have 366 bins, a reduction in number of parameters is necessary. The usual method is to combine principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square (PLS). Another...... (e.g. dry matter, protein content, etc.) for the next generation. In total 1984 NIRS data from 995 ryegrass families (first cut) were used. The Absorption of radiation in the region of 960 – 1690 nm in every 2 nm distance produced 366 bins to represent the NIRS spectrum. The amount of genetic...

  2. Surface sensing and stress-signalling in Ulva and fouling diatoms - potential targets for antifouling: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie E M; Coates, Juliet C

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the underlying signalling pathways that enable fouling algae to sense and respond to surfaces is essential in the design of environmentally friendly coatings. Both the green alga Ulva and diverse diatoms are important ecologically and economically as they are persistent biofoulers. Ulva spores exhibit rapid secretion, allowing them to adhere quickly and permanently to a ship, whilst diatoms secrete an abundance of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which are highly adaptable to different environmental conditions. There is evidence, now supported by molecular data, for complex calcium and nitric oxide (NO) signalling pathways in both Ulva and diatoms being involved in surface sensing and/or adhesion. Moreover, adaptation to stress has profound effects on the biofouling capability of both types of organism. Targets for future antifouling coatings based on surface sensing are discussed, with an emphasis on pursuing NO-releasing coatings as a potentially universal antifouling strategy.

  3. Hyperpolarized 13C MRS surface coil: design and signal-to-noise ratio estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, Giulio; Frijia, Francesca; Menichetti, Luca; Milanesi, Matteo; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; De Marchi, Daniele; Hartwig, Valentina; Positano, Vincenzo; Landini, Luigi; Lombardi, Massimo; Santarelli, Maria Filomena

    2010-10-01

    Hyperpolarized carbon-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a novel and powerful tool for exploring the metabolic state of tissue, but a number of technological problems still limit this technology and need innovative solutions. In particular, the low molar concentration of derivate metabolites give rise to low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which makes the design and development of dedicated RF coils a task of fundamental importance. In this article, the authors describe the simulation and the design of a dedicated 13C surface coil for cardiac metabolism assessment in pig models. A SNR model for a circular loop is presented and applied to the design of a 13C coil which guarantees the desired field-of-view and provides high SNR with a good penetration in deep sample regions. The coil resistance was calculated from Ohm's law and the magnetic field pattern was calculated using Biot-Savart law, while the sample induced resistance was calculated using a numerical finite-difference time-domain algorithm. Successively, a prototype of the coil was built and tested on the workbench and by acquisition of MR data. The comparison of SNR-vs-depth profiles between the theoretical SNR model and the experimental SNR extracted from the phantom chemical shift image (CSI) showed the accuracy of the authors' model. Moreover, the authors demonstrated the use of the coil for the acquisition of a CSI of a hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate phantom. The results demonstrated the design trade-offs to successfully design a dedicated coil for cardiac imaging in the pig with hyperpolarized 13C by developing a SNR model which allows the prediction of the coil performance. This approach can be employed for deriving SNR formulations for coil with more complex geometries.

  4. Removing ECG Artifact from the Surface EMG Signal Using Adaptive Subtraction Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, S; Fallah, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: The electrocardiogram artifact is a major contamination in the electromyogram signals when electromyogram signal is recorded from upper trunk muscles and because of that the contaminated electromyogram is not useful. Objective: Removing electrocardiogram contamination from electromyogram signals. Methods: In this paper, the clean electromyogram signal, electrocardiogram artifact and electrocardiogram signal were recorded from leg muscles, the pectoralis major muscle of the left side and V4, respectively. After the pre-processing, contaminated electromyogram signal is simulated with a combination of clean electromyogram and electrocardiogram artifact. Then, contaminated electromyogram is cleaned using adaptive subtraction method. This method contains some steps; (1) QRS detection, (2) formation of electrocardiogram template by averaging the electrocardiogram complexes, (3) using low pass filter to remove undesirable artifacts, (4) subtraction. Results: Performance of our method is evaluated using qualitative criteria, power spectrum density and coherence and quantitative criteria signal to noise ratio, relative error and cross correlation. The result of signal to noise ratio, relative error and cross correlation is equal to 10.493, 0.04 and %97 respectively. Finally, there is a comparison between proposed method and some existing methods. Conclusion: The result indicates that adaptive subtraction method is somewhat effective to remove electrocardiogram artifact from contaminated electromyogram signal and has an acceptable result. PMID:25505766

  5. WIRELESS DISTRIBUTED ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY – WDA-NIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SAFAIE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The wireless distributed acquisition system for near infrared spectroscopy (WDA-NIRS is a portable, ultra-compact, continuous wave (CW NIRS system. Its main advantage is that it allows continuous synchronized multi-site hemodynamic monitoring. The WDA-NIRS system calculates online changes in hemoglobin concentration based on modified Beer–Lambert law and the tissue oxygenation index based on the spatial-resolved spectroscopy method. It consists of up to seven signal acquisition units, sufficiently small to be easily attached to any part of the body. These units are remotely synchronized by a PC base station for independent acquisition of NIRS signals. Each acquisition module can be freely adapted to individual requirements such as local skin properties and the microcirculation of interest, e.g., different muscles, brain, skin, etc. For this purpose, the light emitted by each LED can be individually, interactively or automatically adjusted to local needs. Furthermore, the user can freely create an emitter time-multiplexing protocol and choose the detector sensitivity most suitable to a particular situation. The potential diagnostic value of this advanced device is demonstrated by three typical applications.

  6. Experimental radiation carcinogenesis is studies at NIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sado, Toshihiko

    1992-01-01

    Experimental radiation carcinogenesis studies conducted during the past decade at NIRS are briefly reviewed. They include the following: 1) Age dependency of susceptibility to radiation carcinogenesis. 2) Radiation-induced myeloid leukemia. 3) Mechanism of fractionated X-irradiation (FX) induced thymic lymphomas. 4) Significance of radiation-induced immunosuppression in radiation carcinogenesis in vivo. 5) Other ongoing studies. (author)

  7. Monitoring of whey quality with NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Lomborg, Carina

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for monitoring of liquid whey quality parameters during protein production process has been tested. The parameters included total solids, lactose, protein and fat content. The samples for the experiment were taken from real industrial...

  8. Agricultural applications of NIR reflectance and transmittance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, René

    2009-01-01

    There has been a considerable increase in the use of near infrared (NIR) reflectance and transmittance spectroscopy technologies for rapid determination of quality parameters in agriculture, including applications within crop product quality, feed and food quality, manure quality, soil analyses etc...

  9. Comparison of EMG signals recorded by surface electrodes on endotracheal tube and thyroid cartilage during monitored thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yu Chiang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A variety of electromyography (EMG recording methods were reported during intraoperative neural monitoring (IONM of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN in thyroid surgery. This study compared two surface recording methods that were obtained by electrodes on endotracheal tube (ET and thyroid cartilage (TC. This study analyzed 205 RLNs at risk in 110 patients undergoing monitored thyroidectomy. Each patient was intubated with an EMG ET during general anesthesia. A pair of single needle electrode was inserted obliquely into the TC lamina on each side. Standard IONM procedure was routinely followed, and EMG signals recorded by the ET and TC electrodes at each step were compared. In all nerves, evoked laryngeal EMG signals were reliably recorded by the ET and TC electrodes, and showed the same typical waveform and latency. The EMG signals recorded by the TC electrodes showed significantly higher amplitudes and stability compared to those by the ET electrodes. Both recording methods accurately detected 7 partial loss of signal (LOS and 2 complete LOS events caused by traction stress, but only the ET electrodes falsely detected 3 LOS events caused by ET displacement during surgical manipulation. Two patients with true complete LOS experienced temporary RLN palsy postoperatively. Neither permanent RLN palsy, nor complications from ET or TC electrodes were encountered in this study. Both electrodes are effective and reliable for recording laryngeal EMG signals during monitored thyroidectomy. Compared to ET electrodes, TC electrodes obtain higher and more stable EMG signals as well as fewer false EMG results during IONM.

  10. Dynamic changes in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) findings in first-episode schizophrenia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Tsuyoshi; Kunii, Yasuto; Miura, Itaru; Itagaki, Shuntaro; Kono, Soichi; Shiga, Tetsuya; Oshima, Sachie; Nozaki, Keiko; Suzuki, Rieko; Yabe, Hirooki

    2017-04-28

    The clinical course of schizophrenia is characterized by recurrence and chronicity and has a large burden on society. Nevertheless, diagnosis of schizophrenia is based only on distinctive symptoms and the disease course. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a useful method for measuring changes in the hemoglobin concentration in the cortical surface area and reflects brain function. We measured NIRS four times during the clinical course in a patient with first-episode schizophrenia.A 17-year-old woman admitted to our hospital because of hallucinations, delusions and appetite loss. After treatment with low-dose antipsychotics, NIRS findings showed a prompt increase in the cerebral blood volume in the frontal region. On the basis of the clinical course of this patient, we introduce a new point of view, namely, that NIRS findings may be useful as a state marker that indicates the severity of schizophrenia in some cases.

  11. SIR - 2: The NIR Spectrometer for the Chandrayaan-1 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, U.; Nathues, A.; Keller, H. U.; SIR-2 Science Team

    2005-08-01

    SIR-2 is an upgraded, compact grating, near-infrared spectrometer, which covers the wave-length range between 0.9 and 2.45 μ m, with a spectral resolution of Δ λ pixel = 6 nm. SIR-2 has been chosen to fly on board the Indian mission Chandrayan-1 in 2007-2009. SIR-2, which will benefit from its heritage of SIR on SMART-1, will deliver, compared to SMART-1, a homogenous lunar surface coverage with unsurpassed spatial resolution and thus will greatly improve our knowledge of the lunar surface composition. The SIR-2 NIR data, combined with the hyperspectral data from the HySI instrument on Chandrayaan-1, will provide, for the first time, a full spectral coverage of the olivine and large part of the pyroxen bands, thus allowing one to extract from the data the necessary input parameters for the mineralogical mixing models. We present the SIR-2 design and discuss the potential science.

  12. Analysis of progression of fatigue conditions in biceps brachii muscles using surface electromyography signals and complexity based features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthick, P A; Makaram, Navaneethakrishna; Ramakrishnan, S

    2014-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a neuromuscular condition where muscle performance decreases due to sustained or intense contraction. It is experienced by both normal and abnormal subjects. In this work, an attempt has been made to analyze the progression of muscle fatigue in biceps brachii muscles using surface electromyography (sEMG) signals. The sEMG signals are recorded from fifty healthy volunteers during dynamic contractions under well defined protocol. The acquired signals are preprocessed and segmented in to six equal parts for further analysis. The features, such as activity, mobility, complexity, sample entropy and spectral entropy are extracted from all six zones. The results are found showing that the extracted features except complexity feature have significant variations in differentiating non-fatigue and fatigue zone respectively. Thus, it appears that, these features are useful in automated analysis of various neuromuscular activities in normal and pathological conditions.

  13. Climate change signal and uncertainty in CMIP5-based projections of global ocean surface wave heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolan L.; Feng, Yang; Swail, Val R.

    2015-05-01

    This study uses the analysis of variance approaches to quantify the climate change signal and uncertainty in multimodel ensembles of statistical simulations of significant wave height (Hs), which are based on the CMIP5 historical, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 forcing scenario simulations of sea level pressure. Here the signal of climate change refers to the temporal variations caused by the prescribed forcing. "Significant" means "significantly different from zero at 5% level." In a four-model ensemble of Hs simulations, the common signal—the signal that is simulated in all the four models—is found to strengthen over time. For the historical followed by RCP8.5 scenario, the common signal in annual mean Hs is found to be significant in 16.6% and 82.2% of the area by year 2005 and 2099, respectively. The global average of the variance proportion of the common signal increases from 0.75% in year 2005 to 12.0% by year 2099. The signal is strongest in the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP), featuring significant increases in both the annual mean and maximum of Hs in this region. The climate model uncertainty (i.e., intermodel variability) is significant nearly globally; its magnitude is comparable to or greater than that of the common signal in most areas, except in the ETP where the signal is much larger. In a 20-model ensemble of Hs simulations for the period 2006-2099, the model uncertainty is found to be significant globally; it is about 10 times as large as the variability between the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The copyright line for this article was changed on 10 JUNE 2015 after original online publication.

  14. Membrane-Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase Downregulates Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Binding to the Cell Surface and Intracellular Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassone, Evelyne; Valacca, Cristina; Mignatti, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP, MMP-14), a transmembrane proteinase with an extracellular catalytic domain and a short cytoplasmic tail, degrades extracellular matrix components and controls diverse cell functions through proteolytic and non-proteolytic interactions with extracellular, intracellular, and transmembrane proteins. Here we show that in tumor cells MT1-MMP downregulates fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) signaling by reducing the amount of FGF-2 bound to the cell surface with high and low affinity. FGF-2 induces weaker activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinase in MT1-MMP expressing cells than in cells devoid of MT1-MMP. This effect is abolished in cells that express proteolytically inactive MT1-MMP but persists in cells expressing MT1-MMP mutants devoid of hemopexin-like or cytoplasmic domain, showing that FGF-2 signaling is downregulated by MT1-MMP proteolytic activity. MT1-MMP expression results in downregulation of FGFR-1 and -4, and in decreased amount of cell surface-associated FGF-2. In addition, MT1-MMP strongly reduces the amount of FGF-2 bound to the cell surface with low affinity. Because FGF-2 association with low-affinity binding sites is a prerequisite for binding to its high-affinity receptors, downregulation of low-affinity binding to the cell surface results in decreased FGF-2 signaling. Consistent with this conclusion, FGF-2 induction of tumor cell migration and invasion in vitro is stronger in cells devoid of MT1- MMP than in MT1-MMP expressing cells. Thus, MT1-MMP controls FGF-2 signaling by a proteolytic mechanism that decreases the cell's biological response to FGF-2. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Probing Shock Compressed Silicon Metallization using VIS/NIR Reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S. J.; Bolme, C.; Jeanloz, R.; Collins, G. W.

    2013-12-01

    Broadband reflectivity measurements provide detailed information about the optical and electronic properties of shocked matter, complementing other spectroscopic techniques and increasing the accuracy of pyrometric measurements, which is vital for improving models of planetary cores. A time resolved broadband VIS/NIR reflectivity diagnostic was constructed and used to observe the metallization of shock compressed single crystal silicon phase at Jupiter Laser Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. Silicon is the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust and was considered to be an excellent candidate for initial testing of this diagnostic due to accessible phase changes that should result in dramatic increases in reflectivity. A 50-100 fs 800 nm pulse was first sent through a pulse stacker and then an intense white light pulse with wavelengths from ~400 nm to ~1200 nm was generated by focusing the stacked pulses into a water cell. The white light pulses were then sent into the chamber and reflected from the target surface. The reflected light was dispersed using a custom spectrometer which was coupled to a streak camera. On transition to the higher pressure phase a dramatic increase in reflectivity was observed in the NIR, and to a lesser extent in the visible. This is congruent with the decrease in resistivity that accompanies closure of the silicon band gap and metallization.

  16. Low temperature motion of hydrogen on metal surfaces signals breakdown of quantum mechanics in 3+1 dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakova, D.; Doyen, G.

    2013-06-01

    The low temperature motion of hydrogen on solid metal surfaces displays some unexplained experimental features: in the quantum diffusion regime more than nine orders of magnitude difference between the diffusion rates on different metal surfaces have been measured, the lowest diffusion rates being established in the low temperature scanning tunnelling microscope. Furthermore telegraph-signal-like adsorption site change, rather than Rabi oscillations predicted by Schrödinger equation in 3+1 dimensions, is observed, signaling the breakdown of quantum mechanics in 3+1 dimensions. A theory is presented to resolve these problems, involving the entanglement of the adsorbate motion to gravitons in high-dimensional spacetime. Soft local massive gravonons, induced in the presence of the adsorbate, determine the time scale for surface diffusion. The γη-model is used for the evaluation of the soft gravonon modes. Weak and local entanglement of the adsorbate motion with a nearly degenerate graviton continuum of high density of states are the conditions for the telegraph-signal-like time development of adsorption site change. In contrast to the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, this apparent "classical" behaviour of the adsorbate in 3+1 dimensional spacetime is the result of the solution of Schrödinger's time dependent equation in high-dimensional spacetime.

  17. CSF-1 receptor signalling is governed by pre-requisite EHD1 mediated receptor display on the macrophage cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypher, Luke R; Bielecki, Timothy Alan; Huang, Lu; An, Wei; Iseka, Fany; Tom, Eric; Storck, Matthew D; Hoppe, Adam D; Band, Vimla; Band, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R), a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), is the master regulator of macrophage biology. CSF-1 can bind CSF-1R resulting in receptor activation and signalling essential for macrophage functions such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, polarization, phagocytosis, cytokine secretion, and motility. CSF-1R activation can only occur after the receptor is presented on the macrophage cell surface. This process is reliant upon the underlying macrophage receptor trafficking machinery. However, the mechanistic details governing this process are incompletely understood. C-terminal Eps15 Homology Domain-containing (EHD) proteins have recently emerged as key regulators of receptor trafficking but have not yet been studied in the context of macrophage CSF-1R signalling. In this manuscript, we utilize primary bone-marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) to reveal a novel function of EHD1 as a regulator of CSF-1R abundance on the cell surface. We report that EHD1-knockout (EHD1-KO) macrophages cell surface and total CSF-1R levels are significantly decreased. The decline in CSF-1R levels corresponds with reduced downstream macrophage functions such as cell proliferation, migration, and spreading. In EHD1-KO macrophages, transport of newly synthesized CSF-1R to the macrophage cell surface was reduced and was associated with the shunting of the receptor to the lysosome, which resulted in receptor degradation. These findings reveal a novel and functionally important role for EHD1 in governing CSF-1R signalling via regulation of anterograde transport of CSF-1R to the macrophage cell surface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. TH-CD-207A-05: Lung Surface Deformation Vector Fields Prediction by Monitoring Respiratory Surrogate Signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasehi Tehrani, J; Wang, J; McEwan, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we developed and evaluated a method for predicting lung surface deformation vector fields (SDVFs) based on surrogate signals such as chest and abdomen motion at selected locations and spirometry measurements. Methods: A Patient-specific 3D triangular surface mesh of the lung region at end-expiration (EE) phase was obtained by threshold-based segmentation method. For each patient, a spirometer recorded the flow volume changes of the lungs; and 192 selected points at a regular spacing of 2cm X 2cm matrix points over a total area of 34cm X 24cm on the surface of chest and abdomen was used to detect chest wall motions. Preprocessing techniques such as QR factorization with column pivoting (QRCP) were employed to remove redundant observations of the chest and abdominal area. To create a statistical model between the lung surface and the corresponding surrogate signals, we developed a predictive model based on canonical ridge regression (CRR). Two unique weighting vectors were selected for each vertex on the surface of the lung, and they were optimized during the training process using the all other phases of 4D-CT except the end-inspiration (EI) phase. These parameters were employed to predict the vertices locations of a testing data set, which was the EI phase of 4D-CT. Results: For ten lung cancer patients, the deformation vector field of each vertex of lung surface mesh was estimated from the external motion at selected positions on the chest wall surface plus spirometry measurements. The average estimation of 98th percentile of error was less than 1 mm (AP= 0.85, RL= 0.61, and SI= 0.82). Conclusion: The developed predictive model provides a non-invasive approach to derive lung boundary condition. Together with personalized biomechanical respiration modelling, the proposed model can be used to derive the lung tumor motion during radiation therapy accurately from non-invasive measurements.

  19. TH-CD-207A-05: Lung Surface Deformation Vector Fields Prediction by Monitoring Respiratory Surrogate Signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasehi Tehrani, J; Wang, J [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); McEwan, A [The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In this study, we developed and evaluated a method for predicting lung surface deformation vector fields (SDVFs) based on surrogate signals such as chest and abdomen motion at selected locations and spirometry measurements. Methods: A Patient-specific 3D triangular surface mesh of the lung region at end-expiration (EE) phase was obtained by threshold-based segmentation method. For each patient, a spirometer recorded the flow volume changes of the lungs; and 192 selected points at a regular spacing of 2cm X 2cm matrix points over a total area of 34cm X 24cm on the surface of chest and abdomen was used to detect chest wall motions. Preprocessing techniques such as QR factorization with column pivoting (QRCP) were employed to remove redundant observations of the chest and abdominal area. To create a statistical model between the lung surface and the corresponding surrogate signals, we developed a predictive model based on canonical ridge regression (CRR). Two unique weighting vectors were selected for each vertex on the surface of the lung, and they were optimized during the training process using the all other phases of 4D-CT except the end-inspiration (EI) phase. These parameters were employed to predict the vertices locations of a testing data set, which was the EI phase of 4D-CT. Results: For ten lung cancer patients, the deformation vector field of each vertex of lung surface mesh was estimated from the external motion at selected positions on the chest wall surface plus spirometry measurements. The average estimation of 98th percentile of error was less than 1 mm (AP= 0.85, RL= 0.61, and SI= 0.82). Conclusion: The developed predictive model provides a non-invasive approach to derive lung boundary condition. Together with personalized biomechanical respiration modelling, the proposed model can be used to derive the lung tumor motion during radiation therapy accurately from non-invasive measurements.

  20. Arm Orthosis/Prosthesis Movement Control Based on Surface EMG Signal Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suberbiola, Aaron; Zulueta, Ekaitz; Lopez-Guede, Jose Manuel; Etxeberria-Agiriano, Ismael; Graña, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    This paper shows experimental results on electromyography (EMG)-based system control applied to motorized orthoses. Biceps and triceps EMG signals are captured through two biometrical sensors, which are then filtered and processed by an acquisition system. Finally an output/control signal is produced and sent to the actuators, which will then perform the actual movement, using algorithms based on autoregressive (AR) models and neural networks, among others. The research goal is to predict the desired movement of the lower arm through the analysis of EMG signals, so that the movement can be reproduced by an arm orthosis, powered by two linear actuators. In this experiment, best accuracy has achieved values up to 91%, using a fourth-order AR-model and 100ms block length.

  1. NIR spectroscopic properties of aqueous acids solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; Atan, Hanafi; Matjafri, Mohd Zubir

    2012-06-15

    Acid content is one of the important quality attributes in determining the maturity index of agricultural product, particularly fruits. Despite the fact that much research on the measurement of acidity in fruits through non-destructive spectroscopy analysis at NIR wavelengths between 700 to 1,000 nm has been conducted, the same response towards individual acids is not well known. This paper presents NIR spectroscopy analysis on aqueous citric, tartaric, malic and oxalic solutions through quantitative analysis by selecting a set of wavelengths that can best be used to measure the pH of the solutions. The aquaphotomics study of the acid solutions has generated R² above 0.9 for the measurement of all acids. The most important wavelengths for pH are located at 918-925 nm and 990-996 nm, while at 975 nm for water.

  2. Design and construction of a NIR spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Barcala-Riveira, J M; Fernandez-Marron, J L; Molero-Menendez, F; Navarrete-Marin, J J; Oller-Gonzalez, J C

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the design and construction of a NIR spectrometer based on an acoustic-optic tunable filter. The spectrometer will be used for automatic identification of plastics in domestic waste. The system works between 1200 and 1800 nm. Instrument is controlled by a personal computer. Computer receives and analyses data. A software package has been developed to do these tasks. (Author) 27 refs.

  3. Design and construction of a NIR spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcala Riveira, J. M.; Fernandez Marron, J. L.; Alberdi Primicia, J.; Molero Menendez, F.; Navarrete Marin, J. J.; Oller Gonzalez, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the design and construction of a NIR spectrometer based on an acoustic-optic tunable filter. The spectrometer will be used for automatic identification of plastics in domestic waste. The system works between 1200 and 1800 nm. Instrument is controlled by a personal computer. Computer receives and analyses data. A software package has been developed to do these tasks. (Author) 27 refs

  4. Construction of Hierarchical Polymer Brushes on Upconversion Nanoparticles via NIR-Light-Initiated RAFT Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongxi; Deng, Xiaoran; Liu, Bei; Huang, Shanshan; Ma, Pingan; Hou, Zhiyao; Cheng, Ziyong; Lin, Jun; Luan, Shifang

    2017-09-13

    Photoinduced reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization generally adopts high-energy ultraviolet (UV) or blue light. In combination with photoredox catalyst, the excitation light wavelength was extended to the visible and even near-infrared (NIR) region for photoinduced electron transfer RAFT polymerization. In this report, we introduce for the first time a surface NIR-light-initiated RAFT polymerization on upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) without adding any photocatalyst and construct a functional inorganic core/polymer shell nanohybrid for application in cancer theranostics. The multilayer core-shell UCNPs (NaYF 4 :Yb/Tm@NaYbF 4 :Gd@NaNdF 4 :Yb@NaYF 4 ), with surface anchorings of chain transfer agents, can serve as efficient NIR-to-UV light transducers for initiating the RAFT polymerization. A hierarchical double block copolymer brush, consisting of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(oligo(ethylene oxide)methacrylate-co-2-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)ethyl methacrylate) (PEG for short), was grafted from the surface in sequence. The targeting arginine-glycine-aspartic (RGD) peptide was modified at the end of the copolymer through the trithiolcarbonate end group. After loading of doxorubicin, the UCNPs@PAA-b-PEG-RGD exhibited an enhanced U87MG cancer cell uptake efficiency and cytotoxicity. Besides, the unique upconversion luminescence of the nanohybrids was used for the autofluoresence-free cell imaging and labeling. Therefore, our strategy verified that UCNPs could efficiently activate RAFT polymerization by NIR photoirradiation and construct the complex nanohybrids, exhibiting prospective biomedical applications due to the low phototoxicity and deep penetration of NIR light.

  5. Single-trial lie detection using a combined fNIRS-polygraph system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Raheel eBhutta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deception is a human behavior that many people experience in daily life. It involves complex neuronal activities in addition to several physiological changes in the body. A polygraph, which can measure some of the physiological responses from the body, has been widely employed in lie-detection. Many researchers, however, believe that lie detection can become more precise if the neuronal changes that occur in the process of deception can be isolated and measured. In this study, we combine both measures (i.e., physiological and neuronal changes for enhanced lie-detection. Specifically, to investigate the deception-related hemodynamic response, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS is applied at the prefrontal cortex besides a commercially available polygraph system. A mock crime scenario with a single-trial stimulus is set up as a deception protocol. The acquired data are classified into true and lie classes based on the fNIRS-based hemoglobin-concentration changes and polygraph-based physiological signal changes. Linear discriminant analysis is utilized as a classifier. The results indicate that the combined fNIRS-polygraph system delivers much higher classification accuracy than that of a singular system. This study demonstrates a plausible solution toward single-trial lie-detection by combining fNIRS and the polygraph.

  6. Single-trial lie detection using a combined fNIRS-polygraph system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, M Raheel; Hong, Melissa J; Kim, Yun-Hee; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2015-01-01

    Deception is a human behavior that many people experience in daily life. It involves complex neuronal activities in addition to several physiological changes in the body. A polygraph, which can measure some of the physiological responses from the body, has been widely employed in lie-detection. Many researchers, however, believe that lie detection can become more precise if the neuronal changes that occur in the process of deception can be isolated and measured. In this study, we combine both measures (i.e., physiological and neuronal changes) for enhanced lie-detection. Specifically, to investigate the deception-related hemodynamic response, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is applied at the prefrontal cortex besides a commercially available polygraph system. A mock crime scenario with a single-trial stimulus is set up as a deception protocol. The acquired data are classified into "true" and "lie" classes based on the fNIRS-based hemoglobin-concentration changes and polygraph-based physiological signal changes. Linear discriminant analysis is utilized as a classifier. The results indicate that the combined fNIRS-polygraph system delivers much higher classification accuracy than that of a singular system. This study demonstrates a plausible solution toward single-trial lie-detection by combining fNIRS and the polygraph.

  7. Multiscale feature based analysis of surface EMG signals under fatigue and non-fatigue conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneethakrishna, M; Ramakrishnan, S

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an attempt has been made to differentiate sEMG signals under muscle fatigue and non-fatigue conditions using multiscale features. Signals are recorded from biceps brachii muscle of 50 normal adults during repetitive dynamic contractions. After prescribed preprocessing, each signal is divided into six segments out of which first and last segments are considered in this analysis. Multiscale RMS (MSRMS) and Multiscale Permutation Entropy (MSPE) are computed for each subject in the time scales ranging from 1 to 50. The median values of the MSRMS and MSPE are calculated for further analysis. The results show an increase in amplitude for sEMG signals under fatigue condition. MSRMS values are found to be significantly higher in fatigue. An approximately constant difference in MSRMS value between fatigue and non-fatigue condition is observed over the entire time scale with a negative slope. Further, the median of MSRMS values for each subject is able to distinguish fatigue and non-fatigue conditions. Similar analysis on MSPE showed significant difference between fatigue and non-fatigue cases and lower values of MSPE is observed in fatigue. It is also observed that the median value of MSRMS and MSPE are able to distinguish these conditions. t-test for MSRMS, MSPE and their median value show high statistical significance. It appears that this method of analysis can be used for clinical evaluation of muscles.

  8. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Controls NMDA Receptor Surface Diffusion through Integrin beta 1 Signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michaluk, Piotr; Mikasova, Lenka; Groc, Laurent; Frischknecht, Renato; Choquet, Daniel; Kaczmarek, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) has emerged as a physiological regulator of NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic plasticity and memory. The pathways by which MMP-9 affects NMDAR signaling remain, however, elusive. Using single quantum dot tracking, we demonstrate that MMP-9 enzymatic activity

  9. Ice surface roughness modeling for effect on radio signals from UHE particle showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockham, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    For radio antenna detectors located in or above the Antarctic ice sheet, the reconstruction of both ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrino and cosmic ray air shower events requires understanding the transmission and reflection properties of the air-ice interface. To this end, surface and volume scattering from granular materials in the microwave frequency range are measured and stereoscopic images of the ice surface, obtained by the Antarctric Geophysics Along the Vostok Expedition (AGAVE), are used to determine the 3D surface structure. This data is implemented to determine an appropriate model for use in simulation and data analysis of the shower events. ANtarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna.

  10. Microwave assisted in situ synthesis of Ag–NaCMC films and their reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Tao; Li, Junpeng; Zhang, Li; Wang, Binbing; Zhou, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Two kinds of Ag–NaCMC films for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) were prepared by conventional heating and microwave assisted in situ reduction methods without any additional capping or reducing agents. A relatively narrow and symmetric surface plasmon resonance band was observed in the absorption spectra of the films fabricated by the microwave assisted in situ reduction method. More uniform silver nanoparticles (NPs) implied by the symmetric absorption spectrum were further confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy images. After the simulation of the E-field intensity distribution around the silver NPs in NaCMC film, the Raman scattering enhancement factors (EFs) of these films were then investigated with 4-mercaptobenzoic acid molecule as a SERS reporter. Improved reproducibility of SERS signal was obtained in the microwave assisted synthesized Ag–NaCMC film, although it maintained an EF as only 1.11 × 10 8 . The reproducible SERS signal of the Ag–NaCMC film is particularly attractive and this microwave assisted in situ reduction method is suitable for the production of excellent substrate for biosensor application. - Highlights: • The synthesis of Ag–NaCMC films was successfully fulfilled by a low-cost microwave method. • More uniform silver nanoparticles were observed in Ag–NaCMC film synthesized by microwave. • Improved reproducibility of SERS signal was obtained in microwave synthesized Ag–NaCMC film. - Abstract: Two kinds of Ag–NaCMC films for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) were prepared by conventional heating and microwave assisted in situ reduction methods without any additional capping or reducing agents. A relatively narrow and symmetric surface plasmon resonance band was observed in the absorption spectra of the films fabricated by the microwave assisted in situ reduction method. More uniform silver nanoparticles (NPs) implied by the symmetric absorption spectrum were further confirmed by

  11. Classification of reflected signals from cavitated tooth surfaces using an artificial intelligence technique incorporating a fiber optic displacement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Husna Abdul; Harun, Sulaiman Wadi; Arof, Hamzah; Irawati, Ninik; Musirin, Ismail; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Ahmad, Harith

    2014-05-01

    An enhanced dental cavity diameter measurement mechanism using an intensity-modulated fiber optic displacement sensor (FODS) scanning and imaging system, fuzzy logic as well as a single-layer perceptron (SLP) neural network, is presented. The SLP network was employed for the classification of the reflected signals, which were obtained from the surfaces of teeth samples and captured using FODS. Two features were used for the classification of the reflected signals with one of them being the output of a fuzzy logic. The test results showed that the combined fuzzy logic and SLP network methodology contributed to a 100% classification accuracy of the network. The high-classification accuracy significantly demonstrates the suitability of the proposed features and classification using SLP networks for classifying the reflected signals from teeth surfaces, enabling the sensor to accurately measure small diameters of tooth cavity of up to 0.6 mm. The method remains simple enough to allow its easy integration in existing dental restoration support systems.

  12. Characterizing the magnetic memory signals on the surface of plasma transferred arc cladding coating under fatigue loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haihong; Han, Gang; Qian, Zhengchun; Liu, Zhifeng

    2017-12-01

    The metal magnetic memory signals were measured during dynamic tension tests on the surfaces of the cladding coatings by plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding and the 0.45% C steel. Results showed that the slope of the normal component Hp(y) of magnetic signal and the average value of the tangential component Hp(x) reflect the magnetization of the specimens. The signals increased sharply in the few initial cycles; and then fluctuated around a constant value during fatigue process until fracture. For the PTA cladding coating, the slope of Hp(y) was steeper and the average of Hp(x) was smaller, compared with the 0.45% C steel. The hysteresis curves of cladding layer, bonding layer and substrate were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer testing, and then saturation magnetization, initial susceptibility and coercivity were further calculated. The stress-magnetization curves were also plotted based on the J-A model, which showed that the PTA cladding coating has smaller remanence and coercivity compared with the 0.45% C steel. The microstructures of cladding coating confirmed that the dendritic structure and second-phase of alloy hinder the magnetic domain motion, which was the main factor influencing the variation of magnetic signal during the fatigue tests.

  13. Surface topography regulates wnt signaling through control of primary cilia structure in mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, R. J.; Wann, A. K. T.; Thompson, C. L.; Connelly, J. T.; Knight, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    The primary cilium regulates cellular signalling including influencing wnt sensitivity by sequestering β-catenin within the ciliary compartment. Topographic regulation of intracellular actin-myosin tension can control stem cell fate of which wnt is an important mediator. We hypothesized that topography influences mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) wnt signaling through the regulation of primary cilia structure and function. MSCs cultured on grooves expressed elongated primary cilia, through reduced actin organization. siRNA inhibition of anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT88) reduced cilia length and increased active nuclear β-catenin. Conversely, increased primary cilia assembly in MSCs cultured on the grooves was associated with decreased levels of nuclear active β-catenin, axin-2 induction and proliferation, in response to wnt3a. This negative regulation, on grooved topography, was reversed by siRNA to IFT88. This indicates that subtle regulation of IFT and associated cilia structure, tunes the wnt response controlling stem cell differentiation. PMID:24346024

  14. Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation Controlled by Surface Electromyographic Signals Produced by Volitional Activation of the Same Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Søren; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Andersen, Ole Trier

    1997-01-01

    In order to use the volitional electromyography (EMG) as a control signal for the stimulation of the same muscle, it is necessary to eliminate the stimulation artifacts and the muscle responses caused by the stimulation. The stimulation artifacts, caused by the electric field in skin and tissue....... For variations in shape of the muscle responses and for real data, an increased filter performance can be achieved by increasing the filter length. Using a filter length of up to seven stimulation periods, it is possible to reduce real muscle responses to a level comparable with the background noise. Using...... the shut-down circuit and the adaptive filter both the stimulation artifacts and the muscle responses can be effectively eliminated from the EMG signal from a stimulated muscle. It is therefore possible to extract the volitional EMG from a partly paralyzed muscle and use it for controlling the stimulation...

  15. Effects of sampling rate on automated fatigue recognition in surface EMG signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahl Lorenz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects different sampling rates may produce on the quality of muscle fatigue detection algorithms. sEMG signals were obtained from isometric contractions of the arm. Subsampled signals resulting in technically relevant sampling rates were computationally deduced from the original recordings. The spectral based fatigue recognition methods mean and median frequency as well as spectral moment ratio were included in this investigation, as well as the sample and the fuzzy approximate entropy. The resulting fatigue indices were evaluated with respect to noise and separability of different load levels. We concluded that the spectral moment ratio provides the best results in fatigue detection over a wide range of sampling rates.

  16. Low proliferation and high apoptosis of osteoblastic cells on hydrophobic surface are associated with defective Ras signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Hong-Hee; Huh, Jung-Eun; Kim, In-Ae; Seung Ko, Jea; Chung, Chong-Pyoung; Kim, Hyun-Man

    2005-01-01

    The hydrophobic (HPB) nature of most polymeric biomaterials has been a major obstacle in using those materials in vivo due to low compatibility with cells. However, there is little knowledge of the molecular detail to explain how surface hydrophobicity affects cell responses. In this study, we compared the proliferation and apoptosis of human osteoblastic MG63 cells adhered to hydrophilic (HPL) and hydrophobic surfaces. On the hydrophobic surface, less formation of focal contacts and actin stress fibers, a delay in cell cycle progression, and an increase in apoptosis were observed. By using fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) as a model growth factor, we also investigated intracellular signaling pathways on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. The activation of Ras, Akt, and ERK by FGF1 was impaired in MG63 cells on the hydrophobic surface. The overexpression of constitutively active form of Ras and Akt rescued those cells from apoptosis and recovered cell cycle progression. Furthermore, their overexpression also restored the actin cytoskeletal organization on the hydrophobic surface. Finally, the proliferative, antiapoptotic, and cytoskeletal effects of constitutively active Ras in MG63 cells on the hydrophobic surface were blocked by wortmannin and PD98059 that inhibit Akt and ERK activation, respectively. Therefore, our results suggest that the activation of Ras and its downstream molecules Akt and ERK to an appropriate level is one of crucial elements in the determination of osteoblast cell responses. The Ras pathway may represent a cell biological target that should be considered for successful surface modification of biomaterials to induce adequate cell responses in the bone tissue

  17. Signal acquisition module design for multi-channel surface magnetic resonance sounding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; Chen, Wuqiang; Du, Wenyuan; Zhao, Jing

    2015-11-01

    To obtain a precise 2D/3D image of fissure or karst water, multi-channel magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) systems using edge-to-edge or overlapping receiving coils are needed. Thus, acquiring a nano-volt signal for a small amount of the aquifer and suppressing the mutual coupling between adjacent coils are two important issues for the design of the signal acquisition module in the system. In the present study, we propose to use a passive low pass filter, consisted of a resistance (R) and capacitance (C), to inhibit the mutual coupling effects of the coils. Four low-noise operational amplifiers LT1028, OPA124, AD745, and OP27 were compared with respect to achieving the lowest system noise. As a result, 3 pieces of LT1028 were chosen and connected in parallel to serve as preamplifier, with a sensitivity of 1.4 nV/√Hz at 2 kHz. Experimental results are presented for 2D MRS groundwater investigations conducted in the suburb of Changchun, China. The inversion result is consistent with the result of drilling log, suggesting that the signal acquisition module is well developed.

  18. Study on generation mechanisms of second-order nonlinear signals in surface acoustic wave devices and their suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Ryo; Kyoya, Haruki; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Kihara, Takashi; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we examine the generation mechanisms of the second-order nonlinear signals in surface acoustic wave resonators/duplexers fabricated on a 42°YX-LiTaO3 substrate. It is shown that the crystal asymmetry of the substrate can generate the second-order nonlinear signals. The following two mechanisms mainly contribute to their generation: (a) self-mixing of the electrostatic field and (b) mixing of the electrostatic field with the strain field associated with laterally propagating modes. Both of them occur at the gaps between the electrode tip and the dummy electrode. In addition, an interdigital transducer design that cancels this asymmetry is proposed. The design is applied to a one-port resonator and a duplexer, and the effectiveness of this technique is demonstrated.

  19. NIR-NIR fluorescence: A new genre of fingermark visualisation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Roberto S P; Hallett, Peter M; Foster, Doug

    2016-05-01

    A preliminary study reveals that finely divided cuprorivaite powder may be used to efficiently develop and subsequently image latent fingermarks across a range of highly patterned, coloured non-porous and semi-porous substrates using near infrared illumination and imaging. Problematic multi-coloured backgrounds provide very little interference under the illumination conditions used, and invoked fluorescence observed, when using this material. This is the first reported example of a NIR-NIR fluorophore for use within latent fingermark visualisation and offers the potential for application at the scene and in the laboratory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface Temperature and Precipitation Affecting GPS Signals Before the 2009 L'Aquila Earthquake (Central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, L.; Amoruso, A.; Chiaraluce, L.

    2017-12-01

    This work focuses on GPS time series recorded before the Mw 6.1 earthquake which struck Central Italy in April 2009. It shows how environmental noise effects may be subtle and relevant when investigating relatively small strain signals and how the availability of data from weather stations and water level sensors co-located with GPS stations may provide critical information which must be taken into consideration while dealing with deformation signals.The preparatory phase of a large earthquake may include both seismic (foreshocks) and aseismic (slow slip event, SSE) deforming episodes but, unlike afterslip, no slow event has yet been recorded before moderate earthquakes, even when they occurred close to high-sensitivity strain meters. An exception to this seems to be represented by the 2009 earthquake. The main shock was preceded by a foreshock sequence lasting 6 months; it has been claimed that an analysis of continuous GPS data shows that during the foreshock sequence a 5.9 Mw SSE occurred along a decollement located beneath the reactivated normal fault system. This hypothesized SSE, that started in the middle of February 2009 and lasted for almost two weeks, would have eventually loaded the largest foreshock and the main shock.We show that the strain signal that the SSE would have generated at two laser strainmeters operating at about 20 km NE from the SSE source was essentially undetected. On the contrary, a transient signal is present in temperature and precipitation time series recorded close to the GPS station, MTTO, that has largest signal referred to the SSE, implying that these contaminated the GPS record. This interpretation is corroborated by the strong similarity, during the coldest winter months, between the displacement data of MTTO and a linear combination of filtered temperature and precipitation data, mimicking simple heat conduction and snow accumulation/removal processes. Such a correlation between displacement and environmental data is missing

  1. Nanoparticle core stability and surface functionalization drive the mTOR signaling pathway in hepatocellular cell lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunova, Mariia; Prokhorov, Andriy; Jirsa, M.; Hof, Martin; Olžyńska, Agnieszka; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Kubinová, Šárka; Lunov, Oleg; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, Nov (2017), s. 1-16, č. článku 16049. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk LM2015088 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : nanoparticle core stability * surface functionalization drive * mTOR signaling pathway * hepatocellular cell lines Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) OBOR OECD: Biophysics; Physical chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  2. RANKL downregulates cell surface CXCR6 expression through JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway during osteoclastogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Changhong; Zhao, Jinxia; Sun, Lin; Yao, Zhongqiang; Liu, Rui [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China); Huang, Jiansheng [Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Liu, Xiangyuan, E-mail: liu-xiangyuan@263.net [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2012-12-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCR6 is down-regulated during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCR6 reduction was nearly reversed by inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL16 alone does not positively regulate osteoclastogenesis. -- Abstract: The receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL), as a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, plays an essential role in osteoclast differentiation and function. Chemokines and their receptors have recently been shown to play critical roles in osteoclastogenesis, however, whether CXCL16-CXCR6 plays role in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis is unknown. In this study, we first reported that RANKL decreased CXCR6 in a dose-dependent manner, which may be through deactivation of Akt and STAT3 signaling induced by CXCL16. Interestingly, RANKL-mediated CXCR6 reduction may be associated to the activation of STAT3 by phosphorylation. When STAT3 activation was blocked by JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor AG490, RANKL failed to shut down CXCR6 expression during osteoclastogenesis. However, CXCL16 alone did not augment RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and did not alter RANKL-receptor RANK mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that reduction of CXCL16-CXCR6 is critical in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis, which is mainly through the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling. CXCL16-CXCR6 axis may become a novel target for the therapeutic intervention of bone resorbing diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis.

  3. Effect of spatial inhomogeneities on the membrane surface on receptor dimerization and signal initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romica Kerketta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Important signal transduction pathways originate on the plasma membrane, where microdomains may transiently entrap diffusing receptors. This results in a non-random distribution of receptors even in the resting state, which can be visualized as clusters by high resolution imaging methods. Here, we explore how spatial in-homogeneities in the plasma membrane might influence the dimerization and phosphorylation status of ErbB2 and ErbB3, two receptor tyrosine kinases that preferentially heterodimerize and are often co-expressed in cancer. This theoretical study is based upon spatial stochastic simulations of the two-dimensional membrane landscape, where variables include differential distributions and overlap of transient confinement zones (domains for the two receptor species. The in silico model is parameterized and validated using data from single particle tracking experiments. We report key differences in signaling output based on the degree of overlap between domains and the relative retention of receptors in such domains, expressed as escape probability. Results predict that a high overlap of domains, which favors transient co-confinement of both receptor species, will enhance the rate of hetero-interactions. Where domains do not overlap, simulations confirm expectations that homo-interactions are favored. Since ErbB3 is uniquely dependent on ErbB2 interactions for activation of its catalytic activity, variations in domain overlap or escape probability markedly alter the predicted patterns and time course of ErbB3 and ErbB2 phosphorylation. Taken together, these results implicate membrane domain organization as an important modulator of signal initiation, motivating the design of novel experimental approaches to measure these important parameters across a wider range of receptor systems.

  4. Discrimination of Finger Area of Somatosensory Cortex by NIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingdi; Hayami, Takehito; Iramina, Keiji

    We carried out a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) study to observe the hemodynamic responses associated with cortical activation in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) by finger electrical stimulation. We examined whether NIRS can assist in investigating the somatotopic arrangement of fingers on the SI hand area. We found that although relatively low in spatial resolution, NIRS can to some extent help to discriminate the representations of thumb and ring finger on the SI hand area.

  5. Automatic schizophrenic discrimination on fNIRS by using complex brain network analysis and SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hong; Chen, Lei; Gao, RuiQi; Bogdan, Iordachescu Ilie Mihaita; Yang, Jian; Wang, Shuliang; Dong, Wentian; Quan, Wenxiang; Dang, Weimin; Yu, Xin

    2017-12-20

    Schizophrenia is a kind of serious mental illness. Due to the lack of an objective physiological data supporting and a unified data analysis method, doctors can only rely on the subjective experience of the data to distinguish normal people and patients, which easily lead to misdiagnosis. In recent years, functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) has been widely used in clinical diagnosis, it can get the hemoglobin concentration through the variation of optical intensity. Firstly, the prefrontal brain networks were constructed based on oxy-Hb signals from 52-channel fNIRS data of schizophrenia and healthy controls. Then, Complex Brain Network Analysis (CBNA) was used to extract features from the prefrontal brain networks. Finally, a classier based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) is designed and trained to discriminate schizophrenia from healthy controls. We recruited a sample which contains 34 healthy controls and 42 schizophrenia patients to do the one-back memory task. The hemoglobin response was measured in the prefrontal cortex during the task using a 52-channel fNIRS system. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method can achieve a satisfactory classification with the accuracy of 85.5%, 92.8% for schizophrenia samples and 76.5% for healthy controls. Also, our results suggested that fNIRS has the potential capacity to be an effective objective biomarker for the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Our results suggested that, using the appropriate classification method, fNIRS has the potential capacity to be an effective objective biomarker for the diagnosis of schizophrenia.

  6. Mathematical model for biomolecular quantification using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based signal intensity distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palla, Mirko; Bosco, Filippo Giacomo; Yang, Jaeyoung

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a novel statistical method for quantifying trace amounts of biomolecules by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using a rigorous, single molecule (SM) theory based mathematical derivation. Our quantification framework could be generalized for planar...

  7. On measuring surface wave phase velocity from station–station cross-correlation of ambient signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boschi, Lapo; Weemstra, Cornelis; Verbeke, Julie

    2012-01-01

    We apply two different algorithms to measure surface wave phase velocity, as a function of frequency, from seismic ambient noise recorded at pairs of stations from a large European network. The two methods are based on consistent theoretical formulations, but differ in the implementation: one met...

  8. Detection of Surface Defects and Servo Signal Restoration for a Compact Disc Player

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    Compact disc (CD) players have been on the market for more than two decades, and the involved technologies, including control are very mature. Some problems, however, still remain with respect to playing CDs having to surface defects like scratches and fingerprints. Two servo control loops are used...... of a scratch. The results of this experimental work show the potential of the method....

  9. Evaluation of Early Therapeutic Effects after Near-Infrared Photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) Using Luciferase-Luciferin Photon-Counting and Fluorescence Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruoka, Yasuhiro; Nagaya, Tadanobu; Nakamura, Yuko; Sato, Kazuhide; Ogata, Fusa; Okuyama, Shuhei; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2017-12-04

    Near-infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a newly developed cancer treatment that induces highly selective immunogenic cell death. It is based on an antibody-photoabsorber conjugate (APC) that is activated by NIR light. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of NIR-PIT as measured by luciferase-luciferin photon-counting and fluorescence imaging. Six days after subcutaneous injection of A431-luc-GFP cells tumors formed in a xenograft mouse model. The EGFR-targeting antibody, panitumumab, was conjugated to the photoabsorber, IRDye-700DX (pan-IR700), and was intravenously administered to tumor-bearing mice. Serial luciferase-luciferin photon-counting images and both green fluorescent protein (GFP) and IR700 fluorescence images were obtained from the same mice before and after NIR-PIT treatment (0, 10, 20, 30 min (early phase), and 24, 48 h (late phase) after NIR light exposure). Optical signal intensities were compared for each modality. IR700 fluorescence and luciferase-luciferin photon-counting images showed decreased intensities in both the early and late phases after NIR-PIT (p NIR-PIT effects, while both luciferase-luciferin photon-counting and GFP reflected later phase effects.

  10. The histone acetyltransferase inhibitor Nir regulates epidermis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duteil, Delphine; Tourrette, Yves; Eberlin, Adrien; Willmann, Dominica; Patel, Dharmeshkumar; Friedrichs, Nicolaus; Müller, Judith M; Schüle, Roland

    2018-03-21

    In addition to its function as an inhibitor of histone acetyltransferases, Nir (Noc2l) binds to p53 and TAp63 to regulate their activity. Here, we show that epidermis-specific ablation of Nir impairs epidermal stratification and barrier function, resulting in perinatal lethality. Nir-deficient epidermis lacks appendages and remains single layered during embryogenesis. Cell proliferation is inhibited, whereas apoptosis and p53 acetylation are increased, indicating that Nir is controlling cell proliferation by limiting p53 acetylation. Transcriptome analysis revealed that Nir regulates the expression of essential factors in epidermis development, such as keratins, integrins and laminins. Furthermore, Nir binds to and controls the expression of p63 and limits H3K18ac at the p63 promoter. Corroborating the stratification defects, asymmetric cell divisions were virtually absent in Nir-deficient mice, suggesting that Nir is required for correct mitotic spindle orientation. In summary, our data define Nir as a key regulator of skin development. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. A semi-learning algorithm for noise rejection: an fNIRS study on ADHD children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutoko, Stephanie; Funane, Tsukasa; Katura, Takusige; Sato, Hiroki; Kiguchi, Masashi; Maki, Atsushi; Monden, Yukifumi; Nagashima, Masako; Yamagata, Takanori; Dan, Ippeita

    2017-02-01

    In pediatrics studies, the quality of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals is often reduced by motion artifacts. These artifacts likely mislead brain functionality analysis, causing false discoveries. While noise correction methods and their performance have been investigated, these methods require several parameter assumptions that apparently result in noise overfitting. In contrast, the rejection of noisy signals serves as a preferable method because it maintains the originality of the signal waveform. Here, we describe a semi-learning algorithm to detect and eliminate noisy signals. The algorithm dynamically adjusts noise detection according to the predetermined noise criteria, which are spikes, unusual activation values (averaged amplitude signals within the brain activation period), and high activation variances (among trials). Criteria were sequentially organized in the algorithm and orderly assessed signals based on each criterion. By initially setting an acceptable rejection rate, particular criteria causing excessive data rejections are neglected, whereas others with tolerable rejections practically eliminate noises. fNIRS data measured during the attention response paradigm (oddball task) in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were utilized to evaluate and optimize the algorithm's performance. This algorithm successfully substituted the visual noise identification done in the previous studies and consistently found significantly lower activation of the right prefrontal and parietal cortices in ADHD patients than in typical developing children. Thus, we conclude that the semi-learning algorithm confers more objective and standardized judgment for noise rejection and presents a promising alternative to visual noise rejection

  12. Food quality assessment by NIR hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Martin B.; Millar, Samuel J.; Chau, Astor

    2010-04-01

    Near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy is well established in the food industry for rapid compositional analysis of bulk samples. NIR hyperspectral imaging provides new opportunities to measure the spatial distribution of components such as moisture and fat, and to identify and measure specific regions of composite samples. An NIR hyperspectral imaging system has been constructed for food research applications, incorporating a SWIR camera with a cooled 14 bit HgCdTe detector and N25E spectrograph (Specim Ltd, Finland). Samples are scanned in a pushbroom mode using a motorised stage. The system has a spectral resolution of 256 pixels covering a range of 970-2500 nm and a spatial resolution of 320 pixels covering a swathe adjustable from 8 to 300 mm. Images are acquired at a rate of up to 100 lines s-1, enabling samples to be scanned within a few seconds. Data are captured using SpectralCube software (Specim) and analysed using ENVI and IDL (ITT Visual Information Solutions). Several food applications are presented. The strength of individual absorbance bands enables the distribution of particular components to be assessed. Examples are shown for detection of added gluten in wheat flour and to study the effect of processing conditions on fat distribution in chips/French fries. More detailed quantitative calibrations have been developed to study evolution of the moisture distribution in baguettes during storage at different humidities, to assess freshness of fish using measurements of whole cod and fillets, and for prediction of beef quality by identification and separate measurement of lean and fat regions.

  13. Azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of the surface detector signals of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Blažek, Jiří; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 7 (2016), 1-16, č. článku 072006. ISSN 2470-0010 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * cosmic rays * surface detector Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.568, year: 2016

  14. Multichannel time domain fNIRS mapping of cortical activation and superficial systemic responses during neuromuscular electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, R.; Muthalib, M.; Zucchelli, L.; Perrey, S.; Contini, D.; Caffini, M.; Spinelli, L.; Kerr, G.; Torricelli, A.

    2013-06-01

    We recorded maps of cortical and systemic hemodynamic responses (oxy-hemoglobin, O2Hb and deoxy-hemoglobin, HHb) during incremental neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of the right forearm in nine subjects by a 32- channel time domain fNIRS (TD-fNIRS) instrument. Statistical parametric maps (SPM) relative to the different current stimulations (under and over the maximal tolerated intensity-MTI) versus the 10%MTI were generated. Exploiting the temporal information contained in the TD-fNIRS signal it was possible to create different maps referring to the deeper (cortical activations) and the more superficial (systemic changes) head layers. The increasing of the stimulation current on the right forearm muscle produced a significantly larger bilateral sensorimotor and prefrontal cortical activations (i.e. increase in the O2Hb and decrease in HHb) than the systemic changes. Physiological parameters (heart rate, breathing rate and skin conductance) were also monitored.

  15. Simultaneous NIRS and kinematics study of planning and execution of motor skill task: towards cerebral palsy rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ujwal; Thompson, Bryant; Gonzalez, Jean; Jung, Young-Jin; Davis, Jennifer; Gonzalez, Patricia; Rice, Kyle; Bloyer, Martha; Elbaum, Leonard; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2013-03-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a term that describes a group of motor impairment syndromes secondary to genetic and/or acquired disorders of the developing brain. In the current study, NIRS and motion capture were used simultaneously to correlate the brain's planning and execution activity during and with arm movement in healthy individual. The prefrontal region of the brain is non-invasively imaged using a custom built continuous-wave based near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system. The kinematics of the arm movement during the studies is recorded using an infrared based motion capture system, Qualisys. During the study, the subjects (over 18 years) performed 30 sec of arm movement followed by 30 sec rest for 5 times, both with their dominant and non-dominant arm. The optical signal acquired from NIRS system was processed to elucidate the activation and lateralization in the prefrontal region of participants. The preliminary results show difference, in terms of change in optical response, between task and rest in healthy adults. Currently simultaneous NIRS imaging and kinematics data are acquired in healthy individual and individual with CP in order to correlate brain activity to arm movement in real-time. The study has significant implication in elucidating the evolution in the functional activity of the brain as the physical movement of the arm evolves using NIRS. Hence the study has potential in augmenting the designing of training and hence rehabilitation regime for individuals with CP via kinematic monitoring and imaging brain activity.

  16. Measurement of quadriceps endurance by fNIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Devrim; Şayli, Ömer; Karahan, Mustafa; Akin, A.

    2006-02-01

    In this paper, the changes in muscle deoxygenation trends during a sustained isometric quadriceps (chair squat/half squat) endurance exercise were evaluated among twelve male subjects and the relationship between muscle oxygenation and endurance times was investigated by means of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Neuromuscular activation and predictions of muscle performance decrements during extended fatiguing task was investigated by means of surface electromyography (sEMG). The results of the study showed that in the subjects who maintained exercise longer than five minutes (group 1), mean Hb recovery time (33 [sec.]) was 37.4% less than the others (group 2, 52.7 [sec.]). Also mean HbO II decline amplitude (2.53 [a.u.] in group 1 and 2.07 [a.u.] in group 2) and oxy decline amplitude (8.4 [a.u.] in group 1 and 3.04 [a.u.] in group 2) in the beginning of squat exercise are found to be 22.6% and 176.9% bigger in these group. For the EMG parameters, mean slope of MNF and MDF decline are found to be 57.5% and 42.2% bigger in magnitude in group 2 which indicates higher degree of decrement in mean and median frequencies although their mean squat duration time is less. This indicates higher index of fatigue for this group. It is concluded that training leads to altered oxygenation and oxygen extraction capability in the exercising muscle and investigated fNIRS parameters could be used for endurance evaluation.

  17. In-vivo NIR autofluorescence of rat mammary tumors discriminates pathological malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Laure S.; Lucidi, Vincenzo; Rosenau, Werner; Demos, Stavros G.; Brasch, Robert C.

    2003-10-01

    Benign and malignant mammary tumors were induced in rats using a potent carcinogen, N-ethyl-N-nitrosurea (ENU). Induced tumors were examined under near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging (excitation wavelength 670 to 730 nm, detection wavelength 750 and 800 nm) to search for a difference in the photophysical properties of the tumors reflecting their pathologic status. Three benign and eight malignant tumors were examined optically and pathologically. The non-enhanced optical images showed a significantly lower (P<0.05) spontaneous fluorescent signal in the benign tumors than in their malignant counterparts. The precise chemical origin for the observed differences in tumor autofluorescence remains undetermined. It can be hypothesized that the reported high concentration of porphyrins, NIR-fluorescing compounds, in the malignant lesions, could account for the observed increased autofluorescence.

  18. Near-infrared (NIR) emitting conjugated polymers for biomedical applications (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repenko, Tatjana; Kuehne, Alexander J. C.

    2015-10-01

    Fluorescent biomedical markers of today such as dye-infiltrated colloids, microgels and quantum dots suffer from fast bleaching, lack surface functionality (for targets or pharmaceutical agents) and potentially leach heavy metals in case of quantum dots (e.g. Cd). By contrast, conjugated polymer particles are non-cytotoxic, exhibit reduced bleaching, as the entire particle consists of fluorophore, they are hydrophobic and show high quantum yields. Consequently, conjugated polymer particles represent ideal materials for biological applications and imaging. However currently, conjugated polymer particles for biomedical imaging usually lack near-infrared (NIR) emission and are polydisperse. Fluorescent agents with emission in the NIR spectrum are interesting for biomedical applications due to their low photo-damage towards biological species and the ability of NIR radiation to penetrate deep into biological tissue.. I will present the development and synthesis of new conjugated polymers particles with fluorescence in the NIR spectral region for bio-imaging and clinical diagnosis. The particle synthesis proceeds in a one-step Pd or Ni-catalyzed dispersion polymerization of functional NIR emitters. The resulting monodisperse conjugated polymer particles are obtained as a dispersion in a non-hazardous solvent. Different sizes in the sub-micrometer range with a narrow size distribution can be produced. Furthermore biological recognition motifs can be easily attached to the conjugated polymers via thiol-yne click-chemistry providing specific tumor targeting without quenching of the fluorescence. References [1] Kuehne AJC, Gather MC, Sprakel J., Nature Commun. 2012, 3, 1088. [2] Repenko T, Fokong S, De Laporte L, Go D, Kiessling F, Lammers T, Kuehne AJC.,Chem Commun 2015, accepted.

  19. Signals from fluorescent materials on the surface of silicon micro-strip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Sperlich, Dennis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    For the High-Luminosity Upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced with a new, all-silicon tracker. In order to minimise the amount of material in the detector, circuit boards with readout electronics will be glued on to the active area of the sensor. Several adhesives investigated to be used for the construction of detector modules were found to become fluorescent when exposed to UV light. These adhesives could become a light source in the high-radiation environment of the ATLAS detector. The effect of fluorescent material covering the sensor surface in a high- radiation environment has been studied for a silicon micro-strip sensor using a micro-focused X-ray beam. By pointing the beam both inside the sensor and parallel to the sensor surface, the sensor responses from direct hits and fluorescence can be compared with high precision. This contribution presents a setup to study the susceptibility of silicon strip sensors to light contamination from fluorescent mate...

  20. Signals from fluorescent materials on the surface of silicon micro-strip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Sperlich, Dennis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    For the High-Luminosity Upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced with a new, all-silicon tracker (ITk). In order to minimise the amount of material in the ITk, circuit boards with readout electronics will be glued onto the active area of the sensor. Several adhesives, investigated to be used for the construction of detector modules, were found to become fluorescent when exposed to UV light. These adhesives could become a light source in the high-radiation environment of the ATLAS detector. The effect of fluorescent material covering the sensor surface in a high-radiation environment has been studied for a silicon micro-strip sensor using a micro-focused X-ray beam. By positioning the beam parallel to the sensor surfave and pointing it both inside the sensor and above the sensor surface inside the deposited glue, the sensor responses from direct hits and fluorescence can be compared with high precision. This contribution presents a setup to study the susceptibilit...

  1. ENSO signals on sea-surface salinity in the eastern tropical pacific ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available SIGNAUX DE L’ENSO SUR LA SALINITE DE LA SURFACE DE LA MER DANS L’OCEAN PACIFIQUE TROPICAL ORIENTAL. Nous présentons les variations de la température et de la salinité de surface. Des navires de commerce ont été récemment équipés de thermosalinographes automatiques qui permettent d’échantillonner en continu et de localiser le front de salinité le long de la ligne Panama-Tahiti, séparant les masses d’eaux du golfe de Panama et celles du Pacifique central sud. La variation en latitude de la position du front halin suit la position de la zone de convergence intertropicale des vents du Pacifique. La salinité donne ainsi des informations supplémentaires sur le développement du phénomène El Niño dans le Pacifique tropical. La future transmission par satellite de la salinité de surface permettra de suivre en temps réel la distribution de la salinité de surface qui est étroitement liée aux échanges entre l’océan et l’atmosphère. SEÑALES DEL ENSO SOBRE LA SALINIDAD DE LA SUPERFICIE DEL OCÉANO PACÍFICO ORIENTAL. Presentamos las variaciones de la temperatura y de la salinidad de superficie. Barcos de comercio fueron recientemente equipados con termo-saliógrafos automáticos, los cuales permiten observar un muestreo continuo y ubicar el frente de salinidad en la recta Panamá-Tahiti, la cual separa las masas de agua del golfo de Panamá con las del Pacífico centro Sur. La variación en latitud de la ubicación del frente halino acompaña a la posición de la Zona de Convergencia Intertropical de los vientos del Pacífico. La salinidad proporciona también informaciones adicionales sobre el desarrollo del Fenómeno El Niño en el Pacífico tropical. La futura transmisión por satélite de la salinidad de superficie permitirá el monitoreo en tiempo real de la distribución en tiempo real de la salinidad de superficie, la cual está estrechamente vinculada con los intercambios entre el océano y la atmósfera. Various data

  2. Signaling at the cell surface in the circulatory and ventilatory systems

    CERN Document Server

    Thiriet, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The volumes in this authoritative series present a multidisciplinary approach to modeling and simulation of flows in the cardiovascular and ventilatory systems, especially multiscale modeling and coupled simulations. The cardiovascular and respiratory systems are tightly coupled, as their primary function is to supply oxygen to and remove carbon dioxide from the body's cells. Because physiological conduits have deformable and reactive walls, macroscopic flow behavior and prediction must be coupled to nano- and microscopic events in a corrector scheme of regulated mechanisms when the vessel lumen caliber varies markedly. Therefore, investigation of flows of blood and air in physiological conduits requires an understanding of the biology, chemistry, and physics of these systems together with the mathematical tools to describe their functioning. Volume 3 is devoted to the set of mediators of the cell surface, especially ion and molecular carriers and catalytic receptors that, once liganded and activated, initiat...

  3. Analyzing surface EMG signals to determine relationship between jaw imbalance and arm strength loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Quang Dang Khoa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the relationship between dental occlusion and arm strength; in particular, the imbalance in the jaw can cause loss in arm strength phenomenon. One of the goals of this study was to record the maximum forces that the subjects can resist against the pull-down force on their hands while biting a spacer of adjustable height on the right or left side of the jaw. Then EMG measurement was used to determine the EMG-Force relationship of the jaw, neck and arms muscles. This gave us useful insights on the arms strength loss due to the biomechanical effects of the imbalance in the jaw mechanism. Methods In this study to determine the effects of the imbalance in the jaw to the strength of the arms, we conducted experiments with a pool of 20 healthy subjects of both genders. The subjects were asked to resist a pull down force applied on the contralateral arm while biting on a firm spacer using one side of the jaw. Four different muscles – masseter muscles, deltoid muscles, bicep muscles and trapezoid muscles – were involved. Integrated EMG (iEMG and Higuchi fractal dimension (HFD were used to analyze the EMG signals. Results The results showed that (1 Imbalance in the jaw causes loss of arm strength contra-laterally; (2 The loss is approximately a linear function of the height of the spacers. Moreover, the iEMG showed the intensity of muscle activities decreased when the degrees of jaw imbalance increased (spacer thickness increased. In addition, the tendency of Higuchi fractal dimension decreased for all muscles. Conclusions This finding indicates that muscle fatigue and the decrease in muscle contraction level leads to the loss of arm strength.

  4. Transcriptional Repressor NIR Functions in the Ribosome RNA Processing of Both 40S and 60S Subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingshuang; Kong, Ruirui; Hu, Lelin; Schuele, Roland; Du, Xiaojuan; Ke, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Background NIR was identified as an inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase and it represses transcriptional activation of p53. NIR is predominantly localized in the nucleolus and known as Noc2p, which is involved in the maturation of the 60S ribosomal subunit. However, how NIR functions in the nucleolus remains undetermined. In the nucleolus, a 47S ribosomal RNA precursor (pre-rRNA) is transcribed and processed to produce 18S, 5.8S and 28S rRNAs. The 18S rRNA is incorporated into the 40S ribosomal subunit, whereas the 28S and 5.8S rRNAs are incorporated into the 60S subunit. U3 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) directs 18S rRNA processing and U8 snoRNA mediates processing of 28S and 5.8 S rRNAs. Functional disruption of nucleolus often causes p53 activation to inhibit cell proliferation. Methodology/Principal Findings Western blotting showed that NIR is ubiquitously expressed in different human cell lines. Knock-down of NIR by siRNA led to inhibition of the 18S, 28S and 5.8S rRNAs evaluated by pulse-chase experiment. Pre-rRNA particles (pre-rRNPs) were fractionated from the nucleus by sucrose gradient centrifugation and analysis of the pre-RNPs components showed that NIR existed in the pre-RNPs of both the 60S and 40S subunits and co-fractionated with 32S and 12S pre-rRNAs in the 60S pre-rRNP. Protein-RNA binding experiments demonstrated that NIR is associated with the 32S pre-rRNA and U8 snoRNA. In addition, NIR bound U3 snoRNA. It is a novel finding that depletion of NIR did not affect p53 protein level but de-repressed acetylation of p53 and activated p21. Conclusions We provide the first evidence for a transcriptional repressor to function in the rRNA biogenesis of both the 40S and 60S subunits. Our findings also suggested that a nucleolar protein may alternatively signal to p53 by affecting the p53 modification rather than affecting p53 protein level. PMID:22363708

  5. Time and frequency domain analysis of surface myoelectric signals during electrically-elicited cramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetto, M A; Botter, A; De Grandis, D; Merletti, R

    2009-02-01

    To examine if different frequencies of electrical stimulation trigger different sized cramps in the abductor hallucis muscle and to analyze their surface electromyographic (EMG) behaviour in both time and frequency domains. Fifteen subjects were studied. Stimulation trains of 150 pulses were applied to the muscle motor point. Frequency was increased (starting from 4pps with 2-pps steps) until a cramp developed. Current intensity was 30% higher than that eliciting maximal M-waves. After the first cramp ("threshold cramp"), a 30-minute rest was provided before a second cramp ("above-threshold cramp") was elicited with a frequency increased by 50% with respect to that eliciting the first cramp. We found greater EMG amplitude and a compression of the power spectrum for above-threshold cramps with respect to threshold cramps. M-wave changes (ranging between small decreases of M-wave amplitude to complete M-wave disappearance) occurred and progressively increased throughout stimulation trains. Significant positive correlations were found between estimates of EMG amplitude during cramps and estimated reductions of M-wave amplitude. Varying frequencies of electrical stimulation triggered different sized cramps. Moreover, decreases in M-wave amplitude were observed during both threshold and above-threshold stimulations. The choice of the stimulation frequency has relevance for optimizing electrical stimulation protocols for the study of muscle cramps in both healthy and pathological subjects.

  6. Prediction of pork quality with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): 1. Feasibility and robustness of NIRS measurements at laboratory scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapper, C.; Klont, R.E.; Verdonk, J.M.A.J.; Urlings, H.A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to study prediction of pork quality by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology in the laboratory. A total of 131 commercial pork loin samples were measured with NIRS. Predictive equations were developed for drip loss %, colour L*, a*, b* and pH ultimate (pHu). Equations with

  7. Intracellular metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) activates signaling cascades distinct from cell surface counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Yuh-Jiin I; Kumar, Vikas; O'Malley, Karen L

    2009-12-18

    G-protein-coupled receptors are thought to transmit extracellular signals to the cytoplasm from their position on the cell surface. Some receptors, including the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), are also highly expressed on intracellular membranes where they serve unknown functions. Here, we show that activation of cell surface versus intracellular mGluR5 results in unique Ca(2+) signatures leading to unique cellular responses. Specifically, activation of either cell surface or intracellular mGluR5 leads to JNK, Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK), and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein phosphorylation, whereas activation of only intracellular mGluR5 leads to ERK1/2 and Elk-1 phosphorylation. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches, the present findings support a role for CaMK kinase in mediating mGluR5-dependent cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein phosphorylation, whereas CaMKII is upstream of intracellular mGluR5-mediated Elk-1 phosphorylation. Consistent with models showing Elk-1 regulating cascades of gene expression, the known Elk-1 targets c-fos and egr1 were up-regulated following intracellular mGluR5 activation, whereas a representative non-Elk-1 target, c-jun, was not. These findings emphasize that glutamate not only serves as a neurotransmitter for cell surface receptors but, when transported into the cell, can also activate intracellular receptors such as mGluR5. Glutamate activation of intracellular mGluR5 serves an important role in the regulation of nuclear Ca(2+), transcriptional activation, and gene expression necessary for physiological processes such as synaptic plasticity.

  8. A Gaussian mixture model based adaptive classifier for fNIRS brain-computer interfaces and its testing via simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Jiang, Yi-han; Duan, Lian; Zhu, Chao-zhe

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Functional near infra-red spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a promising brain imaging technology for brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Future clinical uses of fNIRS will likely require operation over long time spans, during which neural activation patterns may change. However, current decoders for fNIRS signals are not designed to handle changing activation patterns. The objective of this study is to test via simulations a new adaptive decoder for fNIRS signals, the Gaussian mixture model adaptive classifier (GMMAC). Approach. GMMAC can simultaneously classify and track activation pattern changes without the need for ground-truth labels. This adaptive classifier uses computationally efficient variational Bayesian inference to label new data points and update mixture model parameters, using the previous model parameters as priors. We test GMMAC in simulations in which neural activation patterns change over time and compare to static decoders and unsupervised adaptive linear discriminant analysis classifiers. Main results. Our simulation experiments show GMMAC can accurately decode under time-varying activation patterns: shifts of activation region, expansions of activation region, and combined contractions and shifts of activation region. Furthermore, the experiments show the proposed method can track the changing shape of the activation region. Compared to prior work, GMMAC performed significantly better than the other unsupervised adaptive classifiers on a difficult activation pattern change simulation: 99% versus  brain-computer interfaces, including neurofeedback training systems, where operation over long time spans is required.

  9. Use of the discriminant Fourier-derived cepstrum with feature-level post-processing for surface electromyographic signal classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xinpu; Zhu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Dingguo

    2009-01-01

    Myoelectrical pattern classification is a crucial part in multi-functional prosthesis control. This paper investigates a discriminant Fourier-derived cepstrum (DFC) and feature-level post-processing (FLPP) to discriminate hand and wrist motions using the surface electromyographic signal. The Fourier-derived cepstrum takes advantage of the Fourier magnitude or sub-band power energy of signals directly and provides flexible use of spectral information changing with different motions. Appropriate cepstral coefficients are selected by a proposed separability criterion to construct DFC features. For the post-processing, FLPP which combines features from several analysis windows is used to improve the feature performance further. In this work, two classifiers (a linear discriminant classifier and quadratic discriminant classifier) without hyper-parameter optimization are employed to simplify the training procedure and avoid the possible bias of feature evaluation. Experimental results of the 11-motion problem show that the proposed DFC feature outperforms traditional features such as time-domain statistics and autoregressive-derived cepstrum in terms of the classification accuracy, and it is a promising method for the multi-functionality and high-accuracy control of myoelectric prostheses

  10. Correlative Evaluation of Mental and Physical Workload of Laparoscopic Surgeons Based on Surface Electromyography and Eye-tracking Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Yang; Liu, Sheng-Lin; Feng, Qing-Min; Gao, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-09-11

    Surgeons' mental and physical workloads are major focuses of operating room (OR) ergonomics, and studies on this topic have generally focused on either mental workload or physical workload, ignoring the interaction between them. Previous studies have shown that physically demanding work may affect mental performance and may be accompanied by impaired mental processing and decreased performance. In this study, 14 participants were recruited to perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) procedures in a virtual simulator. Surface electromyography (sEMG) signals of the bilateral trapezius, bicipital, brachioradialis and flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) muscles and eye-tracking signals were acquired during the experiment. The results showed that the least square means of muscle activity during the LC phases of surgery in an all-participants mixed effects model were 0.79, 0.81, and 0.98, respectively. The observed muscle activities in the different phases exhibited some similarity, while marked differences were found between the forearm bilateral muscles. Regarding mental workload, significant differences were observed in pupil dilation between the three phases of laparoscopic surgery. The mental and physical workloads of laparoscopic surgeons do not appear to be generally correlated, although a few significant negative correlations were found. This result further indicates that mental fatigue does markedly interfere with surgeons' operating movements.

  11. Diseno y construccion de un espectrometro NIR; Design and construction of a NIR spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcala Riveira, J. M.; Fernandez Marron, J. L.; Alberdi Primicia, J.; Molero Menendez, F.; Navarrete Marin, J. J.; Oller Gonzalez, J. C.

    2003-07-01

    This document describes the design and construction of a NIR spectrometer based on an acoustic-optic tunable filter. The spectrometer will be used for automatic identification of plastics in domestic waste. The system works between 1200 and 1800 nm. Instrument is controlled by a personal computer. Computer receives and analyses data. A software package has been developed to do these tasks. (Author) 27 refs.

  12. NIRS-based noninvasive cerebrovascular regulation assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S.; Richmond, I.; Borgos, J.; Mitra, K.

    2016-03-01

    Alterations to cerebral blood flow (CBF) have been implicated in diverse neurological conditions, including mild traumatic brain injury, microgravity induced intracranial pressure (ICP) increases, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-measured regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) provides an estimate of oxygenation of the interrogated cerebral volume that is useful in identifying trends and changes in oxygen supply to cerebral tissue and has been used to monitor cerebrovascular function during surgery and ventilation. In this study, CO2-inhalation-based hypercapnic breathing challenges were used as a tool to simulate CBF dysregulation, and NIRS was used to monitor the CBF autoregulatory response. A breathing circuit for the selective administration of CO2-compressed air mixtures was designed and used to assess CBF regulatory responses to hypercapnia in 26 healthy young adults using non-invasive methods and real-time sensors. After a 5 or 10 minute baseline period, 1 to 3 hypercapnic challenges of 5 or 10 minutes duration were delivered to each subject while rSO2, partial pressure of end tidal CO2 (PETCO2), and vital signs were continuously monitored. Change in rSO2 measurements from pre- to intrachallenge (ΔrSO2) detected periods of hypercapnic challenges. Subjects were grouped into three exercise factor levels (hr/wk), 1: 0, 2:>0 and 10. Exercise factor level 3 subjects showed significantly greater ΔrSO2 responses to CO2 challenges than level 2 and 1 subjects. No significant difference in ΔPETCO2 existed between these factor levels. Establishing baseline values of rSO2 in clinical practice may be useful in early detection of CBF changes.

  13. Effect of Palagonite Dust Deposition on the Automated Detection of Carbonate Vis/NIR Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Martha S.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Castano, Rebecca; Bornstein, Benjamin; Greenwood, James

    2004-01-01

    Currently Mars missions can collect more data than can be returned. Future rovers of increased mission lifetime will benefit from onboard autonomous data processing systems to guide the selection, measurement and return of scientifically important data. One approach is to train a neural net to recognize spectral reflectance characteristics of minerals of interest. We have developed a carbonate detector using a neural net algorithm trained on 10,000 synthetic Vis/NIR (350-2500 nm) spectra. The detector was able to correctly identify carbonates in the spectra of 30 carbonate and noncarbonate field samples with 100% success. However, Martian dust coatings strongly affect the spectral characteristics of surface rocks potentially masking the underlying substrate rock. In this experiment, we measure Vis/NIR spectra of calcite coated with different thicknesses of palagonite dust and evaluate the performance of the carbonate detector.

  14. Synthesis of nir-sensitive Au-Au{sub 2}S nanocolloids for drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, L.; Chow, G.M

    2003-01-15

    Near IR (NIR) sensitive Au-Au{sub 2}S nanocolloids were prepared by mixing HAuCl{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}S in aqueous solutions. An anti-tumor drug, cis-platin, was adsorbed onto Au-Au{sub 2}S nanoparticle surface via the 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) layers. The results show that the degree of adsorption of cis-platin onto Au-Au{sub 2}S nanoparticles was controlled by the solution pH value, and the drug release was sensitive to near-infrared irradiation. The cis-platin-loaded Au-Au{sub 2}S nanocolloids can be potentially applied as NIR activated drug delivery carrier.

  15. Integrin binding and MAPK signal pathways in primary cell responses to surface chemistry of calcium silicate cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, Ming-You; Ding, Shinn-Jyh

    2013-09-01

    Cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation on different materials depend largely on the surface properties of the materials. This study sheds light on the mechanism by which the modulation of the chemical composition of calcium silicate cements with different Si/Ca molar ratios could produce different cell responses. Two primary cell types (human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human dental pulp cells (hDPCs)) were used to elicit the changes in total DNA content, integrin subunit levels, phosphor-focal adhesion kinase (pFAK) levels, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway activity at the cell attachment stage. The effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection targeting collagen type I (COL I) and fibronectin (FN) was also evaluated. The results indicated that increased total DNA content, pFAK and total integrin levels were observed upon an increase in cement Si content. Cements with different Si/Ca ratios did not cause the variations of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) ligands. The Si-rich cement facilitated COL I and α2β1 subintegrin expression, while Ca-rich cement promoted FN and αvβ3 subintegrin expression. Si component of the calcium silicates stimulated cell adhesion via activation of MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 signaling pathways more effectively than did by Ca component, but it did not affect c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activity. Inhibition of MAPK/ERK and MAPK/p38 signaling pathways in hMSCs and hDPCs significantly attenuated adhesion, proliferation and differentiation as assessed according to total DNA content and alkaline phosphatase activity. hMSCs and hDPCs from the three different donors exhibited a similar preference for cell behaviors. The results of the current study suggest that calcium silicate cements with a higher Si content have the potential to serve as excellent supports for primary cells. Unraveling the

  16. Towards a ternary NIRS-BCI: single-trial classification of verbal fluency task, Stroop task and unconstrained rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schudlo, Larissa C.; Chau, Tom

    2015-12-01

    Objective. The majority of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) brain-computer interface (BCI) studies have investigated binary classification problems. Limited work has considered differentiation of more than two mental states, or multi-class differentiation of higher-level cognitive tasks using measurements outside of the anterior prefrontal cortex. Improvements in accuracies are needed to deliver effective communication with a multi-class NIRS system. We investigated the feasibility of a ternary NIRS-BCI that supports mental states corresponding to verbal fluency task (VFT) performance, Stroop task performance, and unconstrained rest using prefrontal and parietal measurements. Approach. Prefrontal and parietal NIRS signals were acquired from 11 able-bodied adults during rest and performance of the VFT or Stroop task. Classification was performed offline using bagging with a linear discriminant base classifier trained on a 10 dimensional feature set. Main results. VFT, Stroop task and rest were classified at an average accuracy of 71.7% ± 7.9%. The ternary classification system provided a statistically significant improvement in information transfer rate relative to a binary system controlled by either mental task (0.87 ± 0.35 bits/min versus 0.73 ± 0.24 bits/min). Significance. These results suggest that effective communication can be achieved with a ternary NIRS-BCI that supports VFT, Stroop task and rest via measurements from the frontal and parietal cortices. Further development of such a system is warranted. Accurate ternary classification can enhance communication rates offered by NIRS-BCIs, improving the practicality of this technology.

  17. Development of double density whole brain fNIRS with EEG system for brain machine interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, A; Udagawa, H; Masuda, Y; Kohno, S; Amita, T; Inoue, Y

    2011-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) are expected as new man-machine interfaces. Non-invasive BMI have the potential to improve the quality of life of many disabled individuals with safer operation. The non-invasive BMI using the functional functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) with the electroencephalogram (EEG) has potential applicability beyond the restoration of lost movement and rehabilitation in paraplegics and would enable normal individuals to have direct brain control of external devices in their daily lives. To shift stage of the non-invasive BMI from laboratory to clinical, the key factor is to develop high-accuracy signal decoding technology and highly restrictive of the measurement area. In this article, we present the development of a high-accuracy brain activity measurement system by combining fNIRS and EEG. The new fNIRS had high performances with high spatial resolution using double density technique and a large number of measurement channels to cover a whole human brain.

  18. RLS adaptive filtering for physiological interference reduction in NIRS brain activity measurement: a Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y; Sun, J W; Rolfe, P

    2012-01-01

    The non-invasive measurement of cerebral functional haemodynamics using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) instruments is often affected by physiological interference. The suppression of this interference is crucial for reliable recovery of brain activity measurements because it can significantly affect the signal quality. In this study, we present a recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm for adaptive filtering to reduce the magnitude of the physiological interference component. To evaluate it, we implemented Monte Carlo simulations based on a five-layer slab model of a human adult head with a multidistance source–detector arrangement, of a short pair and a long pair, for NIRS measurement. We derived measurements by adopting different interoptode distances, which is relevant to the process of optimizing the NIRS probe configuration. Both RLS and least mean squares (LMS) algorithms were used to attempt the removal of physiological interference. The results suggest that the RLS algorithm is more capable of minimizing the effect of physiological interference due to its advantages of faster convergence and smaller mean squared error (MSE). The influence of superficial layer thickness on the performance of the RLS algorithm was also investigated. We found that the near-detector position is an important variable in minimizing the MSE and a short source–detector separation less than 9 mm is robust to superficial layer thickness variation. (paper)

  19. RLS adaptive filtering for physiological interference reduction in NIRS brain activity measurement: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Sun, J W; Rolfe, P

    2012-06-01

    The non-invasive measurement of cerebral functional haemodynamics using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) instruments is often affected by physiological interference. The suppression of this interference is crucial for reliable recovery of brain activity measurements because it can significantly affect the signal quality. In this study, we present a recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm for adaptive filtering to reduce the magnitude of the physiological interference component. To evaluate it, we implemented Monte Carlo simulations based on a five-layer slab model of a human adult head with a multidistance source-detector arrangement, of a short pair and a long pair, for NIRS measurement. We derived measurements by adopting different interoptode distances, which is relevant to the process of optimizing the NIRS probe configuration. Both RLS and least mean squares (LMS) algorithms were used to attempt the removal of physiological interference. The results suggest that the RLS algorithm is more capable of minimizing the effect of physiological interference due to its advantages of faster convergence and smaller mean squared error (MSE). The influence of superficial layer thickness on the performance of the RLS algorithm was also investigated. We found that the near-detector position is an important variable in minimizing the MSE and a short source-detector separation less than 9 mm is robust to superficial layer thickness variation.

  20. Graph theoretical approach to functional connectivity in prefrontal cortex via fNIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einalou, Zahra; Maghooli, Keivan; Setarehdan, Seyaed Kamaledin; Akin, Ata

    2017-10-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has been proposed as an affordable, fast, and robust alternative to many neuroimaging modalities yet it still has long way to go to be adapted in the clinic. One request from the clinicians has been the delivery of a simple and straightforward metric (a so-called biomarker) from the vast amount of data a multichannel fNIRS system provides. We propose a simple-straightforward signal processing algorithm derived from [Formula: see text] data collected during a modified version of the color-word matching Stroop task that consists of three different conditions. The algorithm starts with a wavelet-transform-based preprocessing, then uses partial correlation analysis to compute the functional connectivity matrices at each condition and then computes the global efficiency values. To this end, a continuous wave 16 channels fNIRS device (ARGES Cerebro, Hemosoft Inc., Turkey) was used to measure the changes in [Formula: see text] concentrations from 12 healthy volunteers. We have considered 10% of strongest connections in each network. A strong Stroop interference effect was found between the incongruent against neutral condition ([Formula: see text]) while a similar significance was observed for the global efficiency values decreased from neutral to congruent to incongruent conditions [[Formula: see text], [Formula: see text

  1. Brain and muscle oxygenation monitoring using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during all-night sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Khatami, Ramin

    2013-03-01

    The hemodynamic changes during natural human sleep are still not well understood. NIRS is ideally suited for monitoring the hemodynamic changes during sleep due to the properties of local measurement, totally safe application and good tolerance to motion. Several studies have been conducted using NIRS in both normal subjects and patients with various sleep disorders during sleep to characterize the hemodynamic changing patterns during different sleep stages and during different symptoms such as obstructive apneas. Here we assessed brain and muscle oxygenation changes in 7 healthy adults during all-night sleep with combined polysomnography measurement to test the notion if hemodynamic changes in sleep are indeed brain specific. We found that muscle and brain showed similar hemodynamic changes during sleep initiation. A decrease in HbO2 and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) while an increase in HHb was observed immediately after sleep onset, and an opposite trend was found after transition with progression to deeper slow-wave sleep (SWS) stage. Spontaneous low frequency oscillations (LFO) and very low frequency oscillations (VLFO) were smaller (Levene's test, psleep (LS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep in both brain and muscle. Spectral analysis of the NIRS signals measured from brain and muscle also showed reductions in VLFO and LFO powers during SWS with respect to LS and REM sleep. These results indicate a systemic attenuation rather than local cerebral reduction of spontaneous hemodynamic activity in SWS. A systemic physiological mechanism may exist to regulate the hemodynamic changes in brain and muscle during sleep.

  2. A NIR-remote controlled upconverting nanoparticle: an improved tool for living cell dye-labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Bin; Gong, Xiaoqun; Wang, Hanjie; Wang, Sheng; Chang, Jin; Wang, Huiquan; Li, Wei; Tan, Jian

    2015-01-01

    In living cells, due to the selective permeability and complicated cellular environment, the uptake efficiency and fluorescence decay of organic dyes during dye-labeling may be influenced, which may eventually result in poor fluorescent imaging. In this work, a protocol of UCNs@mSiO 2 -(FA and Azo) core–shell nanocarriers was designed and prepared successfully. The core–shell nanocarriers were assembled from two parts, including a mesoporous silica shell surface modified by folate (FA) and azobenzene (Azo), and an upconverting nanocrystal (UCN) core. The mesoporous silica shell is used for loading organic dyes and conjugating folate which helps to enhance the cellular uptake of nanocarriers. The UCN core works as a transducer to convert near infrared (NIR) light to local UV and visible light to activate a back-and-forth wagging motion of azobenzene molecules on the surface, while the azobenzene acts as a molecular impeller for propelling the release of organic dyes. The nanocarriers of loading organic dyes can maintain the stability of the fluorescent imaging effect better than free organic dyes. The experimental results show that with the help of the nanoparticle, cell uptake efficiency of the model dyes of rhodamine and 4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) was significantly improved. The release of dyes can only be triggered by NIR light exposure and their quantity is highly dependent on the duration of NIR light exposure, thus realizing NIR-regulated dye release spatiotemporally. Our work may open a novel avenue for precisely controlling UCN-based living cell imaging in biotechnology and diagnostics, as well as studying cell dynamics, cell–cell interactions, and tissue morphogenesis. (paper)

  3. Portable wide-field hand-held NIR scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young-Jin; Roman, Manuela; Carrasquilla, Jennifer; Erickson, Sarah J.; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2013-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging modality is one of the widely used medical imaging techniques for breast cancer imaging, functional brain mapping, and many other applications. However, conventional NIR imaging systems are bulky and expensive, thereby limiting their accelerated clinical translation. Herein a new compact (6 × 7 × 12 cm3), cost-effective, and wide-field NIR scanner has been developed towards contact as well as no-contact based real-time imaging in both reflectance and transmission mode. The scanner mainly consists of an NIR source light (between 700- 900 nm), an NIR sensitive CCD camera, and a custom-developed image acquisition and processing software to image an area of 12 cm2. Phantom experiments have been conducted to estimate the feasibility of diffuse optical imaging by using Indian-Ink as absorption-based contrast agents. As a result, the developed NIR system measured the light intensity change in absorption-contrasted target up to 4 cm depth under transillumination mode. Preliminary in-vivo studies demonstrated the feasibility of real-time monitoring of blood flow changes. Currently, extensive in-vivo studies are carried out using the ultra-portable NIR scanner in order to assess the potential of the imager towards breast imaging..

  4. Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Alessandro; Contini, Davide; Pifferi, Antonio; Caffini, Matteo; Re, Rebecca; Zucchelli, Lucia; Spinelli, Lorenzo

    2014-01-15

    This review is aimed at presenting the state-of-the-art of time domain (TD) functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We first introduce the physical principles, the basics of modeling and data analysis. Basic instrumentation components (light sources, detection techniques, and delivery and collection systems) of a TD fNIRS system are described. A survey of past, existing and next generation TD fNIRS systems used for research and clinical studies is presented. Performance assessment of TD fNIRS systems and standardization issues are also discussed. Main strengths and weakness of TD fNIRS are highlighted, also in comparison with continuous wave (CW) fNIRS. Issues like quantification of the hemodynamic response, penetration depth, depth selectivity, spatial resolution and contrast-to-noise ratio are critically examined, with the help of experimental results performed on phantoms or in vivo. Finally we give an account on the technological developments that would pave the way for a broader use of TD fNIRS in the neuroimaging community. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intelligent MEMS spectral sensor for NIR applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantojärvi, Uula; Antila, Jarkko E.; Mäkynen, Jussi; Suhonen, Janne

    2017-05-01

    Near Infrared (NIR) spectrometers have been widely used in many material inspection applications, but mainly in central laboratories. The role of miniaturization, robustness of spectrometer and portability are really crucial when field inspection tools should be developed. We present an advanced spectral sensor based on a tunable Microelectromechanical (MEMS) Fabry-Perot Interferometer which will meet these requirements. We describe the wireless device design, operation principle and easy-to-use algorithms to adapt the sensor to number of applications. Multiple devices can be operated simultaneously and seamlessly through cloud connectivity. We also present some practical NIR applications carried out with truly portable NIR device.

  6. System and method for investigating sub-surface features of a rock formation with acoustic sources generating conical broadcast signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre -Yves; Larmat, Carene S.

    2015-08-18

    A method of interrogating a formation includes generating a conical acoustic signal, at a first frequency--a second conical acoustic signal at a second frequency each in the between approximately 500 Hz and 500 kHz such that the signals intersect in a desired intersection volume outside the borehole. The method further includes receiving, a difference signal returning to the borehole resulting from a non-linear mixing of the signals in a mixing zone within the intersection volume.

  7. Detecting Pilot's Engagement Using fNIRS Connectivity Features in an Automated vs. Manual Landing Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Verdière

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring pilot's mental states is a relevant approach to mitigate human error and enhance human machine interaction. A promising brain imaging technique to perform such a continuous measure of human mental state under ecological settings is Functional Near-InfraRed Spectroscopy (fNIRS. However, to our knowledge no study has yet assessed the potential of fNIRS connectivity metrics as long as passive Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI are concerned. Therefore, we designed an experimental scenario in a realistic simulator in which 12 pilots had to perform landings under two contrasted levels of engagement (manual vs. automated. The collected data were used to benchmark the performance of classical oxygenation features (i.e., Average, Peak, Variance, Skewness, Kurtosis, Area Under the Curve, and Slope and connectivity features (i.e., Covariance, Pearson's, and Spearman's Correlation, Spectral Coherence, and Wavelet Coherence to discriminate these two landing conditions. Classification performance was obtained by using a shrinkage Linear Discriminant Analysis (sLDA and a stratified cross validation using each feature alone or by combining them. Our findings disclosed that the connectivity features performed significantly better than the classical concentration metrics with a higher accuracy for the wavelet coherence (average: 65.3/59.9 %, min: 45.3/45.0, max: 80.5/74.7 computed for HbO/HbR signals respectively. A maximum classification performance was obtained by combining the area under the curve with the wavelet coherence (average: 66.9/61.6 %, min: 57.3/44.8, max: 80.0/81.3 computed for HbO/HbR signals respectively. In a general manner all connectivity measures allowed an efficient classification when computed over HbO signals. Those promising results provide methodological cues for further implementation of fNIRS-based passive BCIs.

  8. Non-invasive thermal profiling of silicon wafer surface during RTP using acoustic and signal processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Ahmed Rashid

    Among the great physical challenges faced by the current front-end semiconductor equipment manufacturers is the accurate and repeatable surface temperature measurement of wafers during various fabrication steps. Close monitoring of temperature is essential in that it ensures desirable device characteristics to be reliably reproduced across various wafer lots. No where is the need to control temperature more pronounced than it is during Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) which involves temperature ramp rates in excess of 200°C/s. This dissertation presents an elegant and practical approach to solve the wafer surface temperature estimation problem, in context of RTP, by deploying hardware that acquires the necessary data while preserving the integrity and purity of the wafer. In contrast to the widely used wafer-contacting (and hence contaminating) methods, such as bonded thermocouples, or environment sensitive schemes, such as light-pipes and infrared pyrometry, the proposed research explores the concept of utilizing Lamb (acoustic) waves to detect changes in wafer surface temperature, during RTP. Acoustic waves are transmitted to the wafer via an array of quartz rods that normally props the wafer inside an RTP chamber. These waves are generated using piezoelectric transducers affixed to the bases of the quartz rods. The group velocity of Lamb waves traversing the wafer surface undergoes a monotonic decrease with rise in wafer temperature. The correspondence of delay in phase of the received Lamb waves and the ambient temperature, along all direct paths between sending and receiving transducers, yields a psuedo real-time thermal image of the wafer. Although the custom built hardware-setup implements the above "proof-of-concept" scheme by transceiving acoustic signals at a single frequency, the real-world application will seek to enhance the data acquistion. rate (>1000 temperature measurements per seconds) by sending and receiving Lamb waves at multiple frequencies (by

  9. HARDERSEN IRTF ASTEROID NIR REFLECTANCE SPECTRA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset includes average near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra for 68 main-belt asteroids that were observed at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF),...

  10. Identification of transgenic foods using NIR spectroscopy: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alishahi, A.; Farahmand, H.; Prieto, N.; Cozzolino, D.

    2010-01-01

    The utilization of chemometric methods in the quantitative and qualitative analysis of feeds, foods, medicine and so on has been accompanied with the great evolution in the progress and in the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Hence, recently the application of NIR spectroscopy has extended on the context of genetics and transgenic products. The aim of this review was to investigate the application of NIR spectroscopy to identificate transgenic products and to compare it with the traditional methods. The results of copious researches showed that the application of NIRS technology was successful to distinguish transgenic foods and it has advantages such as fast, avoiding time-consuming, non-destructive and low cost in relation to the antecedent methods such as PCR and ELISA.

  11. HAYABUSA NIRS RAW SPECTRA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes the 117,937 raw spectra returned by the Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS) of the Hayabusa mission. The targets include the asteroid 25143...

  12. NIRS Characterization of Paper Pulps to Predict Kappa Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most abundant food crops in the world and its straw stands as an important source of fibres both from an economic and an environmental point of view. Pulp characterization is of special relevance in works involving alternative raw materials, since pulp properties are closely linked to the quality of the final product. One of the analytical techniques that can be used in pulp characterization is near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. The use of NIRS has economic and technical advantages over conventional techniques. This paper aims to discuss the convenience of using NIRS to predict Kappa number in rice straw pulps produced under different conditions. We found that the resulting Kappa number can be acceptably estimated by NIRS, as the errors obtained with that method are similar to those found for other techniques.

  13. Non-tinted Transparent Luminescent Solar Concentrators Employing Both UV and NIR Selective Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yimu; Lunt, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Luminescent solar concentrators are a potentially low-cost solar harvesting solution that additionally offer opportunities for integration around buildings and windows. However, the visible absorption and emission of previously demonstrated chromophores hamper their widespread applications including solar windows. Here, we demonstrate non-tinted transparent luminescent solar concentrators (TLSC) that employ both ultraviolet (UV) and near-infrared (NIR) selective absorbing luminophores that create an entirely new paradigm for power-producing transparent surfaces and enhances the potential over UV-only TLSCs. We have previously designed UV-harvesting systems composed of metal halide phosphorescent luminophore blends that enable absorption cutoff positioned at the edge of visible spectrum (430nm) and massive-downconverted emission in the near-infrared (800nm) with quantum yields for luminescence of 75%. Here, we have developed a complimentary TLSC employing fluorescent organic salts with both efficient NIR absorption and deeper NIR emission. We will discuss the photophysical properties of these luminophores, the impact of ligand-host control, and optimization of the TLSC architectures.

  14. Nanographene oxide as a switch for CW/pulsed NIR laser triggered drug release from liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Abhishek; Kim, Manse; Ryu, Jooyeon; Son, Joon-Gon; Lee, Eunji; Noh, Do Young; Tae, Giyoong

    2018-01-01

    The application of pulsed and continuous wave (CW) lasers in nanomedicine has increased significantly over the last decade. Near infrared (NIR) lasers can be used for the precise control of drug release at the target site in a non-invasive manner. In this study, we have prepared nanographene oxide (nGO, size ~40nm) integrated liposomes (size ~900nm). The nGOs were not simply adsorbed onto the liposome surface but was embedded inside the liposomes as characterized by cryo-TEM, selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and fluorescence quenching studies. The embedded nGOs could act as a molecular switch for NIR light controlled drug release from the liposomes. Calcein was encapsulated into the liposome as a model drug to evaluate the efficiency of light controlled release. An on-demand pulsatile drug release was achieved by irradiation of CW/pulsed NIR lasers into the nGO-liposome suspension. Triggering with a pulsed laser resulted in larger release of calcein with a minimal temperature increase (~2°C) of the liposome solution, compared to lower release rate and a significant temperature increase (~8°C) by a CW laser with the same light energy, suggesting two separate mechanisms and different potential applications depending on the laser type. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of drug, excipients and coating distribution in pharmaceutical tablets using NIR-CI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Palou

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest of the pharmaceutical industry in Near Infrared-Chemical Imaging (NIR-CI is a result of its high usefulness for quality control analyses of drugs throughout their production process (particularly of its non-destructive nature and expeditious data acquisition. In this work, the concentration and distribution of the major and minor components of pharmaceutical tablets are determined and the spatial distribution from the internal and external sides has been obtained. In addition, the same NIR-CI allowed the coating thickness and its surface distribution to be quantified. Images were processed to extract the target data and calibration models constructed using the Partial Least Squares (PLS algorithms. The concentrations of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API and excipients obtained for uncoated cores were essentially identical to the nominal values of the pharmaceutical formulation. But the predictive ability of the calibration models applied to the coated tablets decreased as the coating thickness increased. Keywords: Near infrared Chemical Imaging (NIR-CI, Hyperspectral imaging, Component distribution, Tablet coating distribution, Partial Least Squares (PLS regression

  16. Toward Adaptation of fNIRS Instrumentation to Airborne Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Mackey, Jeffrey; Harrivel, Angela; Hearn, Tristan; Floyd, Bertram

    2014-01-01

    The paper reviews potential applications of functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), a well-known medical diagnostic technique, to monitoring the cognitive state of pilots with a focus on identifying ways to adopt this technique to airborne environments. We also discuss various fNIRS techniques and the direction of technology maturation of associated hardware in view of their potential for miniaturization, maximization of data collection capabilities, and user friendliness.

  17. Concurrent MR-NIR Imaging for Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    fibroadenoma , which corresponds to a mass estimated to be 1–2 cm in diameter within a breast of 9 cm diameter located at 6–7 o’clock. Second case (case 2) is...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0559 TITLE: Concurrent MR-NIR Imaging for Breast ...CONTRACT NUMBER Concurrent MR-NIR Imaging for Breast Cancer Diagnosis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0559 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  18. SHARK-NIR system design analysis overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viotto, Valentina; Farinato, Jacopo; Greggio, Davide; Vassallo, Daniele; Carolo, Elena; Baruffolo, Andrea; Bergomi, Maria; Carlotti, Alexis; De Pascale, Marco; D'Orazi, Valentina; Fantinel, Daniela; Magrin, Demetrio; Marafatto, Luca; Mohr, Lars; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Salasnich, Bernardo; Verinaud, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present an overview of the System Design Analysis carried on for SHARK-NIR, the coronagraphic camera designed to take advantage of the outstanding performance that can be obtained with the FLAO facility at the LBT, in the near infrared regime. Born as a fast-track project, the system now foresees both coronagraphic direct imaging and spectroscopic observing mode, together with a first order wavefront correction tool. The analysis we here report includes several trade-offs for the selection of the baseline design, in terms of optical and mechanical engineering, and the choice of the coronagraphic techniques to be implemented, to satisfy both the main scientific drivers and the technical requirements set at the level of the telescope. Further care has been taken on the possible exploitation of the synergy with other LBT instrumentation, like LBTI. A set of system specifications is then flown down from the upper level requirements to finally ensure the fulfillment of the science drivers. The preliminary performance budgets are presented, both in terms of the main optical planes stability and of the image quality, including the contributions of the main error sources in different observing modes.

  19. A NIR spectroscopy-based efficient approach to detect fraudulent additions within mixtures of dried porcini mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Monica; Bagnasco, Lucia; Zotti, Mirca; Di Piazza, Simone; Sitta, Nicola; Oliveri, Paolo

    2016-11-01

    Boletus edulis and allied species (BEAS), known as "porcini mushrooms", represent almost the totality of wild mushrooms placed on the Italian market, both fresh and dehydrated. Furthermore, considerable amounts of these dried fungi are imported from China. The presence of Tylopilus spp. and other extraneous species (i.e., species edible but not belonging to BEAS) within dried porcini mushrooms - mainly from those imported from China and sold in Italy - may represent an evaluable problem from a commercial point of view. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a rapid and effective alternative to classical methods for identifying extraneous species within dried porcini batches and detecting related commercial frauds. To this goal, 80 dried fungi including BEAS, Tylopilus spp., and Boletus violaceofuscus were analysed by NIRS. For each sample, 3 different parts of the pileus (pileipellis, flesh and hymenium) were analysed and a low-level strategy for data fusion, consisting of combining the signals obtained by the different parts before data processing, was applied. Then, NIR spectra were used to develop reliable and efficient class-models using a novel method, partial least squares density modelling (PLS-DM), and the two most commonly used class-modelling techniques, UNEQ and SIMCA. The results showed that NIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometric class-modelling technique can be suggested as an effective analytical strategy to check the authenticity of dried BEAS mushrooms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Amplification of an Autodyne Signal in a Bistable Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser with the Use of a Vibrational Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhevsky, V. N.

    2018-01-01

    For the first time, it is demonstrated experimentally that a vibrational resonance in a polarization-bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser can be used to increase the laser response in autodyne detection of microvibrations from reflecting surfaces. In this case, more than 25-fold signal amplification is achieved. The influence of the asymmetry of the bistable potential on the microvibration-detection efficiency is studied.

  1. Relationship between Length and Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Signal Strength in Metal Nanoparticle Chains: Ideal Models versus Nanofabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen D. Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have employed capillary force deposition on ion beam patterned substrates to fabricate chains of 60 nm gold nanospheres ranging in length from 1 to 9 nanoparticles. Measurements of the surface-averaged SERS enhancement factor strength for these chains were then compared to the numerical predictions. The SERS enhancement conformed to theoretical predictions in the case of only a few chains, with the vast majority of chains tested not matching such behavior. Although all of the nanoparticle chains appear identical under electron microscope observation, the extreme sensitivity of the SERS enhancement to nanoscale morphology renders current nanofabrication methods insufficient for consistent production of coupled nanoparticle chains. Notwithstanding this fact, the aggregate data also confirmed that nanoparticle dimers offer a large improvement over the monomer enhancement while conclusively showing that, within the limitations imposed by current state-of-the-art nanofabrication techniques, chains comprising more than two nanoparticles provide only a marginal signal boost over the already considerable dimer enhancement.

  2. Novel INHAT repressor (NIR) is required for early lymphocyte development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chi A; Pusso, Antonia; Wu, Liming; Zhao, Yongge; Hoffmann, Victoria; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Fowlkes, B J; Jain, Ashish

    2014-09-23

    Novel inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase repressor (NIR) is a transcriptional corepressor with inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase activity and is a potent suppressor of p53. Although NIR deficiency in mice leads to early embryonic lethality, lymphoid-restricted deletion resulted in the absence of double-positive CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes, whereas bone-marrow-derived B cells were arrested at the B220(+)CD19(-) pro-B-cell stage. V(D)J recombination was preserved in NIR-deficient DN3 double-negative thymocytes, suggesting that NIR does not affect p53 function in response to physiologic DNA breaks. Nevertheless, the combined deficiency of NIR and p53 provided rescue of DN3L double-negative thymocytes and their further differentiation to double- and single-positive thymocytes, whereas B cells in the marrow further developed to the B220(+)CD19(+) pro-B-cell stage. Our results show that NIR cooperate with p53 to impose checkpoint for the generation of mature B and T lymphocytes.

  3. Convolutional Sparse Coding for RGB+NIR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuemei; Heide, Felix; Dai, Qionghai; Wetzstein, Gordon

    2018-04-01

    Emerging sensor designs increasingly rely on novel color filter arrays (CFAs) to sample the incident spectrum in unconventional ways. In particular, capturing a near-infrared (NIR) channel along with conventional RGB color is an exciting new imaging modality. RGB+NIR sensing has broad applications in computational photography, such as low-light denoising, it has applications in computer vision, such as facial recognition and tracking, and it paves the way toward low-cost single-sensor RGB and depth imaging using structured illumination. However, cost-effective commercial CFAs suffer from severe spectral cross talk. This cross talk represents a major challenge in high-quality RGB+NIR imaging, rendering existing spatially multiplexed sensor designs impractical. In this work, we introduce a new approach to RGB+NIR image reconstruction using learned convolutional sparse priors. We demonstrate high-quality color and NIR imaging for challenging scenes, even including high-frequency structured NIR illumination. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated on a large data set of experimental captures, and simulated benchmark results which demonstrate that this work achieves unprecedented reconstruction quality.

  4. In vivo near infrared (NIRS) sensor attachment using fibrin bioadhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, Andrew; Pagano, Roberto; Kwon, Brian; Dumont, Guy; Shadgan, Babak

    2018-02-01

    Background: `Tisseel' (Baxter Healthcare, Deerfield, IL) is a fibrin-based sealant that is commonly used during spine surgery to augment dural repairs. We wish to intra-operatively secure a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) sensor to the dura in order to monitor the tissue hemodynamics of the underlying spinal cord. To determine if `Tisseel' sealant adversely attenuates NIR photon transmission. Methods: We investigated `Tisseel' in both an in vitro and in vivo paradigm. For in vitro testing, we used a 1 mm pathlength cuvette containing either air or `Tisseel' interposed between a NIR light source (760 and 850 nm) and a photodiode detector and compared transmittance. For in vivo testing, a continuous wave (760 and 850 nm) spatiallyresolved NIRS device was placed over the triceps muscle using either conventional skin apposition (overlying adhesive bandage) or bioadhesion with `Tisseel'. Raw optical data and tissue saturation index (TSI%) collected at rest were compared. Results: In-vitro NIR light absorption by `Tisseel' was very high, with transmittance reduced by 95% compared to air. In-vivo muscle TSI% values were 80% with conventional attachment and 20% using fibrin glue. Conclusion: The optical properties of `Tisseel' significantly attenuate NIR light during in-vitro transmittance and critically compromise photon transmission in-vivo.

  5. Epoch making NIRS studies seen through citation trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Ippeita

    2009-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) studies through citation trends are investigated of literature concerning only the brain function measurement and its methodology together with NIRS principle, technological development, present state and future view. Investigation is conducted firstly for the survey of important author name of those concerned papers in Web of Science and Google Scholar with search words of NIRS, brain and optical topography as an option. Second, >100 papers of those authors citing any of them are picked up and their papers are ranked in accordance with Web of Science citation number, of which top-nineteen are presented here. Impact and epoch making papers are reviewed with explanations of: the establishment of measuring technology of cerebral blood flow change and subsequent brain function by NIRS; development with multi-channel detection; simultaneous measurement with other imaging modalities; examination of NIRS validity; spatial analysis of NIRS; and measurement of brain function. The highest times of citation are 1,238 of the paper by F. F. Jobsis in 'Science' (1977). It should be noted that 10 of top 19 papers are those by Japanese authors. However, review articles omitted in the present literature survey are mostly described by foreign authors: an effort to systemize the concerned fields might be required in this country. (K.T.)

  6. UV/vis and NIR light-responsive spiropyran self-assembled monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashenko, Oleksii; van Herpt, Jochem T; Feringa, Ben L; Rudolf, Petra; Browne, Wesley R

    2013-04-02

    Self-assembled monolayers of a 6-nitro BIPS spiropyran (SP) modified with a disulfide-terminated aliphatic chain were prepared on polycrystalline gold surfaces and characterized by UV/vis absorption, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS). The SAMs obtained are composed of the ring-closed form (i.e., spiropyran) only. Irradiation with UV light results in conversion of the monolayer to the merocyanine form (MC), manifested in the appearance of an N(+) contribution in the N 1s region of the XPS spectrum of the SAMs, the characteristic absorption band of the MC form in the visible region at 555 nm, and the C-O stretching band in the SERS spectrum. Recovery of the initial state of the monolayer was observed both thermally and after irradiation with visible light. Several switching cycles were performed and monitored by SERS spectroscopy, demonstrating the stability of the SAMs during repeated switching between SP and MC states. A key finding in the present study is that ring-opening of the surface-immobilized spiropyrans can be induced by irradiation with continuous wave NIR (785 nm) light as well as by irradiation with UV light. We demonstrate that ring-opening by irradiation at 785 nm proceeds by a two-photon absorption pathway both in the SAMs and in the solid state. Hence, spiropyran SAMs on gold can undergo reversible photochemical switching from the SP to the MC form with both UV and NIR and the reverse reaction induced by irradiation with visible light or heating. Furthermore, the observation of NIR-induced switching with a continuous wave source holds important consequences in the study of photochromic switches on surfaces using SERS and emphasizes the importance of the use of multiple complementary techniques in characterizing photoresponsive SAMs.

  7. Aromatic Fused [30] Heteroannulenes with NIR Absorption and NIR Emission: Synthesis, Characterization, and Excited-State Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Abhijit; Oh, Juwon; Kim, Dongho; Rath, Harapriya

    2016-06-06

    Two hitherto unknown planar aromatic [30] fused heterocyclic macrocycles (1.1.0.1.1.0), with NIR absorption in free-base form and protonation-induced enhanced NIR emission, have been synthesized from easy to make precursors. The induced correspondence of fusion on the macrocyclic structure, electronic absorption, and emission spectra have been highlighted. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Requirement of Signal Peptidase ComC and Thiol-Disulfide Oxidoreductase DsbA for Optimal Cell Surface Display of Pseudopilin ComGC in Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooi-Pol, Magdalena M.; Reilman, Ewoud; Sibbald, Mark J. J. B.; Veenstra-Kyuchukova, Yanka K.; Kouwen, Thijs R. H. M.; Buist, Girbe; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important Gram-positive bacterial pathogen producing many secreted and cell surface-localized virulence factors. Here we report that the staphylococcal thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA is essential for stable biogenesis of the ComGC pseudopilin. The signal peptidase

  9. Motor learning and modulation of prefrontal cortex: an fNIRS assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yumie; Noah, Jack Adam; Zhang, Xian; Nomoto, Yasunori; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Shimada, Sotaro; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Bronner, Shaw; Hirsch, Joy

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Prefrontal hemodynamic responses are observed during performance of motor tasks. Using a dance video game (DVG), a complex motor task that requires temporally accurate footsteps with given visual and auditory cues, we investigated whether 20 h of DVG training modified hemodynamic responses of the prefrontal cortex in six healthy young adults. Approach. Fronto-temporal activity during actual DVG play was measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) pre- and post-training. To evaluate the training-induced changes in the time-courses of fNIRS signals, we employed a regression analysis using the task-specific template fNIRS signals that were generated from alternate well-trained and/or novice DVG players. The HRF was also separately incorporated as a template to construct an alternate regression model. Change in coefficients for template functions at pre- and post- training were determined and compared among different models. Main results. Training significantly increased the motor performance using the number of temporally accurate steps in the DVG as criteria. The mean oxygenated hemoglobin (ΔoxyHb) waveform changed from an activation above baseline pattern to that of a below baseline pattern. Participants showed significantly decreased coefficients for regressors of the ΔoxyHb response of novice players and HRF. The model using ΔoxyHb responses from both well-trained and novice players of DVG as templates showed the best fit for the ΔoxyHb responses of the participants at both pre- and post-training when analyzed with Akaike information criteria. Significance. These results suggest that the coefficients for the template ΔoxyHb responses of the novice players are sensitive indicators of motor learning during the initial stage of training and thus clinically useful to determine the improvement in motor performance when patients are engaged in a specific rehabilitation program.

  10. A kurtosis-based wavelet algorithm for motion artifact correction of fNIRS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarelli, Antonio M; Maclin, Edward L; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele

    2015-05-15

    Movements are a major source of artifacts in functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS). Several algorithms have been developed for motion artifact correction of fNIRS data, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), targeted Principal Component Analysis (tPCA), Spline Interpolation (SI), and Wavelet Filtering (WF). WF is based on removing wavelets with coefficients deemed to be outliers based on their standardized scores, and it has proven to be effective on both synthetized and real data. However, when the SNR is high, it can lead to a reduction of signal amplitude. This may occur because standardized scores inherently adapt to the noise level, independently of the shape of the distribution of the wavelet coefficients. Higher-order moments of the wavelet coefficient distribution may provide a more diagnostic index of wavelet distribution abnormality than its variance. Here we introduce a new procedure that relies on eliminating wavelets that contribute to generate a large fourth-moment (i.e., kurtosis) of the coefficient distribution to define "outliers" wavelets (kurtosis-based Wavelet Filtering, kbWF). We tested kbWF by comparing it with other existing procedures, using simulated functional hemodynamic responses added to real resting-state fNIRS recordings. These simulations show that kbWF is highly effective in eliminating transient noise, yielding results with higher SNR than other existing methods over a wide range of signal and noise amplitudes. This is because: (1) the procedure is iterative; and (2) kurtosis is more diagnostic than variance in identifying outliers. However, kbWF does not eliminate slow components of artifacts whose duration is comparable to the total recording time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The cell surface membrane proteins Cdo and Boc are components and targets of the Hedgehog signaling pathway and feedback network in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzen, Toyoaki; Allen, Benjamin L; Cole, Francesca; Kang, Jong-Sun; Krauss, Robert S; McMahon, Andrew P

    2006-05-01

    Cdo and Boc encode cell surface Ig/fibronectin superfamily members linked to muscle differentiation. Data here indicate they are also targets and signaling components of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. Although Cdo and Boc are generally negatively regulated by Hedgehog (HH) signaling, in the neural tube Cdo is expressed within the Shh-dependent floor plate while Boc expression lies within the dorsal limit of Shh signaling. Loss of Cdo results in a Shh dosage-dependent reduction of the floor plate. In contrast, ectopic expression of Boc or Cdo results in a Shh-dependent, cell autonomous promotion of ventral cell fates and a non-cell-autonomous ventral expansion of dorsal cell identities consistent with Shh sequestration. Cdo and Boc bind Shh through a high-affinity interaction with a specific fibronectin repeat that is essential for activity. We propose a model where Cdo and Boc enhance Shh signaling within its target field.

  12. Cell surface-associated anti-MUC1-derived signal peptide antibodies: implications for cancer diagnostics and therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva Kovjazin

    Full Text Available The MUC1 tumor associated antigen is highly expressed on a range of tumors. Its broad distribution on primary tumors and metastases renders it an attractive target for immunotherapy. After synthesis MUC1 is cleaved, yielding a large soluble extracellular alpha subunit containing the tandem repeats array (TRA domain specifically bound, via non-covalent interaction, to a smaller beta subunit containing the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. Thus far, inconclusive efficacy has been reported for anti-MUC1 antibodies directed against the soluble alpha subunit. Targeting the cell bound beta subunit, may bypass limitations posed by circulating TRA domains. MUC1's signal peptide (SP domain promiscuously binds multiple MHC class II and Class I alleles, which upon vaccination, generated robust T-cell immunity against MUC1-positive tumors. This is a first demonstration of non-MHC associated, MUC1 specific, cell surfaces presence for MUC1 SP domain. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies generated against MUC1 SP domain specifically bind a large variety of MUC1-positive human solid and haematological tumor cell lines; MUC1-positive bone marrow derived plasma cells obtained from multiple myeloma (MM-patients, but not MUC1 negative tumors cells, and normal naive primary blood and epithelial cells. Membranal MUC1 SP appears mainly as an independent entity but also co-localized with the full MUC1 molecule. MUC1-SP specific binding in BM-derived plasma cells can assist in selecting patients to be treated with anti-MUC1 SP therapeutic vaccine, ImMucin. A therapeutic potential of the anti-MUC1 SP antibodies was suggested by their ability to support of complement-mediated lysis of MUC1-positive tumor cells but not MUC1 negative tumor cells and normal naive primary epithelial cells. These findings suggest a novel cell surface presence of MUC1 SP domain, a potential therapeutic benefit for anti-MUC1 SP antibodies in MUC1-positive tumors and a selection tool for MM

  13. Sensitivity of fNIRS to cognitive state and load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Anthony Fishburn

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS is an emerging low-cost noninvasive neuroimaging technique that measures cortical bloodflow. While fNIRS has gained interest as a potential alternative to fMRI for use with clinical and pediatric populations, it remains unclear whether fNIRS has the necessary sensitivity to serve as a replacement for fMRI. The present study set out to examine whether fNIRS has the sensitivity to detect linear changes in activation and functional connectivity in response to cognitive load, and functional connectivity changes when transitioning from a task-free resting state to a task. Sixteen young adult subjects were scanned with a continuous-wave fNIRS system during a 10-minute resting-state scan followed by a letter n-back task with three load conditions. Five optical probes were placed over frontal and parietal cortices, covering bilateral dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC, bilateral ventrolateral PFC (vlPFC, frontopolar cortex (FP, and bilateral parietal cortex. Activation was found to scale linearly with working memory load in bilateral prefrontal cortex. Functional connectivity increased with increasing n-back loads for fronto-parietal, interhemispheric dlPFC, and local connections. Functional connectivity differed between the resting state scan and the n-back scan, with fronto-parietal connectivity greater during the n-back, and interhemispheric vlPFC connectivity greater during rest. These results demonstrate that fNIRS is sensitive to both cognitive load and state, suggesting that fNIRS is well-suited to explore the full complement of neuroimaging research questions and will serve as a viable alternative to fMRI.

  14. Effect of Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticle Concentration on the Signal of Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktivina, M.; Nurrohman, D. T.; Rinto, A. N. Q. Z.; Suharyadi, E.; Abraha, K.

    2017-05-01

    Effect of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle concentration on the signal of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectra has been successfully observed. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles with a particle size of about 10.5 ± 0.2 nm were used as active materials to increase the SPR response. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern showed that Fe3O4 nanoparticles have a high degree of crystallinity with spinel structure. The SPR system was successfully set up by using a glass prism coupler in a Kretschmann configuration in which gold (Au) thin film was thermally evaporated on the prism base. A green laser of wavelength 543 nm was used as light source. The angular scan in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectra showed a dropping intensity. Those things clearly indicated the appearance of SPR coupling phenomenon on the interface of Au thin film. The SPR spectra of fixed Au masses were also performed with same angular positions of dips. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were deposited on gold thin film as a third layer which was synthesized via co-precipitation method. Hence, it was observed that the variation of Fe3O4 concentration affected the SPR spectra profile. The concentrations of Fe3O4 nanoparticles are 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 mg/ml which correspond to the angle shift of 0.1°, 0.3°, 0.5°, 0.7°, 0.9°, and 1.0°, respectively. The SPR angle of the dip was shifted to higher value due to change of refractive index of the medium as Fe3O4 nanoparticles concentration increases. Based on this result, we can conclude that the angle shift of SPR increases with increasing concentration of Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

  15. Application of Principal Component Analysis to NIR Spectra of Phyllosilicates: A Technique for Identifying Phyllosilicates on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Lanza, N. L.

    2012-01-01

    Orbital near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra of the martian surface from the OMEGA and CRISM instruments have identified a variety of phyllosilicates in Noachian terrains. The types of phyllosilicates present on Mars have important implications for the aqueous environments in which they formed, and, thus, for recognizing locales that may have been habitable. Current identifications of phyllosilicates from martian NIR data are based on the positions of spectral absorptions relative to laboratory data of well-characterized samples and from spectral ratios; however, some phyllosilicates can be difficult to distinguish from one another with these methods (i.e. illite vs. muscovite). Here we employ a multivariate statistical technique, principal component analysis (PCA), to differentiate between spectrally similar phyllosilicate minerals. PCA is commonly used in a variety of industries (pharmaceutical, agricultural, viticultural) to discriminate between samples. Previous work using PCA to analyze raw NIR reflectance data from mineral mixtures has shown that this is a viable technique for identifying mineral types, abundances, and particle sizes. Here, we evaluate PCA of second-derivative NIR reflectance data as a method for classifying phyllosilicates and test whether this method can be used to identify phyllosilicates on Mars.

  16. [Identification of fine wool and cashmere by using Vis/NIR spectroscopy technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gui-fang; Zhu, Deng-sheng; He, Yong

    2008-06-01

    As a rapid and non-destructive methodology, near infrared spectroscopy technique has been attracting much attention recently. The present study applied Vis/NIR spectra to the identification of cashmere and fine wool fiber. Cashmere and fine wool are resemble in superficies, but they differs in diameter, height, thickness, angle of inclination, and marginal morphology of surface scale. Although researchers both at home and abroad did a lot researches and experiments to distinguish fine wool from cashmere, the resolution of cashmere and fine wool is still not satisfactory, and it is always a challenging task to differentiate and recognize fine wool and cashmere. This paper presents an automatic recognition scheme for the fine wool fiber and cashmere fiber by Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique, aiming at the characteristics of Vis/NIR spectra of cashmere and fine wool. One mixed algorithm was presented to discriminate cashmere and fine wool with principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural network (ANN). Preliminary qualitative analysis model has been built: Vis/NIRS spectroscopy diffuse techniques were used to collect the spectral data of cashmere and fine wool, and two kinds of data pretreatment methods were applied: the standard normal variate (SNV) was used for scatter correction. Savitzky-Golay with the segment size 3 was used as the smoothing way to decrease the noise processed. Following the pretreatment, spectral data were processed using principal component analysis, 6 principal components (PCs) were selected based on the reliabilities of PCs of 99.8%, and the scores of these 6 PCs would be taken as the input of the three-layer back-propagation (BP) artificial neural network (BP-ANN). The BP-ANN was trained with samples in calibration collection and predicted the samples in prediction collection were predicted. Experiments demonstrate that the system works quickly and effectively, and has remarkable advantages in comparison with the previous systems

  17. Referential framework for transcranial anatomical correspondence for fNIRS based on manually traced sulci and gyri of an infant brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Mie; Homae, Fumitaka; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Watanabe, Hama; Katagiri, Masatoshi; Uda, Satoshi; Nakashima, Mitsuhiro; Dan, Ippeita; Taga, Gentaro

    2014-03-01

    Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which is compact, portable, and tolerant of body movement, is suitable for monitoring infant brain functions. Nevertheless, fNIRS also poses a technical problem in that it cannot provide structural information. Supplementation with structural magnetic resonance images (MRI) is not always feasible for infants who undergo fNIRS measurement. Probabilistic registration methods using an MRI database instead of subjects' own MRIs are optimized for adult studies and offer only limited resources for infant studies. To overcome this, we used high-quality infant MRI data for a 12-month-old infant and manually delineated segmented gyri from among the highly visible macroanatomies on the lateral cortical surface. These macroanatomical regions are primarily linked to the spherical coordinate system based on external cranial landmarks, and further to traditional 10-20-based head-surface positioning systems. While macroanatomical structures were generally comparable between adult and infant atlases, differences were found in the parietal lobe, which was positioned posteriorly at the vertex in the infant brain. The present study provides a referential framework for macroanatomical analyses in infant fNIRS studies. With this resource, multichannel fNIRS functional data could be analyzed in reference to macroanatomical structures through virtual and probabilistic registrations without acquiring subject-specific MRIs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  18. [Application of DOSC combined with SBC in batches transfer of NIR quantitative model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yi-Fei; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Xu, Bing; Wang, An-Dong; Zhan, Xue-Yan

    2017-06-01

    Near infrared model established under a certain condition can be applied to the new samples status, environmental conditions or instrument status through the model transfer. Spectral background correction and model update are two types of data process methods of NIR quantitative model transfer, and orthogonal signal regression (OSR) is a method based on spectra background correction, in which virtual standard spectra is used to fit a linear relation between master batches spectra and slave batches spectra, and map the slave batches spectra to the master batch spectra to realize the transfer of near infrared quantitative model. However, the above data processing method requires the represent activeness of the virtual standard spectra, otherwise the big error will occur in the process of regression. Therefore, direct orthogonal signal correction-slope and bias correction (DOSC-SBC) method was proposed in this paper to solve the problem of PLS model's failure to predict accurately the content of target components in the formula of different batches, analyze the difference between the spectra background of the samples from different sources and the prediction error of PLS models. DOSC method was used to eliminate the difference of spectral background unrelated to target value, and after being combined with SBC method, the system errors between the different batches of samples were corrected to make the NIR quantitative model transferred between different batches. After DOSC-SBC method was used in the preparation process of water extraction and ethanol precipitation of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos in this paper, the prediction error of new batches of samples was decreased to 7.30% from 32.3% and to 4.34% from 237%, with significantly improved prediction accuracy, so that the target component in the new batch samples can be quickly quantified. DOSC-SBC model transfer method has realized the transfer of NIR quantitative model between different batches, and this method does

  19. Monitoring osteoarthritis progression using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afara, Isaac O; Prasadam, Indira; Arabshahi, Zohreh; Xiao, Yin; Oloyede, Adekunle

    2017-09-13

    We demonstrate in this study the potential of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring progression of cartilage degeneration in an animal model. Osteoarthritic degeneration was artificially induced in one joint in laboratory rats, and the animals were sacrificed at four time points: 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks (3 animals/week). NIR spectra were acquired from both (injured and intact) knees. Subsequently, the joint samples were subjected to histological evaluation and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content analysis, to assess disease severity based on the Mankin scoring system and to determine proteoglycan loss, respectively. Multivariate spectral techniques were then employed for classification (principal component analysis and support vector machines) and prediction (partial least squares regression) of the samples' Mankin scores and GAG content from their NIR spectra. Our results demonstrate that NIR spectroscopy is sensitive to degenerative changes in articular cartilage, and is capable of distinguishing between mild (weeks 1&2; Mankin 3) cartilage degeneration. In addition, the spectral data contains information that enables estimation of the tissue's Mankin score (error = 12.6%, R 2  = 86.2%) and GAG content (error = 7.6%, R 2  = 95%). We conclude that NIR spectroscopy is a viable tool for assessing cartilage degeneration post-injury, such as, post-traumatic osteoarthritis.

  20. Transcriptomic analysis reveals new regulatory roles of Clp signaling in secondary-metabolite biosynthesis and surface motility in Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yansheng; Zhao, Yuxin; Zhang, Juan; Zhao, Yangyang; Shen, Yan; Su, Zhenhe; Xu, Gaoge; Du, Liangcheng; Huffman, Justin M.; Venturi, Vittorio; Qian, Guoliang; Liu, Fengquan

    2014-01-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes is a bacterial biological-control agent emerging as a new source of antibiotic metabolites, such as HSAF (Heat-Stable Antifungal Factor) and the antibacterial factor WAP-8294A2. The regulatory mechanism(s) for antibiotic-metabolite biosynthesis remains largely unknown in L. enzymogenes. Clp, a cAMP-receptor-like protein, is shown to function as a global regulator in modulating biocontol-associated traits in L. enzymogenes. However, the genetic basis of Clp signaling remains unclear. Here, we utilized transcriptome/microarray analysis to determine the Clp regulon in L. enzymogenes. We showed that Clp is a global regulator in gene expression, as the transcription of 775 genes belonging to 19 functional groups was differentially controlled by Clp signaling. Analysis of the Clp regulon detected previously characterized Clp-modulated functions as well as novel loci. These include novel loci involved in antibiotic-metabolite biosynthesis and surface motility in L. enzymogenes. We further showed experimentally that Clp signaling played a positive role in regulating the biosynthesis of HSAF and WAP-8294A2, as well as surface motility which is a Type-IV-pilus-dependent trait. The regulation by Clp signaling of antibiotic (HSAF and WAP-8294A2) biosynthesis and surface motility was found to be independent. Importantly, we identified a factor Lat (Lysobacter acetyltransferase), a homologue of histone acetyltransferase Hpa2, which was regulated by Clp and involved in HSAF biosynthesis, but not associated with WAP-8294A2 production and surface motility. Overall, our study provided new insights into the regulatory role and molecular mechanism of Clp signaling in L. enzymogenes. PMID:25236801

  1. Transcriptomic analysis reveals new regulatory roles of Clp signaling in secondary metabolite biosynthesis and surface motility in Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yansheng; Zhao, Yuxin; Zhang, Juan; Zhao, Yangyang; Shen, Yan; Su, Zhenhe; Xu, Gaoge; Du, Liangcheng; Huffman, Justin M; Venturi, Vittorio; Qian, Guoliang; Liu, Fengquan

    2014-11-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes is a bacterial biological control agent emerging as a new source of antibiotic metabolites, such as heat-stable antifungal factor (HSAF) and the antibacterial factor WAP-8294A2. The regulatory mechanism(s) for antibiotic metabolite biosynthesis remains largely unknown in L. enzymogenes. Clp, a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-receptor-like protein, is shown to function as a global regulator in modulating biocontrol-associated traits in L. enzymogenes. However, the genetic basis of Clp signaling remains unclear. Here, we utilized transcriptome/microarray analysis to determine the Clp regulon in L. enzymogenes. We showed that Clp is a global regulator in gene expression, as the transcription of 775 genes belonging to 19 functional groups was differentially controlled by Clp signaling. Analysis of the Clp regulon detected previously characterized Clp-modulated functions as well as novel loci. These include novel loci involved in antibiotic metabolite biosynthesis and surface motility in L. enzymogenes. We further showed experimentally that Clp signaling played a positive role in regulating the biosynthesis of HSAF and WAP-8294A2, as well as surface motility which is a type-IV-pilus-dependent trait. The regulation by Clp signaling of antibiotic (HSAF and WAP-8294A2) biosynthesis and surface motility was found to be independent. Importantly, we identified a factor Lysobacter acetyltransferase (Lat), a homologue of histone acetyltransferase Hpa2, which was regulated by Clp and involved in HSAF biosynthesis, but not associated with WAP-8294A2 production and surface motility. Overall, our study provided new insights into the regulatory role and molecular mechanism of Clp signaling in L. enzymogenes.

  2. Broadband Signal Enhancement of Seismic Array Data: Application to Long-Period Surface Waves & High Frequency Wavefields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vernon, Frank

    1998-01-01

    .... "Dual-frequency" coherence is useful in identifying overtones and frequency shifts between signals, features which are undetectable by standard coherence measures. We construct a filter to extract only the coherent frequencies from a waveform and show that it significantly increases the signal-noise-ratio for dispersive waveforms.

  3. The insulin response integrates increased TGF-β signaling through Akt-induced enhancement of cell surface delivery of TGF-β receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, Erine H.; Muthusamy, Baby Periyanayaki; Derynck, Rik

    2015-01-01

    Increased activity of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), which binds to and stimulates cell surface receptors, contributes to cancer progression and fibrosis by driving epithelial cells toward a migratory mesenchymal phenotype and increasing the abundance of extracellular matrix proteins. The abundance of TGF-β receptors at the cell surface determines cellular responsiveness to TGF-β, which is often produced by the same cells that have the receptors, and thus serves as an autocrine signal. We found that Akt-mediated phosphorylation of AS160, a RabGAP [guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase)-activating protein] promoted the translocation of TGF-β receptors from intracellular stores to the plasma membrane of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and NMuMG epithelial cells. Consequently, insulin, which is commonly used to treat hyperglycemia and activates Akt signaling, increased the amount of TGF-β receptors at the cell surface, thereby enhancing TGF-β responsiveness. This insulin-induced increase in autocrine TGF-β signaling contributed to insulin-induced gene expression responses, attenuated the epithelial phenotype, and promoted the migration of NMuMG cells. Furthermore, the enhanced delivery of TGF-β receptors at the cell surface enabled insulin to increase TGF-β-induced gene responses. The enhancement of TGF-β responsiveness in response to Akt activation may help to explain the biological effects of insulin, the progression of cancers in which Akt is activated, and the increased incidence of fibroses in diabetes. PMID:26420907

  4. Machine learning algorithms based on signals from a single wearable inertial sensor can detect surface- and age-related differences in walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, B; Dixon, P C; Jacobs, J V; Dennerlein, J T; Schiffman, J M

    2018-04-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate if a machine learning algorithm utilizing triaxial accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer data from an inertial motion unit (IMU) could detect surface- and age-related differences in walking. Seventeen older (71.5 ± 4.2 years) and eighteen young (27.0 ± 4.7 years) healthy adults walked over flat and uneven brick surfaces wearing an inertial measurement unit (IMU) over the L5 vertebra. IMU data were binned into smaller data segments using 4-s sliding windows with 1-s step lengths. Ninety percent of the data were used as training inputs and the remaining ten percent were saved for testing. A deep learning network with long short-term memory units was used for training (fully supervised), prediction, and implementation. Four models were trained using the following inputs: all nine channels from every sensor in the IMU (fully trained model), accelerometer signals alone, gyroscope signals alone, and magnetometer signals alone. The fully trained models for surface and age outperformed all other models (area under the receiver operator curve, AUC = 0.97 and 0.96, respectively; p ≤ .045). The fully trained models for surface and age had high accuracy (96.3, 94.7%), precision (96.4, 95.2%), recall (96.3, 94.7%), and f1-score (96.3, 94.6%). These results demonstrate that processing the signals of a single IMU device with machine-learning algorithms enables the detection of surface conditions and age-group status from an individual's walking behavior which, with further learning, may be utilized to facilitate identifying and intervening on fall risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Upregulation of cell proliferation via Shc and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling in SaOS-2 osteoblasts grown on magnesium alloy surface coating with tricalcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tianlong; Guo, Lei; Ni, Shenghui; Zhao, Yuyan

    2015-04-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been demonstrated to be viable orthopedic implants because of mechanical and biocompatible properties similar to natural bone. In order to improve its osteogenic properties, a porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was coated on the Mg-3AI-1Zn alloy by alkali-heat treatment technique. The human bone-derived cells (SaOS-2) were cultured on (β-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn in vitro, and the osteoblast response, the morphology and the elements on this alloy surface were investigated. Also, the regulation of key intracellular signalling proteins was investigated in the SaOS-2 cells cultured on alloy surface. The results from scanning electron microscope and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that (β-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn induced significant osteogenesis. SaOS-2 cell proliferation was improved by β-TCP coating. Moreover, the (β-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn surface induced activation of key intracellular signalling proteins in SaOS-2 cells. We observed an enhanced activation of Src homology and collagen (Shc), a common point of integration between bone morphogenetic protein 2, and the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. ERK1/2 MAP kinase activation was also upregulated, suggesting a role in mediating osteoblastic cell interactions with biomaterials. The signalling pathway involving c-fos (member of the activated protein-1) was also shown to be upregulated in osteoblasts cultured on the (β-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn. These results suggest that β-TCP coating may contribute to successful osteoblast function on Mg alloy surface. (β-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn may upregulate cell proliferation via Shc and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling in SaOS-2 osteoblasts grown on Mg alloy surface.

  6. Evaluation of cerebral activity in the prefrontal cortex in mood [affective] disorders during animal-assisted therapy (AAT) by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Jun; Iwahashi, Kazuhiko; Ishigooka, Jun; Fukamauchi, Fumihiko; Numajiri, Maki; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies have shown the possibility that animal-assisted therapy (AAT) is useful for promoting the recovery of a patient's psychological, social, and physiological aspect. As a pilot study, we measured the effect that AAT had on cerebral activity using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and examined whether or not NIRS be used to evaluate the effect of AAT biologically and objectively. Two patients with mood [affective] disorders and a healthy subject participated in this study. We performed two AAT and the verbal fluency task (VFT). The NIRS signal during AAT showed great [oxy-Hb] increases in most of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the two patients. When the NIRS pattern during AAT was compared with that during VFT, greater or lesser differences were observed between them in all subjects. The present study suggested that AAT possibly causes biological and physiological changes in the PFC, and that AAT is useful for inducing the activity of the PFC in patients with depression who have generally been said to exhibit low cerebral activity in the PFC. In addition, the possibility was also suggested that the effect of AAT can be evaluated using NIRS physiologically and objectively.

  7. Plasmonic nanostructure assisted HHG in NIR spectrum and thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadian, H.; Mohebbi, M.

    2018-02-01

    We study plasmonic nanoparticle assisted high-order harmonic generation (HHG), illuminated by near infrared (NIR) laser sources, and the effect of the geometry of some different dimers on HHG cutoff frequency is evaluated. Dimers are installed on different dielectric substrates and the electric field enhancement factors are simulated. We demonstrate that NIR femto-fiber sources are good options for the HHG process. Such sources can induce significant inhomogeneous electric fields in the nanogaps; and consequently, high harmonic cutoff orders more than 250 will be obtained. Moreover, by time dependent thermal analysis of Au nanoparticles exposed to NIR ultrafast high power lasers, we could determine the temperature distribution in the nanoparticle and substrate.

  8. Inverting Comet Acoustic Surface Sounding Experiment (CASSE) touchdown signals to measure the elastic modulus of comet material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W.; Faber, C.; Knapmeyer, M.; Witte, L.; Schröder, S.; Tune, J.; Möhlmann, D.; Roll, R.; Chares, B.; Fischer, H.; Seidensticker, K.

    2014-07-01

    The landing of Philae on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is scheduled for November 11, 2014. Each of the three landing feet of Philae house a triaxial acceleration sensor of CASSE, which will thus be the first sensors to be in mechanical contact with the cometary surface. CASSE will be in listening mode to record the deceleration of the lander, when it impacts with the comet at a velocity of approx. 0.5 m/s. The analysis of this data yields information on the reduced elastic modulus and the yield stress of the comet's surface material. We describe a series of controlled landings of a lander model. The tests were conducted in the Landing & Mobility Test Facility (LAMA) of the DLR Institute of Space Systems in Bremen, Germany, where an industrial robot can be programmed to move landers or rovers along predefined paths, allowing to adapt landing procedures with predefined velocities. The qualification model of the Philae landing gear was used in the tests. It consists of three legs manufactured of carbon fiber and metal joints. A dead mass of the size and mass of the lander housing is attached via a damper above the landing gear to represent the lander structure as a whole. Attached to each leg is a foot with two soles and a mechanically driven fixation screw (''ice screw'') to secure the lander on the comet. The right soles, if viewed from the outside towards the lander body, house a Brüel & Kjaer DeltaTron 4506 triaxial piezoelectric accelerometer as used on the spacecraft. Orientation of the three axes was such that one of the axes, here the X-axis of the accelerometer, points downwards, while the Y- and Z-axes are horizontal. Data were recorded at a sampling rate of 8.2 kHz within a time gate of 2 s. In parallel, a video sequence was taken, in order to monitor the touchdown on the sand and the movement of the ice screws. Touchdown measurements were conducted on three types of ground with landing velocities between 0.1 to 1.1 m/s. Landings with low velocities were

  9. Complementary analysis of tissue homogenates composition obtained by Vis and NIR laser excitations and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniszewska-Slezak, Emilia; Malek, Kamilla; Baranska, Malgorzata

    2015-08-05

    Raman spectroscopy and four excitation lines in the visible (Vis: 488, 532, 633 nm) and near infrared (NIR: 785 nm) were used for biochemical analysis of rat tissue homogenates, i.e. myocardium, brain, liver, lung, intestine, and kidney. The Vis Raman spectra are very similar for some organs (brain/intestines and kidney/liver) and dominated by heme signals when tissues of lung and myocardium were investigated (especially with 532 nm excitation). On the other hand, the NIR Raman spectra are specific for each tissue and more informative than the corresponding ones collected with the Vis excitations. The spectra analyzed without any special pre-processing clearly illustrate different chemical composition of each tissue and give information about main components e.g. lipids or proteins, but also about the content of some specific compounds such as amino acid residues, nucleotides and nucleobases. However, in order to obtain the whole spectral information about tissues complex composition the spectra of Vis and NIR excitations should be collected and analyzed together. A good agreement of data gathered from Raman spectra of the homogenates and those obtained previously from Raman imaging of the tissue cross-sections indicates that the presented here approach can be a method of choice for an investigation of biochemical variation in animal tissues. Moreover, the Raman spectral profile of tissue homogenates is specific enough to be used for an investigation of potential pathological changes the organism undergoes, in particular when supported by the complementary FTIR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Advances of NIR spectroscopy technology applied in seed quality detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-wei; Ma, Wen-guang; Hu, Jin; Zheng, Yun-ye; Tian, Yi-xin; Guan, Ya-jing; Hu, Wei-min

    2015-02-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology developed fast in recent years, due to its rapid speed, less pollution, high-efficiency and other advantages. It has been widely used in many fields such as food, chemical industry, pharmacy, agriculture and so on. The seed is the most basic and important agricultural capital goods, and seed quality is important for agricultural production. Most methods presently used for seed quality detecting were destructive, slow and needed pretreatment, therefore, developing one kind of method that is simple and rapid has great significance for seed quality testing. This article reviewed the application and trends of NIRS technology in testing of seed constituents, vigor, disease and insect pests etc. For moisture, starch, protein, fatty acid and carotene content, the model identification rates were high as their relative contents were high; for trace organic, the identification rates were low as their relative content were low. The heat-damaged seeds with low vigor were discriminated by NIRS, the seeds stored for different time could also been identified. The discrimination of frost-damaged seeds was impossible. The NIRS could be used to identify health and infected disease seeds, and did the classification for the health degree; it could identify parts of the fungal pathogens. The NIRS could identify worm-eaten and health seeds, and further distinguished the insect species, however the identification effects for small larval and low injury level of insect pests was not good enough. Finally, in present paper existing problems and development trends for NIRS in seed quality detection was discussed, especially the single seed detecting technology which was characteristic of the seed industry, the standardization of its spectral acquisition accessories will greatly improve its applicability.

  11. Automatic moisture content determination on biomass with NIR and radio frequency spectroscopy; Automatisk fukthaltsmaetning paa biobraenslen med NIR samt radiofrekvent spektroskopi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlquist, Erik; Nystroem, Jenny; Thorin, Eva; Paz, Ana de la [Maelardalen Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Public Technology; Axrup, Lars [Stora Enso AB (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    The goal with the project has been to evaluate two methods for determination of moisture content in biomass fuels and to determine if these methods can be used in practice in connection with delivery control of biomass at power plants. Tests have been performed with different biomass qualities and with two different measurement methods within a large moisture span, 0.6-72%. The two methods have been NIR (Near Infrared spectroscopy), and RF (Radio Frequency spectroscopy). The NIR-method is a surface analysis method, where hydro-carbons like wood have a different absorption pattern than water. The RF-method is a bulk method and utilizes that wood and water have different dielectric constants. Radio waves thus are affected differently by transportation through wet and dry biomass. In this project we have studied how representative sampling can be achieved from a large volume of delivered biomass fuel. We also have performed calibration with mixtures of the different fuels. Sampling has been performed by extracting biomass in a four meter long screw from the large volume as it is poured into a storage vessel. A conveyor belt is then transporting the material to the measurement systems. Two different NIR-instruments, DA (Diod Array) -NIR respective FT (Fourier Transform)- NIR, were placed above the conveyor belt. The material was collected from the belt into the measuring vessel for the RF, a 200 liter 'oil barrel'. The radio waves were sent from the transceiver into the sample from above without direct contact between the biomass and the transceiver antenna. Six different fuels were studied separately. Calibration was performed where the moisture content was varied by mixing relatively dry fuel with humidified biomass in different proportions a day before the measurements. Samples were taken from each mixture in connection with the measurements, from the conveyor belt. The samples were made in such a way that they represented the whole volume as good as

  12. Ground-Based VIS/NIR Reflectance Spectra of 25143 Itokawa: What Hayabusa will See and How Ground-Based Data can Augment Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, Faith; Abell, P. A.; Jarvis, K. S.

    2004-01-01

    Planning for the arrival of the Hayabusa spacecraft at asteroid 25143 Itokawa includes consideration of the expected spectral information to be obtained using the AMICA and NIRS instruments. The rotationally-resolved spatial coverage the asteroid we have obtained with ground-based telescopic spectrophotometry in the visible and near-infrared can be utilized here to address expected spacecraft data. We use spectrophotometry to simulate the types of data that Hayabusa will receive with the NIRS and AMICA instruments, and will demonstrate them here. The NIRS will cover a wavelength range from 0.85 m, and have a dispersion per element of 250 Angstroms. Thus, we are limited in coverage of the 1.0 micrometer and 2.0 micrometer mafic silicate absorption features. The ground-based reflectance spectra of Itokawa show a large component of olivine in its surface material, and the 2.0 micrometer feature is shallow. Determining the olivine to pyroxene abundance ratio is critically dependent on the attributes of the 1.0- and 2.0 micrometer features. With a cut-off near 2,1 micrometer the longer edge of the 2.0- feature will not be obtained by NIRS. Reflectance spectra obtained using ground-based telescopes can be used to determine the regional composition around space-based spectral observations, and possibly augment the longer wavelength spectral attributes. Similarly, the shorter wavelength end of the 1.0 micrometer absorption feature will be partially lost to the NIRS. The AMICA filters mimic the ECAS filters, and have wavelength coverage overlapping with the NIRS spectral range. We demonstrate how merging photometry from AMICA will extend the spectral coverage of the NIRS. Lessons learned from earlier spacecraft to asteroids should be considered.

  13. Important NIR brightening of the Blazar PKS1244-255

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L.; Recillas, E.; Porras, A.; Escobedo, G.; Chavushyan, V.

    2018-02-01

    We report on NIR photometry of the flat spectrum radio source PKS1244-255, cross identified with the intermediate redshift quasar CGRaBSJ1246-2547 (z=0.633) and the Gamma-ray source 3FGL1246.7-2547, We observed the source in the NIR, finding that on January 27th, 2017 (MJD 2458145.970579) its fluxes corresponded to J = 13.895 +/- 0.03, H = 12.937 +/- 0.02 and Ks = 12.042 +/- 0.04.

  14. Comprehensive study of solid pharmaceutical tablets in visible, near infrared (NIR), and longwave infrared (LWIR) spectral regions using a rapid simultaneous ultraviolet/visible/NIR (UVN) + LWIR laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy linear arrays detection system and a fast acousto-optic tunable filter NIR spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Clayton S C; Jin, Feng; Swaminathan, Siva R; Patel, Sita; Ramer, Evan D; Trivedi, Sudhir B; Brown, Ei E; Hommerich, Uwe; Samuels, Alan C

    2017-10-30

    This is the first report of a simultaneous ultraviolet/visible/NIR and longwave infrared laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (UVN + LWIR LIBS) measurement. In our attempt to study the feasibility of combining the newly developed rapid LWIR LIBS linear array detection system to existing rapid analytical techniques for a wide range of chemical analysis applications, two different solid pharmaceutical tablets, Tylenol arthritis pain and Bufferin, were studied using both a recently designed simultaneous UVN + LWIR LIBS detection system and a fast AOTF NIR (1200 to 2200 nm) spectrometer. Every simultaneous UVN + LWIR LIBS emission spectrum in this work was initiated by one single laser pulse-induced micro-plasma in the ambient air atmosphere. Distinct atomic and molecular LIBS emission signatures of the target compounds measured simultaneously in UVN (200 to 1100 nm) and LWIR (5.6 to 10 µm) spectral regions are readily detected and identified without the need to employ complex data processing. In depth profiling studies of these two pharmaceutical tablets without any sample preparation, one can easily monitor the transition of the dominant LWIR emission signatures from coating ingredients gradually to the pharmaceutical ingredients underneath the coating. The observed LWIR LIBS emission signatures provide complementary molecular information to the UVN LIBS signatures, thus adding robustness to identification procedures. LIBS techniques are more surface specific while NIR spectroscopy has the capability to probe more bulk materials with its greater penetration depth. Both UVN + LWIR LIBS and NIR absorption spectroscopy have shown the capabilities of acquiring useful target analyte spectral signatures in comparable short time scales. The addition of a rapid LWIR spectroscopic probe to these widely used optical analytical methods, such as NIR spectroscopy and UVN LIBS, may greatly enhance the capability and accuracy of the combined system for a comprehensive analysis.

  15. A NIR phosphorescent osmium(ii) complex as a lysosome tracking reagent and photodynamic therapeutic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingyu; Wang, Yi; Qiu, Kangqiang; Zhao, Zhiqian; Hu, Rentao; He, Chuanxin; Zhang, Qianling; Chao, Hui

    2017-11-14

    A novel near infrared (NIR) phosphorescent osmium complex (Os1) was developed for lysosome tracking and photodynamic therapy. Owing to its NIR photophysical properties, cellular imaging ability and phototoxicity, it has advantages over its ruthenium analogue (Ru1).

  16. Regulation of Constitutive GPR3 Signaling and Surface Localization by GRK2 and β-arrestin-2 Overexpression in HEK293 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie M Lowther

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptor 3 (GPR3 is a constitutively active receptor that maintains high 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP levels required for meiotic arrest in oocytes and CNS function. Ligand-activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs signal at the cell surface and are silenced by phosphorylation and β-arrestin recruitment upon endocytosis. Some GPCRs can also signal from endosomes following internalization. Little is known about the localization, signaling, and regulation of constitutively active GPCRs. We demonstrate herein that exogenously-expressed GPR3 localizes to the cell membrane and undergoes internalization in HEK293 cells. Inhibition of endocytosis increased cell surface-localized GPR3 and cAMP levels while overexpression of GPCR-Kinase 2 (GRK2 and β-arrestin-2 decreased cell surface-localized GPR3 and cAMP levels. GRK2 by itself is sufficient to decrease cAMP production but both GRK2 and β-arrestin-2 are required to decrease cell surface GPR3. GRK2 regulates GPR3 independently of its kinase activity since a kinase inactive GRK2-K220R mutant significantly decreased cAMP levels. However, GRK2-K220R and β-arrestin-2 do not diminish cell surface GPR3, suggesting that phosphorylation is required to induce GPR3 internalization. To understand which residues are targeted for desensitization, we mutated potential phosphorylation sites in the third intracellular loop and C-terminus and examined the effect on cAMP and receptor surface localization. Mutation of residues in the third intracellular loop dramatically increased cAMP levels whereas mutation of residues in the C-terminus produced cAMP levels comparable to GPR3 wild type. Interestingly, both mutations significantly reduced cell surface expression of GPR3. These results demonstrate that GPR3 signals at the plasma membrane and can be silenced by GRK2/β-arrestin overexpression. These results also strongly implicate the serine and/or threonine residues in the third

  17. Mutations within the Pathogenic Region of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 gK Signal Sequences Alter Cell Surface Expression and Neurovirulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matundan, Harry H.; Mott, Kevin R.; Akhtar, Aslam Abbasi; Breunig, Joshua J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT To investigate the role of the signal sequences of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) gK on virus replication and viral pathogenesis, we constructed recombinant viruses with or without mutations within the signal sequences of gK. These recombinant viruses expressed two additional copies of the mutated (MgK) or native (NgK) form of the gK gene in place of the latency-associated transcript with a myc epitope tag to facilitate detection at their 3′ ends. The replication of MgK virus was similar to that of NgK both in vitro and in vivo, as well as in the trigeminal ganglia (TG) of latently infected mice. The levels of gB and gK transcripts in the corneas, TG, and brains of infected mice on days 3 and 5 postinfection were markedly virus and time dependent, as well as tissue specific. Mutation in the signal sequence of gK in MgK virus blocked cell surface expression of gK-myc in rabbit skin cells, increased 50% lethal dose, and decreased corneal scarring in ocularly infected mice compared to the NgK or revertant (RgK) virus. MgK and NgK viruses, and not the RgK virus, showed a reduced extent of explant reactivation at the lower dose of ocular infection but not at the higher dose. However, the time of reactivation was not affected by overexpression of the different forms of gK. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the 8mer peptide (ITAYGLVL) within the signal sequence of gK promotes cell surface expression of gK in infected cells and ocular pathogenesis in infected mice. IMPORTANCE In this study, we show for the first time that mutations within the signal sequence of gK blocked cell surface expression of inserted recombinant gK in vitro. Furthermore, this blockage in cell surface expression was correlated with higher 50% lethal dose and less corneal scarring in vivo. Thus, these studies point to a key role for the 8mer within the signal sequence of gK in HSV-1-induced pathogenicity. PMID:25505072

  18. Toward a fully integrated wireless wearable EEG-NIRS bimodal acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaie, J.; Grebe, R.; Abrishami Moghaddam, H.; Wallois, F.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Interactions between neuronal electrical activity and regional changes in microcirculation are assumed to play a major role in physiological brain activity and the development of pathological disorders, but have been poorly elucidated to date. There is a need for advanced diagnostic tools to investigate the relationships between these two physiological processes.Approach. To meet these needs, a wireless wearable system has been developed, which combines a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system using light emitting diodes (LEDs) as a light source and silicon photodiodes as a detector with an integrated electroencephalography (EEG) system. Main results. The main advantages over currently available devices are miniaturization and integration of a real-time electrical and hemodynamic activity monitor into one wearable device. For patient distributed monitoring and creating a body-area network, up to seven same devices can be connected to a single base station (PC) synchronously. Each node presents enhanced portability due to the wireless communication and highly integrated components resulting in a small, lightweight signal acquisition device. Further progress includes the individual control of LEDs output to automatically or interactively adjust emitted light to the actual local situation online, the use of silicon photodiodes with a safe low-voltage power supply, and an integrated three dimensional accelerometer for movement detection for the identification of motion artifacts. Significance. The device was tested and validated using our enhanced EEG-NIRS tissue mimicking fluid phantom for sensitivity mapping. Typical somatotopic electrical evoked potential experiments were performed to verify clinical applicability.

  19. NIRS report of investigations for the development of the next generation PET apparatus. FY 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    The present status of studies conducted by representative technology fields for the development of the next generation PET apparatus, and the summary of opinions given by investigators of nuclear medicine are reported. The former involves chapters of: Summary of representative technologies for the development of the next generation PET apparatus; Count rate analysis of PET apparatuses for the whole body and small animals by PET simulator; Scintillator; DOI (depth of interaction) detector-evaluation of the detector with 256-ch fluorescence polarization-photomultiplier tubes (FP-PMT) trial apparatus etc; Examination of multi-slice DOI-MR compatible detector for PET; Development of application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for processing the front-end signals; Detector simulation; Circuit for processing PET detector signals; Signal processing-coincidence circuit; Data collection system; Signal processing technology for the next generation PET; Reconstruction of statistical PET image using DOI signals; Monte Carlo simulation and Unique directions-PET for infants and for the whole body autonomic nervous systems and mental activity; and Actual design and evaluation of image reconstruction by statistical means. Opinions are: Progress of clinical PET apparatus; Desirable PET drugs and apparatuses; From clinical practice for the development of the next generation PET apparatus; >From clinical psychiatric studies for the development; From application of drug development and basic researches; From brain PET practice; From clinical PET practice; and The role of National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in PET development. Also involved is the publication list. (N.I.)

  20. Rare-Earth-Based Nanoparticles with Simultaneously Enhanced Near-Infrared (NIR)-Visible (Vis) and NIR-NIR Dual-Conversion Luminescence for Multimodal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dandan; Xu, Xiang; Hu, Min; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Jian; Meng, Lingjie

    2016-04-05

    Multifunctional NaGdF4 :Yb(3+),Er(3+),Nd(3+) @NaGdF4 :Nd(3+) core-shell nanoparticles (called Gd:Yb(3+),Er(3+),Nd(3+) @Gd:Nd(3+) NPs) with simultaneously enhanced near-infrared (NIR)-visible (Vis) and NIR-NIR dual-conversion (up and down) luminescence (UCL/DCL) properties were successfully synthesized. The resulting core-shell NPs simultaneously emitted enhanced UCL at 522, 540, and 660 nm and DCL at 980 and 1060 nm under the excitation of a 793 nm laser. The enhanced UCL and DCL can be explained by complex energy-transfer processes, Nd(3+) →Yb(3+) →Er(3+) and Nd(3+) →Yb(3+) , respectively. The effects of Nd(3+) concentration and shell thickness on the UCL/DCL properties were systematically investigated. The UCL and DCL properties of NPs were observed under the optimal conditions: a shell Nd(3+) content of 20 % and a shell thickness of approximately 5 nm. Moreover, the Gd:Yb(3+) ,Er(3+) ,Nd(3+) @Gd:20 % Nd(3+) NPs exhibited remarkable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) properties similar to that of a clinical agent, Omniscan. Thus, the core-shell NPs with excellent UCL/DCL/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) properties have great potential for both in vitro and in vivo multimodal bioimaging. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. VIS/NIR imaging application for honey floral origin determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minaei, Saeid; Shafiee, Sahameh; Polder, Gerrit; Moghadam-Charkari, Nasrolah; Ruth, van Saskia; Barzegar, Mohsen; Zahiri, Javad; Alewijn, Martin; Kuś, Piotr M.

    2017-01-01

    Nondestructive methods are of utmost importance for honey characterization. This study investigates the potential application of VIS-NIR hyperspectral imaging for detection of honey flower origin using machine learning techniques. Hyperspectral images of 52 honey samples were taken in

  2. NIR monitoring of in-service wood structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michela Zanetti; Timothy G. Rials; Douglas Rammer

    2005-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to study a set of Southern Yellow Pine boards exposed to natural weathering for different periods of exposure time. This non-destructive spectroscopic technique is a very powerful tool to predict the weathering of wood when used in combination with multivariate analysis (Principal Component Analysis, PCA, and Projection to...

  3. The recent NIR Flare of the Blazar 3C279

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L.; Recillas, E.; Porras, A.; Escobedo, G.; Chavushyan, V.

    2018-02-01

    In our monitoring campaign of AGNs we found the Blazar 3C279 flaring in the NIR on January 27th,2018. this source is cross identified with the quasar HB891253-055 and the Gamma-ray source 3FGLJ1256.1-054.

  4. NIR Flare of radio source GB60713+5738

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L.; Porras, A.; Recillas, E.; Chavushyan, V.

    2018-02-01

    In ATel#11331, we reported the NIR detection of the radio source GB60713+5738 and the suggestion of it being in flaring state. However, we found a previous observation in our archive that fully confirms a recent giant flare of this object.

  5. Greenhouse with a CPV system and NIR reflecting lamellae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.J. Janssen; B.A.J. van Tuijl; Gert-Jan Swinkels; Piet Sonneveld; G.P.A. Bot

    2012-01-01

    In previous research a new type of greenhouse with an integrated concentrated photovoltaic system (CPV) was developed based on a circular covering geometry and an integrated filter for reflecting the near infrared radiation (NIR) of the greenhouse and exploiting this radiation in a solar energy

  6. Design of a NIR concentrator system integrated in a greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piet Sonneveld; Gert-Jan Swinkels; H.J.J. Janssen; B.A.J. van Tuijl

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the design and development of a new type of greenhouse with an integrated filter for reflecting near infrared radiation (NIR) and a solar energy delivery system is described. Especially the optical parts as the spectral selective film, the properties of the circular reflector and the

  7. Solar Energy Delivering Greenhouse with an Integrated NIR filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, P.J.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Holterman, H.J.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2008-01-01

    The scope of this investigation is the design and development of a new type of greenhouse with an integrated filter for rejecting near infrared radiation (NIR) and a solar energy delivery system. Cooled greenhouses are an important issue to cope with the combination of high global radiation and high

  8. New NIR light-curve templates for classical Cepheids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inno, L.; Matsunaga, N.; Romaniello, M.; Bono, G.; Monson, A.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Persson, E.; Buonanno, R.; Freedman, W.; Gieren, W.; Groenewegen, M.A.T.; Ita, Y.; Laney, C.D.; Lemasle, B.; Madore, B.F.; Nagayama, T.; Nakada, Y.; Nonino, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Primas, F.; Scowcroft, V.; Soszyński, I.; Tanabé, T.; Udalski, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. We present new near-infrared (NIR) light-curve templates for fundamental (FU, J, H, KS) and first overtone (FO, J) classical Cepheids. The new templates together with period-luminosity and period-Wesenheit (PW) relations provide Cepheid distances from single-epoch observations with a precision

  9. TROPOMI and TROPI: UV/VIS/NIR/SWIR instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.; Eskes, H.; Weele, M. van; Veefkind, P.; Oss, R. van; Aben, I.; Jongma, R.T.; Landgraf, J.; Vries, J. de; Visser, H.

    2006-01-01

    TROPOMI (Tropospheric Ozone-Monitoring Instrument) is a five-channel UV-VIS-NIR-SWIR non-scanning nadir viewing imaging spectrometer that combines a wide swath (114°) with high spatial resolution (10 × 10 km 2). The instrument heritage consists of GOME on ERS-2, SCIAMACHY on Envisat and, especially,

  10. Less transpiration and good quality thanks to NIR-screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanghellini, C.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Hemming, S.; Jianfeng, D.

    2009-01-01

    Materials or additives for greenhouse cover that reflect or absorb a part of the NIR radiation can decrease the cooling requirement for the greenhouse and increase water use efficiency of the crop. By reducing the ventilation requirement, it might even decrease emissions of carbon dioxide from

  11. Developing and evaluating a multisite and multispecies NIR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To elevate NIR from proof-of-concept to a pilot scale, a large multisite, multispecies calibration was developed over iterative cycles to: (1) determine whether KPY in eucalypts can be predicted from a single calibration independent of site and species, and (2) identify the potential limits of accuracy and precision. This paper ...

  12. Greenhouse with a CPV system based on NIR reflecting lamellae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, P.J.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Janssen, H.J.J.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2012-01-01

    In previous research a new type of greenhouse with an integrated concentrated photovoltaic system (CPV) was developed based on a circular covering geometry and an integrated filter for reflecting the near infrared radiation (NIR) of the greenhouse and exploiting this radiation in a solar energy

  13. NIR light controlled photorelease of siRNA and its targeted intracellular delivery based on upconversion nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanmei; Liu, Fang; Liu, Xiaogang; Xing, Bengang

    2012-12-01

    The most notable role of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is in RNA interference (RNAi) and post-transcriptional gene silencing, which leads to a surge of interest in RNAi for both biomedical research and therapeutic applications. However, ``naked'' siRNA cannot cross cellular membranes freely because of highly negative charges which limits its utility for gene therapy. In this work, a system of near-infrared (NIR) light-induced siRNA release from silica coated upconversion nanoparticles (Si-UCNPs) is presented. These Si-UCNPs were functionalized with cationic photocaged linkers through covalent bonding, which could effectively adsorb anionic siRNA through electrostatic attractions and were easily internalized by living cells. Upon NIR light irradiation, the photocaged linker on the Si-UCNPs surface could be cleaved by the upconverted UV light and thus initiated the intracellular release of the siRNA. The in vitro agarose gel electrophoresis and intracellular imaging results indicated that the Si-UCNPs-based gene carrier system allowed effective siRNA delivery and the applications of NIR light instead of direct high energy UV irradiation may greatly guarantee less cell damage.The most notable role of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is in RNA interference (RNAi) and post-transcriptional gene silencing, which leads to a surge of interest in RNAi for both biomedical research and therapeutic applications. However, ``naked'' siRNA cannot cross cellular membranes freely because of highly negative charges which limits its utility for gene therapy. In this work, a system of near-infrared (NIR) light-induced siRNA release from silica coated upconversion nanoparticles (Si-UCNPs) is presented. These Si-UCNPs were functionalized with cationic photocaged linkers through covalent bonding, which could effectively adsorb anionic siRNA through electrostatic attractions and were easily internalized by living cells. Upon NIR light irradiation, the photocaged linker on the Si-UCNPs surface

  14. A Simple Network to Remove Interference in Surface EMG Signal from Single Gene Affected Phenylketonuria Patients for Proper Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Madhusmita; Basu, Mousumi; Pattanayak, Deba Narayan; Mohapatra, Sumant Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Recently Autosomal Recessive Single Gene (ARSG) diseases are highly effective to the children within the age of 5-10 years. One of the most ARSG disease is a Phenylketonuria (PKU). This single gene disease is associated with mutations in the gene that encodes the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH, Gene 612349). Through this mutation process, PAH of the gene affected patient can not properly manufacture PAH as a result the patients suffer from decreased muscle tone which shows abnormality in EMG signal. Here the extraction of the quality of the PKU affected EMG (PKU-EMG) signal is a keen interest, so it is highly necessary to remove the added ECG signal as well as the biological and instrumental noises. In the Present paper we proposed a method for detection and classification of the PKU affected EMG signal. Here Discrete Wavelet Transformation is implemented for extraction of the features of the PKU affected EMG signal. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) network is used for the classification of the signal. Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO) and Modified Genetic Algorithm (MGA) are used to train the ANFIS network. Simulation result shows that the proposed method gives better performance as compared to existing approaches. Also it gives better accuracy of 98.02% for the detection of PKU-EMG signal. The advantages of the proposed model is to use MGA and MPSO to train the parameters of ANFIS network for classification of ECG and EMG signal of PKU affected patients. The proposed method obtained the high SNR (18.13 ± 0.36 dB), SNR (0.52 ± 1.62 dB), RE (0.02 ± 0.32), MSE (0.64 ± 2.01), CC (0.99 ± 0.02), RMSE (0.75 ± 0.35) and MFRE (0.01 ± 0.02), RMSE (0.75 ± 0.35) and MFRE (0.01 ± 0.02). From authors knowledge, this is the first time a composite method is used for diagnosis of PKU affected patients. The accuracy (98.02%), sensitivity (100%) and specificity (98.59%) helps for proper clinical treatment. It can help for readers

  15. A Simple Network to Remove Interference in Surface EMG Signal from Single Gene Affected Phenylketonuria Patients for Proper Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Madhusmita; Basu, Mousumi; Pattanayak, Deba Narayan; Mohapatra, Sumant Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Recently Autosomal Recessive Single Gene (ARSG) diseases are highly effective to the children within the age of 5-10 years. One of the most ARSG disease is a Phenylketonuria (PKU). This single gene disease is associated with mutations in the gene that encodes the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH, Gene 612349). Through this mutation process, PAH of the gene affected patient can not properly manufacture PAH as a result the patients suffer from decreased muscle tone which shows abnormality in EMG signal. Here the extraction of the quality of the PKU affected EMG (PKU-EMG) signal is a keen interest, so it is highly necessary to remove the added ECG signal as well as the biological and instrumental noises. In the Present paper we proposed a method for detection and classification of the PKU affected EMG signal. Here Discrete Wavelet Transformation is implemented for extraction of the features of the PKU affected EMG signal. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) network is used for the classification of the signal. Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO) and Modified Genetic Algorithm (MGA) are used to train the ANFIS network. Simulation result shows that the proposed method gives better performance as compared to existing approaches. Also it gives better accuracy of 98.02% for the detection of PKU-EMG signal. The advantages of the proposed model is to use MGA and MPSO to train the parameters of ANFIS network for classification of ECG and EMG signal of PKU affected patients. The proposed method obtained the high SNR (18.13 ± 0.36 dB), SNR (0.52 ± 1.62 dB), RE (0.02 ± 0.32), MSE (0.64 ± 2.01), CC (0.99 ± 0.02), RMSE (0.75 ± 0.35) and MFRE (0.01 ± 0.02), RMSE (0.75 ± 0.35) and MFRE (0.01 ± 0.02). From authors knowledge, this is the first time a composite method is used for diagnosis of PKU affected patients. The accuracy (98.02%), sensitivity (100%) and specificity (98.59%) helps for proper clinical treatment. It can help for readers

  16. 7 CFR 801.7 - Reference methods and tolerances for near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Association Method A-20, Analysis for Starch in Corn, Second revision, April 15, 1986, Standard Analytical... Method 992.23. (3) NIRS corn oil, protein, and starch analyzers. The maintenance tolerances for the NIRS... Starch method, Corn Refiners Association Method A-20. (4) NIRS barley protein analyzers. The maintenance...

  17. Combined surface electromyography, near-infrared spectroscopy and acceleration recordings of muscle contraction: The effect of motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Kauppi

    2017-03-01

    This paper reviews the current state of noninvasive EMG and NIRS-based methods used to study muscle function. In addition, we built a combined sEMG/NIRS/ACM sensor to perform simultaneous measurements for static and dynamic exercises of a biceps brachii muscle. Further, we discuss the effect of muscle motion in response of NIRS and EMG when measured noninvasively. Based on our preliminary studies, both NIRS and EMG supply specific information on muscle activation, but their signal responses also showed similarities with acceleration signals which, in this case, were supposed to be solely sensitive to motions.

  18. Brain Specificity of Diffuse Optical Imaging: Improvements from Superficial Signal Regression and Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Gregg, Nicholas M.; White, Brian R.; Zeff, Benjamin W.; Berger, Andrew J.; Culver, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a portable monitor of cerebral hemodynamics with wide clinical potential. However, in fNIRS, the vascular signal from the brain is often obscured by vascular signals present in the scalp and skull. In this paper, we evaluate two methods for improving in vivo data from adult human subjects through the use of high-density diffuse optical tomography (DOT). First, we test whether we can extend superficial regression methods (which utilize the multi...

  19. Signal detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholomier, M.

    1985-01-01

    In a scanning electron microscope, whatever is the measured signal, the same set is found: incident beam, sample, signal detection, signal amplification. The resulting signal is used to control the spot luminosity with the observer cathodoscope. This is synchronized with the beam scanning on the sample; on the cathodoscope, the image in secondary electrons, backscattered electrons,... of the sample surface is reconstituted. The best compromise must be found between a register time low enough to remove eventual variations (under the incident beam) of the nature of the observed phenomenon, and a good spatial resolution of the image and a signal-to-noise ratio high enough. The noise is one of the basic limitations of the scanning electron microscope performance. The whose measurement line must be optimized to reduce it [fr

  20. Controlling Cell Functions and Fate with Surfaces and Hydrogels: The Role of Material Features in Cell Adhesion and Signal Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Ventre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In their natural environment, cells are constantly exposed to a cohort of biochemical and biophysical signals that govern their functions and fate. Therefore, materials for biomedical applications, either in vivo or in vitro, should provide a replica of the complex patterns of biological signals. Thus, the development of a novel class of biomaterials requires, on the one side, the understanding of the dynamic interactions occurring at the interface of cells and materials; on the other, it requires the development of technologies able to integrate multiple signals precisely organized in time and space. A large body of studies aimed at investigating the mechanisms underpinning cell-material interactions is mostly based on 2D systems. While these have been instrumental in shaping our understanding of the recognition of and reaction to material stimuli, they lack the ability to capture central features of the natural cellular environment, such as dimensionality, remodelling and degradability. In this work, we review the fundamental traits of material signal sensing and cell response. We then present relevant technologies and materials that enable fabricating systems able to control various aspects of cell behavior, and we highlight potential differences that arise from 2D and 3D settings.

  1. A MATLAB-based graphical user interface for the identification of muscular activations from surface electromyography signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengarelli, Alessandro; Cardarelli, Stefano; Verdini, Federica; Burattini, Laura; Fioretti, Sandro; Di Nardo, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    In this paper a graphical user interface (GUI) built in MATLAB® environment is presented. This interactive tool has been developed for the analysis of superficial electromyography (sEMG) signals and in particular for the assessment of the muscle activation time intervals. After the signal import, the tool performs a first analysis in a totally user independent way, providing a reliable computation of the muscular activation sequences. Furthermore, the user has the opportunity to modify each parameter of the on/off identification algorithm implemented in the presented tool. The presence of an user-friendly GUI allows the immediate evaluation of the effects that the modification of every single parameter has on the activation intervals recognition, through the real-time updating and visualization of the muscular activation/deactivation sequences. The possibility to accept the initial signal analysis or to modify the on/off identification with respect to each considered signal, with a real-time visual feedback, makes this GUI-based tool a valuable instrument in clinical, research applications and also in an educational perspective.

  2. In-line near-infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) for in situ evaluation of the transesterification reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontalvo-Gómez, Miriam; Colucci, José A; Velez, Natasha; Romañach, Rodolfo J

    2013-10-01

    Biodiesel was synthesized from different commercially available oils while in-line Raman and near-infrared (NIR) spectra were obtained simultaneously, and the spectral changes that occurred during the reaction were evaluated with principal component analysis (PCA). Raman and NIR spectra were acquired every 30 s with fiber optic probes inserted into the reaction vessel. The reaction was performed at 60-70 °C using magnetic stirring. The time of reaction was 90 min, and during this time, 180 Raman and NIR spectra were collected. NIR spectra were collected using a transflectance probe and an optical path length of 1 mm at 8 cm(-1) spectral resolution and averaging 32 scans; for Raman spectra a 3 s exposure time and three accumulations were adequate for the analysis. Raman spectroscopy showed the ester conversion as evidenced by the displacement of the C=O band from 1747 to 1744 cm(-1) and the decrease in the intensity of the 1000-1050 cm(-1) band and the 1405 cm(-1) band as methanol was consumed in the reaction. NIR spectra also showed the decrease in methanol concentration with the band in the 4750-5000 cm(-1) region; this signal is present in the spectra of the transesterification reaction but not in the neat oils. The variations in the intensity of the methanol band were a main factor in the in-line monitoring of the transesterification reaction using Raman and NIR spectroscopy. The score plot of the first principal component showed the progress of the reaction. The final product was analyzed using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy and using mid-infrared spectroscopy, confirming the conversion of the oils to biodiesel.

  3. Deep Learning for hybrid EEG-fNIRS Brain-Computer Interface: application to Motor Imagery Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarelli, Antonio Maria; Croce, Pierpaolo; Merla, Arcangelo; Zappasodi, Filippo

    2018-02-15

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) refers to procedures that link the central nervous system to a device. BCI was historically performed using Electroencephalography (EEG). In the last years, encouraging results were obtained by combining EEG with other neuroimaging technologies, such as functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS). A crucial step of BCI is brain state classication from recorded signal features. Deep Articial Neural Networks (DNNs) recently reached unprecedented complex classication outcomes. These performances were achieved through increased computational power, ecient learning algorithms, valuable activation functions, and restricted or back-fed neurons connections. By expecting signicant overall BCI performances, we investigated the capabilities of combining EEG and fNIRS recordings with state-of-the-art Deep Learning procedures. Approach. We performed a guided Left and Right Hand Motor Imagery task on 15 subjects with a xed classication response time of 1 second and overall experiment length of 10 minutes. Left vs. Right classication accuracy of a DNN in the multi-modal recording modality was estimated and it was compared to standalone EEG and fNIRS and other classiers. At a group level we obtained signicant increase in performance when considering multi-modal recordings and DNN classier with synergistic effect. Signicance. BCI performances can be signicantly improved by employing multi-modal recordings that provide electrical and hemodynamic brain activity information, in combination with advanced non-linear Deep Learning classication procedures. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Temporal structure of an electric signal produced upon interaction of radiation from a HF laser with the bottom surface of a water column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, Sergei N; Kazantsev, S Yu; Kononov, I G; Pashinin, Pavel P; Firsov, K N

    2009-01-01

    Generation of an electric signal is investigated when a HF-laser pulse interacts with the lower surface of a water column in a cell with a bottom transparent to laser radiation, while the upper surface of the water column remains open. The electric signal exhibits a temporal structure of two spikes spaced by time τ which is linearly dependent on the laser output energy. It is found that the value of τ (up to 1.3 ms) is an order of magnitude greater than the time during which the vapour pressure in a cavity produced due to the volume explosive boiling of water in the exposed area is greater than the atmospheric pressure. The second spike was determined to appear upon the collapse of the vapour cavity. A mathematical model is constructed that explains the motion of the water column above the vapour cavity taking into account the temporal evolution of the vapour pressure above it. It is shown that the prolonged lifetime of the vapour cavity after the decrease in the vapour pressure down to the atmospheric value is caused by the inertial motion of the water column acquiring the velocity at the initial stage of the cavity expansion. The calculated time of the water column motion agrees well with the experimental time interval between the spikes of an electric signal. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  5. Determination of Aluminium Content in Aluminium Hydroxide Formulation by FT-NIR Transmittance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Xuxin; Zheng, Yiwu; Søndergaard, Ib

    2007-01-01

    A method for determining the aluminium content of an aluminium hydroxide suspension using near infrared (NIR) transmittance spectroscopy has been developed. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) was used as reference method. The factors influencing the NIR analysis......-AES and NIR transmittance spectroscopy exhibit comparable precision and accuracy. The NIR method provides several advantages: no complicated sample preparation; easy to operate; fast and non-destructive. In conclusion, NIR transmittance spectroscopy can be an alternative analytical method for determining...

  6. Methods of creating solar-reflective nonwhite surfaces and their application to residential roofing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Berdahl, Paul; Akbari, Hashem [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Miller, William [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, MS6070, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Joedicke, Ingo [ISP Mineral Products, Inc., 34 Charles St., Hagerstown, MD 21740 (United States); Reilly, Joseph [American Rooftile Coatings, 250 Viking Avenue, Brea, CA 92821 (United States); Suzuki, Yoshi [MCA Clay Tile, 1985 Sampson Avenue, Corona, CA 92879 (United States); Vondran, Michelle [Steelscape Inc., 1200 Arrow Route, Rancho Cucamonga, CA 91730 (United States)

    2007-02-15

    We describe methods for creating solar-reflective nonwhite surfaces and their application to a wide variety of residential roofing materials, including metal, clay tile, concrete tile, wood, and asphalt shingle. Reflectance in the near-infrared (NIR) spectrum (0.7-2.5{mu}m) is maximized by coloring a topcoat with pigments that weakly absorb and (optionally) strongly backscatter NIR radiation, and by adding an NIR-reflective basecoat (e.g., one colored with titanium dioxide rutile white) if both the topcoat and the substrate weakly reflect NIR radiation. Coated steel and glazed clay-tile roofing products achieved NIR reflectances of up to 0.50 and 0.75, respectively, using only cool topcoats. Gray-cement concrete tiles achieved NIR reflectances as high as 0.60 with coatings colored by NIR-scattering pigments. Such tiles could attain NIR reflectances of up to 0.85 by overlaying a white basecoat with a topcoat colored by NIR-transparent organic pigments. Granule-surfaced asphalt shingles achieved NIR reflectances as high as 0.45 when the granules were covered with a white basecoat and a cool color topcoat. (author)

  7. [In hospital and mid-term outcome of patients with NIR stent implantation: multicenter ESPORT-NIR registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, A; García, E; Seabra, R; Bordes, P; Bethencourt, A; Rigla, J

    2001-05-01

    Despite improvements in the results and techniques of catheter-based revascularization, few studies have evaluated the clinical results of the application of new stent designs. We describe the in-hospital and mid-term outcome of patients undergoing a stent NIR implantation. At least 1 Stent NIR was implanted in 1.004 patients (1.136 lesions) recruited from 50 centers in an international, multicenter, prospective, registry (Spain and Portugal NIR stent registry). Inclusion criteria were objective coronary ischemia related to a severe de novo lesion or first restenosis in native vessels with a reference diameter >= 2.75 mm. The primary end-point was the incidence of major adverse cardiac events within the first 7 months of follow-up. The mean age of the patients was 60 years and 82% were male. Angioplasty was indicated due to unstable angina in 61% of the cases. Stent implantation was successfully achieved in 99.6%. Clinical success (angiographic success without in-hospital major events) was achieved in 98.6% of patients. The rate of angiographic restenosis (> 50% stenosis narrowing) was 16% (CI 95%; 11.7-21.2). The accumulated major cardiac adverse event rate at seven months of follow-up was 8.7%: death (0.9%), acute myocardial infarction (1.2%) and target lesion revascularization (6.6%). In the wide setting of the population included in the ESPORT-NIR registry, stent NIR implantation was a highly effective therapy with a good mid-term clinical and angiographic outcome.

  8. A field experiment on microwave forest radiometry: L-band signal behaviour for varying conditions of surface wetness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, J. P.; Wigneron, J. P.; Van de Grind, A. A.

    2007-01-01

    France, using a multi-angle L-band (1.4 GHz) radiometer to measure from above the forest at horizontal polarization. At the same time, ground measurements were taken of soil and litter moisture content, while precipitation was also permanently monitored. This experiment was done in the context...... of the upcoming SMOS mission in order to improve our understanding of the behaviour of the L-band signal from forested areas for different wetness conditions and viewing angles. This is especially relevant for solving the problem of heterogeneity since a large fraction of SMOS pixels (~30x30 km²) is partially...... covered by forest. This paper describes the objectives and the overall set-up of the Bray-2004 experiment and shows some first results. The greater part of the horizontally polarized L-band signal is found to be dominated by the influence of physical temperature. Variations in soil and/or litter moisture...

  9. Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation Controlled by Surface Electromyographic Signals Produced by the Volitional Activation of the Same Muscle:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Søren; Fin, Biering-Sørensen; Andersen, Ole Trier

    1997-01-01

    Using the voluntary EMG as a control signal for the stimulation of the same muscle necessitates elimination of stimulus artifacts and the muscle response caused by the stimulation. The stimulus artifacts are easily eliminated by shutting down the amplifier during stimulation. The muscle response ...... comparable with the background noise. It is thus possible to extract the voluntary EMG from a partly paralysed muscle and use it for controlling the stimulation of the same muscle.......Using the voluntary EMG as a control signal for the stimulation of the same muscle necessitates elimination of stimulus artifacts and the muscle response caused by the stimulation. The stimulus artifacts are easily eliminated by shutting down the amplifier during stimulation. The muscle response...

  10. Sensitivity analysis of 6S-based look-up table for surface reflectance retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Suk; Yeom, Jong Min; Lee, Han Lim; Kim, Jae-Jin; Han, Kyung-Soo

    2015-02-01

    We created a look-up table (LUT) based on the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) radiative transfer model, which reduces large errors in the surface reflectance retrieval under high solar zenith angle (SZA) conditions. The LUT was calculated in 10° SZA intervals containing pre-computed atmospheric correction coefficients as a function of discretized pre-defined input parameters. In order to validate the performance of the LUT, we compared the retrieved surface reflectance using the LUT against a retrieval performed using the simplified method of atmospheric correction (SMAC). These results were validated against MODIS reflectance data (MOD09). The surface reflectance obtained using the LUT was highly correlated with the MOD09, with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.88 (red band) and 0.94 (NIR). The retrieved surface reflectance had a root mean-squared error of 0.0132 (red band) and 0.0191 (NIR). Accuracy of surface reflectance retrieved using our LUT with a 10° SZA interval was better than that of the obtained using SMAC. However, certain errors were still present particularly at high SZAs. In order to increase the accuracy at high SZAs, new LUT was computed with a finer SZA interval (5°) at high SZAs. In both red and NIR bands, the R2, fine SZA interval LUT (0.92) were compared to the coarse SZA interval LUT (0.74) of around 65°. Additionally, the run time for surface reflectance retrievals with our LUT was almost comparable to that of the SMAC, an operational model. This study demonstrates that proper SZAs interval for making LUT in high SZA range.

  11. M3BA: A Mobile, Modular, Multimodal Biosignal Acquisition Architecture for Miniaturized EEG-NIRS-Based Hybrid BCI and Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Luhmann, Alexander; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Sander, Tilmann; Muller, Klaus-Robert

    2017-06-01

    For the further development of the fields of telemedicine, neurotechnology, and brain-computer interfaces, advances in hybrid multimodal signal acquisition and processing technology are invaluable. Currently, there are no commonly available hybrid devices combining bioelectrical and biooptical neurophysiological measurements [here electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)]. Our objective was to design such an instrument in a miniaturized, customizable, and wireless form. We present here the design and evaluation of a mobile, modular, multimodal biosignal acquisition architecture (M3BA) based on a high-performance analog front-end optimized for biopotential acquisition, a microcontroller, and our openNIRS technology. The designed M3BA modules are very small configurable high-precision and low-noise modules (EEG input referred noise @ 500 SPS 1.39 μV pp , NIRS noise equivalent power NEP 750 nm = 5.92 pW pp , and NEP 850 nm = 4.77 pW pp ) with full input linearity, Bluetooth, 3-D accelerometer, and low power consumption. They support flexible user-specified biopotential reference setups and wireless body area/sensor network scenarios. Performance characterization and in-vivo experiments confirmed functionality and quality of the designed architecture. Telemedicine and assistive neurotechnology scenarios will increasingly include wearable multimodal sensors in the future. The M3BA architecture can significantly facilitate future designs for research in these and other fields that rely on customized mobile hybrid biosignal modal biosignal acquisition architecture (M3BA), multimodal, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), wireless body area network (WBAN), wireless body sensor network (WBSN).

  12. The NIR transmission spectrum of Jupiter from the observation of a Ganymede’s eclipse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montañés-Rodríguez P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report the NIR transmission spectrum of Jupiter, with high signal-to-noise ratio, as if it were a transiting planet. Our technique was to observe Ganymede, when crossing Jupiter’s shadow. During the eclipse, the spectral features of the Jovian atmosphere are imprinted in the sunlight that, after passing through Jupiter’s planetary limb, is reflected from Ganymede towards the Earth. The ratio spectrum of Ganymede before and during the eclipse removes the spectral features of the Sun, the local telluric atmosphere on top of the telescopes, and the spectral albedo of Ganymede. Ganymede is a practically atmosphere-less body and do not suffer any significant weather variability.

  13. Polyphenols attached graphene nanosheets for high efficiency NIR mediated photodestruction of cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdolahad, M.; Janmaleki, M.; Mohajerzadeh, S.; Akhavan, O.; Abbasi, S.

    2013-01-01

    Green tea-reduced graphene oxide (GT-rGO) sheets have been exploited for high efficiency near infrared (NIR) photothermal therapy of HT29 and SW48 colon cancer cells. The biocompatibility of GT-rGO sheets was investigated by means of MTT assays. The polyphenol constituents of GT-rGO act as effective targeting ligands for the attachment of rGO to the surface of cancer cells, as confirmed by the cell granularity test in flow cytometry assays and also by scanning electron microscopy. The photo-thermal destruction of higher metastatic cancer cells (SW48) is found to be more than 20% higher than that of the lower metastatic one (HT29). The photo-destruction efficiency factor of the GT-rGO is found to be at least two orders of magnitude higher than other carbon-based nano-materials. Such excellent cancer cell destruction efficiency provided application of a low concentration of rGO (3 mg/L) and NIR laser power density (0.25 W/cm 2 ) in our photo-thermal therapy of cancer cells. Highlights: ► Attachment of polyphenol groups to graphene nano-sheets during reduction process by green tea. ► Selective attachment of polyphenols to cancer cell membrane. ► High efficiency photothermal therapy of colon cancer cells with green-tea reduced graphene oxide

  14. Near-infrared (NIR) disrelation mapping analysis for poly(lactic) acid nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Mizukado, Junji

    2017-06-01

    Near infrared (NIR) imaging data of poly(lactic) acid (PLA) nanocomposite were analysed by disrelation mapping to prove the possible interaction between PLA matrix and montmorillonite-based nanoclay. The basic concept of disrelation mapping can be viewed as a spatial filter based on two-dimensional (2D) correlation function to elucidate specific areas where disrelated variation between intensities occurs. Correlation intensity develops on disrelation map only if spectral intensities at v1 and v2 within the local spatial area vary in a dissimilar manner. This feature is especially suitable for identifying the area where interaction between components occurs, which is not fully detected by the conventional visualizations based on a single wavenumber. Disrelation maps constructed with NIR bands arising from the crystalline and amorphous components of the PLA. The pattern appearing on the disrelation map indicated different distributions of the crystalline and amorphous components of the nanocomposite sample. In addition, the development of disrelation intensity becomes acute especially at the area adjacent to the clay, revealing that the clay essentially works as nucleating agent to cause the additional development of crystalline structure of PLA by lowering the surface energy barrier.

  15. Polyphenols attached graphene nanosheets for high efficiency NIR mediated photodestruction of cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdolahad, M. [Nano-Electronics and Thin Film Lab., Nano-Electronic Center of Excellence, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395/515, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Science and Technology Park, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Janmaleki, M. [Medical Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering Research Center, Shahid-Beheshti University of Medical Science P.O. Box 1985717443Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohajerzadeh, S., E-mail: mohajer@ut.ac.ir [Nano-Electronics and Thin Film Lab., Nano-Electronic Center of Excellence, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395/515, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Science and Technology Park, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhavan, O. [Department of Physics, Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 14588 -89694, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abbasi, S. [Medical Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering Research Center, Shahid-Beheshti University of Medical Science P.O. Box 1985717443Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    Green tea-reduced graphene oxide (GT-rGO) sheets have been exploited for high efficiency near infrared (NIR) photothermal therapy of HT29 and SW48 colon cancer cells. The biocompatibility of GT-rGO sheets was investigated by means of MTT assays. The polyphenol constituents of GT-rGO act as effective targeting ligands for the attachment of rGO to the surface of cancer cells, as confirmed by the cell granularity test in flow cytometry assays and also by scanning electron microscopy. The photo-thermal destruction of higher metastatic cancer cells (SW48) is found to be more than 20% higher than that of the lower metastatic one (HT29). The photo-destruction efficiency factor of the GT-rGO is found to be at least two orders of magnitude higher than other carbon-based nano-materials. Such excellent cancer cell destruction efficiency provided application of a low concentration of rGO (3 mg/L) and NIR laser power density (0.25 W/cm{sup 2}) in our photo-thermal therapy of cancer cells. Highlights: ► Attachment of polyphenol groups to graphene nano-sheets during reduction process by green tea. ► Selective attachment of polyphenols to cancer cell membrane. ► High efficiency photothermal therapy of colon cancer cells with green-tea reduced graphene oxide.

  16. Development of VIS/NIR spectroscopic system for real-time prediction of fresh pork quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyun; Peng, Yankun; Zhao, Songwei; Sasao, Akira

    2013-05-01

    Quality attributes of fresh meat will influence nutritional value and consumers' purchasing power. The aim of the research was to develop a prototype for real-time detection of quality in meat. It consisted of hardware system and software system. A VIS/NIR spectrograph in the range of 350 to 1100 nm was used to collect the spectral data. In order to acquire more potential information of the sample, optical fiber multiplexer was used. A conveyable and cylindrical device was designed and fabricated to hold optical fibers from multiplexer. High power halogen tungsten lamp was collected as the light source. The spectral data were obtained with the exposure time of 2.17ms from the surface of the sample by press down the trigger switch on the self-developed system. The system could automatically acquire, process, display and save the data. Moreover the quality could be predicted on-line. A total of 55 fresh pork samples were used to develop prediction model for real time detection. The spectral data were pretreated with standard normalized variant (SNV) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to develop prediction model. The correlation coefficient and root mean square error of the validation set for water content and pH were 0.810, 0.653, and 0.803, 0.098 respectively. The research shows that the real-time non-destructive detection system based on VIS/NIR spectroscopy can be efficient to predict the quality of fresh meat.

  17. Shed a light of wireless technology on portable mobile design of NIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunlong; Li, Ting

    2016-03-01

    Mobile internet is growing rapidly driven by high-tech companies including the popular Apple and Google. The wireless mini-NIRS is believed to deserve a great spread future, while there is sparse report on wireless NIRS device and even for the reported wireless NIRS, its wireless design is scarcely presented. Here we focused on the wireless design of NIRS devices. The widely-used wireless communication standards and wireless communication typical solutions were employed into our NIRS design and then compared on communication efficiency, distance, error rate, low-cost, power consumption, and stabilities, based on the requirements of NIRS applications. The properly-performed wireless communication methods matched with the characteristics of NIRS are picked out. Finally, we realized one recommended wireless communication in our NIRS, developed a test platform on wireless NIRS and tested the full properties on wireless communication. This study elaborated the wireless communication methods specified for NIRS and suggested one implementation with one example fully illustrated, which support the future mobile design on NIRS devices.

  18. An electrochemical aptasensor for detection of IFN-γ using graphene and a dual signal amplification strategy based on the exonuclease-mediated surface-initiated enzymatic polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Xiang, Guiming; Jiang, Dongneng; Liu, Linlin; Liu, Fei; Luo, Fukang; Pu, Xiaoyun

    2015-11-21

    Tuberculosis is one of the major health problems in the world. The cytokine interferon γ (IFN-γ) is associated with the disease-specific immune responses and is used as a tuberculosis diagnosis marker. In this study, a novel electrochemical aptasensor was developed for IFN-γ detection based on the exonuclease-catalyzed target recycling and the TdT-mediated cascade signal amplification. To construct the aptasensor, a previously hybridized double-stranded DNA (capture probe hybridization with a complementary IFN-γ binding aptamer) was immobilized on a gold nanoparticle-graphene (Au-Gra) nanohybrid film-modified electrode. In the presence of IFN-γ, the formation of an aptamer-IFN-γ complex leads to the liberation of the aptamer from the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Using exonuclease, the aptamer was selectively digested, and IFN-γ was released for the target recycling. A large amount of single-stranded capture probes formed and led to the hybridization with signal probe-labelled Au@Fe3O4. Then, the labelled signal probe sequences were catalyzed at the 3'-OH group by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) to form a long single-stranded DNA structure. As a result, the electron mediator hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride ([Ru(NH3)6](3+)) electrostatically adsorbed onto DNA producing a strong electrochemical signal which can be used to quantitatively measure the IFN-γ levels. With the conducting nanomaterial Au-Gra as a substrate and the target recycling-based surface-initiated enzymatic polymerization-mediated signal amplification strategy, the proposed aptasensor displayed a broad linearity with a low detection limit of 0.003 ng mL(-1). Moreover, the resulting aptasensor exhibited good specificity, acceptable reproducibility and stability, which makes this method versatile and suitable for detecting IFN-γ and other biomolecules.

  19. DEPENDENCE OF THE SURFACE-ENHANCED RAMAN SCATTERING SIGNAL ON THE SHAPE OF SILVER NANOSTRUCTURES GROWN IN THE SiO2 /n-Si POROUS TEMPLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Yakimchuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface-enhanced Raman scattering is a powerful method used in chemoand biosensorics. The aim of this work was to determine the relationship between the signal of Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and the shape of silver nanostructures under the influence of laser radiation with different power.Plasmonic nanostructures were synthesized in silicon dioxide pores on monocrystalline silicon n-type substrate. The pores were formed using ion-track technology and selective chemical etching. Silver deposition was carried out by galvanic displacement method. Synthesis time was chosen as a parameter that allows controlling the shape of a silver deposit in the pores of silicon dioxide on the surface of single-crystal n-silicon during electrodeless deposition. Deposition time directly effects on the shape of metal nanostructures.Analysis of the dynamics of changing the morphology of the metal deposit showed that as the deposition time increases, the metal evolves from individual metallic crystallites within the pores at a short deposition time to dendritic-like nanostructures at a long time. The dependence of the intensity of Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra on the shape of the silver deposit is studied at the powers of a green laser (λ = 532 nm from 2.5 μW to 150 μW on the model dye analyte Rodamin 6G. The optimum shape of the silver deposit and laser power is analyzed from this point of view design of active surfaces for Surface-enhanced Raman scattering with nondestructive control of small concentrations of substances.The silver nanostructures obtained in porous template SiO2 on n-type silicon substrate could be used as plasmon-active surfaces for nondestructive investigations of substances with low concentrations at low laser powers. 

  20. Human brain activity with functional NIR optical imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qingming

    2001-08-01

    In this paper we reviewed the applications of functional near infrared optical imager in human brain activity. Optical imaging results of brain activity, including memory for new association, emotional thinking, mental arithmetic, pattern recognition ' where's Waldo?, occipital cortex in visual stimulation, and motor cortex in finger tapping, are demonstrated. It is shown that the NIR optical method opens up new fields of study of the human population, in adults under conditions of simulated or real stress that may have important effects upon functional performance. It makes practical and affordable for large populations the complex technology of measuring brain function. It is portable and low cost. In cognitive tasks subjects could report orally. The temporal resolution could be millisecond or less in theory. NIR method will have good prospects in exploring human brain secret.

  1. FT-NIR: A Tool for Process Monitoring and More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martoccia, Domenico; Lutz, Holger; Cohen, Yvan; Jerphagnon, Thomas; Jenelten, Urban

    2018-03-30

    With ever-increasing pressure to optimize product quality, to reduce cost and to safely increase production output from existing assets, all combined with regular changes in terms of feedstock and operational targets, process monitoring with traditional instruments reaches its limits. One promising answer to these challenges is in-line, real time process analysis with spectroscopic instruments, and above all Fourier-Transform Near Infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR). Its potential to afford decreased batch cycle times, higher yields, reduced rework and minimized batch variance is presented and application examples in the field of fine chemicals are given. We demonstrate that FT-NIR can be an efficient tool for improved process monitoring and optimization, effective process design and advanced process control.

  2. Diagnosis method of cucumber downy mildew with NIR hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Youwen; Li, Tianlai; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2011-11-01

    This study was carried out to develop a hyperspectral imaging system in the near infrared (NIR) region (900-1700 nm) to diagnose cucumber downy mildew. Hyperspectral images were acquired from each diseased cucumber leaf samples with downy mildew and then their spectral data were extracted. Spectral data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the high dimensionality of the data and for selecting some important wavelengths. Out of 256 wavelengths, only two wavelengths (1426 and 1626nm) of first PC were selected as the optimum wavelengths for the diagnosis of cucumber downy mildew. The data analysis showed that it is possible to diagnose cucumber downy mildew with few numbers of wavelengths on the basis of their statistical image features and histogram features. The results revealed the potentiality of NIR hyperspectral imaging as an objective and non-destructive method for the authentication and diagnosis of cucumber downy mildew.

  3. Selective Linear-Regression Model for hand posture discrimination and grip force estimation using surface electromyogram signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanoi, Yusuke; Morishita, Soichiro; Kato, Ryu; Yokoi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes the method of hand posture discrimination and grip force estimation by means of Selective Linear-Regression Model. Generally, myoelectric hands which discriminate hand posture and estimate grip force at the same time result in unsatisfying results because of complication of EMG signals. Therefore, most of myoelectric hands can control either the force or the posture. However, the proposed method is able to discriminate hand posture and to estimate grip force simultaneously while the accuracy results are achieved. In experiments, EMG signals were measured while hand posture and grip force were changing. As a result, it appears that EMG features increase monotonically with grip force. In addition, increasing forms of EMG features are different on each posture. Based on these experimental results, the authors propose the method for both discriminating hand posture and estimating grip force by means of several linear-regression models which utilize the relationship between the grip force and EMG features on each posture. To evaluate the effectiveness of this method, the failure rates of discrimination and the estimation errors of the proposed method were employed. The results indicate that failure rates and estimation errors are improved significantly.

  4. A photosensitive liposome with NIR light triggered doxorubicin release as a combined photodynamic-chemo therapy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingpo; Li, Wei; Di, Haixiao; Luo, Lihua; Zhu, Chunqi; Yang, Jie; Yin, Xiaoyi; Yin, Hang; Gao, Jianqing; Du, Yongzhong; You, Jian

    2018-02-03

    The targeted drug delivery with the help of nanocarriers and the controlled drug release at the lesion sites are the most effective ways to enhance therapeutic efficacy and reduce side effects. Here, we built a light sensitive liposome (Her2-I&D-LSL) which was formed by a special phospholipid (PLsPC) and a hydrophobically modified photosensitizer (ICG-ODA). DOX was employed as the therapeutic drug, encapsulating in the internal phase of the liposome whose surface was modified by Her2 antibodies for recognizing tumor cells with high Her2 receptor expression. Mediated by NIR light, Her2-I&D-LSL was proved to generate sufficient ROS to realize PDT, which then triggered the release of DOX for combined chemotherapy. The ROS generation and DOX release were verified to be strictly controlled by NIR light and the proportion of ICG-ODA. Thanks to the mediation of Her2 receptor, the specific DOX release and the combination of PDT-chemotherapy triggered by NIR light, Her2-I&D-LSL showed a significant accumulation in MCF7 and SKOV3 tumors, thus leading to the strongest tumor growth inhibition effect compared to PDT alone (I-LSL) or chemotherapy alone (D-LSL). Her2-I&D-LSL also possessed a great biocompatibility due to the targeted treatment, holding promise for future cancer therapy in clinic. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. NIR observations of V404 Cyg with PANIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A. W.; Knigge, C.; Meisenheimer, K.; Ibanez, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    We report on NIR photometry of the black hole X-ray transient, V404 Cyg during its current outburst (GCN #17929). The source was observed between 27 Jun 22:47 UT - 29 Jun UT 02:28 with the PANoramic Near Infrared Camera (PANIC) on the 2.2m telescope at the Centro Astron & oacute;mico Hispano-Alem & aacute;n (CAHA) on Calar Alto, Spain.

  6. Relationship between muscle oxygenation by NIRS and blood lactate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Guodong [School of Physical Education, Jianghan University, Hubei Wuhan 430056 (China); Mao Zongzhen; Ye Yanjie; Lv Kunru, E-mail: xguodong@wipe.edu.cn [School of Health Sciences, Wuhan Institute of Physical Education, Hubei Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship of muscle oxygenation in term of oxy-hemoglobin concentration change ({Delta}HbO{sub 2}) by NIRS and blood lactate (BLA) in local skeletal muscle and evaluate the capability of NIRS in the research of exercise physiology Twenty-three athlete in the national fin-swimming team took the increasing load training on the power bicycle while their {Delta}HbO{sub 2} and BLA were simultaneously recorded. The initial powers used in the training were set as 100 w for males and 40 w for females. During the experiment, the power kept constant for 3 min before each abrupt increment of 30 w until the limit of the athlete's capability. Statistical analysis and data visualization were performed. Following the increasing load training, {Delta}HbO{sub 2} step-likely increased in the phase of aerobic metabolism but linearly decreased in the phase of anaerobic metabolism. The variation tendency of BLA was the same as {Delta}HbO{sub 2} and the concurrency of crucial turning points between {Delta}HbO{sub 2} and BLA was revealed. This relationship between {Delta}HbO{sub 2} and BLA presented in the increasing load training suggested that {Delta}HbO{sub 2} might be capable for taking the place of the invasively measured parameter BLA. Considering that {Delta}HbO{sub 2} can be noninvasively measured by NIRS, {Delta}HbO{sub 2} has the potential in the evaluation of athletes' physiological function and training effect on the athletes and accordingly NIRS can be well used in this field.

  7. Relationship between muscle oxygenation by NIRS and blood lactate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guodong; Mao Zongzhen; Ye Yanjie; Lv Kunru

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship of muscle oxygenation in term of oxy-hemoglobin concentration change (ΔHbO 2 ) by NIRS and blood lactate (BLA) in local skeletal muscle and evaluate the capability of NIRS in the research of exercise physiology Twenty-three athlete in the national fin-swimming team took the increasing load training on the power bicycle while their ΔHbO 2 and BLA were simultaneously recorded. The initial powers used in the training were set as 100 w for males and 40 w for females. During the experiment, the power kept constant for 3 min before each abrupt increment of 30 w until the limit of the athlete's capability. Statistical analysis and data visualization were performed. Following the increasing load training, ΔHbO 2 step-likely increased in the phase of aerobic metabolism but linearly decreased in the phase of anaerobic metabolism. The variation tendency of BLA was the same as ΔHbO 2 and the concurrency of crucial turning points between ΔHbO 2 and BLA was revealed. This relationship between ΔHbO 2 and BLA presented in the increasing load training suggested that ΔHbO 2 might be capable for taking the place of the invasively measured parameter BLA. Considering that ΔHbO 2 can be noninvasively measured by NIRS, ΔHbO 2 has the potential in the evaluation of athletes' physiological function and training effect on the athletes and accordingly NIRS can be well used in this field.

  8. Greenhouse with a CPV system based on NIR reflecting lamellae

    OpenAIRE

    Sonneveld, P.J.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Tuijl, van, B.A.J.; Janssen, H.J.J.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2012-01-01

    In previous research a new type of greenhouse with an integrated concentrated photovoltaic system (CPV) was developed based on a circular covering geometry and an integrated filter for reflecting the near infrared radiation (NIR) of the greenhouse and exploiting this radiation in a solar energy system. The performance of the system was promising. In this study further optimalisation of the CPV system is made to avoid the large construction for solar tracing and the high investment. Hereto all...

  9. Fabrication of High-Performance Magnetic Lysozyme-Imprinted Microsphere and Its NIR-Responsive Controlled Release Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinxing; Lei, Shan; Xie, Yunyun; Wang, Mozhen; Yang, Jun; Ge, Xuewu

    2015-12-30

    The preparation of efficient and practical biomacromolecules imprinted polymer materials is still a challenging task because of the spatial hindrance caused by the large size of template and target molecules in the imprinting and recognition process. Herein, we provided a novel pathway to coat a NIR-light responsive lysozyme-imprinted polydopamine (PDA) layer on a fibrous SiO2 (F-SiO2) microsphere grown up from a magnetic Fe3O4 core nanoparticle. The magnetic core-shell structured lysozyme-imprinted Fe3O4@F-SiO2@PDA microspheres (MIP-lysozyme) can be easily separated by a magnet and have a high saturation adsorption capacity of lysozyme of 700 mg/g within 30 min because of the high surface area of 570 m(2)/g and the mesopore size of 12 nm of the Fe3O4@F-SiO2 support. The MIP-lysozyme microspheres also show an excellent selective adsorption of lysozyme (IF > 4). The binding thermodynamic parameters studied by ITC proves that the lysozyme should be restricted by the well-defined 3D structure of MIP-lysozyme microspheres. The MIP-lysozyme can extract lysozyme efficiently from real egg white. Owing to the efficient NIR light photothermal effect of PDA layer, the MIP-lysozyme microspheres show the controlled release property triggered by NIR laser. The released lysozyme molecules still maintain good bioactivity, which can efficiently decompose E. coli. Therefore, this work provides a novel strategy to build practical NIR-light-responsive MIPs for the extraction and application of biomacromolecules.

  10. The application of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR technique for

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor Barabassy

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of cow’s milk in Hungary fluctuates by 15-20 % annualy. Surplus milk is dried into powder and can also be converted to modified milk powders using techniques such as ultra filtration. From approximetely 20.000 tonnes, of all milk powder types, 3.000 tonnes, is converted using ultra filtration technology. Multivariable near infrared (NIR calibration was performed on powder mixtures of whole milk, skimmed milk, whey, retenate (protein concentrate and lactose for rapid fat, protein, lactose, water and ash content determination. More than 150 samples were prepared and measured in two NIRS labs (Scottish Agriculture College – SAC – Aberdeen and University of Horticulture and Food Science - UHFS – Budapest. The results obtained from the same samples were compared. The aims of the study were: 1. Rapid quantitative and qualitative determination of mixtures of milk powder products using NIR technique. 2. Comparison of the results achieved in Aberdeen (SAC and Budapest (UHFS institutes. The mass per cent varied between 0.0-2.8% for fat, 0.0-80% for protein, 6.6-100 % for lactose, 0.0-5.0 % for water and 0.0-8.0 % for ash. High correlation coefficients (0.97-0.99 were found for all five components.

  11. GSH-Activated NIR Fluorescent Prodrug for Podophyllotoxin Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yajing; Zhu, Shaojia; Gu, Kaizhi; Guo, Zhiqian; Huang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Mingwei; Amin, Hesham M; Zhu, Weihong; Shi, Ping

    2017-09-06

    Theranostic prodrug therapy enables the targeted delivery of anticancer drugs with minimized adverse effects and real-time in situ monitoring of activation of the prodrugs. In this work, we report the synthesis and biological assessment of the near-infrared (NIR) prodrug DCM-S-PPT and its amphiphilic copolymer (mPEG-DSPE)-encapsulated nanoparticles. DCM-S-PPT is composed of podophyllotoxin (PPT) as the anticancer moiety and a dicyanomethylene-4H-pyran (DCM) derivative as the NIR fluorescent reporter, which are linked by a thiol-specific cleavable disulfide bond. In vitro experiments indicated that DCM-S-PPT has low cytotoxicity and that glutathione (GSH) can activate DCM-S-PPT resulting in PPT release and a concomitant significant enhancement in NIR fluorescence at 665 nm. After being intravenously injected into tumor-bearing nude mice, DCM-S-PPT exhibited excellent tumor-activated performance. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that mPEG-DSPE as a nanocarrier loaded with DCM-S-PPT (mPEG-DSPE/DCM-S-PPT) showed even greater tumor-targeting performance than DCM-S-PPT on account of the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Its tumor-targeting ability and specific drug release in tumors make DCM-S-PPT a promising prodrug that could provide a significant strategy for theranostic drug delivery systems.

  12. Characterization of Mind Wandering using fNIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier eDurantin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessing whether someone is attending to a task has become importantfor educational and professional applications. Such attentional drifts are usually termed mind wandering. The purpose of the current study is to test to what extent a recent neural imaging modality can be used to detect mind wandering episodes. Functional near infra-red spectroscopy is a non-invasive neuro-imaging technique that has never been studied so far to measure mind wandering. The Sustained Attention to Response Task was used to assess when subjects attention leaves a primary task. 16-channel fNIRS data were collected over frontal cortices. We observed significant activations over the medial prefrontal cortex during mind wandering, a brain region associated with the default mode network. fNIRS data were used to classify mind wandering data above chance level. In line with previous brain-imaging studies of mind wandering, our results confirm the ability of fNIRS to detect Default Network activations in the context of mind wandering.

  13. Principle and application of portable NIR tea drinks analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liyi; Chen, Huacai; Liu, Fuli

    2009-11-01

    Tea polyphenols (Tp) and free amino acids (Aa) are the most important quality materials in tea drinks. Due to the high number of samples to be analyzed, new analytical techniques providing fast and reliable data about the quality are essential. Therefore, a portable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) analyzer was developed for real-time, continuous and quantitative determination of Tp and Aa in tea drinks. The portable NIR tea drinks analyzer is composed of a lamphouse, a temperature-controlled sample chamber, an optical fiber and an InGaAs array mini grating spectrometer. The analyzer is compact, lightweight and robust with no movable elements. The software with the functions of spectrum acquisition, model establishment, method selection and real-time analysis was also developed for the analyzer. Using partial least squares (PLS) regression, the calibration models for the quantification of Tp and Aa were established with reference to the GB methods (the national standard methods). The values of root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of the models for Tp and Aa calibration were 0.059 mg/mL, 0.005 mg/mL, the values of the correlation coefficients (R2) were 0.99 and 0.98 respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of ten repetitive testing were 3.17% and 4.15%. It suggested that the portable NIR tea drinks analyzer could be a fast and reliable alternative for tea drinks quality testing.

  14. Joint attention studies in normal and autistic children using NIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ujwal; Hall, Michael; Gutierrez, Anibal; Messinger, Daniel; Rey, Gustavo; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2011-03-01

    Autism is a socio-communication brain development disorder. It is marked by degeneration in the ability to respond to joint attention skill task, from as early as 12 to 18 months of age. This trait is used to distinguish autistic from nonautistic. In this study Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is being applied for the first time to study the difference in activation and connectivity in the frontal cortex of typically developing (TD) and autistic children between 4-8 years of age in response to joint attention task. The optical measurements are acquired in real time from frontal cortex using Imagent (ISS Inc.) - a frequency domain based NIRS system in response to video clips which engenders a feeling of joint attention experience in the subjects. A block design consisting of 5 blocks of following sequence 30 sec joint attention clip (J), 30 sec non-joint attention clip (NJ) and 30 sec rest condition is used. Preliminary results from TD child shows difference in brain activation (in terms of oxy-hemoglobin, HbO) during joint attention interaction compared to the nonjoint interaction and rest. Similar activation study did not reveal significant differences in HbO across the stimuli in, unlike in an autistic child. Extensive studies are carried out to validate the initial observations from both brain activation as well as connectivity analysis. The result has significant implication for research in neural pathways associated with autism that can be mapped using NIRS.

  15. Near-infrared (NIR) up-conversion optogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hososhima, Shoko; Yuasa, Hideya; Ishizuka, Toru; Hoque, Mohammad Razuanul; Yamashita, Takayuki; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Sugano, Eriko; Tomita, Hiroshi; Yawo, Hiromu

    2015-11-01

    Non-invasive remote control technologies designed to manipulate neural functions have been long-awaited for the comprehensive and quantitative understanding of neuronal network in the brain as well as for the therapy of neurological disorders. Recently, it has become possible for the neuronal activity to be optically manipulated using biological photo-reactive molecules such as channelrhodopsin (ChR)-2. However, ChR2 and its relatives are mostly reactive to visible light, which does not effectively penetrate through biological tissues. In contrast, near-infrared (NIR) light (650-1450 nm) penetrates deep into the tissues because biological systems are almost transparent to light within this so-called ‘imaging window’. Here we used lanthanide nanoparticles (LNPs), composed of rare-earth elements, as luminous bodies to activate ChRs since they absorb low-energy NIR light to emit high-energy visible light (up-conversion). Here, we created a new type of optogenetic system which consists of the donor LNPs and the acceptor ChRs. The NIR laser irradiation emitted visible light from LNPs, then induced the photo-reactive responses in the near-by cells that expressed ChRs. However, there remains room for large improvements in the energy efficiency of the LNP-ChR system.

  16. Characterisation of PDO olive oil Chianti Classico by non-selective (UV-visible, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, M; Oliveri, P; Casolino, C; Sinelli, N; Zunin, P; Armanino, C; Forina, M; Lanteri, S

    2012-01-27

    An authentication study of the Italian PDO (protected designation of origin) extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico was performed; UV-visible (UV-vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectroscopies were applied to a set of samples representative of the whole Chianti Classico production area. The non-selective signals (fingerprints) provided by the three spectroscopic techniques were utilised both individually and jointly, after fusion of the respective profile vectors, in order to build a model for the Chianti Classico PDO olive oil. Moreover, these results were compared with those obtained by the gas chromatographic determination of the fatty acids composition. In order to characterise the olive oils produced in the Chianti Classico PDO area, UNEQ (unequal class models) and SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) were employed both on the MIR, NIR and UV-vis spectra, individually and jointly, and on the fatty acid composition. Finally, PLS (partial least square) regression was applied on the UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectra, in order to predict the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the extra virgin olive oils. UNEQ, SIMCA and PLS were performed after selection of the relevant predictors, in order to increase the efficiency of both classification and regression models. The non-selective information obtained from UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy allowed to build reliable models for checking the authenticity of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of cell surface and extracellular matrix remodeling of Azospirillum brasilense chemotaxis-like 1 signal transduction pathway mutants by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    To compete in complex microbial communities, bacteria must sense environmental changes and adjust cellular functions for optimal growth. Chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways are implicated in the regulation of multiple behaviors in response to changes in the environment, including motility patterns, exopolysaccharide production, and cell-to-cell interactions. In Azospirillum brasilense, cell surface properties, including exopolysaccharide production, are thought to play a direct role in promoting flocculation. Recently, the Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway from A. brasilense was shown to modulate flocculation, suggesting an associated modulation of cell surface properties. Using atomic force microscopy, distinct changes in the surface morphology of flocculating A. brasilense Che1 mutant strains were detected. Whereas the wild-type strain produces a smooth mucosal extracellular matrix after 24 h, the flocculating Che1 mutant strains produce distinctive extracellular fibril structures. Further analyses using flocculation inhibition, lectin-binding assays, and comparison of lipopolysaccharides profiles suggest that the extracellular matrix differs between the cheA1 and the cheY1 mutants, despite an apparent similarity in the macroscopic floc structures. Collectively, these data indicate that disruption of the Che1 pathway is correlated with distinctive changes in the extracellular matrix, which likely result from changes in surface polysaccharides structure and/or composition.

  18. Characterization of cell surface and extracellular matrix remodeling of Azospirillum brasilense chemotaxis-like 1 signal transduction pathway mutants by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Amanda Nicole; Siuti, Piro; Bible, Amber N; Alexandre, Gladys; Retterer, Scott T; Doktycz, Mitchel J; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    To compete in complex microbial communities, bacteria must sense environmental changes and adjust cellular functions for optimal growth. Chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways are implicated in the regulation of multiple behaviors in response to changes in the environment, including motility patterns, exopolysaccharide production, and cell-to-cell interactions. In Azospirillum brasilense, cell surface properties, including exopolysaccharide production, are thought to play a direct role in promoting flocculation. Recently, the Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway from A. brasilense was shown to modulate flocculation, suggesting an associated modulation of cell surface properties. Using atomic force microscopy, distinct changes in the surface morphology of flocculating A. brasilense Che1 mutant strains were detected. Whereas the wild-type strain produces a smooth mucosal extracellular matrix after 24 h, the flocculating Che1 mutant strains produce distinctive extracellular fibril structures. Further analyses using flocculation inhibition, lectin-binding assays, and comparison of lipopolysaccharides profiles suggest that the extracellular matrix differs between the cheA1 and the cheY1 mutants, despite an apparent similarity in the macroscopic floc structures. Collectively, these data indicate that disruption of the Che1 pathway is correlated with distinctive changes in the extracellular matrix, which likely result from changes in surface polysaccharides structure and/or composition. FEMS Microbiology Letters © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

  19. Indocyanine green fluorescence in second near-infrared (NIR-II) window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starosolski, Zbigniew; Bhavane, Rohan; Ghaghada, Ketan B; Vasudevan, Sanjeev A; Kaay, Alexander; Annapragada, Ananth

    2017-01-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG), a FDA approved near infrared (NIR) fluorescent agent, is used in the clinic for a variety of applications including lymphangiography, intra-operative lymph node identification, tumor imaging, superficial vascular imaging, and marking ischemic tissues. These applications operate in the so-called "NIR-I" window (700-900 nm). Recently, imaging in the "NIR-II" window (1000-1700 nm) has attracted attention since, at longer wavelengths, photon absorption, and scattering effects by tissue components are reduced, making it possible to image deeper into the underlying tissue. Agents for NIR-II imaging are, however, still in pre-clinical development. In this study, we investigated ICG as a NIR-II dye. The absorbance and NIR-II fluorescence emission of ICG were measured in different media (PBS, plasma and ethanol) for a range of ICG concentrations. In vitro and in vivo testing were performed using a custom-built spectral NIR assembly to facilitate simultaneous imaging in NIR-I and NIR-II window. In vitro studies using ICG were performed using capillary tubes (as a simulation of blood vessels) embedded in Intralipid solution and tissue phantoms to evaluate depth of tissue penetration in NIR-I and NIR-II window. In vivo imaging using ICG was performed in nude mice to evaluate vascular visualization in the hind limb in the NIR-I and II windows. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were calculated for comparison of image quality in NIR-I and NIR-II window. ICG exhibited significant fluorescence emission in the NIR-II window and this emission (similar to the absorption profile) is substantially affected by the environment of the ICG molecules. In vivo imaging further confirmed the utility of ICG as a fluorescent dye in the NIR-II domain, with the CNR values being ~2 times those in the NIR-I window. The availability of an FDA approved imaging agent could accelerate the clinical translation of NIR-II imaging technology.

  20. Indocyanine green fluorescence in second near-infrared (NIR-II window.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Starosolski

    Full Text Available Indocyanine green (ICG, a FDA approved near infrared (NIR fluorescent agent, is used in the clinic for a variety of applications including lymphangiography, intra-operative lymph node identification, tumor imaging, superficial vascular imaging, and marking ischemic tissues. These applications operate in the so-called "NIR-I" window (700-900 nm. Recently, imaging in the "NIR-II" window (1000-1700 nm has attracted attention since, at longer wavelengths, photon absorption, and scattering effects by tissue components are reduced, making it possible to image deeper into the underlying tissue. Agents for NIR-II imaging are, however, still in pre-clinical development. In this study, we investigated ICG as a NIR-II dye. The absorbance and NIR-II fluorescence emission of ICG were measured in different media (PBS, plasma and ethanol for a range of ICG concentrations. In vitro and in vivo testing were performed using a custom-built spectral NIR assembly to facilitate simultaneous imaging in NIR-I and NIR-II window. In vitro studies using ICG were performed using capillary tubes (as a simulation of blood vessels embedded in Intralipid solution and tissue phantoms to evaluate depth of tissue penetration in NIR-I and NIR-II window. In vivo imaging using ICG was performed in nude mice to evaluate vascular visualization in the hind limb in the NIR-I and II windows. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR were calculated for comparison of image quality in NIR-I and NIR-II window. ICG exhibited significant fluorescence emission in the NIR-II window and this emission (similar to the absorption profile is substantially affected by the environment of the ICG molecules. In vivo imaging further confirmed the utility of ICG as a fluorescent dye in the NIR-II domain, with the CNR values being ~2 times those in the NIR-I window. The availability of an FDA approved imaging agent could accelerate the clinical translation of NIR-II imaging technology.

  1. Surface mu heavy chain signals down-regulation of the V(D)J-recombinase machinery in the absence of surrogate light chain components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Gunther R; Mundt, Cornelia; Parker, Mathew; Pelanda, Roberta; Mårtensson, Inga-Lill; Winkler, Thomas H

    2004-06-07

    Early B cell development is characterized by stepwise, ordered rearrangement of the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy (HC) and light (LC) chain genes. Only one of the two alleles of these genes is used to produce a receptor, a phenomenon referred to as allelic exclusion. It has been suggested that pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) signals are responsible for down-regulation of the VDJH-recombinase machinery (Rag1, Rag2, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase [TdT]), thereby preventing further rearrangement on the second HC allele. Using a mouse model, we show that expression of an inducible muHC transgene in Rag2-/- pro-B cells induces down-regulation of the following: (a) TdT protein, (b) a transgenic green fluorescent protein reporter reflecting endogenous Rag2 expression, and (c) Rag1 primary transcripts. Similar effects were also observed in the absence of surrogate LC (SLC) components, but not in the absence of the signaling subunit Ig-alpha. Furthermore, in wild-type mice and in mice lacking either lambda5, VpreB1/2, or the entire SLC, the TdT protein is down-regulated in muHC+LC- pre-B cells. Surprisingly, muHC without LC is expressed on the surface of pro-/pre-B cells from lambda5-/-, VpreB1-/-VpreB2-/-, and SLC-/- mice. Thus, SLC or LC is not required for muHC cell surface expression and signaling in these cells. Therefore, these findings offer an explanation for the occurrence of HC allelic exclusion in mice lacking SLC components.

  2. Nutrient dynamics and oceanographic features in the central Namibian upwelling region as reflected in δ15N-signals of suspended matter and surface sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Meisel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the modern situation of the northern Benguela Upwelling, directing particular attention to the shelf region off central Namibia (21 to 24° S. At the centre of the investigation is the comparison of δ15N-records in surface sediments (δ15Nsediment with suspended particulate matter (δ15NSPM from the surface ocean. In addition to that, water column profiles (including hydrographic data provide an insight into changes of δ15NSPM with depth and elucidate potential offsets between δ15NSPM and δ15Nsediment. The parallel spatial trend of δ15Nsediment and surface ocean δ15NSPM shows that secondary processes are not so pronounced as to obliterate the signal generated in the surface waters. Highest δ15N-signatures are found right off the coast where water temperatures are lowest. Concomitantly high productivity rates and low bottom oxygen suggest the upwelling of denitrified source waters. With increasing distance offshore, δ15N declines unexpectedly, reaching a minimum above the shelf break. Beyond that, the trend reverses to "normal" with δ15N-signals continuously increasing towards the mesopelagic ocean. The decrease in δ15Nsediment and surface ocean δ15NSPM with increasing distance to the coast disagrees with the concept of Rayleigh fractionation kinetics, viz. the progressive 15N-enrichment of the nitrate pool as it is gradually used up by phytoplankton growth. On the basis of the available evidence, the downward trend of δ15N results from decreased relative nitrate consumption, resting on a combination of reduced primary production and the existence of an ulterior source of nutrients. Nutrient replenishment seems to occur via an additional upwelling front at the edge of the shelf as well as tapping of subsurface nitrate through sufficiently deep penetration of wind- and wave-induced mixing over large areas of the shelf. Both mechanisms are considered capable of working against the expected nutrient drawdown (i.e. 15

  3. Oxygen induced enhancement of NIR emission in brookite TiO2powders: comparison with rutile and anatase TiO2powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vequizo, Junie Jhon M; Kamimura, Sunao; Ohno, Teruhisa; Yamakata, Akira

    2018-01-31

    Brookite TiO 2 attracts considerable attention in photocatalysis owing to its superior performance in several photocatalytic reactions. In this work, we investigated the behavior of charge carriers in brookite, rutile, and anatase TiO 2 by using photoluminescence (PL) and transient absorption (TA) spectroscopies. PL measurements revealed that brookite TiO 2 exhibits a visible and a NIR emission at ∼520 nm and ∼860 nm, respectively. Addition of methanol vapor quenched both the visible and NIR emissions by the hole-consuming reaction of methanol. However, exposure to O 2 shows curious behaviors: the visible emission was quenched but the NIR emission was enhanced. These results can be accounted for by the enhancement of upward band bending resulting in the effective separation of electrons and holes into the bulk and the surface, respectively. Furthermore, the shallowly trapped electrons, which are responsible for visible PL, are consumed by O 2 ; hence, the visible emission is quenched. However, in the case of NIR emission, the deeply trapped electrons are responsible and they are mainly located at the surface defects. The O 2 adsorption promotes the hole accumulation at the surface and then assists the recombination of these deeply trapped electrons, resulting in the enhancement of the NIR emission. We also found that the lifetime of NIR emission (τ 1 = 43 ± 0 ns and τ 2 = 589 ± 1 ns) was much longer than that of visible emission (τ 1 = 15 ± 0 ns and τ 2 = 23 ± 0 ns), since the mobility of these deeply trapped electrons to encounter with holes is lower than that of the shallowly trapped electrons. However, even for this slow NIR emission, the actual lifetime of the deeply trapped electrons estimated by TA (1.5 ± 0.0 μs and 17 ± 0 μs) was one or two orders of magnitude longer, confirming that non-radiative recombination is dominant and it is much slower than radiative recombination: TAS and PL provide detailed information on the radiative and non

  4. In situ NIR reflectance and LIBS measurements in lava tubes in preparation for future Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveille, R.; Sobron, P.

    2017-12-01

    The ATiLT (Astrobiology Training in Lava Tubes) program addresses Mars astrobiology exploration objectives by performing field work and instrumental analyses in lava tubes as high fidelity analog environments to putative lava tubes on Mars. The main field location for ATiLT is the Lava Beds National Monument (LABE) in Northern California. LABE is situated on the lower north flank of the Medicine Lake Volcano of the Cascade arc. This location features hundreds of caves, most of which are relatively shallow, typically well above the water table, reaching 20-45m below land surface at their maximum depth. Some LABE caves feature `cold sinks' where cold air sinks and becomes trapped in deeper cave passages, thus allowing perennial ice to accumulate despite above freezing surface temperatures. Several lava tube caves in LABE also contain seasonal or perennial ice accumulations, which makes them excellent analogs to Mars lava tubes where the presence of ice has been predicted. While lava tubes are very attractive systems to test hypotheses related to habitability and the possibility for life on Mars, at present there are no comprehensive in-situ instrument-driven characterizations of the mineralogy and geochemistry of lava tubes. ATiLT fills this gap by providing detailed, in-situ investigations with scientific instruments relevant to Mars exploration. Our aim is to help constrain future exploration targets on Mars and define future mission operations and requirements. For this purpose, in May 2017 we carried out a field campaign in several lava tubes at LABE. We deployed two miniature spectroscopic sensors suitable for dark, humid, cave conditions: NIR reflectance (1-5 μm) and LIBS (300-900 nm). The advantages of combining NIR reflectance and LIBS are evident: LIBS can reveal the relative concentration of major (and often trace) elements present in a bulk sample, whereas NIR reflectance yields information on the individual mineral species and their chemical and

  5. Effective Connectivity of Cortical Sensorimotor Networks During Finger Movement Tasks: A Simultaneous fNIRS, fMRI, EEG Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, A R; Muthalib, M; Perrey, S; Galka, A; Granert, O; Wolff, S; Heute, U; Deuschl, G; Raethjen, J; Muthuraman, Muthuraman

    2016-09-01

    Recently, interest has been growing to understand the underlying dynamic directional relationship between simultaneously activated regions of the brain during motor task performance. Such directionality analysis (or effective connectivity analysis), based on non-invasive electrophysiological (electroencephalography-EEG) and hemodynamic (functional near infrared spectroscopy-fNIRS; and functional magnetic resonance imaging-fMRI) neuroimaging modalities can provide an estimate of the motor task-related information flow from one brain region to another. Since EEG, fNIRS and fMRI modalities achieve different spatial and temporal resolutions of motor-task related activation in the brain, the aim of this study was to determine the effective connectivity of cortico-cortical sensorimotor networks during finger movement tasks measured by each neuroimaging modality. Nine healthy subjects performed right hand finger movement tasks of different complexity (simple finger tapping-FT, simple finger sequence-SFS, and complex finger sequence-CFS). We focused our observations on three cortical regions of interest (ROIs), namely the contralateral sensorimotor cortex (SMC), the contralateral premotor cortex (PMC) and the contralateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We estimated the effective connectivity between these ROIs using conditional Granger causality (GC) analysis determined from the time series signals measured by fMRI (blood oxygenation level-dependent-BOLD), fNIRS (oxygenated-O2Hb and deoxygenated-HHb hemoglobin), and EEG (scalp and source level analysis) neuroimaging modalities. The effective connectivity analysis showed significant bi-directional information flow between the SMC, PMC, and DLPFC as determined by the EEG (scalp and source), fMRI (BOLD) and fNIRS (O2Hb and HHb) modalities for all three motor tasks. However the source level EEG GC values were significantly greater than the other modalities. In addition, only the source level EEG showed a

  6. Modeling mechanical signals on the surface of µCT and CAD based rapid prototype scaffold models to predict (early stage) tissue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikson, W J; van Blitterswijk, C A; Verdonschot, N; Moroni, L; Rouwkema, J

    2014-09-01

    In the field of tissue engineering, mechano-regulation theories have been applied to help predict tissue development in tissue engineering scaffolds in the past. For this, finite element models (FEMs) were used to predict the distribution of strains within a scaffold. However, the strains reported in these studies are volumetric strains of the material or strains developed in the extracellular matrix occupying the pore space. The initial phase of cell attachment and growth on the biomaterial surface has thus far been neglected. In this study, we present a model that determines the magnitude of biomechanical signals on the biomaterial surface, enabling us to predict cell differentiation stimulus values at this initial stage. Results showed that magnitudes of the 2D strain--termed surface strain--were lower when compared to the 3D volumetric strain or the conventional octahedral shear strain as used in current mechano-regulation theories. Results of both µCT and CAD derived FEMs from the same scaffold were compared. Strain and fluid shear stress distributions, and subsequently the cell differentiation stimulus, were highly dependent on the pore shape. CAD models were not able to capture the distributions seen in the µCT FEM. The calculated mechanical stimuli could be combined with current mechanobiological models resulting in a tool to predict cell differentiation in the initial phase of tissue engineering. Although experimental data is still necessary to properly link mechanical signals to cell behavior in this specific setting, this model is an important step towards optimizing scaffold architecture and/or stimulation regimes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A Tumor-Activatable Theranostic Nanomedicine Platform for NIR Fluorescence-Guided Surgery and Combinatorial Phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoning; Schumann, Canan; Albarqi, Hassan A; Lee, Christopher J; Alani, Adam W G; Bracha, Shay; Milovancev, Milan; Taratula, Olena; Taratula, Oleh

    2018-01-01

    Fluorescence image-guided surgery combined with intraoperative therapeutic modalities has great potential for intraoperative detection of oncologic targets and eradication of unresectable cancer residues. Therefore, we have developed an activatable theranostic nanoplatform that can be used concurrently for two purposes: (1) tumor delineation with real-time near infrared (NIR) fluorescence signal during surgery, and (2) intraoperative targeted treatment to further eliminate unresected disease sites by non-toxic phototherapy. Methods: The developed nanoplatform is based on a single agent, silicon naphthalocyanine (SiNc), encapsulated in biodegradable PEG-PCL (poly (ethylene glycol)- b -poly(ɛ-caprolactone)) nanoparticles. It is engineered to be non-fluorescent initially via dense SiNc packing within the nanoparticle's hydrophobic core, with NIR fluorescence activation after accumulation at the tumor site. The activatable nanoplatform was evaluated in vitro and in two different murine cancer models, including an ovarian intraperitoneal metastasis-mimicking model. Furthermore, fluorescence image-guided surgery mediated by this nanoplatform was performed on the employed animal models using a Fluobeam ® 800 imaging system. Finally, the phototherapeutic efficacy of the developed nanoplatform was demonstrated in vivo . Results: Our in vitro data suggest that the intracellular environment of cancer cells is capable of compromising the integrity of self-assembled nanoparticles and thus causes disruption of the tight dye packing inside the hydrophobic cores and activation of the NIR fluorescence. Animal studies demonstrated accumulation of activatable nanoparticles at the tumor site following systemic administration, as well as release and fluorescence recovery of SiNc from the polymeric carrier. It was also validated that the developed nanoparticles are compatible with the intraoperative imaging system Fluobeam® 800, and nanoparticle-mediated image-guided surgery provides

  8. Drip-Water Temperatures in Caves: Surface Signals or Cave Processes? - Implications for Speleothem Deposits and Paleoclimate Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, M. S.; Cuthbert, M. O.; Rau, G. C.; Baker, A.; Roshan, H.; Rutlidge, H.; Marjo, C.; Markowska, M.; Graham, P. W.; Mariethoz, G.

    2013-12-01

    Caves offer a unique opportunity to enter the subsurface to study vadose zone hydrological processes. Limestone caves, with their speleothem deposits, offer additional advantages as archives of past climate. As such they can serve as observatories for past and present hydrological observations. Correct interpretation of past climates using speleothem deposits requires a systematic understanding of karst physico-chemical processes. With the aim of studying near surface flow and heat transport processes, a series of controlled recharge experiments were carried out above Wellington Caves, located in the temperate semi-arid zone of NSW, Australia. Variable amounts of cooled water were irrigated onto the land surface on four consecutive days in January 2013. The applied recharge rates varied from 40 to 70 mm/d and are comparable to mid-sized recharge events. The temperature of the applied water was varied from 0.3 °C to 24.2 °C using ice. Miniature self-contained temperature loggers (DST micro-T, Star Oddi, Iceland) were deployed to measure the soil temperature and strapped directly on to stalactite features inside the cave located about 2 m below the surface. The stalactites have previously activated regularly by mid-sized precipitation events. Below on the cave floor, drip-loggers (Stalagmate, Driptych, UK) were aligned with the stalactites to capture onset of flow as well as drip rates. Three events of inflow were observed in the initially dry cave. The first irrigation did not produce any inflow since the amount of water applied was not large enough to overcome the soil moisture deficit. Subsequently, each inflow had a higher peak drip rate and duration than the previous event. Surprisingly the stalagmite temperature results showed no discernible effect of the cool water applied to the land surface, despite large changes in the soil temperature caused by the irrigation water. Considering the shallow location of the studied cave this highlights that the temperature

  9. Development of visible and NIR imaging equipment for small animals with smart pad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eum, Nyeon Sik; Han, Jung Hyun; Seong, Ki Woong; Lee, Jong Ha; Park, Hee Joon

    2014-01-01

    The portable visible and near-infrared (NIR) imaging equipment for a pre-clinical test with small animals was designed and developed in this paper. The developed equipment is composed of a CCD camera, a focusing lens, an objective lens, a NIR band pass filter and a NIR filter driving motor. An NIR ray is mainly used for imaging equipment because it has high light penetration depth in biological tissue. Therefore, NIR fluorescent agents are available for chemical conjugation to targeting molecules in vivo. This equipment can provide a visible image, NIR image and merged image simultaneously. A communication system was specifically established to check obtained images through a smart pad in real time. It is less dependent on space and time than the conventional system.

  10. Cell surface-bound TIMP3 induces apoptosis in mesenchymal Cal78 cells through ligand-independent activation of death receptor signaling and blockade of survival pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Koers-Wunrau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and their endogenous regulators, the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs 1-4 are responsible for the physiological remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM. Among all TIMPs, TIMP3 appears to play a unique role since TIMP3 is a secreted protein and, unlike the other TIMP family members, is tightly bound to the ECM. Moreover TIMP3 has been shown to be able to induce apoptotic cell death. As little is known about the underlying mechanisms, we set out to investigate the pro-apoptotic effect of TIMP3 in human mesenchymal cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lentiviral overexpression of TIMP3 in mesenchymal cells led to a strong dose-dependent induction of ligand-independent apoptosis as reflected by a five-fold increase in caspase 3 and 7 activity compared to control (pLenti6/V5-GW/lacZ or uninfected cells, whereas exogenous TIMP3 failed to induce apoptosis. Concordantly, increased cleavage of death substrate PARP and the caspases 3 and 7 was observed in TIMP3 overexpressing cultures. Notably, activation of caspase-8 but not caspase-9 was observed in TIMP3-overexpressing cells, indicating a death receptor-dependent mechanism. Moreover, overexpression of TIMP3 led to a further induction of apoptosis after stimulation with TNF-alpha, FasL and TRAIL. Most interestingly, TIMP3-overexpression was associated with a decrease in phosphorylation of cRaf, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (Erk1/2, ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK1 and Akt and serum deprivation of TIMP3-overexpressing cells resulted in a distinct enhancement of apoptosis, pointing to an impaired signaling of serum-derived survival factors. Finally, heparinase treatment of heparan sulfate proteoglycans led to the release of TIMP3 from the surface of overexpressing cells and to a significant decrease in apoptosis indicating that the binding of TIMP3 is necessary for apoptosis induction. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that

  11. MOTION ARTIFACT REDUCTION IN FUNCTIONAL NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY SIGNALS BY AUTOREGRESSIVE MOVING AVERAGE MODELING BASED KALMAN FILTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHDI AMIAN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS is a technique that is used for noninvasive measurement of the oxyhemoglobin (HbO2 and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb concentrations in the brain tissue. Since the ratio of the concentration of these two agents is correlated with the neuronal activity, fNIRS can be used for the monitoring and quantifying the cortical activity. The portability of fNIRS makes it a good candidate for studies involving subject's movement. The fNIRS measurements, however, are sensitive to artifacts generated by subject's head motion. This makes fNIRS signals less effective in such applications. In this paper, the autoregressive moving average (ARMA modeling of the fNIRS signal is proposed for state-space representation of the signal which is then fed to the Kalman filter for estimating the motionless signal from motion corrupted signal. Results are compared to the autoregressive model (AR based approach, which has been done previously, and show that the ARMA models outperform AR models. We attribute it to the richer structure, containing more terms indeed, of ARMA than AR. We show that the signal to noise ratio (SNR is about 2 dB higher for ARMA based method.

  12. Toward NIR driven photocatalyst: Fabrication, characterization, and photocatalytic activity of β-NaYF4:Yb(3+),Tm(3+)/g-C3N4 nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min-Zhong; Yuan, Baoling; Dai, Leyang; Fu, Ming-Lai

    2015-12-15

    The β-NaYF4:Yb(3+),Tm(3+)/g-C3N4 (NYT/C3N4) photocatalyst has been successfully fabricated by a stepwise method. Firstly, the advanced near-infrared (NIR) driven photocatalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and UV-Vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. It was found that NYT/C3N4 photocatalyst consisted of uniform hexagonal phase NaYF4 nanocrystals with about 20nm diameter distributed on surface of g-C3N4 sheets, and the NYT/C3N4 composite exhibited strong near-infrared light absorption and the energy transfer from β-NaYF4:Yb(3+),Tm(3+) to g-C3N4 was confirmed. Secondly, the photocatalytic activities of the catalysts were evaluated by the degradation of methyl blue dye and colorless phenol under the irradiation of 980nm laser. The results suggested that NYT/C3N4 nanocomposite is an advanced NIR-driven photocatalyst. Moreover the NYT/C3N4 photocatalyst showed good stability for photocatalytic decoloration of dye in the recycled tests. This study suggested a promising system to utilize the NIR energy of sunlight for photochemical and photoelectrical applications based on g-C3N4, which will contribute to the utilization of solar energy in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatially selective depleting tumor-associated negative regulatory T-(Treg) cells with near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT): A new cancer immunotherapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2017-02-01

    Near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a new type of molecularly-targeted photo-therapy based on conjugating a near infrared silica-phthalocyanine dye, IR700, to a monoclonal antibody (MAb) targeting target-specific cell-surface molecules. When exposed to NIR light, the conjugate rapidly induces a highly-selective cell death only in receptor-positive, MAb-IR700-bound cells. Current immunotherapies for cancer seek to modulate the balance among different immune cell populations, thereby promoting anti-tumor immune responses. However, because these are systemic therapies, they often cause treatment-limiting autoimmune adverse effects. It would be ideal to manipulate the balance between suppressor and effector cells within the tumor without disturbing homeostasis elsewhere in the body. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are well-known immune-suppressor cells that play a key role in tumor immuno-evasion and have been the target of systemic immunotherapies. We used CD25-targeted NIR-PIT to selectively deplete Tregs, thus activating CD8+ T and NK cells and restoring local anti-tumor immunity. This not only resulted in regression of the treated tumor but also induced responses in separate untreated tumors of the same cell-line derivation. We conclude that CD25-targeted NIR-PIT causes spatially selective depletion of Tregs, thereby providing an alternative approach to cancer immunotherapy that can treat not only local tumors but also distant metastatic tumors.

  14. Intersession consistency of single-trial classification of the prefrontal response to mental arithmetic and the no-control state by NIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sarah D; Kushki, Azadeh; Chau, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been recently investigated for use in noninvasive brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability to classify patterns of neural activation associated with different mental tasks (e.g., mental arithmetic) using NIRS signals. Though these studies represent an important step towards the realization of an NIRS-BCI, there is a paucity of literature regarding the consistency of these responses, and the ability to classify them on a single-trial basis, over multiple sessions. This is important when moving out of an experimental context toward a practical system, where performance must be maintained over longer periods. When considering response consistency across sessions, two questions arise: 1) can the hemodynamic response to the activation task be distinguished from a baseline (or other task) condition, consistently across sessions, and if so, 2) are the spatiotemporal characteristics of the response which best distinguish it from the baseline (or other task) condition consistent across sessions. The answers will have implications for the viability of an NIRS-BCI system, and the design strategies (especially in terms of classifier training protocols) adopted. In this study, we investigated the consistency of classification of a mental arithmetic task and a no-control condition over five experimental sessions. Mixed model linear regression on intrasession classification accuracies indicate that the task and baseline states remain differentiable across multiple sessions, with no significant decrease in accuracy (p = 0.67). Intersession analysis, however, revealed inconsistencies in spatiotemporal response characteristics. Based on these results, we investigated several different practical classifier training protocols, including scenarios in which the training and test data come from 1) different sessions, 2) the same session, and 3) a combination of both. Results indicate that when

  15. Changes in surface electromyography signals and kinetics associated with progression of fatigue at two speeds during wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Liping; Wakeling, James; Grange, Simon; Ferguson-Pell, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether muscle balance is influenced by fatigue in a recordable way, toward creating novel defensive activity strategies for manual wheelchair users (MWUs). Wheelchair propulsion to a point of mild fatigue, level 15 on the Rating of Perceived Exertion scale, was investigated at two different speeds. Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of 7 muscles was recorded on 14 nondisabled participants. Kinetic variables were measured using a SmartWheel. No significant effect was found of percentage endurance time on kinetic variables for the two propulsion speeds. Fatigue-related changes in the EMG spectra were identified as an increase of EMG intensity and a decrease of mean power frequency as a function of percent endurance time for the tested muscles under both fast and slow speed conditions. The greater increases in activity for propulsive muscles compared with recovery muscles during fast speed wheelchair propulsion indicated muscle imbalance associated with fatiguing wheelchair propulsion. This study shows how kinetic and EMG information might be used as feedback to MWUs to ensure that they conduct activity in ways that do not precipitate injury.

  16. Correlations between in situ denitrification activity and nir-gene abundances in pristine and impacted prairie streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, David W.; Trippett, Clare; Dodds, Walter K.; O'Brien, Jonathan M.; Banner, Eric B.K.; Head, Ian M.; Smith, Marilyn S.; Yang, Richard K.; Knapp, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Denitrification is a process that reduces nitrogen levels in headwaters and other streams. We compared nirS and nirK abundances with the absolute rate of denitrification, the longitudinal coefficient of denitrification (i.e., K den , which represents optimal denitrification rates at given environmental conditions), and water quality in seven prairie streams to determine if nir-gene abundances explain denitrification activity. Previous work showed that absolute rates of denitrification correlate with nitrate levels; however, no correlation has been found for denitrification efficiency, which we hypothesise might be related to gene abundances. Water-column nitrate and soluble-reactive phosphorus levels significantly correlated with absolute rates of denitrification, but nir-gene abundances did not. However, nirS and nirK abundances significantly correlated with K den , as well as phosphorus, although no correlation was found between K den and nitrate. These data confirm that absolute denitrification rates are controlled by nitrate load, but intrinsic denitrification efficiency is linked to nirS and nirK gene abundances. - Denitrification efficiency best correlated to nirS and nirK gene abundances.

  17. Transcriptional repressor NIR interacts with the p53-inhibiting ubiquitin ligase MDM2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyne, Kristina; Förster, Juliane; Schüle, Roland; Roemer, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    NIR (novel INHAT repressor) can bind to p53 at promoters and inhibit p53-mediated gene transactivation by blocking histone acetylation carried out by p300/CBP. Like NIR, the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 can also bind and inhibit p53 at promoters. Here, we present data indicating that NIR, which shuttles between the nucleolus and nucleoplasm, not only binds to p53 but also directly to MDM2, in part via the central acidic and zinc finger domain of MDM2 that is also contacted by several other nucleolus-based MDM2/p53-regulating proteins. Like some of these, NIR was able to inhibit the ubiquitination of MDM2 and stabilize MDM2; however, unlike these nucleolus-based MDM2 regulators, NIR did not inhibit MDM2 to activate p53. Rather, NIR cooperated with MDM2 to repress p53-induced transactivation. This cooperative repression may at least in part involve p300/CBP. We show that NIR can block the acetylation of p53 and MDM2. Non-acetylated p53 has been documented previously to more readily associate with inhibitory MDM2. NIR may thus help to sustain the inhibitory p53:MDM2 complex, and we present evidence suggesting that all three proteins can indeed form a ternary complex. In sum, our findings suggest that NIR can support MDM2 to suppress p53 as a transcriptional activator.

  18. Mental Task Evaluation for Hybrid NIRS-EEG Brain-Computer Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Banville

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on recent electroencephalography (EEG and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS studies that showed that tasks such as motor imagery and mental arithmetic induce specific neural response patterns, we propose a hybrid brain-computer interface (hBCI paradigm in which EEG and NIRS data are fused to improve binary classification performance. We recorded simultaneous NIRS-EEG data from nine participants performing seven mental tasks (word generation, mental rotation, subtraction, singing and navigation, and motor and face imagery. Classifiers were trained for each possible pair of tasks using (1 EEG features alone, (2 NIRS features alone, and (3 EEG and NIRS features combined, to identify the best task pairs and assess the usefulness of a multimodal approach. The NIRS-EEG approach led to an average increase in peak kappa of 0.03 when using features extracted from one-second windows (equivalent to an increase of 1.5% in classification accuracy for balanced classes. The increase was much stronger (0.20, corresponding to an 10% accuracy increase when focusing on time windows of high NIRS performance. The EEG and NIRS analyses further unveiled relevant brain regions and important feature types. This work provides a basis for future NIRS-EEG hBCI studies aiming to improve classification performance toward more efficient and flexible BCIs.

  19. Inhibitory effects of two G protein-coupled receptor kinases on the cell surface expression and signaling of the human adrenomedullin receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwasako, Kenji; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Nagata, Sayaka; Jiang, Danfeng; Hayashi, Hidetaka; Murakami, Manabu; Hattori, Yuichi; Kitamura, Kazuo; Kato, Johji

    2016-01-01

    Receptor activity-modifying protein 2 (RAMP2) enables the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR, a family B GPCR) to form the type 1 adrenomedullin receptor (AM 1 receptor). Here, we investigated the effects of the five non-visual GPCR kinases (GRKs 2 through 6) on the cell surface expression of the human (h)AM 1 receptor by cotransfecting each of these GRKs into HEK-293 cells that stably expressed hRAMP2. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that when coexpressed with GRK4 or GRK5, the cell surface expression of the AM 1 receptor was markedly decreased prior to stimulation with AM, thereby attenuating both the specific [ 125 I]AM binding and AM-induced cAMP production. These inhibitory effects of both GRKs were abolished by the replacement of the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail (C-tail) of CLR with that of the calcitonin receptor (a family B GPCR) or β 2 -adrenergic receptor (a family A GPCR). Among the sequentially truncated CLR C-tail mutants, those lacking the five residues 449–453 (Ser-Phe-Ser-Asn-Ser) abolished the inhibition of the cell surface expression of CLR via the overexpression of GRK4 or GRK5. Thus, we provided new insight into the function of GRKs in agonist-unstimulated GPCR trafficking using a recombinant AM 1 receptor and further determined the region of the CLR C-tail responsible for this GRK function. - Highlights: • We discovered a novel function of GRKs in GPCR trafficking using human CLR/RAMP2. • GRKs 4 and 5 markedly inhibited the cell surface expression of human CLR/RAMP2. • Both GRKs exhibited highly significant receptor signaling inhibition. • Five residues of the C-terminal tail of CLR govern this function of GRKs.

  20. Inhibitory effects of two G protein-coupled receptor kinases on the cell surface expression and signaling of the human adrenomedullin receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwasako, Kenji, E-mail: kuwasako@med.miyazaki-u.ac.jp [Frontier Science Research Center, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, 889-1692 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Toshio [Noto Marine Laboratory, Division of Marine Environmental Studies, Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa, 927-0553 (Japan); Nagata, Sayaka [Division of Circulatory and Body Fluid Regulation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, 889-1692 (Japan); Jiang, Danfeng; Hayashi, Hidetaka [Frontier Science Research Center, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, 889-1692 (Japan); Murakami, Manabu [Department of Pharmacology, Hirosaki University, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, 036-8562 (Japan); Hattori, Yuichi [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, 930-0194 (Japan); Kitamura, Kazuo [Division of Circulatory and Body Fluid Regulation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, 889-1692 (Japan); Kato, Johji [Frontier Science Research Center, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, 889-1692 (Japan)

    2016-02-19

    Receptor activity-modifying protein 2 (RAMP2) enables the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR, a family B GPCR) to form the type 1 adrenomedullin receptor (AM{sub 1} receptor). Here, we investigated the effects of the five non-visual GPCR kinases (GRKs 2 through 6) on the cell surface expression of the human (h)AM{sub 1} receptor by cotransfecting each of these GRKs into HEK-293 cells that stably expressed hRAMP2. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that when coexpressed with GRK4 or GRK5, the cell surface expression of the AM{sub 1} receptor was markedly decreased prior to stimulation with AM, thereby attenuating both the specific [{sup 125}I]AM binding and AM-induced cAMP production. These inhibitory effects of both GRKs were abolished by the replacement of the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail (C-tail) of CLR with that of the calcitonin receptor (a family B GPCR) or β{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor (a family A GPCR). Among the sequentially truncated CLR C-tail mutants, those lacking the five residues 449–453 (Ser-Phe-Ser-Asn-Ser) abolished the inhibition of the cell surface expression of CLR via the overexpression of GRK4 or GRK5. Thus, we provided new insight into the function of GRKs in agonist-unstimulated GPCR trafficking using a recombinant AM{sub 1} receptor and further determined the region of the CLR C-tail responsible for this GRK function. - Highlights: • We discovered a novel function of GRKs in GPCR trafficking using human CLR/RAMP2. • GRKs 4 and 5 markedly inhibited the cell surface expression of human CLR/RAMP2. • Both GRKs exhibited highly significant receptor signaling inhibition. • Five residues of the C-terminal tail of CLR govern this function of GRKs.

  1. Microbial Disease Spectrum Linked to a Novel IL-12Rβ1 N-Terminal Signal Peptide Stop-Gain Homozygous Mutation with Paradoxical Receptor Cell-Surface Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louvain de Souza, Thais; de Souza Campos Fernandes, Regina C.; Azevedo da Silva, Juliana; Gomes Alves Júnior, Vladimir; Gomes Coelho, Adelia; Souza Faria, Afonso C.; Moreira Salomão Simão, Nabia M.; Souto Filho, João T.; Deswarte, Caroline; Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Torgerson, Dara; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Bustamante, Jacinta; Medina-Acosta, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Diseases (MSMD) exhibit variable vulnerability to infections by mycobacteria and other intramacrophagic bacteria (e.g., Salmonella and Klebsiella) and fungi (e.g., Histoplasma, Candida, Paracoccidioides, Coccidioides, and Cryptococcus). The hallmark of MSMD is the inherited impaired production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) or the lack of response to it. Mutations in the interleukin (IL)-12 receptor subunit beta 1 (IL12RB1) gene accounts for 38% of cases of MSMD. Most IL12RB1 pathogenic allele mutations, including ten known stop-gain variants, cause IL-12Rβ1 complete deficiency (immunodeficiency-30, IMD30) by knocking out receptor cell-surface expression. IL12RB1 loss-of-function genotypes impair both IL-12 and IL-23 responses. Here, we assess the health effects of a rare, novel IL12RB1 stop-gain homozygous genotype with paradoxical IL-12Rβ1 cell-surface expression. We appraise four MSMD children from three unrelated Brazilian kindreds by clinical consultation, medical records, and genetic and immunologic studies. The clinical spectrum narrowed down to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine-related suppurative adenitis in all patients with one death, and recrudescence in two, histoplasmosis, and recurrence in one patient, extraintestinal salmonellosis in one child, and cutaneous vasculitis in another. In three patients, we established the homozygous Trp7Ter predicted loss-of-function inherited genotype and inferred it from the heterozygote parents of the fourth case. The Trp7Ter mutation maps to the predicted IL-12Rβ1 N-terminal signal peptide sequence. BCG- or phytohemagglutinin-blasts from the three patients have reduced cell-surface expression of IL-12Rβ1 with impaired production of IFN-γ and IL-17A. Screening of 227 unrelated healthy subjects from the same geographic region revealed one heterozygous genotype (allele frequency 0.0022) vs. one in over 841,883 public genome/exomes. We also show that the

  2. Quorum sensing signal production and microbial interactions in a polymicrobial disease of corals and the coral surface mucopolysaccharide layer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth L Zimmer

    Full Text Available Black band disease (BBD of corals is a complex polymicrobial disease considered to be a threat to coral reef health, as it can lead to mortality of massive reef-building corals. The BBD community is dominated by gliding, filamentous cyanobacteria with a highly diverse population of heterotrophic bacteria. Microbial interactions such as quorum sensing (QS and antimicrobial production may be involved in BBD disease pathogenesis. In this study, BBD (whole community samples, as well as 199 bacterial isolates from BBD, the surface mucopolysaccharide layer (SML of apparently healthy corals, and SML of apparently healthy areas of BBD-infected corals were screened for the production of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs and for autoinducer-2 (AI-2 activity using three bacterial reporter strains. AHLs were detected in all BBD (intact community samples tested and in cultures of 5.5% of BBD bacterial isolates. Over half of a subset (153 of the isolates were positive for AI-2 activity. AHL-producing isolates were further analyzed using LC-MS/MS to determine AHL chemical structure and the concentration of (S-4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD, the biosynthetic precursor of AI-2. C6-HSL was the most common AHL variant detected, followed by 3OC4-HSL. In addition to QS assays, 342 growth challenges were conducted among a subset of the isolates, with 27% of isolates eliciting growth inhibition and 2% growth stimulation. 24% of BBD isolates elicited growth inhibition as compared to 26% and 32% of the bacteria from the two SML sources. With one exception, only isolates that exhibited AI-2 activity or produced DPD inhibited growth of test strains. These findings demonstrate for the first time that AHLs are present in an active coral disease. It is possible that AI-2 production among BBD and coral SML bacteria may structure the microbial communities of both a polymicrobial infection and the healthy coral microbiome.

  3. Transitions in nirS-type denitrifier diversity, community composition, and biogeochemical activity along the Chesapeake Bay estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Christopher A; O'Mullan, Gregory D; Cornwell, Jeffrey C; Ward, Bess B

    2013-01-01

    Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in North America, can be characterized as having steep and opposing gradients in salinity and dissolved inorganic nitrogen along the main axis of the Bay. In this study, the diversity of nirS gene fragments (encoding cytochrome cd 1-type nitrite reductase), physical/chemical parameters, and benthic N2-fluxes were analyzed in order to determine how denitrifier communities and biogeochemical activity vary along the estuary salinity gradient. The nirS gene fragments were PCR-amplified, cloned, and sequenced from sediment cores collected at five stations. Sequence analysis of 96-123 nirS clones from each station revealed extensive overall diversity in this estuary, as well as distinct spatial structure in the nirS sequence distributions. Both nirS-based richness and community composition varied among stations, with the most dramatic shifts occurring between low-salinity (oligohaline) and moderate-salinity (mesohaline) sites. For four samples collected in April, the nirS-based richness, nitrate concentrations, and N2-fluxes all decreased in parallel along the salinity gradient from the oligohaline northernmost station to the highest salinity (polyhaline) station near the mouth of the Bay. The vast majority of the 550 nirS sequences were distinct from cultivated denitrifiers, although many were closely related to environmental clones from other coastal and estuarine systems. Interestingly, 8 of the 172 OTUs identified accounted for 42% of the total nirS clones, implying the presence of a few dominant and many rare genotypes, which were distributed in a non-random manner along the salinity gradient of Chesapeake Bay. These data, comprising the largest dataset to investigate nirS clone sequence diversity from an estuarine environment, also provided information that was required for the development of nirS microarrays to investigate the interaction of microbial diversity, environmental gradients, and biogeochemical activity.

  4. Transitions in nirS-type Denitrifier Diversity, Community Composition, and Biogeochemical Activity along the Chesapeake Bay Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Francis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in North America, can be characterized as having steep and opposing gradients in salinity and dissolved inorganic nitrogen along the main axis of the Bay. In this study, the diversity of nirS gene fragments (encoding cytochrome cd1-type nitrite reductase, physical/chemical parameters, and benthic N2-fluxes were analyzed in order to determine how denitrifier communities and biogeochemical activity vary along the estuary salinity gradient. The nirS gene fragments were PCR-amplified, cloned, and sequenced from sediment cores collected at five stations. Sequence analysis of 96 to 123 nirS clones from each station revealed extensive overall diversity in this estuary, as well as distinct spatial structure in the nirS sequence distributions. Both nirS-based richness and community composition varied among stations, with the most dramatic shifts occurring between low-salinity (oligohaline and moderate-salinity (mesohaline sites. For four samples collected in April, the nirS-based richness, nitrate concentrations, and N2-fluxes all decreased in parallel along the salinity gradient from the oligohaline northernmost station to the highest salinity (polyhaline station near the mouth of the Bay. The vast majority of the 550 nirS sequences were distinct from cultivated denitrifiers, although many were closely related to environmental clones from other coastal and estuarine systems. Interestingly, 8 of the 172 OTUs identified accounted for 42% of the total nirS clones, implying the presence of a few dominant and many rare genotypes, which were distributed in a non-random manner along the salinity gradient of Chesapeake Bay. These data, comprising the largest dataset to investigate nirS clone sequence diversity from an estuarine environment, also provided information that was required for the development of nirS microarrays to investigate the interaction of microbial diversity, environmental gradients, and biogeochemical

  5. Estimating Soil Organic Carbon of Cropland Soil at Different Levels of Soil Moisture Using VIS-NIR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghu Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (SOC is an essential property for soil function, fertility and sustainability of agricultural systems. It can be measured with visible and near-infrared reflectance (VIS-NIR spectroscopy efficiently based on empirical equations and spectra data for air/oven-dried samples. However, the spectral signal is interfered with by soil moisture content (MC under in situ conditions, which will affect the accuracy of measurements and calibration transfer among different areas. This study aimed to (1 quantify the influences of MC on SOC prediction by VIS-NIR spectroscopy; and (2 explore the potentials of orthogonal signal correction (OSC and generalized least squares weighting (GLSW methods in the removal of moisture interference. Ninety-eight samples were collected from the Jianghan plain, China, and eight MCs were obtained for each sample by a rewetting process. The VIS-NIR spectra of the rewetted soil samples were measured in the laboratory. Partial least squares regression (PLSR was used to develop SOC prediction models. Specifically, three validation strategies, namely moisture level validation, transferability validation and mixed-moisture validation, were designed to test the potentials of OSC and GLSW in removing the MC effect. Results showed that all of the PLSR models generated at different moisture levels (e.g., 50–100, 250–300 g·kg−1 were moderately successful in SOC predictions (r2pre = 0.58–0.85, RPD = 1.55–2.55. These models, however, could not be transferred to soil samples with different moisture levels. OSC and GLSW methods are useful filter transformations improving model transferability. The GLSW-PLSR model (mean of r2pre = 0.77, root mean square error for prediction (RMSEP = 3.08 g·kg−1, and residual prediction deviations (RPD = 2.09 outperforms the OSC-PLSR model (mean of r2pre = 0.67, RMSEP = 3.67 g·kg−1, and RPD = 1.76 when the moisture-mixed protocol is used. Results demonstrated the use of OSC

  6. Relating surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals of cells to gold nanoparticle aggregation as determined by LA-ICP-MS micromapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, Tina; Drescher, Daniela; Traub, Heike; Schrade, Petra; Bachmann, Sebastian; Jakubowski, Norbert; Kneipp, Janina

    2014-11-01

    The cellular response to nanoparticle exposure is essential in various contexts, especially in nanotoxicity and nanomedicine. Here, 14-nm gold nanoparticles in 3T3 fibroblast cells are investigated in a series of pulse-chase experiments with a 30-min incubation pulse and chase times ranging from 15 min to 48 h. The gold nanoparticles and their aggregates are quantified inside the cellular ultrastructure by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry micromapping and evaluated regarding the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals. In this way, both information about their localization at the micrometre scale and their molecular nanoenvironment, respectively, is obtained and can be related. Thus, the nanoparticle pathway from endocytotic uptake, intracellular processing, to cell division can be followed. It is shown that the ability of the intracellular nanoparticles and their accumulations and aggregates to support high SERS signals is neither directly related to nanoparticle amount nor to high local nanoparticle densities. The SERS data indicate that aggregate geometry and interparticle distances in the cell must change in the course of endosomal maturation and play a critical role for a specific gold nanoparticle type in order to act as efficient SERS nanoprobe. This finding is supported by TEM images, showing only a minor portion of aggregates that present small interparticle spacing. The SERS spectra obtained after different chase times show a changing composition and/or structure of the biomolecule corona of the gold nanoparticles as a consequence of endosomal processing.

  7. NIR spectrometry for counterfeit drug detection - A feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodionova, O.Y.; Houmøller, Lars P.; Pomerantsev, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    for mathematical data processing for false drugs detection is demonstrated. Also, multivariate hyperspectral image analysis is applied providing additional diagnostic information. Hyperspectral imaging is becoming a useful diagnostic tool for identifying non-homogeneous spatial regions of drug formulation. Two......Express-methods for detection of counterfeit drugs are of vital necessity. Visual control, dissociating tests or simple color reaction tests reveal only very rough forgeries. The feasibility of information-rich NIR-measurements as an analytical method together with multivariate calibration...... types of drugs are used to demonstrate the applicability of these approaches....

  8. NIRS - Near infrared spectroscopy - investigations in neurovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik Winther

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to explore and develop methods, where continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS) can be applied in different neurovascular diseases, in order to find biological markers that are useful in clinical neurology. To develop a new method to detect changes...... to sympathetic activity was investigated in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients, who have increased sympathetic activity and risk of stroke. Following successful continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, OSA patients decreased their LFOs amplitude, which was interpreted as a marker of decreased...

  9. In situ Vis NIR and Raman spectroelectrochemistry at fullerene peapods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavan, Ladislav; Dunsch, Lothar; Kataura, Hiromichi

    2002-07-01

    The population of valence-band electronic states of fullerene peapods (C 60@SWCNT) was tuned electrochemically in acetonitrile solutions. Electrochemistry of peapods was dominated by their capacitive charging without distinct faradaic processes. In situ Vis-NIR spectra of peapods showed similar features as those of empty nanotubes. Electrochemical charging caused reversible bleaching of the transitions between Van Hove singularities. This bleaching was mirrored by quenching of resonance Raman spectra of the tube-related modes. The A g(2) mode of C 60 exhibits considerable intensity increase upon anodic doping of peapods, but this mode is not enhanced at cathodic charging.

  10. [Visible-NIR spectral feature of citrus greening disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-hua; Li, Min-zan; Won Suk, Lee; Reza, Ehsani; Ashish, Ratn Mishra

    2014-06-01

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing, or HLB) is a devastating disease caused by Candidatus liberibacter which uses psyllids as vectors. It has no cure till now, and poses a huge threat to citrus industry around the world. In order to diagnose, assess and further control this disease, it is of great importance to first find a quick and effective way to detect it. Spectroscopy method, which was widely considered as a fast and nondestructive way, was adopted here to conduct a preliminary exploration of disease characteristics. In order to explore the spectral differences between the healthy and HLB infected leaves and canopies, this study measured the visible-NIR spectral reflectance of their leaves and canopies under lab and field conditions, respectively. The original spectral data were firstly preprocessed with smoothing (or moving average) and cluster average procedures, and then the first derivatives were also calculated to determine the red edge position (REP). In order to solve the multi-peak phenomenon problem, two interpolation methods (three-point Lagrangian interpolation and four-point linear extrapolation) were adopted to calculate the REP for each sample. The results showed that there were, obvious differences at the visible & NIR spectral reflectance between the healthy and HLB infected classes. Comparing with the healthy reflectance, the HLB reflectance was higher at the visible bands because of the yellowish symptoms on the infected leaves, and lower at NIR bands because the disease blocked water transportation to leaves. But the feature at NIR bands was easily affected by environmental factors such as light, background, etc. The REP was also a potential indicator to distinguish those two classes. The average REP was slowly moving toward red bands while the infection level was getting higher. The gap of the average REPs between the healthy and HLB classes reached to a maximum of 20 nm. Even in the dataset with relatively lower variation, the classification

  11. New NIR Calibration Models Speed Biomass Composition and Reactivity Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Obtaining accurate chemical composition and reactivity (measures of carbohydrate release and yield) information for biomass feedstocks in a timely manner is necessary for the commercialization of biofuels. This highlight describes NREL's work to use near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and partial least squares multivariate analysis to develop calibration models to predict the feedstock composition and the release and yield of soluble carbohydrates generated by a bench-scale dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis assay. This highlight is being developed for the September 2015 Alliance S&T Board meeting.

  12. Development and validation of an in-line NIR spectroscopic method for continuous blend potency determination in the feed frame of a tablet press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leersnyder, Fien; Peeters, Elisabeth; Djalabi, Hasna; Vanhoorne, Valérie; Van Snick, Bernd; Hong, Ke; Hammond, Stephen; Liu, Angela Yang; Ziemons, Eric; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2018-03-20

    A calibration model for in-line API quantification based on near infrared (NIR) spectra collection during tableting in the tablet press feed frame was developed and validated. First, the measurement set-up was optimised and the effect of filling degree of the feed frame on the NIR spectra was investigated. Secondly, a predictive API quantification model was developed and validated by calculating the accuracy profile based on the analysis results of validation experiments. Furthermore, based on the data of the accuracy profile, the measurement uncertainty was determined. Finally, the robustness of the API quantification model was evaluated. An NIR probe (SentroPAT FO) was implemented into the feed frame of a rotary tablet press (Modul™ P) to monitor physical mixtures of a model API (sodium saccharine) and excipients with two different API target concentrations: 5 and 20% (w/w). Cutting notches into the paddle wheel fingers did avoid disturbances of the NIR signal caused by the rotating paddle wheel fingers and hence allowed better and more complete feed frame monitoring. The effect of the design of the notched paddle wheel fingers was also investigated and elucidated that straight paddle wheel fingers did cause less variation in NIR signal compared to curved paddle wheel fingers. The filling degree of the feed frame was reflected in the raw NIR spectra. Several different calibration models for the prediction of the API content were developed, based on the use of single spectra or averaged spectra, and using partial least squares (PLS) regression or ratio models. These predictive models were then evaluated and validated by processing physical mixtures with different API concentrations not used in the calibration models (validation set). The β-expectation tolerance intervals were calculated for each model and for each of the validated API concentration levels (β was set at 95%). PLS models showed the best predictive performance. For each examined saccharine

  13. Identification of spilled oils by NIR spectroscopy technology based on KPCA and LSSVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ailing; Bi, Weihong

    2011-08-01

    Oil spills on the sea surface are seen relatively often with the development of the petroleum exploitation and transportation of the sea. Oil spills are great threat to the marine environment and the ecosystem, thus the oil pollution in the ocean becomes an urgent topic in the environmental protection. To develop the oil spill accident treatment program and track the source of the spilled oils, a novel qualitative identification method combined Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA) and Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) was proposed. The proposed method adapt Fourier transform NIR spectrophotometer to collect the NIR spectral data of simulated gasoline, diesel fuel and kerosene oil spills samples and do some pretreatments to the original spectrum. We use the KPCA algorithm which is an extension of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using techniques of kernel methods to extract nonlinear features of the preprocessed spectrum. Support Vector Machines (SVM) is a powerful methodology for solving spectral classification tasks in chemometrics. LSSVM are reformulations to the standard SVMs which lead to solving a system of linear equations. So a LSSVM multiclass classification model was designed which using Error Correcting Output Code (ECOC) method borrowing the idea of error correcting codes used for correcting bit errors in transmission channels. The most common and reliable approach to parameter selection is to decide on parameter ranges, and to then do a grid search over the parameter space to find the optimal model parameters. To test the proposed method, 375 spilled oil samples of unknown type were selected to study. The optimal model has the best identification capabilities with the accuracy of 97.8%. Experimental results show that the proposed KPCA plus LSSVM qualitative analysis method of near infrared spectroscopy has good recognition result, which could work as a new method for rapid identification of spilled oils.

  14. Local and remote thermoregulatory changes affect NIRS measurement in forearm muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messere, Alessandro; Roatta, Silvestro

    2015-11-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) assessment in skeletal muscle is potentially affected by circulatory changes occurring in superficial tissues. The aim of this study was to separately assess the interference from skin microcirculation and large vein blood flow by investigating the effect of selective local and remote warming-induced vasodilation, respectively. Blood volume and oxygenation changes were investigated in the forearm muscles of healthy subjects in two experimental series (ES) during selective forearm (ES1, n = 12) or hand warming (ES2, n = 10). In ES1, the response to muscle contraction (10 s, 70 % MVC) and occlusion before and after warming was also investigated, while in ES2 two NIRS probes were expressly positioned over a visible vein and over a vein-free area. Local warming increased the modified Beer-Lambert (BL) blood volume indicator, tHb, by 5.3 ± 3.6 µmol/L cm to an extent comparable to post-contraction hyperemia (6.8 ± 2.9 µmol/L cm, p < 0.01). Remote warming increased skin blood flow at the hand and tHb at both forearm sites (on average: 5.4 ± 4.8 µmol/L cm, p < 0.01). Conversely, indicators of blood volume and oxygenation, based on spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS), were not affected by any of the warming stimuli. These results demonstrate for the first time that: (1) blood drained by superficial veins may affect BL measurement; (2) it is difficult to exclude veins from the measurement by simple visual inspection of the cutaneous surface; (3) SRS effectively rejects artifacts from superficial hemodynamic changes in both cutaneous microcirculation and large veins. These results bear implications to conditions in which thermoregulatory adjustments cannot be excluded.

  15. Analysis of powder phenomena inside a Fette 3090 feed frame using in-line NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo-Ortiz, Daniel; Colon, Yleana; Romañach, Rodolfo J; Méndez, Rafael

    2014-11-01

    New analytical methods are needed to understand and optimize the processes by which tablets are produced. Fette 3090 tablet presses are commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry. A near-infrared (NIR) probe was installed into a Fette 3090 feed frame to understand and monitor the die filling process. The second objective was to analyze in detail the different factors that could affect the prediction of the developed NIR calibration models. Two monitoring positions for NIR spectrometers were evaluated; one at each side of the feed frame. A powder wave behavior caused by the paddle motion was observed inside the feed frame. The study also revealed that NIR spectra can help in the understanding of powder flow inside the feed frame. It was demonstrated that NIR spectra baselines can also be used to determine changes in mass inside the feed frame. The new NIR method showed that the paddle wheel speed has a significant impact in the powder dynamics inside the feed frame. The baselines of the NIR spectra depended on the mass hold-up inside the feed frame and paddle wheel speed. Studies using blends were performed to develop a NIR calibration model based on the feed frame system dynamics to determine acetaminophen drug concentration variability during the die filling process. The study found that variation in the distance from the powder to the probe due to paddle wheel speed has a significant effect on the NIR prediction. This study found that with NIR spectroscopy, blend uniformity can be assessed with high accuracy during the die filling process using the corresponding paddle wheel speed in-line calibration model. NIR was demonstrated to be a good development tool for the in-line monitoring of powder during the die filling process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Pterin-Dependent Signaling Pathway Regulates a Dual-Function Diguanylate Cyclase-Phosphodiesterase Controlling Surface Attachment in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feirer, Nathan; Xu, Jing; Allen, Kylie D; Koestler, Benjamin J; Bruger, Eric L; Waters, Christopher M; White, Robert H; Fuqua, Clay

    2015-06-30

    The motile-to-sessile transition is an important lifestyle switch in diverse bacteria and is often regulated by the intracellular second messenger cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP). In general, high c-di-GMP concentrations promote attachment to surfaces, whereas cells with low levels of signal remain motile. In the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens, c-di-GMP controls attachment and biofilm formation via regulation of a unipolar polysaccharide (UPP) adhesin. The levels of c-di-GMP in A. tumefaciens are controlled in part by the dual-function diguanylate cyclase-phosphodiesterase (DGC-PDE) protein DcpA. In this study, we report that DcpA possesses both c-di-GMP synthesizing and degrading activities in heterologous and native genetic backgrounds, a binary capability that is unusual among GGDEF-EAL domain-containing proteins. DcpA activity is modulated by a pteridine reductase called PruA, with DcpA acting as a PDE in the presence of PruA and a DGC in its absence. PruA enzymatic activity is required for the control of DcpA and through this control, attachment and biofilm formation. Intracellular pterin analysis demonstrates that PruA is responsible for the production of a novel pterin species. In addition, the control of DcpA activity also requires PruR, a protein encoded directly upstream of DcpA with a predicted molybdopterin-binding domain. PruR is hypothesized to be a potential signaling intermediate between PruA and DcpA through an as-yet-unidentified mechanism. This study provides the first prokaryotic example of a pterin-mediated signaling pathway and a new model for the regulation of dual-function DGC-PDE proteins. Pathogenic bacteria often attach to surfaces and form multicellular communities called biofilms. Biofilms are inherently resilient and can be difficult to treat, resisting common antimicrobials. Understanding how bacterial cells transition to the biofilm lifestyle is essential in developing new therapeutic strategies. We have

  17. Characterization of Cell Surface and EPS Remodeling of Azospirillum brasilense Chemotaxis-like 1 Signal Transduction Pathway mutants by Atomic Force Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billings, Amanda N [ORNL; Siuti, Piro [ORNL; Bible, Amber [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Alexandre, Gladys [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    To compete in complex microbial communities, bacteria must quickly sense environmental changes and adjust cellular functions for optimal growth. Chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways are implicated in the modulation of multiple cellular responses, including motility, EPS production, and cell-to-cell interactions. Recently, the Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway from Azospirillum brasilense was shown to modulate flocculation. In A. brasilense, cell surface properties, including EPS production, are thought to play a direct role in promoting flocculation. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we have detected distinct changes in the surface morphology of flocculating A. brasilense Che1 mutant strains that are absent in the wild type strain. Whereas the wild type strain produces a smooth mucosal extracellular matrix, the flocculating Che1 mutant strains produce distinctive extracellular fibril structures. Further analyses using flocculation inhibition and lectin-binding assays suggest that the composition of EPS components in the extracellular matrix differs between the cheA1 and cheY1 mutants, despite an apparent similarity in the macroscopic floc structures. Collectively, these data indicate that mutations in the Che1 pathway that result in increased flocculation are correlated with distinctive changes in the extracellular matrix structure produced by the mutants, including likely changes in the EPS structure and/or composition.

  18. Quality control of tablets by Near Infrared (NIR)-Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, J; Kaunzinger, A; Niemöller, A; Karas, M

    2005-10-01

    Today, NIR-spectroscopy is an established analytical technique not only in the identification of raw materials but also in the quantification of active ingredients in tablets. In this work calibration models were set up with tablets of the same active ingredient but of miscellaneous origin and manufacturess. Consequently the tablets had different excipients and appearance. The pharmaceutical preparations used included atenolol 100 mg tablets, enalapril 20 mg tablets and acetylsalicylic acid (ASS) tablets of different dosage units. In order to proof if the calibration models set up are generally feasible the assay declared by the manufacturer was used to calculate the partial least square (PLS) calibration. With respect to enalapril tablets simultaneous analysis by HPLC, according to USP 26 was carried out. It was investigated if such methods allow a determination of active ingredients in tablets within limits of +/- 10% of declaration. It was shown that it is possible to set up calibration models to quantify active ingredients in tablets independent of adjuvants or optical appearance. Additionally it could be shown that NIR-spectroscopy is also applicable to determine the concentration of active ingredients in blister-packed tablets.

  19. Predicting pork quality using Vis/NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balage, Juliana Monteiro; da Luz E Silva, Saulo; Gomide, Catarina Abdalla; Bonin, Marina de Nadai; Figueira, Ana Cristina

    2015-10-01

    Visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS) was used to predict the ultimate pH (pHu), color, intramuscular fat (IMF) and shear force (WBSF) of pork samples and to build classifiers capable of categorizing the samples by tenderness (tender or tough) and juiciness (juicy and dry). Spectra were collected from 400 to 1495nm, and 200 data points were generated for every sample (n=134). Sixty-seven percent of the sample set was used for calibration, and 33% was used for validation. Partial least squares (PLS) calibration models were developed for each characteristic measured. A coefficient of determination (R(2)) and residual prediction deviation (RPD) were used to evaluate the accuracy of the calibration models. The pHu and color prediction models developed in this study fit this classification, indicating that these predictive models can be used to predict quality traits of intact pork samples. The Vis/NIRS offered great potential for correctly classifying pork Longissimus into two tenderness and two juiciness classes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. VIS/NIR imaging application for honey floral origin determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaei, Saeid; Shafiee, Sahameh; Polder, Gerrit; Moghadam-Charkari, Nasrolah; van Ruth, Saskia; Barzegar, Mohsen; Zahiri, Javad; Alewijn, Martin; Kuś, Piotr M.

    2017-11-01

    Nondestructive methods are of utmost importance for honey characterization. This study investigates the potential application of VIS-NIR hyperspectral imaging for detection of honey flower origin using machine learning techniques. Hyperspectral images of 52 honey samples were taken in transmittance mode in the visible/near infrared (VIS-NIR) range (400-1000 nm). Three different machine learning algorithms were implemented to predict honey floral origin using honey spectral images. These methods, included radial basis function (RBF) network, support vector machine (SVM), and random forest (RF). Principal component analysis (PCA) was also exploited for dimensionality reduction. According to the obtained results, the best classifier (RBF) achieved a precision of 94% in a fivefold cross validation experiment using only the first two PCs. Mapping of the classifier results to the test set images showed 90% accuracy for honey images. Three types of honey including buckwheat, rapeseed and heather were classified with 100% accuracy. The proposed approach has great potential for honey floral origin detection. As some other honey properties can also be predicted using image features, in addition to floral origin detection, this method may be applied to predict other honey characteristics.

  1. Use of FT-NIR Spectroscopy for Bovine Colostrum Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Navrátilová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transformation near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR in combination with partial least squares (PLS method were used to determine the content of total solids, fat, non-fatty solids, lactose and proteins in bovine colostrum. Spectra of 90 samples were measured in the reflectance mode with a transflectance cuvette in the 10000-4000 cm-1 spectral ranges with 100 scans. Calibration was performed and statistical values of correlation coefficients (R and standard error of calibration values (SEC were computed for total solids (0.986 and 0.919, respectively, fat (0.997 and 0.285, respectively, non-fatty solids (0.995 and 0.451, respectively, lactose (0.934 and 0.285, respectively and protein (0.999 and 0.149, respectively. The calibration models developed were verified by cross validation. It follows from the study that FT-NIR spectroscopy can be used to determine the components of bovine colostrum.

  2. NIR-light triggered delivery of macromolecules into the cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carregal-Romero, Susana; Ochs, Markus; Rivera-Gil, Pilar; Ganas, Carolin; Pavlov, Anton M; Sukhorukov, Gleb B; Parak, Wolfgang J

    2012-04-10

    Light-responsive microcapsules constructed by layer-by-layer self-assembly are used as microcarriers to deliver different macromolecules inside cells. The microcapsules carry the macromolecules as cargo in their cavity, while their walls are modified with agglomerated gold nanoparticles. Microcapsules are incorporated by living cells and are then located in lysosomal compartments. Controlled release of the encapsulated material from the interior of the capsule to the cytosol is possible upon NIR-light irradiation. This is based on local heating of the gold nanoparticles upon NIR light and disruption of the capsule wall, what results on release of encapsulated materials. We illustrate several key advances in controlled release induced by light. First, we demonstrate that capsules can be opened individually, which allows for sequentially releasing cargo from different capsules within one single cell. Second, by using a pH-indicator as cargo the claim of release from the acidic lysosomal compartments to the neutral cytosol is experimentally evident which until now has been only speculated. Third, green fluorescent protein (GFP) is released to the cytosol while retaining its functionality. This demonstrates that proteins can be released without destruction by the local heating. Fourth, GFP is also administered in biodegradable capsules, which leads to a different release mechanism compared to externally triggering for light-responsive microcapsules. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Miniature near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer engine for handheld applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Nada A.; Hulse, Charles A.; Friedrich, Donald M.; Van Milligen, Fred J.; von Gunten, Marc K.; Pfeifer, Frank; Siesler, Heinz W.

    2012-06-01

    While substantial progress has been made recently towards the miniaturization of Raman, mid-infrared (IR), and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers, there remains continued interest from end-users and product developers in pushing the technology envelope toward even smaller and lower cost analyzers. The potential of these instruments to revolutionize on-site and on-line applications can only be realized if the reduction in size does not compromise performance of the spectrometer beyond the practical need of a given application. In this paper, the working principle of a novel, extremely miniaturized NIR spectrometer will be presented. The ultra-compact spectrometer relies on thin-film linear variable filter (LVF) technology for the light dispersing element. We will also report on an environmental study whereby the contamination of soil by oil is determined quantitatively in the range of 0-12% by weight of oil contamination. The achieved analytical results will be discussed in terms of the instrument's competitiveness and suitability for on-site and in-the-field measurements.

  4. NIR photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasive glucose measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Praful P; Kumar Sanki, Pradyut; De, Arijit; Banerjee, Swapna

    2015-08-01

    The use of near infra red (NIR) photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) for continuous non-invasive glucose measurement is outlined in the paper. A photoacoustic (PA) measurement apparatus was constructed and PA measurements were made on glucose solutions at multiple NIR excitation wavelengths. A variety of time and frequency domain features, including amplitude and area based features, were extracted from the PA measurements. These features were observed to be proportional to the glucose concentration of the sample. PA measurements from samples of whole blood at different glucose concentrations showed similar results. Subsequently, in vivo PA measurements made on a cohort of 30 volunteers were calibrated using a quadratic fit, and the results were compared to reference glucose concentrations made using a regular blood glucose meter. A comparison of 196 measurement pairs of predicted and reference glucose concentrations using a Clarke Error Grid gave a point distribution of 87.24% and 12.76% over zones A and B of the grid, with no measurement pairs falling in unacceptable zones C-E of the error grid. The predicted measurements had a mean absolute difference (MAD) of 12.57 ± 13.90 mg/dl and a mean absolute relative difference (MARD) of 9.61% ± 10.55%. This is an improvement over previous results obtained using PAS and other non-invasive techniques, validating the potential of PAS for continuous noninvasive glucose monitoring.

  5. Infrared and NIR Raman spectroscopy in medical microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Dieter

    1998-04-01

    FTIR and FT-NIR Raman spectra of intact microbial cells are highly specific, fingerprint-like signatures which can be used to (i) discriminate between diverse microbial species and strains, (ii) detect in situ intracellular components or structures such as inclusion bodies, storage materials or endospores, (iii) detect and quantify metabolically released CO2 in response to various different substrate, and (iv) characterize growth-dependent phenomena and cell-drug interactions. The characteristic information is extracted from the spectral contours by applying resolution enhancement techniques, difference spectroscopy, and pattern recognition methods such as factor-, cluster-, linear discriminant analysis, and artificial neural networks. Particularly interesting applications arise by means of a light microscope coupled to the spectrometer. FTIR spectra of micro-colonies containing less than 103 cells can be obtained from colony replica by a stamping technique that transfers micro-colonies growing on culture plates to a special IR-sample holder. Using a computer controlled x, y- stage together with mapping and video techniques, the fundamental tasks of microbiological analysis, namely detection, enumeration, and differentiation of micro- organisms can be integrated in one single apparatus. FTIR and NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy can also be used in tandem to characterize medically important microorganisms. Currently novel methodologies are tested to take advantage of the complementary information of IR and Raman spectra. Representative examples on medically important microorganisms will be given that highlight the new possibilities of vibrational spectroscopies.

  6. Non-destructive evaluation of articular cartilage defects using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in osteoarthritic rat models and its direct relation to Mankin score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afara, I; Prasadam, I; Crawford, R; Xiao, Y; Oloyede, A

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the potential of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for categorizing cartilage degeneration induced in animal models. Three models of osteoarthritic degeneration were induced in laboratory rats via one of the following methods: (1) menisectomy (MSX); (2) anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT); and (3) intra-articular injection of mono-ido-acetate (1 mg) (MIA), in the right knee joint, with 12 rats per model group. After 8 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and tibial knee joints were collected. A custom-made near-infrared (NIR) probe of diameter 5 mm was placed on the cartilage surface and spectral data were acquired from each specimen in the wave number range 4,000-12,500 cm(-1). Following spectral data acquisition, the specimens were fixed and Safranin-O staining was performed to assess disease severity based on the Mankin scoring system. Using multivariate statistical analysis based on principal component analysis and partial least squares regression, the spectral data were then related to the Mankin scores of the samples tested. Mild to severe degenerative cartilage changes were observed in the subject animals. The ACLT models showed mild cartilage degeneration, MSX models moderate, and MIA severe cartilage degenerative changes both morphologically and histologically. Our result demonstrates that NIR spectroscopic information is capable of separating the cartilage samples into different groups relative to the severity of degeneration, with NIR correlating significantly with their Mankin score (R(2) = 88.85%). We conclude that NIR is a viable tool for evaluating articular cartilage health and physical properties such as change in thickness with degeneration. Copyright © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of cell hydration in realization of biological effects of non-ionizing radiation (NIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrapetyan, Sinerik

    2015-09-01

    The weak knowledge on the nature of cellular and molecular mechanisms of biological effects of NIR such as static magnetic field, infrasound frequency of mechanical vibration, extremely low frequency of electromagnetic fields and microwave serves as a main barrier for adequate dosimetry from the point of Public Health. The difficulty lies in the fact that the biological effects of NIR depend not only on their thermodynamic characteristics but also on their frequency and intensity "windows", chemical and physical composition of the surrounding medium, as well as on the initial metabolic state of the organism. Therefore, only biomarker can be used for adequate estimation of biological effect of NIR on organisms. Because of the absence of such biomarker(s), organizations having the mission to monitor hazardous effects of NIR traditionally base their instruction on thermodynamic characteristics of NIR. Based on the high sensitivity to NIR of both aqua medium structure and cell hydration, it is suggested that cell bathing medium is one of the primary targets and cell hydration is a biomarker for NIR effects on cells and organisms. The purpose of this article is to present a short review of literature and our own experimental data on the effects of NIR on plants' seeds germination, microbe growth and development, snail neurons and heart muscle, rat's brain and heart tissues.

  8. Single seed NIR as a fast method to predict germination ability in Pak Choi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, René; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær

    2012-01-01

    Single seed NIR has further been tested to determine the applicability for prediction of seed viability in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seeds and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) seeds. The studies show the possibility of using NIR spectroscopy in a seed separating process in the future, provided...

  9. The use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict the chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wet chemical analysis of feed samples is time consuming and expensive. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was developed as a rapid technique to predict the chemical composition of feeds. The prediction of accuracy of NIRS relies heavily on obtaining a calibration set which represents the variation in the main ...

  10. A New Framework for the Assessment of Cerebral Hemodynamics Regulation in Neonates Using NIRS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caicedo, Alexander; Alderliesten, Thomas; Naulaers, Gunnar; Lemmers, Petra; van Bel, Frank; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    We present a new framework for the assessment of cerebral hemodynamics regulation (CHR) in neonates using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). In premature infants, NIRS measurements have been used as surrogate variables for cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the assessment of cerebral autoregulation (CA).

  11. Methods of Creating Solar-Reflective Nonwhite Surfaces and theirApplication to Residential Roofing Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Berdahl, Paul; Akbari, Hashem; Miller, William; Joedicke, Ingo; Reilly, Joseph; Suzuki, Yoshi; Vondran, Michelle

    2005-05-24

    We describe methods for creating solar-reflective nonwhitesurfaces and their application to a wide variety of residential roofingmaterials, including metal, clay tile, concrete tile, wood, and asphaltshingle. Reflectance in the near-infrared (NIR) spectrum (0.7 2.5mu m) ismaximized by coloring a topcoatwith pigments that weakly absorb and(optionally) strongly backscatter NIR radiation, and adding anNIR-reflective basecoat (e.g., titanium dioxide white) if both thetopcoat and substrate weakly reflect NIR radiation. Coated steel andglazed clay tile roofing products achieved NIRreflectances of up to 0.50and 0.75, respectively, using only cool topcoats. Gray concrete tilesachieve NIR reflectances as high as 0.60 when thickly coated withNIR-scattering pigments, and could attain an NIR reflectances as high as0.85 by overlaying a titanium-dioxide basecoat with a topcoat colored byNIR-transparent organic pigments. Granule-surfaced asphalt shinglesachieved NIR reflectances as high as 0.45 when a cool color topcoat wasapplied over a thick white basecoat.

  12. A two-photon NIR-to-NIR fluorescent probe for imaging hydrogen peroxide in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haidong; Yao, Qichao; Fan, Jiangli; Du, Jianjun; Wang, Jingyun; Peng, Xiaojun

    2017-08-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), plays vital roles in diverse physiological processes. Imbalance of the H 2 O 2 is concerned with serious diseases such as cardiovascular disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Therefore, it is critical to develop efficient methods for monitoring H 2 O 2 in vivo. In this work, a two-photon excitation (860nm) NIR fluorescent turn-on probe TPNR-H 2 O 2 for H 2 O 2 based on Dicyanomethylene-4H-pyran fluorophore is reported, which can be used in solution detection with 13.2-fold NIR fluorescence enhancement, fast response (completed within 40min), excellent sensitivity (DL 72.48nM), and lower cellular auto-fluorescence interference. Importantly, the perfect photostability of TPNR-H 2 O 2 clearly demonstrated that the probe could be applied to imaging intracellular H 2 O 2 for a long time without photobleaching. In addition, through two-photon imaging, this probe was cell permeable and used to monitor the level of endogenous and exogenous H 2 O 2 with promising biological application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Deep nirS amplicon sequencing of San Francisco Bay sediments enables prediction of geography and environmental conditions from denitrifying community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica A; Francis, Christopher A

    2017-12-01

    Denitrification is a dominant nitrogen loss process in the sediments of San Francisco Bay. In this study, we sought to understand the ecology of denitrifying bacteria by using next-generation sequencing (NGS) to survey the diversity of a denitrification functional gene, nirS (encoding cytchrome-cd 1 nitrite reductase), along the salinity gradient of San Francisco Bay over the course of a year. We compared our dataset to a library of nirS sequences obtained previously from the same samples by standard PCR cloning and Sanger sequencing, and showed that both methods similarly demonstrated geography, salinity and, to a lesser extent, nitrogen, to be strong determinants of community composition. Furthermore, the depth afforded by NGS enabled novel techniques for measuring the association between environment and community composition. We used Random Forests modelling to demonstrate that the site and salinity of a sample could be predicted from its nirS sequences, and to identify indicator taxa associated with those environmental characteristics. This work contributes significantly to our understanding of the distribution and dynamics of denitrifying communities in San Francisco Bay, and provides valuable tools for the further study of this key N-cycling guild in all estuarine systems. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Using Vis-NIR spectroscopy for monitoring temporal changes of soil organic carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fan; Minasny, Budiman; Knadel, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring the spatial and temporal changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) brought about by climate change and agricultural practices is challenging because existing SOC monitoring methods are very time and resource consuming. This study examined the use of visible near-infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIR...... Bayesian Kriging was used to map SOC. The Vis-NIR predictions indicated that average topsoil and subsoil SOC had decreased slightly in Denmark from 1986 to 2009, and this was confirmed by TL measurements of SOC. In East Denmark, Vis-NIR predictions differed significantly from the measured SOC values....... For subsoil samples, the ability of Vis-NIR to predict SOC levels varied. In West Jutland, Central Jutland, North Jutland, and Thy, Vis-NIR-predicted SOC levels did not differ from TL-measured levels, showing good predictive ability. For topsoil samples, the spatial pattern of change in TL...

  15. Linear regression models and k-means clustering for statistical analysis of fNIRS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomini, Viola; Zucchelli, Lucia; Re, Rebecca; Ieva, Francesca; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Contini, Davide; Paganoni, Anna; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2015-02-01

    We propose a new algorithm, based on a linear regression model, to statistically estimate the hemodynamic activations in fNIRS data sets. The main concern guiding the algorithm development was the minimization of assumptions and approximations made on the data set for the application of statistical tests. Further, we propose a K-means method to cluster fNIRS data (i.e. channels) as activated or not activated. The methods were validated both on simulated and in vivo fNIRS data. A time domain (TD) fNIRS technique was preferred because of its high performances in discriminating cortical activation and superficial physiological changes. However, the proposed method is also applicable to continuous wave or frequency domain fNIRS data sets.

  16. Fast optical signal not detected in awake behaving monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Harsha; Vanduffel, Wim; Deng, Hong Ping; Ekstrom, Leeland; Boas, David A; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2009-04-01

    While the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure cerebral hemodynamic evoked responses (slow optical signal) is well established, its ability to measure non-invasively the 'fast optical signal' is still controversial. Here, we aim to determine the feasibility of performing NIRS measurements of the 'fast optical signal' or Event-Related Optical Signals (EROS) under optimal experimental conditions in awake behaving macaque monkeys. These monkeys were implanted with a 'recording well' to expose the dura above the primary visual cortex (V1). A custom-made optical probe was inserted and fixed into the well. The close proximity of the probe to the brain maximized the sensitivity to changes in optical properties in the cortex. Motion artifacts were minimized by physical restraint of the head. Full-field contrast-reversing checkerboard stimuli were presented to monkeys trained to perform a visual fixation task. In separate sessions, two NIRS systems (CW4 and ISS FD oximeter), which previously showed the ability to measure the fast signal in human, were used. In some sessions EEG was acquired simultaneously with the optical signal. The increased sensitivity to cortical optical changes with our experimental setup was quantified with 3D Monte Carlo simulations on a segmented MRI monkey head. Averages of thousands of stimuli in the same animal, or grand averages across the two animals and across repeated sessions, did not lead to detection of the fast optical signal using either amplitude or phase of the optical signal. Hemodynamic responses and visual evoked potentials were instead always detected with single trials or averages of a few stimuli. Based on these negative results, despite the optimal experimental conditions, we doubt the usefulness of non-invasive fast optical signal measurements with NIRS.

  17. Analysis of one repetition during biceps curl exercise among age-matched adult volunteers using endurance, curl speed and surface electromyography signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Kiran; Maitra Ghosh, Diptasree; Swaminathan, Ramakrishnan

    2017-07-01

    Exercises under isometric and dynamic contractions are influenced by the rate coding and recruitment strategies. The study of muscle strength under dynamic contraction is normally performed using one-repetition maximum (1-RM) method. There are several variants of deriving one repetition method using number of repetitions and load that are useful in physical fitness and clinical rehabilitation program. However, the factors of dynamic contractions such as endurance time, speed of muscle contractions and muscle activity are not considered in 1-RM methods. The muscular activities are analyzed using surface electromyography (sEMG) signals. Limited work has been reported on the relationship between the 1-RM method and factors such as endurance time, speed of contraction and sEMG activity. In this work, a modified 1-RM method is proposed, namely, N-RM, using load, number of repetitions, endurance time, speed of contraction and normalized sEMG activity. For this purpose, sEMG signals are recorded from 58 healthy subjects under standard dynamic contraction protocol involving curl exercise. Conventional 1-RM is computed by using Epley's method and compared with proposed method using correlation analysis. The results show that 1-RM increases linearly with number of curls (r=1) but has a poor correlation coefficient with sEMG (r=0.01) and endurance time (r =0.4). The curl speed for lower 1-RM and higher 1-RM did not show any statistical difference (p =0.2). The proposed N-RM is observed to have good correlation with endurance time (r=0.734), curl speed (r=0.893) and sEMG activity (r=0.8851). These results demonstrate that the proposed N-RM is highly correlated to factors influencing the dynamic contractions. This method can be further extended to assess muscles under various clinical disorders and sports training.

  18. How deep can surface signals be traced in the critical zone? Merging biodiversity with biogeochemistry research in a central German Muschelkalk landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten eKüsel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Earth’s Critical Zone (CZ is a thin living layer connecting atmosphere and geosphere, including aquifers. Humans live in the CZ and benefit from the vital supporting services it provides. However, the CZ is increasingly impacted by human activities including land and resource use, pollution and climate change. Recent interest in uniting the many disciplines studying this complex domain has initiated an international network of research infrastructure platforms that allow access to the CZ in a range of geologic settings. In this paper a new such infrastructure platform associated with the Collaborative Research Center AquaDiva is described, that uniquely seeks to combine CZ research with detailed investigation of the functional biodiversity of the subsurface. Overall, AquaDiva aims to test hypotheses about how water connects surface conditions set by land cover and land management to the biota and biogeochemical functions in the subsurface. With long-term and continuous observations, hypotheses about how seasonal variations and extreme events at the surface impact subsurface processes, community structure and function, are tested. AquaDiva has established the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (CZE in central Germany in an alkaline geological setting of German Triassic Muschelkalk formations. The Hainich CZE includes specialized monitoring wells to access the vadose zone and two main groundwater complexes in limestone and marlstone parent materials along a ~6 km transect spanning forest, pasture and agricultural land uses. Initial results demonstrate fundamental differences in the biota and biogeochemistry of the two aquifer complexes that trace back to the land uses in their respective recharge areas. They also show the importance of antecedent conditions on the impact of precipitation events on responses in terms of groundwater dynamics, chemistry and ecology. Thus we find signals of surface land use and events can be detected in the

  19. How deep can surface signals be traced in the critical zone? Merging biodiversity with biogeochemistry research in a central German Muschelkalk landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küsel, Kirsten; Totsche, Kai; Trumbore, Susan; Lehmann, Robert; Steinhäuser, Christine; Herrmann, Martina

    2016-04-01

    The Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) is a thin living layer connecting atmosphere and geosphere, including aquifers. Humans live in the CZ and benefit from the vital supporting services it provides. However, the CZ is increasingly impacted by human activities including land and resource use, pollution and climate change. Recent interest in uniting the many disciplines studying this complex domain has initiated an international network of research infrastructure platforms that allow access to the CZ in a range of geologic settings. In this paper a new such infrastructure platform associated with the Collaborative Research Center AquaDiva is described, that uniquely seeks to combine CZ research with detailed investigation of the functional biodiversity of the subsurface. Overall, AquaDiva aims to test hypotheses about how water connects surface conditions set by land cover and land management to the biota and biogeochemical functions in the subsurface. With long-term and continuous observations, hypotheses about how seasonal variations and extreme events at the surface impact subsurface processes, community structure and function, are tested. AquaDiva has established the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (CZE) in central Germany in an alkaline geological setting of German Triassic Muschelkalk formations. The Hainich CZE includes specialized monitoring wells to access the vadose zone and two main groundwater complexes in limestone and marlstone parent materials along a ~6 km transect spanning forest, pasture and agricultural land uses. Initial results demonstrate fundamental differences in the biota and biogeochemistry of the two aquifer complexes that trace back to the land uses in their respective recharge areas. They also show the importance of antecedent conditions on the impact of precipitation events on responses in terms of groundwater dynamics, chemistry and ecology. Thus we find signals of surface land use and events can be detected in the subsurface CZ. Future

  20. Synthesis, Characterization, and Application in HeLa Cells of an NIR Light Responsive Doxorubicin Delivery System Based on NaYF4:Yb,Tm@SiO2-PEG Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Cristobal, Paulino; Oton-Fernandez, Olalla; Mendez-Gonzalez, Diego; Díaz, J Fernando; Lopez-Cabarcos, Enrique; Barasoain, Isabel; Rubio-Retama, Jorge

    2015-07-15

    Herein, we present a phototriggered drug delivery system based on light responsive nanoparticles, which is able to release doxorubicin upon NIR light illumination. The proposed system is based on upconversion fluorescence nanoparticles of β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm@SiO2-PEG with a mean diameter of 52±2.5 nm that absorb the NIR light and emit UV light. The UV radiation causes the degradation of photodegradable ortho-nitrobenzyl alcohol derivates, which are attached on one side to the surface of the nanoparticles and on the other to doxorubicin. This degradation triggers the doxorubicin release. This drug delivery system has been tested "in vitro" with HeLa cells. The results of this study demonstrated that this system caused negligible cytotoxicity when they were not illuminated with NIR light. In contrast, under NIR light illumination, the HeLa cell viability was conspicuously reduced. These results demonstrated the suitability of the proposed system to control the release of doxorubicin via an external NIR light stimulus.

  1. Isolation, genetic and functional characterization of novel soil nirK-type denitrifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Silke; Liu, Binbin; Braker, Gesche

    2010-10-01

    Denitrification, the reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO(3)(-) and NO(2)(-)) to N(2) via the intermediates NO and N(2)O, is crucial for nitrogen turnover in soils. Cultivation-independent approaches that applied nitrite reductase genes (nirK/nirS) as marker genes to detect denitrifiers showed a predominance of genes presumably derived from as yet uncultured organisms. However, the phylogenetic affiliation of these organisms remains unresolved since the ability to denitrify is widespread among phylogenetically unrelated organisms. In this study, denitrifiers were cultured using a strategy to generally enrich soil microorganisms. Of 490 colonies screened, eight nirK-containing isolates were phylogenetically identified (16S rRNA genes) as members of the Rhizobiales. A nirK gene related to a large cluster of sequences from uncultured bacteria mainly retrieved from soil was found in three isolates classified as Bradyrhizobium sp. Additional isolates were classified as Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bosea sp. that contained nirK genes also closely related to the nirK from these strains. These isolates denitrified, albeit with different efficiencies. In Devosia sp., nirK was the only denitrification gene detected. Two Mesorhizobium sp. isolates contained a nirK gene also related to nirK from cultured Mesorhizobia and uncultured soil bacteria but no gene encoding nitric oxide or nitrous oxide reductase. These isolates accumulated NO under nitrate-reducing conditions without growth, presumably due to the lethal effects of NO. This showed the presence of a functional nitrite reductase but lack of a nitric oxide reductase. In summary, similar nirK genotypes recurrently detected mainly in soils likely originated from Rhizobia, and functional differences were presumably strain-dependent. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. A cleavable signal peptide enhances cell surface delivery and heterodimerization of Cerulean-tagged angiotensin II AT1 and bradykinin B2 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quitterer, Ursula, E-mail: ursula.quitterer@pharma.ethz.ch [Molecular Pharmacology Unit, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Pohl, Armin; Langer, Andreas; Koller, Samuel; AbdAlla, Said [Molecular Pharmacology Unit, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} A new FRET-based method detects AT1/B2 receptor heterodimerization. {yields} First time application of AT1-Cerulean as a FRET donor. {yields} Method relies on signal peptide-enhanced cell surface delivery of AT1-Cerulean. {yields} A high FRET efficiency revealed efficient heterodimerization of AT1/B2R proteins. {yields} AT1/B2R heterodimers were functionally coupled to desensitization mechanisms. -- Abstract: Heterodimerization of the angiotensin II AT1 receptor with the receptor for the vasodepressor bradykinin, B2R, is known to sensitize the AT1-stimulated response of hypertensive individuals in vivo. To analyze features of that prototypic receptor heterodimer in vitro, we established a new method that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and applies for the first time AT1-Cerulean as a FRET donor. The Cerulean variant of the green fluorescent protein as donor fluorophore was fused to the C-terminus of AT1, and the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) as acceptor fluorophore was fused to B2R. In contrast to AT1-EGFP, the AT1-Cerulean fusion protein was retained intracellularly. To facilitate cell surface delivery of AT1-Cerulean, a cleavable signal sequence was fused to the receptor's amino terminus. The plasma membrane-localized AT1-Cerulean resembled the native AT1 receptor regarding ligand binding and receptor activation. A high FRET efficiency of 24.7% between membrane-localized AT1-Cerulean and B2R-EYFP was observed with intact, non-stimulated cells. Confocal FRET microscopy further revealed that the AT1/B2 receptor heterodimer was functionally coupled to receptor desensitization mechanisms because activation of the AT1-Cerulean/B2R-EYFP heterodimer with a single agonist triggered the co-internalization of AT1/B2R. Receptor co-internalization was sensitive to inhibition of G protein-coupled receptor kinases, GRKs, as evidenced by a GRK-specific peptide inhibitor. In agreement with efficient AT1/B2R

  3. NIR Emitting Nanoprobes Based on Cyclic RGD Motif Conjugated PbS Quantum Dots for Integrin-Targeted Optical Bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depalo, N; Corricelli, M; De Paola, I; Valente, G; Iacobazzi, R M; Altamura, E; Debellis, D; Comegna, D; Fanizza, E; Denora, N; Laquintana, V; Mavelli, F; Striccoli, M; Saviano, M; Agostiano, A; Del Gatto, A; Zaccaro, L; Curri, M L

    2017-12-13

    Here, silica-coated PbS quantum dots (QDs) with photoluminescence emission properties in the near-infrared (NIR) region are proposed as potential effective single particle optical nanoprobes for future in vivo imaging of tumors. The dispersibility in aqueous medium of hydrophobic PbS QDs was accomplished by growing a silica shell on their surface by exploiting a base assisted water-in-oil microemulsion method. The silica-coated PbS QDs were then conjugated with a specifically designed cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) peptide that is able to specifically recognize αvβ3 integrins, which are overexpressed in angiogenic tumor-induced vasculatures and on some solid tumors, to achieve tumor-specific targeting. The cRGD peptide PbS silica-coated QDs were systematically characterized, at each step of their preparation, by means of complementary optical and structural techniques, demonstrating appropriate colloidal stability and the maintenance of their optical futures in aqueous solutions. The cellular uptake of cRGD peptide functionalized luminescent nanostructures in human melanoma cells, where overexpression of αvβ3 was observed, was assessed by means of confocal microscopy analysis and cytometric study. The selectivity of the cRGD peptide PbS silica-coated QDs for the αvβ3 integrin was established, consequently highlighting the significant potential of the developed NIR emitting nanostructures as optically traceable nanoprobes for future αvβ3 integrin receptor in vivo targeting in the NIR region.

  4. VIS/NIR reflectance and fluorescence spectrometric studies of minerals, water, organics and biomarkers in MoonMars analogue samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Heleen; Foing, Bernard; Kołodziejczyk, Agata; Vago, Jorge; Harasymczuk, Matt

    2017-04-01

    This study focuses on the detection and characterisation of elements, minerals, volatiles and organics using reflectance spectrometry. The goal is to create a calibration method to enable the use of spectrometers on analogue Moon/Mars missions and on a lander. For this study we use measurements that are done in the VIS and NIR spectrum, as well as fluorescence using different spectrometers. The first part of the study consists of measurements that are performed in a laboratory to create a calibration method. Different rock samples and soils are analysed and the reflectance and absorption of minerals, water, organics and biomarkers are measured. Also the influence of the grain size, light source and surroundings is being determined. An experiment on the reflectance spectra of plant growth in different soils is also done to determine the possibilities of detecting the presence of chlorophyll and other biomarkers, and to diagnose the growth and health of a plant. This analysis can result in a monitoring method for a Moon greenhouse, but also for general surface analysis. Using VIS and NIR spectrometry has a couple of advantages, one being the fact that measurements require no sample preparation, and also the small size of the spectrometer makes it an easy tool for different analyses on board space missions. However, VIS and NIR spectroscopy have detection limits which makes only certain characteristics detectable. Besides laboratory measurements, the different spectroscopy methods are tested during a field campaign in the Eifel, Germany. During this campaign we can determine the functionality of the spectrometer in the field and on a lander and the problems that can rise when a spectrometer is controlled from a distant or by a person who is not trained in using spectroscopy. These laboratory and field measurements can help in the scientific preparation for instruments on ExoMars rover, future MoonMars lander missions and for the MoonVillage.

  5. Filtering natural light at the greenhouse covering - better greenhouse climate and higher production by filtering out NIR?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemming, S.; Kempkes, F.; Braak, van der N.; Dueck, T.A.; Marissen, A.

    2006-01-01

    Wageningen UR investigated the potentials of several NIR-filtering methods to be applied in Dutch horticulture. NIR-filtering can be done by the greenhouse covering or by internal or external moveable screens. The objective of this investigation was to quantify the effect of different NIR-filtering

  6. Comparison of NIR chemical imaging with conventional NIR, Raman and ATR-IR spectroscopy for quantification of furosemide crystal polymorphs in ternary powder mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbichler, S A; Bittner, L K H; Weiss, A K H; Griesser, U J; Pallua, J D; Huck, C W

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI), near-infrared (NIR), Raman and attenuated-total-reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to quantify three polymorphic forms (I, II, III) of furosemide in ternary powder mixtures. For this purpose, partial least-squares (PLS) regression models were developed, and different data preprocessing algorithms such as normalization, standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and 1st to 3rd derivatives were applied to reduce the influence of systematic disturbances. The performance of the methods was evaluated by comparison of the standard error of cross-validation (SECV), R(2), and the ratio performance deviation (RPD). Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) of all methods were determined. For NIR-CI, a SECVcorr-spec and a SECVsingle-pixel corrected were calculated to assess the loss of accuracy by taking advantage of the spatial information. NIR-CI showed a SECVcorr-spec (SECVsingle-pixel corrected) of 2.82% (3.71%), 3.49% (4.65%), and 4.10% (5.06%) for form I, II, III. NIR had a SECV of 2.98%, 3.62%, and 2.75%, and Raman reached 3.25%, 3.08%, and 3.18%. The SECV of the ATR-IR models were 7.46%, 7.18%, and 12.08%. This study proves that NIR-CI, NIR, and Raman are well suited to quantify forms I-III of furosemide in ternary mixtures. Because of the pressure-dependent conversion of form II to form I, ATR-IR was found to be less appropriate for an accurate quantification of the mixtures. In this study, the capability of NIR-CI for the quantification of polymorphic ternary mixtures was compared with conventional spectroscopic techniques for the first time. For this purpose, a new way of spectra selection was chosen, and two kinds of SECVs were calculated to achieve a better comparability of NIR-CI to NIR, Raman, and ATR-IR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Classification of maize kernels using NIR hyperspectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Paul; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    NIR hyperspectral imaging was evaluated to classify maize kernels of three hardness categories: hard, medium and soft. Two approaches, pixel-wise and object-wise, were investigated to group kernels according to hardness. The pixel-wise classification assigned a class to every pixel from individual...... kernels and did not give acceptable results because of high misclassification. However by using a predefined threshold and classifying entire kernels based on the number of correctly predicted pixels, improved results were achieved (sensitivity and specificity of 0.75 and 0.97). Object-wise classification...... was performed using two methods for feature extraction — score histograms and mean spectra. The model based on score histograms performed better for hard kernel classification (sensitivity and specificity of 0.93 and 0.97), while that of mean spectra gave better results for medium kernels (sensitivity...

  8. Rapid NIR determination of alkyl esters in virgin olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayuela, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    The regulation of The European Union for olive oil and olive pomace established the limit of 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acids ethyl ester contents in extra virgin olive oils, from grinding seasons after 2016. In this work, predictive models have been established for measuring fatty acid ethyl and methyl esters and to measure the total fatty acid alkyl esters based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and used successfully for this purpose. The correlation coefficients from the external validation exercises carried out with these predictive models ranged from 0.84 to 0.91. Different classification tests using the same models for the thresholds 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid ethyl esters and 75 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid alkyl esters provided success percentages from 75.0% to 95.2%. [es

  9. Screening of grated cheese authenticity by nir spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cevoli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Parmigiano–Reggiano (PR cheese is one of the oldest traditional cheeses produced in Europe, and it is still one of the most valuable Protected Designation of Origin (PDO cheeses of Italy. The denomination of origin is extended to the grated cheese when manufactured exclusively from whole Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese wheels that respond to the production standard. The grated cheese must be matured for a period of at least 12 months and characterized by a rind content not over 18%. In this investigation the potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR, coupled to different statistical methods, were used to estimate the authenticity of grated Parmigiano Reggiano cheese PDO. Cheese samples were classified as: compliance PR, competitors, non-compliance PR (defected PR, and PR with rind content greater then 18%. NIR spectra were obtained using a spectrophotometer Vector 22/N (Bruker Optics, Milan, Italy in the diffuse reflectance mode. Instrument was equipped with a rotating integrating sphere. Principal Component Analysis (PCA was conducted for an explorative spectra analysis, while the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN were used to classify spectra, according to different cheese categories. Subsequently the rind percentage and month of ripening were estimated by a Partial Least Squares regression (PLS. Score plots of the PCA show a clear separation between compliance PR samples and the rest of the sample was observed. Competitors samples and the defected PR samples were grouped together. The classification performance for all sample classes, obtained by ANN analysis, was higher of 90%, in test set validation. Rind content and month of ripening were predicted by PLS a with a determination coefficient greater then 0.95 (test set. These results showed that the method can be suitable for a fast screening of grated cheese authenticity.

  10. [Rapid evaluation of beef quality by NIRS technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Song; Meng, Qing-Xiang; Ren, Li-Ping; Zhou, Zhen-Ming; Xie, Xiang-Xue

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy rapid method for evaluation of beef quality. Partial least squares (PLS) prediction model for the physic-chemical characteristics such as moisture, fat, protein, pH, color and WBSF in beef was established with good veracity. One hundred fourteen samples from five different parts of beef carcass (tenderloin, ribeye, topside, shin, striploin) were collected from meat packer after 48 h aging. Spectra were obtained by scanning sample from 950 to 1 650 nm and pretreated the model by MSC, SNV and first derivative. Predictive correlation coefficients of physic-chemical parameters in beef were 0.947 2 (moisture), 0.924 5 (fat), 0.934 6 (protein), 0.620 2 (pH), 0.820 3 (L), 0.864 6 (a*), 0.753 0 (b*) and 0.475 9 (WBSF) respectively. Root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC) were 0.313 3 (moisture), 0.221 0 (fat), 1.243 2 (protein), 0.744 6 (pH), 1.778 3 (L*), 1.394 2 (a*), 1.763 9 (b*) and 1.0743 (WBSF). They were externally validated with additional 30 beef samples. Statistics showed that there was no significant difference between predicted value and those obtained with conventional laboratory methods. The results showed that NIRS is a rapid, effective technique for evaluating beef quality. The predictions for chemical characteristics gave higher accuracy than prediction for physical characteristics.

  11. Unsupervised defect segmentation of patterned materials under NIR illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millan, Maria S; Escofet, Jaume; Rallo, Miquel

    2011-01-01

    An unsupervised detection method for automatic flaw segmentation in patterned materials (textile, non-woven, paper) that has no need of any defect-free references or a training stage is presented in this paper. Printed materials having a pattern of colored squares, bands, etc. superimposed to the background texture can be advantageously analyzed using NIR illumination and a camera with enough sensitivity to this region of the spectrum. The contrast reduction of the pattern in the NIR image facilitates material inspection and defect segmentation. Underdetection and misdetection errors can be reduced in comparison with the inspection performed under visible illumination. For woven fabrics, with periodic structure, the algorithm is based on the structural feature extraction of the weave repeat from the Fourier transform of the sample image. These features are used to define a set of multiresolution bandpass filters adapted to the fabric structure that operate in the Fourier domain. Inverse Fourier transformation, binarization and merging of the information obtained at different scales lead to the output image that contains flaws segmented from the fabric background. For non-woven and random textured materials, the algorithm combines the multiresolution Gabor analysis of the sample image with a statistical analysis of the wavelet coefficients corresponding to each detail. The information of all the channels is merged in a single binary output image where the defect appears segmented from the background. The method is applicable to random, non-periodic, and periodic textures. Since all the information to inspect a sample is obtained from the sample itself, the method is proof against heterogeneities between different samples of the material, in-plane positioning errors, scale variations and lack of homogeneous illumination. Experimental results are presented for a variety of materials and defects.

  12. Cohesive, multicomponent, dense powder flow characterization by NIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, C; Abatzoglou, N; Simard, J-S; McDermott, L; Léonard, G; Cartilier, L

    2007-05-24

    Non-aerated powder flows are frequently encountered in downstream pharmaceutical processes. Such flows occur at the entrance of powder compression units, and their characteristics are of great interest because any powder agglomeration or segregation can be detrimental to the quality of the final solid oral dosage form. This work was aimed at developing a process analytical technology (PAT) method, based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) for the in-line powder flow characterization of pharmaceutical formulations. An Ibuprofen drug formulation was selected for study. A bench-scale hopper system was assembled to monitor powder flow behaviour. An in-line commercial NIR Axsun spectrometer and probe were chosen to collect in-line spectral data on dense, multicomponent, non-aerated powder flow prior to compression. Spectra were collected on flowing mannitol and pharmaceutical product blends. A specially designed, non-contact sampling interface allowed the collection of representative process powder flow spectra without affecting blend uniformity. A partial least squares chemometric model was developed for laboratory-prepared samples, to quantitatively determine the flowing powder's active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) level. Static sample spectra and flowing pure mannitol spectra proved to have a high degree of reproducibility. The model's standard error of calibration was 2.95% of the API level with a R2 of 0.991. Flowing blend powder spectra and API estimates showed variations consistent with those seen in model samples. The average values for flowing pharmaceutical blends were close to the API concentration, indicating that the proposed procedure was statistically acceptable. The model is considered very promising, and some improvements would lead to its final acceptance at production scale as a PAT tool.

  13. Increasing the number and signal-to-noise ratio of OBS traces with supervirtual refraction interferometry and free-surface multiples

    KAUST Repository

    Bharadwaj, P.

    2013-01-10

    The theory of supervirtual interferometry is modified so that free-surface related multiple refractions can be used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of primary refraction events by a factor proportional to√Ns, where Ns is the number of post-critical sources for a specified refraction multiple. We also show that refraction multiples can be transformed into primary refraction events recorded at virtual hydrophones located between the actual hydrophones. Thus, data recorded by a coarse sampling of ocean bottom seismic (OBS) stations can be transformed, in principle, into a virtual survey with P times more OBS stations, where P is the order of the visible free-surface related multiple refractions. The key assumption is that the refraction arrivals are those of head waves, not pure diving waves. The effectiveness of this method is validated with both synthetic OBS data and an OBS data set recorded offshore from Taiwan. Results show the successful reconstruction of far-offset traces out to a source-receiver offset of 120 km. The primary supervirtual traces increase the number of pickable first arrivals from approximately 1600 to more than 3100 for a subset of the OBS data set where the source is only on one side of the recording stations. In addition, the head waves associated with the first-order free-surface refraction multiples allow for the creation of six new common receiver gathers recorded at virtual OBS station located about half way between the actual OBS stations. This doubles the number of OBS stations compared to the original survey and increases the total number of pickable traces from approximately 1600 to more than 6200. In summary, our results with the OBS data demonstrate that refraction interferometry can sometimes more than quadruple the number of usable traces, increase the source-receiver offsets, fill in the receiver line with a denser distribution of OBS stations, and provide more reliable picking of first arrivals. Apotential liability

  14. Acute neuropharmacological effects of atomoxetine on inhibitory control in ADHD children: A fNIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Nagashima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of the current study is to explore the neural substrate for effects of atomoxetine (ATX on inhibitory control in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS. We monitored the oxy-hemoglobin signal changes of sixteen ADHD children (6–14 years old performing a go/no-go task before and 1.5 h after ATX or placebo administration, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Sixteen age- and gender-matched normal controls without ATX administration were also monitored. In the control subjects, the go/no-go task recruited the right inferior and middle prefrontal gyri (IFG/MFG, and this activation was absent in pre-medicated ADHD children. The reduction of right IFG/MFG activation was acutely normalized after ATX administration but not placebo administration in ADHD children. These results are reminiscent of the neuropharmacological effects of methylphenidate to up-regulate reduced right IFG/MFG function in ADHD children during inhibitory tasks. As with methylphenidate, activation in the IFG/MFG could serve as an objective neuro-functional biomarker to indicate the effects of ATX on inhibitory control in ADHD children. This promising technique will enhance early clinical diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in children, especially in those with a hyperactivity/impulsivity phenotype.

  15. Hybrid fNIRS-EEG based classification of auditory and visual perception processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix ePutze

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For multimodal Human-Computer Interaction (HCI, it is very useful to identify the modalities on which the user is currently processing information. This would enable a system to select complementary output modalities to reduce the user's workload. In this paper, we develop a hybrid Brain-Computer Interface (BCI which uses Electroencephalography (EEG and functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS to discriminate and detect visual and auditory stimulus processing. We describe the experimental setup we used for collection of our data corpus with 12 subjects. We present cross validation evaluation results for different classification conditions. We show that our subject-dependent systems achieved a classification accuracy of 97.8% for discriminating visual and auditory perception processes from each other and a classification accuracy of up to 94.8% for detecting modality-specific processes independently of other cognitive activity. The same classification conditions could also be discriminated in a subject-independent fashion with accuracy of up to 94.6% and 86.7%, respectively. We also look at the contributions of the two signal types and show that the fusion of classifiers using different features significantly increases accuracy.

  16. [A dye densitometry analysis method for noninvasive measurement of cardiac output based on NIRS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng-Meng; Wang, Hong-Xuan; Liu, Guang-Da; Xin, Gui-Jie; Yu, Yong; Zha, Yu-Tong

    2013-12-01

    Currently, there exist technology problems in cardiac output (CO) parameter detection clinically, such as invasive and complex operation, as well as possibility of infection and death for patients. In order to solve these problems, a noninvasive and continuous method based on NIRS for CO detection was presented. In this way, the concentration changing of indocyanine green (ICG) dye in the patient's arterial blood was dynamically measured and analyzed, so that the CO could be noninvasively and continuously measured according to the characteristic parameters of dye densitometry curve. While the ICG dye was injected into the patient's body by the median cubital vein, block of photoelectric pulse dye densitometry measurement system as the lower machine acquired pulse wave data and uploaded the data to upper computer. In the scheme, two specialized light sources of LED at 940 and 805 nm were used to capture the signals of sufferer's fingertip pulse wave synchronously and successively. The CO value could then be successfully calculated through drawing complete ICG concentration variation of dye dilution and excretion process and computing mean transmission time (MTT) by upper computer. Compared with the "gold standard" method of thermodilution, the maximum relative error of this method was below 9. 76%, and the mean relative error was below 4. 39%. The result indicates that the method can be used as a kind of convenient operation, noninvasive and continuous solution for clinical CO measurement.

  17. NIR Phosphorescent Intramolecularly Bridged Benzoporphyrins and Their Application in Oxygen-Compensated Glucose Optode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zach, Peter W; Hofmann, Oliver T; Klimant, Ingo; Borisov, Sergey M

    2018-02-20

    A glucose optode measuring the internal oxygen gradient is presented. The multilayer biosensor is composed of (i) analyte-impermeable transparent support, (ii) first oxygen-sensing layer combined with an enzymatic layer, (iii) diffusion barrier, and (iv) second oxygen-sensing layer. To make this design suitable for measurement in subcutaneous tissue, a pair of NIR phosphorescent indicators with very different spectral properties is chosen. Combination of a conventional Pt(II) tetrabenzoporphyrin dye (absorption and emission maxima at 617 and 772 nm, respectively) used in the first layer and a new intramolecularly bridged Pt(II) complex (absorption and emission maxima at 673 and 872 nm, respectively) in the second layer enables efficient separation of both emission signals. This specially designed dye class is accessible via Scholl-reaction from tetraphenyltetrabenzoporphyrin complexes. For the first time, the new optode allows simultaneous glucose and oxygen measurement in a single spot and therefore accurate compensation of oxygen heterogeneities resulting from fluctuations in the tissue. The presented material covers the dynamic ranges from 0 to 150 hPa O 2 and from 0 to 360 mg/dL (20 mM) glucose (at 37 °C).

  18. A portable, multi-channel fNIRS system for prefrontal cortex: Preliminary study on neurofeedback and imagery tasks (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Seung-ho; Kim, Beop-Min

    2016-03-01

    fNIRS is a neuroimaging technique which uses near-infrared light source in the 700-1000 nm range and enables to detect hemodynamic changes (i.e., oxygenated hemoglobin, deoxygenated hemoglobin, blood volume) as a response to various brain processes. In this study, we developed a new, portable, prefrontal fNIRS system which has 12 light sources, 15 detectors and 108 channels with a sampling rate of 2 Hz. The wavelengths of light source are 780nm and 850nm. ATxmega128A1, 8bit of Micro controller unit (MCU) with 200~4095 resolution along with MatLab data acquisition algorithm was utilized. We performed a simple left and right finger movement imagery tasks which produced statistically significant changes of oxyhemoglobin concentrations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) areas. We observed that the accuracy of the imagery tasks can be improved by carrying out neurofeedback training, during which a real-time feedback signal is provided to a participating subject. The effects of the neurofeedback training was later visually verified using the 3D NIRfast imaging. Our portable fNIRS system may be useful in non-constraint environment for various clinical diagnoses.

  19. Trends in brain oxygenation during mental and physical exercise measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): potential for early detection of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Monica S.; Allen, Jeffery W.; Mikkilineni, Shweta; Liu, Hanli

    2005-04-01

    Motivation: Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is crucial because symptoms respond best to available treatments in the initial stages of the disease. Recent studies have shown that marked changes in brain oxygenation during mental and physical tasks can be used for noninvasive functional brain imaging to detect Alzheimer"s disease. The goal of our study is to explore the possibility of using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and mapping (NIRM) as a diagnostic tool for AD before the onset of significant morphological changes in the brain. Methods: A 16-channel NIRS brain imager was used to noninvasively measure spatial and temporal changes in cerebral hemodynamics induced during verbal fluency task and physical activity. The experiments involved healthy subjects (n = 10) in the age range of 25+/-5 years. The NIRS signals were taken from the subjects' prefrontal cortex during the activities. Results and Conclusion: Trends of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex of the brain were observed. During the mental stimulation, the subjects showed significant increase in oxygenated hemoglobin [HbO2] with a simultaneous decrease in deoxygenated hemoglobin [Hb]. However, physical exercise caused a rise in levels of HbO2 with small variations in Hb. This study basically demonstrates that NIRM taken from the prefrontal cortex of the human brain is sensitive to both mental and physical tasks and holds potential to serve as a diagnostic means for early detection of Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Modular Integration of Upconverting Nanocrystal-Dendrimer Composites for Folate Receptor-Specific NIR Imaging and Light-Triggered Drug Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pamela T; Chen, Dexin; Tang, Shengzhuang; Yanik, Sean; Payne, Michael; Mukherjee, Jhindan; Coulter, Alexa; Tang, Kenny; Tao, Ke; Sun, Kang; Baker, James R; Choi, Seok Ki

    2015-12-02

    Upconversion nanocrystals (UCNs) display near-infrared (NIR)-responsive photoluminescent properties for NIR imaging and drug delivery. The development of effective strategies for UCN integration with other complementary nanostructures for targeting and drug conjugation is highly desirable. This study reports on a core/shell-based theranostic system designed by UCN integration with a folate (FA)-conjugated dendrimer for tumor targeting and with photocaged doxorubicin as a cytotoxic agent. Two types of UCNs (NaYF4:Yb/Er (or Yb/Tm); diameter = ≈50 to 54 nm) are described, each displaying distinct emission properties upon NIR (980 nm) excitation. The UCNs are surface modified through covalent attachment of photocaged doxorubicin (ONB-Dox) and a multivalent FA-conjugated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer G5(FA)6 to prepare UCN@(ONB-Dox)(G5FA). Surface plasmon resonance experiments performed with G5(FA)6 dendrimer alone show nanomolar binding avidity (KD = 5.9 × 10(-9) M) to the folate binding protein. This dendrimer binding corresponds with selective binding and uptake of UCN@(ONB-Dox)(G5FA) by FAR-positive KB carcinoma cells in vitro. Furthermore, UCN@(ONB-Dox)(G5FA) treatment of FAR(+) KB cells inhibits cell growth in a light dependent manner. These results validate the utility of modularly integrated UCN-dendrimer nanocomposites for cell type specific NIR imaging and light-controlled drug release, thus serving as a new theranostic system. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Cotton Micronaire Measurements Using Small Portable Near-Infrared (NIR) Analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumba, Jimmy; Rodgers, James

    2016-05-01

    A key quality and processing parameter for cotton fiber is micronaire, which is a function of the fiber's maturity and fineness. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has previously shown the ability to measure micronaire, primarily in the laboratory and using large, research-grade laboratory NIR instrumentation. International interest has been expressed by the industry in the measurement of fiber micronaire using small, portable NIR spectroscopy instruments for both laboratory and outside the laboratory (e.g., field or greenhouse) locations. New, very small NIR micro-spectrometers have been commercialized that offer the potential advantages of smaller size and lower weight, lower cost, and increased portability over current portable units. A program was implemented to determine the feasibility of a small NIR micro-spectrometer to measure fiber micronaire both in the laboratory and outside the laboratory, with initial emphasis on laboratory measurements prior to moving to field evaluations. In the laboratory, distinct spectral differences with increasing micronaire were observed. Optimal sampling and instrumental procedures and protocols for two units (different spectral wavelength capabilities) were established. Comparative evaluations established very good method micronaire agreement between the micro-spectrometer and a standard portable spectrometer, with high Regression (R) value, low residuals, and few outliers (less than 20%). The NIR micro-spectrometer measurements were fast (NIR micro-spectrometer was demonstrated. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. [Maize Hybrid Seed Purity Identification Based on Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) and Transmittance (NIT) Spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian-xin; Jia, Shi-qiang; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Sheng-yi; Ran, Hang; Yan, Yan-lu; An, Dong

    2015-12-01

    This article explore the feasibility of using Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) and Transmittance (NIT) Spectroscopy (908.1-1677.2 nm wavelength range) to identify maize hybrid purity, and compare the performance of NIR and NIT spectroscopy. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Orthogonal Linear Discriminant Analysis (OLDA) were used to reduce the dimension of spectra which have been pretreated by first derivative and vector normalization. The hybrid purity identification model of Nonghua101 and Jingyu16 were built by SVM. Models based on NIR spectra obtained correct identification rate as 100% and 90% for Nonghua101 and Jingyu16 respectively. But NIR spectra were greatly influenced by the placement of seeds, and there existed significant difference between NIR spectra of embryo and non-embryo side. Models based on NIT spectroscopy yielded correct identification rate as 98% both for Nonghua101 and Jingyu16. NIT spectra of embryo and non-embryo side were highly similar. The results indicate that it is feasible to identify maize hybrid purity based on NIR and NIT spectroscopy, and NIT spectroscopy is more suitable to analyze single seed kernel than NIR spectroscopy.

  3. Functional near infra-red spectroscopy (fNIRS) in schizophrenia: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Chhabra, Harleen; Bose, Anushree; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2017-06-01

    The research on the alterations in functional connectivity in schizophrenia has been facilitated by development of an array of functional neuroimaging techniques. Functional Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a novel diffuse optical neuromonitring method with its own advantages and limitations. The advantages of fNIRS have made it to be frequently used as a research tool by medical community in different settings. In fNIRS the property of haemoglobin to absorb near infrared light is used to measure brain activity. It provides the indirect measurement of the neuronal activity in the areas of interest. The advantage of fNIRS being less restrictive has made it to be used more commonly in the research of psychiatric disorders in general, schizophrenia in particular. The fNIRS studies on patients with schizophrenia have shown haemodynamic hypo activation primarily in the prefrontal cortex during various cognitive tasks. In this review, initially we have briefly explained the basic principles of fNIRS followed by detailed review of fNIRS findings in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. FC-NIRS: A Functional Connectivity Analysis Tool for Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingping; Liu, Xiangyu; Zhang, Jinrui; Li, Zhen; Wang, Xindi; Fang, Fang; Niu, Haijing

    2015-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), a promising noninvasive imaging technique, has recently become an increasingly popular tool in resting-state brain functional connectivity (FC) studies. However, the corresponding software packages for FC analysis are still lacking. To facilitate fNIRS-based human functional connectome studies, we developed a MATLAB software package called "functional connectivity analysis tool for near-infrared spectroscopy data" (FC-NIRS). This package includes the main functions of fNIRS data preprocessing, quality control, FC calculation, and network analysis. Because this software has a friendly graphical user interface (GUI), FC-NIRS allows researchers to perform data analysis in an easy, flexible, and quick way. Furthermore, FC-NIRS can accomplish batch processing during data processing and analysis, thereby greatly reducing the time cost of addressing a large number of datasets. Extensive experimental results using real human brain imaging confirm the viability of the toolbox. This novel toolbox is expected to substantially facilitate fNIRS-data-based human functional connectome studies.

  5. Effects of slash-and-burn land management on soil spectral properties estimated with VIS-NIR-SWIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero-Vlasova, Olga Alexandra; Vlassova, Lidia; Rosero Tufiño, Pedro; Pérez-Cabello, Fernando; Montorio Llovería, Raquel

    2017-04-01

    Slash-and-burn land management is typical for low-income tropical countries, such as Ecuador. It involves conversion of forest into areas used for agriculture. At first trees are cut and the wood debris is burnt. After initial clearing, biomass burning is performed after each production cycle. Usually, cultivation cycles are followed by the fallow period. In the medium and long term, these practices have negative effect on soil fertility and there is the need for clearing more forest for agricultural use. This is one of the reasons for continuing deforestation with the consequent loss of biodiversity. Changes in physico-chemical properties due to periodic burning are accompanied by changes in soil spectral properties and can be determined using VIS-NIR-SWIR spectroscopy, which can be a cost-effective alternative for traditional methods of soil analysis. The purpose of the study is to assess the viability of VIS-NIR-SWIR spectroscopy for characterization of soils from land areas under slash-and-burn management system. Eighteen samples from soil surface layer were collected from two corn fields in the province of Los Rios, Ecuador, in September 2015. One of the areas has experienced six slash-and-burn cycles, while in the other the samples were collected at the end of the first corn cultivation cycle. Spectral measurements of sieved and air-dried samples were performed in the laboratory of the University of Zaragoza using ASD Fieldspec®4 spectroradiometer (350-2500nm spectral range) and ASD Illuminator Lamp as a light source. Statistically significant differences were observed between soil spectra of the samples from two soil groups. Reflectance of repeatedly burnt soils was 20% higher (mean value for the entire spectrum) for 65% of the samples, being especially important in VIS (>45%) and NIR ( 35%), probably due to the lower organic matter (OM) content. OM models built using Partial least Squares Regression demonstrated high predictive capacity (R2>0.8). Thus, the

  6. Application of a newly developed portable NIR imaging device to monitor the dissolution process of tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Daitaro; Murayama, Kodai; Awa, Kimie; Genkawa, Takuma; Komiyama, Makoto; Kazarian, Sergei G; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-11-01

    We have recently developed a novel portable NIR imaging device (D-NIRs), which has a high speed and high wavelength resolution. This NIR imaging approach has been developed by utilizing D-NIRs for studying the dissolution of a model tablet containing 20 % ascorbic acid (AsA) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient and 80 % hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, where the tablet is sealed by a special cell. Diffuse reflectance NIR spectra in the 1,000 to 1,600 nm region were measured during the dissolution of the tablet. A unique band at around 1,361 nm of AsA was identified by the second derivative spectra of tablet and used for AsA distribution NIR imaging. Two-dimensional change of AsA concentration of the tablet due to water penetration is clearly shown by using the band-based image at 1,361 nm in NIR spectra obtained with high speed. Moreover, it is significantly enhanced by using the intensity ratio of two bands at 1,361 and 1,354 nm corresponding to AsA and water absorption, respectively, showing the dissolution process. The imaging results suggest that the amount of AsA in the imaged area decreases with increasing water penetration. The proposed NIR imaging approach using the intensity of a specific band or the ratio of two bands combined with the developed portable NIR imaging instrument, is a potentially useful practical way to evaluate the tablet at every moment during dissolution and to monitor the concentration distribution of each drug component in the tablet.

  7. Prediction of essential oil content of oregano by hand-held and Fourier transform NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Cédric; Gérard, Marianne; Quennoz, Mélanie; Brabant, Cécile; Oberson, Carine; Simonnet, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of a breeding programme, the analysis of hundreds of oregano samples to determine their essential oil content (EOC) is time-consuming and expensive in terms of labour. Therefore developing a new method that is rapid, accurate and less expensive to use would be an asset to breeders. The aim of the present study was to develop a method based on near-inrared (NIR) spectroscopy to determine the EOC of oregano dried powder. Two spectroscopic approaches were compared, the first using a hand-held NIR device and the second a Fourier transform (FT) NIR spectrometer. Hand-held NIR (1000-1800 nm) measurements and partial least squares regression allowed the determination of EOC with R² and SEP values of 0.58 and 0.81 mL per 100 g dry matter (DM) respectively. Measurements with FT-NIR (1000-2500 nm) allowed the determination of EOC with R² and SEP values of 0.91 and 0.68 mL per 100 g DM respectively. RPD, RER and RPIQ values for the model implemented with FT-NIR data were satisfactory for screening application, while those obtained with hand-held NIR data were below the level required to consider the model as enough accurate for screening application. The FT-NIR approach allowed the development of an accurate model for EOC prediction. Although the hand-held NIR approach is promising, it needs additional development before it can be used in practice. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. [Comparative research on the NIR and MIR micro-imaging of two similar plastic materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Ma, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Liu; Pan, Li-Gang; Li, Xiao-Ting; Wang, Ji-Hua

    2011-09-01

    The NIR/MIR micro-imaging can supply not only the information of spectra, but also the information of spacial distribution of the sample, which is superior to the traditional NIR/MIR spectroscopy analysis. In the present paper, polyethylene and parafilm, with similar appearances, were regarded as the research objects, of which the NIR/MIR micro-imaging was collected. Chemical imaging (CI) and compare correlation imaging were carried out for the two materials respectively to discuss the imaging methods of the two materials. The result indicated that the differentiation of the CI values of the two materials in the NIR/MIR CI for material II was 0.004 8 and 0.254 8 respectively, while those in the NIR/MIR CI for material I were 0.002 6 and 0.326 5, respectively. Clear CI was acquired, and the two materials could be differentiated. The result of the compare correlation imagings indicated that the compare correlation imagings, in which the NIR/MIR spectra of the two materials were regarded as reference spectra respectively, can differentiate the two materials remarkably with clear imagings. In the compare correlation imagings of MIR micro-imaging, the difference of the correlation coefficients between the two materials' MIR spectra and the reference spectrum was more than 0.12, which showed a better imaging result; while a tiny difference of the correlation coefficients between the two materials' NIR spectra and the reference spectrum could be employed to show a clear imaging result for NIR compare correlation imaging so as to differentiate the two materials. This thesis, to some extent, can supply the reference to not only the rapid discrimination of the safety of the packaging material for agri-food, but also the imaging methods for NIR/MIR micro-imaging to differentiate the different materials.

  9. A stretchable nanowire UV-Vis-NIR photodetector with high performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jewon; Jeong, Sanghwa; Kim, Sungjee; Je, Jung Ho

    2015-03-11

    A simple direct-writing technique can be used to fabricate a stretchable UV-vis-NIR nanowire photodetector (NWPD) consisting of PbS quantum dot (QD)-poly(3-hexylthiopehene) (P3HT) hybrid NWs. The hybrid NWPD shows superior sensitivity and response speed in the UV-vis to NIR range. The stretchable UV-vis-NIR NWPD shows a nearly identical photoresponse under extreme (up to 100%) and repeated (up to 100 cycles) stretching conditions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Note: A unibody NIR transmission probe for in situ liquid detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huijie; Wang, Yang; Ma, Xiangyun; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Da; Chen, Wenliang; Xu, Kexin; Li, Qifeng

    2018-03-01

    The transmission probe is widely used for in situ spectroscopic detection in various fields. Conventional transmission probes are always assembled from parts, which require accurate assembly and good sealing. In this paper, a universal and reliable near-infrared (NIR) transmission probe is proposed, which is simply made up of a unibody fused silica rod. The proposed NIR transmission probe has been successfully used to measure the alcohol by volume of the Chinese spirit for quality control. This unibody NIR transmission probe has great potential for the detection of corrosive substances, owing to the good chemical resistance.

  11. Karakteristik Spektra Absorbansi NIR (Near Infra Red Spektroskopi Kayu Acacia mangium WILLD pada 3 Umur Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Karlinasari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai pengujian nondestruktif metode near infrared (NIR spektroskopi di Indonesia masih sangat terbatas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan karakteristik spektra NIR spektroskopi (panjang gelombang 700 nm – 2500 nm kayu Acacia mangium dari 3 umur yaitu 5, 6, dan, 7 tahun. Kayu mangium diperoleh dari daerah Maribaya, Parung Panjang, Bogor. Sampel contoh uji spektra terdiri dari bentuk solid atau padatan dan bentuk serbuk kayu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan spektra absorban NIR sampel padatan kayu lebih tinggi dibandingkan bentuk sampel serbuk. Umur pohon untuk jenis kayu yang sama tidak memberikan informasi perbedaan pola spektra absorbansi NIR yang nyata untuk setiap lokasi panjang gelombangnya. Penelitian lebih lanjut dapat dilakukan untuk menentukan model pendugaan sifat kimia, fisis dan mekanis kayu menggunakan analisis statistik metode analisis multivariasi. Kata kunci: NIR spektroskopi, Acacia mangium, kayu solid, serbuk kayu    Characteristics of Absorbency Spectra of NIR (Near Infra Red Spectroscopy of Acacia mangium Willd Wood from Three Different Age Abstract Research on non-destructive test of near infrared (NIR spectroscopy method was still limited in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to determine near infrared (NIR spectroscopy (wavelength range within 780 nm -2500 nm characteristic of wood species of Acacia mangium. The samples were selected from three different ages e.g. 5 year, 6 years, and 7 years grown in Maribaya area of Parung Panjang Distric. The NIR testing samples used were solid wood and ground wood. This study resulted that there was visually no significant difference of absorbance spectra NIR patterns based on wood ages. NIR absorbance spectra had same trend for both solid and ground wood samples in a range of wavelength, although those were in different values. The NIR absorbance spectra values of solid wood samples seemed higher than ground wood samples. Further research is needed to

  12. [Recent progress in NIR spectroscopy technology and its application to the field of forestry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Wei

    2008-07-01

    Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is the most rapidly developing and the most noticeable spectrographic technique in the 80's (the last century). Its developing history and utilization in foreign countries were introduced. The authors mainly summarized the applications of NIRS to the field of forestry. The applications of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) in fruit quality, timber and seed quality analysis are more active in forestry due to its rapid, timely, less expensive, non-destructive, straightforward analytic characteristics. In the last two decades, non-destructive methods using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to evaluate parameters for estimating maturity were applied to different fruits species to check the ripening status of fruits on trees or to grade fruits in the packing house, to assess fruit quality, such as sugar and acid contents, soluble solids, firmness of fruit, offers great advantages to growers in deciding when to harvest. The near infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS) can also be used the nondestructive quantitative assessment of the solid wood density, the moisture condition and the lignin content in bulky wood. The previous results indicated that the utility of NIRS was a selection tool in breeding programs, for example, three kids of persimmon fruits, astringent, non-astringent and half-astringent, were clearly classified by using Near-infrared (NIR) methods, and based on the combination of near infrared technology and multivariate analysis, the genetic, physiological and technical qualities of both temperate and tropical tree species on single seed basis can be characterized. It has already been shown that NIRS can predict the chemical composition of litters. NIRS is also capable of correlating the initial spectral characteristics of the litters with their short- and medium-term decomposability. The stage of decay of decomposing leaves can be predicted by using the near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. The method is rich in

  13. Probing the behaviors of gold nanorods in metastatic breast cancer cells based on UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiqi; Ji, Yinglu; Meng, Jie; Wu, Xiaochun; Xu, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    In this work, behaviors of positively-charged AuNRs in a highly metastatic tumor cell line MDA-MB-231 are examined based on UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy in combination with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dark-field microscopic observation. It is found that characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks of AuNRs can be detected using spectroscopic method within living cells that have taken up AuNRs. The peak area of transverse SPR band is shown to be proportionally related to the amount of AuNRs in the cells determined with ICP-MS, which suggests a facile and real time quantification method for AuNRs in living cells. The shape of longitudinal SPR band in UV-vis-NIR spectrum reflects the aggregation state of AuNRs in the cells during the incubation period, which is proved by TEM and microscopic observations. Experimental results reveal that AuNRs are internalized by the cells rapidly; the accumulation, distribution and aggregation of AuNRs in the cells compartments are time and dose dependent. The established spectroscopic analysis method can not only monitor the behaviors of AuNRs in living cells but may also be helpful in choosing the optimum laser stimulation wavelength for anti-tumor thermotherapy.

  14. Assessment of infant formula quality and composition using Vis-NIR, MIR and Raman process analytical technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Esquerre, Carlos; Downey, Gerard; Henihan, Lisa; O'Callaghan, Donal; O'Donnell, Colm

    2018-06-01

    In this study, visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR), mid-infrared (MIR) and Raman process analytical technologies were investigated for assessment of infant formula quality and compositional parameters namely preheat temperature, storage temperature, storage time, fluorescence of advanced Maillard products and soluble tryptophan (FAST) index, soluble protein, fat and surface free fat (SFF) content. PLS-DA models developed using spectral data with appropriate data pre-treatment and significant variables selected using Martens' uncertainty test had good accuracy for the discrimination of preheat temperature (92.3-100%) and storage temperature (91.7-100%). The best PLS regression models developed yielded values for the ratio of prediction error to deviation (RPD) of 3.6-6.1, 2.1-2.7, 1.7-2.9, 1.6-2.6 and 2.5-3.0 for storage time, FAST index, soluble protein, fat and SFF content prediction respectively. Vis-NIR, MIR and Raman were demonstrated to be potential PAT tools for process control and quality assurance applications in infant formula and dairy ingredient manufacture. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [A Study of the Relationship Among Genetic Distances, NIR Spectra Distances, and NIR-Based Identification Model Performance of the Seeds of Maize Iinbred Lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Jia, Shi-qiang; Wang, Chun-ying; Liu, Zhe; Gu, Jian-cheng; Zhai, Wei; Li, Shao-ming; Zhang, Xiao-dong; Zhu, De-hai; Huang, Hua-jun; An, Dong

    2015-09-01

    This paper explored the relationship among genetic distances, NIR spectra distances and NIR-based identification model performance of the seeds of maize inbred lines. Using 3 groups (total 15 pairs) of maize inbred lines whose genetic distaches are different as experimental materials, we calculates the genetic distance between these seeds with SSR markers and uses Euclidean distance between distributed center points of maize NIR spectrum in the PCA space as the distances of NIR spectrum. BPR method is used to build identification model of inbred lines and the identification accuracy is used as a measure of model identification performance. The results showed that, the correlation of genetic distance and spectra distancesis 0.9868, and it has a correlation of 0.9110 with the identification accuracy, which is highly correlated. This means near-Infrared spectrum of seedscan reflect genetic relationship of maize inbred lines. The smaller the genetic distance, the smaller the distance of spectrum, the poorer ability of model to identify. In practical application, near infrared spectrum analysis technology has the potential to be used to analyze maize inbred genetic relations, contributing much to genetic breeding, identification of species, purity sorting and so on. What's more, when creating a NIR-based identification model, the impact of the maize inbred lines which have closer genetic relationship should be fully considered.

  16. Correlations between in situ denitrification activity and nir-gene abundances in pristine and impacted prairie streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, David W.; Trippett, Clare; Dodds, Walter K.; O’Brien, Jonathan M.; Banner, Eric B.K.; Head, Ian M.; Smith, Marilyn S.; Yang, Richard K.; Knapp, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    Denitrification is a process that reduces nitrogen levels in headwaters and other streams. We compared nirS and nirK abundances with the absolute rate of denitrification, the longitudinal coefficient of denitrification (i.e., Kden, which represents optimal denitrification rates at given environmental conditions), and water quality in seven prairie streams to determine if nir-gene abundances explain denitrification activity. Previous work showed that absolute rates of denitrification correlate with nitrate levels; however, no correlation has been found for denitrification efficiency, which we hypothesise might be related to gene abundances. Water-column nitrate and soluble-reactive phosphorus levels significantly correlated with absolute rates of denitrification, but nir-gene abundances did not. However, nirS and nirK abundances significantly correlated with Kden, as well as phosphorus, although no correlation was found between Kden and nitrate. These data confirm that absolute denitrification rates are controlled by nitrate load, but intrinsic denitrification efficiency is linked to nirS and nirK gene abundances. PMID:20724046

  17. Asteroid Spectral Imaging Mission (ASPECT) CubeSat to characterize resources on asteroid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohout, T.; Näsilä, A.; Tikka, T.; Granvik, M.; Kestilä, A.; Penttilä, A.; Kuhno, J.; Muinonen, K.; Viherkanto, K.

    2017-09-01

    ASPECT is a 3U CubeSat with a VIS-NIR spectral imager. It can characterize composition of asteroid surfaces and identify areas and objects with desired properties for sample return or in-space resource utilization.

  18. Detection and Elimination of Oncogenic Signaling Networks in Premalignant and Malignant Cells with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Molecular Subtype Cell Line Luminal MCF7 T-47D HER2 BT474M1 KPL4 Triple Negative MDA-MB-468 MDA-MB-231 DCIS MCF10.DCIS.COM SUM225 GEMM MMTV...tumor model. 51 LUMINAL TYPE BREAST CANCER MCF-7 Tumor Figure 42A Figure 42A. MCF7 tumor imaging with HS-118 and HS165: nIR Signals. HS118 or...nm channel) from tumor area were detected by Pearl Imager. Figure 42B Figure 42B. Over time change of nIR signals from MCF7 Tumors: HS118 vs. HS165

  19. Detection and Elimination of Oncogenic Signalling Networks in Premalignant and Malignant Cells with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Molecular Subtype Cell Line Luminal MCF7 T-47D HER2 BT474M1 KPL4 Triple Negative MDA-MB-468 MDA-MB-231 DCIS MCF10.DCIS.COM SUM225 GEMM MMTV...tumor model. 51 LUMINAL TYPE BREAST CANCER MCF-7 Tumor Figure 42A Figure 42A. MCF7 tumor imaging with HS-118 and HS165: nIR Signals. HS118 or...nm channel) from tumor area were detected by Pearl Imager. Figure 42B Figure 42B. Over time change of nIR signals from MCF7 Tumors: HS118 vs. HS165

  20. Optofluidic interferometry chip designs of differential NIR absorbance based sensors for identification and quantification of electrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, Gerrit W.; Wexler, Adam D.; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2014-01-01

    Design and optimization of i