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Sample records for surface mounted gfrp

  1. Flexural strengthening of reinforced lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete beams with near-surface mounted GFRP bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, W.C.; Balendran, R.V.; Nadeem, A.; Leung, H.Y. [City University of Hong Kong (China). Department of Building and Construction

    2006-10-15

    Application of near-surface mounted (NSM) fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) bars is emerging as a promising technology for increasing flexural and shear strength of deficient reinforced concrete (RC) members. In order for this technique to perform effectively, the structural behaviour of RC elements strengthened with NSM FRP bars needs to be fully characterized. This paper focuses on the characterization of flexural behaviour of RC members strengthened with NSM glass-FRP bars. Totally, 10 beams were tested using symmetrical two-point loads test. The parameters examined under the beam tests were type of concretes (lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete and normal concrete), type of reinforcing bars (GFRP and steel), and type of adhesives. Flexural performance of the tested beams including modes of failure, moment-deflection response and ultimate moment capacity are presented and discussed in this paper. Results of this investigation showed that beams with NSM GFRP bars showed a reduction in ultimate deflection and an improvement in flexural stiffness and bending capacity, depending on the PA content of the beams. In general, beams strengthened with NSM GFRP bars overall showed a significant increase in ultimate moment ranging from 23% to 53% over the corresponding beams without NSM GFRP bars. The influence of epoxy type was found conspicuously dominated the moment-deflection response up to the peak moment. Besides, the ultimate moment of concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars could be predicted satisfactorily using the equation provided in ACI 318-95 Building Code. (author)

  2. Experimental Study on GFRP Surface Cracks Detection Using Truncated-Correlation Photothermal Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Liu, Junyan; Mohummad, Oliullah; Wang, Yang

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, truncated-correlation photothermal coherence tomography (TC-PCT) was used as a nondestructive inspection technique to evaluate glass-fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite surface cracks. Chirped-pulsed signal that combines linear frequency modulation and pulse excitation was proposed as an excitation signal to detect GFRP composite surface cracks. The basic principle of TC-PCT and extraction algorithm of the thermal wave signal feature was described. The comparison experiments between lock-in thermography, thermal wave radar imaging and chirped-pulsed photothermal radar for detecting GFRP artificial surface cracks were carried out. Experimental results illustrated that chirped-pulsed photothermal radar has the merits of high signal-to-noise ratio in detecting GFRP composite surface cracks. TC-PCT as a depth-resolved photothermal imaging modality was employed to enable three-dimensional visualization of GFRP composite surface cracks. The results showed that TC-PCT can effectively evaluate the cracks depth of GFRP composite.

  3. The properties degradation of exposed GFRP roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Mohammad; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Kaavessina, Mujtahid; Setyanto, Djoko

    2018-02-01

    There is much consideration of roof selection as a protector of a building against the outside weather, such as lightweight, strong stiff, corrosion resistant and guarantee for the availability of products. Based on these considerations, glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) roof is a roof which can fulfill the requirement. The objective of this research is to investigate the degradation of physical and mechanical properties of GFRP roof exposed in outside weather. This GFRP roof composite was produced using a sheet molding compound (SMC) supplied by PT Intec Persada, Tangerang, Indonesia. There are two kinds GFRP roofs evaluated in this research that are GFRP roof exposed within 7 years and new GFRP roof that has not been exposed. The GFRP roofs were cut manually for preparing the specimens for hardness test, tensile test, SEM and FTIR test. The results show that the GFRP roof exposed within 7 years had the degradation of properties compared to the new GFRP roof. The exposed GFRP roof had lower strength and hardness compared to the new GFRP roof. The SEM observation indicates that exposed GFRP roof had the debonding of fiber on the surface, and in contrast, there are no debonding of fiber in the new GFRP roof surface. It can be recommended that the exposed GFRP roof may be repaired to enhance its performance and can re-increase its properties using the coating.

  4. Robotized Surface Mounting of Permanent Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hultman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Using permanent magnets on a rotor can both simplify the design and increase the efficiency of electric machines compared to using electromagnets. A drawback, however, is the lack of existing automated assembly methods for large machines. This paper presents and motivates a method for robotized surface mounting of permanent magnets on electric machine rotors. The translator of the Uppsala University Wave Energy Converter generator is used as an example of a rotor. The robot cell layout, equipment design and assembly process are presented and validated through computer simulations and experiments with prototype equipment. A comparison with manual assembly indicates substantial cost savings and an improved work environment. By using the flexibility of industrial robots and a scalable equipment design, it is possible for this assembly method to be adjusted for other rotor geometries and sizes. Finally, there is a discussion on the work that remains to be done on improving and integrating the robot cell into a production line.

  5. Influence of Drilling Parameters on Torque during Drilling of GFRP Composites Using Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, N. S.; Kulkarni, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    Polymer based composites have marked their valuable presence in the area of aerospace, defense and automotive industry. Components made of composite, are assembled to main structure by fastener, which require accurate, precise high quality holes to be drilled. Drilling the hole in composite with accuracy require control over various processes parameters viz., speed, feed, drill bit size and thickens of specimen. TRIAC VMC machining center is used to drill the hole and to relate the cutting and machining parameters on the torque. MINITAB 14 software is used to analyze the collected data. As a function of cutting and specimen parameters this method could be useful for predicting torque parameters. The purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of drilling parameters to get low torque value. Results show that thickness of specimen and drill bit size are significant parameters influencing the torque and spindle speed and feed rate have least influence and overlaid plot indicates a feasible and low region of torque is observed for medium to large sized drill bits for the range of spindle speed selected. Response surface contour plots indicate the sensitivity of the drill size and specimen thickness to the torque.

  6. Pengaruh Rendaman Air Laut terhadap Kapasitas Rekatan GFRP-Sheet pada Balok Beton Bertulang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufti Amir Sultan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Construction of concrete structures that located in extreme environments are such as coastal areas will result in decreased strength or even the damage of the structures. As well know, chloride contained in sea water is responsible for strength reduction or structure failed were hence maintenance and repairs on concrete structure urgently needed. One popular method of structural improvements which under investigation is to use the material Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer which has one of the advantages such as corrosion resistance. This research will be conducted experimental studies to investigate the flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beams with reinforcement GFRP-Sheet immersed in sea water using immersion time of 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Test specimen consists of 11 pieces of reinforced beams with dimensions (15x20x330 cm that had been reinforced with GFRPSheet in the area of bending. The test specimen tested by providing a static load until it reaches the power limit, to record data during the test strain gauge mounted on the surface of the specimen and the GFRP-Sheet to collect the strain value. The result of analysis indicates the bonding capacity of GFRP Sheet decreases about 11.04% after immersed for 12 months in sea water.

  7. Bonding capacity of the GFRP-S on strengthened RC beams after sea water immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Mufti Amir; Djamaluddin, Rudy

    2017-11-01

    Construction of concrete structures that located in extreme environments are such as coastal areas will result in decreased strength or even the damage of the structures. As well know, chloride contained in sea water is responsible for strength reduction or structure fail were hence maintenance and repairs on concrete structure urgently needed. One popular method of structural improvements which under investigation is to use the material Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer which has one of the advantages such as corrosion resistance. This research will be conducted experimental studies to investigate the bonding capacity behavior of reinforced concrete beams with reinforcement GFRP-S immersed in sea water using immersion time of one month, three months, six months and twelve months. Test specimen consists of 12 pieces of reinforced concrete beams with dimensions (150x200x3000) mm that had been reinforced with GFRP-S in the area of bending, the beam without immersion (B0), immersion one month (B1), three months (B3), six months (B6) and twelve months (B12). Test specimen were cured for 28 days before the application of the GFRP sheet. Test specimen B1, B3, B6 and B12 that have been immersed in sea water pool with a immersion time each 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. The test specimen without immersion test by providing a static load until it reaches the failure, to record data during the test strain gauge mounted on the surface of the specimen and the GFRP to collect the strain value. From the research it obvious that there is a decrease bonding capacity on specimens immersed for one month, three months, six months and twelve months against the test object without immersion of 8.85%; 8.89%; 9.33% and 11.04%.

  8. A Surface-Mounted Rotor State Sensing System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A surface-mounted instrumentation system for measuring rotor blade motions on rotorcraft, for use both in flight and in wind tunnel testing, is proposed for...

  9. Non-traditional shape GFRP rebars for concrete reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claure, Guillermo G.

    The use of glass-fiber-reinforced-polymer (GFRP) composites as internal reinforcement (rebars) for concrete structures has proven to be an alternative to traditional steel reinforcement due to significant advantages such as magnetic transparency and, most importantly, corrosion resistance equating to durability and structural life extension. In recent years, the number of projects specifying GFRP reinforcement has increased dramatically leading the construction industry towards more sustainable practices. Typically, GFRP rebars are similar to their steel counterparts having external deformations or surface enhancements designed to develop bond to concrete, as well as having solid circular cross-sections; but lately, the worldwide composites industry has taken advantage of the pultrusion process developing GFRP rebars with non-traditional cross-sectional shapes destined to optimize their mechanical, physical, and environmental attributes. Recently, circular GFRP rebars with a hollow-core have also become available. They offer advantages such as a larger surface area for improved bond, and the use of the effective cross-sectional area that is engaged to carry load since fibers at the center of a solid cross-section are generally not fully engaged. For a complete understanding of GFRP rebar physical properties, a study on material characterization regarding a quantitative cross-sectional area analysis of different GFRP rebars was undertaken with a sample population of 190 GFRP specimens with rebar denomination ranging from #2 to #6 and with different cross-sectional shapes and surface deformations manufactured by five pultruders from around the world. The water displacement method was applied as a feasible and reliable way to conduct the investigation. In addition to developing a repeatable protocol for measuring cross-sectional area, the objectives of establishing critical statistical information related to the test methodology and recommending improvements to

  10. Detector Mount Design for IGRINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Sok Oh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG Focal Plane Array (H2RG FPA detectors. We present the design and fabrication of the detector mount for the H2RG detector. The detector mount consists of a detector housing, an ASIC housing, a Field Flattener Lens (FFL mount, and a support base frame. The detector and the ASIC housing should be kept at 65 K and the support base frame at 130 K. Therefore they are thermally isolated by the support made of GFRP material. The detector mount is designed so that it has features of fine adjusting the position of the detector surface in the optical axis and of fine adjusting yaw and pitch angles in order to utilize as an optical system alignment compensator. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the structural and thermal analysis, the designed detector mount meets an optical stability tolerance and system thermal requirements. Actual detector mount fabricated based on the design has been installed into the IGRINS cryostat and successfully passed a vacuum test and a cold test.

  11. PECULIARITIES OF ASSIGNMENT OF ROLLING BEARING MOUNTING AND PARAMETERS OF GEOMETRIC ACCURACY OF MOUNTING SURFACES OF SHAFTS AND FRAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamenko Yu. І.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The standards and methods concerning assignment of rolling bearing fit with shafts and frames via example of bearing 6-208 are analyzed. We set certain differences of recommendations according to GOST 3325-85, "Rolling bearings. Tolerance zones and technical requirements to mounting surfaces of shafts and frames. Attachment" and by reference of rolling bearing manufacturers. The following factors should be taken into consideration when assigning the mounting with the tension the internal ring of the bearing with shaft and mounting with a gap in the outer ring with a housing bore. The methods of achieving accuracy of mounting surfaces of shafts and frames via form tolerance assignment: roundness tolerance, profile of longitudinal cut, cross section, cylindricity and others. It is possible to limit the bearing rings in different ways, for example appointing the cylindrical mounting surfaces and bead end surfaces the appropriate tolerances, namely: coaxiality tolerance or full radial beat of mounting surfaces, and also perpendicularity tolerance, butt beats and full butt beats of mounting end surfaces. We suggest to expand methods of achieving the accuracy of shafts and frames depending on seriation of production and production operations metrology support.

  12. Finite element analysis of GFRP reinforced concrete pavement under static load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiping; Hu, Chunhua

    2018-02-01

    GFRP was more corrosion resistant than traditional reinforced, it is lightweight, high strength thermal expansion coefficient is more close to the concrete and a poor conductor of electromagnetic. Therefore, the use of GFRP to replace the traditional reinforcement in concrete pavement application has excellent practical value. This paper uses ANSYS to establish delamination and reinforcement of Pavement model and analyzed response of GFRP concrete and ordinary concrete pavement structural mechanics on effects of different factors under the action of static. The results showed that under static load, pavement surface layer presented similar changes on stress of surface layer, vertical and horizontal deformation in two kinds of pavement structure, but indicators of GFRP reinforced concrete pavement were obviously better than that of ordinary concrete pavement.

  13. Performance characteristics of solar air heater with surface mounted obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekele, Adisu; Mishra, Manish; Dutta, Sushanta

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar air heater with delta shaped obstacles have been studied. • Obstacle angle of incidence strongly affects the thermo-hydraulic performance. • Thermal performance of obstacle mounted collectors is superior to smooth collectors. • Thermo-hydraulic performance of the present SAH is higher than those in previous studies. - Abstract: The performance of conventional solar air heaters (SAHs) can be improved by providing obstacles on the heated wall (i.e. on the absorber plate). Experiments have been performed to collect heat transfer and flow-friction data from an air heater duct with delta-shaped obstacles mounted on the absorber surface and having an aspect ratio 6:1 resembling the conditions close to the solar air heaters. This study encompassed for the range of Reynolds number (Re) from 2100 to 30,000, relative obstacle height (e/H) from 0.25 to 0.75, relative obstacle longitudinal pitch (P l /e) from 3/2 to 11/2, relative obstacle transverse pitch (P t /b) from 1 to 7/3 and the angle of incidence (α) varied from 30° to 90°. The thermo-hydraulic performance characteristics of SAH have been compared with the previous published works and the optimum range of the geometries have been explored for the better performance of such air-heaters compared to the other designs of solar air heaters

  14. Body surface mounted biomedical monitoring system using Bluetooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Continuous monitoring in daily life is important for the health condition control of the elderly. However, portable or wearable devices need to carry by user on their own will. On the other hand, implantation sensors are not adoptable, because of generic users dislike to insert the any object in the body for monitoring. Therefore, another monitoring system of the health condition to carry it easily is necessary. In addition, ID system is necessary even if the subject live with few families. Furthermore, every measurement system should be wireless system, because not to obstruct the daily life of the user. In this paper, we propose the monitoring system, which is mounted on the body surface. This system will not obstruct the action or behavior of user in daily life, because this system attached the body surface on the back of the user. In addition, this system has wireless communication system, using Bluetooth, and acquired data transfer to the outside of the house via the Internet.

  15. Long-Term Flexural Behaviors of GFRP Reinforced Concrete Beams Exposed to Accelerated Aging Exposure Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonho Park

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of accelerated aging conditions on the long-term flexural behavior and ductility of reinforced concrete (RC members with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP bars (RC-GFRP specimen and steel bars (RC-steel specimen. A total of thirty six specimens were designed with different amounts of reinforcement with three types of reinforcing bars (i.e., helically wrapped GFRP, sand-coated surface GFRP and steel. Eighteen specimens were subjected to sustained loads and accelerated aging conditions (i.e., 47 °C and 80% relative humidity in a chamber. The flexural behavior of specimens under 300-day exposure was compared to that of the companion specimens without experiencing accelerated aging conditions. Results indicate that the accelerated aging conditions reduced flexural capacity in not only RC-steel, but also RC-GFRP specimens, with different rates of reduction. Different types of GFRP reinforcement exhibited different rates of degradation of the flexural capacity when embedded in concrete under the same exposure conditions. Several existing models were compared with experimental results for predicting the deflection and deformability index for specimens. Bischoff and Gross’s model exhibited an excellent prediction of the time-dependent deflections. Except for the deformability index proposed by Jaeger, there was no general trend related to the aging duration. This study recommends the need for further investigation on the prediction of the deformability index.

  16. Hall Current Plasma Source Having a Center-Mounted or a Surface-Mounted Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Rafael A. (Inventor); Williams, John D. (Inventor); Moritz, Jr., Joel A. (Inventor); Farnell, Casey C. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A miniature Hall current plasma source apparatus having magnetic shielding of the walls from ionized plasma, an integrated discharge channel and gas distributor, an instant-start hollow cathode mounted to the plasma source, and an externally mounted keeper, is described. The apparatus offers advantages over other Hall current plasma sources having similar power levels, including: lower mass, longer lifetime, lower part count including fewer power supplies, and the ability to be continuously adjustable to lower average power levels using pulsed operation and adjustment of the pulse duty cycle. The Hall current plasma source can provide propulsion for small spacecraft that either do not have sufficient power to accommodate a propulsion system or do not have available volume to incorporate the larger propulsion systems currently available. The present low-power Hall current plasma source can be used to provide energetic ions to assist the deposition of thin films in plasma processing applications.

  17. Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP Bars for Enhancing the Flexural Performance of RC Beams Using Side-NSM Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Akter Hosen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete (RC structures require strengthening for numerous factors, such as increased load, modification of the structural systems, structural upgrade or errors in the design and construction stages. The side near-surface mounted (SNSM strengthening technique with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP bars is a relatively new emerging technique for enhancing the flexural capacities of existing RC elements. Nine RC rectangular beams were flexurally strengthened with this technique and tested under four-point bending loads until failure. The main goal of this study is to optimize the structural capacity of the RC beams by varying the amount of strengthening reinforcement and bond length. The experimental test results showed that strengthening with SNSM GFRP bars significantly enhanced the flexural responses of the specimens compared with the control specimen. The first cracking and ultimate loads, energy absorption capacities, ductility and stiffness were remarkably enhanced by the SNSM technique. It was also confirmed that the bond length of the strengthened reinforcement greatly influences the energy absorption capacities, ductility and stiffness. The effect of the bond length on these properties is more significant compared to the amount of strengthening reinforcement.

  18. Monitoring Moisture Damage Propagation in GFRP Composites Using Carbon Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Sabagh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP composites are widely used in infrastructure applications including water structures due to their relatively high durability, high strength to weight ratio, and non-corrosiveness. Here we demonstrate the potential use of carbon nanoparticles dispersed during GFRP composite fabrication to reduce water absorption of GFRP and to enable monitoring of moisture damage propagation in GFRP composites. GFRP coupons incorporating 2.0 wt % carbon nanofibers (CNFs and 2.0 wt % multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were fabricated in order to study the effect of moisture damage on mechanical properties of GFRP. Water absorption tests were carried out by immersing the GFRP coupons in a seawater bath at two temperatures for a time period of three months. Effects of water immersion on the mechanical properties and glass transition temperature of GFRP were investigated. Furthermore, moisture damage in GFRP was monitored by measuring the electrical conductivity of the GFRP coupons. It was shown that carbon nanoparticles can provide a means of self-sensing that enables the monitoring of moisture damage in GFRP. Despite the success of the proposed technique, it might not be able to efficiently describe moisture damage propagation in GFRP beyond a specific threshold because of the relatively high electrical conductivity of seawater. Microstructural investigations using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR explained the significance of seawater immersion time and temperature on the different levels of moisture damage in GFRP.

  19. Long-term performance of GFRP reinforcement : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Significant research has been performed on glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) concrete reinforcement. : This research has shown that GFRP reinforcement exhibits high strengths, is lightweight, can decrease time of : construction, and is corrosion ...

  20. Thermal analysis of GFRP-reinforced continuous concrete decks subjected to top fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawileh, Rami A.; Rasheed, Hayder A.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a numerical study that investigates the behavior of continuous concrete decks doubly reinforced with top and bottom glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars subjected to top surface fire. A finite element (FE) model is developed and a detailed transient thermal analysis is performed on a continuous concrete bridge deck under the effect of various fire curves. A parametric study is performed to examine the top cover thickness and the critical fire exposure curve needed to fully degrade the top GFRP bars while achieving certain fire ratings for the deck considered. Accordingly, design tables are prepared for each fire curve to guide the engineer to properly size the top concrete cover and maintain the temperature in the GFRP bars below critical design values in order to control the full top GFRP degradation. It is notable to indicate that degradation of top GFRP bars do not pose a collapse hazard but rather a serviceability concern since cracks in the negative moment region widen resulting in simply supported spans.

  1. Improving Fatigue Performance of GFRP Composite Using Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moneeb Genedy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP have become a preferable material for reinforcing or strengthening reinforced concrete structures due to their corrosion resistance, high strength to weight ratio, and relatively low cost compared with carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP. However, the limited fatigue life of GFRP hinders their use in infrastructure applications. For instance, the low fatigue life of GFRP caused design codes to impose stringent stress limits on GFRP that rendered their use non-economic under significant cyclic loads in bridges. In this paper, we demonstrate that the fatigue life of GFRP can be significantly improved by an order of magnitude by incorporating Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs during GFRP fabrication. GFRP coupons were fabricated and tested under static tension and cyclic tension with mean fatigue stress equal to 40% of the GFRP tensile strength. Microstructural investigations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy were used for further investigation of the effect of MWCNTs on the GFRP composite. The experimental results show the 0.5 wt% and the 1.0 wt% MWCNTs were able to improve the fatigue life of GFRP by 1143% and 986%, respectively, compared with neat GFRP.

  2. Wakes behind surface-mounted obstacles: Impact of aspect ratio, incident angle, and surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Nicolas; Chamorro, Leonardo P.

    2018-03-01

    The so-called wake-moment coefficient C˜h and lateral wake deflection of three-dimensional windbreaks are explored in the near and far wake. Wind-tunnel experiments were performed to study the functional dependence of C˜h with windbreak aspect ratio, incidence angle, and the ratio of the windbreak height and surface roughness (h /z0 ). Supported with the data, we also propose basic models for the wake deflection of the windbreak in the near and far fields. The near-wake model is based on momentum conservation considering the drag on the windbreak, whereas the far-wake counterpart is based on existing models for wakes behind surface-mounted obstacles. Results show that C˜h does not change with windbreak aspect ratios of 10 or greater; however, it may be lower for an aspect ratio of 5. C˜h is found to change roughly with the cosine of the incidence angle, and to depend strongly on h /z0 . The data broadly support the proposed wake-deflection models, though better predictions could be made with improved knowledge of the windbreak drag coefficient.

  3. Multiple-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization for Multi-Head Beam-Type Surface Mounting Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torabi, S.A.; Hamedi, M.; Ashayeri, J.

    2010-01-01

    The growing demand for electronic devices has made the manufacturing of printed circuit boards (PCBs) a promising industry over the last decades. As the demand for printed circuit boards increases, the industry becomes more dependent on highly automated assembly processes using Surface Mounting

  4. Design and production of a new surface mount charge-integrating amplifier for CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C.; Drake, G.

    1991-12-31

    We present our experiences in designing and producing 26,000 new charge-integrating amplifiers for CDF, using surface-mount components. The new amplifiers were needed to instrument 920 new 24-channel CDF RABBIT boards, which are replacing an older design rendered obsolete by increases in the collision rate. Important design considerations were frequency response, physical size and cost. 5 refs.

  5. Design and production of a new surface mount charge-integrating amplifier for CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C.; Drake, G.

    1991-01-01

    We present our experiences in designing and producing 26,000 new charge-integrating amplifiers for CDF, using surface-mount components. The new amplifiers were needed to instrument 920 new 24-channel CDF RABBIT boards, which are replacing an older design rendered obsolete by increases in the collision rate. Important design considerations were frequency response, physical size and cost. 5 refs

  6. DNS of Turbulent Flow and Heat Transfer in a Channel with Surface Mounted Cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, R.W.C.P.; Velde, R.M. van der; Veldman, A.E.P.

    2000-01-01

    The turbulent flow and heat transfer in a channel with surface mounted cubical obstacles forms a generic example of a problem that occurs in many engineering applications, for instance in the design of cooling devices. We have performed a numerical simulation of it without using any turbulence

  7. DNS of turbulent flow and heat transfer in a channel with surface mounted cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, R.W.C.P.; Velde, R.M. van der; Veldman, A.E.P.

    2000-01-01

    The turbulent flow and heat transfer in a channel with surface mounted cubical obstacles forms a generic example of a problem that occurs in many engineering applications, for instance in the design of cooling devices. We have performed a numerical simulation of it without using any turbulence

  8. Surface topography characterization using an atomic force microscope mounted on a coordinate measuring machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, H.N; Kofod, N

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the construction, testing and use of an integrated system for topographic characterization of fine surfaces on parts having relatively big dimensions. An atomic force microscope (AFM) was mounted on a manual three-coordinate measuring machine (CMM) achieving free positioning o...

  9. The impact of accelerometer mounting methods on the level of vibrations recorded at ground surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Czech

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of field research based on the measurements of accelerations recorded at ground surface. The source of the vibration characterized by high repetition rate of pulse parameters was light falling weight deflectometer ZFG-01. Measurements of vibrations have been carried out using top quality high-precision measuring system produced by Brüel&Kiær. Accelerometers were mounted on a sandy soil surface at the measuring points located radially at 5-m and 10-m distances from the source of vibration. The paper analyses the impact that the method of mounting accelerometers on the ground has on the level of the recorded values of accelerations of vibrations. It has been shown that the method of attaching the sensor to the surface of the ground is crucial for the credibility of the performed measurements.[b]Keywords[/b]: geotechnics, surface vibrations, ground, vibration measurement

  10. 2D Analytical Modeling of Magnetic Vector Potential in Surface Mounted and Surface Inset Permanent Magnet Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jabbari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A 2D analytical method for magnetic vector potential calculation in inner rotor surface mounted and surface inset permanent magnet machines considering slotting effects, magnetization orientation and winding layout has been proposed in this paper. The analytical method is based on the resolution of Laplace and Poisson equations as well as Maxwell equation in quasi- Cartesian coordinate by using sub-domain method and hyperbolic functions. The developed method is applied on the performance computation of two prototypes surface mounted permanent magnet motors and two prototypes surface inset permanent magnet motors. A radial and a parallel magnetization orientation is considered for each type of motor. The results of these models are validated through FEM method.

  11. Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Henrik A; Manuilskiy, Anatoliy; Haller, Stefan; Sidén, Johan; Nilsson, Hans-Erik; Hummelgård, Magnus; Olin, Håkan; Hummelgård, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Printed electronics is a rapidly developing field where many components can already be manufactured on flexible substrates by printing or by other high speed manufacturing methods. However, the functionality of even the most inexpensive microcontroller or other integrated circuit is, at the present time and for the foreseeable future, out of reach by means of fully printed components. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate hybrid printed electronics, where regular electrical components are mounted on flexible substrates to achieve high functionality at a low cost. Moreover, the use of paper as a substrate for printed electronics is of growing interest because it is an environmentally friendly and renewable material and is, additionally, the main material used for many packages in which electronics functionalities could be integrated. One of the challenges for such hybrid printed electronics is the mounting of the components and the interconnection between layers on flexible substrates with printed conductive tracks that should provide as low a resistance as possible while still being able to be used in a high speed manufacturing process. In this article, several conductive adhesives are evaluated as well as soldering for mounting surface mounted components on a paper circuit board with ink-jet printed tracks and, in addition, a double sided Arduino compatible circuit board is manufactured and programmed. (paper)

  12. Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Henrik A; Manuilskiy, Anatoliy; Haller, Stefan; Hummelgård, Magnus; Sidén, Johan; Hummelgård, Christine; Olin, Håkan; Nilsson, Hans-Erik

    2014-03-07

    Printed electronics is a rapidly developing field where many components can already be manufactured on flexible substrates by printing or by other high speed manufacturing methods. However, the functionality of even the most inexpensive microcontroller or other integrated circuit is, at the present time and for the foreseeable future, out of reach by means of fully printed components. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate hybrid printed electronics, where regular electrical components are mounted on flexible substrates to achieve high functionality at a low cost. Moreover, the use of paper as a substrate for printed electronics is of growing interest because it is an environmentally friendly and renewable material and is, additionally, the main material used for many packages in which electronics functionalities could be integrated. One of the challenges for such hybrid printed electronics is the mounting of the components and the interconnection between layers on flexible substrates with printed conductive tracks that should provide as low a resistance as possible while still being able to be used in a high speed manufacturing process. In this article, several conductive adhesives are evaluated as well as soldering for mounting surface mounted components on a paper circuit board with ink-jet printed tracks and, in addition, a double sided Arduino compatible circuit board is manufactured and programmed.

  13. Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Henrik A; Manuilskiy, Anatoliy; Haller, Stefan; Sidén, Johan; Nilsson, Hans-Erik [Department of Electronics Design, Mid Sweden University, SE-851 70 Sundsvall (Sweden); Hummelgård, Magnus; Olin, Håkan [Department of Natural Science, Mid Sweden University, SE-851 70 Sundsvall (Sweden); Hummelgård, Christine [Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Håstaholmen 4, SE-824 42 Hudiksvall (Sweden)

    2014-03-07

    Printed electronics is a rapidly developing field where many components can already be manufactured on flexible substrates by printing or by other high speed manufacturing methods. However, the functionality of even the most inexpensive microcontroller or other integrated circuit is, at the present time and for the foreseeable future, out of reach by means of fully printed components. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate hybrid printed electronics, where regular electrical components are mounted on flexible substrates to achieve high functionality at a low cost. Moreover, the use of paper as a substrate for printed electronics is of growing interest because it is an environmentally friendly and renewable material and is, additionally, the main material used for many packages in which electronics functionalities could be integrated. One of the challenges for such hybrid printed electronics is the mounting of the components and the interconnection between layers on flexible substrates with printed conductive tracks that should provide as low a resistance as possible while still being able to be used in a high speed manufacturing process. In this article, several conductive adhesives are evaluated as well as soldering for mounting surface mounted components on a paper circuit board with ink-jet printed tracks and, in addition, a double sided Arduino compatible circuit board is manufactured and programmed. (paper)

  14. Extremely low temperature properties of epoxy GFRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadotani, Kenzo; Nagai, Matao; Aki, Fumitake.

    1983-01-01

    The examination of fiber-reinforced plastics, that is, plastics such as epoxy, polyester and polyimide reinforced with high strength fibers such as glass, carbon, boron and steel, for extremely low temperature use began from the fuel tanks of rockets. Therafter, the trial manufacture of superconducting generators and extremely low temperature transformers and the manufacture of superconducting magnets for nuclear fusion experimental setups became active, and high performance FRPs have been adopted, of which the extremely low temperature properties have been sufficiently grasped. Recently, the cryostats made of FRPs have been developed, fully utilizing such features of FRPs as high strength, high rigidity, non-magnetic material, insulation, low heat conductivity, light weight and the freedom of molding. In this paper, the mechanical properties at extremely low temperature of the plastic composite materials used as insulators and structural materials for extremely low temperature superconducting equipment is outlined, and in particular, glass fiber-reinforced epoxy laminates are described somewhat in detail. The fracture strain of GFRP at extremely low temperature is about 1.3 times as large as that at room temperature, but at extremely low temperature, clear cracking occurred at 40% of the fracture strain. The linear thermal contraction of GFRP showed remarkable anisotropy. (Kako, I.)

  15. Electrodeposition of WO3 nanoparticles into surface mounted metal-organic framework HKUST-1 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyeonseok; Welle, Alexander; Guo, Wei; Choi, Jinsub; Redel, Engelbert

    2017-03-01

    We describe a novel procedure to fabricate WO3@surface-mounted metal-organic framework (SURMOF) hybrid materials by electrodeposition of WO3 nanoparticles into HKUST-1, also termed Cu3(BTC)2 SURMOFs. These materials have been characterized using x-ray diffraction, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as linear sweep voltammetry. The WO3 semiconductor/SURMOF heterostructures were further tested as hybrid electrodes in their performance for hydrogen evolution reaction from water.

  16. Influence of SMA reinforcement on the impact resistance of GFRP ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    composite laminates under different temperatures ... GFRP laminates; shape memory alloy; low velocity impact; impact resistance; SEM. ... 25 J) with the temperature range of 50–120 ... C. The fibre used as reinforcement was S-type glass fibre.

  17. Experimental studies on multicellular GFRP bridge deck panels ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P MUTHURAJ

    2017-11-20

    Nov 20, 2017 ... design of a new bridge deck panel made of GFRP. .... cient manufacturing processes with minimal wastage. But re-use of the remaining FRP elements during manufacture ... Energy consumption for production of different.

  18. Vibration attenuation and shape control of surface mounted, embedded smart beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Rathi

    Full Text Available Active Vibration Control (AVC using smart structure is used to reduce the vibration of a system by automatic modification of the system structural response. AVC is widely used, because of its wide and broad frequency response range, low additional mass, high adaptability and good efficiency. A lot of research has been done on Finite Element (FE models for AVC based on Euler Bernoulli Beam Theory (EBT. In the present work Timoshenko Beam Theory (TBT is used to model a smart cantilever beam with surface mounted sensors / actuators. A Periodic Output Feedback (POF Controller has been designed and applied to control the first three modes of vibration of a flexible smart cantilever beam. The difficulties encountered in the usage of surface mounted piezoelectric patches in practical situations can be overcome by the use of embedded shear sensors / actuators. A mathematical model of a smart cantilever beam with embedded shear sensors and actuators is developed. A POF Controller has been designed and applied to control of vibration of a flexible smart cantilever beam and effect of actuator location on the performance of the controller is investigated. The mathematical modeling and control of a Multiple Input multiple Output (MIMO systems with two sensors and two actuators have also been considered.

  19. Fourier decomposition of segmented magnets with radial magnetization in surface-mounted PM machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiang, Tow Leong; Ishak, Dahaman; Lim, Chee Peng

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a generic field model of radial magnetization (RM) pattern produced by multiple segmented magnets per rotor pole in surface-mounted permanent magnet (PM) machines. The magnetization vectors from either odd- or even-number of magnet blocks per pole are described. Fourier decomposition is first employed to derive the field model, and later integrated with the exact 2D analytical subdomain method to predict the magnetic field distributions and other motor global quantities. For the assessment purpose, a 12-slot/8-pole surface-mounted PM motor with two segmented magnets per pole is investigated by using the proposed field model. The electromagnetic performances of the PM machines are intensively predicted by the proposed magnet field model which include the magnetic field distributions, airgap flux density, phase back-EMF, cogging torque, and output torque during either open-circuit or on-load operating conditions. The analytical results are evaluated and compared with those obtained from both 2D and 3D finite element analyses (FEA) where an excellent agreement has been achieved.

  20. Bi2O3 nanoparticles encapsulated in surface mounted metal-organic framework thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Chen, Zhi; Yang, Chengwu; Neumann, Tobias; Kübel, Christian; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Welle, Alexander; Pfleging, Wilhelm; Shekhah, Osama; Wöll, Christof; Redel, Engelbert

    2016-03-01

    We describe a novel procedure to fabricate a recyclable hybrid-photocatalyst based on Bi2O3@HKUST-1 MOF porous thin films. Bi2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized within HKUST-1 (or Cu3(BTC)2) surface-mounted metal-organic frame-works (SURMOFs) and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Bi2O3 semiconductor NPs (diameter 1-3 nm)/SURMOF heterostructures exhibit superior photo-efficiencies compared to NPs synthesized using conventional routes, as demonstrated via the photodegradation of the nuclear fast red (NFR) dye.We describe a novel procedure to fabricate a recyclable hybrid-photocatalyst based on Bi2O3@HKUST-1 MOF porous thin films. Bi2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized within HKUST-1 (or Cu3(BTC)2) surface-mounted metal-organic frame-works (SURMOFs) and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Bi2O3 semiconductor NPs (diameter 1-3 nm)/SURMOF heterostructures exhibit superior photo-efficiencies compared to NPs synthesized using conventional routes, as demonstrated via the photodegradation of the nuclear fast red (NFR) dye. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00532b

  1. Study on Mechanical and Physical Behaviour of Hybrid GFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Bahiyah Baba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the mechanical and physical behaviour of hybrid glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP. Hybrid GFRP was fabricated by three different types of glass fibre, namely, 3D, woven, and chopped, which were selected and combined with mixture of polyester resin and hardener. The hybrid GFRP was investigated by varying three parameters which were the composite volume fractions, hybrid GFRP arrangement, and single type fibre. The hybrid GFRP was fabricated by using open mould hand lay-up technique. Mechanical testing was conducted by tensile test for strength and stiffness whereas physical testing was performed using water absorption and hardness. These tests were carried out to determine the effect of mechanical and physical behaviour over the hybrid GFRP. The highest volume fraction of 0.5 gives the highest strength and stiffness of 73 MPa and 821 MPa, respectively. Varying hybrid fibre arrangement which is the arrangement of chopped-woven-3D-woven-chopped showed the best value in strength of 66.2 MPa. The stiffness is best at arrangement of woven-chopped-woven-chopped-woven at 690 MPa. This arrangement also showed the lowest water absorption of 4.5%. Comparing the single fibre type, woven had overtaken the others in terms of both mechanical and physical properties.

  2. Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Beams with CFRP and GFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Mustafa Önal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete beams were strengthened by wrapping the shear edges of the beams twice at 45° in opposite directions by either carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP or glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP. The study included 3 CFRP wrapped beams, 3 GFRP wrapped beams, and 3 control beams, all of which were 150 × 250 × 2200 mm and manufactured with C20 concrete and S420a structural steel at the Gazi University Technical Education Faculty labs, Turkey. Samples in molds were cured by watering in the open air for 21 days. Four-point bending tests were made on the beam test specimens and the data were collected. Data were evaluated in terms of load displacement, bearing strength, ductility, and energy consumption. In the CFRP and GFRP reinforced beams, compared to controls, 38% and 42%, respectively, strength increase was observed. In all beams, failure-flexural stress occurred in the center as expected. Most cracking was observed in the flexural region 4. A comparison of CFRP and GFRP materials reveals that GFRP enforced parts absorb more energy. Both materials yielded successful results. Thicker epoxy application in both CFRP and GFRP beams was considered to be effective in preventing break-ups.

  3. The metallurgical approach on the solder voids behaviour in surface mount devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohabattul Zaman Bukhari

    1996-01-01

    Solder voids are believed to cause poor heat dissiption in the Surface Mount devices and reduce the reliability of the devices at higher operating services. There are a lot of factors involved in creating voids such as gas/flux entrapment, wettability, outgasseous, air bubbles in the solder paste, inconsistency of solder coverage and improper metal scheme selection. This study was done to observe the behaviour of the solder voids in term of flux entrapmentt and wettability. It is believed that flux entrapment and wettability are verify this hypothesis. Two types of metal scheme were chosen which are Nickel (Ni) plated and Tin (Sn) plated heatsink. X-ray techniques such as Radiographic Inspection Analysis and EDAX were used to detect the minute solder voids. The solder voids observed on the heatsinks and Copper shims after the reflow process are believed to be a non contact voids that resulted from some portion of the surface not wetting properly

  4. Composite GFRP U-Shaped Footbridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chróścielewski Jacek

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents proposals for the use of glass fiber reinforced polymer composites for the construction of engineering objects, known and commonly used in the shipbuilding industry. An example of a pedestrian footbridge was used in this case, which, despite the considerable thickness of the structural material, was made using infusion technology in one production cycle. The designed and produced footbridge span is durable, dynamically resistant, incombustible, easy to install and maintain, resistant to weather conditions and also aesthetically interesting. For footbridge production environmentally friendly PET foam core may be used. It may come from recycling of used plastic packages and which is produced with less energy consumption process and much less CO2 emission. The load bearing part of the structure (skin is made of polymer laminate reinforced with glass fabrics (GFRP.

  5. Health monitoring of precast bridge deck panels reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The present research project investigates monitoring concrete precast panels for bridge decks that are reinforced with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) bars. Due to the lack of long term research on concrete members reinforced with GFRP bars, lo...

  6. Classification of surface types using SIR-C/X-SAR, Mount Everest Area, Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Thomas P.; Painter, Thomas H.; Roberts, Dar A.; Shi, Jiancheng; Dozier, Jeff; Fielding, Eric

    1998-01-01

    Imaging radar is a promising tool for mapping snow and ice cover in alpine regions. It combines a high-resolution, day or night, all-weather imaging capability with sensitivity to hydrologic and climatic snow and ice parameters. We use the spaceborne imaging radar-C/X-band synthetic aperture radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) to map snow and glacial ice on the rugged north slope of Mount Everest. From interferometrically derived digital elevation data, we compute the terrain calibration factor and cosine of the local illumination angle. We then process and terrain-correct radar data sets acquired on April 16, 1994. In addition to the spectral data, we include surface slope to improve discrimination among several surface types. These data sets are then used in a decision tree to generate an image classification. This method is successful in identifying and mapping scree/talus, dry snow, dry snow-covered glacier, wet snow-covered glacier, and rock-covered glacier, as corroborated by comparison with existing surface cover maps and other ancillary information. Application of the classification scheme to data acquired on October 7 of the same year yields accurate results for most surface types but underreports the extent of dry snow cover.

  7. Initial rotor position estimation and sliding preventing for elevators with surface-mounted PMSMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Shen, Anwen; Tang, Qipeng; Xu, Jinbang

    2016-03-01

    Improved methods of initial rotor position estimation and sliding prevention are presented in this paper for elevators with surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous machines (SPMSMs). In contrast to most of the existing literature, in this paper, estimation errors caused by stator resistance and dead time are analysed in detail. The improved estimation method can reduce the errors greatly without dead-time compensations and knowledge of motor parameters. Besides, an observer-based feedforward compensation of load torque is introduced to elevator applications to prevent sliding during the starting process. Since the torque observer is widely used in other motor applications, we focus on the impact caused by the change in inertia. Finally, a series of experiments are performed on a testing system with two 13.4 kW SPMSMs and drivers to illustrate the effectiveness and improvement of the method.

  8. Determination of the High Frequency Inductance Profile of Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen

    2008-01-01

    ) synchronous motors. This paper presents an AC+DC measurement method for determination of the d-axis and q-axis high frequency inductance profiles of SMPM synchronous motors. This method uses DC currents to set a desired magnetic working point on the motor laminations, and then superimpose balanced small AC......Accurate knowledge of the high frequency inductance profile plays an important role in many designs of sensorless controllers for Surface inductance. A special algorithm is used to decouple the cross-coupling effects between the d-axis and the q-axis, which allows Mounted Permanent Magnet (SMPM...... signals to measure the incremental a separate determination of the d, q inductance profiles as functions of the d, q currents. Experimental results on a commercial SMPM motor using the proposed method are presented in this paper....

  9. Creep investigation of GFRP RC Beams - Part A : Literature review and experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    masmoudi abdelmonem

    2014-11-01

    This paper (Part A presents a literature review and the loading history of six experimental beams reinforced with GFRP and steel bars. The results of this study revealed that Beams reinforced with GFRP are less marked with creep phenomenon.  This investigation should guide the civil engineer/designer for a better understanding creep phenomenon in GFRP reinforced concrete members.

  10. Behavior of reinforced concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Tavares

    Full Text Available The use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP bars is one of the alternatives presented in recent studies to prevent the drawbacks related to the steel reinforcement in specific reinforced concrete members. In this work, six reinforced concrete beams were submitted to four point bending tests. One beam was reinforced with CA-50 steel bars and five with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP bars. The tests were carried out in the Department of Structural Engineering in São Carlos Engineering School, São Paulo University. The objective of the test program was to compare strength, reinforcement deformation, displacement, and some anchorage aspects between the GFRP-reinforced concrete beams and the steel-reinforced concrete beam. The results show that, even though four GFRP-reinforced concrete beams were designed with the same internal tension force as that with steel reinforcement, their capacity was lower than that of the steel-reinforced beam. The results also show that similar flexural capacity can be achieved for the steel- and for the GFRP-reinforced concrete beams by controlling the stiffness (reinforcement modulus of elasticity multiplied by the bar cross-sectional area - EA and the tension force of the GFRP bars.

  11. Fourier method for modeling slanted lamellar gratings of arbitrary end-surface shapes in conical mounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lifeng

    2015-10-01

    An efficient modal method for numerically modeling slanted lamellar gratings of isotropic dielectric or metallic media in conical mounting is presented. No restrictions are imposed on the slant angle and the length of the lamellae. The end surface of the lamellae can be arbitrary, subject to certain restrictions. An oblique coordinate system that is adapted to the slanted lamella sidewalls allows the most efficient way of representing and manipulating the electromagnetic fields. A translational coordinate system that is based on the oblique Cartesian coordinate system adapts to the end-surface profile of the lamellae, so that the latter can be handled simply and easily. Moreover, two matrix eigenvalue problems of size 2N × 2N, one for each fundamental polarization of the electromagnetic fields in the periodic lamellar structure, where N is the matrix truncation number, are derived to replace the 4N × 4N eigenvalue problem that has been used in the literature. The core idea leading to this success is the polarization decomposition of the electromagnetic fields inside the periodic lamellar region when the fields are expressed in the oblique translational coordinate system.

  12. Thermocouple Errors when Mounted on Cylindrical Surfaces in Abnormal Thermal Environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Suo-Anttila, Jill M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zepper, Ethan T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koenig, Jerry J [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Valdez, Vincent A. [ECI Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Mineral-insulated, metal-sheathed, Type-K thermocouples are used to measure the temperature of various items in high-temperature environments, often exceeding 1000degC (1273 K). The thermocouple wires (chromel and alumel) are protected from the harsh environments by an Inconel sheath and magnesium oxide (MgO) insulation. The sheath and insulation are required for reliable measurements. Due to the sheath and MgO insulation, the temperature registered by the thermocouple is not the temperature of the surface of interest. In some cases, the error incurred is large enough to be of concern because these data are used for model validation, and thus the uncertainties of the data need to be well documented. This report documents the error using 0.062" and 0.040" diameter Inconel sheathed, Type-K thermocouples mounted on cylindrical surfaces (inside of a shroud, outside and inside of a mock test unit). After an initial transient, the thermocouple bias errors typically range only about +-1-2% of the reading in K. After all of the uncertainty sources have been included, the total uncertainty to 95% confidence, for shroud or test unit TCs in abnormal thermal environments, is about +-2% of the reading in K, lower than the +-3% typically used for flat shrouds. Recommendations are provided in Section 6 to facilitate interpretation and use of the results. .

  13. Strengthing of Beams and Columns using GFRP Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, C. B.; Tade, M. K.; Thakare, S. B., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays infrastructure development is raising its pace. Many reinforced high concrete and masonry buildings are constructed annually around the globe. There are large numbers of structures which deteriorate or become unsafe to use because of changes in use, changes in loading condition, change in the design configuration, inferior building material used or natural calamities. Thus repairing and retrofitting of these structures for safe usage of has a great market. There are several situations in which a civil structure would require strengthening due to lack of strength, stiffness, ductility and durability. Beams, columns may be strengthened in flexure by using GFRP in tension zone. In this present work comparative study will be made with and without GFRP circular bars in a beam and column. An experiment study will be carried out to study the change in the structural behavior of beams & columns with GFRP circular bars of different thickness, varying span to depth ratio.

  14. Flexural Behavior of GFRP Tubes Filled with Magnetically Driven Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang; Chen, Ju; Dong, Xinlong; Feng, Bing

    2018-01-08

    Experimental investigation of GFRP (glass fiber reinforced polymer) tubes that were filled with magnetically driven concrete was carried out to study the flexural behavior of specimens under bending. Specimens having different cross section and lengths were tested. The test specimens were fabricated by filling magnetically driven concrete into the GFRP tubes and the concrete was vibrated using magnetic force. Specimens vibrated using vibrating tube were also tested for comparison. In addition, specimens having steel reinforcing bars and GFRP bars were both tested to study the effect of reinforcing bars on the magnetically driven concrete. The load-displacement curves, load-strain curves, failure mode, and ultimate strengths of test specimens were obtained. Design methods for the flexural stiffness of test specimens were also discussed in this study.

  15. MM99.50 - Surface Topography Characterization Using an Atomic Force Microscope Mounted on a Coordinate Measuring Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiffre, Leonardo De; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Kofod, Niels

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the construction, testing and use of an integrated system for topographic characterization of fine surfaces on parts having relatively big dimensions. An atomic force microscope (AFM) was mounted on a manual three-coordinate measuring machine (CMM) achieving free positioning o...

  16. Recent Developments of Reflectarray Antennas for Reconfigurable Beams Using Surface-Mounted RF-MEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carrasco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most recent developments in reconfigurable reflectarrays using surface-mounted RF-MEMS, which have been developed at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, are summarized in this paper. The results include reconfigurable elements based on patches aperture-coupled to delay lines in two configurations: single elements and gathered elements which form subarrays with common phase control. The former include traditional aperture-coupled elements and a novel wideband reflectarray element which has been designed using two stacked patches. The latter are proposed as a low cost solution for reducing the number of electronic control devices as well as the manufacturing complexity of large reflectarrays. The main advantages and drawbacks of the grouping are evaluated in both pencil and shaped-beam antennas. In all the cases, the effects of the MEMS switches and their assembly circuitry are evaluated when they are used in a 2-bit phase shifter which can be extended to more bits, demonstrating that the proposed elements can be used efficiently in reconfigurable-beam reflectarrays.

  17. Fatigue damage behavior of a surface-mount electronic package under different cyclic applied loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huai-Hui; Wang, Xi-Shu

    2014-04-01

    This paper studies and compares the effects of pull-pull and 3-point bending cyclic loadings on the mechanical fatigue damage behaviors of a solder joint in a surface-mount electronic package. The comparisons are based on experimental investigations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in-situ technology and nonlinear finite element modeling, respectively. The compared results indicate that there are different threshold levels of plastic strain for the initial damage of solder joints under two cyclic applied loads; meanwhile, fatigue crack initiation occurs at different locations, and the accumulation of equivalent plastic strain determines the trend and direction of fatigue crack propagation. In addition, simulation results of the fatigue damage process of solder joints considering a constitutive model of damage initiation criteria for ductile materials and damage evolution based on accumulating inelastic hysteresis energy are identical to the experimental results. The actual fatigue life of the solder joint is almost the same and demonstrates that the FE modeling used in this study can provide an accurate prediction of solder joint fatigue failure.

  18. Milk-run kanban system for raw printed circuit board withdrawal to surface-mounted equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee Li Chee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:  The paper aims to present a case study and later simulation analysis on a kanban system that incorporating milk-run operation to draw in raw material to the process. Design/methodology/approach:  Data collection at the case study company for ten weeks followed by a process study called value stream mapping. The proposed kanban model is simulated to test its various performances including total output, average flow time, average work-in-process, SME utilization, and average waiting time. Response surface methodology is adopted to generate suitable representative regression models.  Findings: For all performance measures, simulation results showed that the proposed system consistently outperforms the push system currently practiced. Second, the system indicates the advantages of leveling, particularly in the event of machine failure and blockage. Third, operator in the proposed kanban system has a lower utilization, even with the additional material handling task.   Research limitations/implications: This study only begins to reveal the implication of leveling for production control on multi-machine scenario. The simulation of the system is solely based only the case study. The control parameters critical to the case study, were naturally used. The furtherance of the research should include generalizing the system and devising the respective methodology to facilitate wider applications. Practical implications: Originality/value:  The kanban system is proposed in the light of conflicting interests in handling the surface mounting and the related upstream processes. Such aspect is common to electronics assembly industry.

  19. Machinability of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with the study of machinability of GFRP composite tubes of different fiber orientation angle vary from 300 to 900. Machining studies were carried out on an all geared lathe using three different cutting tools: namely Carbide (K-20), Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) and Poly-Crystalline Diamond (PCD). Experiments ...

  20. Modification of Rule of Mixtures for Tensile Strength Estimation of Circular GFRP Rebars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jun You

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The rule of mixtures (ROM method is often used to estimate the tensile strength of fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs reinforcing bars (rebars. Generally, the ROM method predicts the FRP rebars’ modulus of elasticity adequately but overestimates their tensile strength. This may result from defects occurred during manufacture that prevent the used materials from exhibiting a sound performance and the shear-lag phenomenon by transmission of external forces through the surface of the rebar having a circular cross section. Due to the latter, there is a difference in fiber breaking points regarding the fibers located on the surface and fibers located at the center, and thus results in differences between the values calculated from the conventional ROM and the experimental result. In this study, for the purpose of resolving the problem, glass FRP (GFRP rebars were shaped to have a hollow section at the center of their cross sections and were further subject to tensile strength tests. The test results were further placed under regression analysis and a modified ROM within ±5% accuracy compared to the experimental value was proposed for GFRP rebars with 13, 16, and 19 mm diameters.

  1. Effect of GFRP spacer on local deformation of large superconductor in coil pack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Arata; Tamura, Hitoshi; Mito, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Junya

    1994-01-01

    Design and construction of the Large Helical Device (LHD) are in progress at the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) in Japan. The LHD has superconducting poloidal and helical coils, and many efforts have been undertaken to develop these large superconductors. When designing a large superconducting magnet, the mechanical behavior of the wound structure becomes a very important factor since the apparent rigidity affects the design of a coil support structure and the superconducting coil needs to endure the large electro-magnetic force it creates. Also, non-linear mechanical behavior should yield the instability of the magnet. In this paper, local deformation in a large conductor caused by GFRP spacers and epoxy adhesives was investigated after compressive rigidity testing. The epoxy adhesive used for attaching the GFRP spacers to the superconductor changed shape from an almost square sheet into a lens-like sheet during deformation, and a dent appeared on the surface of the superconductor. Three-dimensional FEM analysis showed that a compressive stress in the vertical direction of the loading axis existed in the adhesive plane. This stress component makes the adhesive lens-like and it results in the dent created during the compressive testing. This local deformation should yield a part of the permanent deformation observed after the compressive load cycle at 4.2 K

  2. Assessing and Mapping of Road Surface Roughness based on GPS and Accelerometer Sensors on Bicycle-Mounted Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Wan, Mi; Shi, Jiafeng

    2018-01-01

    The surface roughness of roads is an essential road characteristic. Due to the employed carrying platforms (which are often cars), existing measuring methods can only be used for motorable roads. Until now, there has been no effective method for measuring the surface roughness of un-motorable roads, such as pedestrian and bicycle lanes. This hinders many applications related to pedestrians, cyclists and wheelchair users. In recognizing these research gaps, this paper proposes a method for measuring the surface roughness of pedestrian and bicycle lanes based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and accelerometer sensors on bicycle-mounted smartphones. We focus on the International Roughness Index (IRI), as it is the most widely used index for measuring road surface roughness. Specifically, we analyzed a computing model of road surface roughness, derived its parameters with GPS and accelerometers on bicycle-mounted smartphones, and proposed an algorithm to recognize potholes/humps on roads. As a proof of concept, we implemented the proposed method in a mobile application. Three experiments were designed to evaluate the proposed method. The results of the experiments show that the IRI values measured by the proposed method were strongly and positively correlated with those measured by professional instruments. Meanwhile, the proposed algorithm was able to recognize the potholes/humps that the bicycle passed. The proposed method is useful for measuring the surface roughness of roads that are not accessible for professional instruments, such as pedestrian and cycle lanes. This work enables us to further study the feasibility of crowdsourcing road surface roughness with bicycle-mounted smartphones. PMID:29562731

  3. Photovoltaic mounting/demounting unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photovoltaic arrangement comprising a photovoltaic assembly comprising a support structure defining a mounting surface onto which a photovoltaic module is detachably mounted; and a mounting/demounting unit comprising at least one mounting/demounting apparatus...... which when the mounting/demounting unit is moved along the mounting surface, causes the photovoltaic module to be mounted or demounted to the support structure; wherein the photovoltaic module comprises a carrier foil and wherein a total thickness of the photo voltaic module is below 500 muiotaeta....... The present invention further relates to an associated method for mounting/demounting photovoltaic modules....

  4. Photocatalytic disinfection of surfaces with copper doped Ti02 nanotube coatings illuminated by ceiling mounted fluorescent light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koklic, Tilen; Pintarič, Štefan; Zdovc, Irena; Golob, Majda; Umek, Polona; Mehle, Alma; Dobeic, Martin; Štrancar, Janez

    2018-01-01

    High economic burden is associated with foodborne illnesses. Different disinfection methods are therefore employed in food processing industry; such as use of ultraviolet light or usage of surfaces with copper-containing alloys. However, all the disinfection methods currently in use have some shortcomings. In this work we show that copper doped TiO2 nanotubes deposited on existing surfaces and illuminated with ceiling mounted fluorescent lights can retard the growth of Listeria Innocua by 80% in seven hours of exposure to the fluorescent lights at different places in a food processing plant or in the laboratory conditions with daily reinocuation and washing. The disinfection properties of the surfaces seem to depend mainly on the temperature difference of the surface and the dew point, where for the maximum effectiveness the difference should be about 3 degrees celsius. The TiO2 nanotubes have a potential to be employed for an economical and continuous disinfection of surfaces. PMID:29768464

  5. Nonlinear analysis of the GFRP material wheel hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yun-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the current bicycle wheel was replaced by the ones which composed by the wheel hub with Glassfiber Reinforced Plastic (alkali free thin-walled cylinder material, hereinafter referred to as GFRP material and the protective components made up of rubber outer pneumatic pad. With the help of the basic theory of elastic-plastic mechanics, the finite element “Nonlinear buckling” analysis of the wheel was carried out. The results show that the maximum elastic deformation of the wheel hub and the critical value of buckling failure load were restricted by the elasticity under the condition of external loads. Considering with the tensile strength and elastic modulus of the GFRP value of the material, it is demonstrated that the material is feasible to be used for wheel hub.

  6. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miros, Robert H. J. [Fairfax, CA; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham [Oakland, CA; Seery, Martin N [San Rafael, CA; Holland, Rodney H [Novato, CA

    2012-04-17

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  7. Comparison of Failure Process of Bended Beams Reinforced with Steel Bars and GFRP Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszyńska, Maria; Błyszko, Jarosław; Olczyk, Norbert

    2017-10-01

    The Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composite rebar has been used in civil engineering structures for several years. It has many characteristics, which not only are equal to those of steel rebar, but significantly surpass them. The composite rebar has high corrosion resistance, electromagnetic neutrality and has much higher tensile strength than steel. Also, because of its low weight and easy processing composite rebar is convenient for shipment and use. Development of architectural concrete technology in past years opens new, interesting perspectives for use of composite rebar. However, implementation of those concretes in structures is often burdened with many issues, especially concerning faulty performance. One of it is rebar’s corrosion, visible on the surface of the element as rusty stains. Even if the structure was properly developed meeting all the requirements for texture, porosity or colour uniformity, and rusty stains can completely destroy the final decorative effect of concrete’s surface. Despite many advantages, the use of composite rebar in reinforced structures creates significant number of new “behaviours” in its different working stages. Structures reinforced with the steel rebar will behave differently than the ones with composite FRP rebar under continuous load, in case of a fire, exposed to aggressive environment or at breaking point. In the latter, significant role plays its linear-elastic behaviour in the whole tensile range till rupture. This means that the FPR rebar does not exhibit plastic deformation and reaches its bearing capacity suddenly without any visible signs. This should be considered during designing stage and included as an additional reduction coefficient. The article presents result of research and analysis of destructive tests performed on concrete beams reinforced with traditional steel rebar and composite rebar made of glass fibre and braided with basaltic (GFRP). Four single-span simply supported beams under static

  8. Studies on surface-mounted SiPMs in 2015 testbeam of a highly granular hadron calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Sascha [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: CALICE-D-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    To achieve excellent jet energy resolution, a highly granular hadronic calorimeter is being developed within the CALICE collaboration. Therefore, about 8 million detector units consisting of scintillator tiles and silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) will be installed in the final HCAL design. The usage of surface-mounted (SMD) SiPMs allows an automated mass assembly. During CERN SPS testbeam 2015, data for a prototype consisting of up to 11 layers of HCAL base units (HBU) was collected using electron, muon and pion beams. One of the layers was equipped with the first SMD HBU. Results and performance, especially of the SMD HBU are presented.

  9. Determination of High-Frequency d- and q-axis Inductances for Surface-Mounted Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Vetuschi, M.; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a reliable method for the experimental determination of high-frequency d- and q -axis inductances for surface-mounted permanent-magnet synchronous machines (SMPMSMs). Knowledge of the high-frequency d- and q-axis inductances plays an important role in the efficient design...... of sensorless controllers using high-frequency signal injection techniques. The proposed method employs a static locked-rotor test using an ac +dc power supply. By injecting a high-frequency rotating voltage vector into the machine, the d- and q-axis inductances may simultaneously be determined with no need...

  10. On the analytical flux distribution modeling of an axial-flux surface-mounted permanent magnet motor for control applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.-T.; Lin, S.-C.; Chiang, T.-S.

    2004-01-01

    By combining the recoil line characteristics of permanent magnet and the equivalent operational magnetic circuits at various rotor positions, a systematic procedure for developing the desired analytical model of an axial-flux surface-mounted permanent magnet motor can be devised. Supported by detailed three-dimensional finite element analysis results and statistical evaluations, accuracies of the developed analytical model can be guaranteed. With such well developed system model, the relative high-precision controls and operations of the motor can then be conveniently realized

  11. PV module mounting method and mounting assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.S.; Johnson, Kurt M.

    2013-04-23

    A method for mounting PV modules to a deck includes selecting PV module layout pattern so that adjacent PV module edges are spaced apart. PV mounting and support assemblies are secured to the deck according to the layout pattern using fasteners extending into the deck. The PV modules are placed on the PV mounting and support assemblies. Retaining elements are located over and secured against the upper peripheral edge surfaces of the PV modules so to secure them to the deck with the peripheral edges of the PV modules spaced apart from the deck. In some examples a PV module mounting assembly, for use on a shingled deck, comprises flashing, a base mountable on the flashing, a deck-penetrating fastener engageable with the base and securable to the deck so to secure the flashing and the base to the shingled deck, and PV module mounting hardware securable to the base.

  12. Landscape Response to the 1980 Eruption of Mount St. Helens: Using Historical Aerial Photography to Measure Surface Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, K.; Major, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    Advances in structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry and point cloud comparison have fueled a proliferation of studies using modern imagery to monitor geomorphic change. These techniques also have obvious applications for reconstructing historical landscapes from vertical aerial imagery, but known challenges include insufficient photo overlap, systematic "doming" induced by photo-spacing regularity, missing metadata, and lack of ground control. Aerial imagery of landscape change in the North Fork Toutle River (NFTR) following the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens is a prime dataset to refine methodologies. In particular, (1) 14-μm film scans are available for 1:9600 images at 4-month intervals from 1980 - 1986, (2) the large magnitude of landscape change swamps systematic error and noise, and (3) stable areas (primary deposit features, roads, etc.) provide targets for both ground control and matching to modern lidar. Using AgiSoft PhotoScan, we create digital surface models from the NFTR imagery and examine how common steps in SfM workflows affect results. Tests of scan quality show high-resolution, professional film scans are superior to office scans of paper prints, reducing spurious points related to scan infidelity and image damage. We confirm earlier findings that cropping and rotating images improves point matching and the final surface model produced by the SfM algorithm. We demonstrate how the iterative closest point algorithm, implemented in CloudCompare and using modern lidar as a reference dataset, can serve as an adequate substitute for absolute ground control. Elevation difference maps derived from our surface models of Mount St. Helens show patterns consistent with field observations, including channel avulsion and migration, though systematic errors remain. We suggest that subtracting an empirical function fit to the long-wavelength topographic signal may be one avenue for correcting systematic error in similar datasets.

  13. Kapasitas Rekatan GFRP-S pada Balok Beton Akibat Perendaman Air Laut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Djamaluddin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Sheet (GFRP-S is the non-corrosive material used for strengthening and has been widely used for many kinds of structures, such as buildings and structures exposed to marine environment. Its noncorrosive property is suitably purposed for the application of structures exposed to marine environment. Therefore, this study was conducted for analyzing the effect of sea water on bonding capacity of GFRP-S. Specimens were 12 concrete beams of 10 cm x 12 cm x 60 cm strengthened with GFRP-S. Three beams were not submersed in the sea while three beams were each submersed in the sea for 1 month, 3 months and 6 months, respectively. Testing was conducted on the ultimate load, the deflection, the GFRP-S strain and the concrete strain. From this study, it can be concluded that both the ultimate load and the bonding capacity of GFRP-S decreases along with the increasing of submersion period. The flexural capacity was decreased due to the decreasing of the bonding capacity of GFRP-S. The result of analysis indicates that the bonding capacity of GFRP-S decreased about 15% after submersed for 6 months in sea water.

  14. A Torque Error Compensation Algorithm for Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines with Respect to Magnet Temperature Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Seok Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a torque error compensation algorithm for a surface mounted permanent magnet synchronous machine (SPMSM through real time permanent magnet (PM flux linkage estimation at various temperature conditions from medium to rated speed. As known, the PM flux linkage in SPMSMs varies with the thermal conditions. Since a maximum torque per ampere look up table, a control method used for copper loss minimization, is developed based on estimated PM flux linkage, variation of PM flux linkage results in undesired torque development of SPMSM drives. In this paper, PM flux linkage is estimated through a stator flux linkage observer and the torque error is compensated in real time using the estimated PM flux linkage. In this paper, the proposed torque error compensation algorithm is verified in simulation and experiment.

  15. Model reference adaptive control (MRAC)-based parameter identification applied to surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chongquan; Lin, Yaoyao

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a model reference adaptive control-based estimated algorithm is proposed for online multi-parameter identification of surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous machines. By taking the dq-axis equations of a practical motor as the reference model and the dq-axis estimation equations as the adjustable model, a standard model-reference-adaptive-system-based estimator was established. Additionally, the Popov hyperstability principle was used in the design of the adaptive law to guarantee accurate convergence. In order to reduce the oscillation of identification result, this work introduces a first-order low-pass digital filter to improve precision regarding the parameter estimation. The proposed scheme was then applied to an SPM synchronous motor control system without any additional circuits and implemented using a DSP TMS320LF2812. For analysis, the experimental results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Prestressing Effects on the Performance of Concrete Beams with Near-surface-mounted Carbon-fiber-reinforced Polymer Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungnam; Park, Sun-Kyu

    2016-07-01

    The effects of various prestressing levels on the flexural behavior of concrete beams strengthened with prestressed near-surface-mounted (NSM) carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) bars were investigated in this study. Four-point flexural tests up to failure were performed using a total of six strengthened prestressed and nonprestressed concrete beams. The nonprestressed strengthened beam failed by premature debonding at the interface of concrete and the epoxy adhesive, but the prestressed one failed owing due to rupture of the CFRP bar. As the prestressing level of the CFRP bar increased, the cracking and yield loads of the prestressed beams increased, but its effect on their deflections was insignificant. The ultimate load was constant regardless of prestressing level, but the ultimate deflection was almost inversely proportional to the level.

  17. Fundamentally excited flow past a surface-mounted rib. Part I ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    structures contrary to the traditional belief that large eddies break into small scales at the .... The instantaneous streamwise velocity component (u(x,y,t)) can be decomposed into ..... rib surface where the velocity in the shear layer reaches a maximum value. ..... measurements and mode generation in the pairing process.

  18. Sample mounting and transfer for coupling an ultrahigh vacuum variable temperature beetle scanning tunneling microscope with conventional surface probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafisi, Kourosh; Ranau, Werner; Hemminger, John C.

    2001-01-01

    We present a new ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber for surface analysis and microscopy at controlled, variable temperatures. The new instrument allows surface analysis with Auger electron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction, quadrupole mass spectrometer, argon ion sputtering gun, and a variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope (VT-STM). In this system, we introduce a novel procedure for transferring a sample off a conventional UHV manipulator and onto a scanning tunneling microscope in the conventional ''beetle'' geometry, without disconnecting the heating or thermocouple wires. The microscope, a modified version of the Besocke beetle microscope, is mounted on a 2.75 in. outer diameter UHV flange and is directly attached to the base of the chamber. The sample is attached to a tripod sample holder that is held by the main manipulator. Under UHV conditions the tripod sample holder can be removed from the main manipulator and placed onto the STM. The VT-STM has the capability of acquiring images between the temperature range of 180--500 K. The performance of the chamber is demonstrated here by producing an ordered array of island vacancy defects on a Pt(111) surface and obtaining STM images of these defects

  19. Cogging torque optimization in surface-mounted permanent-magnet motors by using design of experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbaszadeh, K., E-mail: Abbaszadeh@kntu.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaee Alam, F.; Saied, S.A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Magnet segment arrangement in cross section view of one pole for PM machine. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} Magnet segmentation is an effective method for the cogging torque reduction. {yields} We have used the magnet segmentation method based on the design of experiment. {yields} We have used the RSM design of the design of experiment method. {yields} We have solved optimization via surrogate models like the polynomial regression. {yields} A significant reduction of the cogging torque is obtained by using RSM. - Abstract: One of the important challenges in design of the PM electrical machines is to reduce the cogging torque. In this paper, in order to reduce the cogging torque, a new method for designing of the motor magnets is introduced to optimize of a six pole BLDC motor by using design of experiment (DOE) method. In this method the machine magnets consist of several identical segments which are shifted to a definite angle from each other. Design of experiment (DOE) methodology is used for a screening of the design space and for the generation of approximation models using response surface techniques. In this paper, optimization is often solved via surrogate models, that is, through the construction of response surface models (RSM) like polynomial regression. The experiments were performed based on the response surface methodology (RSM), as a statistical design of experiment approach, in order to investigate the effect of parameters on the response variations. In this investigation, the optimal shifting angles (factors) were identified to minimize the cogging torque. A significant reduction of cogging torque can be achieved with this approach after only a few evaluations of the coupled FE model.

  20. Cogging torque optimization in surface-mounted permanent-magnet motors by using design of experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbaszadeh, K.; Rezaee Alam, F.; Saied, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Magnet segment arrangement in cross section view of one pole for PM machine. Display Omitted Highlights: → Magnet segmentation is an effective method for the cogging torque reduction. → We have used the magnet segmentation method based on the design of experiment. → We have used the RSM design of the design of experiment method. → We have solved optimization via surrogate models like the polynomial regression. → A significant reduction of the cogging torque is obtained by using RSM. - Abstract: One of the important challenges in design of the PM electrical machines is to reduce the cogging torque. In this paper, in order to reduce the cogging torque, a new method for designing of the motor magnets is introduced to optimize of a six pole BLDC motor by using design of experiment (DOE) method. In this method the machine magnets consist of several identical segments which are shifted to a definite angle from each other. Design of experiment (DOE) methodology is used for a screening of the design space and for the generation of approximation models using response surface techniques. In this paper, optimization is often solved via surrogate models, that is, through the construction of response surface models (RSM) like polynomial regression. The experiments were performed based on the response surface methodology (RSM), as a statistical design of experiment approach, in order to investigate the effect of parameters on the response variations. In this investigation, the optimal shifting angles (factors) were identified to minimize the cogging torque. A significant reduction of cogging torque can be achieved with this approach after only a few evaluations of the coupled FE model.

  1. Micro-structured rough surfaces by laser etching for heat transfer enhancement on flush mounted heat sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventola, L; Scaltrito, L; Ferrero, S; Chiavazzo, E; Asinari, P; Maccioni, G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to improve heat transfer performances of flush mounted heat sinks used in electronic cooling. To do this we patterned 1.23 cm 2 heat sinks surfaces by microstructured roughnesses built by laser etching manufacturing technique, and experimentally measured the convective heat transfer enhancements due to different patterns. Each roughness differs from the others with regards to the number and the size of the micro-fins (e.g. the micro- fin length ranges from 200 to 1100 μm). Experimental tests were carried out in forced air cooling regime. In particular fully turbulent flows (heating edge based Reynolds number ranging from 3000 to 17000) were explored. Convective heat transfer coefficient of the best micro-structured heat sink is found to be roughly two times compared to the smooth heat sinks one. In addition, surface area roughly doubles with regard to smooth heat sinks, due to the presence of micro-fins. Consequently, patterned heat sinks thermal transmittance [W/K] is found to be roughly four times the smooth heat sinks one. We hope this work may open the way for huge boost in the technology of electronic cooling by innovative manufacturing techniques.

  2. A design of scintillator tiles read out by surface-mounted SiPMs for a future hadron calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yong; Bauss, Bruno; Buescher, Volker; Caudron, Julien; Chau, Phi; Degele, Reinhold; Geib, Karl-Heinrich; Masetti, Lucia; Schaefer, Ulrich; Tapprogge, Stefan; Wanke, Rainer [Institut fuer Physik and PRISMA Detector Lab, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Precision calorimetry using highly granular sampling calorimeters is being developed based on the particle flow concept within the CALICE collaboration. One design option of a hadron calorimeter is based on silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) to detect photons generated in plastic scintillator tiles. Driven by the need of automated mass assembly of around ten millions of channels stringently required by the high granularity, we developed a design of scintillator tiles directly coupled with surface-mounted SiPMs. A cavity is created in the center of the bottom surface of each tile to provide enough room for the whole SiPM package and to improve collection of the light produced by incident particles penetrating the tile at different positions. The cavity design has been optimized using a GEANT4-based full simulation model to achieve high response to Minimum Ionizing Particles (MIPs) and also good areal uniformity. Cosmic-ray measurements confirms high 1-MIP response for scintillator tiles with an optimized cavity design. Uniformity measurements by scanning the tile area using focused electrons from a beta source show excellent response uniformity. This optimized design is well beyond the requirements for a precision hadron calorimeter.

  3. Peri-Elastodynamic Simulations of Guided Ultrasonic Waves in Plate-Like Structure with Surface Mounted PZT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir Patra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Peridynamic based elastodynamic computation tool named Peri-elastodynamics is proposed herein to simulate the three-dimensional (3D Lamb wave modes in materials for the first time. Peri-elastodynamics is a nonlocal meshless approach which is a scale-independent generalized technique to visualize the acoustic and ultrasonic waves in plate-like structure, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS and nanodevices for their respective characterization. In this article, the characteristics of the fundamental Lamb wave modes are simulated in a sample plate-like structure. Lamb wave modes are generated using a surface mounted piezoelectric (PZT transducer which is actuated from the top surface. The proposed generalized Peri-elastodynamics method is not only capable of simulating two dimensional (2D in plane wave under plane strain condition formulated previously but also capable of accurately simulating the out of plane Symmetric and Antisymmetric Lamb wave modes in plate like structures in 3D. For structural health monitoring (SHM of plate-like structures and nondestructive evaluation (NDE of MEMS devices, it is necessary to simulate the 3D wave-damage interaction scenarios and visualize the different wave features due to damages. Hence, in addition, to simulating the guided ultrasonic wave modes in pristine material, Lamb waves were also simulated in a damaged plate. The accuracy of the proposed technique is verified by comparing the modes generated in the plate and the mode shapes across the thickness of the plate with theoretical wave analysis.

  4. Peri-Elastodynamic Simulations of Guided Ultrasonic Waves in Plate-Like Structure with Surface Mounted PZT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Subir; Ahmed, Hossain; Banerjee, Sourav

    2018-01-18

    Peridynamic based elastodynamic computation tool named Peri-elastodynamics is proposed herein to simulate the three-dimensional (3D) Lamb wave modes in materials for the first time. Peri-elastodynamics is a nonlocal meshless approach which is a scale-independent generalized technique to visualize the acoustic and ultrasonic waves in plate-like structure, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and nanodevices for their respective characterization. In this article, the characteristics of the fundamental Lamb wave modes are simulated in a sample plate-like structure. Lamb wave modes are generated using a surface mounted piezoelectric (PZT) transducer which is actuated from the top surface. The proposed generalized Peri-elastodynamics method is not only capable of simulating two dimensional (2D) in plane wave under plane strain condition formulated previously but also capable of accurately simulating the out of plane Symmetric and Antisymmetric Lamb wave modes in plate like structures in 3D. For structural health monitoring (SHM) of plate-like structures and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of MEMS devices, it is necessary to simulate the 3D wave-damage interaction scenarios and visualize the different wave features due to damages. Hence, in addition, to simulating the guided ultrasonic wave modes in pristine material, Lamb waves were also simulated in a damaged plate. The accuracy of the proposed technique is verified by comparing the modes generated in the plate and the mode shapes across the thickness of the plate with theoretical wave analysis.

  5. Slot opening optimization of surface mounted permanent magnet motor for cogging torque reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbaszadeh, K.; Rezaee Alam, F.; Teshnehlab, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The slot opening shift method is an efficient method for cogging torque reduction. ► Using slot opening skew method, the trapezoidal waveform of back-emf is maintained. ► Using the conventional slot skewing, the wave shape of back-emf is sinusoidal. ► The novelty of paper is using of air–gap permeance harmonics as objective function. ► Other novelty of this paper is using the different optimization algorithms. - Abstract: In this paper, slot opening skew method is used for cogging torque reduction. A three layer stator model is considered for a six-pole PM-BLDC motor (a PM-BLDC motor with 18-slots, six-poles and length of 5 cm) and then a 2D dual model is extracted for this 3D slot opening skew model. The angular shifts of slot opening position in the first and third layers than middle layer are considered as optimization parameters. Slot opening shape is optimized by using different optimization algorithms, such as, the response surface methodology (RSM), the genetic algorithm (GA) and the particle swarm optimization (PSO). In order to using of GA and PSO, the analytical relationship is derived for the air–gap permeance function. The optimization results of these algorithms are being consistent with each other and are verified with FEA results. The results show the significant reduction of cogging torque about 77%.

  6. A Modified Model for Deflection Calculation of Reinforced Concrete Beam with Deformed GFRP Rebar

    OpenAIRE

    Ju, Minkwan; Oh, Hongseob; Lim, Junhyun; Sim, Jongsung

    2016-01-01

    The authors carried out experimental and analytical research to evaluate the flexural capacity and the moment-deflection relationship of concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars. The proposed model to predict the effective moment of inertia for R/C beam with GFRP bars was developed empirically, based on Branson’s equation to have better accuracy and a familiar approach to a structural engineer. For better prediction of the moment-deflection relationship until the ultimate strength is reached,...

  7. Finite Element Simulation of GFRP Reinforced Concrete Beam Externally Strengthened With CFRP Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh Norhafizah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction technology now has become more and more advanced allowing the development of new technologies or material to replace the previous one and also solved some of the troubles confronted by construction experts. The Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP composite is an alternative to replace the current usage of steel as it is rust proof and stronger in terms of stiffness compared to steel. Furthermore, GFRP bars have a high strength-to-weight ratio, making them attractive as reinforcement for concrete structures. However, the tensile behavior of GFRP bars is characterized by a linear elastic stress–strain relationship up to failure and, therefore, concrete elements reinforced with GFRP reinforcement exhibit brittle failure without warning. Design codes encourage over-reinforced GFRP design since it is more progressive and leads to a less catastrophic failure with a higher degree of deformability. Moreover, because of GFRP low modulus of elasticity, GFRP reinforced concrete members exhibit larger deflections and wider cracks width than steel reinforced concrete. This aims of this paper is to developed 2D Finite Element (FE models that can accurately simulate the respond on an improvement in the deflection of GFRP reinforced concrete beam externally strengthened with CFRP plates on the tension part of beam. The prediction of flexural response according to RCCSA software was also discussed. It was observed that the predicted FE results are given similar result with the experimental measured test data. Base on this good agreement, a parametric study was the performed using the validation FE model to investigate the effect of flexural reinforcement ratio and arrangement of the beams strengthened with different regions of CFRP plates.

  8. Shear Strengthening of RC Deep Beam Using Externally Bonded GFRP Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, A.; Patel, S. S.; Nayak, A. N.

    2018-06-01

    This work presents the experimental investigation of RC deep beams wrapped with externally bonded Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) fabrics in order to study the Load versus deflection behavior, cracking pattern, failure modes and ultimate shear strength. A total number of five deep beams have been casted, which is designed with conventional steel reinforcement as per IS: 456 (Indian standard plain and reinforced concrete—code for practice, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 2000). The spans to depth ratio for all RC deep beams have been kept less than 2 as per the above specification. Out of five RC deep beams, one without retrofitting serves as a reference beam and the rest four have been wrapped with GFRP fabrics in multiple layers and tested with two point loading condition. The first cracking load, ultimate load and the shear contribution of GFRP to the deep beams have been observed. A critical discussion is made with respect to the enhancement of the strength, behaviour and performance of retrofitted deep beams in comparison to the deep beam without GFRP in order to explore the potential use of GFRP for strengthening the RC deep beams. Test results have demonstrated that the deep beams retrofitted with GFRP shows a slower development of the diagonal cracks and improves shear carrying capacity of the RC deep beam. A comparative study of the experimental results with the theoretical ones predicted by various researchers available in the literatures has also been presented. It is observed that the ultimate load of the beams retrofitted with GFRP fabrics increases with increase of number of GFRP layers up to a specific number of layers, i.e. 3 layers, beyond which it decreases.

  9. Durability and service life prediction of GFRP bars embedded in concrete under acid environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Jikai, E-mail: jkzhou@hotmail.com [College of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210098 (China); Chen Xudong, E-mail: cxdong1985@hotmail.com [College of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210098 (China); Chen Shixue, E-mail: 710567525@qq.com [College of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210098 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > Bond strength of GFRP bars decrease with an increase in pH of acid solutions. > Bond strength of steel bars decrease with an increase in pH of acid solutions. > Durability of GFRP bars could be predicted by modified Arrhenius relation. - Abstract: In recent years, glass fiber reinforcing polymers (GFRP) has emerged as an alternative to conventional steel reinforcing bars in concrete structures. The bond behavior of GFRP bars to concrete under acidic environment is important because of increasing acid rain in China nowadays. This paper presents an experimental investigation into comparison of the durability of the bond between GFRP and steel bars to concrete under acid environment. The specimens were subject to corrosion by immersion in acid solutions with different concentration. One hundred and twenty pullout specimens were used to study the effect of different environment on bond strength of GFRP and steel bars to concrete. Experimental results showed that, For GFRP bars, at the end of 75 days of conditioning duration, maximum bond strength loss of 11%, 22%, 17.2% and 14% were observed in tap water, pH = 2, pH = 3, and pH = 4 environment, respectively. For steel bars, at the end of 75 days of conditioning duration, maximum bond strength loss of 19.6% and 12.3% were observed in pH = 2 and pH = 3 environment, respectively. The influence of solution concentration on bond strength of GFRP bars was determined using Arrhenius equation and time shift method (TSF).

  10. Optoelectronic Mounting Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Baca, Johnny R. F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Chu, Dahwey; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.; Peterson, Gary D.; Reber, Cathleen A.; Reysen, Bill H.

    2004-10-05

    An optoelectronic mounting structure is provided that may be used in conjunction with an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module. The mounting structure may be a flexible printed circuit board. Thermal vias or heat pipes in the head region may transmit heat from the mounting structure to the heat spreader. The heat spreader may provide mechanical rigidity or stiffness to the heat region. In another embodiment, an electrical contact and ground plane may pass along a surface of the head region so as to provide an electrical contact path to the optoelectronic devices and limit electromagnetic interference. In yet another embodiment, a window may be formed in the head region of the mounting structure so as to provide access to the heat spreader. Optoelectronic devices may be adapted to the heat spreader in such a manner that the devices are accessible through the window in the mounting structure.

  11. Preparation and characterization of glass fibers – polymers (epoxy bars (GFRP reinforced concrete for structural applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkjk Saeed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some of the results from a large experimental program undertaken at the Department of Civil Engineering of Damascus University. The project aims to study the ability to reinforce and strengthen the concrete by bars from Epoxy polymer reinforced with glass fibers (GFRP and compared with reinforce concrete by steel bars in terms of mechanical properties. Five diameters of GFRP bars, and steel bars (4mm, 6mm, 8mm, 10mm, 12mm tested on tensile strength tests. The test shown that GFRP bars need tensile strength more than steel bars. The concrete beams measuring (15cm wide × 15cm deep × and 70cm long reinforced by GFRP with 0.5 vol.% ratio, then the concrete beams reinforced by steel with 0.89 vol.% ratio. The concrete beams tested on deflection test. The test shown that beams which reinforced by GFRP has higher deflection resistance, than beams which reinforced by steel. Which give more advantage to reinforced concrete by GFRP.

  12. Modeling guided wave excitation in plates with surface mounted piezoelectric elements: coupled physics and normal mode expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Baiyang; Lissenden, Cliff J.

    2018-04-01

    Guided waves have been extensively studied and widely used for structural health monitoring because of their large volumetric coverage and good sensitivity to defects. Effectively and preferentially exciting a desired wave mode having good sensitivity to a certain defect is of great practical importance. Piezoelectric discs and plates are the most common types of surface-mounted transducers for guided wave excitation and reception. Their geometry strongly influences the proportioning between excited modes as well as the total power of the excited modes. It is highly desirable to predominantly excite the selected mode while the total transduction power is maximized. In this work, a fully coupled multi-physics finite element analysis, which incorporates the driving circuit, the piezoelectric element and the wave guide, is combined with the normal mode expansion method to study both the mode tuning and total wave power. The excitation of circular crested waves in an aluminum plate with circular piezoelectric discs is numerically studied for different disc and adhesive thicknesses. Additionally, the excitation of plane waves in an aluminum plate, using a stripe piezoelectric element is studied both numerically and experimentally. It is difficult to achieve predominant single mode excitation as well as maximum power transmission simultaneously, especially for higher order modes. However, guidelines for designing the geometry of piezoelectric elements for optimal mode excitation are recommended.

  13. Reliability Study of Solder Paste Alloy for the Improvement of Solder Joint at Surface Mount Fine-Pitch Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nizam Ab. Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The significant increase in metal costs has forced the electronics industry to provide new materials and methods to reduce costs, while maintaining customers’ high-quality expectations. This paper considers the problem of most electronic industries in reducing costly materials, by introducing a solder paste with alloy composition tin 98.3%, silver 0.3%, and copper 0.7%, used for the construction of the surface mount fine-pitch component on a Printing Wiring Board (PWB. The reliability of the solder joint between electronic components and PWB is evaluated through the dynamic characteristic test, thermal shock test, and Taguchi method after the printing process. After experimenting with the dynamic characteristic test and thermal shock test with 20 boards, the solder paste was still able to provide a high-quality solder joint. In particular, the Taguchi method is used to determine the optimal control parameters and noise factors of the Solder Printer (SP machine, that affects solder volume and solder height. The control parameters include table separation distance, squeegee speed, squeegee pressure, and table speed of the SP machine. The result shows that the most significant parameter for the solder volume is squeegee pressure (2.0 mm, and the solder height is the table speed of the SP machine (2.5 mm/s.

  14. Finite element modelling to assess the effect of surface mounted piezoelectric patch size on vibration response of a hybrid beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, N.; Alam, M. N.

    2018-02-01

    Vibration response analysis of a hybrid beam with surface mounted patch piezoelectric layer is presented in this work. A one dimensional finite element (1D-FE) model based on efficient layerwise (zigzag) theory is used for the analysis. The beam element has eight mechanical and a variable number of electrical degrees of freedom. The beams are also modelled in 2D-FE (ABAQUS) using a plane stress piezoelectric quadrilateral element for piezo layers and a plane stress quadrilateral element for the elastic layers of hybrid beams. Results are presented to assess the effect of size of piezoelectric patch layer on the free and forced vibration responses of thin and moderately thick beams under clamped-free and clamped-clamped configurations. The beams are subjected to unit step loading and harmonic loading to obtain the forced vibration responses. The vibration control using in phase actuation potential on piezoelectric patches is also studied. The 1D-FE results are compared with the 2D-FE results.

  15. Flexural Behavior of Concrete Beam Strengthened by Near-Surface Mounted CFRP Reinforcement Using Equivalent Section Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-tai Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available FRP (fiber reinforced polymer has found wide applications as an alternative to steel rebar not only for the repair and strengthening of existing structures but also for the erection of new structures. Near-surface mounted (NSM strengthening was introduced as an alternative of externally bonded reinforcement (EBR but this method also experiences early bond failure, which stresses the importance of predicting accurately the bond failure behavior in order to evaluate precisely the performance of NSM reinforcement. This study proposes the equivalent section model assuming monolithic behavior of the filler and CFRP reinforcement. This equivalent section model enables establishing a bond failure model applicable independently of the sectional shape of the CFRP reinforcement. This so-derived bond failure model is then validated experimentally by means of beams flexure-strengthened by NSM CFRP reinforcements with various cross-sections. Finally, analytical analysis applying the bond failure model considering the equivalent section and defined failure criteria is performed. The results show the accuracy of the prediction of the failure mode as well as the accurate prediction of the experimental results regardless of the sectional shape of the CFRP reinforcement.

  16. Structure Crack Identification Based on Surface-mounted Active Sensor Network with Time-Domain Feature Extraction and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunling DU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work the condition of metallic structures are classified based on the acquired sensor data from a surface-mounted piezoelectric sensor/actuator network. The structures are aluminum plates with riveted holes and possible crack damage at these holes. A 400 kHz sine wave burst is used as diagnostic signals. The combination of time-domain S0 waves from received sensor signals is directly used as features and preprocessing is not needed for the dam age detection. Since the time sequence of the extracted S0 has a high dimension, principal component estimation is applied to reduce its dimension before entering NN (neural network training for classification. An LVQ (learning vector quantization NN is used to classify the conditions as healthy or damaged. A number of FEM (finite element modeling results are taken as inputs to the NN for training, since the simulated S0 waves agree well with the experimental results on real plates. The performance of the classification is then validated by using these testing results.

  17. Wear and friction behaviour of soft particles filled random direction short GFRP composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, V.K.; Wahne, S.

    2007-01-01

    The random direction short E-glass fibre reinforced epoxy resin composites filled with the particles of mica and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) were prepared by hand lay-up method. The wear and friction behaviour of random direction short E-glass fibre reinforced epoxy resin (GFRP) composites sliding against AISI-1045 steel in a pin-on-disc configuration were evaluated on a TR-20LE wear and friction tester. The microhardness, density, tensile strength and compressive strength of the filled and unfilled mica as well as TCP particles were determined. The morphology of the worn surfaces of the unfilled and filled random E-glass fibre composites and the transfer films were analyzed with the scanning electron microscope. It was found that the particles as the fillers contributed significantly to improve the mechanical properties and wear resistance of the E-glass fibre. This was because the particulates as the fillers contributed to enhance the bonding strength between the fibre and the epoxy resin. Moreover, the wear and friction properties of the random E-glass fibre composites were reduced by increasing filler weight of particles

  18. SEM in situ laboratory investigations on damage growth in GFRP composite under three-point bending tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Hong Wei; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Brøndsted, Povl

    2010-01-01

    Glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites are widely used in low-weight constructions. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) in situ experiments of damage growth in GFRP composite under three-point bending loads are carried out. By summarizing the experimental results of three groups of samples...

  19. Thin concentrator photovoltaic module with micro-solar cells which are mounted by self-align method using surface tension of melted solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Terauchi, Masaharu; Aya, Youichirou; Kanayama, Shutetsu; Nishitani, Hikaru; Nakagawa, Tohru; Takase, Michihiko

    2017-09-01

    We are developing a thin and lightweight CPV module using small size lens system made from poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) with a short focal length and micro-solar cells to decrease the transporting and the installing costs of CPV systems. In order to achieve high conversion efficiency in CPV modules using micro-solar cells, the micro-solar cells need to be mounted accurately to the irradiated region of the concentrated sunlight. In this study, we have successfully developed self-align method thanks to the surface tension of the melted solder even utilizing commercially available surface-mounting technology (SMT). Solar cells were self-aligned to the specified positions of the circuit board by this self-align method with accuracy within ±10 µm. We actually fabricated CPV modules using this self-align method and demonstrated high conversion efficiency of our CPV module.

  20. Tensile Strength of GFRP Reinforcing Bars with Hollow Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jun You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP has been proposed to replace steel as a reinforcing bar (rebar due to its high tensile strength and noncorrosive material properties. One obstacle in using FRP rebars is high price. Generally FRP is more expensive than conventional steel rebar. There are mainly two ways to reduce the cost. For example, one is making the price of each composition cost of FRP rebar (e.g., fibers, resin, etc. lower than steel rebar. Another is making an optimized design for cross section and reducing the material cost. The former approach is not easy because the steel price is very low in comparison with component materials of FRP. For the latter approach, the cost could be cut down by reducing the material cost. Therefore, an idea of making hollow section over the cross section of FRP rebar was proposed in this study by optimizing the cross section design with acceptable tensile performance in comparison with steel rebar. In this study, glass reinforced polymer (GFRP rebars with hollow section and 19 mm of outer diameter were manufactured and tested to evaluate the tensile performance in accordance with the hollowness ratio. From the test results, it was observed that the tensile strength decreased almost linearly with increase of hollowness ratio and the elastic modulus decreased nonlinearly.

  1. Genetic Diversity of Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein-1 Block 2 in Sites of Contrasting Altitudes and Malaria Endemicities in the Mount Cameroon Region

    OpenAIRE

    Wanji, Samuel; Kengne-Ouafo, Arnaud J.; Joan Eyong, Ebanga E.; Kimbi, Helen K.; Tendongfor, Nicholas; Ndamukong-Nyanga, Judith L.; Nana-Djeunga, Hugues C.; Bourguinat, Catherine; Sofeu-Feugaing, David D.; Charvet, Claude L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study analyzed the relationship between the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum and parasitologic/entomologic indices in the Mount Cameroon region by using merozoite surface protein 1 as a genetic marker. Blood samples were collected from asymptomatic children from three altitude zones (high, intermediate, and low). Parasitologic and entomologic indices were determined by microscopy and landing catch mosquito collection/circumsporozoite protein–enzyme-linked immunosorbent a...

  2. Mechanical properties of GFRP tube confined recycled concrete under axial compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Liang, Chaofeng; Zhou, Zechenglong; Dong, Lanqi; Ding, Kewei; Huang, Jialun

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the recycled aggregate replacement rate and thick-diameter rate of GFRP tube confined in recycled concrete, which has an important impact on the material's compressive strength. Overall, under the same conditions of using recycled concrete, the bearing capacity of short concrete columns can be improved by using broader GFRP tubes. There is a four-fold increase in the bearing capacity of short concrete columns compared to the short column without the restriction of a GFRP tube. The bearing capacity of a short column crafted by recycled coarse aggregate is much lower (about 30%). than those made by common concrete column Additionally, the bearing capacity of short columns made by recycled fine aggregates is also lower than those made by common concrete (approximately 20%). Finally, we find that there is no significant difference between experimental and theoretical data. (paper)

  3. Creep investigation of GFRP RC Beams - Part B: a theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    masmoudi abdelmonem

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study about the viscoelastic time-dependent (creep behavior of pultruded GFRP elements made of polyester and E-glass fibres. Experimental results reported in Part A are firstly used for material characterization by means of empirical and phenomenological formulations.   The superposition principles by adopting the law of creep following the Eurocode 2 recommendations are also investigated. Analytical study was also conducted including creep under constant stress; successions of increasing stress superposition principle equivalent time and the return creep reloading. The results of this study revealed that Beams reinforced with GFRP are less marked with creep phenomenon.  This investigation should guide the civil engineer/designer for a better understanding creep phenomenon in GFRP reinforced concrete members.

  4. Flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams Retrofitted with Corrugated Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, N.; Samanta, Amiya K.; Roy, Dilip Kr. Singha; Thanikal, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Strengthening the structural members of old buildings using advanced materials is a contemporary research in the field of repairs and rehabilitation. Many researchers used plain Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) sheets for strengthening Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams. In this research work, rectangular corrugated GFRP laminates were used for strengthening RC beams to achieve higher flexural strength and load carrying capacity. Type and dimensions of corrugated profile were selected based on preliminary study using ANSYS software. A total of twenty one beams were tested to study the load carrying capacity of control specimens and beams strengthened with plain sheets and corrugated laminates using epoxy resin. This paper presents the experimental and theoretical study on flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams using corrugated GFRP laminates and the results are compared. Mathematical models were developed based on the experimental data and then the models were validated.

  5. Housing And Mounting Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Baca, Johnny R.F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Miller, Gregory V.; Peterson, David W.; Smith, Terrance T.

    2005-03-08

    This invention relates to an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module, and more particularly, to an apparatus for connecting a first optical connector to a second optical connector. The apparatus comprises: (1) a housing having at least a first end and at least a second end, the first end of the housing capable of receiving the first optical connector, and the second end of the housing capable of receiving the second optical connector; (2) a longitudinal cavity extending from the first end of the housing to the second end of the housing; and (3) an electromagnetic shield comprising at least a portion of the housing. This invention also relates to an apparatus for housing a flexible printed circuit board, and this apparatus comprises: (1) a mounting structure having at least a first surface and a second surface; (2) alignment ridges along the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure, the alignment ridges functioning to align and secure a flexible printed circuit board that is wrapped around and attached to the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure; and (3) a series of heat sink ridges adapted to the mounting structure, the heat sink ridges functioning to dissipate heat that is generated from the flexible printed circuit board.

  6. Estimation of durability of GFRP laminates under stress-corrosive environments using acoustic emission; AE wo mochiita ouryoku fushoku kankyoka deno GFRP no taikyusei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Yoshimichi. [Seikow Chemical Engineering and Machinery, Ltd., Hyogo (Japan). Laboratory of Composite Materials; Nishiyabu, Kazuaki. [Osaka Prefectural College of Tehcnology, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-05-15

    The objective of this investigation is to estimate the creep life of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) under stress-corrosive environments using acoustic emission(AE). The laminates were fabricated using combinations of vinylester resin (R806) and random fiber mat or woven cloth. The creep tests were conducted in 5% nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) environment. The AE depends on the loading level and the environment condition. For the creep test, the woven cloth reinforced specimens gave higher number of AE counts than the random mat reinforced specimens. The creep life decreased with increasing creep stress, whereas the rate of AE counts increased with increasing creep stress. A linear relationship was found between the creep life and the AE count rate. Using the proposed equation, a prediction of the creep life of GFRP under corrosive environments would presumably be possible. (author)

  7. GFRP seismic strengthening and structural heath monitoring of Portage Creek Bridge concrete columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, S.; Bagchi, A.; Mufti, A.; Neale, K.; Sargent, D.; Rivera, E.

    2006-01-01

    Located in Victoria British Columbia (BC), Canada, the Portage Creek Bridge is a 124m long, three-span structure with a reinforced concrete piers and abutments on H piles. The bridge was designed prior to the introduction of current bridge seismic design codes and construction practices. Therefore it was not designed to resist the earthquake forces as required by today's standards. The bridge is on a route classified as a Municipal Disaster Route scheduled to be retrofitted to prevent collapse during a design seismic event, with a return period of 475 years (i.e., an event with 105 probability of exceedance in 50 years). Conventional materials and methods were used to retrofit most of the bridge. The dynamic analysis of the bridge predicted the two tall columns of Pier No. 1 will form plastic hinges under an earthquake resulting an additional shear to the short columns of Pier No. 2. A non-liner static pushover analysis indicated the short columns will not be able to form plastic hinges prior to failure in shear. The innovative solution of Fiber Reinforced Polymer wraps (FRPs) was chosen to strengthen the short columns for shear without increasing the moment capacity. The FRP wraps and the bridge were instrumented as one of 36 demonstration projects across Canada sponsored by ISIS (Intelligent Sensing for Innovative Structure) Canada, federally funded Network of Centers of Excellence, to access the performance of FRP and the use of FOS (Fiber Optic Sensors) for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). The two columns of the bridge pier were strengthened with GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer) wraps with eight bi-directional rosette type strain gauges and four long gauge fiber optic sensors attached to the outer layer of the wraps. In addition, two 3-D Crossbow accelerometers are installed on the pier cap above the columns and a traffic web-cam mounted above the deck at the pier location. The data is collected through high sped internet line to an interactive web page

  8. Experimental Investigation of a Self-Sensing Hybrid GFRP-Concrete Bridge Superstructure with Embedded FBG Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanlei; Li, Yunyu; Ran, Jianghua; Cao, Mingmin

    2012-01-01

    A self-sensing hybrid GFRP-concrete bridge superstructure, which consists of two bridge decks and each bridge deck is comprised of four GFRP box sections combined with a thin layer of concrete in the compression zone, was developed by using eight embedded FBG sensors in the top and bottom flanges of the four GFRP box sections at midspan section of one bridge deck along longitudinal direction, respectively. The proposed self-sensing hybrid bridge superstructure was tested in 4-point loading to...

  9. A Modified Model for Deflection Calculation of Reinforced Concrete Beam with Deformed GFRP Rebar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkwan Ju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors carried out experimental and analytical research to evaluate the flexural capacity and the moment-deflection relationship of concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars. The proposed model to predict the effective moment of inertia for R/C beam with GFRP bars was developed empirically, based on Branson’s equation to have better accuracy and a familiar approach to a structural engineer. For better prediction of the moment-deflection relationship until the ultimate strength is reached, a nonlinear parameter (k was also considered. This parameter was introduced to reduce the effect of the cracked moment of inertia for the reinforced concrete member, including a lower reinforcement ratio and modulus of elasticity of the GFRP bar. In a comparative study using six equations suggested by others, the proposed model showed better agreement with the experimental test results. It was confirmed that the empirical modification based on Branson’s equation was valid for predicting the effective moment of inertia of R/C beams with GFRP bar in this study. To evaluate the generality of the proposed model, a comparative study using previous test results from the literature and the results from this study was carried out. It was found that the proposed model had better accuracy and was a familiar approach to structural engineers to predict and evaluate the deflection behavior.

  10. Analytical model of asymmetrical Mixed-Mode Bending test of adhesively bonded GFRP joint

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ševčík, Martin; Hutař, Pavel; Vassilopoulos, Anastasios P.; Shahverdi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 34 (2015), s. 237-246 ISSN 1971-8993 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0063; GA ČR GA15-09347S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : GFRP materials * Mixed-Mode bending * Fiber bridging * Analytical model Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  11. Experimental Study On Flexural Behaviour Of Beams Reinforced With GFRP Rebars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen Kumar, G.; Sundaravadivelu, Karthik

    2017-07-01

    In saline, moisture and cold conditions corrosion of steel is inevitable and the lot of economy is used for rehabilitation works. Corrosion of steel is nothing but oxidation of iron in moisture conditions and this corrosion leads to the spalling of concrete which intern reduces the strength of the structure. To reduce this corrosion effects, new materials with resistance against corrosion have to be introduced. Many experiments are going on using Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) as alternate material for steel due to its non-corrosive nature, weight of GFRP is nearly one third of steel and ultimate tensile strength is higher than steel. In this paper, six beams are casted in which three beams are casted with steel as main and shear reinforcement and another three beams are casted with GFRP as main reinforcement with steel as shear reinforcing material. All beams casted are of same dimensions with variation in reinforcement percentage. The size of the beams casted is of length 1200 mm, breadth 100 mm and depth 200 mm. The clear cover of 25 mm is provided on top and bottom of the beam. Beams are tested under two-point loading with constant aspect ratio (a/d) and comparing the flexural strength, load deflection curves and types of failures of beams reinforced with GFRP as main reinforcement and beams reinforced with conventional steel. The final experimental results are compared with numerical results. M30 grade concrete with Conplast as a superplasticizer is used for casting beams.

  12. Experimental Investigation for Tensile Performance of GFRP-Steel Hybridized Rebar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Woo Seo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tensile performance of the recently developed “FRP Hybrid Bar” at Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology (KICT is experimentally evaluated by the authors. FRP Hybrid Bar is introduced to overcome the low elastic modulus of the existing GFRP bars to be used as a structural member in reinforced concrete structures. The concept of material hybridization is applied to increase elastic modulus of GFRP bars by using steel. This hybridized GFRP bar can be used in concrete structures as a flexural reinforcement with a sufficient level of elastic modulus. In order to verify the effect of material hybridization on tensile properties, tensile tests are conducted. The test results for both FRP Hybrid Bar and the existing GFRP bars are compared. The results indicate that the elastic modulus of FRP Hybrid Bar can be enhanced by up to approximately 250 percent by the material hybridization with a sufficient tensile strength. To ensure the long-term durability of FRP Hybrid Bar to corrosion resistance, the individual and combined effects of environmental conditions on FRP Hybrid Bar itself as well as on the interface between rebar and concrete are currently under investigation.

  13. Flush Mounting Of Thin-Film Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas C., Sr.

    1992-01-01

    Technique developed for mounting thin-film sensors flush with surfaces like aerodynamic surfaces of aircraft, which often have compound curvatures. Sensor mounted in recess by use of vacuum pad and materials selected for specific application. Technique involves use of materials tailored to thermal properties of substrate in which sensor mounted. Together with customized materials, enables flush mounting of thin-film sensors in most situations in which recesses for sensors provided. Useful in both aircraft and automotive industries.

  14. Potentialities of infrared thermography to assess damage in bonding between concrete and GFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. CALDEIRA

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the application of the active infrared thermography to detect damage in bonding between concrete and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP. Specimens of concrete and mortar with GFRP externally bonded were prepared and at their interfaces were inserted polystyrene discs to simulate damages. The samples were divided into two groups. In group 1, one sample was correctly bonded by a GFRP plate to the concrete, but in the other three were inserted polystyrene discs which had different diameters to simulate damages in bonding. In group 2, all of the samples contained identical polystyrene discs at their interfaces, but the total thickness of each specimen was different, because the objective was to evaluate the ability of the camera to capture the simulated damage in depth. The experimental procedure was divided into two stages. In the first stage, four types of heating were used to heat samples of group 1: incandescent lamp, kiln, blended lamp and fan heater. Thus, it was possible to detect the damage and to observe its format and length. It was noticed that the infrared images are different depending on the heat source incident on the specimen. Therefore, group 2 was tested only for the more efficient heating (incandescent lamp. In the second stage, the infrared equipment was tested. Some of the parameters that must be inserted in the camera were varied in order to understand their influence on image formation. The results show the effectiveness of infrared thermography to assess adherence in GFRP/concrete interface. In the present work, the best results were obtained when the image is captured towards GFRP/concrete and using incandescent lamp. It was observed that the image and measured temperature suffer significant distortion when a false value was inserted for the parameter emissivity.

  15. Load Testing of GFRP Composite U-Shape Footbridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrzowski, Łukasz; Miśkiewicz, Mikołaj; Chróścielewski, Jacek; Wilde, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the scope of load tests carried out on an innovative shell composite footbridge. The tested footbridge was manufactured in one production cycle and has no components made from materials other than GFRP laminates and PET foam. The load tests, performed on a 14-m long structure, were the final stage of a research program in the Fobridge project carried out in cooperation with: Gdańsk University of Technology (leader), Military University of Technology in Warsaw, and ROMA Co. Ltd.; and co-financed by NCBR. The aim of the tests was to confirm whether the complex U-shape sandwich structure behaves correctly. The design and technological processes involved in constructing this innovative footbridge required the solving of many problems: absence of standards for design of composite footbridges, lack of standardized material data, lack of guidelines for calculation and evaluation of material strength, and no guidelines for infusion of large, thick sandwich elements. Obtaining answers during the design process demanded extensive experimental tests, development of material models, validation of models, updating parameters and extensive numerical parametric studies. The technological aspects of infusion were tested in numerous trials involving the selection of material parameters and control of the infusion parameters. All scientific validation tests were successfully completed and market assessment showed that the proposed product has potential applications; it can be used for overcoming obstacles in rural areas and cities, as well as in regions affected by natural disasters. Load testing included static and dynamic tests. During the former, the span was examined at 117 independent measurement points. The footbridge was loaded with concrete slabs in different configurations. Their total weight ranged from 140 kN up to 202 kN. The applied load at the most heavily loaded structural points caused an effect from 89% to 120%, compared to the load specified by

  16. Mechanical properties and production quality of hand-layup and vacuum infusion processed hybrid composite materials for GFRP marine structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Young; Shim, Chun Sik; Sturtevant, Caleb; Kim, Dave (Dae-Wook); Song, Ha Cheol

    2014-09-01

    Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) structures are primarily manufactured using hand lay-up or vacuum infusion techniques, which are cost-effective for the construction of marine vessels. This paper aims to investigate the mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of the hybrid GFRP composites, formed by applying the hand lay-up processed exterior and the vacuum infusion processed interior layups, providing benefits for structural performance and ease of manufacturing. The hybrid GFRP composites contain one, two, and three vacuum infusion processed layer sets with consistent sets of hand lay-up processed layers. Mechanical properties assessed in this study include tensile, compressive and in-plane shear properties. Hybrid composites with three sets of vacuum infusion layers showed the highest tensile mechanical properties while those with two sets had the highest mechanical properties in compression. The batch homogeneity, for the GFRP fabrication processes, is evaluated using the experimentally obtained mechanical properties

  17. Mechanical properties and production quality of hand-layup and vacuum infusion processed hybrid composite materials for GFRP marine structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sang-Young

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP structures are primarily manufactured using hand lay-up or vacuum infusion techniques, which are cost-effective for the construction of marine vessels. This paper aims to investigate the mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of the hybrid GFRP composites, formed by applying the hand lay-up processed exterior and the vacuum infusion processed interior layups, providing benefits for structural performance and ease of manufacturing. The hybrid GFRP composites contain one, two, and three vacuum infusion processed layer sets with consistent sets of hand lay-up processed layers. Mechanical properties assessed in this study include tensile, compressive and in-plane shear properties. Hybrid composites with three sets of vacuum infusion layers showed the highest tensile mechanical properties while those with two sets had the highest mechanical properties in compression. The batch homogeneity, for the GFRP fabrication processes, is evaluated using the experimentally obtained mechanical properties

  18. Mechanical properties and production quality of hand-layup and vacuum infusion processed hybrid composite materials for GFRP marine structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Young Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP structures are primarily manufactured using hand lay-up or vacuum infusion techniques, which are cost-effective for the construction of marine vessels. This paper aims to investigate the mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of the hybrid GFRP composites, formed by applying the hand lay-up processed exterior and the vacuum infusion processed interior layups, providing benefits for structural performance and ease of manufacturing. The hybrid GFRP composites contain one, two, and three vacuum infusion processed layer sets with consistent sets of hand lay-up processed layers. Mechanical properties assessed in this study include tensile, compressive and in-plane shear properties. Hybrid composites with three sets of vacuum infusion layers showed the highest tensile mechanical properties while those with two sets had the highest mechanical properties in compression. The batch homogeneity, for the GFRP fabrication processes, is evaluated using the experimentally obtained mechanical properties.

  19. Quasi-plane-hypothesis of strain coordination for RC beams seismically strengthened with externally-bonded or near-surface mounted fiber reinforced plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhenhua; Zeng, Xiantao; Liu, Hanlong; Zhou, Fengjun

    2013-03-01

    The application of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP), including carbon FRP and glass FRP, for structural repair and strengthening has grown due to their numerous advantages over conventional materials such as externally bonded reinforcement (EBR) and near-surface mounted (NSM) strengthening techniques. This paper summarizes the results from 21 reinforced concrete beams strengthened with different methods, including externally-bonded and near-surface mounted FRP, to study the strain coordination of the FRP and steel rebar of the RC beam. Since there is relative slipping between the RC beam and the FRP, the strain of the FRP and steel rebar of the RC beam satisfy the quasi-plane-hypothesis; that is, the strain of the longitudinal fiber that parallels the neutral axis of the plated beam within the scope of the effective height ( h 0) of the cross section is in direct proportion to the distance from the fiber to the neutral axis. The strain of the FRP and steel rebar satisfies the equation: ɛ FRP= βɛ steel, and the value of β is equal to 1.1-1.3 according to the test results.

  20. Modal parameter identification of all-GFRP composite cable-stayed footbridge in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Górski Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate of dynamic characteristics of cable-stayed Fiberline Bridge in Kolding, Denmark, made entirely of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP composite. During examination based on in situ free-decay measurements and using accelerometers under human jumping the primary five natural frequencies, corresponding mode shapes and damping ratios of the footbridge were identified. The Peak Picking (PP and Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD approaches were applied to identify the natural frequencies and mode shapes. The corresponding damping ratios were extracted by a linear regression on the extremes of modal decays. The estimated damping ratios were compared with published data for selected footbridges made of various conventional materials. The obtained experimental results provide a relevant data regarding the dynamic response prediction or structural health monitoring of all-GFRP composite footbridges.

  1. Estudio experimental de la adherencia entre laminados de GFRP y el hormigón

    OpenAIRE

    Albiol Ibáñez, José Ramón

    2016-01-01

    [EN] At present, hybrid structures in flexural elements are being gradually incorporated in the field of civil and building structures. The low weight and high durability of these structures make use viable. Hybrid structures are usually composed of polymeric materials reinforced with glass or carbon fibers (GFRP or CFRP) in structural shapes of any type of section, in I, in box, trough-shaped, as elements working in tension, and the concrete in the compressed head of the resistant section. D...

  2. Analytical modeling of mixed-Mode bending behavior of asymmetric adhesively bonded pultruded GFRP joints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ševčík, Martin; Shahverdi, M.; Hutař, Pavel; Vassilopoulos, Anastasios P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 147, OCT (2015), s. 228-242 ISSN 0013-7944 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0063 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Mixed-Mode delamination * Asymmetric joint * Adhesively bonded joint * Failure criterion * Analytical prediction * GFRP Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.024, year: 2015

  3. Layer-by-Layer Method for the Synthesis and Growth of Surface Mounted Metal-Organic Frameworks (SURMOFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Shekhah

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A layer-by-layer method has been developed for the synthesis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs and their deposition on functionalized organic surfaces. The approach is based on the sequential immersion of functionalized organic surfaces into solutions of the building blocks of the MOF, i.e., the organic ligand and the inorganic unit. The synthesis and growth of different types of MOFs on substrates with different functionalization, like COOH, OH and pyridine terminated surfaces, were studied and characterized with different surface characterization techniques. A controlled and highly oriented growth of very homogenous films was obtained using this method. The layer-by-layer method offered also the possibility to study the kinetics of film formation in more detail using surface plasmon resonance and quartz crystal microbalance. In addition, this method demonstrates the potential to synthesize new classes of MOFs not accessible by conventional methods. Finally, the controlled growth of MOF thin films is important for many applications like chemical sensors, membranes and related electrodes.

  4. Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Concrete Alkalinity on Tensile Properties of Preheated Structural GFRP Rebar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwasung Roh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of preexposure to high temperature and alkalinity on the tensile performance of structural GFRP reinforcing bars are experimentally investigated. A total of 105 GFRP bar specimens are preexposed to high temperature between 120°C and 200°C and then immersed into pH of 12.6 alkaline solution for 100, 300, and 660 days. From the test results, the elastic modulus obtained at 300 immersion days is almost the same as those of 660 immersion days. For all alkali immersion days considered in the test, the preheated specimens provide slightly lower elastic modulus than the unpreheated specimens, showing only 8% maximum difference. The tensile strength decreases for all testing cases as the increase of the alkaline immersing time, regardless of the prehearing levels. The tensile strength of the preheated specimens is about 90% of the unpreheated specimen for 300 alkali immersion days. However, after 300 alkali immersion days the tensile strengths are almost identical to each other. Such results indicate that the tensile strength and elastic modulus of the structural GFRP reinforcing bars are closely related to alkali immersion days, not much related to the preheating levels. The specimens show a typical tensile failure around the preheated location.

  5. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Damage in Woven GFRP Composites Under Large-deflection Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Himayat; Harland, Andy R.; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.

    2012-10-01

    Textile-reinforced composites such as glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) used in sports products can be exposed to different in-service conditions such as large bending deformation and multiple impacts. Such loading conditions cause high local stresses and strains, which result in multiple modes of damage and fracture in composite laminates due to their inherent heterogeneity and non-trivial microstructure. In this paper, various damage modes in GFRP laminates are studied using experimental material characterisation, non-destructive micro-structural damage evaluation and numerical simulations. Experimental tests are carried out to characterise the behaviour of these materials under large-deflection bending. To obtain in-plane shear properties of laminates, tensile tests are performed using a full-field strain-measurement digital image correlation technique. X-ray micro computed tomography (Micro CT) is used to investigate internal material damage modes - delamination and cracking. Two-dimensional finite element (FE) models are implemented in the commercial code Abaqus to study the deformation behaviour and damage in GFRP. In these models, multiple layers of bilinear cohesive-zone elements are employed to study the onset and progression of inter-ply delamination and intra-ply fabric fracture of composite laminate, based on the X-ray Micro CT study. The developed numerical models are capable to simulate these features with their mechanisms as well as subsequent mode coupling observed in tests and Micro CT scanning. The obtained results of simulations are in agreement with experimental data.

  6. The effect of nylon nanofibers on the dynamic behaviour and the delamination resistance of GFRP composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Cristobal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrations are responsible for a considerable number of accidents in aircrafts, bridges and other civil engineering structures. Therefore, there is a need to reduce the vibrations on structures made of composite materials. Delamination is a particularly dangerous failure mode for composite materials because delaminated composites can lose up to 60% of their strength and stiffness and still remain unchanged. One of the methods to suppress vibrations and preventing delamination is to incorporate nanofibers into the composite laminates. The aim of the present work is to investigate how nylon nanofibers affect the dynamic behaviour and delamination resistance of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP composites. Experiments and numerical simulations using finite element modelling (FEM analysis are used to estimate the natural frequencies, the damping ratio and inter-laminar strength in GFRP composites with and without nylon nanofibers. It is found that the natural frequencies of the nylon nano-modified composites do not change significantly as compared to the traditional composites. However, nano-modified composites demonstrated a considerable increase in damping ratio and inter-laminar shear strength due to the incorporation of nylon nanofibers. This work contributes to the knowledge about the mechanical and dynamic properties of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP composites with nylon nanofibers.

  7. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 block 2 in sites of contrasting altitudes and malaria endemicities in the Mount Cameroon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanji, Samuel; Kengne-Ouafo, Arnaud J; Eyong, Ebanga E Joan; Kimbi, Helen K; Tendongfor, Nicholas; Ndamukong-Nyanga, Judith L; Nana-Djeunga, Hugues C; Bourguinat, Catherine; Sofeu-Feugaing, David D; Charvet, Claude L

    2012-05-01

    The present study analyzed the relationship between the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum and parasitologic/entomologic indices in the Mount Cameroon region by using merozoite surface protein 1 as a genetic marker. Blood samples were collected from asymptomatic children from three altitude zones (high, intermediate, and low). Parasitologic and entomologic indices were determined by microscopy and landing catch mosquito collection/circumsporozoite protein-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. A total of 142 randomly selected P. falciparum-positive blood samples were genotyped by using a nested polymerase chain reaction-based technique. K-1 polymerase chain reaction products were also sequenced. As opposed to high altitude, the highest malaria prevalence (70.65%) and entomologic inoculation rate (2.43 infective/bites/night) were recorded at a low altitude site. Seven (18.91%), 22 (36.66%), and 19 (42.22%) samples from high, intermediate, and low altitudes, respectively, contained multiclonal infections. A new K-1 polymorphism was identified. This study shows a positive non-linear association between low/intermediate altitude (high malaria transmission) and an increase in P. falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 block 2 polymorphisms.

  8. A study of the blade's material performance made of GFRP for 100kW tidal current turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Min; Chung, Hyun; Kim, Jong Sung

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of material of rotary blade which was designed for a energy system which utilizes a tide, a comparatively stable and predictable energy source. The rotary blade design for Horizontal Axis Tidal Turbine was carried out to convert an energy. And, considering seawater corrosion and material weight, Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) was applied as the material of rotary blade. GFRP is a light material comparing with metal materials, while it has a sufficient stiffness, and GFRP has durability against seawater corrosion. However, it is suggested that the performance verification of material, since the material was built based on a polymer. And the performance verification of material was carried out comparing the results from experimental test and the results from finite element analysis using Nastran FX.

  9. Compressive damage mechanism of GFRP composites under off-axis loading: Experimental and numerical investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, H.W.; Li, H.Y.; Gui, L.L.

    2013-01-01

    the angle between the fiber direction and the loading vector goes from 0° to 45° (by 2.3–2.6 times), and then slightly increases (when the angle approaches 80–90°). At the low angles between the fiber and the loading vector, fiber buckling and kinking are the main mechanisms of fiber failure....... With increasing the angle between the fiber and applied loading, failure of glass fibers is mainly controlled by shear cracking. For the computational analysis of the damage mechanisms, 3D multifiber unit cell models of GFRP composites and X-FEM approach to the fracture modeling were used. The computational...

  10. A Novel Method to Magnetic Flux Linkage Optimization of Direct-Driven Surface-Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Based on Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper pays attention to magnetic flux linkage optimization of a direct-driven surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (D-SPMSG. A new compact representation of the D-SPMSG nonlinear dynamic differential equations to reduce system parameters is established. Furthermore, the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of new D-SPMSG equations in the process of varying magnetic flux linkage are considered, which are illustrated by Lyapunov exponent spectrums, phase orbits, Poincaré maps, time waveforms and bifurcation diagrams, and the magnetic flux linkage stable region of D-SPMSG is acquired concurrently. Based on the above modeling and analyses, a novel method of magnetic flux linkage optimization is presented. In addition, a 2 MW D-SPMSG 2D/3D model is designed by ANSYS software according to the practical design requirements. Finally, five cases of D-SPMSG models with different magnetic flux linkages are simulated by using the finite element analysis (FEA method. The nephograms of magnetic flux density are agreement with theoretical analysis, which both confirm the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. Magnetic core mounting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Jeffrey J.

    2002-01-01

    A mounting apparatus for an electromagnetic device such as a transformer of inductor includes a generally planar metallic plate as a first heat sink, and a metallic mounting cup as a second heat sink. The mounting cup includes a cavity configured to receive the electromagnetic device, the cavity being defined by a base, and an axially-extending annular sidewall extending from the base to a flange portion of the mounting cup. The mounting cup includes first and second passages for allowing the leads of first and second windings of the electromagnetic device to be routed out of the cavity. The cavity is filled with a polyurethane potting resin, and the mounting cup, including the potted electromagnetic device, is mounted to the plate heat sink using fasteners. The mounting cup, which surrounds the electromagnetic device, in combination with the potting resin provides improved thermal transfer to the plate heat sink, as well as providing resistance to vibration and shocks.

  12. Reinforcement of Bolted Timber Joints Using GFRP Sheets in Poplar and Pine Woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrab Madhoushi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure in timber structures occurs mainly in crucial points such as joints areas. Therefore, the idea of using composite sheets in timber joints has been intro-duced as a method in order to increase the strength and ductility behaviour of timber joints. This research aims to study the behaviour of bolted joints in poplar and pine woods, which are reinforced by two types of GFRP sheets. A single shear bolted joint consisted of 3 timber members whose length and width were 30 cm in length and 5 cm in width. The thickness of each member was 4 cm for internal part and 2 cm for external part. The employed steel bolt was 10 cm in length and 1 cm in diameter. In this respect, one layer of GFRP sheet was used to be bonded to timber members by using epoxy resin and left between the clamps for 24 hours. They were then kept at room temperature for three weeks. Also the effect of adding a wood veneer on the reinforced joints was investigated. The tensile strength of the reinforced and control samples (un-reinforced joints was measured according to ASTM D5652-92 standard. The results show that the reinforced samples have higher tensile strength compared to that of reinforced joints, although it is not statistically signifcant. Also, two types of sheets infuence the joint behaviour as the reinforced joints display more ductility behaviour.

  13. Structural performance of circular columns confined by recycled GFRP stirrups and exposed to severe conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Sayed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 1980, Egyptian government investment has been directed to the infrastructure projects. Water supply and water drainage networks are among those projects which are very costly; therefore they are designed with a life span of about one hundred years. There is a new trend toward the use of durable and maintenance free systems. The “GFRP” pipes are one of the economic solutions if the project life span is taken into consideration. A number of investors currently produce the “GFRP” pipes in the Egyptian market and although they follow the latest technologies in their production lines, they still suffer 2–5% deficiency of their produced pipes which consequently regarded as rejected pipes. This percentage has a negative impact on the environmental and economical issues. This research is a trial to investigate the behavior of circular columns confined by GFRP stirrups and exposed to severe conditions. A number of waste pipes were randomly selected and sliced to be used as circular column transverse reinforcement. An experimental program consisting of ten short circular columns was designed to study the effect of corrosion, high degrees of temperature, and sulfate attack on the structural behavior of the axially loaded short circular columns. The experimental results showed that columns laterally reinforced by GFRP slices have a comparable behavior to conventionally reinforced concrete columns especially for those columns exposed to corrosion and sulfate attack.

  14. Residual Tensile Strength and Bond Properties of GFRP Bars after Exposure to Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devon S. Ellis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP bars in reinforced concrete members enhances corrosion resistance when compared to traditional steel reinforcing bars. Although there is ample research available on the behavior of FRP bars and concrete members reinforced with FRP bars under elevated temperatures (due to fire, there is little published information available on their post-fire residual load capacity. This paper reports residual tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and bond strength (to concrete of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP bars after exposure to elevated temperatures of up to 400 °C and subsequent cooling to an ambient temperature. The results showed that the residual strength generally decreases with increasing temperature exposure. However, as much as 83% of the original tensile strength and 27% of the original bond strength was retained after the specimens were heated to 400 °C and then cooled to ambient temperature. The residual bond strength is a critical parameter in post-fire strength assessments of GFRP-reinforced concrete members.

  15. Residual Tensile Strength and Bond Properties of GFRP Bars after Exposure to Elevated Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Devon S; Tabatabai, Habib; Nabizadeh, Azam

    2018-02-27

    The use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars in reinforced concrete members enhances corrosion resistance when compared to traditional steel reinforcing bars. Although there is ample research available on the behavior of FRP bars and concrete members reinforced with FRP bars under elevated temperatures (due to fire), there is little published information available on their post-fire residual load capacity. This paper reports residual tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and bond strength (to concrete) of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars after exposure to elevated temperatures of up to 400 °C and subsequent cooling to an ambient temperature. The results showed that the residual strength generally decreases with increasing temperature exposure. However, as much as 83% of the original tensile strength and 27% of the original bond strength was retained after the specimens were heated to 400 °C and then cooled to ambient temperature. The residual bond strength is a critical parameter in post-fire strength assessments of GFRP-reinforced concrete members.

  16. Numerical Study on Deflection Behaviour of Concrete Beams Reinforced with GFRP Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Osama A.; Khattab, Rania; Hawat, Waddah Al

    2017-10-01

    Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bars are gaining popularity as sustainable alternatives to conventional reinforcing steel bars in reinforced concrete applications. The production of FRP bars has lower environmental impact compared to steel reinforcing bars. In addition, the non-corroding FRP materials can potentially decrease the cost or need for maintenance of reinforced concrete structural elements, especially in harsh environmental conditions that can impact both concrete and reinforcement. FRP bars offer additional favourable properties including high tensile strength and low unit weight. However, the mechanical properties of FRP bars can lead to large crack widths and deflections. The objective of this study is to investigate the deflection behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with Glass FRP (GFRP) bars as a longitudinal main reinforcement. Six concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars were modelled using the finite element computer program ANSYS. The main variable considered in the study is the reinforcement ratio. The deflection equations in current North American codes including ACI 440.1R-06, ACI 440.1R-15 and CSA S806-12 are used to compute deflections, and these are compared to numerical results. It was concluded in this paper that deflections predicted by ACI 440.1R-06 equations are lower than the numerical analysis results while ACI 440.1R-15 is in agreement with numerical analysis with tendency to be conservative. The values of deflections estimated by CSA S806-12 formulas are consistent with results of numerical analysis.

  17. Breakdown tests of glass fibre reinforced polymers (GFRP) as part of improved lightning protection of wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Find; Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    2004-01-01

    the test methods and the results are evaluated. The different results are compared with respect to the GFRP materials' overall thicknesses, thickness of laminates and thickness of coatings. Finally, some general conclusions and different statements on how to manufacture specimens with minimum likelihood...

  18. Liner mounting assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halila, Ely E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A mounting assembly includes an annular supporting flange disposed coaxially about a centerline axis which has a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart supporting holes therethrough. An annular liner is disposed coaxially with the supporting flange and includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart mounting holes aligned with respective ones of the supporting holes. Each of a plurality of mounting pins includes a proximal end fixedly joined to the supporting flange through a respective one of the supporting holes, and a distal end disposed through a respective one of the liner mounting holes for supporting the liner to the supporting flange while unrestrained differential thermal movement of the liner relative to the supporting flange.

  19. Temperature dependency of tensile properties of GFRP composite for wind turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Yong Hak; Kim, Jong Il; Kim, Dong Jin; Lee, Gun Chang [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    In this study, the temperature dependency of the tensile properties of a glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) used in wind turbine blades was examined. The tensile strength, elastic modulus, and Poisson's ratio of the tensile specimen manufactured from uniaxial (0 .deg.) and triaxial (0/{+-}45.deg) laminate composite plates were measured at four different testing temperatures-room temperature, -30 .deg. C, -50 .deg. C, and 60 .deg. C. It was found that the tensile strengths and elastic moduli of the uniaxial laminates were greater than those of the triaxial laminates over the testing temperature range. The tensile strength of the two laminates was significantly dependent on the testing temperature, while the dependency of the elastic modulus on the temperature was insignificant. Furthermore, it could be considered that the Poisson's ratio changed slightly with a change in the testing temperature.

  20. Temperature dependency of tensile properties of GFRP composite for wind turbine blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Yong Hak; Kim, Jong Il; Kim, Dong Jin; Lee, Gun Chang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the temperature dependency of the tensile properties of a glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) used in wind turbine blades was examined. The tensile strength, elastic modulus, and Poisson's ratio of the tensile specimen manufactured from uniaxial (0 .deg.) and triaxial (0/±45.deg) laminate composite plates were measured at four different testing temperatures-room temperature, -30 .deg. C, -50 .deg. C, and 60 .deg. C. It was found that the tensile strengths and elastic moduli of the uniaxial laminates were greater than those of the triaxial laminates over the testing temperature range. The tensile strength of the two laminates was significantly dependent on the testing temperature, while the dependency of the elastic modulus on the temperature was insignificant. Furthermore, it could be considered that the Poisson's ratio changed slightly with a change in the testing temperature

  1. Effects of emission reductions at the Hayden powerplant on precipitation, snowpack, and surface-water chemistry in the Mount Zirkel Wilderness Area, Colorado, 1995-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, M. Alisa; Campbell, Donald H.; Ingersoll, George P.

    2005-01-01

    Precipitation, snowpack, and surface-water samples collected during 1995-2003 were analyzed to evaluate the effects of emission reductions at the Hayden powerplant on water chemistry in the Mount Zirkel Wilderness Area. The Hayden powerplant, one of two large coal-fired powerplants in the Yampa Valley, was retrofitted with control systems during late 1998 and 1999 to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide--the primary precursors of haze and acidic precipitation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, evaluated three water-chemistry data sets: wet-only precipitation chemistry from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program, snowpack chemistry from the Rocky Mountain snowpack network, and surface-water chemistry from a U.S. Geological Survey long-term lakes monitoring program. Concentrations and deposition rates of selected constituents were compared for the periods before and after emission reductions at the Hayden powerplant. Data collected during 1995-98 were used to represent the pre-control period, and data collected during 2000-2003 were used to represent the post-control period. Ten stations in the National Atmospheric Deposition Program were evaluated including two that were directly downwind from the Hayden powerplant (Dry Lake and Buffalo Pass) and eight that were upwind or more distant (more than 100 kilometers) from the powerplant. Precipitation amount at all 10 precipitation stations was lower in the post-control period than the pre-control period as a result of a regional drought that persisted during the post-control period. In contrast to precipitation amount, there was no consistent pattern of change in sulfate concentrations between periods, indicating that the drought did not have a concentrating effect on sulfate or that trends in regional sulfur dioxide emissions masked its influence. Sulfate concentrations increased at three stations between periods, remained the

  2. Influence of specimen type and reinforcement on measured tension-tension fatigue life of unidirectional GFRP laminates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korkiakoski, Samuli; Brøndsted, Povl; Sarlin, Essi

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that standardised tension-tension fatigue test specimens of unidirectional (UD) glass-fibre-reinforced plastics (GFRP) laminates tend to fail at end tabs. The true fatigue life is then underestimated. The first objective of this study was to find for UD GFRP laminates a test...... specimen that fails in the gauge section. The second objective was to compare fatigue performance of two laminates, one having a newly developed UD powder-bound fabric as a reinforcement and the other having a quasi-UD stitched non-crimp fabric as a reinforcement. In the first phase, a rectangular specimen...... in accordance with the ISO 527-5 standard and two slightly different dog-bone shaped specimens were evaluated by means of finite element modelling. Subsequent comparative fatigue tests were performed for the laminates with the three specimen types. The results showed that the test specimen type has...

  3. Mounting apparatus for a nozzle guide vane assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Gary L.; Shaffer, James E.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides a ceramic nozzle guide assembly with an apparatus for mounting it to a metal nozzle case that includes an intermediate ceramic mounting ring. The mounting ring includes a plurality of projections that are received within a plurality of receptacles formed in the nozzle case. The projections of the mounting ring are secured within the receptacles by a ceramic retainer that allows contact between the two components only along arcuate surfaces thus eliminating sliding contact between the components.

  4. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David H [Redondo Beach, CA

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  5. The Effect of Slamming Impact on Out-of-Autoclave Cured Prepregs of GFRP Composite Panels for Hulls

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez, J.C.; Townsend, P.; Sanz, E.; Ulzurrum, I. Diez de; Pinilla, P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology that employs an experimental apparatus that reproduces, in pre-impregnated and cured out-of-autoclave Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) panels, the phenomenon of slamming or impact on the bottom of a high-speed boat during planing. The pressure limits in the simulation are defined by employing a finite element model (FEM) that evaluates the forces applied by the cam that hits the panels in the apparatus via microdeformations obtained in the simulation. Th...

  6. Experimental Assessment on the Flexural Bonding Performance of Concrete Beam with GFRP Reinforcing Bar under Repeated Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkwan Ju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to investigate the flexural bond performance of glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP reinforcing bar under repeated loading. The flexural bond tests reinforced with GFRP reinforcing bars were carried out according to the BS EN 12269-1 (2000 specification. The bond test consisted of three loading schemes: static, monotonic, and variable-amplitude loading to simulate ambient loading conditions. The empirical bond length based on the static test was 225 mm, whereas it was 317 mm according to ACI 440 1R-03. Each bond stress on the rib is released and bonding force is enhanced as the bond length is increased. Appropriate level of bond length may be recommended with this energy-based analysis. For the monotonic loading test, the bond strengths at pullout failure after 2,000,000 cycles were 10.4 MPa and 6.5 MPa, respectively: 63–70% of the values from the static loading test. The variable loading test indicated that the linear cumulative damage theory on GFRP bonding may not be appropriate for estimating the fatigue limit when subjected to variable-amplitude loading.

  7. Composite Behavior of a Novel Insulated Concrete Sandwich Wall Panel Reinforced with GFRP Shear Grids: Effects of Insulation Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JunHee; You, Young-Chan

    2015-03-03

    A full-scale experimental program was used in this study to investigate the structural behavior of novel insulated concrete sandwich wall panels (SWPs) reinforced with grid-type glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) shear connectors. Two kinds of insulation-expanded polystyrene (EPS) and extruded polystyrene (XPS) with 100 mm thickness were incased between the two concrete wythes to meet the increasing demand for the insulation performance of building envelope. One to four GFRP shear grids were used to examine the degree of composite action of the two concrete wythes. Ten specimens of SWPs were tested under displacement control subjected to four-point concentrated loads. The test results showed that the SWPs reinforced with GFRP grids as shear connectors developed a high degree of composite action resulting in high flexural strength. The specimens with EPS foam exhibited an enhanced load-displacement behavior compared with the specimens with XPS because of the relatively stronger bond between insulation and concrete. In addition, the ultimate strength of the test results was compared to the analytical prediction with the mechanical properties of only GRFP grids. The specimens with EPS insulation presented higher strength-based composite action than the ones with XPS insulation.

  8. A Study on Load Carrying Capacity of Fly Ash Based Polymer Concrete Columns Strengthened Using Double Layer GFRP Wrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nagan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the suitability of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP sheets in strengthening of fly ash based polymer members under compression. Experimental results revealed that load carrying capacity of the confined columns increases with GFRP sheets wrapping. Altogether 18 specimens of M30 and G30 grade short columns were fabricated. The G30 specimens were prepared separately in 8 molarity and 12 molarity of sodium hydroxide concentration. Twelve specimens for low calcium fly ash based reinforced polymer concrete and six specimens of ordinary Portland cement reinforced concrete were cast. Three specimens from each molarity fly ash based reinforced polymer concrete and ordinary Portland cement reinforced concrete were wrapped with double layer of GFRP sheets. The load carrying capacity of fly ash based polymer concrete was tested and compared with control specimens. The results show increase in load carrying capacity and ductility index for all strengthened elements. The maximum increase in load carrying capacity was 68.53% and is observed in strengthened G30 specimens.

  9. Internally Mounting Strain Gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, J. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Technique for mounting strain gages inside bolt or cylinder simultaneously inserts gage, attached dowel segment, and length of expandable tubing. Expandable tubing holds gage in place while adhesive cures, assuring even distribution of pressure on gage and area gaged.

  10. Mounting for ceramic scroll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Jack D.

    1993-01-01

    A mounting for a ceramic scroll on a metal engine block of a gas turbine engine includes a first ceramic ring and a pair of cross key connections between the first ceramic ring, the ceramic scroll, and the engine block. The cross key connections support the scroll on the engine block independent of relative radial thermal growth and for bodily movement toward an annular mounting shoulder on the engine. The scroll has an uninterrupted annular shoulder facing the mounting shoulder on the engine block. A second ceramic ring is captured between mounting shoulder and the uninterrupted shoulder on the scroll when the latter is bodily shifted toward the mouting shoulder to define a gas seal between the scroll and the engine block.

  11. The timing and cause of glacial activity during the last glacial in central Tibet based on 10Be surface exposure dating east of Mount Jaggang, the Xainza range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guocheng; Zhou, Weijian; Yi, Chaolu; Fu, Yunchong; Zhang, Li; Li, Ming

    2018-04-01

    Mountain glaciers are sensitive to climate change, and can provide valuable information for inferring former climates on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The increasing glacial chronologies indicate that the timing of the local Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) recorded across the TP is asynchronous, implying different local influences of the mid-latitude westerlies and Asian Summer Monsoon in triggering glacier advances. However, the well-dated sites are still too few, especially in the transition zone between regions controlled by the two climate systems. Here we present detailed last glacial chronologies for the Mount Jaggang area, in the Xainza range, central Tibet, with forty-three apparent 10Be exposure-ages ranging from 12.4 ± 0.8 ka to 61.9 ± 3.8 ka. These exposure-ages indicate that at least seven glacial episodes occurred during the last glacial cycle east of Mount Jaggang. These include: a local LGM that occurred at ∼61.9 ± 3.8 ka, possibly corresponding to Marine Isotope Stage 4 (MIS 4); subsequent glacial advances at ∼43.2 ± 2.6 ka and ∼35.1 ± 2.1 ka during MIS 3; one glacial re-advance/standstill at MIS3/2 transition (∼29.8 ± 1.8 ka); and three glacial re-advances/standstills that occurred following MIS 3 at ∼27.9 ± 1.7 ka, ∼21.8 ± 1.3 ka, and ∼15.1 ± 0.9 ka. The timing of these glacial activities is roughly in agreement with North Atlantic millennial-scale climate oscillations (Heinrich events), suggesting the potential correlations between these abrupt climate changes and glacial fluctuations in the Mount Jaggang area. The successively reduced glacial extent might have resulted from an overall decrease in Asian Summer Monsoon intensity over this timeframe.

  12. High-performance GFRP materials with glass fibre prepregs; Hochleistungs-Faserverbundwerkstoffe aus UD-Gelegeprepregs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prause, J.P. [Schichtstoff-Technik, Arnsberg (Germany); Schroeder, K.F. [Wissenschaftliche Verlagsanstalt, Mettmann (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The US 3M Company is the producer of the 'Scotchply' glass fibre prepreg which results in materials that can withstand higher dynamic loads than conventional glass fibre reinforced plastics. The new materials are used, e.g., for leaf spring construction. The fatigue characteristics of GFRP leaf springs were discussed at the DGM 'Verbundwerkstoffe und Werkstoffverbunde' conference at Kaiserslauter in September 1997. This contribution presents tools for the engineer for calculation of leaf springs in consideration of the expected loads. [German] Bereits frueher konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass mit Glasgarngelegen verstaerkte Kunststoffe dynamisch hoeher beansprucht werden koennen als gleichartige Konstruktionen mit Glasgewebeverstaerkung. Dieser Vorteil wird in der industriellen Praxis genutzt, um den breiten Einsatzbereich von Blattfedern aus Stahl durch solche aus Faserverbundwerkstoffen zu erweitern. Mit Glasfasern verstaerkte Kunststoffe (GFK) sind seit Jahren Stand der Technik. Die Verarbeitung als Gelegeprepreg hat sich oekonomisch und oekologisch als eine guenstige Technologie bewaehrt. Die Prepregs werden im Wickelverfahren in die endgueltige Form gebracht oder zu Platten verpresst, aus denen die gewuenschten Werkstuecke mechanisch herausgearbeitet werden. Eine ideale Ausnutzung aller in UD-Gelegen vorgegebenen Eigenschaften ist die Form der Blattfeder. Werkstoff und Geometrie koennen optimal an die Belastung angepasst werden. Ueber die Ermuedungsfestigkeit von GFK-Blattfedern wurde waehrend der Vortragstagung der DGM 'Verbundwerkstoffe und Werkstoffverbunde' im September 1997 in Kaiserslautern eingehend berichtet. Mit dieser Veroeffentlichung soll dem Ingenieur eine Hilfe gegeben werden, solche Blattfedern entsprechend der spaeteren Beanspruchung zu berechnen. (orig.)

  13. Finite Element Simulation of Aluminium/GFRP Fibre Metal Laminate under Tensile Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzuki, M. N. M.; Rejab, M. R. M.; Romli, N. K.; Bachtiar, D.; Siregar, J.; Rani, M. F.; Salleh, Salwani Mohd

    2018-03-01

    The response of a fibre metal laminate (FML) model to the tensile loading is predicted through a computational approach. The FML consisted with layers of aluminum alloy and embedded with one layer of composite material, Glass fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP). The glass fibre and aluminium alloy 2024-0 was laminated by using thermoset epoxy. A compression moulding technique was used in the process of a FML fabrication. The aluminium has been roughen by a metal sanding method which to improve the bonding between the fibre and metal layer. The main objective of this paper is to determine the failure behaviour of the FML under the tensile loading. The responses on the FML under the tensile loading were numerically performed. The FML was modelled and analysed by using Abaqus/CAE 6.13 version. Based on the experimental and FE data of the tensile, the ultimate tensile stress is 120 MPa where delamination and fibre breakage happened. A numerical model was developed and agreed well with the experimental results. The laminate has an inelastic respond to increase the tensile loads which due to the plasticity of the aluminium layers.

  14. The characteristics of acoustic emission signal under composite destruction on GFRP gas cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Hyun Sup; Lee, Jong O; Ju, No Hoe; So, Cheal Ho; Lee, Jong Kyu

    2013-01-01

    This study is investigation of the characteristics for acoustic emission signal generated by destruction on glass fiber bundles and specimen that was machined composite materials surrounding the outside of GFRP cylinder. The Amplitude of acoustic emission signal gets bigger as the cutting angle of knife increases. Accordingly, the number of hits in destruction of composite materials specimen have more in longitudinal direction (longitudinal direction to the glass fiber) than in hoop direction (horizontal direction to the glass fiber) while the amplitude of signals were bigger in hoop direction than longitudinal direction. It was found out that the amplitude of the glass fiber breakage is more than 40 dB and that the amplitude of signal for matrix crack was less than 40 dB because matrix crack signal was not observed when threshold value is 40 dB and matrix crack signal suddenly appeared when threshold value is 32 dB. The slope of the amplitude is related to the acoustic emission source and the slope of the amplitude of the horizontal and vertical directions are 0.16 and 0.08. In particular, The slope of the amplitude of longitudinal direction breakage appear similar to the glass fiber breakage and therefore Acoustic emission source of longitudinal direction breakage is estimated the glass fiber breakage.

  15. Durability study of neat/nanophased GFRP composites subjected to different environmental conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainuddin, S.; Hosur, M.V.; Zhou, Y.; Kumar, Ashok; Jeelani, S.

    2010-01-01

    Experimental investigations on the durability of E-glass/nanoclay-epoxy composites are reported. SC-15 epoxy system was modified using 1-2 wt.% of nanoclay. Extent of clay platelet exfoliation in epoxy was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite panels were fabricated using modified epoxy and exposed to four different conditions, i.e. hot (elevated temperature-dry, wet: 60 and 80 deg. C) and cold (subzero-dry, wet) for 15, 45 and 90 days. Weight change due to conditioning, quasi-static flexure and micrographic characterization were studied on the conditioned samples. Room temperature samples were also tested for baseline consideration. XRD results showed exfoliation of clay platelets in nanoclay-epoxy samples with decrease in peak intensity and increase in interplanar spacing. Samples subjected to hot-wet conditions showed higher percentage weight gain with a maximum of 4.25% in neat and 3.1% in 2 wt.% samples. Flexural tests results showed degradation with increasing time. Maximum degradation were observed for hot-wet (80 deg. C) for 90 days neat samples, i.e. 22.6% and 29.8% reduction in flexural strength and stiffness, respectively. However, less degradation was noticed for nanophased composites under similar conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results of failed samples showed better interfacial bonding in nanophased composites.

  16. Proyecto de una torre de perforación con perfiles pultrusionados de GFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recuero Fornies, Alfonso

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project was to design a removable and reusable structure (derrick built with pultrusion profiles of GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymers. These profiles have better physical and mechanical properties than those commonly used for these structures, such as steel or concrete profiles. A methodology for drilling an oil field is described in this document. The structure has been worked out by computer program. An economical study with a comparison between the structure designed with common materials and with composites is included. An application to different situations where steel design could not be possible is also shown.El proyecto presenta el diseño de una estructura desmontable y reutilizable para la realización de sondeos de petróleo .La estructura ha sido proyectada con perfiles pultrusionados de material compuesto avanzado ya que presentan unas cualidades, tanto físicas como mecánicas, superiores a la de los materiales convencionales. El empleo de estos materiales ha sido justificado desde el punto de vista técnico y económico. A lo largo del artículo se describen las operaciones requeridas en la explotación por sondeos, así como el planteamiento seguido en el cálculo estructural mediante un programa que tiene por objeto el análisis matricial de estructuras de barras. Al final del mismo se hacen una serie de reflexiones sobre las tendencias futuras de estos materiales.

  17. Plasma Surface Modification of Glass-Fibre-Reinforced Polyester Enhanced by Ultrasonic Irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Bardenshtein, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    treatment can be highly enhanced by simultaneous high-power ultrasonic irradiation of the treating surface, because the delivered acoustic energy can reduce the thickness of the boundary gas layer. Here surfaces of glass-fibre-reinforced polyester (GFRP) plates were treated using an atmospheric pressure...

  18. Transducer-Mounting Fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Kirk W.

    1990-01-01

    Transducer-mounting fixture holds transducer securely against stud. Projects only slightly beyond stud after installation. Flanged transducer fits into fixture when hinged halves open. When halves reclosed, fixture tightened onto threaded stud until stud makes contact with transducer. Knurled area on fixture aids in tightening fixture on stud.

  19. Inkjet printed paper based frequency selective surfaces and skin mounted RFID tags : the interrelation between silver nanoparticle ink, paper substrate and low temperature sintering technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Romaquera, V.; Wïnscher, S.; Turki, B.M.; Abbel, R.J.; Barbosa, S.; Tate, D.J.; Oyeka, D.; Batchelor, J.C.; Parker, E.A.; Schubert, U.S.; Yeates, S.G.

    2015-01-01

    Inkjet printing of functional frequency selective surfaces (FSS) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags on commercial paper substrates using silver nanoparticle inks sintered using low temperature thermal, plasma and photonic techniques is reported. Printed and sintered FSS devices

  20. Scintillation crystal mounting apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, L.W.; Deans, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    An improved detector head for a gamma camera is disclosed. The detector head includes a housing and a detector assembly mounted within the housing. Components of the detector assembly include a crystal sub-assembly, a phototube array, and a light pipe between the phototube array and crystal sub-assembly. The invention provides a unique structure for maintaining the phototubes in optical relationship with the light pipe and preventing the application of forces that would cause the camera's crystal to crack

  1. Characterization of Engine Mount Elastomers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Szabo, Jeffrey P

    2005-01-01

    As part of a project to develop methods for modelling the performance of engine mounts, several oil resistant alternative materials were prepared, and compared to conventional materials from mounts...

  2. Fixture For Mounting A Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, Christopher M.

    1995-01-01

    Fixture for mounting pressure sensor in aerodynamic model simplifies task of removal and replacement of sensor in event sensor becomes damaged. Makes it unnecessary to dismantle model. Also minimizes any change in aerodynamic characteristics of model in event of replacement. Removable pressure sensor installed in fixture in wall of model. Wires from sensor pass through channel under surface.

  3. Flush-mounting technique for composite beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, T. C.; Kay, B. F.

    1980-01-01

    Procedure permits mounting of heavy parts to surface of composite beams without appreciably weakening beam web. Web is split and held apart in region where attachment is to be made by lightweight precast foam filler. Bolt hole penetrates foam rather than web, and is secured by barrelnut in transverse bushing through web.

  4. Photovoltaic module mounting clip with integral grounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2010-08-24

    An electrically conductive mounting/grounding clip, usable with a photovoltaic (PV) assembly of the type having an electrically conductive frame, comprises an electrically conductive body. The body has a central portion and first and second spaced-apart arms extending from the central portion. Each arm has first and second outer portions with frame surface-disrupting element at the outer portions.

  5. PERFORMANCE OF RC AND FRC WALL PANELS REINFORCED WITH MILD STEEL AND GFRP COMPOSITES IN BLAST EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Garfield; William D. Richins; Thomas K. Larson; Chris P. Pantelides; James E. Blakeley

    2011-06-01

    The structural integrity of reinforced concrete structures in blast events is important for critical facilities. This paper presents experimental data generated for calibrating detailed finite element models that predict the performance of reinforced concrete wall panels with a wide range of construction details under blast loading. The test specimens were 1.2 m square wall panels constructed using Normal Weight Concrete (NWC) or Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC). FRC consists of macro-synthetic fibers dispersed in NWC. Five types of panels were tested: NWC panels with steel bar reinforcement (Type A); FRC panels without additional reinforcement (Type B); FRC panels with steel bar reinforcement (Type C); NWC panels with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bar reinforcement (Type D); and NWC panels reinforced with steel bar reinforcement and external bidirectional GFRP overlays on both faces (Type E). An additional three Type C panels were used as control specimens (CON). Each panel type was constructed with three thicknesses: 152 mm, 254 mm, and 356 mm. The panels were instrumented with strain gauges, and accelerometers; in addition, pressure sensors and high speed videos were employed during the blast events. Panel types C and E had the best performance, whereas panel type B did not perform well. Preliminary dynamic simulations show crack patterns similar to the experimental results.

  6. Design and development of solid carbide step drill K34 for machining of CFRP and GFRP composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, T.; Nagaraja, R.

    2018-04-01

    The Study focused on design and development of solid carbide step drill K34 to drill holes on composite materials such as Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP). The step drill K34 replaces step wise drilling of diameter 6.5mm and 9 mm holes that reduces the setup time, cutting speed, feed rate cost, delamination and increase the production rate. Several researchers have analyzed the effect of drilling process on various fiber reinforced plastic composites by carrying out using conventional tools and machinery. However, this process operation can lead to different kind of damages such as delamination, fiber pullout, and local cracks. To avoid the problems encountered at the time of drilling, suitable tool material and geometry is essential. This paper deals with the design and development of K34 Carbide step drill used to drill holes on CFRP and GFRP laminates. An Experimental study carried out to investigate the tool geometry, feed rate and cutting speed that avoids delamination and fiber breakage.

  7. Mounting system for optical frequency reference cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notcutt, Mark (Inventor); Hall, John L. (Inventor); Ma, Long-Sheng (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A technique for reducing the vibration sensitivity of laser-stabilizing optical reference cavities is based upon an improved design and mounting method for the cavity, wherein the cavity is mounted vertically. It is suspended at one plane, around the spacer cylinder, equidistant from the mirror ends of the cavity. The suspension element is a collar of an extremely low thermal expansion coefficient material, which surrounds the spacer cylinder and contacts it uniformly. Once the collar has been properly located, it is cemented in place so that the spacer cylinder is uniformly supported and does not have to be squeezed at all. The collar also includes a number of cavities partially bored into its lower flat surface, around the axial bore. These cavities are support points, into which mounting base pins will be inserted. Hence the collar is supported at a minimum of three points.

  8. Hole-thru-laminate mounting supports for photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Jason; Botkin, Jonathan; Culligan, Matthew; Detrick, Adam

    2015-02-17

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a pedestal having a surface adaptable to receive a flat side of a photovoltaic module laminate. A hole is disposed in the pedestal, the hole adaptable to receive a bolt or a pin used to couple the pedestal to the flat side of the photovoltaic module laminate.

  9. Gliding arc surface treatment of glass-fiber-reinforced polyester enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Norrman, Kion; Drews, Joanna Maria

    2011-01-01

    . The efficiency of such a plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure can be further improved by ultrasonic irradiation onto the surface during the treatment. In the present work glass fiber reinforced polyester (GFRP) plates are treated using an atmospheric pressure gliding arc with and without ultrasonic...

  10. [Does the mounting of gastrointestinal biopsies on millipore filter contribute to an improved section quality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, L.; Bernstein, I.; Matzen, P.

    2009-01-01

    orientation, GIB is occasionally mounted on millipore filter (MF) in an attempt to place the deep cut side onto the MF. The importance of this technique for section quality is evaluated in this study. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The material comprised three consecutive series of GIB (60 gastric, duodenal......, and colorectal GIB, respectively). Sections were grouped in MF-mounted versus non-mounted GIB, the proportion of fully acceptable sections among mounted versus non-mounted GIB was recorded. RESULTS: 77.2% of all GIBs were MF-mounted. 33.1% of mounted GIBs versus 48.8% of non-mounted GIBs were assessed as fully...... acceptable sections. The differences between these figures are not statistically significant. 41.7% of the mounted GIBs were placed with the mucosal surface facing the MF, which entails a risk of damaging the tissue. CONCLUSION: MF-mounting of GIB did not contribute to section quality. Since the handling...

  11. Synergistic use of Lagrangian dispersion and radiative transfer modelling with satellite and surface remote sensing measurements for the investigation of volcanic plumes: the Mount Etna eruption of 25–27 October 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sellitto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we combine SO2 and ash plume dispersion modelling with satellite and surface remote sensing observations to study the regional influence of a relatively weak volcanic eruption from Mount Etna on the optical and micro-physical properties of Mediterranean aerosols. We analyse the Mount Etna eruption episode of 25–27 October 2013. The evolution of the plume along the trajectory is investigated by means of the FLEXible PARTicle Lagrangian dispersion (FLEXPART model. The satellite data set includes true colour images, retrieved values of volcanic SO2 and ash, estimates of SO2 and ash emission rates derived from MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer observations and estimates of cloud top pressure from SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager. Surface remote sensing measurements of aerosol and SO2 made at the ENEA Station for Climate Observations (35.52° N, 12.63° E; 50 m a.s.l. on the island of Lampedusa are used in the analysis. The combination of these different data sets suggests that SO2 and ash, despite the initial injection at about 7.0 km altitude, reached altitudes around 10–12 km and influenced the column average aerosol particle size distribution at a distance of more than 350 km downwind. This study indicates that even a relatively weak volcanic eruption may produce an observable effect on the aerosol properties at the regional scale. The impact of secondary sulfate particles on the aerosol size distribution at Lampedusa is discussed and estimates of the clear-sky direct aerosol radiative forcing are derived. Daily shortwave radiative forcing efficiencies, i.e. radiative forcing per unit AOD (aerosol optical depth, are calculated with the LibRadtran model. They are estimated between −39 and −48 W m−2 AOD−1 at the top of the atmosphere and between −66 and −49 W m−2 AOD−1 at the surface, with the variability in the estimates mainly depending on the

  12. Assessing the Contribution of the CFRP Strip of Bearing the Applied Load Using Near-Surface Mounted Strengthening Technique with Innovative High-Strength Self-Compacting Cementitious Adhesive (IHSSC-CA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyaa Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient transfer of load between concrete substrate and fibre reinforced polymer (FRP by the bonding agent is the key factor in any FRP strengthening system. An innovative high-strength self-compacting non-polymer cementitious adhesive (IHSSC-CA was recently developed by the authors and has been used in a number of studies. Graphene oxide and cementitious materials are used to synthesise the new adhesive. The successful implementation of IHSSC-CA significantly increases carbon FRP (CFRP strip utilization and the load-bearing capacity of the near-surface mounted (NSM CFRP strengthening system. A number of tests were used to inspect the interfacial zone in the bonding area of NSM CFRP strips, including physical examination, pore structure analysis, and three-dimensional laser profilometery analysis. It was deduced from the physical inspection of NSM CFRP specimens made with IHSSC-CA that a smooth surface for load transfer was found in the CFRP strip without stress concentrations in some local regions. A smooth surface of the adhesive layer is very important for preventing localized brittle failure in the concrete. The pore structure analysis also confirmed that IHSSC-CA has better composite action between NSM CFRP strips and concrete substrate than other adhesives, resulting in the NSM CFRP specimens made with IHSSC-CA sustaining a greater load. Finally, the results of three-dimensional laser profilometery revealed a greater degree of roughness and less deformation on the surface of the CFRP strip when IHSSC-CA was used compared to other adhesives.

  13. Evaluate of the Effects of Drilling with Varying Spindle Speed Using Different Thickness of GFRP on the Damage Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keong Woo Tze

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Composite have been widely used in industries which such as aircraft structural components, electric and electronics components, aerospace, and oil and gas fields due to their superior mechanical properties. Among machining process, drilling can be considered as one of the most important process in final machining of composite. In this research, vacuum assisted resin infusion method is use in fabricating the glass fiber reinforcement polymer samples, where different thickness of GFRP were used in the drilling process with different spindle speed. The results show that the temperature influences the damage factor of the drilling. Higher spindle speed will generate higher temperature that softens the matrix thus generating lower damage factor. The suitable drill bit temperature is between 150-200°C

  14. Methods and apparatus for radially compliant component mounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulman, David Edward [Cincinnati, OH; Darkins, Jr., Toby George; Stumpf, James Anthony [Columbus, IN; Schroder, Mark S [Greenville, SC; Lipinski, John Joseph [Simpsonville, SC

    2012-03-27

    Methods and apparatus for a mounting assembly for a liner of a gas turbine engine combustor are provided. The combustor includes a combustor liner and a radially outer annular flow sleeve. The mounting assembly includes an inner ring surrounding a radially outer surface of the liner and including a plurality of axially extending fingers. The mounting assembly also includes a radially outer ring coupled to the inner ring through a plurality of spacers that extend radially from a radially outer surface of the inner ring to the outer ring.

  15. Resilient mounting systems in buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, R.; Tukker, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The basic elements of resilient mounting systems are described and various measures for quantifying the effect of such systems defined. Using electrical analogue circuits, the calculation of these measures is illustrated. With special reference to resilient mounting systems in buildings, under

  16. Mount Rainier National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert; Woodward, Andrea; Haggerty, Patricia K.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Griffin, Paul C.; Adams, Michael J.; Hagar, Joan; Cummings, Tonnie; Duriscoe, Dan; Kopper, Karen; Riedel, Jon; Samora, Barbara; Marin, Lelaina; Mauger, Guillaume S.; Bumbaco, Karen; Littell, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Natural Resource Condition Assessments (NRCAs) evaluate current conditions for a subset of natural resources and resource indicators in national parks. NRCAs also report on trends in resource condition (when possible), identify critical data gaps, and characterize a general level of confidence for study findings. The resources and indicators emphasized in a given project depend on the park’s resource setting, status of resource stewardship planning and science in identifying high-priority indicators, and availability of data and expertise to assess current conditions for a variety of potential study resources and indicators. Although the primary objective of NRCAs is to report on current conditions relative to logical forms of reference conditions and values, NRCAs also report on trends, when appropriate (i.e., when the underlying data and methods support such reporting), as well as influences on resource conditions. These influences may include past activities or conditions that provide a helpful context for understanding current conditions and present-day threats and stressors that are best interpreted at park, watershed, or landscape scales (though NRCAs do not report on condition status for land areas and natural resources beyond park boundaries). Intensive cause-andeffect analyses of threats and stressors, and development of detailed treatment options, are outside the scope of NRCAs. It is also important to note that NRCAs do not address resources that lack sufficient data for assessment. For Mount Rainier National Park, this includes most invertebrate species and many other animal species that are subject to significant stressors from climate change and other anthropogenic sources such as air pollutants and recreational use. In addition, we did not include an analysis of the physical hydrology associated with streams (such as riverine landforms, erosion and aggradation which is significant in MORA streams), due to a loss of staff expertise from the USGS

  17. Flexural strength using Steel Plate, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) on reinforced concrete beam in building technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, Johannes; Patra, Fadel Muhammad; Sitorus, Torang

    2018-03-01

    Reinforced concrete structures are very commonly used in buildings because they are cheaper than the steel structures. But in reality, many concrete structures are damaged, so there are several ways to overcome this problem, by providing reinforcement with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) and reinforcement with steel plates. Each type of reinforcements has its advantages and disadvantages. In this study, researchers discuss the comparison between flexural strength of reinforced concrete beam using steel plates and Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP). In this case, the researchers use Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) as external reinforcements. The dimension of the beams is 15 x 25 cm with the length of 320 cm. Based on the analytical results, the strength of the beam with CFRP is 1.991 times its initial, GFRP is 1.877 times while with the steel plate is 1.646 times. Based on test results, the strength of the beam with CFRP is 1.444 times its initial, GFRP is 1.333 times while the steel plate is 1.167 times. Based on these test results, the authors conclude that beam with CFRP is the best choice for external reinforcement in building technology than the others.

  18. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John Raymond; Atchley, Brian; Hudson, Tyrus Hawkes; Johansen, Emil

    2014-12-02

    An apparatus for mounting a photovoltaic (PV) module on a surface, including a support with an upper surface, a lower surface, tabs, one or more openings, and a clip comprising an arm and a notch, where the apparatus resists wind forces and seismic forces and creates a grounding electrical bond between the PV module, support, and clip. The invention further includes a method for installing PV modules on a surface that includes arranging supports in rows along an X axis and in columns along a Y axis on a surface such that in each row the distance between two neighboring supports does not exceed the length of the longest side of a PV module and in each column the distance between two neighboring supports does not exceed the length of the shortest side of a PV module.

  19. Mount Oku, Cameroon Volcanic Line

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and continental sectors especially for trace elements in basalts. ... continental sector of the trend is a complex .... values higher than those of HIMU but is within ...... (Mount Cameroon, Central Africa): petrogenetic implications. Miner. Petrol.,.

  20. Solar panel parallel mounting configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschler, Jr., Edward Charles (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spacecraft includes a plurality of solar panels interconnected with a power coupler and an electrically operated device to provide power to the device when the solar cells are insolated. The solar panels are subject to bending distortion when entering or leaving eclipse. Spacecraft attitude disturbances are reduced by mounting each of the solar panels to an elongated boom made from a material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, so that the bending of one panel is not communicated to the next. The boom may be insulated to reduce its bending during changes in insolation. A particularly advantageous embodiment mounts each panel to the boom with a single mounting, which may be a hinge. The single mounting prevents transfer of bending moments from the panel to the boom.

  1. Mounting clips for panel installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavieres, Andres; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Goodman, Joseph

    2017-07-11

    A photovoltaic panel mounting clip comprising a base, central indexing tabs, flanges, lateral indexing tabs, and vertical indexing tabs. The mounting clip removably attaches one or more panels to a beam or the like structure, both mechanically and electrically. It provides secure locking of the panels in all directions, while providing guidance in all directions for accurate installation of the panels to the beam or the like structure.

  2. Apparatus for mounting crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longeway, Paul A.

    1985-01-01

    A thickness monitor useful in deposition or etching reactor systems comprising a crystal-controlled oscillator in which the crystal is deposited or etched to change the frequency of the oscillator. The crystal rests within a thermally conductive metallic housing and arranged to be temperature controlled. Electrode contacts are made to the surface primarily by gravity force such that the crystal is substantially free of stress otherwise induced by high temperature.

  3. The head-mounted microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Inboard seal mounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John R. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A regenerator assembly for a gas turbine engine has a hot side seal assembly formed in part by a cast metal engine block having a seal recess formed therein that is configured to supportingly receive ceramic support blocks including an inboard face thereon having a regenerator seal face bonded thereto. A pressurized leaf seal is interposed between the ceramic support block and the cast metal engine block to bias the seal wear face into sealing engagement with a hot side surface of a rotary regenerator matrix.

  5. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2016-06-28

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  6. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2018-01-30

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  7. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2015-10-20

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  8. Finite Element Modeling of GFRP-Reinforced Concrete Interior Slab-Column Connections Subjected to Moment Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gouda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A finite element model (FEM was constructed using specialized three-dimensional (3D software to investigate the punching shear behavior of interior slab-column connections subjected to a moment-to-shear ratio of 0.15 m. The FEM was then verified against the experimental results of full-scale interior slab-column connections reinforced with glass fiber reinforcement polymer (GFRP bars previously tested by the authors. The FEM results showed that the constructed model was able to predict the behavior of the slabs with reasonable accuracy. Afterward, the verified model was used to conduct a parametric study to investigate the effects of reinforcement ratio, perimeter-to-depth ratio, and column aspect ratio on the punching shear behavior of such connections. The test results showed that increasing the tested parameters enhanced the overall behavior of the connections in terms of decreasing deflections and reinforcement strain and increasing the ultimate capacity. In addition, the obtained punching shear stresses of the connections were compared to the predictions of the Canadian standard and the American guideline for FRP-reinforced concrete structures.

  9. A Review of Natural Joint Systems and Numerical Investigation of Bio-Inspired GFRP-to-Steel Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos I. Avgoulas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There are a great variety of joint types used in nature which can inspire engineering joints. In order to design such biomimetic joints, it is at first important to understand how biological joints work. A comprehensive literature review, considering natural joints from a mechanical point of view, was undertaken. This was used to develop a taxonomy based on the different methods/functions that nature successfully uses to attach dissimilar tissues. One of the key methods that nature uses to join dissimilar materials is a transitional zone of stiffness at the insertion site. This method was used to propose bio-inspired solutions with a transitional zone of stiffness at the joint site for several glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP to steel adhesively bonded joint configurations. The transition zone was used to reduce the material stiffness mismatch of the joint parts. A numerical finite element model was used to identify the optimum variation in material stiffness that minimises potential failure of the joint. The best bio-inspired joints showed a 118% increase of joint strength compared to the standard joints.

  10. Mount Zirkel Wilderness and vicinity, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, G.L.; Patten, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    Several areas of metallic and nonmetallic mineralization have been identified from surface occurrences within the Mount Zirkel Wilderness and vicinity, Colorado. Three areas of probable copper-lead-zinc-silver-gold resource potential, two areas of probable chrome-platinum resource potential, four areas of probable uranium-thorium resource potential, two areas of probable molybdenum resource potential, and one area of probable fluorspar potential were identified by studies in 1965-1973 by the USGS and USBM. No potential for fossil fuel or geothermal resources was identified

  11. Mounting clips for panel installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavieres, Andres; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Goodman, Joseph; Valdes, Francisco

    2017-02-14

    An exemplary mounting clip for removably attaching panels to a supporting structure comprises a base, spring locking clips, a lateral flange, a lever flange, and a spring bonding pad. The spring locking clips extend upwardly from the base. The lateral flange extends upwardly from a first side of the base. The lateral flange comprises a slot having an opening configured to receive at least a portion of one of the one or more panels. The lever flange extends outwardly from the lateral flange. The spring bonding flange extends downwardly from the lever flange. At least a portion of the first spring bonding flange comprises a serrated edge for gouging at least a portion of the one or more panels when the one or more panels are attached to the mounting clip to electrically and mechanically couple the one or more panels to the mounting clip.

  12. Mounting power cables on SOLEIL

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    The power couplers are mounted on the SOLEIL cryomodule in a clean room. The cryomodule will allow superconducting technology to be used at SOLEIL, the French national synchrotron facility. This work is carried out as part of a collaboration between CERN and CEA Saclay, the French National Atomic Energy Commission.

  13. Shock Mounting for Heavy Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    Elastomeric bearings eliminate extraneous forces. Rocket thrust transmitted from motor to load cells via support that absorbs extraneous forces so they do not affect accuracy of thrust measurements. Adapter spoked cone fits over forward end of rocket motor. Shock mounting developed for rocket engines under test used as support for heavy machines, bridges, or towers.

  14. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberbeck, V.R.; Farlow, N.H.

    1982-08-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mount St. Helens. Analysis of samples shows that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  15. Control of Wall Mounting Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Pedersen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a method for designing controllers for trajectory tracking with actuator constraints. In particular, we consider a joystick-controlled wall mounting robot called WallMo. In contrast to previous works, a model-free approach is taken to the control problem, where the path...

  16. Galvanic coupling effects for module-mounting elements of ground-mounted photovoltaic power station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierozynski Boguslaw

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This communication reports on the concerns associated with possible generation of galvanic coupling effects for construction materials that are used to manufacture mounting assemblies for ground-mounted photovoltaic (PV power stations. For this purpose, six macro-corrosion galvanic cells were assembled, including: hot-dip Zn/Magnelis®-coated steel/Al and stainless steel (SS/Al cells. Corrosion experiments involved continuous, ca. three-month exposure of these couplings in 3 wt.% NaCl solution, conducted at room temperature for a stable pH value of around 8. All corrosion cells were subjected to regular assessment of galvanic current-density and potential parameters, where special consideration was given to compare the corrosion behaviour of Zn-coated steel samples with that of Magnelis®-coated electrodes. Characterization of surface condition and elemental composition for examined materials was carried-out by means of SEM and EDX spectroscopy techniques.

  17. Flush mounting of thin film sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas C., Sr. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Flush mounting of a sensor on a surface is provided by first forming a recessed area on the surface. Next, an adhesive bonding mixture is introduced into the recessed area. The adhesive bonding mixture is chosen to provide thermal expansion matching with the surface surrounding the recessed area. A strip of high performance polymeric tape is provided, with the sensor attached to the underside thereof, and the tape is positioned over the recessed area so that it acts as a carrier of the sensor. A shim having flexibility so that it will conform to the surface surrounding the recessed area is placed over the tape, and a vacuum pad is placed over the shim. The area above the surface is then evacuated while holding the sensor flush with the surface during curing of the adhesive bonding mixture. After such curing, the pad, shim, and tape are removed from the sensor, electrical connections for the sensor are provided, after which the remaining space in the recessed area is filled with a polymeric foam.

  18. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  19. Mechanics of a composite structure of GFRP insulators and superconductors with a gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, H.; Imagawa, S.; Nishimura, A.

    1997-01-01

    Superconducting coils in large scale magnet applications such as the Large Helical Device (LHD) are subjected to large electromagnetic force at the interfaces between conductors and electrical insulators. The insulators do not always contact the superconductor surfaces completely. This may cause a reduction of coil rigidity. Nonlinear behavior was observed in the compressive load-displacement curves in some experiments of coil packs. The nonlinear curves were found to be well fitted by an exponential function. We considered this nonlinearity as a surface contact problem and devised some analytical models to evaluate the rigidity reduction in terms of gap length. The results of this analysis also support the exponential function

  20. Tension pneumocephalus: Mount Fuji sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulastya Sanyal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old male was operated for a space occupying lesion in the brain. A noncontrast computed tomography scan done in the late postoperative period showed massive subdural air collection causing compression of bilateral frontal lobes with widening of interhemispheric fissure and the frontal lobes acquiring a peak like configuration - causing tension pneumocephalus-"Mount Fuji sign." Tension pneumocephalus occurs when air enters the extradural or intradural spaces in sufficient volume to exert a mass or pressure effect on the brain, leading to brain herniation. Tension pneumocephalus is a surgical emergency, which needs immediate intervention in the form of decompression of the cranial cavity by a burr hole or needle aspiration. The Mount Fuji sign differentiates tension pneumocephalus from pneumocephalus.

  1. Criterion for matrix cracking in glass fiber reinforced cross-ply laminates. GFRP chokko sekisoban ni okeru matrix kiretsu no hattatsu kijun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motoki, S.; Fukuda, T. (Osaka City Univ., Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Tanaka, M. (Kobe City College of Technology, Kobe (Japan))

    1992-05-15

    In this research, with regard to GFRP cross-ply laminates, which were the most basic lamination composition, the factors governing the progress of matrix cracks at the 90{degree} layer were studied, in particular the criterion for not depending on the thickness of the 90{degree} layer was examined. For the experiment concerning the above, GFRP prepreg was laminated and three kinds of cross-ply laminates were made for use. A quasistatic tensile load was applied to these specimens and a load-displacement curve was measured, and at the same time, the matrix crack numbers generated in the 90{degree} layer were counted. As a result, it was found that the maximum value of the vertical stress in the loading direction of 90{degree} layer did not depend on the lamination composition, hence could become the criterion for the crack progress. Also it was found that in case when this stress surpassed a certain threshold value, cracks were formed, but in case when it was smaller than the threshold value, no crack was formed. 12 refs., 14 figs.

  2. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin

    2013-03-26

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  3. Mounting Thin Samples For Electrical Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, L. G.; Summers, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    New method for mounting thin sample for electrical measurements involves use of vacuum chuck to hold a ceramic mounting plate, which holds sample. Contacts on mounting plate establish electrical connection to sample. Used to make electrical measurements over temperature range from 77 to 1,000 K and does not introduce distortions into magnetic field during Hall measurements.

  4. Eddy current testing system for bottom mounted instrumentation welds

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi Noriyasu; Ueno Souichi; Suganuma Naotaka; Oodake Tatsuya; Maehara Takeshi; Kasuya Takashi; Ichikawa Hiroya

    2015-01-01

    The capability of eddy current testing (ECT) for the bottom mounted instrumentation (BMI) weld area of reactor vessel in a pressurized water reactor was demonstrated by the developed ECT system and procedure. It is difficult to position and move the probe on the BMI weld area because the area has complexly curved surfaces. The space coordinates and the normal vectors at the scanning points were calculated as the scanning trajectory of probe based on the measured results of surface shape on th...

  5. Measurement & Minimization of Mount Induced Strain on Double Crystal Monochromator Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J.; Alcock, S. G.

    2013-03-01

    Opto-mechanical mounts can cause significant distortions to monochromator crystals and mirrors if not designed or implemented carefully. A slope measuring profiler, the Diamond-NOM [1], was used to measure the change in tangential slope as a function of crystal clamping configuration and load. A three point mount was found to exhibit the lowest surface distortion (Diamond Light Source.

  6. Gravity and magma induces spreading of Mount Etna volcano revealed by satellite radar interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungren, P.; Casu, F.; Manzo, M.; Pepe, A.; Berardino, P.; Sansosti, E.; Lanari, R.

    2004-01-01

    Mount Etna underwent a cycle of eruptive activity over the past ten years. Here we compute ground displacement maps and deformation time series from more than 400 radar interferograms to reveal Mount Etna's average and time varying surface deformation from 1992 to 2001.

  7. Effect of electric field in the characterization of pultruded GFRP boron-free composite insulator for the extra high voltage by the ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Hissae; Silva Junior, Edmilson Jose; Shinohara, Armando Hideki [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Xavier, Gustavo Jose Vasconcelos [CHESF, Recife, PE (Brazil); Costa, Edson Guedes [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Lott Neto, Henrique Batista Duffles Teixeira; Britto, Paulo Roberto Ranzan; Fontan, Marcio A.B. [Sistema de Transmissao do Nordeste S.A., Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The pultruded boron-free glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite has been widely used material for the electrical insulators in the high, extra and ultra high voltage overhead lines worldwide. In terms of design, the composite insulator has a highly complex geometry and large size. Aging of materials begin as soon as the insulators start their operation due to the strong electric field, mechanical load due to the weight of conductor cables, environment, corona discharge, generation of acids, and as a result, GFRP can fail mechanically by the stress corrosion crack (SCC) and electrical breakdown known as flashover. In order to mitigate the mechanical and electrical failures, the insulators in the field are frequently monitored by visual inspection, infrared thermography, UV detection, variation of measurement of distribution of electric field variation. However, new technologies for characterization and inspection of the composite insulator in the field are required for reliable operation. Imaging characterization using ionizing radiation (X-ray or g-ray) is an interesting technique, however, it can reduce drastically breakdown voltage due to the Townsend discharge, which free electrons are accelerated by an electric field, collide with gas molecules of air, and free additional electrons resulting in an avalanche multiplication that allows an electrical conduction through the air. In this study, in order to evaluate the potential application of ionization radiation for characterization of composite insulator under electric field, testing were conducted in high voltage laboratory by applying voltages up to 640 kV and varying radiation area of the composite insulator. As a result, even though there was an occurrence of flame on Imaging Plate (IP) detector case when it was located near the phase, corona discharge, but no breakdown discharge (flashover) occurred and high quality imaging of radiography could be obtained when X-ray source was employed

  8. Ocean floor mounting of wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Stefan G

    2015-01-20

    A system for mounting a set of wave energy converters in the ocean includes a pole attached to a floor of an ocean and a slider mounted on the pole in a manner that permits the slider to move vertically along the pole and rotate about the pole. The wave energy converters can then be mounted on the slider to allow adjustment of the depth and orientation of the wave energy converters.

  9. Mounting and Alignment of IXO Mirror Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Zhang, William; Evans, Tyler; McClelland, Ryan; Hong, Melinda; Mazzarella, James; Saha, Timo; Jalota, Lalit; Olsen, Lawrence; Byron, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    A suspension-mounting scheme is developed for the IXO (International X-ray Observatory) mirror segments in which the figure of the mirror segment is preserved in each stage of mounting. The mirror, first fixed on a thermally compatible strongback, is subsequently transported, aligned and transferred onto its mirror housing. In this paper, we shall outline the requirement, approaches, and recent progress of the suspension mount processes.

  10. Channel uranium-graphite reactor mounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polushkin, K.K.; Kuznetsov, A.G.; Zheleznyakov, B.N.

    1981-01-01

    According to theoretical principles of general engineering technology the engineering experience of construction-mounting works at the NPP with channel uranium-graphite reactors is systematized. Main parameters and structural features of the 1000 MW channel uranium-graphite reactors are considered. The succession of mounting operations, premounting equipment and pipelines preparation and mounting works technique are described. The most efficient methods of fitting, welding and machining of reactor elements are recommended. Main problems of technical control service are discussed. A typical netted diagram of main equipment of channel uranium-graphite reactors mounting is given

  11. Geology of the Ugashik-Mount Peulik Volcanic Center, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    The Ugashik-Mount Peulik volcanic center, 550 km southwest of Anchorage on the Alaska Peninsula, consists of the late Quaternary 5-km-wide Ugashik caldera and the stratovolcano Mount Peulik built on the north flank of Ugashik. The center has been the site of explosive volcanism including a caldera-forming eruption and post-caldera dome-destructive activity. Mount Peulik has been formed entirely in Holocene time and erupted in 1814 and 1845. A large lava dome occupies the summit crater, which is breached to the west. A smaller dome is perched high on the southeast flank of the cone. Pyroclastic-flow deposits form aprons below both domes. One or more sector-collapse events occurred early in the formation of Mount Peulik volcano resulting in a large area of debris-avalanche deposits on the volcano's northwest flank. The Ugashik-Mount Peulik center is a calcalkaline suite of basalt, andesite, dacite, and rhyolite, ranging in SiO2 content from 51 to 72 percent. The Ugashik-Mount Peulik magmas appear to be co-genetic in a broad sense and their compositional variation has probably resulted from a combination of fractional crystallization and magma-mixing. The most likely scenario for a future eruption is that one or more of the summit domes on Mount Peulik are destroyed as new magma rises to the surface. Debris avalanches and pyroclastic flows may then move down the west and, less likely, east flanks of the volcano for distances of 10 km or more. A new lava dome or series of domes would be expected to form either during or within some few years after the explosive disruption of the previous dome. This cycle of dome disruption, pyroclastic flow generation, and new dome formation could be repeated several times in a single eruption. The volcano poses little direct threat to human population as the area is sparsely populated. The most serious hazard is the effect of airborne volcanic ash on aircraft since Mount Peulik sits astride heavily traveled air routes connecting the U

  12. Isogloss: language and legacy on Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Dodd

    2012-01-01

    Nothing standing aboveground today was here thirty years ago. The ground itself wasn't here. Oh, there was ground, but much of it lay below the surface where my boot soles slip a little in the loose pebbles of pumice. Rolling on loose rock and big ideas, for a moment I lose my sense of balance, glancing first at the sky above, then at the nearby peak of Mount St...

  13. Adjustable bipod flexures for mounting mirrors in a space telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, Hagyong; Yang, Ho-Soon; Moon, Il Kweon; Yeon, Jeong-Heum; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Yun-Woo

    2012-11-10

    A new mirror mounting technique applicable to the primary mirror in a space telescope is presented. This mounting technique replaces conventional bipod flexures with flexures having mechanical shims so that adjustments can be made to counter the effects of gravitational distortion of the mirror surface while being tested in the horizontal position. Astigmatic aberration due to the gravitational changes is effectively reduced by adjusting the shim thickness, and the relation between the astigmatism and the shim thickness is investigated. We tested the mirror interferometrically at the center of curvature using a null lens. Then we repeated the test after rotating the mirror about its optical axis by 180° in the horizontal setup, and searched for the minimum system error. With the proposed flexure mount, the gravitational stress at the adhesive coupling between the mirror and the mount is reduced by half that of a conventional bipod flexure for better mechanical safety under launch loads. Analytical results using finite element methods are compared with experimental results from the optical interferometer. Vibration tests verified the mechanical safety and optical stability, and qualified their use in space applications.

  14. 49 CFR 179.10 - Tank mounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank mounting. 179.10 Section 179.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Design Requirements § 179.10 Tank mounting. (a) The manner in which tanks are attached to the car...

  15. Low-Thermal-Resistance Baseplate Mounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    Low-thermal-resistance mounting achieved by preloading baseplate to slight convexity with screws threaded through beam. As mounting bolts around edge of base-place tightened, baseplate and cold plate contact first in center, with region of intimate contact spreading outward as bolts tightened.

  16. Mount Athos: Between autonomy and statehood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Dragutin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal status of the Mount Athos is characterized by many special features that make it internationally unique legal regime. The author analyzes peculiarities of Mount Athos territorial status, legal position of residents and visitors, as well as organization of Mount Athos authorities. The author concludes that the Mount Athos is characterized by a kind of para-sovereignty. Its autonomy involves not only the internal organization, autonomous governance and religious autonomy, but it also includes many elements of secular life of their visitors. Mount Athos has its own, separate legislative, administrative and judicial powers, while the Statute of the Mount Athos has greater legal force than all the other laws of the Greek state, because the state can not unilaterally change its provisions. Having in mind that the wide self-government is vested in church authorities and that the monks have very specific way of living, the author takes a position that the Mount Athos represent 'monastic state', but without statehood. The author also states that the Mount Athos will be faced with many challenges in the context of spreading of an assimilating, universal conception of human rights.

  17. Drill cuttings mount formation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2014-07-01

    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  18. An improved loopless mounting method for cryocrystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian-Xun, Qi; Fan, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Based on a recent loopless mounting method, a simplified loopless and bufferless crystal mounting method is developed for macromolecular crystallography. This simplified crystal mounting system is composed of the following components: a home-made glass capillary, a brass seat for holding the glass capillary, a flow regulator, and a vacuum pump for evacuation. Compared with the currently prevalent loop mounting method, this simplified method has almost the same mounting procedure and thus is compatible with the current automated crystal mounting system. The advantages of this method include higher signal-to-noise ratio, more accurate measurement, more rapid flash cooling, less x-ray absorption and thus less radiation damage to the crystal. This method can be extended to the flash-freeing of a crystal without or with soaking it in a lower concentration of cryoprotectant, thus it may be the best option for data collection in the absence of suitable cryoprotectant. Therefore, it is suggested that this mounting method should be further improved and extensively applied to cryocrystallographic experiments. (general)

  19. An improved loopless mounting method for cryocrystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jian-Xun; Jiang, Fan

    2010-01-01

    Based on a recent loopless mounting method, a simplified loopless and bufferless crystal mounting method is developed for macromolecular crystallography. This simplified crystal mounting system is composed of the following components: a home-made glass capillary, a brass seat for holding the glass capillary, a flow regulator, and a vacuum pump for evacuation. Compared with the currently prevalent loop mounting method, this simplified method has almost the same mounting procedure and thus is compatible with the current automated crystal mounting system. The advantages of this method include higher signal-to-noise ratio, more accurate measurement, more rapid flash cooling, less x-ray absorption and thus less radiation damage to the crystal. This method can be extended to the flash-freeing of a crystal without or with soaking it in a lower concentration of cryoprotectant, thus it may be the best option for data collection in the absence of suitable cryoprotectant. Therefore, it is suggested that this mounting method should be further improved and extensively applied to cryocrystallographic experiments.

  20. Development of a segmented grating mount system for FIREX-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezaki, Y; Tabata, M; Kihara, M; Horiuchi, Y; Endo, M; Jitsuno, T

    2008-01-01

    A mount system for segmented meter-sized gratings has been developed, which has a high precision grating support mechanism and drive mechanism to minimize both deformation of the optical surfaces and misalignments in setting a segmented grating for obtaining sufficient performance of the pulse compressor. From analytical calculations, deformation of the grating surface is less than 1/20 lambda RMS and the estimated drive resolution for piston and tilt drive of the segmented grating is 1/20 lambda, which are both compliant with the requirements for the rear-end subsystem of FIREX-1

  1. Flow distortion on boom mounted cup anemometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Gottschall, Julia

    In this report we investigate on wind direction dependent errors in the measurement of the horizontal wind speed by boom mounted cup anemometers. The boom mounting on the studied lattice tower is performed according to IEC standard design rules, yet, larger deviations than predicted by flow models...... are observed. The errors on the measurements are likely caused by an underestimation of the flow distortions around the tower. In this paper an experimental method for deriving a correction formula and an in-field calibration is suggested. The method is based on measurements with two cup anemometers mounted...

  2. Longitudinally mounted light emitting plasma in a dielectric resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliard, Richard; DeVincentis, Marc; Hafidi, Abdeslam; O' Hare, Daniel; Hollingsworth, Gregg [LUXIM Corporation, 1171 Borregas Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 (United States)

    2011-06-08

    Methods for coupling power from a dielectric resonator to a light-emitting plasma have been previously described (Gilliard et al IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. at press). Inevitably, regardless of the efficiency of power transfer, much of the emitted light is absorbed in the resonator itself which physically surrounds much if not all of the radiating material. An investigation into a method is presented here for efficiently coupling power to a longitudinally mounted plasma vessel which is mounted on the surface of the dielectric material of the resonator, thereby eliminating significant absorption of light within the resonator structure. The topology of the resonator and its physical properties as well as those of the metal halide plasma are presented. Results of basic models of the field configuration and plasma are shown as well as a configuration suitable as a practical light source.

  3. Biodiversity of the flora of Mount Papa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin-Yin-Kyi

    1995-07-01

    Even though Mount Papa is in the dry zone area, it is almost evergreen, due to its elevation of 4981 feet above the sea level and its fertile soil conditions. A has a rich biodiversity with vegetation of many types

  4. May 1980 Mount Saint Helens, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An earthquake occurred at 15 32 UT, only seconds before the explosion that began the eruption of Mount St. Helens volcano. This eruption and blast blew off the top...

  5. Photoelectric panel with equatorial mounting of drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhta, M. S.; Krauinsh, P. Y.; Krauinsh, D. P.; Sokolov, A. P.; Mainy, S. B.

    2018-03-01

    The relevance of the work is determined by the need to create effective models for sunny energy. The article considers a photoelectric panel equipped with a system for tracking the sun. Efficiency of the system is provided by equatorial mounting, which compensates for the rotation of the Earth by rotating the sunny panel in the plane of the celestial equator. The specificity of climatic and geographical conditions of Tomsk is estimated. The dynamics of power variations of photoelectric panels with equatorial mounting during seasonal fluctuations in Tomsk is calculated. A mobile photovoltaic panel with equatorial mounting of the drive has been developed. The methods of design strategy for placing photovoltaic panels in the architectural environment of the city are presented. Key words: sunny energy, photovoltaics, equatorial mounting, mechatronic model, wave reducer, electric drive.

  6. Mount Protects Thin-Walled Glass or Ceramic Tubes from Large Thermal and Vibration Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Michael; Schmidt, Stephen; Marsh. James; Dahya, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The design allows for the low-stress mounting of fragile objects, like thin walled glass, by using particular ways of compensating, isolating, or releasing the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) differences between the mounted object and the mount itself. This mount profile is lower than true full kinematic mounting. Also, this approach enables accurate positioning of the component for electrical and optical interfaces. It avoids the higher and unpredictable stress issues that often result from potting the object. The mount has been built and tested to space-flight specifications, and has been used for fiber-optic, optical, and electrical interfaces for a spaceflight mission. This mount design is often metal and is slightly larger than the object to be mounted. The objects are optical or optical/electrical, and optical and/or electrical interfaces are required from the top and bottom. This requires the mount to be open at both ends, and for the object s position to be controlled. Thin inside inserts at the top and bottom contact the housing at defined lips, or edges, and hold the fragile object in the mount. The inserts can be customized to mimic the outer surface of the object, which further reduces stress. The inserts have the opposite CTE of the housing material, partially compensating for the CTE difference that causes thermal stress. A spring washer is inserted at one end to compensate for more CTE difference and to hold the object against the location edge of the mount for any optical position requirements. The spring also ensures that any fiber-optic or optic interface, which often requires some pressure to ensure a good interface, does not overstress the fragile object. The insert thickness, material, and spring washer size can be traded against each other to optimize the mount and stresses for various thermal and vibration load ranges and other mounting requirements. The alternate design uses two separate, unique features to reduce stress and hold the

  7. Isolation Mounting for Charge-Coupled Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, W. C.; Salomon, P. M.

    1985-01-01

    CCD's suspended by wires under tension. Remote thermoelectric cooling of charge coupled device allows vibration isolating mounting of CCD assembly alone, without having to suspend entire mass and bulk of thermoelectric module. Mounting hardware simple and light. Developed for charge-coupled devices (CCD's) in infrared telescope support adaptable to sensors in variety of environments, e.g., sensors in nuclear reactors, engine exhausts and plasma chambers.

  8. "Split Cast Mounting: Review and New Technique".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundawar, S M; Pande, Neelam A; Jaiswal, Priti; Radke, U M

    2014-12-01

    For the fabrication of a prosthesis, the Prosthodontist meticulously performs all the steps. The laboratory technician then make every effort/strives to perform the remaining lab procedures. However when the processed dentures are remounted on the articulator, some changes are seen. These changes may be divided into two categories: Pre-insertion and post-insertion changes, which deal with the physical properties of the materials involved (Parker, J Prosthet Dent 31:335-342, 1974). Split cast mounting is the method of mounting casts on the articulator. It is essentially a maxillary cast constructed in two parts with a horizontal division. The procedure allows for the verification of the accuracy of the initial mounting and the ease of removal and replacement of the cast. This provides a precise means of correcting the changes in occlusion occurring as a result of the processing technique (Nogueira et al., J Prosthet Dent 91:386-388, 2004). Instability of the split mounting has always been a problem to the Prosthodontist thereby limiting its use. There are various materials mentioned in the literature. The new technique by using Dowel pins and twill thread is very easy, cheaper and simple way to stabilize the split mounting. It is useful and easy in day to day laboratory procedures. The article presents different methods of split cast mounting and the new procedure using easily available materials in prosthetic laboratory.

  9. Analysis of adjusting effects of mounting force on frequency conversion of mounted nonlinear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ruifeng; Liu, Haitao; Liang, Yingchun; Lu, Lihua

    2014-01-10

    Motivated by the need to increase the second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of nonlinear optics with large apertures, a novel mounting configuration with active adjusting function on the SHG efficiency is proposed and mechanically and optically studied. The adjusting effects of the mounting force on the distortion and stress are analyzed by the finite element methods (FEM), as well as the contribution of the distortion and stress to the change in phase mismatch, and the SHG efficiency are theoretically stated. Further on, the SHG efficiency is calculated as a function of the mounting force. The changing trends of the distortion, stress, and the SHG efficiency with the varying mounting force are obtained, and the optimal ones are figured out. Moreover, the mechanism of the occurrence of the optimal values is studied and the adjusting strategy is put forward. Numerical results show the robust adjustment of the mounting force, as well as the effectiveness of the mounting configuration, in increasing the SHG efficiency.

  10. Technical preparation of the Yuzhteploehnergomontazh trust for technological equipment mounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayats, A.I.

    1982-01-01

    Measures of technical preparation for equipment mounting at the Zaporozhe NPP developed with the Yuzhteploehnergomontazh trust experts are considered. These measures envisage the construction of mounting base of heat facilities, calculation of labour contents and determination of necessary quantity of mounters, development of optimal flowsheet of mounting control, improvement of mounting qualification and creation of stable collective body, improvement of technical level of mounting and welding works, organizational-technical measures on mounting logistics. Factors affecting negatively technical preparation quality of equipment mounting at the Zaporozhe NPP are discussed. The flowsheet of mounting control is presented

  11. Perspective with Landsat Overlay, Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Kilimanjaro (Kilima Njaro or 'shining mountain' in Swahili), the highest point in Africa, reaches 5,895 meters (19,340 feet) above sea level, tall enough to maintain a permanent snow cap despite being just 330 kilometers (210 miles) south of the equator. It is the tallest free-standing mountain on the Earth's land surface world, rising about 4,600 meters (15,000 feet) above the surrounding plain. Kilimanjaro is a triple volcano (has three peaks) that last erupted perhaps more than 100,000 years ago but still exudes volcanic gases. It is accompanied by about 20 other nearby volcanoes, some of which are seen to the west (left) in this view, prominently including Mount Meru, which last erupted only about a century ago. The volcanic mountain slopes are commonly fertile and support thick forests, while the much drier grasslands of the plains are home to elephants, lions, and other savanna wildlife.This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a Landsat 7 satellite image, and a false sky. Topographic expression is vertically exaggerated two times.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and

  12. 76 FR 76689 - Cibola National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Mount Taylor Combined Exploratory Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Mount Taylor Combined Exploratory Drilling AGENCY... proposed action is to approve two Plans of Operations for exploratory uranium drilling on the Cibola... San Mateo. In total, there are up to 279 drill holes that would be drilled over a period not to exceed...

  13. User's guide to designing and mounting lenses and mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalskie, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The guidebook is a practitioner-oriented supplement to standard texts in optics and mechanical engineering. It reflects practical experience with the oftentimes troublesome aspects of effectively integrating optical components with mechanical hardware. Accordingly, its focus is on the techniques, assumptions, and levels of design sophistication needed for a wide variety of sizes and optical surface quality levels. It is intended to be a primer for engineers, designers, and draftsmen already familiar with some of the problems encountered in mounting optical components and who are responsible for developing components for high-energy laser systems

  14. Ball mounting fixture for a roundness gage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauler, Allen L.; Pasieka, Donald F.

    1983-01-01

    A ball mounting fixture for a roundness gage is disclosed. The fixture includes a pair of chuck assemblies oriented substantially transversely with respect to one another and mounted on a common base. Each chuck assembly preferably includes a rotary stage and a wobble plate affixed thereto. A ball chuck affixed to each wobble plate is operable to selectively support a ball to be measured for roundness, with the wobble plate permitting the ball chuck to be tilted to center the ball on the axis of rotation of the rotary stage. In a preferred embodiment, each chuck assembly includes a vacuum chuck operable to selectively support the ball to be measured for roundness. The mounting fixture enables a series of roundness measurements to be taken with a conventional rotating gagehead roundness instrument, which measurements can be utilized to determine the sphericity of the ball.

  15. Direct mounted photovoltaic device with improved adhesion and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boven, Michelle L; Keenihan, James R; Lickly, Stan; Brown, Jr., Claude; Cleereman, Robert J; Plum, Timothy C

    2014-12-23

    The present invention is premised upon a photovoltaic device suitable for directly mounting on a structure. The device includes an active portion including a photovoltaic cell assembly having a top surface portion that allows transmission of light energy to a photoactive portion of the photovoltaic device for conversion into electrical energy and a bottom surface having a bottom bonding zone; and an inactive portion immediately adjacent to and connected to the active portion, the inactive portion having a region for receiving a fastener to connect the device to the structure and having on a top surface, a top bonding zone; wherein one of the top and bottom bonding zones comprises a first bonding element and the other comprises a second bonding element, the second bonding element designed to interact with the first bonding element on a vertically overlapped adjacent photovoltaic device to bond the device to such adjacent device or to the structure.

  16. 14 CFR 33.23 - Engine mounting attachments and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine mounting attachments and structure... mounting attachments and structure. (a) The maximum allowable limit and ultimate loads for engine mounting attachments and related engine structure must be specified. (b) The engine mounting attachments and related...

  17. Robotic mounting of ATLAS barrel SCT modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickerson, R.B.; Viehhauser, G.; Wastie, R.; Terada, S.; Unno, Y.; Kohriki, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Hara, K.; Kobayashi, H.; Barbier, G.; Clark, A.G.; Perrin, E.; Carter, A.A.; Mistry, J.; Morris, J.

    2006-01-01

    The 2112 silicon detector modules of the barrel part of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) have been mounted on their carbon fibre support structure. Module insertion, placement and fixing were performed by robotic assembly tooling. We report on our experience with this assembly method. Part of the mounting sequence involves a partial survey of elements of the support structure which is needed to align the modules properly during insertion. An analysis of these data is used to estimate the positional accuracy of the robots

  18. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Mount Meru, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Meru is an active volcano located just 70 kilometers (44 miles) west of Mount Kilimanjaro. It reaches 4,566 meters (14,978 feet) in height but has lost much of its bulk due to an eastward volcanic blast sometime in its distant past, perhaps similar to the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in Washington State in 1980. Mount Meru most recently had a minor eruption about a century ago. The several small cones and craters seen in the vicinity probably reflect numerous episodes of volcanic activity. Mount Meru is the topographic centerpiece of Arusha National Park. Its fertile slopes rise above the surrounding savanna and support a forest that hosts diverse wildlife, including nearly 400 species of birds, and also monkeys and leopards.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in June. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to blue and white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space

  19. Resin bleed improvement on surface mount semiconductor device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajoo, Indra Kumar; Tahir, Suraya Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul; Shamsul Anuar, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Resin bleed is a transparent layer of epoxy compound which occurs during molding process but is difficult to be detected after the molding process. Resin bleed on the lead on the unit from the focused package, SOD123, can cause solderability failure at end customer. This failed unit from the customer will be considered as a customer complaint. Generally, the semiconductor company has to perform visual inspection after the plating process to detect resin bleed. Mold chase with excess hole, split cavity & stepped design ejector pin hole have been found to be the major root cause of resin bleed in this company. The modifications of the mold chase, changing of split cavity to solid cavity and re-design of the ejector pin proposed were derived after a detailed study & analysis conducted to arrive at these solutions. The solutions proposed have yield good results during the pilot run with zero (0) occurrence of resin bleed for 3 consecutive months.

  20. Creating Gaze Annotations in Head Mounted Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Qvarfordt, Pernilla

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate distributed communication in mobile settings, we developed GazeNote for creating and sharing gaze annotations in head mounted displays (HMDs). With gaze annotations it possible to point out objects of interest within an image and add a verbal description. To create an annota- tion...

  1. Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.

    1995-01-01

    Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.

  2. Motion planning for gantry mounted manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Lau; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2007-01-01

    We present a roadmap based planner for finding robot motions for gantry mounted manipulators for a line welding application at Odense Steel Shipyard (OSS). The robot motions are planned subject to constraints on when the gantry may be moved. We show that random sampling of gantry configurations...

  3. Mounting LHCb hadron calorimeter scintillating tiles

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Scintillating tiles are carefully mounted in the hadronic calorimeter for the LHCb detector. These calorimeters measure the energy of particles that interact via the strong force, called hadrons. The detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  4. Solidly Mounted Resonator with Optimized Acoustic Reflector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, Sumy; Jansman, Andreas; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2009-01-01

    The quality factor (Q) of the Solidly Mounted Resonator is limited by acoustic losses caused by waves leaking through the mirror stack. Traditionally employed acoustic mirror reflects only longitudinal waves and not shear waves. Starting with the stop-band theory and the principle of spacer layers

  5. Dynamic characteristics of mirrors' kinematic mount

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wenkai; Du Qiang; Li Jingze; Chen Gang; Chen Xiaojuan; Xu Yuanli

    2002-01-01

    Applying exact constrain design principles, kinematic mount for precision positioning large aperture mirrors is designed; theoretical method is introduced to analyze its dynamic characteristics and the result of the experiment for mirrors, stability; accordingly, the methods to improve design are put forward

  6. Making sense of Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Nash

    2010-01-01

    The eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980 resulted in "a grand experiment that you could never have gotten anybody to fund," says Forest Service ecologist Charles Crisafulli. "Everything's new. It's a new landform." Unlike most misbehaving volcanoes, this one provided an accessible laboratory right along the Interstate-5 corridor, with the...

  7. June 1992 Mount Spurr, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Following 39 years of inactivity, Crater Peak vent on the south flank of Mount Spurr volcano burst into eruption at 7:04 a.m. Alaska daylight time (ADT) on June 27,...

  8. 49 CFR 587.19 - Mounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) DEFORMABLE BARRIERS Offset Deformable Barrier § 587.19 Mounting. (a) The deformable face is rigidly attached to the edge of the fixed rigid barrier or to some rigid...

  9. Low-stress mounting configuration design for large aperture laser transport mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Quan, Xusong; Yao, Chao; Wang, Hui

    2016-10-01

    TM1-6S1 large aperture laser transport mirror is a crucial optical unit of high power solid-state laser in the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) facility. This article focuses on the low-stress and precise mounting method of large-aperture mirror. Based on the engineering practice of SG-III, the state-of-the-art and key problems of current mounting configuration are clarified firstly. Subsequently, a brand new low-stress mounting configuration with flexure supports is proposed. Opto-mechanical model of the mirror under mounting force is built up with elastic mechanics theory. Further, numerical methods and field tests are employed to verify the favorable load uniform capacity and load adjust capacity of flexure supports. With FEM, the relation between the mounting force from new configuration and the mirror surface distortion (wavefront error) is clarified. The novel mounting method of large aperture optics could be not only used on this laser transport mirror, but also on the other transmission optics and large crystals in ICF facilities.

  10. Optimised mounting conditions for poly (ether sulfone) in radiation detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hidehito; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Nobuhiro; Yamada, Tatsuya; Kitamura, Hisashi; Takahashi, Sentaro

    2014-09-01

    Poly (ether sulfone) (PES) is a candidate for use as a scintillation material in radiation detection. Its characteristics, such as its emission spectrum and its effective refractive index (based on the emission spectrum), directly affect the propagation of light generated to external photodetectors. It is also important to examine the presence of background radiation sources in manufactured PES. Here, we optimise the optical coupling and surface treatment of the PES, and characterise its background. Optical grease was used to enhance the optical coupling between the PES and the photodetector; absorption by the grease of short-wavelength light emitted from PES was negligible. Diffuse reflection induced by surface roughening increased the light yield for PES, despite the high effective refractive index. Background radiation derived from the PES sample and its impurities was negligible above the ambient, natural level. Overall, these results serve to optimise the mounting conditions for PES in radiation detection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Shoulder-Mounted Robot for MRI-guided arthrography: Accuracy and mounting study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfaredi, R; Wilson, E; Sze, R; Sharma, K; Azizi, B; Iordachita, I; Cleary, K

    2015-08-01

    A new version of our compact and lightweight patient-mounted MRI-compatible 4 degree-of-freedom (DOF) robot for MRI-guided arthrography procedures is introduced. This robot could convert the traditional two-stage arthrography procedure (fluoroscopy-guided needle insertion followed by a diagnostic MRI scan) to a one-stage procedure, all in the MRI suite. The results of a recent accuracy study are reported. A new mounting technique is proposed and the mounting stability is investigated using optical and electromagnetic tracking on an anthropomorphic phantom. Five volunteer subjects including 2 radiologists were asked to conduct needle insertion in 4 different random positions and orientations within the robot's workspace and the displacement of the base of the robot was investigated during robot motion and needle insertion. Experimental results show that the proposed mounting method is stable and promising for clinical application.

  12. Systems and methods for mirror mounting with minimized distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonille, Scott R. (Inventor); Wallace, Thomas E. (Inventor); Content, David A. (Inventor); Wake, Shane W. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for mounting a mirror for use in a telescope includes attaching the mirror to a plurality of adjustable mounts; determining a distortion in the mirror caused by the plurality adjustable mounts, and, if the distortion is determined to be above a predetermined level: adjusting one or more of the adjustable mounts; and determining the distortion in the mirror caused by the adjustable mounts; and in the event the determined distortion is determined to be at or below the predetermined level, rigidizing the adjustable mounts.

  13. Increased earthquake safety through optimised mounting concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollmann, Dieter; Senechal, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Since Fukushima, there has been intensive work on earthquake safety in all nuclear power plants. A large part of these efforts aim at the earthquake safety of safety-relevant pipeline systems. The problem with earthquake safety here is not the pipeline system itself but rather its mountings and connections to components. This is precisely the topic that the KAE dealt with in years of research and development work. It has developed an algorithm that determines the optimal mounting concept with a few iteration steps depending on arbitrary combinations of loading conditions whilst maintaining compliance with relevant regulations for any pipeline systems. With this tool at hand, we are now in a position to plan and realise remedial measures accurately with minimum time and hardware expenditure, and so distinctly improve the earthquake safety of safety-relevant systems. (orig.)

  14. Micro-inverter solar panel mounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John; Gilchrist, Phillip Charles

    2016-02-02

    Processes, systems, devices, and articles of manufacture are provided. Each may include adapting micro-inverters initially configured for frame-mounting to mounting on a frameless solar panel. This securement may include using an adaptive clamp or several adaptive clamps secured to a micro-inverter or its components, and using compressive forces applied directly to the solar panel to secure the adaptive clamp and the components to the solar panel. The clamps can also include compressive spacers and safeties for managing the compressive forces exerted on the solar panels. Friction zones may also be used for managing slipping between the clamp and the solar panel during or after installation. Adjustments to the clamps may be carried out through various means and by changing the physical size of the clamps themselves.

  15. Mapping the Spread of Mounted Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Turchin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Military technology is one of the most important factors affecting the evolution of complex societies. In particular, mounted warfare, the use of horse-riders in military operations, revolutionized war as it spread to different parts of Eurasia and Africa during the Ancient and Medieval eras, and to the Americas during the Early Modern period. Here we use a variety of sources to map this spread.

  16. New mounting improves solar-cell efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Method boosts output by about 20 percent by trapping and redirecting solar radiation without increasing module depth. Mounted solar-cell array is covered with internally reflecting plate. Plate is attached to each cell by transparent adhesive, and space between cells is covered with layer of diffusely reflecting material. Solar energy falling on space between cells is diffused and reflected internally by plate until it is reflected onto solar cell.

  17. Customer Satisfaction Level in Mount Sherpa Restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Customer satisfaction is the key to every successful business in the sense of profit motive, as well as in the long run. It is the desire of every business to be able to understand their customers’ need. Many businesses, especially related with the service industry, carry out different surveys and conduct research in order to know what their customers really want. This research was carried out to measure the customer satisfaction level in Mount Sherpa restaurant. The results and findings ...

  18. Conceptual design for PSP mounting bracket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ransom, G.; Stein, R. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Protective structural packages (PSP`s or overpacks) used to ship 2 1/2-ton UF{sub 6} product cylinders are bolted to truck trailers. All bolts penetrate two longitudinal rows of wooden planks. Removal and replacement is required at various intervals for maintenance and routine testing. A conceptual design is presented for mounting brackets which would securely attach PSP`s to trailer frames, reduce removal and replacement time, and minimize risk of personnel injury.

  19. Relation between interlaminar fracture toughness and pressure condition in autoclave molding process of GFRP composite laminates; GFRP sekisoban no autoclave seikei ni okeru atsuryoku joken to sokan hakai jinseichi tono kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, J. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Motogi, S.; Fukuda, T. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-06-15

    Relation between fracture toughness and pressure condition in autoclave molding of GF composite laminates is investigated. Glass/epoxy prepregs are molded under different curing pressures, and UD laminates of [O{sub 8}]T and [O{sub 16}]T are fabricated. The results of the double cantilever beam (DCB) test show that the curing pressure has certain influences on the interlaminar fracture toughness via the change in morphology of matrix resin and fibers between laminae, and via the change in interfacial strength of fiber and matrix. It is also found that the fiber/matrix interfacial strength increases as the curing pressure increases by SEM photographs of the fracture surface in GF UD laminates. 13 refs., 12 figs.

  20. Eddy current testing system for bottom mounted instrumentation welds - 15206

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, N.; Ueno, S.; Suganuma, N.; Oodake, T.; Maehara, T.; Kasuya, T.; Ichikawa, H.

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated the scanning of eddy current testing (ECT) probe on the welds area including the nozzle, the J-welds and the buildup welds of the Bottom Mounted Instrumentation (BMI) mock-up using the developed ECT system and procedure. It is difficult to scan the probe on the BMI welds area because the area has a complex curved surface shape and narrow spaces. We made the space coordinates and the normal vectors on the scanning points as the scanning trajectory of probe on the welds area based on the measured results of welds surface shape on the mock-up. The multi-axis robot was used to scan the probe on the welds surface. Each motion axis position of the robot corresponding to each scanning point was calculated by the inverse kinematic algorithm. The BMI mock-up test was performed using the cross coil probe in the differential mode. The artificial stress corrosion cracking and the electrical discharge machining slits given on the mock-up surface were detected. The results show that the ECT can detect a defect of approximately 2.3 mm in length, 0.5 mm in depth and 0.2 mm in width for the BMI welds. From the output voltage of single coil, we estimated that the average and the maximum probe tilt angles on the mock-up surface under scanning were 2.6 degrees and 8.5 degrees, respectively

  1. Eddy current testing system for bottom mounted instrumentation welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Noriyasu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The capability of eddy current testing (ECT for the bottom mounted instrumentation (BMI weld area of reactor vessel in a pressurized water reactor was demonstrated by the developed ECT system and procedure. It is difficult to position and move the probe on the BMI weld area because the area has complexly curved surfaces. The space coordinates and the normal vectors at the scanning points were calculated as the scanning trajectory of probe based on the measured results of surface shape on the BMI mock-up. The multi-axis robot was used to move the probe on the mock-up. Each motion-axis position of the robot corresponding to each scanning point was calculated by the inverse kinematic algorithm. In the mock-up test, the probe was properly contacted with most of the weld surfaces. The artificial stress corrosion cracking of approximately 6 mm in length and the electrical-discharge machining slit of 0.5 mm in length, 1 mm in depth and 0.2 mm in width given on the weld surface were detected. From the probe output voltage, it was estimated that the average probe tilt angle on the surface under scanning was 2.6°.

  2. Vibration reduction and power generation with piezoceramic sheets mounted to a flexible shaft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloetjes, P.J.; de Boer, Andries

    2008-01-01

    A flexible shaft with surface-mounted piezoceramic sheets and strain sensors is considered which suffers from resonance and self-excited vibration. Frequency domain models, time domain simulations, and control experiments are used to analyze active modal damping and active modal balancing methods.

  3. Microwave Temperature Profiler Mounted in a Standard Airborne Research Canister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Michael J.; Denning, Richard F.; Fox, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Many atmospheric research aircraft use a standard canister design to mount instruments, as this significantly facilitates their electrical and mechanical integration and thereby reduces cost. Based on more than 30 years of airborne science experience with the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP), the MTP has been repackaged with state-of-the-art electronics and other design improvements to fly in one of these standard canisters. All of the controlling electronics are integrated on a single 4 5-in. (.10 13- cm) multi-layer PCB (printed circuit board) with surface-mount hardware. Improved circuit design, including a self-calibrating RTD (resistive temperature detector) multiplexer, was implemented in order to reduce the size and mass of the electronics while providing increased capability. A new microcontroller-based temperature controller board was designed, providing better control with fewer components. Five such boards are used to provide local control of the temperature in various areas of the instrument, improving radiometric performance. The new stepper motor has an embedded controller eliminating the need for a separate controller board. The reference target is heated to avoid possible emissivity (and hence calibration) changes due to moisture contamination in humid environments, as well as avoiding issues with ambient targets during ascent and descent. The radiometer is a double-sideband heterodyne receiver tuned sequentially to individual oxygen emission lines near 60 GHz, with the line selection and intermediate frequency bandwidths chosen to accommodate the altitude range of the aircraft and mission.

  4. 46 CFR 61.05-15 - Boiler mountings and attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler mountings and attachments. 61.05-15 Section 61.05... TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-15 Boiler mountings and attachments. (a....05-10. (b) Each stud or bolt for each boiler mounting that paragraph (c) of this section requires to...

  5. Organization and processes of the BN-600 reactor mounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrovin, E.Z.; Karpenko, V.N.; Takhtaulov, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    Structural peculiarities of the BN-600 reactor plant are considered. Experience of metal structure mounting inside the reactor vessel has been analysed. Recommendations on the improvements on the organization of the thermal mechanical equipment mounting are given. It is concluded that the consideration of these recommendations will permit to reduce expenditures of labour by 10-40% for the mounting

  6. [The controversy of routine articulator mounting in orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Han, Xianglong; Bai, Ding

    2013-06-01

    Articulators have been widely used by clinicians of dentistry. But routine articulator mounting is still controversial in orthodontics. Orthodontists oriented by gnathology approve routine articulator mounting while nongnathologic orthodontists disapprove it. This article reviews the thoughts of orthodontist that they agree or disagree with routine articulator mounting based on the considerations of biting, temporomandibular disorder (TMD), periodontitis, and so on.

  7. 49 CFR 571.212 - Standard No. 212; Windshield mounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 212; Windshield mounting. 571.212... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.212 Standard No. 212; Windshield mounting. S1. Scope. This standard..., under the conditions of S6, the windshield mounting of the vehicle shall retain not less than the...

  8. An Experimental Study of a Sting-Mounted Circulation Control Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    atmospheric pressure was read from a Henry J. Green ML-330/FM mercury barometer and the desired tunnel q was determined from: q.)= 1/2 RTatms (21) F atmos C2...attachment to the Coanda surface. With the model mounted on a bench outside the tunnel, a fixture was attached to the model so that a pitot tube could be...mounted immediately aft of the blowing slot to measure jet total pressure at any point along the trailing edge. The pitot tube was connected to a 50 inch

  9. MRTouch: Adding Touch Input to Head-Mounted Mixed Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Robert; Schwarz, Julia; Throm, Nick; Wilson, Andrew D; Benko, Hrvoje

    2018-04-01

    We present MRTouch, a novel multitouch input solution for head-mounted mixed reality systems. Our system enables users to reach out and directly manipulate virtual interfaces affixed to surfaces in their environment, as though they were touchscreens. Touch input offers precise, tactile and comfortable user input, and naturally complements existing popular modalities, such as voice and hand gesture. Our research prototype combines both depth and infrared camera streams together with real-time detection and tracking of surface planes to enable robust finger-tracking even when both the hand and head are in motion. Our technique is implemented on a commercial Microsoft HoloLens without requiring any additional hardware nor any user or environmental calibration. Through our performance evaluation, we demonstrate high input accuracy with an average positional error of 5.4 mm and 95% button size of 16 mm, across 17 participants, 2 surface orientations and 4 surface materials. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of our technique to enable on-world touch interactions through 5 example applications.

  10. Combat vehicle crew helmet-mounted display: next generation high-resolution head-mounted display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Scott A.

    1994-06-01

    The Combat Vehicle Crew Head-Mounted Display (CVC HMD) program is an ARPA-funded, US Army Natick Research, Development, and Engineering Center monitored effort to develop a high resolution, flat panel HMD for the M1 A2 Abrams main battle tank. CVC HMD is part of the ARPA High Definition Systems (HDS) thrust to develop and integrate small (24 micrometers square pels), high resolution (1280 X 1024 X 6-bit grey scale at 60 frame/sec) active matrix electroluminescent (AMEL) and active matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCD) for head mounted and projection applications. The Honeywell designed CVC HMD is a next generation head-mounted display system that includes advanced flat panel image sources, advanced digital display driver electronics, high speed (> 1 Gbps) digital interconnect electronics, and light weight, high performance optical and mechanical designs. The resulting dramatic improvements in size, weight, power, and cost have already led to program spin offs for both military and commercial applications.

  11. Field-trip guide to Mount Hood, Oregon, highlighting eruptive history and hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, William E.; Gardner, Cynthia A.

    2017-06-22

    This guidebook describes stops of interest for a geological field trip around Mount Hood volcano. It was developed for the 2017 International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Scientific Assembly in Portland, Oregon. The intent of this guidebook and accompanying contributions is to provide an overview of Mount Hood, including its chief geologic processes, magmatic system, eruptive history, local tectonics, and hazards, by visiting a variety of readily accessible localities. We also describe coeval, largely monogenetic, volcanoes in the region. Accompanying the field-trip guidebook are separately authored contributions that discuss in detail the Mount Hood magmatic system and its products and behavior (Kent and Koleszar, this volume); Mount Hood earthquakes and their relation to regional tectonics and the volcanic system (Thelen and Moran, this volume); and young surface faults cutting the broader Mount Hood area whose extent has come to light after acquisition of regional light detection and ranging coverage (Madin and others, this volume).The trip makes an approximately 175-mile (280-kilometer) clockwise loop around Mount Hood, starting and ending in Portland. The route heads east on Interstate 84 through the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. The guidebook points out only a few conspicuous features of note in the gorge, but many other guides to the gorge are available. The route continues south on the Mount Hood National Scenic Byway on Oregon Route 35 following Hood River, and returns to Portland on U.S. Highway 26 following Sandy River. The route traverses rocks as old as the early Miocene Eagle Creek Formation and overlying Columbia River Basalt Group of middle Miocene age, but chiefly lava flows and clastic products of arc volcanism of late Miocene to Holocene age.

  12. A trolley mounted magazine for reactor maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, P.J.; Madani, M.; Ridgway, G.H. [GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy Canada, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: patrick1.brennan@ge.com, mehdi.madani@ge.com, guy.ridgway@ge.com; Lundy, E.; Knight, D. [IM and CS (Inspection, Maintenance and Commerical Services), Ontario Power Generation, Ajax, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: erroll.lundy@opg.com, david.knight@opg.com

    2009-03-15

    This paper describes the design of a mechanism incorporating a rotary magazine to be mounted on a fuelling machine transport trolley for use at a Darlington reactor during a feeder replacement or maintenance outage. The magazine stores reactor channel maintenance components, such as channel isolation plugs and vented closure plugs, in twelve available magazine channels. Use of the magazine rather than a fuelling machine reduces the time required to transfer such components between the Central Service Area and reactor channels. Component transfers are accomplished by locking the fuelling machine onto one of the magazine channels and using a local controller to execute commands received from the fuel handling control system. (author)

  13. A trolley mounted magazine for reactor maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, P.J.; Madani, M.; Ridgway, G.H., E-mail: patrick1.brennan@ge.com, E-mail: mehdi.madani@ge.com, E-mail: guy.ridgway@ge.com [GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy Canada, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada); Lundy, E.; Knight, D., E-mail: erroll.lundy@opg.com, E-mail: david.knight@opg.com [Ontario Power Generation, Inspection, Maintenance and Commercial Services, Ajax, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the design of a mechanism incorporating a rotary magazine to be mounted on a fuelling machine transport trolley for use at a Darlington reactor during a feeder replacement or maintenance outage. The magazine stores reactor channel maintenance components, such as channel isolation plugs and vented closure plugs, in twelve available magazine channels. Use of the magazine rather than a fuelling machine reduces the time required to transfer such components between the Central Service Area and reactor channels. Component transfers are accomplished by locking the fuelling machine onto one of the magazine channels and using a local controller to execute commands received from the fuel handling control system. (author)

  14. A trolley mounted magazine for reactor maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, P.J.; Madani, M.; Ridgway, G.H.; Lundy, E.; Knight, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a mechanism incorporating a rotary magazine to be mounted on a fuelling machine transport trolley for use at a Darlington reactor during a feeder replacement or maintenance outage. The magazine stores reactor channel maintenance components, such as channel isolation plugs and vented closure plugs, in twelve available magazine channels. Use of the magazine rather than a fuelling machine reduces the time required to transfer such components between the Central Service Area and reactor channels. Component transfers are accomplished by locking the fuelling machine onto one of the magazine channels and using a local controller to execute commands received from the fuel handling control system. (author)

  15. A trolley mounted magazine for reactor maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, P.J.; Madani, M.; Ridgway, G.H.; Lundy, E.; Knight, D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a mechanism incorporating a rotary magazine to be mounted on a fuelling machine transport trolley for use at a Darlington reactor during a feeder replacement or maintenance outage. The magazine stores reactor channel maintenance components, such as channel isolation plugs and vented closure plugs, in twelve available magazine channels. Use of the magazine rather than a fuelling machine reduces the time required to transfer such components between the Central Service Area and reactor channels. Component transfers are accomplished by locking the fuelling machine onto one of the magazine channels and using a local controller to execute commands received from the fuel handling control system. (author)

  16. Research on LQR optimal control method of active engine mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Xie; Yu, Duan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the LQR control method is applied to the active mount of the engine, and a six-cylinder engine excitation model is established. Through the joint simulation of AMESim and MATLAB, the vibration isolation performance of the active mount system and the passive mount system is analyzed. Excited by the multi-engine operation, the simulation results of the vertical displacement, acceleration and dynamic deflection of the vehicle body show that the vibration isolation capability of the active mount system is superior to that of the passive mount system. It shows that compared with the passive mount, LQR active mount can greatly improve the vibration isolation performance, which proves the feasibility and effectiveness of the LQR control method.

  17. Evaluation of shear mounted elastomeric damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, E.; Walton, J.

    1982-01-01

    Viton-70 elastomeric shear mounted damper was built and tested on a T-55 power turbine spool in the rotor's high speed balancing rig. This application of a shear mounted elastomeric damper demonstrated for the first time, the feasibility of using elastomers as the primary rotor damping source in production turbine engine hardware. The shear damper design was selected because it was compatible with actual gas turbine engine radial space constraints, could accommodate both the radial and axial thrust loads present in gas turbine engines, and was capable of controlled axial preload. The shear damper was interchangeable with the production T-55 power turbine roller bearing support so that a direct comparison between the shear damper and the production support structure could be made. Test results show that the Viton-70 elastomer damper operated successfully and provided excellent control of both synchronous and nonsynchronous vibrations through all phases of testing up to the maximum rotor speed of 16,000 rpm. Excellent correlation between the predicted and experienced critical speeds, mode shapes and log decrements for the power turbine rotor and elastomer damper assembly was also achieved.

  18. Experience with HEP analysis on mounted filesystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, Patrick; Gasthuber, Martin; Kemp, Yves; Ozerov, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    We present results on different approaches on mounted filesystems in use or under investigation at DESY. dCache, established since long as a storage system for physics data has implemented the NFS v4.1/pNFS protocol. New performance results will be shown with the most current version of the dCache server. In addition to the native usage of the mounted filesystem in a LAN environment, the results are given for the performance of the dCache NFS v4.1/pNFS in WAN case. Several commercial vendors are currently in alpha or beta phase of adding the NFS v4.1/pNFS protocol to their storage appliances. We will test some of these vendor solutions for their readiness for HEP analysis. DESY has recently purchased an IBM Sonas system. We will present the result of a thorough performance evaluation using the native protocols NFS (v3 or v4) and GPFS. As the emphasis is on the usability for end user analysis, we will use latest ROOT versions and current end user analysis code for benchmark scenarios.

  19. Improved resolution by mounting of tissue sections for laser microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, M C R F; Rombout, P D M; Dijkman, H B P M; Ruiter, D J; Bernsen, M R

    2003-08-01

    Laser microbeam microdissection has greatly facilitated the procurement of specific cell populations from tissue sections. However, the fact that a coverslip is not used means that the morphology of the tissue sections is often poor. To develop a mounting method that greatly improves the morphological quality of tissue sections for laser microbeam microdissection purposes so that the identification of target cells can be facilitated. Fresh frozen tissue and formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue specimens were used to test the morphological quality of mounted and unmounted tissue. The mounting solution consisted of an adhesive gum and blue ink diluted in water. Interference of the mounting solution with DNA quality was analysed by the polymerase chain reaction using 10-2000 cells isolated by microdissection from mounted and unmounted tissue. The mounting solution greatly improved the morphology of tissue sections for laser microdissection purposes and had no detrimental effects on the isolation and efficiency of amplification of DNA. One disadvantage was that the mounting solution reduced the cutting efficiency of the ultraviolet laser. To minimise this effect, the mounting solution should be diluted as much as possible. Furthermore, the addition of blue ink to the mounting medium restores the cutting efficiency of the laser. The mounting solution is easy to prepare and apply and can be combined with various staining methods without compromising the quality of the DNA extracted.

  20. Eruptive history of Mount Katmai, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Edward; Fierstein, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Mount Katmai has long been recognized for its caldera collapse during the great pyroclastic eruption of 1912 (which vented 10 km away at Novarupta in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes), but little has previously been reported about the geology of the remote ice-clad stratovolcano itself. Over several seasons, we reconnoitered all parts of the edifice and sampled most of the lava flows exposed on its flanks and caldera rim. The precipitous inner walls of the 1912 caldera remain too unstable for systematic sampling; so we provide instead a photographic and interpretive record of the wall sequences exposed. In contrast to the several andesite-dacite stratovolcanoes nearby, products of Mount Katmai range from basalt to rhyolite. Before collapse in 1912, there were two overlapping cones with separate vent complexes and craters; their products are here divided into eight sequences of lava flows, agglutinates, and phreatomagmatic ejecta. Latest Pleistocene and Holocene eruptive units include rhyodacite and rhyolite lava flows along the south rim; a major 22.8-ka rhyolitic plinian fall and ignimbrite deposit; a dacite-andesite zoned scoria fall; a thick sheet of dacite agglutinate that filled a paleocrater and draped the west side of the edifice; unglaciated leveed dacite lava flows on the southeast slope; and the Horseshoe Island dacite dome that extruded on the caldera floor after collapse. Pre-collapse volume of the glaciated Katmai edifice was ∼30 km3, and eruptive volume is estimated to have been 57±13 km3. The latter figure includes ∼40±6 km3 for the edifice, 5±2 km3 for off-edifice dacite pyroclastic deposits, and 12±5 km3 for the 22.8-ka rhyolitic pyroclastic deposits. To these can be added 13.5 km3 of magma that erupted at Novarupta in 1912, all or much of which is inferred to have been withdrawn from beneath Mount Katmai. The oldest part of the edifice exposed is a basaltic cone, which gave a 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 89 ± 25 ka.

  1. Surficial Geology of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, Dwight Raymond

    1969-01-01

    Much of the ground surface around Mount Rainier volcano is directly underlain by loose geologic deposits that veneer the hard rock formations. Examples of these deposits are sand and gravel bars along the rivers, ridges of loose rock debris beside the glaciers, and sloping aprons of rock fragments beneath almost every cliff. Even though they are generally thin and inconspicuous when compared with the rock formations, these surficial deposits are clues to geologic events that have profoundly influenced the shape of the park's landscape. Thus, from the character and extent of glacial deposits one can judge the age and size of former glaciers that carved the cirques and deep canyons of the park; from the mudflows which streamed down nearly every valley one can infer the age and size of huge landslides of the past that helped determine Mount Rainier's present shape; and from the pumice deposits some of the volcano's recent eruptive activity can be reconstructed. The map (plate 1, in pocket) that accompanies this description of the surficial deposits of Mount Rainier National Park shows the location of the various geologic formations, and the explanation shows the formations arranged in order of their relative age, with the oldest at the bottom. The text describes the surficial deposits in sequence from older to younger. A discussion of the pumice deposits of the park, which were not mapped, is followed by a description of the formations shown on the geologic map. Inspection of the geologic map may lead the viewer to question why the surficial deposits are shown in more detail in a zone several miles wide around the base of the volcano than elsewhere. This is partly because the zone is largely near or above timberline, relatively accessible, and the surficial deposits there can be readily recognized, differentiated, and mapped. In contrast, access is more difficult in the heavily timbered parts of the park, and surficial deposits there are generally blanketed by a dense

  2. Full waveform ambient noise tomography of Mount Rainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, A. F.; Shen, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Mount Rainier towers over the landscape of western Washington, ranking with Fuji-yama in Japan, Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines, and Mt. Vesuvius in Italy, as one of the great stratovolcanoes of the world. Notwithstanding it's picturesque stature, Mt. Rainier is potentially the most devastating stratovolcano in North America, with more than 3.5 million people living beneath its shadow in the Seattle-Tacoma area. The primary hazard posed by the volcano is in the form of highly destructive volcanic debris flows (lahars). These lahars form when water and/or melted ice erode away and entrain preexisting volcanic sediment. At Mt. Rainier these flows are often initiated by sector collapse of the volcano's hydrothermally rotten flanks and compounded from Mt. Rainier's extensive snow and glacial ice coverage. It is therefore imperative to ascertain the extent of summit hydrothermal alteration within the volcano, and determine areas prone to collapse. Despite being one of the sixteen volcanoes globally designated by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior as warranting detailed and focused study, Mt. Rainier remains enigmatic both in terms of shallow internal structure and the degree of summit hydrothermal alteration. We image this shallow internal structure and areas of possible summit alteration using ambient noise tomography. Our full waveform forward modeling includes high-resolution topography, allowing us to accurately account for the effects of topography on the propagation of short-period Rayleigh waves. Empirical Green's functions were extracted from 80 stations within 200 km of Mount Rainier and compared with synthetic greens functions over multiple frequency bands from 2-28 seconds. The preliminary model shows a broad (60 km wide) low shear-wave velocity anomaly in the mid-crust beneath the volcano. The mid-crust low-velocity body extends to the surface beneath the volcano summit in a narrow near-vertical conduit, the

  3. Rack assembly for mounting solar modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisted, Joshua Reed; West, Brian

    2010-12-28

    A rack assembly is provided for mounting solar modules over an underlying body. The rack assembly may include a plurality of rail structures that are arrangeable over the underlying body to form an overall perimeter for the rack assembly. One or more retention structures may be provided with the plurality of rail structures, where each retention structure is configured to support one or more solar modules at a given height above the underlying body. At least some of the plurality of rail structures are adapted to enable individual rail structures o be sealed over the underlying body so as to constrain air flow underneath the solar modules. Additionally, at least one of (i) one or more of the rail structures, or (ii) the one or more retention structures are adjustable so as to adapt the rack assembly to accommodate solar modules of varying forms or dimensions.

  4. Article mounting and position adjustment stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved adjustment and mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A ring sensor holder has locating pins on a first side thereof which are positioned within a linear keyway in a surrounding housing for permitting reciprocal movement of the ring along the keyway. A rotatable ring gear is positioned within the housing on the other side of the ring from the linear keyway and includes an oval keyway which drives the ring along the linear keyway upon rotation of the gear. Motor-driven single-stage and dual (x, y) stage adjustment systems are disclosed which are of compact construction and include a large laser transmission hole.

  5. MOUNT HOOD WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, OREGON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area of the north side of Zigzag Mountain where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area of the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248 degree F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in these areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  6. Insectivore Plants Nepenthes sp. at Mount Merbabu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the research were to know the existence of the Nepenthes at mount Merbabu, variations of its morphology, associated plants, and ecological conditions. Nepenthes are one of plants that were categorized as conserved plant by Indonesian government as indicated in PPRI No. 7/1999. Many researchers attracted to study this unique plant since it’s distinct feature and the way to get nutrient by trapping insects at its sac. Samples were taken randomly along the path for climbing from Selo, Boyolali to the top of the mountain between April to May 2000. The results show that the plants were found at the altitude of around 1500 to 2000 tsl. There were two forms of the sacs, long and short at the same individual plants. The plants grow coiling on Myristica trees and shrubs of Thunbergia fragrans Roxb., and also could grow at the stoned-soil.

  7. MOUNT PELE, AN ECOCLIMATIC GRADIENT GENERATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PHILIPPE JOSEPH

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Generally, mountains determine the characteristics of particular areas, because of the island phenomenon they cause. However, the geological origins of mountains are multiple and they are located in different climatic regions. Nevertheless, in all aspects they reflect the basic elements of the local biologic unit. The shapes, climates, diverse water resources, biocenoses and the generated soils are the different components that determine, through their dynamic interaction, the “Mountain” ecosystem. Tectonic subduction processes lead to the development of islands such as Martinique, whose basic structure consists of a series of mountains (among them Mount Pele. Like the topographic divisions, the local micro-climates, water courses, different soils (themselves the consequences of the presence of the mountain itself and successive volcanic eruptions determine, over time, the organization of the diverse vegetal entities.

  8. Mount Ararat, Turkey, Perspective with Landsat Image Overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This perspective view shows Mount Ararat in easternmost Turkey, which has been the site of several searches for the remains of Noah's Ark. The main peak, known as Great Ararat, is the tallest peak in Turkey, rising to 5165 meters (16,945 feet). This southerly, near horizontal view additionally shows the distinctly conically shaped peak known as 'Little Ararat' on the left. Both peaks are volcanoes that are geologically young, but activity during historic times is uncertain.This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view uses a 1.25-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. Natural colors of the scene are enhanced by image processing, inclusion of some infrared reflectance (as green) to highlight the vegetation pattern, and inclusion of shading of the elevation model to further highlight the topographic features. Volcanoes pose hazards for people, the most obvious being the threat of eruption. But other hazards are associated with volcanoes too. In 1840 an earthquake shook the Mount Ararat region, causing an unstable part of mountain's north slope to tumble into and destroy a village. Visualizations of satellite imagery when combined with elevation models can be used to reveal such hazards leading to disaster prevention through improved land use planning.But the hazards of volcanoes are balanced in part by the benefits they provide. Over geologic time volcanic materials break down to form fertile soils. Cultivation of these soils has fostered and sustained civilizations, as has occurred in the Mount Ararat region. Likewise, tall volcanic peaks often catch precipitation, providing a water supply to those civilizations. Mount Ararat hosts an icefield and set of glaciers, as seen here in this late summer scene, that are part of this beneficial natural processElevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

  9. Local Community Entrepreneurship in Mount Agung Trekking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudana, I. G.; Sutama, I. K.; Widhari, C. I. S.

    2018-01-01

    Since its last major eruption in 1963, Mount Agung in Selat District, Karangasem Regency, the highest mountain in Bali Province began to be visited by tourists climbers. Because of the informal obligation that every climbing/trekking should be guided by local guides, since the 1990s, there have been initiatives from a number of local community members to serve climbing tourists who were keen to climb the volcano/mountain. This study was conducted to understand and describe the entrepreneurial practices which appeared in the local surrounding community. Specifically, Selat Village, in guiding the climbing/trekking. This study used qualitative data analysis and its theories were adapted to data needed in the field. The results of study showed that Mount Agung was considered attractive by climbing tourists not only because of the exotic beauty and challenges of difficulty (as well as the level of danger) to conquer it, but also because it kept certain myths from its status as a holy/sacred mountain to Balinese Hindus. In fact, a number of tourists who did the climbing/trekking without being guided very often got lost, harmed in an accident, or fell to their death. As a direct result, all climbing activities require guidance. Especially guides from local community organizations who really understand the intricacies of climbing and the curvature of the mountain. The entrepreneurial practices of Selat Village community had arisen not only to serve usual climbing activities, but also to preserve the environment of the mountain and the safety of the climbing tourists with the many taboos related to the climb. These facts could be seen clearly from descriptions of local experts and local climbing guides who have been doing their work for years. As a form of entrepreneurship, they basically did their work for the main purpose of seeking livelihoods (or making money) but their responsibility as local people made them commit to guarding the sanctity of the mountain. This was

  10. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jack Raymond; Atchley, Brian; Hudson, Tyrus Hawkes; Johansen, Emil

    2016-01-05

    A photovoltaic array, including: (a) supports laid out on a surface in rows and columns; (b) photovoltaic modules positioned on top of the supports; and (c) fasteners connecting the photovoltaic modules to the supports, wherein the supports have an upper pedestal surface and a lower pedestal surface such that the photovoltaic modules are positioned at a non-horizontal angle when edges of the photovoltaic modules are positioned on top of the upper and lower pedestal surfaces, and wherein a portion of the fasteners rotate to lock the photovoltaic modules onto the supports.

  11. Virtual sine arm kinematic mount system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Z.; Randall, K.J.

    1997-01-01

    A novel kinematic mount system for a vertical focusing mirror of the soft x-ray spectroscopy beamline at the Advanced Photon Source is described. The system contains three points in a horizontal plane. Each point consists of two horizontal linear precision stages, a spherical ball bearing, and a vertical precision stage. The horizontal linear stages are aligned orthogonally and are conjoined by a spherical ball bearing, supported by the vertical linear stage at each point. The position of each confined horizontal stage is controlled by a motorized micrometer head by spring-loading the flat tip of the micrometer head onto a tooling ball fixing on the carriage of the stage. A virtual sine arm is formed by tilting the upstream horizontal stage down and the two downstream horizontal stages up by a small angle. The fine pitch motion is achieved by adjusting the upstream stage. This supporting structure is extremely steady due to a relatively large span across the supporting points and yields extremely high resolution on the pitch motion. With a one degree tilt and a microstepping motor, the authors achieved a 0.4 nanoradian resolution on the mirror pitch motion

  12. Geological interpretation of Mount Ciremai geothermal system from remote sensing and magneto-teluric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sumintadireja, Prihadi; Saepuloh, Asep; Irawan, Dasapta E.; Irawan, Diky; Fadillah, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of geothermal system at Mount Ciremai has been started since the early 1980s and has just been studied carefully since the early 2000s. Previous studies have detected the potential of geothermal system and also the groundwater mechanism feeding the system. This paper will discuss the geothermal exploration based on regional scale surface temperature analysis with Landsat image to have a more detail interpretation of the geological setting and magneto-telluric or MT survey at p...

  13. Geothermal Potential Analysis Using Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 (Case Study: Mount Ijen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukojo, B. M.; Mardiana, R.

    2017-12-01

    Geothermal energy is also a heat energy contained in the earth’s internal. Indonesia has a total geothermal potential of around 27 GWe. The government is eager for the development of geothermal in Indonesia can run well so that geothermal can act as one of the pillars of national energy. However, the geothermal potential has not been fully utilized. One of the geothermal potention is Mount Ijen. Mount Ijen is a strato volcano that has a crater lake with a depth of about 190 m and has a very high degree of acidity and the volume of lake water is very large. With the abundance of potential geothermal potential in Indonesia, it is necessary to have an activity in the form of integrated geoscience studies to be able to maximize the potential content that exists in a geothermal area. One of the studies conducted is to do potential mapping. This research performs image data processing of Landsat 8, Sentinel 2, RBI Map, and preliminary survey data. This research carried out the Vegetation Index, surface temperature and altitude. The equipment used in this research includes image processing software, number processing software, GPS Handheld and Laptop. Surface Temperatures in the Mount Ijen have anomalies with large temperatures ranging between 18° C to 38° C. The best correlation value of altitude and ground surface temperature is -0.89 ie the correlation of January surface temperature. While the correlation value of Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 vegetation index was 0.81. The land cover confidence matrix scored 80%. Land cover in the research area is dominated by forests by 35% of the research area. There is a potential area of geothermal potential is very high on Mount Ijen with an area of 39.43 hectares located in Wongsorejo District and adjacent to District Sempol.

  14. Alternative mounting media for preservation of some protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado-Fornelio, A; Heredero-Bermejo, I; Pérez-Serrano, J

    2014-10-01

    Protozoa resistant stages are disintegrated when mounted in toluene-based media. To overcome such problem, three toluene-free mountants were tested on preserve Acanthamoeba spp and gregarines. Two commercial glues based on cyanoacrylate or trimethoxysilane were suitable for preserving both cysts and trophozoites. Hoyer's medium showed good results for mounting gregarine oocysts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Solar electricity potentials and optimal angles for mounting solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for harnessing solar energy using solar panels mounted at optimal inclination angles in the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria is presented. The optimal angle for mounting solar panels as presented by Photovoltaic Geographic Information System (PVGIS) ranges from 11º to 14º in the Southern zone and 13º to 16º ...

  16. Wind instrument mountings for above-the-cab lookout exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen P. Cramer; Ralph H. Moltzau

    1968-01-01

    The lookout tower offers a ready-made platform from which the speed of true unobstructed wind can be measured, then reduced to equivalent of 20-foot wind. Tower-mounted instruments must meet the requirements of a lightning conductor system, but should also be easily installed and removed for storage and maintenance. Lightweight aluminum mountings for catwalk or flat-...

  17. The alpine flora of Mount Wilhelm (New Guinea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogland, R.D.

    1958-01-01

    The flora of the higher mountains of New Guinea has been the object of several extensive collecting trips in the past forty years. Until quite recently, however, a serious gap in our knowledge was the very scanty information available from the area between Mount Wilhelmina in the West and Mount

  18. Optimization of Classical Hydraulic Engine Mounts Based on RMS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Christopherson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on RMS averaging of the frequency response functions of the absolute acceleration and relative displacement transmissibility, optimal parameters describing the hydraulic engine mount are determined to explain the internal mount geometry. More specifically, it is shown that a line of minima exists to define a relationship between the absolute acceleration and relative displacement transmissibility of a sprung mass using a hydraulic mount as a means of suspension. This line of minima is used to determine several optimal systems developed on the basis of different clearance requirements, hence different relative displacement requirements, and compare them by means of their respective acceleration and displacement transmissibility functions. In addition, the transient response of the mount to a step input is also investigated to show the effects of the optimization upon the time domain response of the hydraulic mount.

  19. Banner clouds observed at Mount Zugspitze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Wirth

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Systematic observations of banner clouds at Mount Zugspitze in the Bavarian Alps are presented and discussed. One set of observations draws on daily time lapse movies, which were taken over several years at this mountain. Identifying banner clouds with the help of these movies and using simultaneous observations of standard variables at the summit of the mountain provides climatological information regarding the banner clouds. In addition, a week-long measurement campaign with an entire suite of instruments was carried through yielding a comprehensive set of data for two specific banner cloud events.

    The duration of banner cloud events has a long-tailed distribution with a mean of about 40 min. The probability of occurrence has both a distinct diurnal and a distinct seasonal cycle, with a maximum in the afternoon and in the warm season, respectively. These cycles appear to correspond closely to analogous cycles of relative humidity, which maximize in the late afternoon and during the warm season. In addition, the dependence of banner cloud occurrence on wind speed is weak. Both results suggest that moisture conditions are a key factor for banner cloud occurrence. The distribution of wind direction during banner cloud events slightly deviates from climatology, suggesting an influence from the specific Zugspitz orography.

    The two banner cloud events during the campaign have a number of common features: the windward and the leeward side are characterized by different wind regimes, however, with mean upward flow on both sides; the leeward air is both moister and warmer than the windward air; the background atmosphere has an inversion just above the summit of Mt. Zugspitze; the lifting condensation level increases with altitude. The results are discussed, and it is argued that they are consistent with previous Large Eddy Simulations using idealized orography.

  20. Gravity Probe B Detector Mount Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) detector mount assembly is shown in comparison to the size of a dime. The assembly is used to detect exactly how much starlight is coming through different beams from the beam splitter in the telescope. The measurements from the tiny chips inside are what keeps GP-B aimed at the guide star. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Paul Ehrensberger, Stanford University.)

  1. Installation of a Roof Mounted Photovoltaic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to create a safe and comfortable environment for students to learn, a lot of electricity, which is generated from coal fired power plants, is used. Therefore, ISF Academy, a school in Hong Kong with approximately 1,500 students, will be installing a rooftop photovoltaic (PV) system with 302 solar panels. Not only will these panels be used to power a classroom, they will also serve as an educational opportunity for students to learn about the importance of renewable energy technology and its uses. There were four different options for the installation of the solar panels, and the final choice was made based on the loading capacity of the roof, considering the fact that overstressing the roof could prove to be a safety hazard. Moreover, due to consideration of the risk of typhoons in Hong Kong, the solar panel PV system will include concrete plinths as counterweights - but not so much that the roof would be severely overstressed. During and after the installation of the PV system, students involved would be able to do multiple calculations, such as determining the reduction of the school's carbon footprint. This can allow students to learn about the impact renewable energy can have on the environment. Another project students can participate in includes measuring the efficiency of the solar panels and how much power can be produced per year, which in turn can help with calculate the amount of money saved per year and when we will achieve economic parity. In short, the installation of the roof mounted PV system will not only be able to help save money for the school but also provide learning opportunities for students studying at the ISF Academy.

  2. Quasi-optical grill mounted in hyperguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preinhaelter, J.

    1995-04-01

    A proposal is given of a new launcher of lower hybrid waves for the current drive in future big thermonuclear facilities operating in the 10 GHz frequency range. The principle has been combined of the quasi-optical grill with the concepts of the hyperguide and the multiinjection grill. As an example, a six rod structure model was optimized mounted in a oversized waveguide and irradiated by the oblique plane wave emerging in the form of a higher mode from an auxiliary oversized waveguide. The rods of the optimum structure have the elongated form of the cross-section with the resonant length in the direction of wave propagation equal to a multiple of the half-wavelength of the fundamental mode of the hyperguide. This row of rods forms a multiinjection grill with zero phase shift between waveguides. The second row of rods supporting the constructive superposition of the incident and doubly reflected waves enhances the efficiency of the structure. The optimum structure has a power spectrum with narrow peaks (the main N || =-2.15 and the parasitic N || =3.15), low power reflection (R tot =15%), high coupled power directivity (δ CP =70%), reasonable N || -weighted directivity (|δ CD w |=35%) and the peaking factor on the electric field equal to 3. Based on the optimization it is possible to design parameters of a big structure with tens of rods. The number of the construction elements of the structure can be reduced 20 times compared with the standard multijunction array. (author) 14 figs., 22 refs

  3. High-resolution radon monitoring and hydrodynamics at Mount Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigolini, Corrado; Salierno, Francesco; Gervino, Gianpiero; Bergese, Paolo; Marino, Ciro; Russo, Massimo; Prati, Paolo; Ariola, Vincenzo; Bonetti, Roberto; Begnini, Stefania

    A yearlong high-resolution radon survey has been carried on at Mount Vesuvius, starting in May 1998. Radon activities were acquired by exposing charcoal canisters and track-etch detectors. Sampling stations were deployed along two major summit faults and around the caldera bottom. Volcanically-related earthquakes, with MD ≥ 2.5, may be discriminated from regional seismic events since their cumulative radon anomalies are recorded from stations located along all the above structural features. On the contrary, radon anomalies correlated to regional earthquakes, with MD ≥ 4, are essentially recorded by the sampling sites located along the two summit faults (whose roots extend deeper into the Tertiary basement rocks that underlay the volcano). Radon migration to the surface is ruled by convection within a porous medium of relatively low porosity (ϕ ≈ 10-5), suggesting that fluid motion is strongly localised along fractures. It is suggested that fluid pressure build up, followed by fluid release and migration during incipient fracturing of the porous medium, precede the onset of volcanically-induced earthquakes.

  4. Snow observations in Mount Lebanon (2011-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Abbas; Gascoin, Simon; Faour, Ghaleb; Fanise, Pascal; Drapeau, Laurent; Somma, Janine; Fadel, Ali; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Escadafal, Richard

    2017-08-01

    We present a unique meteorological and snow observational dataset in Mount Lebanon, a mountainous region with a Mediterranean climate, where snowmelt is an essential water resource. The study region covers the recharge area of three karstic river basins (total area of 1092 km2 and an elevation up to 3088 m). The dataset consists of (1) continuous meteorological and snow height observations, (2) snowpack field measurements, and (3) medium-resolution satellite snow cover data. The continuous meteorological measurements at three automatic weather stations (MZA, 2296 m; LAQ, 1840 m; and CED, 2834 m a.s.l.) include surface air temperature and humidity, precipitation, wind speed and direction, incoming and reflected shortwave irradiance, and snow height, at 30 min intervals for the snow seasons (November-June) between 2011 and 2016 for MZA and between 2014 and 2016 for CED and LAQ. Precipitation data were filtered and corrected for Geonor undercatch. Observations of snow height (HS), snow water equivalent, and snow density were collected at 30 snow courses located at elevations between 1300 and 2900 m a.s.l. during the two snow seasons of 2014-2016 with an average revisit time of 11 days. Daily gap-free snow cover extent (SCA) and snow cover duration (SCD) maps derived from MODIS snow products are provided for the same period (2011-2016). We used the dataset to characterize mean snow height, snow water equivalent (SWE), and density for the first time in Mount Lebanon. Snow seasonal variability was characterized with high HS and SWE variance and a relatively high snow density mean equal to 467 kg m-3. We find that the relationship between snow depth and snow density is specific to the Mediterranean climate. The current model explained 34 % of the variability in the entire dataset (all regions between 1300 and 2900 m a.s.l.) and 62 % for high mountain regions (elevation 2200-2900 m a.s.l.). The dataset is suitable for the investigation of snow dynamics and for the forcing

  5. Cinder cones of Mount Slamet, Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igan S. SutawIdjaja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no1.20096The Mount Slamet volcanic field in Central Java, Indonesia, contains thirty five cinder cones within an area of 90 sq. km in the east flank of the volcano. The cinder cones occur singly or in small groups, with diameter of the base ranges from 130 - 750 m and the height is around 250 m. Within the volcanic field, the cinder cones are spread over the volcanic area at the distance of 4 to 14 km from the eruption center of the Slamet Volcano. They are concentrated within latitudes 7°11’00” - 7°16’00” S,, and longitudes 109°15’00” - 109°18’00” E. The density of the cinder cones is about 1.5 cones/km2. Most of the cinder cones lie on the Tertiary sedimentary rocks along the NW-trending fault system and on radial fractures. The structural pattern may be related to the radial faults in this region. The cone surfaces are commonly blanketed by Slamet air-falls and lava flows. The deposits consist of poorly bedded, very coarse-grained, occasionally overlain by oxidized scoria, and large-sized of ballistic bombs and blocks. There are various kind of volcanic bombs originating from scoriae ballistic rock fragments. The other kind of volcanic bombs are breadcrust bomb, almond seed or contorted shape. All of the cinder cones have undergone degradation, which can be observed from the characters of gully density and surface morphology. By using Porter parameters, Hco is equal to 0.25 Wco, whilst Wcr is equal to 0.40 Wco. The Hco/Wco ratio is higher than Hco = 0.2 Wco reference line. A radiometric dating using K-Ar method carried out on a scoria bomb yields the age of 0.042 + 0.020 Ma.  

  6. Apparent Brecciation Gradient, Mount Desert Island, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, A. T.; Johnson, S. E.

    2004-05-01

    Mount Desert Island, Maine, comprises a shallow level, Siluro-Devonian igneous complex surrounded by a distinctive breccia zone ("shatter zone" of Gilman and Chapman, 1988). The zone is very well exposed on the southern and eastern shores of the island and provides a unique opportunity to examine subvolcanic processes. The breccia of the Shatter Zone shows wide variation in percent matrix and clast, and may represent a spatial and temporal gradient in breccia formation due to a single eruptive or other catastrophic volcanic event. The shatter zone was divided into five developmental stages based on the extent of brecciation: Bar Harbor Formation, Sols Cliffs breccia, Seeley Road breccia, Dubois breccia, and Great Head breccia. A digital camera was employed to capture scale images of representative outcrops using a 0.5 m square Plexiglas frame. Individual images were joined in Adobe Photoshop to create a composite image of each outcrop. The composite photo was then exported to Adobe Illustrator, which was used to outline the clasts and produce a digital map of the outcrop for analysis. The fractal dimension (Fd) of each clast was calculated using NIH Image and a Euclidean distance mapping method described by Bérubé and Jébrak (1999) to quantify the morphology of the fragments, or the complexity of the outline. The more complex the fragment outline, the higher the fractal dimension, indicating that the fragment is less "mature" or has had less exposure to erosional processes, such as the injection of an igneous matrix. Sols Cliffs breccia has an average Fd of 1.125, whereas Great Head breccia has an average Fd of 1.040, with the stages between having intermediate values. The more complex clasts of the Sols Cliffs breccia with a small amount (26.38%) of matrix material suggests that it is the first stage in a sequence of brecciation ending at the more mature, matrix-supported (71.37%) breccia of Great Head. The results of this study will be used to guide isotopic

  7. 76 FR 27173 - Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Rocky Mount & Western Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35501] Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Rocky Mount & Western Railroad Co., Inc. d/b/a Nash County Railroad Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc. (CLNA), a Class III rail carrier, has filed a verified...

  8. Mechanical Design of an Omni-Directional Sensor Mount

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosheim, Mark

    2002-01-01

    This effort has been directed to development and demonstration of a gimbal mount capable of 180 degree singularity- free pitch and yaw motion about a two-axis center, avoiding the common problem of gimbal lock...

  9. Rapid mounting of adult Drosophila structures in Hoyer's medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David L; Sucena, Elio

    2012-01-01

    The Drosophila cuticle carries a rich array of morphological details. Thus, cuticle examination has had a central role in the history of genetics. This protocol describes a procedure for mounting adult cuticles in Hoyer's medium, a useful mountant for both larval and adult cuticles. The medium digests soft tissues rapidly, leaving the cuticle cleared for observation. In addition, samples can be transferred directly from water to Hoyer's medium. However, specimens mounted in Hoyer's medium degrade over time. For example, the fine denticles on the larval dorsum are best observed soon after mounting; they begin to fade after 1 week, and can disappear completely after several months. More robust features, such as the ventral denticle belts, will persist for a longer period of time. Because adults cannot profitably be mounted whole in Hoyer's medium, some dissection is necessary.

  10. Application of Evolutionary Computation in Automotive Powertrain Mount Tuning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anab Akanda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Engine mount tuning is a multi-disciplinary exercise since it affects Idle-shake, Road-shake and power-train noise response. Engine inertia is often used as a tuned absorber for controlling suspension resonance related road-shake issues. Last but not least, vehicle ride and handling may also be affected by mount tuning. In this work, Torque-Roll-Axis (TRA decoupling of the rigid powertrain was used as a starting point for mount tuning. Nodal point of flexible powertrain bending was used to define the envelop for transmission mount locations. The frequency corresponding to the decoupled roll mode of the rigid powertrain was then adjusted for idle-shake and road-shake response management.

  11. A vehicle mounted scintillation ratemeter for environmental survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavell, I.W.

    1960-01-01

    An improved method of mounting an existing environmental gamma survey equipment in a vehicle is described. Performance data for the equipment is given and some typical radiometric traces obtained at A.E.E. Winfrith given. (author)

  12. Low radioactivity material for use in mounting radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Marshall; Metzger, Albert E.; Fox, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    Two materials, sapphire and synthetic quartz, have been found for use in Ge detector mounting assemblies. These materials combine desirable mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties with the radioactive cleanliness required to detect minimal amounts of K, Th, and U.

  13. How Mount Stromlo Observatory shed its imperial beginnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    2014-12-01

    In the 90 years since its foundation in 1924, Mount Stromlo Observatory in Australia has changed from an outpost of empire to an international research institution. Ragbir Bhathal examines how the British influence waxed and waned.

  14. Fathead minnow whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This study demonstrates the potential of whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH), in conjunction with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR)...

  15. Optimization of a dual mode Rowland mount spectrometer used in the 120-950 nm wavelength range

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. W.; Bouwer, H. K.

    In a recent article, several configurations were described whereby a Rowland mount spectrometer could be modified to cover a wavelength range of 120-950 nm. In one of these configurations, large additional image aberration is introduced which severely limits the spectral resolving power. In the present article, the theoretical imaging properties of this configuration are considered and a simple method is proposed to reduce this aberration. The optimized system possesses an image quality similar to the conventional Rowland mount with the image surface slightly displaced from the Rowland circle but concentric to it.

  16. Taking Charge: Walter Sydney Adams and the Mount Wilson Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashear, R.

    2004-12-01

    The growing preeminence of American observational astronomy in the first half of the 20th century is a well-known story and much credit is given to George Ellery Hale and his skill as an observatory-building entrepreneur. But a key figure who has yet to be discussed in great detail is Walter Sydney Adams (1876-1956), Hale's Assistant Director at Mount Wilson Observatory. Due to Hale's illnesses, Adams was Acting Director for much of Hale's tenure, and he became the second Director of Mount Wilson from 1923 to 1946. Behind his New England reserve Adams was instrumental in the growth of Mount Wilson and thus American astronomy in general. Adams was hand-picked by Hale to take charge of stellar spectroscopy work at Yerkes and Mount Wilson and the younger astronomer showed tremendous loyalty to Hale and Hale's vision throughout his career. As Adams assumed the leadership role at Mount Wilson he concentrated on making the observatory a place where researchers worked with great freedom but maintain a high level of cooperation. This paper will concentrate on Adams's early years and look at his growing relationship with Hale and how he came to be the central figure in the early history of Mount Wilson as both a solar and stellar observatory. His education, his years at Dartmouth and Yerkes (including his unfortunate encounter with epsilon Leonis), and his formative years on Mount Wilson are all important in learning how he shaped the direction of Mount Wilson and the development of American astronomy in the first half of the 20th century. This latter history cannot be complete until we bring Adams into better focus.

  17. Some technical solutions on organization and technology of reactor room component mounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovskij, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    Design of the production equipment for mounting sites of heat facilities of the Zaporozhe NPP is considered. Plan of the production equipment for mounting sites of heat facilities and flowsheet of mounting of supporting truss of the reactor are presented

  18. National Ingition Facility subsystem design requirements optical mounts SSDR 1.4.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, M.

    1996-01-01

    This SSDR establishes the performance, design, development and test requirements for NIF Beam Transport Optomechanical Subsystems. optomechanical Subsystems includes the mounts for the beam transport mirrors, LMl - LM8, the polarizer mount, and the spatial filter lens mounts

  19. New active machine tool drive mounting on the frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Švéda J.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the new active mounting of the machine tool drives. The commonly used machine tools are at this time mainly equipped with fix-mounting of the feed drives. This structure causes full transmission of the force shocks to the machine bed and thereby restricts the dynamic properties of the motion axis and the whole machine. The spring-mounting of the feed drives is one of the possibilities how to partially suppress the vibrations. The force that reacts to the machine tool bed is transformed thereby the vibrations are lightly reduced. Unfortunately the transformation is not fully controlled. The new active mounting of the machine tool drives allows to fully control the force behaviour that react to the machine body. Thereby the number of excited frequencies on the machine tool bed is significantly reduced. The active variant of the feed drive mounting is characterized by the synergistic cooperation between two series-connected actuators (“motor on motor”. The paper briefly describes design, control techniques and optimization of the feed drives with the new active mounting conception.

  20. UHV mirror mounts for photophysics beamline at Indus-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenakshi Raja Rao, P.; Bhattacharya, S.S.; Das, N.C.; Rajasekhar, B.N.; Roy, A.P.

    1995-01-01

    Photophysics beamline makes use of a combination of two toroidal mirrors and one meter Seya-Namioka Monochromator in its fore optics. The fore optics monochromatises and steers the synchrotron radiation source (SRS) beam from its tangent point to the sample situated at a distance of about five meters. Slit widths of the monochromator are of the order of 100μ and the sample size is one mm 2 . Hence it is essential to impart precision rotational and translational movements of the same order of magnitude to the mirrors with the use of appropriate mirror mounts. Since Indus-1 operates at a pressure -9 mbar, the mirror mounts should be UHV compatible and the movements should be actuated under UHV. The mirrors along with the mirror mounts are enclosed in UHV chambers. The mirror chambers have been fabricated at Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT) workshops and tested up to a pressure of 10 -9 mbar. The mirror mounts are designed, fabricated and leak checked (He leak rate -10 std cc/s) The precision movements are achieved with the help of bellow sealed shaft mechanism and adjustable screws provided with the kinematic mount of the mirror frame. The performance of the mirror mount was tested at atmospheric pressure by using a laser beam and found to be good. The minimum displacement of the laser beam at slit and sample positions is ∼ 70μ which is quite adequate for optical alignment. The performance of the mirror mount under UHV conditions is being evaluated. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  1. Development and evaluation of a boat-mounted RFID antenna for monitoring freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jesse R.; Neebling, Travis E.; Quist, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Development of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags has substantially increased the ability of researchers and managers to monitor populations of aquatic organisms. However, use of transportable RFID antenna systems (i.e., backpack-mounted) is currently limited to wadeable aquatic environments (RFID antenna to detect individually PIT-tagged benthic aquatic organisms (mussels). We evaluated the effects of tag orientation on detection distances in water with a 32-mm half-duplex PIT tag. Detection distances up to 50 cm from the antenna coils were obtained, but detection distance was dependent on tag orientation. We also evaluated detection distance of PIT tags beneath the sediment to simulate detection of burrowing mussels with 23- and 32-mm tags. In sand substrate, the maximum detection distance varied from 3.5 cm and 4.5 cm (vertical tag orientation) to 24.7 cm and 39.4 cm (45° tag orientation) for the 23- and 32-mm PIT tags, respectively. Our results suggest a 1.4-m total detection width for tagged mussels on the substrate surface by the boat-mounted antenna system regardless of tag orientation. However, burrowed mussels may require multiple passes to increase detection that would be influenced by depth, tag orientation, and tag size. Construction of the boat-mounted antenna was relatively low in cost (<500 USD) and had several advantages (less labor and time intensive, increased safety) over traditional mussel sampling techniques (diving, snorkeling) in nonwadeable habitats.

  2. Shallow repeating seismic events under an alpine glacier at Mount Rainier, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Weston A.; Allstadt, Kate E.; De Angelis, Silvio; Malone, Stephen D.; Moran, Seth C.; Vidale, John

    2013-01-01

    We observed several swarms of repeating low-frequency (1–5 Hz) seismic events during a 3 week period in May–June 2010, near the summit of Mount Rainier, Washington, USA, that likely were a result of stick–slip motion at the base of alpine glaciers. The dominant set of repeating events ('multiplets') featured >4000 individual events and did not exhibit daytime variations in recurrence interval or amplitude. Volcanoes and glaciers around the world are known to produce seismic signals with great variability in both frequency content and size. The low-frequency character and periodic recurrence of the Mount Rainier multiplets mimic long-period seismicity often seen at volcanoes, particularly during periods of unrest. However, their near-surface location, lack of common spectral peaks across the recording network, rapid attenuation of amplitudes with distance, and temporal correlation with weather systems all indicate that ice-related source mechanisms are the most likely explanation. We interpret the low-frequency character of these multiplets to be the result of trapping of seismic energy under glacial ice as it propagates through the highly heterogeneous and attenuating volcanic material. The Mount Rainier multiplet sequences underscore the difficulties in differentiating low-frequency signals due to glacial processes from those caused by volcanic processes on glacier-clad volcanoes.

  3. Piezoresistive Carbon-based Hybrid Sensor for Body-Mounted Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnykowycz, M.; Tschudin, M.; Clemens, F.

    2017-02-01

    For body-mounted sensor applications, the evolution of soft condensed matter sensor (SCMS) materials offer conformability andit enables mechanical compliance between the body surface and the sensing mechanism. A piezoresistive hybrid sensor and compliant meta-material sub-structure provided a way to engineer sensor physical designs through modification of the mechanical properties of the compliant design. A piezoresistive fiber sensor was produced by combining a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) matrix with Carbon Black (CB) particles in 1:1 mass ratio. Feedstock was extruded in monofilament fiber form (diameter of 300 microns), resulting in a highly stretchable sensor (strain sensor range up to 100%) with linear resistance signal response. The soft condensed matter sensor was integrated into a hybrid design including a 3D printed metamaterial structure combined with a soft silicone. An auxetic unit cell was chosen (with negative Poisson’s Ratio) in the design in order to combine with the soft silicon, which exhibits a high Poisson’s Ratio. The hybrid sensor design was subjected to mechanical tensile testing up to 50% strain (with gauge factor calculation for sensor performance), and then utilized for strain-based sensing applications on the body including gesture recognition and vital function monitoring including blood pulse-wave and breath monitoring. A 10 gesture Natural User Interface (NUI) test protocol was utilized to show the effectiveness of a single wrist-mounted sensor to identify discrete gestures including finger and hand motions. These hand motions were chosen specifically for Human Computer Interaction (HCI) applications. The blood pulse-wave signal was monitored with the hand at rest, in a wrist-mounted. In addition different breathing patterns were investigated, including normal breathing and coughing, using a belt and chest-mounted configuration.

  4. Mounting ground sections of teeth: Cyanoacrylate adhesive versus Canada balsam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangala, Manogna Rl; Rudraraju, Amrutha; Subramanyam, R V

    2016-01-01

    Hard tissues can be studied by either decalcification or by preparing ground sections. Various mounting media have been tried and used for ground sections of teeth. However, there are very few studies on the use of cyanoacrylate adhesive as a mounting medium. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of cyanoacrylate adhesive (Fevikwik™) as a mounting medium for ground sections of teeth and to compare these ground sections with those mounted with Canada balsam. Ground sections were prepared from twenty extracted teeth. Each section was divided into two halves and mounted on one slide, one with cyanoacrylate adhesive (Fevikwik™) and the other with Canada balsam. Scoring for various features in the ground sections was done by two independent observers. Statistical analysis using Student's t-test (unpaired) of average scores was performed for each feature observed. No statistically significant difference was found between the two for most of the features. However, cyanoacrylate was found to be better than Canada balsam for observing striae of Retzius (P < 0.0205), enamel lamellae (P < 0.036), dentinal tubules (P < 0.0057), interglobular dentin (P < 0.0001), sclerotic dentin - transmitted light (P < 0.00001), sclerotic dentin - polarized light (P < 0.0002) and Sharpey's fibers (P < 0.0004). This initial study shows that cyanoacrylate is better than Canada balsam for observing certain features of ground sections of teeth. However, it remains to be seen whether it will be useful for studying undecalcified sections of carious teeth and for soft tissue sections.

  5. Mirror boxes and mirror mounts for photophysics beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja Rao, P.M.; Raja Sekhar, B.N.; Das, N.C.; Khan, H.A.; Bhattacharya, S.S.; Roy, A.P.

    1996-01-01

    Photophysics beamline makes use of one metre Seya-Namioka monochromator and two toroidal mirrors in its fore optics. The first toroidal mirror (pre mirror) focuses light originating from the tangent point of the storage ring onto the entrance slit of the monochromator and second toroidal mirror (post mirror) collects light from the exit slit of the monochromator and focuses light onto the sample placed at a distance of about one metre away from the 2nd mirror. To steer light through monochromator and to focus it on the sample of 1mm x 1mm size require precision rotational and translational motion of the mirrors and this has been achieved with the help of precision mirror mounts. Since Indus-1 operates at pressures less than 10 -9 m.bar, the mirror mounts should be manipulated under similar ultra high vacuum conditions. Considering these requirements, two mirror boxes and two mirror mounts have been designed and fabricated. The coarse movements to the mirrors are imparted from outside the mirror chamber with the help of x-y tables and precision movements to the mirrors are achieved with the help of mirror mounts. The UHV compatibility and performance of the mirror mounts connected to mirror boxes under ultra high vacuum condition is evaluated. The details of the design, fabrication and performance evaluation are discussed in this report. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  6. Multi-Mounted X-Ray Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jian; Liu, Zhenzhong; Wang, Jingzheng

    2016-01-01

    Most existing X-ray computed tomography (CT) techniques work in single-mounted mode and need to scan the inspected objects one by one. It is time-consuming and not acceptable for the inspection in a large scale. In this paper, we report a multi-mounted CT method and its first engineering implementation. It consists of a multi-mounted scanning geometry and the corresponding algebraic iterative reconstruction algorithm. This approach permits the CT rotation scanning of multiple objects simultaneously without the increase of penetration thickness and the signal crosstalk. Compared with the conventional single-mounted methods, it has the potential to improve the imaging efficiency and suppress the artifacts from the beam hardening and the scatter. This work comprises a numerical study of the method and its experimental verification using a dataset measured with a developed multi-mounted X-ray CT prototype system. We believe that this technique is of particular interest for pushing the engineering applications of X-ray CT.

  7. Eruption prediction aided by electronic tiltmeter data at mount st. Helens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurisin, D; Westphal, J A; Johnson, D J

    1983-09-30

    Telemetry from electronic tiltmeters in the crater at Mount St. Helens contributed to accurate predictions of all six effusive eruptions from June 1981 to August 1982. Tilting of the crater floor began several weeks before each eruption, accelerated sharply for several days, and then abruptly changed direction a few minutes to days before extrusion began. Each episode of uplift was caused by the intrusion of magma into the lava dome from a shallow source, causing the dome to inflate and eventually rupture. Release of magma pressure and increased surface loading by magma added to the dome combined to cause subsidence just prior to extrusion.

  8. Monitoring of roof mounted photovoltaics at the ECOS Millenium Environmental Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, M.; Mondol, J.D.

    2004-07-01

    A three-year study in which 103 square metres of photovoltaics mounted on a roof at the ECOS Millenium Environmental Centre in N. Ireland were monitored by the University of Ulster for energy delivery and degradation is described. Concomitantly, software written to simulate the behaviour of the photovoltaics was appraised. Factors monitored were: insolation; ambient temperature; wind speed and direction; module surface temperatures; output voltage; current and power; and load voltage and power. The work was part of the DTI New and Renewable Energy Programme and managed by Future Energy Solutions. The monitoring formally ended in December 2003 but it was expected that monitoring would continue beyond that date.

  9. Melting experiment on concrete waste using a hollow type plasma torch mounted on furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Y. P.; Kim, T. W.; Kim, H. S.; Shin, S. U.; Lee, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    A furnace coupled with a hollow type plasma torch was manufactured and installed in order to develop a volume reduction technology for non-combustible radioactive waste using plasma. A melting test with 10kg of concrete waste was carried out for the evaluation of melting characteristics in the non-transferred operation mode for 20 minutes with the melter. Feeded concrete was completely melted. However, the molten bath was not easily discharged because of its high viscosity. It was found that some molten slag spat from the molten bath was coated on the surface of torch which was mounted vertically inside furnace

  10. Hybrid diffractive-refractive optical system design of head-mounted display for augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan

    2005-02-01

    An optical see-through head-mounted display for augmented reality is designed in this paper. Considering the factors, such as the optical performance, the utilization ratios of energy of real world and virtual world, the feelings of users when he wears it and etc., a structure of the optical see-through is adopted. With the characteristics of the particular negative dispersive and the power of realizing random-phase modulation, the diffractive surface is helpful for optical system of reducing weight, simplifying structure and etc., and a diffractive surface is introduced in our optical system. The optical system with 25 mm eye relief, 12 mm exit pupil and 20° (H)x15.4° (V) field-of-view is designed. The utilization ratios of energy of real world and virtual world are 1/4 and 1/2, respectively. The angular resolution of display is 0.27 mrad and it less than that of the minimum of human eyes. The diameter of this system is less than 46mm, and it applies the binocular. This diffractive-refractive optical system of see-through head-mounted display not only satisfies the demands of user"s factors in structure, but also with high resolution, very small chromatic aberration and distortion, and satisfies the need of augmented reality. In the end, the parameters of the diffractive surface are discussed.

  11. Inverse axial mounting stiffness design for lithographic projection lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-quan, Yuan; Hong-bo, Shang; Wei, Zhang

    2014-09-01

    In order to balance axial mounting stiffness of lithographic projection lenses and the image quality under dynamic working conditions, an easy inverse axial mounting stiffness design method is developed in this article. Imaging quality deterioration at the wafer under different axial vibration levels is analyzed. The desired image quality can be determined according to practical requirements, and axial vibrational tolerance of each lens is solved with the damped least-squares method. Based on adaptive interval adjustment, a binary search algorithm, and the finite element method, the axial mounting stiffness of each lens can be traveled in a large interval, and converges to a moderate numerical solution which makes the axial vibrational amplitude of the lens converge to its axial vibrational tolerance. Model simulation is carried out to validate the effectiveness of the method.

  12. Preparation and mounting of adult Drosophila structures in Canada balsam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David L; Sucena, Elio

    2012-03-01

    The Drosophila cuticle carries a rich array of morphological details. Thus, cuticle examination has had a central role in the history of genetics. To prepare fine "museum-quality," permanent slides, it is best to mount specimens in Canada Balsam. It is difficult to give precise recipes for Canada Balsam, because every user seems to prefer a slightly different viscosity. Dilute solutions spread easily and do not dry too rapidly while mounting specimens. The disadvantage is that there is actually less Balsam in a "drop" of the solution, and when dried, it can contract from the sides of the coverslip, sometimes disturbing the specimen. Unfortunately, there is no substitute for experience when using Canada Balsam. This protocol describes a procedure for mounting adult cuticles in Canada Balsam.

  13. Solar rotation measurements at Mount Wilson. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labonte, B.J.; Howard, R.; Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena

    1981-01-01

    Possible sources of systematic error in solar Doppler rotational velocities are examined. Scattered light is shown to affect the Mount Wilson solar rotation results, but this effect is not enough to bring the spectroscopic results in coincidence with the sunspot rotation. Interference fringes at the spectrograph focus at Mount Wilson have in two intervals affected the rotation results. It has been possible to correlate this error with temperature and thus correct for it. A misalignment between the entrance and exit slits is a possible source of error, but for the Mount Wilson slit configuration the amplitude of this effect is negligibly small. Rapid scanning of the solar image also produces no measurable effect. (orig.)

  14. Linear and/or curvilinear rail mount system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jackie D. (Inventor); Harris, Lawanna L. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    One or more linear and/or curvilinear mounting rails are coupled to a structure. Each mounting rail defines a channel and at least one cartridge assembly is engaged in the channel. Each cartridge assembly includes a housing that slides within the channel. The housing defines a curvilinearly-shaped recess longitudinally aligned with the channel when the housing is in engagement therewith. The cartridge assembly also includes a cleat fitted in the recess for sliding engagement therealong. The cleat can be coupled to a fastener that passes through the mounting rail and the housing when the housing is so-engaged in the channel. The cleat is positioned in the recess by a position of the fastener.

  15. Square Van Atta reflector with conducting mounting flame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Dragø

    1970-01-01

    A theoretical and numerical analysis of square Van Atta reflectors has been carried out with or without a conducting plate, used for mounting of the antenna elements. The Van Atta reflector investigated has antenna elements which are parallel half-wave dipoles interconnected in pairs by transmiss......A theoretical and numerical analysis of square Van Atta reflectors has been carried out with or without a conducting plate, used for mounting of the antenna elements. The Van Atta reflector investigated has antenna elements which are parallel half-wave dipoles interconnected in pairs...

  16. Experimental study of some mounting brackets to support fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, M.; Poglia, S.; Roche, R.

    1958-09-01

    In an atomic pile with vertical channels, fuel elements are stacked on one another. According to a possible assembly, fuel element can be contained by a graphite sleeve and be supported by a mounting bracket in this sleeve. Sleeves are then stacked on one another. The authors report the investigation of different designs for these mounting brackets. They describe their mechanical role and their mechanical, aerodynamic, neutronic and test conditions. They report tests performed on brackets made in graphite and on brackets made in stainless steel and graphite, and discuss the obtained results

  17. Mount Sinai Hospital's approach to Ontario's Health System Funding Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalk, Tyler; Lau, Davina; Morgan, Matthew; Dietrich, Sandra; Beduz, Mary Agnes; Bell, Chaim M

    2014-01-01

    In April 2012, the Ontario government introduced Health System Funding Reform (HSFR), a transformational shift in how hospitals are funded. Mount Sinai Hospital recognized that moving from global funding to a "patient-based" model would have substantial operational and clinical implications. Adjusting to the new funding environment was set as a top corporate priority, serving as the strategic basis for re-examining and redesigning operations to further improve both quality and efficiency. Two years into HSFR, this article outlines Mount Sinai Hospital's approach and highlights key lessons learned. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  18. seasonal population dynamics of rodents of mount chilalo, arsi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: A study on seasonal population dynamics of rodents was carried out on Mount. Chilalo from .... vegetation growth, availability of food and water, and ... vegetation (3,300–4,200 masl) (Alemayehu. Mengistu, 1975; APEDO and ABRDP, 2004). The mountain is one of the Afrotropical biodiversity hotspots areas.

  19. Vegetation types on Mount Akiki, Northern Luzon, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bout, I.E.

    2002-01-01

    Mount Akiki (16° 37’ N, 120° 53’ E, c. 2760 m alt.) is one of the highest mountain peaks in the Cordillera mountain range, Luzon Island, Philippines. It is situated in the municipality of Benguet, north-east of Baguio City (a world famous tourist city in the region) and is north-west of Mt Pulog,

  20. Kuidas koostada meeskonda - Mount Everesti ainetel / Marii Karell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karell, Marii, 1980-

    2003-01-01

    Eesti meeskonna Mount Everesti tippu juhtinud Tõivo Sarmet selgitab toimunud ekspeditsiooni näitel, miks tema peab meeskonna komplekteerimisel oluliseimaks inimeste iseloomuomadusi. Ekstreemoludes hakkama saamiseks tuleb meeles pidada, et eesmärk on ühine ja kellegi ego ei tohi seda nurjata, rõhutab Sarmet. Kommenteerib Alar Sikk

  1. Nozzle Mounting Method Optimization Based on Robot Kinematic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaoyue; Liao, Hanlin; Montavon, Ghislain; Deng, Sihao

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the application of industrial robots in thermal spray is gaining more and more importance. A desired coating quality depends on factors such as a balanced robot performance, a uniform scanning trajectory and stable parameters (e.g. nozzle speed, scanning step, spray angle, standoff distance). These factors also affect the mass and heat transfer as well as the coating formation. Thus, the kinematic optimization of all these aspects plays a key role in order to obtain an optimal coating quality. In this study, the robot performance was optimized from the aspect of nozzle mounting on the robot. An optimized nozzle mounting for a type F4 nozzle was designed, based on the conventional mounting method from the point of view of robot kinematics validated on a virtual robot. Robot kinematic parameters were obtained from the simulation by offline programming software and analyzed by statistical methods. The energy consumptions of different nozzle mounting methods were also compared. The results showed that it was possible to reasonably assign the amount of robot motion to each axis during the process, so achieving a constant nozzle speed. Thus, it is possible optimize robot performance and to economize robot energy.

  2. Parallax error in the monocular head-mounted eye trackers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan

    2012-01-01

    each parameter affects the error. The optimum distribution of the error (magnitude and direction) in the field of view varies for different applications. However, the results can be used for finding the optimum parameters that are needed for designing a head-mounted gaze tracker. It has been shown...

  3. Polynomial modal analysis of lamellar diffraction gratings in conical mounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randriamihaja, Manjakavola Honore; Granet, Gérard; Edee, Kofi; Raniriharinosy, Karyl

    2016-09-01

    An efficient numerical modal method for modeling a lamellar grating in conical mounting is presented. Within each region of the grating, the electromagnetic field is expanded onto Legendre polynomials, which allows us to enforce in an exact manner the boundary conditions that determine the eigensolutions. Our code is successfully validated by comparison with results obtained with the analytical modal method.

  4. Evaluation of HOPG mounting possibilities for multiplexing spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groitl, Felix; Bartkowiak, Marek; Bergmann, Ryan M.

    2017-01-01

    Four different methods for mounting HOPG analyzer crystals on Si holders have been evaluated in the design process of the new multiplexing spectrometer CAMEA. Contrary to neutron optics used in standard spectrometers, the new instrument concept employs a series of analyzer segments behind each...

  5. Design of the GOES Telescope secondary mirror mounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookman, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    The GOES Telescope utilizes a flexure mounting system for the secondary mirror to minimize thermally induced distortions of the secondary mirror. The detailed design is presented along with a discussion of the microradian pointing requirements and how they were achieved. The methodology used to dynamically tune the flexure/secondary mirror assembly to minimize structural interactions will also be discussed.

  6. Vertically mounted bifacial photovoltaic modules: A global analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Siyu; Walsh, Timothy Michael; Peters, Marius

    2013-01-01

    Bifacial PV (photovoltaic) modules have recently come to increasing attention and various system designs have been investigated. In this paper, a global comparison is made between vertically mounted bifacial modules facing East–West and conventionally mounted mono-facial modules. An analytical method is used to calculate the radiation received by these two module configurations. It is found that the answer to the question which of these two module configurations performs better strongly depends on three factors: (i) the latitude, (ii) the local diffuse fraction and (iii) the albedo. In a subsequent part of the paper, the minimum albedo required to result in a better performance for vertically mounted bifacial modules is calculated for every place in the world. The calculation is based on measured data of the diffuse light fraction and the results are shown in the form of a global map. Finally, the albedo requirements are compared with the measured global albedo distribution. The calculation allows a distinct decision which module configuration is more suitable for a certain place in the world. The result is also shown as a map defining the corresponding areas. - Highlights: • Vertically mounted bifacial module and conventionally monofacial module are compared. • The key factors affecting the performance of the two configurations are investigated. • Which module configuration is more suitable for each place is shown in a world map. • The minimum albedo for bifacial modules to have a better performance is calculated

  7. Birds of Mount Kisingiri, Nyanza Province, including a preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mount Kisingiri comprises a much overlooked highland massif in southern Nyanza. Province with a hitherto ..... This imbalance in relative species abundance within a defined ecological niche could .... Hills is unsuitable for foraging or breeding but there is extensive savanna grassland and suitable ..... Columba guinea nf.

  8. Biogeographic patterns of forest diversity at mount Kasigau, Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reports 140 species, 46 were measured in only one plot, and affinities for 75 species to the Somalia-Masai (43%), Afromontane (29%), and Zanzibar- Inhambane (Coastal, 28%) floristic regions. Cluster and Indicator Species Analyses identified eight community types. Mount Kasigau uniquely conserves much ...

  9. Light Field Rendering for Head Mounted Displays using Pixel Reprojection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Juhler; Klein, Jákup; Kraus, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Light field displays have advantages over traditional stereoscopic head mounted displays, for example, because they can overcome the vergence-accommodation conflict. However, rendering light fields can be a heavy task for computers due to the number of images that have to be rendered. Since much ...

  10. Improved resolution by mounting of tissue sections for laser microdissection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, M.C.R.F. van; Rombout, P.D.M.; Dijkman, H.B.P.M.; Ruiter, D.J.; Bernsen, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laser microbeam microdissection has greatly facilitated the procurement of specific cell populations from tissue sections. However, the fact that a coverslip is not used means that the morphology of the tissue sections is often poor. AIMS: To develop a mounting method that greatly

  11. Rollin' in Style!: Students Design Bike Mounted Skateboard Racks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Recognizing the increasing popularity of skateboarding, the author has found a project that teaches design and manufacturing concepts--and, of equal importance, really gets his students motivated. He challenges them to design and build a skateboard rack that mounts easily on a bicycle. The project benefits students by teaching creativity, the…

  12. The mount Cameroon height determined from ground gravity data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract This paper deals with the accurate determination of mount Cameroon orthometric height, by combining ground gravity data, global navigation satellite system (GNSS) observations and global geopotential models. The elevation of the highest point (Fako) is computed above the WGS84 reference ellipsoid.

  13. Volcano ecology: flourishing on the flanks of Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Charlie Crisafulli

    2016-01-01

    Mount St. Helens’ explosive eruption on May 18, 1980, was a pivotal moment in the field of disturbance ecology. The subsequent sustained, integrated research effort has shaped the development of volcano ecology, an emerging field of focused research. Excessive heat, burial, and impact force are some of the disturbance mechanisms following an eruption. They are also...

  14. Mount St. Helens 30 years later: a landscape reconfigured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2010-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, after two months of tremors, Mount St. Helens erupted spectacularly and profoundly changed a vast area surrounding the volcano. The north slope of the mountain catastrophically failed, forming the largest landslide witnessed in modern times. The largest lobe of this debris avalanche raced 14 miles down the Toutle River...

  15. Mount St. Helens: Still erupting lessons 31 years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Charlie Crisafulli; Fred Swanson

    2011-01-01

    The massive volcanic eruption of Mount St. Helens 31 years ago provided the perfect backdrop for studying the earliest stages of forest development. Immediately after the eruption, some areas of the blast area were devoid of life. On other parts of the volcanic landscape, many species survived, although their numbers were greatly reduced. Reassembly began at many...

  16. Assessing climate change impacts on water balance in the Mount

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A statistical downscaling known for producing station-scale climate information from GCM output was preferred to evaluate the impacts of climate change within the Mount Makiling forest watershed, Philippines. The lumped hydrologic BROOK90 model was utilized for the water balance assessment of climate change ...

  17. Ethnobotanical survey of \\'wild\\' woody plant resources at Mount ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the naming and use of plants by Taita who live at Mount Kasigau in Kenya's Eastern Arc Mountains. Plant vouchers and ethnobotanical data were compiled from transects and within 55 ecological plots, and during participant observations, home surveys, and semi-structured interviews with residents.

  18. Forest Carbon Stocks in Woody Plants of Mount Zequalla Monastery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon sequestration through forestry has the potential to play a significant role in ameliorating global environmental problems such as atmospheric accumulation of GHG's and climate change.The present study was undertaken to estimate forest carbon stock along altitudinal gradient in Mount Zequalla Monastery forest.

  19. Astrophotography on the go using short exposures with light mounts

    CERN Document Server

    Ashley, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    No longer are heavy, sturdy, expensive mounts and tripods required to photograph deep space. With today's advances in technology, all that is required is an entry-DSLR and an entry level GoTo telescope. Here is all of the information needed to start photographing the night sky without buying expensive tracking mounts. By using multiple short exposures and combining them with mostly ‘freeware’ computer programs, the effect of image rotation can be minimized to a point where it is undetectable in normal astrophotography, even for a deep-sky object such as a galaxy or nebula. All the processes, techniques, and equipment needed to use inexpensive, lightweight altazimuth and equatorial mounts and very short exposures photography to image deep space objects are explained, step-by-step, in full detail, supported by clear, easy to understand graphics and photographs.   Currently available lightweight mounts and tripods are identified and examined from an economic versus capability perspective to help users deter...

  20. 25 years of ecological change at Mount St. Helens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V.H. Dale; C.M. Crisafulli; F.J. Swanson

    2005-01-01

    18 May 2005 marks the 25th anniversary of the massive eruption of Mount St. Helens. This eruption involved diverse geological processes (1) that disturbed forests, meadows, lakes, an drivers (2) (see the figure). A huge landslide and searing flows of hot gases and pumic framents (pyroclastic flows) inundated 60 km2 of land, obliterating...

  1. Geologic Map of Mount Mazama and Crater Lake Caldera, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Charles R.

    2008-01-01

    Crater Lake partly fills one of the most spectacular calderas of the world, an 8-by-10-km basin more than 1 km deep formed by collapse of the volcano known as Mount Mazama (fig. 1) during a rapid series of explosive eruptions about 7,700 years ago. Having a maximum depth of 594 m, Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the United States. Crater Lake National Park, dedicated in 1902, encompasses 645 km2 of pristine forested and alpine terrain, including the lake itself, virtually all of Mount Mazama, and most of the area of the geologic map. The geology of the area was first described in detail by Diller and Patton (1902) and later by Williams (1942), whose vivid account led to international recognition of Crater Lake as the classic collapse caldera. Because of excellent preservation and access, Mount Mazama, Crater Lake caldera, and the deposits formed by the climactic eruption constitute a natural laboratory for study of volcanic and magmatic processes. For example, the climactic ejecta are renowned among volcanologists as evidence for systematic compositional zonation within a subterranean magma chamber. Mount Mazama's climactic eruption also is important as the source of the widespread Mazama ash, a useful Holocene stratigraphic marker throughout the Pacific Northwest, adjacent Canada, and offshore. A detailed bathymetric survey of the floor of Crater Lake in 2000 (Bacon and others, 2002) provides a unique record of postcaldera eruptions, the interplay between volcanism and filling of the lake, and sediment transport within this closed basin. Knowledge of the geology and eruptive history of the Mount Mazama edifice, greatly enhanced by the caldera wall exposures, gives exceptional insight into how large volcanoes of magmatic arcs grow and evolve. Lastly, the many smaller volcanoes of the High Cascades beyond the limits of Mount Mazama are a source of information on the flux of mantle-derived magma through the region. General principles of magmatic and eruptive

  2. Exploring Virtual Worlds With Head-Mounted Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, James C.; Harris, Mark R.; Brooks, Frederick P.; Fuchs, Henry; Kelley, Michael T.; Hughes, John W.; Ouh-Young, Ming; Cheung, Clement; Holloway, Richard L.; Pique, Michael

    1989-09-01

    For nearly a decade the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has been conducting research in the use of simple head-mounted displays in "real-world" applications. Such units provide the user with non-holographic true three-dimensional information, since the kinetic depth effect, stereoscopy, and other visual cues combine to immerse the user in a "virtual world" which behaves like the real world in some respects. UNC's head-mounted display was built inexpensively from commercially available off-the-shelf components. Tracking of the the user's head position and orientation is performed by a Polhemus Navigation Sciences' 3SPACE* tracker. The host computer uses the tracking information to generate updated images corresponding to the user's new left eye and right eye views. The images are broadcast to two liquid crystal television screens (220x320 pixels) mounted on a horizontal shelf at the user's forehead. The user views these color screens through half-silvered mirrors, enabling the computer-generated image to be superimposed upon the user's real physical environment. The head-mounted display has been incorporated into existing molecular modeling and architectural applications being developed at UNC. In molecular structure studies, chemists are presented with a room-sized molecule with which they can interact in a manner more intuitive than that provided by conventional two-dimensional displays and dial boxes. Walking around and through the large molecule may provide quicker understanding of its structure, and such problems as drug-enzyme docking may be approached with greater insight. In architecture, the head-mounted display enables clients to better appreciate three-dimensional designs, which may be misinterpreted in their conventional two-dimensional form by untrained eyes. The addition of a treadmill to the system provides additional kinesthetic input into the understanding of building size and scale.

  3. Zircon reveals protracted magma storage and recycling beneath Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claiborne, L.L.; Miller, C.F.; Flanagan, D.M.; Clynne, M.A.; Wooden, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Current data and models for Mount St. Helens volcano (Washington, United States) suggest relatively rapid transport from magma genesis to eruption, with no evidence for protracted storage or recycling of magmas. However, we show here that complex zircon age populations extending back hundreds of thousands of years from eruption age indicate that magmas regularly stall in the crust, cool and crystallize beneath the volcano, and are then rejuvenated and incorporated by hotter, young magmas on their way to the surface. Estimated dissolution times suggest that entrained zircon generally resided in rejuvenating magmas for no more than about a century. Zircon elemental compositions reflect the increasing influence of mafic input into the system through time, recording growth from hotter, less evolved magmas tens of thousands of years prior to the appearance of mafic magmas at the surface, or changes in whole-rock geochemistry and petrology, and providing a new, time-correlated record of this evolution independent of the eruption history. Zircon data thus reveal the history of the hidden, long-lived intrusive portion of the Mount St. Helens system, where melt and crystals are stored for as long as hundreds of thousands of years and interact with fresh influxes of magmas that traverse the intrusive reservoir before erupting. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  4. Rhizocarpon calibration curve for the Aoraki/Mount Cook area of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Thomas V.; Schoenenberger, Katherine; Deddens, James A.; Denton, George H.; Smith, Colby; Black, Jessica; Hendy, Chris H.

    2005-05-01

    Development of Rhizocarpon growth curve from the Aoraki/Mount Cook area of New Zealand provides a means to assess Little Ice Age glacier behaviour and suggests approaches that have wider application. Employing a sampling strategy based on large populations affords the opportunity to assess which of various metrics (e.g. single largest, average of five largest, mean of an entire population) best characterise Rhizocarpon growth patterns. The 98% quantile from each population fitted with a quadric curve forms a reliable representation of the growth pattern. Since this metric does not depend on the original sample size, comparisons are valid where sample strategy must be adapted to local situations or where the original sample size differs. For the Aoraki/Mount Cook area a surface 100 years old will have a 98% quantile lichen diameter of 34.3 mm, whereas a 200-year-old surface will have a lichen diameter of 73.7 mm. In the Southern Alps, constraints from the age range of calibration points, the flattening of the quadric calibration curve and ecological factors limit the useful age range to approximately 250 years. Copyright

  5. The mechanisms of fine particle generation and electrification during Mount St. Helens volcanic eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Microscopical investigation of volcanic ash collected from ground stations during Mount St. Helens eruptions reveal a distinctive bimodel size distribution with high concentrations of particle ranges at (1) 200-100 microns and (2) 20-0.1 microns. Close examination of individual particles shows that most larger ones are solidified magma particles of porous pumice with numerous gas bubbles in the interior and the smaller ones are all glassy fragments without any detectable gas bubbles. Elemental analysis demonstrates that the fine fragments all have a composition similar to that of the larger pumice particles. Laboratory experiments suggest that the formation of the fine fragments is by bursting of glassy bubbles from a partially solidified surface of a crystallizing molten magma particle. The production of gas bubbles is due to the release of absorbed gases in molten magma particles when solubility decreases during phase transition. Diffusion cloud chamber experiments strongly indicate that sub-micron volcanic fragments are highly hygroscopic and extremely active as cloud condensation nuclei. Ice crystals also are evidently formed on those fragments in a supercooled (-20 C) cloud chamber. It has been reported that charge generation from ocean volcanic eruptions is due to contact of molten lava with sea water. This seems to be insufficient to explain the observed rapid and intense lightning activities over Mount St. Helens eruptions. Therefore, a hypothesis is presented here that highly electrically charged fine solid fragments are ejected by bursting of gas bubbles from the surface of a crystallizing molten magma particles.

  6. The Effects of Degradational Factors on the Ecosystem of Mount Madra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, R.; Soykan, A.; Sönmez, S.; Cürebal, I.

    2009-04-01

    environment of Kozak Plataeu, and in addition to this, quarrying activity has recently begun in the area around Burhaniye. All these activities have led to problems such as erosion, decreased biodiversity, and pollution of water sources on Mount Madra. The forest clearances which have been made, for various reasons, on the northern and southern slopes of Mount Madra, have caused the topsoil to be worn away by surface water. The most striking examples of this can be seen on Mount Şabla (1111m) and on the southern slopes of Maya peak (1344m). The trimming recently carried out by the Forestry Commission on sections of Mount Madra has badly damaged the forest's vegetation and in a short space of time caused irreversible harm to the ecosystem of the mountain. For thousands of years, parts of the top of Mount Madra and the Kozak plateau have been used as summer grounds and, as a result, the forest has been cleared from a wide section. On the north-facing slopes of Mount Madra, the number of chestnut trees (Castanea sativa) found within pine woods is increasing daily. The pine trees around the chestnuts are being chopped down in order to increase the number of chestnut trees, whose fruit are harvested for the economic benefit they bring. The pine forests are, for this reason, in constant decline. Forest roads, both planned and unplanned, have led to further destruction of forest vegetation. Apart from the forest vegetation of the Mountain, other natural resources are under threat; particularly water sources. Facilities for fish farming have been built with no pre-planning or research, leading to the clearance of forest and pollution of the environment. Mount Madra is an important water source for the rivers in the surrounding areas. It is the source of the Madra and Karınca Rivers which flow into the Aegean Sea, the Kocaçay River which feeds Manyas Lake and several tributaries of the Bakırçay River. The protection of Mount Madra and its freshwater sources and biodiversity is

  7. Galvanic corrosion study of aluminium alloy plates mounted to stainless and mild steel bolts by accelerated exposure test

    OpenAIRE

    MREMA, Emmanuel; ITOH, Yoshito; KANEKO, Akira; HIROHATA, Mikihito

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that aluminium alloy members have a proven durability over stainless steel members, their joint fasteners like bolts, nuts and washers are drawn from steel material due to aluminium alloy inferior mechanical properties. Bare contact between aluminium alloy members and stainless steel fasteners results to galvanic corrosion of aluminium alloy members. A corrosion behaviour study was carried out on different aluminium alloy types with different surface treatments mounted to sta...

  8. Helicopter magnetic and electromagnetic surveys at Mounts Adams, Baker and Rainier, Washington: implications for debris flow hazards and volcano hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Carol A.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria

    2011-01-01

    High‐resolution helicopter magnetic and electromagnetic (HEM) data flown over the rugged, ice‐covered Mt. Adams, Mt. Baker and Mt. Rainier volcanoes (Washington), reveal the distribution of alteration, water and ice thickness essential to evaluating volcanic landslide hazards. These data, combined with geological mapping and rock property measurements, indicate the presence of appreciable thicknesses (>500 m) of water‐saturated hydrothermally altered rock west of the modern summit of Mount Rainier in the Sunset Amphitheater region and in the central core of Mount Adams north of the summit. Alteration at Mount Baker is restricted to thinner (<300 m) zones beneath Sherman Crater and the Dorr Fumarole Fields. The EM data identified water‐saturated rocks from the surface to the detection limit (100–200 m) in discreet zones at Mt. Rainier and Mt Adams and over the entire summit region at Mt. Baker. The best estimates for ice thickness are obtained over relatively low resistivity (<800 ohm‐m) ground for the main ice cap on Mt. Adams and over most of the summit of Mt. Baker. The modeled distribution of alteration, pore fluids and partial ice volumes on the volcanoes helps identify likely sources for future alteration‐related debris flows, including the Sunset Amphitheater region at Mt. Rainier, steep cliffs at the western edge of the central altered zone at Mount Adams and eastern flanks of Mt. Baker.

  9. Sedimentology, Behavior, and Hazards of Debris Flows at Mount Rainier, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, K.M.; Vallance, J.W.; Pringle, P.T.

    1995-01-01

    Mount Rainier is potentially the most dangerous volcano in the Cascade Range because of its great height, frequent earthquakes, active hydrothermal system, and extensive glacier mantle. Many debris flows and their distal phases have inundated areas far from the volcano during postglacial time. Two types of debris flows, cohesive and noncohesive, have radically different origins and behavior that relate empirically to clay content. The two types are the major subpopulations of debris flows at Mount Rainier. The behavior of cohesive flows is affected by the cohesion and adhesion of particles; noncohesive flows are dominated by particle collisions to the extent that particle cataclasis becomes common during near-boundary shear. Cohesive debris flows contain more than 3 to 5 percent of clay-size sediment. The composition of these flows changed little as they traveled more than 100 kilometers from Mount Rainier to inundate parts of the now-populated Puget Sound lowland. They originate as deep-seated failures of sectors of the volcanic edifice, and such failures are sufficiently frequent that they are the major destructional process of Mount Rainier's morphologic evolution. In several deposits of large cohesive flows, a lateral, megaclast-bearing facies (with a mounded or hummocky surface) contrasts with a more clay-rich facies in the center of valleys and downstream. Cohesive flows at Mount Rainier do not correlate strongly with volcanic activity and thus can recur without warning, possibly triggered by non-magmatic earthquakes or by changes in the hydrothermal system. Noncohesive debris flows contain less than 3 to 5 percent clay-size sediment. They form most commonly by bulking of sediment in water surges, but some originate directly or indirectly from shallow slope failures that do not penetrate the hydrothermally altered core of the volcano. In contrast with cohesive flows, most noncohesive flows transform both from and to other flow types and are, therefore, the

  10. Flat mount preparation for observation and analysis of zebrafish embryo specimens stained by whole mount in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Christina N; Li, Yue; Marra, Amanda N; Verdun, Valerie; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2014-07-17

    The zebrafish embryo is now commonly used for basic and biomedical research to investigate the genetic control of developmental processes and to model congenital abnormalities. During the first day of life, the zebrafish embryo progresses through many developmental stages including fertilization, cleavage, gastrulation, segmentation, and the organogenesis of structures such as the kidney, heart, and central nervous system. The anatomy of a young zebrafish embryo presents several challenges for the visualization and analysis of the tissues involved in many of these events because the embryo develops in association with a round yolk mass. Thus, for accurate analysis and imaging of experimental phenotypes in fixed embryonic specimens between the tailbud and 20 somite stage (10 and 19 hours post fertilization (hpf), respectively), such as those stained using whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH), it is often desirable to remove the embryo from the yolk ball and to position it flat on a glass slide. However, performing a flat mount procedure can be tedious. Therefore, successful and efficient flat mount preparation is greatly facilitated through the visual demonstration of the dissection technique, and also helped by using reagents that assist in optimal tissue handling. Here, we provide our WISH protocol for one or two-color detection of gene expression in the zebrafish embryo, and demonstrate how the flat mounting procedure can be performed on this example of a stained fixed specimen. This flat mounting protocol is broadly applicable to the study of many embryonic structures that emerge during early zebrafish development, and can be implemented in conjunction with other staining methods performed on fixed embryo samples.

  11. Mount Meager Volcano, Canada: a Case Study for Landslides on Glaciated Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, G. L.; Ward, B. C.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Falorni, G.; Perotti, L.; Clague, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Mount Meager is a strato-volcano massif in the Northern Cascade Volcanic Arc (Canada) that erupted in 2350 BP, the most recent in Canada. To study the stability of the Massif an international research project between France ( Blaise Pascal University), Italy (University of Turin) and Canada (Simon Fraser University) and private companies (TRE - sensing the planet) has been created. A complex history of glacial loading and unloading, combined with weak, hydrothermally altered rocks has resulted in a long record of catastrophic landslides. The most recent, in 2010 is the third largest (50 x 106 m3) historical landslide in Canada. Mount Meager is a perfect natural laboratory for gravity and topographic processes such as landslide activity, permafrost and glacial dynamics, erosion, alteration and uplift on volcanoes. Research is aided by a rich archive of aerial photos of the Massif (1940s up to 2006): complete coverage approximately every 10 years. This data set has been processed and multi-temporal, high resolution Orthophoto and DSMs (Digital Surface Models) have been produced. On these digital products, with the support on field work, glacial retreat and landslide activity have been tracked and mapped. This has allowed for the inventory of unstable areas, the identification of lava flows and domes, and the general improvement on the geologic knowledge of the massif. InSAR data have been used to monitor the deformation of the pre-2010 failure slope. It will also be used to monitor other unstable slopes that potentially can evolve to catastrophic collapses of up to 1 km3 in volume, endangering local communities downstream the volcano. Mount Meager is definitively an exceptional site for studying the dynamics of a glaciated, uplifted volcano. The methodologies proposed can be applied to other volcanic areas with high erosion rates such as Alaska, Cascades, and the Andes.

  12. Mounting of Biomaterials for Use in Ophthalmic Cell Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Damien G; Dunphy, Siobhan E; Shadforth, Audra M A; Dawson, Rebecca A; Walshe, Jennifer; Zakaria, Nadia

    2017-11-01

    When used as scaffolds for cell therapies, biomaterials often present basic handling and logistical problems for scientists and surgeons alike. The quest for an appropriate mounting device for biomaterials is therefore a significant and common problem. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the factors to consider when choosing an appropriate mounting device including those experienced during cell culture, quality assurance, and surgery. By way of example, we draw upon our combined experience in developing epithelial cell therapies for the treatment of eye diseases. We discuss commercially available options for achieving required goals and provide a detailed analysis of 4 experimental designs developed within our respective laboratories in Australia, the United Kingdom, and Belgium.

  13. Apparatus for mounting photovoltaic power generating systems on buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Miles C [Lincoln, MA

    2009-08-18

    Rectangular photovoltaic (PV) modules are mounted on a building roof by mounting stands that are distributed in rows and columns. Each stand comprises a base plate and first and second different height brackets attached to opposite ends of the base plate. Each first and second bracket comprises two module-support members. One end of each module is pivotally attached to and supported by a first module-support member of a first bracket and a second module-support member of another first bracket. At its other end each module rests on but is connected by flexible tethers to module-support members of two different second brackets. The tethers are sized to allow the modules to pivot up away from the module-support members on which they rest to a substantially horizontal position in response to wind uplift forces.

  14. Whole mount nuclear fluorescent imaging: convenient documentation of embryo morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell, Lisa L; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Trainor, Paul A

    2012-11-01

    Here, we describe a relatively inexpensive and easy method to produce high quality images that reveal fine topological details of vertebrate embryonic structures. The method relies on nuclear staining of whole mount embryos in combination with confocal microscopy or conventional wide field fluorescent microscopy. In cases where confocal microscopy is used in combination with whole mount nuclear staining, the resulting embryo images can rival the clarity and resolution of images produced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fluorescent nuclear staining may be performed with a variety of cell permeable nuclear dyes, enabling the technique to be performed with multiple standard microscope/illumination or confocal/laser systems. The method may be used to document morphology of embryos of a variety of organisms, as well as individual organs and tissues. Nuclear stain imaging imposes minimal impact on embryonic specimens, enabling imaged specimens to be utilized for additional assays. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Siting study for small platform-mounted industrial energy reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    Utilizing an existing 313 MW(t) ship propulsion reactor design, a concept has been formulated for a floating platform-mounted nuclear plant and an evaluation has been made to determine reductions in construction time and cost achievable by repetitive platform construction in a shipyard. Concepts and estimates are presented for siting platform-mounted nuclear plants at the location of industrial facilities where the nuclear plants would furnish industrial process heat and/or electrical power. The representative industrial site designated for this study is considered typical of sites that might be used along the extensive network of navigable canals adjacent to the ocean and is similar to potential sites along the inland waterways of the United States

  16. Preparation of source mounts for 4π counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.P.

    1991-01-01

    The 4πβ/γ counter in the ANSTO radioisotope standards laboratory at Lucas Heights constitutes part of the Australian national standard for radioactivity. Sources to be measured in the counter must be mounted on a substrate which is strong enough to withstand careful handling and transport. The substrate must also be electrically conducting to minimise counting errors caused by charging of the source, and it must have very low superficial density so that little or none of the radiation is absorbed. The entire process of fabrication of VYNS films, coating them with gold/palladium and transferring them to source mount rings, as carried out in the radioisotope standards laboratory, is documented. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  17. Righteousness and identity formation in the Sermon on the Mount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Viljoen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Righteousness is an important term in the first gospel and has a significant concentration in the Sermon on the Mount. The argument in this article is that the first gospel has a community building function. Matthew intentionally uses the word ‘righteousness’ in the Sermon on the Mount as an instrument to define the identity of his community. Though righteousness can be used in a soteriological sense, it is argued that Matthew mainly uses it in an ethical sense. By righteousness Matthew refers to the proper behavioural norms and attitudes for his community. Commitment to Jesus forms the central focus of the community’s identity. Their discipleship is demonstrated by doing the will of God as defined and interpreted by Jesus. Doing the will of God in such a manner is what Matthew regards as the distinguishing mark of this community. Thus they would surpass the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees.

  18. Tsunamis generated by eruptions from mount st. Augustine volcano, alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, J; Kowalik, Z; Murty, T S

    1987-06-12

    During an eruption of the Alaskan volcano Mount St. Augustine in the spring of 1986, there was concern about the possibility that a tsunami might be generated by the collapse of a portion of the volcano into the shallow water of Cook Inlet. A similar edifice collapse of the volcano and ensuing sea wave occurred during an eruption in 1883. Other sea waves resulting in great loss of life and property have been generated by the eruption of coastal volcanos around the world. Although Mount St. Augustine remained intact during this eruptive cycle, a possible recurrence of the 1883 events spurred a numerical simulation of the 1883 sea wave. This simulation, which yielded a forecast of potential wave heights and travel times, was based on a method that could be applied generally to other coastal volcanos.

  19. Ground mounted photovoltaic installations. Guide for an impact study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Legally, an impact study must be performed for ground mounted photovoltaic installations with a power greater than 250 kW. This guide is aimed at helping the actors of the photovoltaic sector to perform impact studies. After the description of the characteristics of a photovoltaic installation (principles, technical characteristics of a ground mounted installation, impact of photovoltaic systems on climate) and a presentation of the legal framework (European commitments, Grenelle de l'Environnement, applicable procedures), this report present the objectives and approach of an impact study, describes how the environment is taken into account from the early stages of a project, how the impact study is to be prepared. The last part describes the different components of the impact study: legal content, project description, analysis of the site initial status and environment, analysis of the project effects, rationale for the choice of the project

  20. The auriferous placer at Mount Robert, Pietersburg Greenstone belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saager, R.; Muff, R.

    1986-01-01

    The Mount Robert gold placer near Potgietersrus occurs in coarse, matrix-supported conglomerates of the Uitkyk Formation within the Pietersburg greenstone belt. Sedimentological and mineralogical investigations indicate that the conglomerates and the ore minerals were derived from a greenstone provenance, and that they were deposited in a braided river environment within a rapidly subsiding trough. Lack of sedimentological concentration of the heavy minerals is considered to be the main reason for the low and erratic gold grades encountered (usually below 1 g/t) and, thus, the failure of all past mining ventures. The mineralogical composition of the Mount Robert ore closely resembles that of the Witwatersrand deposits. However, uraninite is absent, probably as a result of its complete removal by weathering processes. Remaining small uranium concentrations can still be detected within the conglomerates where they occur associated with grains of carbonaceous matter, leucoxene aggregates, and secondary iron-hydroxides. U3O8 values found in the conglomerates are given

  1. Fluorescent visualization of macromolecules in Drosophila whole mounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ricardo Guelerman Pinheiro; Machado, Luciana Claudia Herculano; Moda, Livia Maria Rosatto

    2010-01-01

    The ability to determine the expression dynamics of individual genes "in situ" by visualizing the precise spatial and temporal distribution of their products in whole mounts by histochemical and immunocytochemical reactions has revolutionized our understanding of cellular processes. Drosophila developmental genetics was one of the fields that benefited most from these technologies, and a variety of fluorescent methods were specifically designed for investigating the localization of developmentally important proteins and cell markers during embryonic and post embryonic stages of this model organism. In this chapter we present detailed protocols for fluorescence immunocytochemistry of whole mount embryos, imaginal discs, pupal retinas, and salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster, as well as methods for fluorescent visualization of specific subcellular structures in these tissues.

  2. Binocular Rivalry in Helmet-Mounted Display Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    research apparatus. 31 ., simple magnifying ophthalmic lenses were used, mounted in eyeglass frames. These were 2. 5 diopter lenses for both eyes to...wear eyeglasses with 2. 5 diopter lenses. The focal length of these lenses was 15. 5 inches and the eye waa accommodated at infinity when objects were...HMD luminance is positively related to I-I•D visibility, while ambient scene luminance bears an inverse relation- ship to HMD visibility. Scene

  3. Method to mount defect fuel elements i transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgers, H.; Deleryd, R.

    1996-01-01

    Leaching or otherwise failed fuel elements are mounted in special containers that fit into specially designed chambers in a transportation cask for transport to reprocessing or long-time storage. The fuel elements are entered into the container under water in a pool. The interior of the container is dried before transfer to the cask. Before closing the cask, its interior, and the exterior of the container are dried. 2 figs

  4. Apollo telescope mount thermal systems unit thermal vacuum test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks, H. F.; Hueter, U.; Wise, J. H.; Bachtel, F. D.

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount's thermal systems unit was utilized to conduct a full-scale thermal vacuum test to verify the thermal design and the analytical techniques used to develop the thermal mathematical models. Thermal vacuum test philosophy, test objectives configuration, test monitoring, environment simulation, vehicle test performance, and data correlation are discussed. Emphasis is placed on planning and execution of the thermal vacuum test with particular attention on problems encountered in conducting a test of this maguitude.

  5. Quality assurance during construction and mounting of the Balakovo NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savkin, A.I.; Vorob'ev, N.G.; Kugrysheva, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Measures directed at opportune comissioning of the first unit of Balakovo NPP with the caracity 1000 MW(el.) are briefly described. A high quality of construction and mounting works is achieved due to a high level of engeneering preparation in the industry, organization of daily control over the works implementation and quality of products and materials supplied, by the improvement of automation and introduction of progressive forms of organization and remuneration

  6. Psychometric Assessment of Stereoscopic Head-Mounted Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-29

    Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) Jan 2015 - Dec 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PSYCHOMETRIC ASSESSMENT OF STEREOSCOPIC HEAD- MOUNTED DISPLAYS...to render an immersive three-dimensional constructive environment. The purpose of this effort was to quantify the impact of aircrew vision on an...simulated tasks requiring precise depth discrimination. This work will provide an example validation method for future stereoscopic virtual immersive

  7. Conceptual Design of Bottom-mounted Control Rod Drive Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Haeng; Kim, Sanghaun; Yoo, Yeonsik; Cho, Yeonggarp; Kim, Dongmin; Kim, Jong In

    2013-01-01

    The arrangement of the BMCRDMs and irradiation holes in the core is therefore easier than that of the top-mounted CRDM. Hence, many foreign research reactors, such as JRR-3M, JMTR, OPAL, and CARR, have adopted the BMCRDM concept. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the basic design concept on the BMCRDM. The major differences of the CRDMs between HANARO and KJRR are compared, and the design features and individual system of the BMCRDM for the KJRR are described. The Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) is a device to regulate the reactor power by changing the position of a Control Absorber Rod (CAR) and to shut down the reactor by fully inserting the CAR into the core within a specified time. The Bottom-Mounted CRDM (BMCRDM) for the KiJang Research Reactor (KJRR) is a quite different design concept compared to the top-mounted CRDM such as HANARO and JRTR. The main drive mechanism of the BMCRDM is located in a Reactivity Control Mechanism (RCM) room under the reactor pool bottom, which makes the interference with equipment in the reactor pool reduced

  8. A concept of active mount for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souleille, A.; Lampert, T.; Lafarga, V.; Hellegouarch, S.; Rondineau, A.; Rodrigues, G.; Collette, C.

    2018-06-01

    Sensitive payloads mounted on top of launchers are subjected to many sources of disturbances during the flight. The most severe dynamic loads arise from the ignition of the motors, gusts, pressure fluctuations in the booster and from the separation of the boosters. The transmission of these dynamic forces can be reduced by mounting payloads on passive isolators, which comes at the expense of harmful amplifications of the motion at low frequency due to suspension resonances. To bypass this shortcoming, this paper presents a novel concept of active mount for aerospace payloads, which is easy to install, and meets two objectives. The first one is a high damping authority on both suspension resonances and flexible resonances without compromising the isolation and large stability margins of the closed loop system due to the collocation of the actuator and the sensor. The second one is a broadband reduction of the dynamic force transmitted to the payload, which was achieved in terms of 16 dB. The concept is presented in the first part of the paper and studied numerically and experimentally on a single degree of freedom isolator. A commercial isolator has been chosen for the purpose of the demonstration. The second part of the paper is dedicated to experimental validations on multi-degree of freedom scaled test benches. It is shown that the force feedback allows damping of both suspension and flexible modes (first and second modes, respectively), and significantly reducing the force transmitted in some broad frequency ranges.

  9. On-field mounting position estimation of a lidar sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Owes; Bergelt, René; Hardt, Wolfram

    2017-10-01

    In order to retrieve a highly accurate view of their environment, autonomous cars are often equipped with LiDAR sensors. These sensors deliver a three dimensional point cloud in their own co-ordinate frame, where the origin is the sensor itself. However, the common co-ordinate system required by HAD (Highly Autonomous Driving) software systems has its origin at the center of the vehicle's rear axle. Thus, a transformation of the acquired point clouds to car co-ordinates is necessary, and thereby the determination of the exact mounting position of the LiDAR system in car coordinates is required. Unfortunately, directly measuring this position is a time-consuming and error-prone task. Therefore, different approaches have been suggested for its estimation which mostly require an exhaustive test-setup and are again time-consuming to prepare. When preparing a high number of LiDAR mounted test vehicles for data acquisition, most approaches fall short due to time or money constraints. In this paper we propose an approach for mounting position estimation which features an easy execution and setup, thus making it feasible for on-field calibration.

  10. Local Sabahans’ Satisfaction with Level of Access to Mount Kinabalu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidder Christy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the local Sabahans’ satisfaction with the level of access to Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Specifically, it examines the number of complaints by local Sabahans regarding access and their perception of changes in accessibility to the mountain. Interviews with Sabah Parks and Sutera Sanctuary Lodges were conducted and questionnaires were distributed to local residents to collect data. The results show that there were intense complaints regarding the climbing cost and extensive waiting time to secure a confirmed booking at the outset of price increases. However, the researchers could not locate any recently published complaints. Respondents who have previously climbed Mount Kinabalu perceive the mountain to be less accessible for local Sabahans now due to a less affordable cost and a longer waiting time. Those who have not climbed Mount Kinabalu also think the climbing cost has become less affordable for local Sabahans, but they do not perceive that to be causing the mountain less accessible for local Sabahans.

  11. A concept of active mount for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souleille, A.; Lampert, T.; Lafarga, V.; Hellegouarch, S.; Rondineau, A.; Rodrigues, G.; Collette, C.

    2017-10-01

    Sensitive payloads mounted on top of launchers are subjected to many sources of disturbances during the flight. The most severe dynamic loads arise from the ignition of the motors, gusts, pressure fluctuations in the booster and from the separation of the boosters. The transmission of these dynamic forces can be reduced by mounting payloads on passive isolators, which comes at the expense of harmful amplifications of the motion at low frequency due to suspension resonances. To bypass this shortcoming, this paper presents a novel concept of active mount for aerospace payloads, which is easy to install, and meets two objectives. The first one is a high damping authority on both suspension resonances and flexible resonances without compromising the isolation and large stability margins of the closed loop system due to the collocation of the actuator and the sensor. The second one is a broadband reduction of the dynamic force transmitted to the payload, which was achieved in terms of 16 dB. The concept is presented in the first part of the paper and studied numerically and experimentally on a single degree of freedom isolator. A commercial isolator has been chosen for the purpose of the demonstration. The second part of the paper is dedicated to experimental validations on multi-degree of freedom scaled test benches. It is shown that the force feedback allows damping of both suspension and flexible modes (first and second modes, respectively), and significantly reducing the force transmitted in some broad frequency ranges.

  12. Conceptual Design of Bottom-mounted Control Rod Drive Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Haeng; Kim, Sanghaun; Yoo, Yeonsik; Cho, Yeonggarp; Kim, Dongmin; Kim, Jong In [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The arrangement of the BMCRDMs and irradiation holes in the core is therefore easier than that of the top-mounted CRDM. Hence, many foreign research reactors, such as JRR-3M, JMTR, OPAL, and CARR, have adopted the BMCRDM concept. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the basic design concept on the BMCRDM. The major differences of the CRDMs between HANARO and KJRR are compared, and the design features and individual system of the BMCRDM for the KJRR are described. The Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) is a device to regulate the reactor power by changing the position of a Control Absorber Rod (CAR) and to shut down the reactor by fully inserting the CAR into the core within a specified time. The Bottom-Mounted CRDM (BMCRDM) for the KiJang Research Reactor (KJRR) is a quite different design concept compared to the top-mounted CRDM such as HANARO and JRTR. The main drive mechanism of the BMCRDM is located in a Reactivity Control Mechanism (RCM) room under the reactor pool bottom, which makes the interference with equipment in the reactor pool reduced.

  13. Vibration aging of diesel-engine mounted electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.J.; Morton, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) in a Nuclear Power Plant is considered to be a component which is essential to safe plant operation. Failures of auxiliary equipment directly mounted on the EDG creates costly repairs, and compromises the engine's availability and reliability. Although IEEE-323 requires addressing of safety-related components due to mechanically induced vibration, very few guidelines exist in the nuclear industry to show how this may be accounted for. Most engine vendors rely on the empirical experience data as the basis of their evaluation for vibration. Upgrade of engine controls, addition of monitoring devices and other engine modifications require design and installation of new equipment to be mounted directly on the engine. This necessitates the evaluation for engine-induced vibration which is considered to be one of the most severe design parameters. This paper discusses the engine vibration characteristics, and the acquisition of extensive field vibration data on the diesel engine under operating conditions. The data is then used to develop life cycle vibration qualification test profiles that can be applied with confidence in a laboratory environment to qualify engine-mounted equipment. The intent is to validate a product's ability to survive under worst case, extended service on-engine conditions. This paper describes the procedures and approaches used to achieve those goals, and provides developed profile examples and test results

  14. The Observatory as Laboratory: Spectral Analysis at Mount Wilson Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashear, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    This paper will discuss the seminal changes in astronomical research practices made at the Mount Wilson Observatory in the early twentieth century by George Ellery Hale and his staff. Hale’s desire to set the agenda for solar and stellar astronomical research is often described in terms of his new telescopes, primarily the solar tower observatories and the 60- and 100-inch telescopes on Mount Wilson. This paper will focus more on the ancillary but no less critical parts of Hale’s research mission: the establishment of associated “physical” laboratories as part of the observatory complex where observational spectral data could be quickly compared with spectra obtained using specialized laboratory equipment. Hale built a spectroscopic laboratory on the mountain and a more elaborate physical laboratory in Pasadena and staffed it with highly trained physicists, not classically trained astronomers. The success of Hale’s vision for an astronomical observatory quickly made the Carnegie Institution’s Mount Wilson Observatory one of the most important astrophysical research centers in the world.

  15. Design and functional tests of the Euclid grism mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, Ch.; Grange, R.; Caillat, A.; Costille, A.; Sanchez, P.; Ceria, W.

    2017-11-01

    The Euclid mission selected by ESA in the Cosmic Vision program is dedicated to understand dark energy and dark matter. One of the probes based on detection of Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations required the redshift of millions of galaxies. This massive spectroscopic survey relies on the Near Infrared SpectroPhotometer (NISP) using grism in slitless mode. In this Euclid NISP context, we designed a cryogenic mount for the four grisms of the spectroscopic channel. This mount has to maintain optical performances and alignment at the cryogenic temperature of 120K and to survive launch vibrations. Due to a very small mass and volume budget allowed in the Grism Wheel Assembly our design relies on a weight relief Invar ring glued to the grism by tangential flexures. Tangential flexures have the advantage of small height but the drawback of less decoupling capabilities than bipods. We will present the design of the mount and the integration and functional tests to stay within the 60 nm RMS transmitted wavefront error budget allowed to the grism.

  16. Immersive virtual walk-through development for tokamak using active head mounted display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Pramit

    2015-01-01

    A fully immersive virtual walk-through of the SST-1 tokamak has been developed. The virtual walkthrough renders the virtual model of SST-1 tokamak through a active stereoscopic head mounted display to visualize the virtual environment. All locations inside and outside of the reactor can be accessed and reviewed. Such a virtual walkthrough provides a 1:1 scale visualization of all components of the tokamak. To achieve such a virtual model, the graphical details of the tokamak CAD model are enhanced. Such enhancements are provided to improve lighting conditions at various locations, texturing of components to have a realistic visual effect and 360° rendering for ease of access. The graphical enhancements also include the redefinition of the facets to optimize the surface triangles to remove lags in display during visual rendering. Two separate algorithms are developed to interact with the virtual model. A fly-by algorithm, developed using C#, uses inputs from a commercial joystick to navigate within the virtual environment. The second algorithm uses the IR and gyroscopic tracking system of the head mounted display to render view as per the current pose of the user within the virtual environment and the direction of view. Such a virtual walk-thorough can be used extensively for design review and integration, review of new components, operator training for remote handling, operations, upgrades of tokamak, etc. (author)

  17. Effect of fabric mounting method and backing material on bloodstain patterns of drip stains on textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J Y M; Michielsen, S

    2016-05-01

    Textiles may provide valuable bloodstain evidence to help piece together events or activities at violent crime scenes. However, in spite of over 75 years of research, there are still difficulties encountered in many cases in the interpretation and identification of bloodstains on textiles. In this study, we dripped porcine blood onto three types of fabric (plain woven, single jersey knit, and denim) that are supported in four different ways (hard, taut, loose, and semi-hard, i.e., fabric laid on denim). These four mounting methods represent different ways in which a textile may be present when blood from a violent act lands on it. This study investigates how the fabric mounting method and backing material affect the appearance of drip stains on textiles. We found that bloodstain patterns formed on fabric lying flat on a hard surface were very different from when the same fabric was suspended loosely. We also found that bloodstains formed on the technical back of single jersey knit were vastly different from those on the technical face. Interestingly, some drip stains showed blood passing through the textile and leaving a stain behind it that resembled insect stains. By observing, recording, and describing how a blood stained textile is found or presented at the scene, the analyst may be able to better understand bloodstains and bloodstain patterns on textiles, which could be useful to confirm or refute a witness's account of how blood came to be where it was found after a bloodshed event.

  18. The timing of Late Pleistocene glaciation at Mount Wilhelm, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Stephanie; Barrows, Timothy; Hope, Geoff; Pillans, Brad; Fifield, Keith

    2016-04-01

    The highlands of New Guinea were the most extensively glaciated area in the Asian tropical region during the Late Pleistocene. Evidence for glaciation is widespread on most of the mountain peaks above ~3500 m. Glacial landforms include both valley and ice cap forms, but the timing of glaciation remains constrained to only a few local areas. This paper focuses on Mount Wilhelm, which is situated in the central southern region of Papua New Guinea at 5.78°S and is the highest peak (4510 m a.s.l.) We focus on a south easterly valley (Pindaunde Valley) emanating from the peak, where large moraines indicate the maximum ice extent of a valley glacier ~5 km long. Within this extensive moraine complex, recessional moraines document the retreat of the glacier towards the summit region. In order to determine the timing of deglaciation, we collected samples for surface exposure dating using 36Cl and 10Be from diorite boulders positioned on moraine crests. The ages indicate that maximum ice extent was attained during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and that ice remained near its maximum extent until after 15 ka but persisted at higher elevations almost until the Holocene. These results are similar to those described from Mt Giluwe to the northwest of Mount Wilhelm, where an ice cap reached its maximum extent at the LGM and remained there for around 3-4,000 years. This indicates that full glacial conditions were only brief in this region of the tropics.

  19. Development of a Double Glass Mounting Method Using Formaldehyde Alcohol Azocarmine Lactophenol (FAAL) and its Evaluation for Permanent Mounting of Small Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahabiun, Farzaneh; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Esfandiari, Farideh

    2015-01-01

    Permanent slide preparation of nematodes especially small ones is time consuming, difficult and they become scarious margins. Regarding this problem, a modified double glass mounting method was developed and compared with classic method. A total of 209 nematode samples from human and animal origin were fixed and stained with Formaldehyde Alcohol Azocarmine Lactophenol (FAAL) followed by double glass mounting and classic dehydration method using Canada balsam as their mounting media. The slides were evaluated in different dates and times, more than four years. Different photos were made with different magnification during the evaluation time. The double glass mounting method was stable during this time and comparable with classic method. There were no changes in morphologic structures of nematodes using double glass mounting method with well-defined and clear differentiation between different organs of nematodes in this method. Using this method is cost effective and fast for mounting of small nematodes comparing to classic method.

  20. Forming the stress state of a vibroisolated building in the process of mounting rubber steel vibration isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashevskiy Mikhail Aronovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity to specificate the formation process of stress-strain state of buildings in the construction process is a new problem which requires including real production characteristics going beyond calculation models into calculation methods. Today the construction process lacks this specification. When mounting vibroisolators the stress-strein of a structure state is changing. The mounting method of vibroisolators is patented and consists in multistage successive compression loading of each vibroisolator with the constant speed and following fixation of this displacement. The specified engineering method of rubber-steel pads calculation in view of change of their form during deformation, nonlinearity, rheological processes is offered. Resilient pads look like rubber plates rectangular in plane reinforced on the basic surfaces with metal sheets. The influence of a time-variable static load and free vibrations of loaded pads are considered.

  1. 76 FR 2370 - Mount Storm Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13863-000] Mount Storm..., Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications January 6, 2011. On October 14, 2010, Mount Storm Hydro... (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Mount Storm Pumped Storage Project to be located near...

  2. Mount Saint Helens, Washington, USA, SRTM Perspective: Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Mount Saint Helens is a prime example of how Earth's topographic form can greatly change even within our lifetimes. The mountain is one of several prominent volcanoes of the Cascade Range that stretches from British Columbia, Canada, southward through Washington, Oregon, and into northern California. Mount Adams (left background) and Mount Hood (right background) are also seen in this view, which was created entirely from elevation data produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Prior to 1980, Mount Saint Helens had a shape roughly similar to other Cascade peaks, a tall, bold, irregular conic form that rose to 2950 meters (9677 feet). However, the explosive eruption of May 18, 1980, caused the upper 400 meters (1300 feet) of the mountain to collapse, slide, and spread northward, covering much of the adjacent terrain (lower left), leaving a crater atop the greatly shortened mountain. Subsequent eruptions built a volcanic dome within the crater, and the high rainfall of this area lead to substantial erosion of the poorly consolidated landslide material. Eruptions at Mount Saint Helens subsided in 1986, but renewed volcanic activity here and at other Cascade volcanoes is inevitable. Predicting such eruptions still presents challenges, but migration of magma within these volcanoes often produces distinctive seismic activity and minor but measurable topographic changes that can give warning of a potential eruption. Three visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading of topographic slopes, color coding of topographic height, and then projection into a perspective view. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northeast-southwest (left to right) direction, so that northeast slopes appear bright and southwest slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. The perspective view simulates the

  3. Liberating the Temple Mount: apocalyptic tendencies among Jewish temple activists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leppäkari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Every now and then instances of violence are played out at the Temple Mount area in Jerusalem, also known as the Haram-esh-sharif. Some of the cases are referred to as results of the so-called ‘Jerusalem syndrome’, incidents when individuals’ manifestations of pre-existing psychopathology culminate in violent actions. Israeli psychiatrists and others have treated such incidents as examples of when peoples’ expectations of a heavenly Jerusalem collide with the very earthly reality in the city. For some people, such encounters may create anxiety that may threaten the victim’s very sanity. In such situations, an apocalyptic mission may become the only way for them to cope with the situation at hand. But the Temple Mount does not only attract lone-acting individuals, it also attracts organized groups who refer to the very spot as an important identity marker. In this article, the author draws on her field research material and interviews with Jewish Third Temple activists in Jerusalem collected on and off between 1998 and 2004. Here Yehuda Etzion’s, Gershon Salomon’s and Yoel Lerner’s theology and activities are studied in light of apocalyptic representations, and how these are expressed in relation to religious longing for the Third Temple in the light of the Gaza withdrawal. Not all those who are engaged in endtime scenarios act upon their visions. In Jerusalem, there have been, and still are, several religious-political groups that more or less ritually perambulate the Temple Mount area.

  4. Acoustic methods for high-throughput protein crystal mounting at next-generation macromolecular crystallographic beamlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Christian G; Kuczewski, Anthony; Stearns, Richard; Ellson, Richard; Olechno, Joseph; Orville, Allen M; Allaire, Marc; Soares, Alexei S; Héroux, Annie

    2013-09-01

    To take full advantage of advanced data collection techniques and high beam flux at next-generation macromolecular crystallography beamlines, rapid and reliable methods will be needed to mount and align many samples per second. One approach is to use an acoustic ejector to eject crystal-containing droplets onto a solid X-ray transparent surface, which can then be positioned and rotated for data collection. Proof-of-concept experiments were conducted at the National Synchrotron Light Source on thermolysin crystals acoustically ejected onto a polyimide `conveyor belt'. Small wedges of data were collected on each crystal, and a complete dataset was assembled from a well diffracting subset of these crystals. Future developments and implementation will focus on achieving ejection and translation of single droplets at a rate of over one hundred per second.

  5. Optimized mounting of a polyethylene naphthalate scintillation material in a radiation detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hidehito; Yamada, Tatsuya; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Kitamura, Hisashi; Shidara, Zenichiro; Yokozuka, Takayuki; Nguyen, Philip; Kanayama, Masaya; Takahashi, Sentaro

    2013-10-01

    Polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) has great potential as a scintillation material for radiation detection. Here the optimum mounting conditions to maximize the light collection efficiency from PEN in a radiation detector are discussed. To this end, we have determined light yields emitted from irradiated PEN for various optical couplings between the substrate and the photodetector, and for various substrate surface treatments. The results demonstrate that light extraction from PEN is more sensitive to the optical couplings due to its high refractive index. We also assessed the extent of radioactive impurities in PEN as background sources and found that the impurities are equivalent to the environmental background level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of mycorrhizal fungi and microsites in primary succession on Mount St. Helens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, J; Del Moral, R

    1998-03-01

    This study was designed to examine the role of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) and microsites on the growth of pioneer species. Flat, rill, near-rock, and dead lupine microsites were created in plots in barren areas of the Pumice Plain of Mount St. Helens. VAM propagules were added to the soil in half of the plots. Six pioneer species were planted into both VAM and non-VAM inoculated microsites. Plants in dead lupine microsites were greater in biomass than those in flat, rill, and near-rock microsites. Significant effects of VAM on plant biomass did not occur. Microsites continue to be important to plant colonization on the Pumice Plain, but VAM do not yet appear to play an important role. This may be due to limited nutrient availability and the facultatively mycotrophic nature of the colonizing plant species. It is unlikely that VAM play an important role in successional processes in newly emplaced nutrient-poor surfaces.

  7. Balanced and servo control surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1930-01-01

    Many reports on various control systems are available, but the results cannot be generally applied since the effect of particular changes of surface-form and mounting are subject to variations depending upon airfoil section and influences of airplane layout. This report presents a simple analysis of several control systems in more general use. Elevators, ailerons, and rudders are all discussed.

  8. Evaluation of HOPG mounting possibilities for multiplexing spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groitl, Felix, E-mail: felix.groitl@psi.ch [Laboratory for Quantum Magnetism, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Bartkowiak, Marek [Laboratory for Scientific Developments and Novel Materials, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Bergmann, Ryan M. [Division Large Research Facilities, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Birk, Jonas Okkels [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Markó, Márton [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Neutron Spectroscopy Department, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Bollhalder, Alex; Graf, Dieter [Laboratory for Scientific Developments and Novel Materials, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Niedermayer, Christof [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Rüegg, Christian [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Department of Quantum Matter Physics, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Rønnow, Henrik M. [Laboratory for Quantum Magnetism, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2017-06-21

    Four different methods for mounting HOPG analyzer crystals on Si holders have been evaluated in the design process of the new multiplexing spectrometer CAMEA. Contrary to neutron optics used in standard spectrometers, the new instrument concept employs a series of analyzer segments behind each other where the neutrons have to pass through the bonding compound of the different analyzer crystals. The different methods, namely screws, shellac, indium soldering and clips, have been evaluated with regards to background, transmission, cooling, activation and handling. The results presented here will give valuable input for future CAMEA-type spectrometers currently planned and designed at various neutron sources.

  9. Cognitive considerations for helmet-mounted display design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory; Rash, Clarence E.

    2010-04-01

    Helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) are designed as a tool to increase performance. To achieve this, there must be an accurate transfer of information from the HMD to the user. Ideally, an HMD would be designed to accommodate the abilities and limitations of users' cognitive processes. It is not enough for the information (whether visual, auditory, or tactual) to be displayed; the information must be perceived, attended, remembered, and organized in a way that guides appropriate decision-making, judgment, and action. Following a general overview, specific subtopics of cognition, including perception, attention, memory, knowledge, decision-making, and problem solving are explored within the context of HMDs.

  10. Mount Baker lahars and debris flows, ancient, modern, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, David S; Scott, Kevin M.; Grossman, Eric E.; Linneman, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The Middle Fork Nooksack River drains the southwestern slopes of the active Mount Baker stratovolcano in northwest Washington State. The river enters Bellingham Bay at a growing delta 98 km to the west. Various types of debris flows have descended the river, generated by volcano collapse or eruption (lahars), glacial outburst floods, and moraine landslides. Initial deposition of sediment during debris flows occurs on the order of minutes to a few hours. Long-lasting, down-valley transport of sediment, all the way to the delta, occurs over a period of decades, and affects fish habitat, flood risk, gravel mining, and drinking water.

  11. Kinematic mounting systems for NSLS beamlines and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversluizen, T.; Stoeber, W.; Johnson, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Methods for kinematically mounting equipment are well established, but applications at synchrotron radiation facilities are subject to constraints not always encountered in more traditional laboratory settings. Independent position adjustment of beamline components can have significant benefits in terms of minimizing time spent aligning, and maximizing time spent acquiring data. In this paper, we use examples taken from beamlines at the NSLS to demonstrate approaches for optimization of the reproducibility, stability, excursion, and set-up time for various situations. From our experience, we extract general principles which we hope will be useful for workers at other synchrotron radiation facilities. 7 refs., 4 figs

  12. Digital cross-mounting: A new opportunity in prosthetic dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venezia, Pietro; Torsello, Ferruccio; D'Amato, Salvatore; Cavalcanti, Raffaele

    2017-01-01

    The prosthodontic management of complex rehabilitations requires several stages of treatment including one or more provisional restorations. The design and adjustments of the provisional are made to achieve an optimal functional and esthetic outcome for the patient. However, the adjustments needed are both time and cost consuming. Therefore, once a satisfactory provisional is made, the information should not be lost during the following stages of treatment. The purpose of this clinical case is to illustrate "digital cross-mounting," a procedure used to precisely transfer information from the provisional to the final fixed rehabilitation in a digital workflow.

  13. Active Engine Mounting Control Algorithm Using Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadly Jashi Darsivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the application of neural network as a controller to isolate engine vibration in an active engine mounting system. It has been shown that the NARMA-L2 neurocontroller has the ability to reject disturbances from a plant. The disturbance is assumed to be both impulse and sinusoidal disturbances that are induced by the engine. The performance of the neural network controller is compared with conventional PD and PID controllers tuned using Ziegler-Nichols. From the result simulated the neural network controller has shown better ability to isolate the engine vibration than the conventional controllers.

  14. Cooling performance of a notebook PC mounted with heat spreader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, H.K. [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea); Lim, K.B. [Hanbat National University, Taejeon (Korea); Park, M.H. [Korea Power Engineering Company (Korea)

    2001-06-01

    Parametric study to investigate the cooling performance of a notebook PC mounted with heat spreader has been numerically performed. Two case of air-blowing and air-exhaust at inlet were tested. The cooling effect on parameters such as, inlet velocities in the cases of air-blowing and air-exhaust, materials of heat spreader, and CPU powers were simulated for two cases. Cooling performance in the case of air-blowing was better than the case of air-exhaust. (author). 9 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Immersive vision assisted remote teleoperation using head mounted displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakkapatla, Veerendrababu; Singh, Ashutosh Pratap; Rakesh, V.; Rajagopalan, C.; Murugan, S.; Sai Baba, M.

    2016-01-01

    Handling and inspection of irradiated material is inevitable in nuclear industry. Hot cells are shielded radiation containment chambers equipped with master slave manipulators that facilitates remote handling. The existing methods using viewing windows and cameras for viewing the contents of hot cell to manipulate the radioactive elements have problems such as optical distortion, limited distance teleoperation, limited field of view that lead to inefficient operation. This paper presents a method of achieving immersive teleoperation to operate the master slave manipulator in hot cells by exploiting the advanced tracking and display capabilities of head mounted display devices. (author)

  16. The misalignment angle in vessel-mounted ADCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Osinski

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A description of the misalignment angle and the consequences if it occurs is given. It is shown that because of gyrocompass errors, the misalignment angle error a has to be computed for each cruise. A simple method of calibrating the acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP mounted on a vessel has been devised by fitting the cosinusoidal function. This is a post-processing method, suitable for calibrating previously collected data. Nevertheless, because of ADCP's constructional peculiarities, the procedure must be repeated for each cruise.

  17. Evaluation of HOPG mounting possibilities for multiplexing spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groitl, Felix; Bartkowiak, Marek; Bergmann, Ryan M.; Birk, Jonas Okkels; Markó, Márton; Bollhalder, Alex; Graf, Dieter; Niedermayer, Christof; Rüegg, Christian; Rønnow, Henrik M.

    2017-01-01

    Four different methods for mounting HOPG analyzer crystals on Si holders have been evaluated in the design process of the new multiplexing spectrometer CAMEA. Contrary to neutron optics used in standard spectrometers, the new instrument concept employs a series of analyzer segments behind each other where the neutrons have to pass through the bonding compound of the different analyzer crystals. The different methods, namely screws, shellac, indium soldering and clips, have been evaluated with regards to background, transmission, cooling, activation and handling. The results presented here will give valuable input for future CAMEA-type spectrometers currently planned and designed at various neutron sources.

  18. Experimental investigation on flow and heat transfer for cooling flush-mounted ribbons in a channel: Application of an EHD active enhancement method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alami Nia Amin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the heat transfer enhancement of a bundle of flush-mounted ribbons placed on the floor of a rectangular duct was investigated experimentally. The flush-mounted ribbons act as heat sources and the cooling happens with air. The air flow was two-dimensional, steady, viscous and incompressible under either laminar (500 ≤ ReDh < 2000 and turbulent (2000 ≤ Re Dh ≤ 4500 conditions. The hydrodynamics and heat transfer behavior of the air flow was studied by means of an active method with application of corona wind. The state of the art of this work revolves around an experimental investigation of an EHD1 active method and heat transfer enhancement from the surfaces of the flush- mounted ribbons. Due to the intricacies of the required experiment, a special apparatus needed to be designed and constructed.

  19. Comparison between skin-mounted fiducials and bone-implanted fiducials for image-guided neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Jennifer; Harris, Steven S.; Stefansic, James D.; Sillay, Karl; Galloway, Robert L., Jr.

    2004-05-01

    Point-based registration for image-guided neurosurgery has become the industry standard. While the use of intrinsic points is appealing because of its retrospective nature, affixing extrinsic objects to the head prior to scanning has been demonstrated to provide much more accurate registrations. Points of reference between image space and physical space are called fiducials. The extrinsic objects which generate those points are fiducial markers. The markers can be broken down into two classifications: skin-mounted and bone-implanted. Each has distinct advantages and disadvantages. Skin-mounted fiducials require simply sticking them on the patient in locations suggested by the manufacturer, however, they can move with tractions placed on the skin, fall off and perhaps the most dangerous problem, they can be replaced by the patient. Bone implanted markers being rigidly affixed to the skull do not present such problems. However, a minor surgical intervention (analogous to dental work) must be performed to implant the markers prior to surgery. Therefore marker type and use has become a decision point for image-guided surgery. We have performed a series of experiments in an attempt to better quantify aspects of the two types of markers so that better informed decisions can be made. We have created a phantom composed of a full-size plastic skull [Wards Scientific Supply] with a 500 ml bag of saline placed in the brain cavity. The skull was then sealed. A skin mimicking material, DragonSkinTM [SmoothOn Company] was painted onto the surface and allowed to dry. Skin mounted fiducials [Medtronic-SNT] and bone-implanted markers [Z-Kat]were placed on the phantom. In addition, three additional bone-implanted markers were placed (two on the base of the skull and one in the eye socket for use as targets). The markers were imaged in CT and 4 MRI sequences (T1-weighted, T2 weighted, SPGR, and a functional series.) The markers were also located in physical space using an Optotrak

  20. Preparation of Samples for Leaf Architecture Studies, A Method for Mounting Cleared Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Vasco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Several recent waves of interest in leaf architecture have shown an expanding range of approaches and applications across a number of disciplines. Despite this increased interest, examination of existing archives of cleared and mounted leaves shows that current methods for mounting, in particular, yield unsatisfactory results and deterioration of samples over relatively short periods. Although techniques for clearing and staining leaves are numerous, published techniques for mounting leaves are scarce. Methods and Results: Here we present a complete protocol and recommendations for clearing, staining, and imaging leaves, and, most importantly, a method to permanently mount cleared leaves. Conclusions: The mounting protocol is faster than other methods, inexpensive, and straightforward; moreover, it yields clear and permanent samples that can easily be imaged, scanned, and stored. Specimens mounted with this method preserve well, with leaves that were mounted more than 35 years ago showing no signs of bubbling or discoloration.

  1. Preparation of samples for leaf architecture studies, a method for mounting cleared leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasco, Alejandra; Thadeo, Marcela; Conover, Margaret; Daly, Douglas C

    2014-09-01

    Several recent waves of interest in leaf architecture have shown an expanding range of approaches and applications across a number of disciplines. Despite this increased interest, examination of existing archives of cleared and mounted leaves shows that current methods for mounting, in particular, yield unsatisfactory results and deterioration of samples over relatively short periods. Although techniques for clearing and staining leaves are numerous, published techniques for mounting leaves are scarce. • Here we present a complete protocol and recommendations for clearing, staining, and imaging leaves, and, most importantly, a method to permanently mount cleared leaves. • The mounting protocol is faster than other methods, inexpensive, and straightforward; moreover, it yields clear and permanent samples that can easily be imaged, scanned, and stored. Specimens mounted with this method preserve well, with leaves that were mounted more than 35 years ago showing no signs of bubbling or discoloration.

  2. Preparation of samples for leaf architecture studies, a method for mounting cleared leaves1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasco, Alejandra; Thadeo, Marcela; Conover, Margaret; Daly, Douglas C.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Several recent waves of interest in leaf architecture have shown an expanding range of approaches and applications across a number of disciplines. Despite this increased interest, examination of existing archives of cleared and mounted leaves shows that current methods for mounting, in particular, yield unsatisfactory results and deterioration of samples over relatively short periods. Although techniques for clearing and staining leaves are numerous, published techniques for mounting leaves are scarce. • Methods and Results: Here we present a complete protocol and recommendations for clearing, staining, and imaging leaves, and, most importantly, a method to permanently mount cleared leaves. • Conclusions: The mounting protocol is faster than other methods, inexpensive, and straightforward; moreover, it yields clear and permanent samples that can easily be imaged, scanned, and stored. Specimens mounted with this method preserve well, with leaves that were mounted more than 35 years ago showing no signs of bubbling or discoloration. PMID:25225627

  3. Mounting Systems for Structural Members, Fastening Assemblies Thereof, and Vibration Isolation Systems Including the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ken (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Mounting systems for structural members, fastening assemblies thereof, and vibration isolation systems including the same are provided. Mounting systems comprise a pair of mounting brackets, each clamped against a fastening assembly forming a mounting assembly. Fastening assemblies comprise a spherical rod end comprising a spherical member having a through opening and an integrally threaded shaft, first and second seating members on opposite sides of the spherical member and each having a through opening that is substantially coaxial with the spherical member through opening, and a partially threaded fastener that threadably engages each mounting bracket forming the mounting assembly. Structural members have axial end portions, each releasably coupled to a mounting bracket by the integrally threaded shaft. Axial end portions are threaded in opposite directions for permitting structural member rotation to adjust a length thereof to a substantially zero strain position. Structural members may be vibration isolator struts in vibration isolation systems.

  4. A Vehicle-mounted Crop Detector with Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjiang ZHONG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect crop chlorophyll content in real-time, a new vehicle-mounted detector for measuring crop canopy spectral characteristics was developed. It was designed to work as a wireless sensor network with several optical sensor nodes and one control unit. All the optical sensor nodes were mounted on an on-board mechanical structure so that they could collect the canopy spectral data while in mobile condition. Each optical sensor node was designed to contain four optical channels, which allowed it work at the wavebands of 550, 650, 766 and 850 nm. The control unit included a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant device with a ZigBee wireless network coordinator and a GPRS module. It was used to receive, display, store all the data sent from optical sensor nodes and send data to the server through GPRS module. The calibration tests verified the stability of the wireless network and the measurement precision of the sensors. Both stationary and moving field experiments were also conducted in a winter wheat experimental field. Results showed that the correlation between chlorophyll content and vegetation index had high significance with the highest R2 of 0.6824. Those results showed the potential of the detector for field application.

  5. Qualification of engine-mounted components due to operational vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.J.; Bayat, A.

    1994-01-01

    The Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) in a Nuclear Power Plant is considered to be an essential component of the plant for its safe operation. Failures of auxiliary components directly mounted on the EDG creates costly repairs, and compromises the engine's availability and reliability. Although IEEE-323 and Section III of the ASME code require addressing of safety-related components due to mechanically induced vibration, very few guidelines exist in the nuclear industry to show how this may be accounted for. Most engine vendors rely on the empirical experience data as the basis of their evaluation for vibration. Upgrade of engine controls, addition of monitoring components and other engine modifications require design and installation of new mechanical and electrical components to be mounted directly on the engine. This necessitates the evaluation of such components for engine-induced vibration which is considered to be one of the most severe design parameters. This paper presents a methodology to evaluate three categories of components; structural, mechanical, and electrical under engine vibration. The discussion for the characteristics and manipulation of engine vibration profile to be used for each component evaluation is also given. In addition, the suitability of analytical verses testing approaches is discussed for each category. An example application of the methodology is presented for a typical EDG which is currently undergoing major controls upgrade and monitoring modification

  6. Sensor 17 Thermal Isolation Mounting Structure (TIMS) Design Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enstrom, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-04

    The SENSOR 17 thermographic camera weighs approximately 0.5lbs, has a fundamental mode of 167 Hz, and experiences 0.75W of heat leakage in through the TIMS. The configuration, shown in Figure 1, is comprised of four 300 Series SST washers paired in tandem with P.E.I (Ultem 100) washers. The SENSOR 17 sensor is mounted to a 300 series stainless plate with A-shaped arms. The Plate can be assumed to be at ambient temperatures (≈293K) and the I.R. Mount needs to be cooled to 45K. It is attached to the tip of a cryocooler by a ‘cold strap’ and is assumed to be at the temperature of the cold-strap (≈45K). During flights SENSOR 17 experiences excitations at frequencies centered around 10-30Hz, 60Hz, and 120Hz from the aircraft flight environment. The temporal progression described below depicts the 1st Modal shape at the systems resonant frequency. This simulation indicates Modal articulation will cause a pitch rate of the camera with respect to the body axis of the airplane. This articulation shows up as flutter in the camera.

  7. Destruction and management of Mount Kenya`s forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, R.W. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Biologie, Chemie und Geowissenschaften

    1996-08-01

    This article presents data on the destruction of the montane forests on Mount Kenya. The material was obtained during field-work for a phytosociological study in 1992-1994. Special emphasis was given to the observation of regeneration patterns and succession cycles within the different forest communities, with regard to the impact of humans and big game. Although private tree planting is reducing the fuelwood deficit in Kenya, large parts of the 200 000 ha of Mount Kenya`s forests - the largest natural-forest area in the country - are heavily impacted by among other things illegal activities. The wet camphor forests of the south and southeast mountain slopes are being destroyed at an alarming speed, by large-scale selective logging of Ocotea usambarensis and marihuana cultivation. The drier Juniperus procera are also logged, but are even more endangered by the new settlement schemes. The large elephant population does not affect forest regeneration; whereas browsing and chaffing by buffaloes inhibits regeneration of the dry forests, and damages many trees. Suggestions are presented for better management of the forest resources. 12 refs, 1 fig

  8. Design features of SMART for barge mounted application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doo-Jeong Lee; Ju-Hyeon Yoon; Ju-Pyung Kim; Jong-In Kim; Moon-Hee Chang

    2000-01-01

    SMART is an integral reactor of 330 MWt capacity with passive safety features being developed for a wide range of applications including the barge mounted co-generation plant. Its design strives to combine the firmly-established commercial reactor design with new advanced technologies. Thus the use of the industry proven KOFA (Korea Optimized Fuel Assembly) based nuclear fuels is pursued while such radically new technologies as self-pressurizing pressurizer, helical once-through steam generators, and advanced control concepts are being developed. The safety of SMART centers around enhancing the inherent safety characteristics of the reactor and salient features include low core power density, integral arrangement to eliminate large break loss of coolant accident, etc. The progression of emergency situations into accidents is prevented with a number of advanced engineered safety features such as Passive Residual Heat Removal System, Passive Emergency Core Cooling System, Safeguard Vessel, Passive Containment Over-pressure Protection. This paper presents the status of current SMART development, characteristics of SMART safety systems and the possibility of SMART application to barge mounted environment. (author)

  9. Bottom-mounted control rod drive mechanism for KJRR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Haeng; Kim, Sanghaun; Yoo, Yeon-Sik, E-mail: yooys@kaeri.re.kr; Cho, Yeong-Garp; Huh, Hyung; Lee, Hyokwang; Sun, Jong-Oh; Ryu, Jeong-Soo

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • The basic design features and characteristics of the KJRR BMCRDM are described. • The similarities and differences of some research reactor CRDMs are compared. • The current status of the design and development of the CRDM is described. • The future plan of the qualification tests of the CRDM is summarized. - Abstract: The KIJANG research reactor (KJRR), which is currently being designed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, is a pool type research reactor with 15 MW of thermal power. Contrary to the top-mounted control rod drive mechanism (CRDM), the main drive mechanism of the KJRR CRDM is located in a reactivity control mechanism room under the reactor pool bottom. Recently, we accomplished the design and development of a prototype CRDM. In this paper, we introduce the basic design concept of the bottom-mounted CRDM for KJRR, and compare the similarities and differences of some research reactor CRDMs. The current status of the prototype CRDM development based on a finite element analysis and experimental verification, and the future plan of the CRDM qualification tests, are both described.

  10. Beating-heart registration for organ-mounted robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan A; Schwartzman, David; Passineau, Michael J; Moraca, Robert J; Zenati, Marco A; Riviere, Cameron N

    2018-03-06

    Organ-mounted robots address the problem of beating-heart surgery by adhering to the heart, passively providing a platform that approaches zero relative motion. Because of the quasi-periodic deformation of the heart due to heartbeat and respiration, registration must address not only spatial registration but also temporal registration. Motion data were collected in the porcine model in vivo (N = 6). Fourier series models of heart motion were developed. By comparing registrations generated using an iterative closest-point approach at different phases of respiration, the phase corresponding to minimum registration distance is identified. The spatiotemporal registration technique presented here reduces registration error by an average of 4.2 mm over the 6 trials, in comparison with a more simplistic static registration that merely averages out the physiological motion. An empirical metric for spatiotemporal registration of organ-mounted robots is defined and demonstrated using data from animal models in vivo. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Will Mount Etna erupt before EGU General Assembly 2017?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Marco; Cannavo', Flavio; Palano, Mimmo

    2017-04-01

    Mount Etna has historically recorded a long and very various series of eruptions. The eruptions have mostly shown an episodic character, despite a near continuous supply of magma. In the last years, activity at Mount Etna seems to follow a recurrent pattern characterized by very similar "inflation/paroxysmal events/deflation" dynamic. The paroxysms occurred in December 2015 and May 2016, which involved the "Voragine" crater, can be considered among the most violent observed during the last two decades. These events showed high lava fountains, in the order of hundreds of meters in height, and eruption columns, several kilometres high. A new cycle, characterized by a clear similar inflation of the whole volcano edifice is currently underway. Here, we analyse these recent volcanic cycles and discuss about a) a possible upper bound for the inflation dynamic, above which a paroxysmal event occurs, b) the comparison of the models generating the considered lava fountains and c) a possible time-predictable model of the expected paroxysmal event.

  12. Community Exposure to Lahar Hazards from Mount Rainier, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Soulard, Christopher E.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic evidence of past events and inundation modeling of potential events suggest that lahars associated with Mount Rainier, Washington, are significant threats to downstream development. To mitigate potential impacts of future lahars and educate at-risk populations, officials need to understand how communities are vulnerable to these fast-moving debris flows and which individuals and communities may need assistance in preparing for and responding to an event. To support local risk-reduction planning for future Mount Rainier lahars, this study documents the variations among communities in King, Lewis, Pierce, and Thurston Counties in the amount and types of developed land, human populations, economic assets, and critical facilities in a lahar-hazard zone. The lahar-hazard zone in this study is based on the behavior of the Electron Mudflow, a lahar that traveled along the Puyallup River approximately 500 years ago and was due to a slope failure on the west flank of Mount Rainier. This lahar-hazard zone contains 78,049 residents, of which 11 percent are more than 65 years in age, 21 percent do not live in cities or unincorporated towns, and 39 percent of the households are renter occupied. The lahar-hazard zone contains 59,678 employees (4 percent of the four-county labor force) at 3,890 businesses that generate $16 billion in annual sales (4 and 7 percent, respectively, of totals in the four-county area) and tax parcels with a combined total value of $8.8 billion (2 percent of the study-area total). Employees in the lahar-hazard zone are primarily in businesses related to manufacturing, retail trade, transportation and warehousing, wholesale trade, and construction. Key road and rail corridors for the region are in the lahar-hazard zone, which could result in significant indirect economic losses for businesses that rely on these networks, such as the Port of Tacoma. Although occupancy values are not known for each site, the lahar-hazard zone contains numerous

  13. Receptor localization of steroid hormones and drugs: discoveries through the use of thaw-mount and dry-mount autoradiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stumpf W.E.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of receptor autoradiography, its development and applications, testify to the utility of this histochemical technique for localizing radiolabeled hormones and drugs at cellular and subcellular sites of action in intact tissues. Localization of diffusible compounds has been a challenge that was met through the introduction of the "thaw-mount" and "dry-mount" autoradiographic techniques thirty years ago. With this cellular receptor autoradiography, used alone or combined with other histochemical techniques, sites of specific binding and deposition in vivo and in vitro have been characterized. Numerous discoveries, some reviewed in this article, provided information that led to new concepts and opened new areas of research. As an example, in recent years more than fifty target tissues for vitamin D have been specified, challenging the conventional view about the main biological role of vitamin D. The functions of most of these vitamin D target tissues are unrelated to the regulation of systemic calcium homeostasis, but pertain to the (seasonal regulation of endo- and exocrine secretion, cell proliferation, reproduction, neural, immune and cardiovascular responses, and adaptation to stress. Receptor autoradiography with cellular resolution has become an indispensable tool in drug research and development, since information can be obtained that is difficult or impossible to gain otherwise

  14. Separating volcanic deformation and atmospheric signals at Mount St. Helens using Persistent Scatterer InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Mark D.; Schmidt, David A.

    2017-09-01

    Over the past two decades, GPS and leveling surveys have recorded cycles of inflation and deflation associated with dome building eruptions at Mount St. Helens. Due to spatial and temporal limitations of the data, it remains unknown whether any deformation occurred prior to the most recent eruption of 2004, information which could help anticipate future eruptions. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), which boasts fine spatial resolution over large areas, has the potential to resolve pre-eruptive deformation that may have occurred, but eluded detection by campaign GPS surveys because it was localized to the edifice or crater. Traditional InSAR methods are challenging to apply in the Cascades volcanic arc because of a combination of environmental factors, and past attempts to observe deformation at Mount St. Helens were unable to make reliable observations in the crater or on much of the edifice. In this study, Persistent Scatterer InSAR, known to mitigate issues of decorrelation caused by environmental factors, is applied to four SAR data sets in an attempt to resolve localized sources of deformation on the volcano between 1995 and 2010. Many interferograms are strongly influenced by phase delay from atmospheric water vapor and require correction, evidenced by a correlation between phase and topography. To assess the bias imposed by the atmosphere, we perform sensitivity tests on a suite of atmospheric correction techniques, including several that rely on the correlation of phase delay to elevation, and explore approaches that directly estimate phase delay using the ERA-Interim and NARR climate reanalysis data sets. We find that different correction methods produce velocities on the edifice of Mount St. Helens that differ by up to 1 cm/yr due to variability in how atmospheric artifacts are treated in individual interferograms. Additionally, simple phase-based techniques run the risk of minimizing any surface deformation signals that may themselves be

  15. Photogrammetric Analysis of the Current Dome-Building Eruption of Mount St. Helens Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, A. K.; Dzurisin, D.; Crider, J. G.; Schilling, S. P.

    2006-12-01

    Beginning in October 2004 and continuing to present day, the eruption of Mount St. Helens has provided a unique opportunity to experiment with new tools and techniques to study the dome-building eruption of a Cascade volcano. At the onset of eruption, a permanent camera station called Sugar Bowl was installed on the northeast rim of the crater about 2 km from the vent. Since that time, four additional cameras have been installed on the rim and crater floor to provide continuous visual observation of dome growth and crater conditions. We have analyzed images from four of the cameras to measure variations in three-dimensional lineal growth rates of lava spines extruding from the growing dome. Using photogrammetric techniques it is possible to obtain quantitative information on the geometry and displacement of a changing topographic model, in this case the evolving dome and glaciers in the crater of Mount St. Helens. The technique is an inexpensive, high-resolution, and efficient method that uses standard commercial software and an off-the-shelf digital camera to determine the x, y, z positions of selected points on the model surface. The model geometry at any given time is defined by the positions of all the points, and displacements are measured by tracking the changing positions of the points through time. Lineal extrusion rates during the first few months of the eruption ranged from 6-11 m/d, and subsequent estimates by other techniques were 4-5 m/d (Dzurisin et. al, 2005). For the past six months the extrusion rate has leveled off at 1 m/d, possibly indicative of steady-state extrusion or an approaching pause in the eruption. Another aspect of the project involves the use of overlapping oblique photos taken from a helicopter in 2004 and 2005 to produce fast and coarse digital elevation models (DEMs), which supplement high resolution DEMs produced by the USGS every 1 - 2 months. Comparing these results with seismicity and ground tilt measured by shallow borehole

  16. A study of stress distribution in elbows mounted on stanchions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basavanhally, N.R.; Tonet, N.

    1983-01-01

    It is a common practice, both in the nuclear and power piping industry, to have integral attachments on piping to either form a restraint or an anchor. For small attachments, such as lugs, one can use the readily available methods (eg., ASME Code Case N-318) to evaluate the local stresses at these attachments. For elbows or curved pipes mounted on stanchions, the evaluation of local stresses is more complex. In the present analysis, a 3D finite element model was implemented to determine the stress intensification factor that can be applied to piping stress under internal pressure and in-plane bending type of loads. The analysis indicates that, for an internal pressure load, in-plane bending is generated. For such supports, a stress intensification factor should be used to account for the increased loads. The results also indicate that there is an optimum elbow to stanchion post radius ratio which should be used in designing such supports. (orig.)

  17. Pressure-Equalizing Cradle for Booster Rocket Mounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutan, Elbert L. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A launch system and method improve the launch efficiency of a booster rocket and payload. A launch aircraft atop which the booster rocket is mounted in a cradle, is flown or towed to an elevation at which the booster rocket is released. The cradle provides for reduced structural requirements for the booster rocket by including a compressible layer, that may be provided by a plurality of gas or liquid-filled flexible chambers. The compressible layer contacts the booster rocket along most of the length of the booster rocket to distribute applied pressure, nearly eliminating bending loads. Distributing the pressure eliminates point loading conditions and bending moments that would otherwise be generated in the booster rocket structure during carrying. The chambers may be balloons distributed in rows and columns within the cradle or cylindrical chambers extending along a length of the cradle. The cradle may include a manifold communicating gas between chambers.

  18. Solidly mounted resonators aging under harsh environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivira, B; Fillit, R Y; Ndagijimana, F; Benech, Ph; Boussey, J; Parat, G; Ancey, P

    2006-01-01

    A contribution to reliability studies of Solidly Mounted Resonators (SMR) submitted to harsh environments such as temperature and humidity is presented. Electrical, structural and chemical monitoring of representative parameters is performed by means of RF, DC characterizations and also X-ray diffraction coupled to X-fluorescence to assess aging in microstructures. Results indicate that humidity affects samples stronger than high temperature. From viewpoint of robustness, non-negligible effects of SiO 2 mass-loading on antiresonance and resonance frequencies are reported. Drifts of parameters for a lonely resonator and filter transmission are both in good accordance. Finally, the need of a full sheet passivation layer is demonstrated in order to protect metals and Aluminum Nitride (AlN) against oxidation and pollutant compounds respectively

  19. Plants Biodiversity of Jobolarangan Forest Mount Lawu: 2. Spermatophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUHAR IRIANTO

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to make: (1 a list of Spermatophyte plants at Jobolarangan forest in mount Lawu, and (2 the ecological and the economical benefits of the plants. All Spermatophyte plants on the forest were studied. The research procedures were including species collection in the field, make up herbaria, morphological observations in the laboratory, and interview to residents and government administrations. The results showed that in the forest were found 142 species Spermatophyte plants, in which 126 species of 54 family were identified, consisting of 78 species of herbs, 26 species of bushes, and 21 species of trees. Ecological benefits of the plants were hydrological regulation, keep out landslide and erosions etc., however economical benefits of the plants were log, firewood, charcoal, honey bee, medicinal plants, etc.

  20. Electrical activity during the 2006 Mount St. Augustine volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ronald J.; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Rison, William; Edens, H. E.; Aulich, G. D.; McNutt, S.R.; Tytgat, Guy; Clark, E.

    2007-01-01

    By using a combination of radio frequency time-of-arrival and interferometer measurements, we observed a sequence of lightning and electrical activity during one of Mount St. Augustine's eruptions. The observations indicate that the electrical activity had two modes or phases. First, there was an explosive phase in which the ejecta from the explosion appeared to be highly charged upon exiting the volcano, resulting in numerous apparently disorganized discharges and some simple lightning. The net charge exiting the volcano appears to have been positive. The second phase, which followed the most energetic explosion, produced conventional-type discharges that occurred within plume. Although the plume cloud was undoubtedly charged as a result of the explosion itself, the fact that the lightning onset was delayed and continued after and well downwind of the eruption indicates that in situ charging of some kind was occurring, presumably similar in some respects to that which occurs in normal thunderstorms.

  1. Advanced Helmet Mounted Display (AHMD) for simulator applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, Ashok; Riser, Andrew; Bayer, Michael; McGuire, James P.

    2006-05-01

    The Advanced Helmet Mounted Display (AHMD), augmented reality visual system first presented at last year's Cockpit and Future Displays for Defense and Security conference, has now been evaluated in a number of military simulator applications and by L-3 Link Simulation and Training. This paper presents the preliminary results of these evaluations and describes current and future simulator and training applications for HMD technology. The AHMD blends computer-generated data (symbology, synthetic imagery, enhanced imagery) with the actual and simulated visible environment. The AHMD is designed specifically for highly mobile deployable, minimum resource demanding reconfigurable virtual training systems to satisfy the military's in-theater warrior readiness objective. A description of the innovative AHMD system and future enhancements will be discussed.

  2. Air Distribution in a Room with Ceiling-Mounted Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Heby, Thomas; Moeller-Jensen, Bertil

    2006-01-01

    . The characteristics of the air distribution systems are addressed by analysing the acceptable conditions for the supply flow rate and the temperature difference for the different systems. The paper shows that an air distribution system with ceiling-mounted air terminal units is able to generate comfortable velocity...... with swirling flow generates a flow pattern in the room which is rather uninfluenced by the thermal load. The flow is highly mixed above the occupied zone and the air movement penetrates the occupied zone close to the walls. All systems are tested in the same room with the same heat load consisting of two...... manikins, each sitting at a desk, two pc's and two desk lamps producing a total heat load of 480 W. The design of the air distribution system is in all five cases based on flow elements from the diffuser, a maximum velocity assumption and a critical vertical temperature gradient in the room...

  3. Optimization of Compressor Mounting Bracket of a Passenger Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Sachin; Singh, Daljeet; Saini, J. S.

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, the CAE tools are used for the optimization of the compressor mounting bracket used in an automobile. Both static and dynamic analysis is done for the bracket. With the objective to minimize the mass and increase the stiffness of the bracket, the new design is optimized using shape and topology optimization techniques. The optimized design given by CAE tool is then validated experimentally. The new design results in lower level of vibrations, contribute to lower mass along with lesser cost which is effective in air conditioning system as well as the efficiency of a vehicle. The results given by CAE tool had a very good correlation with the experimental results.

  4. Post Traumatic Tension Pneumocephalus: The Mount Fuji Sign

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, J

    2017-04-01

    Pneumocephalus is defined as the presence of intracranial air. This is most commonly secondary to a traumatic head injury. Tension pneumocephalus presents radiologically with compression of the frontal lobes and widening of the interhemispheric space between the frontal lobes. It is often termed the Mount Fuji sign due to a perceived similarity with an iconic mountain peak in Japan. We present the case of a 52-year-old gentleman who presented to the emergency department shortly before 8am on a Saturday morning following an assault. He was alert and ambulatory with no clinical evidence of raised intracranial pressure. A plain radiograph of the facial bones showed significant pneumocephalus. A later CT was consistent with a tension pneumocephalus which usually necessitates urgent decompression.The patient showed no clinical signs or symptoms of raised intracranial pressure and was managed conservatively. He was discharged home 16 days later with no neurological deficit

  5. Power curve measurement with a nacelle mounted lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Courtney, Michael

    2014-01-01

    is tested. A pulsed lidar prototype, measuring horizontally, was installed on the nacelle of a multi-megawatt wind turbine. A met mast with a top-mounted cup anemometer standing at two rotor diameters in front of the turbine was used as a reference. After a data-filtering step, the comparison of the 10 min......Nacelle-based lidars are an attractive alternative to conventional mast base reference wind instrumentation where the erection of a mast is expensive, for example offshore. In this paper, the use of this new technology for the specific application of wind turbine power performance measurement...... in wind speed measurements. A lower scatter in the power curve was observed for the lidar than for the mast. Since the lidar follows the turbine nacelle as it yaws, it always measures upwind. The wind measured by the lidar therefore shows a higher correlation with the turbine power fluctuations than...

  6. Digital Image Processing Overview For Helmet Mounted Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Michael J.

    1989-09-01

    Digital image processing provides a means to manipulate an image and presents a user with a variety of display formats that are not available in the analog image processing environment. When performed in real time and presented on a Helmet Mounted Display, system capability and flexibility are greatly enhanced. The information content of a display can be increased by the addition of real time insets and static windows from secondary sensor sources, near real time 3-D imaging from a single sensor can be achieved, graphical information can be added, and enhancement techniques can be employed. Such increased functionality is generating a considerable amount of interest in the military and commercial markets. This paper discusses some of these image processing techniques and their applications.

  7. Cotton phenotyping with lidar from a track-mounted platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Andrew N.; Gore, Michael A.; Thompson, Alison

    2016-05-01

    High-Throughput Phenotyping (HTP) is a discipline for rapidly identifying plant architectural and physiological responses to environmental factors such as heat and water stress. Experiments conducted since 2010 at Maricopa, Arizona with a three-fold sensor group, including thermal infrared radiometers, active visible/near infrared reflectance sensors, and acoustic plant height sensors, have shown the validity of HTP with a tractor-based system. However, results from these experiments also show that accuracy of plant phenotyping is limited by the system's inability to discriminate plant components and their local environmental conditions. This limitation may be overcome with plant imaging and laser scanning which can help map details in plant architecture and sunlit/shaded leaves. To test the capability for mapping cotton plants with a laser system, a track-mounted platform was deployed in 2015 over a full canopy and defoliated cotton crop consisting of a scanning LIDAR driven by Arduinocontrolled stepper motors. Using custom Python and Tkinter code, the platform moved autonomously along a pipe-track at 0.1 m/s while collecting LIDAR scans at 25 Hz (0.1667 deg. beam). These tests showed that an autonomous LIDAR platform can reduce HTP logistical problems and provide the capability to accurately map cotton plants and cotton bolls. A prototype track-mounted platform was developed to test the use of LIDAR scanning for High- Throughput Phenotyping (HTP). The platform was deployed in 2015 at Maricopa, Arizona over a senescent cotton crop. Using custom Python and Tkinter code, the platform moved autonomously along a pipe-track at cotton bolls.

  8. A plug’n’play WiFi surface-mount dual-loop antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Chamorro-Posada

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the design, modelling and characterization in the 2.4 GHz band of a B-shaped antenna consisting of a dual circular loop over a conductor plane. The proposed design is intrinsically unbalanced and features a very good match to a 50 Ω line at resonance, which makes our device essentially plug’n’play for a coaxial cable feed. Another interesting property of the proposed antenna is its simplicity of construction. The antenna has been modelled using the moment method. A prototype resonant at 2.4 GHz has been built and we have measured its impedance in this spectral region. The radiation pattern and the gain at resonance have also been characterized and the device has been shown to provide 6.31 dBi gain. The overall properties of the device make it an excellent option to provide WiFi connectivity when required in open hardware implementations.

  9. How Many Peripheral Solder Joints in a Surface Mounted Design Experience Inelastic Strains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhir, E.; Yi, S.; Ghaffarian, R.

    2017-03-01

    It has been established that it is the peripheral solder joints that are the most vulnerable in the ball-grid-array (BGA) and column-grid-array (CGA) designs and most often fail. As far as the long-term reliability of a soldered microelectronics assembly as a whole is concerned, it makes a difference, if just one or more peripheral joints experience inelastic strains. It is clear that the low cycle fatigue lifetime of the solder system is inversely proportional to the number of joints that simultaneously experience inelastic strains. A simple and physically meaningful analytical expression (formula) is obtained for the prediction, at the design stage, of the number of such joints, if any, for the given effective thermal expansion (contraction) mismatch of the package and PCB; materials and geometrical characteristics of the package/PCB assembly; package size; and, of course, the level of the yield stress in the solder material. The suggested formula can be used to determine if the inelastic strains in the solder material could be avoided by the proper selection of the above characteristics and, if not, how many peripheral joints are expected to simultaneously experience inelastic strains. The general concept is illustrated by a numerical example carried out for a typical BGA package. The suggested analytical model (formula) is applicable to any soldered microelectronics assembly. The roles of other important factors, such as, e.g., solder material anisotropy, grain size, and their random orientation within a joint, are viewed in this analysis as less important factors than the level of the interfacial stress. The roles of these factors will be accounted for in future work and considered, in addition to the location of the joint, in a more complicated, more sophisticated, and more comprehensive reliability/fatigue model.

  10. Analysis and Design Optimization of a Coaxial Surface-Mounted Permanent-Magnet Magnetic Gear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Chao

    2014-01-01

    ). The analytical field solution allows the prediction of the magnetic torque, which is formulated as a function of design parameters. The impacts of key design parameters on the torque capability are then studied and some significant observations are summarized. Furthermore, the particle swarm optimization (PSO...... on one or another. The results shows that the highest torque density of 157 kNm/m3 is achieved with the consideration focusing on the torque capability only, then the highest torque per permanent magnet (PM) consumption could be improved to 145 Nm/kg by taking the material cost into account....... By synthesizing the torque capability and material cost, a 124 kNm/m3 of torque density and a 128 Nm/kg of torque per PM consumption could be achieved simultaneously by the optimal design....

  11. A Comprehensive Surface Mount Technology Solution for Integrated Circuits onto Flexible Screen Printed Electrical Interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-19

    complete our senses and enhance our performances. As we see some sparks of efforts appearing in the markets such as vending machines by mood, soft...Tapthimthong for assistance with the bending cycling setup at the machine shop of the Institut fuer Mikroproduktionstechnik at Leibniz Universitaet...making use of the lotus effect, the epoxy resin does not wet PTFE, and the ring can be removed effortlessly. Besides, the resin is non-filled, and

  12. Template-based self-assembly for silicon chips and 01005 surface-mount components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoo, J H; Park, Kwang Soon; Baskaran, Rajashree; Böhringer, Karl F

    2014-01-01

    We present template-based microscale self-assembly as a technique that promotes the electronics industry's initiative towards functional diversification and function densification, demonstrating that our process can improve existing assembly and packaging techniques, and also enable possibilities restricted by current industry methodologies. We first present foundational work that performs part (370 × 370 × 150 µm 3 ) delivery to receptor sites (20 × 10 array) with a stochastic batch delivery process that completes within tens of seconds. The delivery mechanism is statistically characterized and a chemical kinetics inspired model is developed. Based on this understanding, repeatable and programmable 100% yield assembly is achieved in open-loop and feedback-based configurations. The established methodology is adapted to deliver and assemble standard 01 005 format (0.016″ × 0.008″, 0.4 mm × 0.2 mm) monolithic ceramic capacitors and thin-film resistors onto silicon substrates. This process is CMOS compatible and is competitive with capacitors and resistors fabricated through standard foundry processes. (paper)

  13. Control of Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Motors with Special Application to Fractional-Slot Concentrated Windings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawler, J.S.

    2005-12-21

    It is well known that the ability of the permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) to operate over a wide constant power speed range (CPSR) is dependent upon the machine inductance [1,2,3,4,5]. Early approaches for extending CPSR operation included adding supplementary inductance in series with the motor [1] and the use of anti-parallel thyristor pairs in series with the motor-phase windings [5]. The increased inductance method is compatible with a voltage-source inverter (VSI) controlled by pulse-width modulation (PWM) which is called the conventional phase advance (CPA) method. The thyristor method has been called the dual mode inverter control (DMIC). Neither of these techniques has met with wide acceptance since they both add cost to the drive system and have not been shown to have an attractive cost/benefit ratio. Recently a method has been developed to use fractional-slot concentrated windings to significantly increase the machine inductance [6]. This latest approach has the potential to make the PMSM compatible with CPA without supplemental external inductance. If the performance of such drive is acceptable, then the method may make the PMSM an attractive option for traction applications requiring a wide CPSR. A 30 pole, 6 kW, 6000 maximum revolutions per minute (rpm) prototype of the fractional-slot PMSM design has been developed [7]. This machine has significantly more inductance than is typical of regular PMSMs. The prototype is to be delivered in late 2005 to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for testing and development of a suitable controller. In advance of the test/control development effort, ORNL has used the PMSM models developed over a number of previous studies to study the steady-state performance of high-inductance PMSM machines with a view towards control issues. The detailed steady-state model developed includes all motor and inverter-loss mechanisms and will be useful in assessing the performance of the dynamic controller to be developed in future work. This report documents the results of this preliminary investigation.

  14. BOREAS RSS-20 POLDER Helicopter-Mounted Measurements of Surface BRDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Marc; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickerson, Jaime (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS HYD-9 team collected data on precipitation and strearnflow over portions of the NSA and SSA. This data set contains Cartesian maps of rain accumulation for I -hour and daily periods during the summer of 1994 over the SSA only (not the full view of the radar). A parallel set of 1-hour maps for the whole radar view has been prepared and is available upon request from the HYD-09 personnel. An incidental benefit of the areal selection was the elimination of some of the less accurate data,because for various reasons the radar rain estimates degrade considerably outside a range of about 100 km. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884) or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  15. Greenhouse tomato production with electricity generation by roof-mounted flexible solar panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urena-Sanchez, Raul; Callejon-Ferre, Angel Jesus; Perez-Alonso, Jose; Carreno-Ortega, Angel [University of Almeria, Depto. de Ingenieia Rural, Almeria (Spain)], E-mail: acallejo@ual.es

    2012-07-15

    The integration of renewable energy sources into greenhouse crop production in southeastern Spain could provide extra income for growers. Wind energy could be captured by small to medium-sized wind turbines, gas could be produced from biomass, and solar energy could be gathered by solar panels. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of flexible solar panels, mounted on top of a greenhouse for electricity production, on yield and fruit quality of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L., cv Daniela). This study was undertaken in a commercial raspa y amagado greenhouse, typical of the Almeria region (Spain). Tomato plantlets were planted at a density of 0.75 plants m{sup -2}. The flexible solar panels were mounted on two parts of the roof in different arrangements (T1 and T2), each blacking out 9.8 % of its surface area. A control area (T0 arrangement) was fitted with no panels. No difference was found in terms of total or marketable production under these three arrangements, although fruit mean mass and maximum diameter of T0 were significantly greater than T1 and T2. Fruit in T0 matured earlier with more intense color compared with those in T1 and T2. However, these differences had no effect on price as the tomatoes produced under three conditions fell into the same commercial class (G class; diameter 67-81 mm). Solar panels covering 9.8 % roof area of the greenhouse did not affect yield and price of tomatoes despite of their negative effect on fruit size and color. (author)

  16. CFD Simulation of Turbulent Wind Effect on an Array of Ground-Mounted Solar PV Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irtaza, Hassan; Agarwal, Ashish

    2018-02-01

    Aim of the present study is to determine the wind loads on the PV panels in a solar array since panels are vulnerable to high winds. Extensive damages of PV panels, arrays and mounting modules have been reported the world over due to high winds. Solar array of dimension 6 m × 4 m having 12 PV panels of size 1 m × 2 m on 3D 1:50 scaled models have been simulated using unsteady solver with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations of computational fluid dynamics techniques to study the turbulent wind effects on PV panels. A standalone solar array with 30° tilt angle in atmospheric surface layer with the Renormalized Group (RNG) turbulence closure subjected to incident wind varied from - 90° to 90°. The net pressure, drag and lift coefficients are found to be maximum when the wind is flowing normally to the PV panel either 90° or - 90°. The tilt angle of solar arrays the world over not vary on the latitude but also on the seasons. Keeping this in mind the ground mounted PV panels in array with varying tilt angle from 10° to 60° at an interval of 10° have been analyzed for normal wind incident i.e. 90° and - 90° using unsteady RNG turbulence model. Net pressure coefficients have been calculated and found to be increasing with increase in array tilting angle. Maximum net pressure coefficient was observed for the 60° tilted PV array for 90° and - 90° wind incident having value of 0.938 and 0.904 respectively. The results can be concluded that the PV panels are subjected to significant lift and drag forces under wind loading, which needs to be quantified with sufficient factor of safety to avoid damages.

  17. Degassing driving crystallization of plagioclase phenocrysts in lava tube stalactites on Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzafame, Gabriele; Ferlito, Carmelo

    2014-10-01

    Basaltic lava flows can form tubes in response to the cooling of the outer surface. We collected lava stalactites (frozen lava tears) and sampled lava from the ceilings of three lava tubes on Mount Etna. Comparison of the petrographic characters between ceiling lavas and relative stalactites reveals surprising differences in the groundmass textures and crystal compositions. Major and trace element contents in stalactites show only a slight increase in alkali and SiO2 compared to ceiling lava, whereas significant differences exist in composition and textures between plagioclases within the ceiling lava and those within the stalactites, being in the last case definitively more An-rich. We advance the hypothesis that the high temperature reached in the cave caused the exsolution of the volatiles still trapped in the dripping melt. The volatiles, mainly H2O, formed bubbles and escaped from the melt; such a water-loss might have promoted the silicate polymerization in the stalactites resulting in the growth of An-rich plagioclase phenocrysts. Our results have important implications: in fact plagioclase phenocrysts are usually associated with intratelluric growth and are often considered as the main petrologic evidence for the existence of a magma chamber. The textural and chemical features of plagioclases in stalactites prove that phenocryst growth in syn to post-eruptive conditions is plausible and clearly explains the relatively low viscosity of many phenocryst-rich lava flows on Mount Etna, as well as on many other volcanoes around the world. Therefore, we can conclude that plagioclase phenocrysts cannot exclusively be considered as having originated within a magma chamber.

  18. Midterm Periodicity Analysis of the Mount Wilson Magnetic Indices Using the Synchrosqueezing Transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Song; Wang, Feng; Deng, Hui; Yang, Yunfei [Yunnan Key Laboratory of Computer Technology Application/Faculty of Information Engineering and Automation, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Yu, Lan, E-mail: ynkmfs@escience.cn [Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Yunnan Land and Resources Vocational College, Kunming 650217 (China)

    2017-08-10

    A novel time–frequency technique, called the synchrosqueezing transform (SST), is used to investigate the midterm periodic variations of magnetic fields on the solar surface. The Magnetic Plage Strength Index (MPSI) and the Mount Wilson Sunspot Index (MWSI), measured daily by the Mount Wilson Observatory between 1970 January 19 and 2012 January 22, are selected. Short-, mid, and longer-term periodicities are represented and decomposed by the SST with hardly any mode mixing. This demonstrates that the SST is a useful time–frequency analysis technique to characterize the periodic modes of helioseismic data. Apart from the fundamental modes of the annual periodicity, ∼27 day rotational cycle and ∼11 year solar cycle, the SST reveals several midterm periodicities in the two magnetic activity indices, specifically, ∼157 days (i.e., Rieger-type periodicity), and ∼1.3 and 1.7 years. The periodic modes, with 116.4 and 276.2 day periodicity in the MPSI, 108.5 and 251.6 day periodicity in the MWSI, and 157.7 day periodicity in the two indices, are in better accord with those significant periodicities derived from the Rossby waves theoretical model. This study suggests that the modes are caused by Rossby waves. For the 1.30 and 1.71 year periodicity of the MPSI, and the 1.33 and 1.67 year periodicity of the MWSI, our analysis infers that they are related to those periodicities with the same timescale in the interior of the Sun and in the high atmospheric layers.

  19. A Depth-Based Head-Mounted Visual Display to Aid Navigation in Partially Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephen L.; Wilson, Iain; Muhammed, Louwai; Worsfold, John; Downes, Susan M.; Kennard, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Independent navigation for blind individuals can be extremely difficult due to the inability to recognise and avoid obstacles. Assistive techniques such as white canes, guide dogs, and sensory substitution provide a degree of situational awareness by relying on touch or hearing but as yet there are no techniques that attempt to make use of any residual vision that the individual is likely to retain. Residual vision can restricted to the awareness of the orientation of a light source, and hence any information presented on a wearable display would have to limited and unambiguous. For improved situational awareness, i.e. for the detection of obstacles, displaying the size and position of nearby objects, rather than including finer surface details may be sufficient. To test whether a depth-based display could be used to navigate a small obstacle course, we built a real-time head-mounted display with a depth camera and software to detect the distance to nearby objects. Distance was represented as brightness on a low-resolution display positioned close to the eyes without the benefit focussing optics. A set of sighted participants were monitored as they learned to use this display to navigate the course. All were able to do so, and time and velocity rapidly improved with practise with no increase in the number of collisions. In a second experiment a cohort of severely sight-impaired individuals of varying aetiologies performed a search task using a similar low-resolution head-mounted display. The majority of participants were able to use the display to respond to objects in their central and peripheral fields at a similar rate to sighted controls. We conclude that the skill to use a depth-based display for obstacle avoidance can be rapidly acquired and the simplified nature of the display may appropriate for the development of an aid for sight-impaired individuals. PMID:23844067

  20. Airborne thermal infrared imaging of the 2004-2005 eruption of Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D. J.; Vallance, J. W.; Logan, M.; Wessels, R.; Ramsey, M.

    2005-12-01

    A helicopter-mounted forward-looking infrared imaging radiometer (FLIR) documented the explosive and effusive activity at Mount St. Helens during the 2004-2005 eruption. A gyrostabilzed gimbal controlled by a crew member houses the FLIR radiometer and an optical video camera attached at the lower front of the helicopter. Since October 1, 2004 the system has provided an unprecedented data set of thermal and video dome-growth observations. Flights were conducted as frequently as twice daily during the initial month of the eruption (when changes in the crater and dome occurred rapidly), and have been continued on a tri-weekly basis during the period of sustained dome growth. As with any new technology, the routine use of FLIR images to aid in volcano monitoring has been a learning experience in terms of observation strategy and data interpretation. Some of the unique information that has been derived from these data to date include: 1) Rapid identification of the phreatic nature of the early explosive phase; 2) Observation of faulting and associated heat flow during times of large scale deformation; 3) Venting of hot gas through a short lived crater lake, indicative of a shallow magma source; 4) Increased heat flow of the crater floor prior to the initial dome extrusion; 5) Confirmation of new magma reaching the surface; 6) Identification of the source of active lava extrusion, dome collapse, and block and ash flows. Temperatures vary from ambient, in areas insulated by fault gouge and talus produced during extrusion, to as high as 500-740 degrees C in regions of active extrusion, collapse, and fracturing. This temperature variation needs to be accounted for in the retrieval of eruption parameters using satellite-based techniques as such features are sub-pixel size in satellite images.

  1. CFD Simulation of Turbulent Wind Effect on an Array of Ground-Mounted Solar PV Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irtaza, Hassan; Agarwal, Ashish

    2018-06-01

    Aim of the present study is to determine the wind loads on the PV panels in a solar array since panels are vulnerable to high winds. Extensive damages of PV panels, arrays and mounting modules have been reported the world over due to high winds. Solar array of dimension 6 m × 4 m having 12 PV panels of size 1 m × 2 m on 3D 1:50 scaled models have been simulated using unsteady solver with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations of computational fluid dynamics techniques to study the turbulent wind effects on PV panels. A standalone solar array with 30° tilt angle in atmospheric surface layer with the Renormalized Group (RNG) turbulence closure subjected to incident wind varied from - 90° to 90°. The net pressure, drag and lift coefficients are found to be maximum when the wind is flowing normally to the PV panel either 90° or - 90°. The tilt angle of solar arrays the world over not vary on the latitude but also on the seasons. Keeping this in mind the ground mounted PV panels in array with varying tilt angle from 10° to 60° at an interval of 10° have been analyzed for normal wind incident i.e. 90° and - 90° using unsteady RNG turbulence model. Net pressure coefficients have been calculated and found to be increasing with increase in array tilting angle. Maximum net pressure coefficient was observed for the 60° tilted PV array for 90° and - 90° wind incident having value of 0.938 and 0.904 respectively. The results can be concluded that the PV panels are subjected to significant lift and drag forces under wind loading, which needs to be quantified with sufficient factor of safety to avoid damages.

  2. A new mount with moving-magnet type electromagnetic actuator for naval shipboard equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ho Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is proposed a new hybrid mount having a moving-magnet type electromagnetic actuator to reduce the vibration transmitted from naval shipboard equipment to the structure of the ship 's hull. Optimal design specifications are determined through experimental analysis. The detailed design of the hybrid mount is determined through several design steps with electromagnetic numerical analysis using Maxwell Software(S/W. The hybrid mount that combines a rubber mount and an electromagnetic actuator has a fail-safe function for shock resistance. The mount is fabricated and tested using a universal testing machine to evaluate the design specifications. Finally, numerical simulation of the hybrid mount is performed to confirm control performance and applicability.

  3. A Study on quality improvement and application technology in pad-mounted transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soon Tae; Mun, Kyung Hwa; Jung, Dong Won; Kim, Sang Jun; Lee, Nam Woo; Kang, Nae Kuk; Kim, Dong Mung [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Kim, Kwang Ha; Kang, Young Sik; Lee, Woo Young; Lyu, Hee Suk; Sun, Jong Ho; Lyu, Hyung Ki; Kim, Yik Soo; Park, Sung Jae; Kim, Won Ho [Korea Electrotechnology Research Inst., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    In order to increase the reliability of pad-mounted transformers, the authors investigated operating condition of pad-mounted transformers and understood their failure mechanisms. The objective of their study was to improve quality and operating condition and install switches to be able to check and maintain transformers and optimise protection devices and increase cooling effect in pad-mounted transformers (author). 65 refs., 130 figs.

  4. CMS ECAL Endcap (EE) Dee Assembly - SC mounting on Dee 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Cockerill, D

    2007-01-01

    Protection panels on back of Dee 1, Completion of SC mounting, 03/10/2007: Completion of SC mounting (aart from the inner 3-2-1)on the first quadrant of Dee 1 and subsequent survey. 22-28/08/2007: The first supercrystals on Dee1, Dee1 in 867 with the first column of SCs ready for mounting, Dee1 with its protection panels over the laser monitoring fibre system

  5. A new magnetorheological mount featured by changeable damping gaps using a moved-plate valve structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phu, Do Xuan; Shah, Kruti; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a new type of a magnetorheological (MR) fluid mount is proposed and its performances are experimentally investigated. The design of this MR mount is based on two operating modes of MR fluid: flow mode and shear mode. These modes are applied to the mechanism design consisting of two components: a fixed plate for applying the flow mode, and a moved plate for applying the shear mode of MR fluid motion. These plates belong to the valve-type structure of MR mount. The primary objective using the moved plate is to overcome the block-up phenomenon which frequently occurs in the conventional-type MR mount, in which there is no flow of MR fluid through the damping gap. In this research, a laboratorial fluid (MRF140) is used in the design and optimization of MR mount. This fluid features plate-like particles unlike the sphere particles. The yield stress of the fluid is measured as a function of the magnetic field and the theoretical analysis for the mount design is undertaken using the properties of the MR fluid, followed by design optimization. The objective function is concentrated on maximal damping force of the MR mount subjected to parameter constraints. Based on the results of optimization, the proposed MR mount is manufactured and tested for the performance evaluation. Vibration control capability and block-up phenomenon are investigated and compared between the proposed and conventional MR mounts. (paper)

  6. Active Figure Control Effects on Mounting Strategy for X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Atkins, Carolyn; Roche, Jacqueline M.; ODell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2014-01-01

    As part of ongoing development efforts at MSFC, we have begun to investigate mounting strategies for highly nested xray optics in both full-shell and segmented configurations. The analytical infrastructure for this effort also lends itself to investigation of active strategies. We expect that a consequence of active figure control on relatively thin substrates is that errors are propagated to the edges, where they might affect the effective precision of the mounting points. Based upon modeling, we describe parametrically, the conditions under which active mounts are preferred over fixed ones, and the effect of active figure corrections on the required number, locations, and kinematic characteristics of mounting points.

  7. Design and vibration control of vehicle engine mount activated by MR fluid and piezoelectric actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D. Y.; Park, Y. K.; Choi, S. B.; Lee, H. G.

    2009-07-01

    An engine is one of the most dominant noise and vibration sources in vehicle systems. Therefore, in order to resolve noise and vibration problems due to engine, various types of engine mounts have been proposed. This work presents a new type of active engine mount system featuring a magneto-rheological (MR) fluid and a piezostack actuator. As a first step, six degrees-of freedom dynamic model of an in-line four-cylinder engine which has three points mounting system is derived by considering the dynamic behaviors of MR mount and piezostack mount. In the configuration of engine mount system, two MR mounts are installed for vibration control of roll mode motion whose energy is very high in low frequency range, while one piezostack mount is installed for vibration control of bounce and pitch mode motion whose energy is relatively high in high frequency range. As a second step, linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller is synthesized to actively control the imposed vibration. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed active engine mount, vibration control performances are evaluated under various engine operating speeds (wide frequency range).

  8. Markerless Augmented Reality via Stereo Video See-Through Head-Mounted Display Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hung Hsieh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, the camera localization for augmented reality (AR relies on detecting a known pattern within the captured images. In this study, a markerless AR scheme has been designed based on a Stereo Video See-Through Head-Mounted Display (HMD device. The proposed markerless AR scheme can be utilized for medical applications such as training, telementoring, or preoperative explanation. Firstly, a virtual model for AR visualization is aligned to the target in physical space by an improved Iterative Closest Point (ICP based surface registration algorithm, with the target surface structure reconstructed by a stereo camera pair; then, a markerless AR camera localization method is designed based on the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT feature tracking algorithm and the Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC correction algorithm. Our AR camera localization method is shown to be better than the traditional marker-based and sensor-based AR environment. The demonstration system was evaluated with a plastic dummy head and the display result is satisfactory for a multiple-view observation.

  9. Cloud deposition of PAHs at Mount Lushan in southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixia [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wang, Yan, E-mail: wangyan405@gmail.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Li, Hongli, E-mail: lihongli1225@163.com [Environmental Monitoring Central Station of Shandong Province, Jinan, 250101 (China); Yang, Minmin; Sun, Lei [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wang, Tao [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Wang, Wenxing [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China)

    2015-09-01

    Cloud water samples were collected from Mount Lushan, a high alpine area of southern China, and analyzed using GC–MS to investigate the concentration levels, seasonal variations, particle-dissolved phase partitioning, ecological risk of PAHs and its relationship to the atmosphere and rainwater. The average concentration of total (dissolved + particle) PAHs in cloud water was 819.90 ng/L, which ranged from 2.30 ng/L for DbA to 295.38 ng/L for PhA. PhA (33.11%) contributed the most individual PAHs, followed by Flu (28.24%). Distinct seasonal variations in the total PAHs measured in this research had a higher concentration during the spring and a lower concentration during the summer. When cloud events occurred, the concentration of the atmospheric PAHs of the two phases decreased. The contribution from the gaseous phase of total PAHs in the air to the dissolved phase in cloud water was up to 60.43%, but the particulate phase in the air only contributed 39.57% to the total scavenging. The contribution of total PAHs from the atmosphere to clouds is higher in the gaseous phase than in the particulate phase. A comparative study of the concentrations of cloud water and the closest rain water revealed that the PAH concentration in rainwater was 1.80 times less than that of cloud water and that the dominant individual compounds in cloud water and rainwater were PhA and Flu. A total of 81.27% of the PAHs in cloud samples and 72.21% of the PAHs in rain samples remained in the dissolved phase. Ecological risk assessment indicated that PAHs in cloud water in spring and summer caused a certain degree of ecosystem risk and the mean ecosystem risk in spring was higher than that in summer. - Highlights: • The site is in the high pollution emission area, having many sources of PAHs around. • Mount Lushan is a unique site for cloud chemistry monitoring. • Atmospheric PAHs mostly deposited and transferred into cloud water. • Special case showed PAHs are more concentrated in

  10. Cloud deposition of PAHs at Mount Lushan in southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruixia; Wang, Yan; Li, Hongli; Yang, Minmin; Sun, Lei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-01-01

    Cloud water samples were collected from Mount Lushan, a high alpine area of southern China, and analyzed using GC–MS to investigate the concentration levels, seasonal variations, particle-dissolved phase partitioning, ecological risk of PAHs and its relationship to the atmosphere and rainwater. The average concentration of total (dissolved + particle) PAHs in cloud water was 819.90 ng/L, which ranged from 2.30 ng/L for DbA to 295.38 ng/L for PhA. PhA (33.11%) contributed the most individual PAHs, followed by Flu (28.24%). Distinct seasonal variations in the total PAHs measured in this research had a higher concentration during the spring and a lower concentration during the summer. When cloud events occurred, the concentration of the atmospheric PAHs of the two phases decreased. The contribution from the gaseous phase of total PAHs in the air to the dissolved phase in cloud water was up to 60.43%, but the particulate phase in the air only contributed 39.57% to the total scavenging. The contribution of total PAHs from the atmosphere to clouds is higher in the gaseous phase than in the particulate phase. A comparative study of the concentrations of cloud water and the closest rain water revealed that the PAH concentration in rainwater was 1.80 times less than that of cloud water and that the dominant individual compounds in cloud water and rainwater were PhA and Flu. A total of 81.27% of the PAHs in cloud samples and 72.21% of the PAHs in rain samples remained in the dissolved phase. Ecological risk assessment indicated that PAHs in cloud water in spring and summer caused a certain degree of ecosystem risk and the mean ecosystem risk in spring was higher than that in summer. - Highlights: • The site is in the high pollution emission area, having many sources of PAHs around. • Mount Lushan is a unique site for cloud chemistry monitoring. • Atmospheric PAHs mostly deposited and transferred into cloud water. • Special case showed PAHs are more concentrated in

  11. The eddy performance: Contemporary ethnography of Mount Tlaloc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorente Fernández, David

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mount Tlaloc was a very important religious place in the prehispanic age: it was the place where request ceremonies for rain took place on the Mexica Empire. This is the reason for the increasing interest in this place among archaeologists and ethnohistorians. However, systematic ethnography in the region is almost inexistent and the accurate meaning of the offerings and rituals which are still being carried out nowadays is unknown. The article shows the conclusions of a long fieldwork on the region which describes a therapeutic ceremony where the offering consists in the performing of an eddy —an identification with the water spirits to copy their behavior. Such eddy is related to another array of offerings which includes the donation of seeds or their smell as food. With the analysis of the ritual, the complex contemporary cosmology is explored showing a link between Mount Tlaloc and the local irrigation system: their irrigation channels and the springs are a whole from a conceptual and geographic point of view.

    El Monte Tláloc constituyó un importante sitio ceremonial regional en la época prehispánica: era el lugar en el que se realizaban los ritos petitorios de lluvia del Imperio mexica. Por ello ha despertado el interés creciente de arqueólogos y etnohistoriadores. Sin embargo, la etnografía sistemática de la zona es prácticamente inexistente, al grado de que desconocemos exactamente el sentido de las ofrendas y los rituales que continúan realizándose allí. En este sentido, el artículo presenta las conclusiones de un prolongado trabajo de campo en el área y describe un rito terapéutico en el que la ofrenda es la teatralización de un «remolino actuado», es decir, una identificación con los espíritus del agua por el recurso de imitar sus acciones. Dicho remolino se asocia también con otra variedad de ofrendas que incluyen la donación de semillas o sus aromas como alimento. A partir de un análisis del rito se

  12. Development and Climate Change in Tanzania. Focus on Mount Kilimanjaro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawala, S.; Moehner, A.; Van Aalst, M.; Smith, J.; Hitz, S.; Hemp, A.; Meena, H.; Mwakifwamba, S.M.; Hyera, T.; Mwaipopo, O.U.

    2003-01-01

    This document is an output from the OECD Development and Climate Change project, an activity jointly overseen by the EPOC Working Party on Global and Structural Policies (WPGSP), and the DAC Network on Environment and Development Co-operation (ENVIRONET). The overall objective of the project is to provide guidance on how to mainstream responses to climate change within economic development planning and assistance policies, with natural resource management as an overarching theme. This report presents the integrated case study for Tanzania carried out under an OECD project on Development and Climate Change. The report is structured around a three-tiered framework. First, recent climate trends and climate change scenarios for Tanzania are assessed, and key sectoral impacts are identified and ranked along multiple indicators to establish priorities for adaptation. Second, donor portfolios in Tanzania are analyzed to examine the proportion of donor activities affected by climate risks. A desk analysis of donor strategies and project documents as well as national plans is conducted to assess the degree of attention to climate change concerns in development planning and assistance. Third, an in-depth analysis is conducted for climate change impacts and response strategies for Mount Kilimanjaro - a critical ecosystem, biodiversity hotspot, and source of freshwater. This part of the analysis draws upon extended field research by a case study consultant in collaboration with national and international partners

  13. Measurements of SO2 in the Mount St. Helens debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, J.B.; Evans, F.J.; Mateer, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Routine measurements of ozone and SO 2 are made with the Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers at the Atmospheric Environment Service in Downsview Ontario. On May 20 and 21, 1980, large values of column SO 2 were observed with both spectrophotometers at the time of passage of the Mount St. Helens debris. Enhanced SO 2 values were first observed at 1800Z on May 20. The maximum column amount of SO 2 measured was 0.06 cm at 2200 Z. On May 21, SO 2 values slowly decreased from 0.03 cm at 1100 Z cm to 0.01 cm at 2000Z. Typical SO 2 amounts due to pollution at the Downsview site are approximately 0.003 to 0.005 cm. At the same time of maximum SO 2 enhancement, both Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers measured a 0.040 cm decrease of total ozone. It is not clear whether the decrease of total ozone was caused by the volcanic cloud or natural ozone variability. Air mass trajectories indicate that the altitude of the debris cloud, which passed over Downsview at the time, was between 10 km and 12 km

  14. Perioperative versus postoperative measurement of Taylor Spatial Frame mounting parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sökücü, Sami; Demir, Bilal; Lapçin, Osman; Yavuz, Umut; Kabukçuoğlu, Yavuz S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences, if any, between application parameters for the Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF) system obtained during surgery under fluoroscopy and after surgery from digital radiography. This retrospective study included 17 extremities of 15 patients (8 male, 7 female; mean age: 21.9 years, range: 10 to 55 years) who underwent TSF after deformity and fracture. Application parameters measured by fluoroscopy at the end of surgery after mounting the fixator were compared with parameters obtained from anteroposterior and lateral digital radiographs taken 1 day after surgery. Fixator was applied to the femur in 8 patients, tibia in 6 and radius in 3. Mean time to removal of the frame was 3.5 (range: 3 to 7) months. Mean perioperative anteroposterior, lateral and axial frame offsets of patients were 9.1 (range: 3 to 20) mm, 18.1 (range: 5 to 37) mm and 95.3 (range: 25 to 155) mm, respectively. Mean postoperative anteroposterior, lateral and axial frame offset radiographs were 11.8 (range: 2 to 30) mm, 18 (range: 6 to 47) mm and 109.5 (range: 28 to 195) mm, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups (p>0.05). While measurements taken during operation may lengthen the duration in the operation room, fluoroscopy may provide better images and is easier to perform than digital radiography. On the other hand, there is no difference between measurements taken during perioperative fluoroscopy and postoperative digital radiography.

  15. A new detection system for extremely small vertically mounted cantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antognozzi, M; Ulcinas, A; Picco, L; Simpson, S H; Miles, M J; Heard, P J; Szczelkun, M D; Brenner, B

    2008-01-01

    Detection techniques currently used in scanning force microscopy impose limitations on the geometrical dimensions of the probes and, as a consequence, on their force sensitivity and temporal response. A new technique, based on scattered evanescent electromagnetic waves (SEW), is presented here that can detect the displacement of the extreme end of a vertically mounted cantilever. The resolution of this method is tested using different cantilever sizes and a theoretical model is developed to maximize the detection sensitivity. The applications presented here clearly show that the SEW detection system enables the use of force sensors with sub-micron size, opening new possibilities in the investigation of biomolecular systems and high speed imaging. Two types of cantilevers were successfully tested: a high force sensitivity lever with a spring constant of 0.17 pN nm -1 and a resonant frequency of 32 kHz; and a high speed lever with a spring constant of 50 pN nm -1 and a resonant frequency of 1.8 MHz. Both these force sensors were fabricated by modifying commercial microcantilevers in a focused ion beam system. It is important to emphasize that these modified cantilevers could not be detected by the conventional optical detection system used in commercial atomic force microscopes

  16. Study of Mistletoe in Joben Resort Forest Mount Rinjani Lombok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuni Dwi Fikriani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mistletoes are one group of hemiparasite plants, including the Lorantaceae family that have potential as medicinal. These hemiparasite plants can attack flowering plant (Magnoliophyta and non-floweing plant (Pinophyta, especially on the main stems, branches and twigs. The objective of this research is to identify the species of mistletoe and its hosts, make identification key, descriptions, and to make a distribution map of mistletoe in Joben Resort forest south of Mount Rinjani Lombok. This study is descriptive explorative research with three kinds of collecting sample methods i.e exploration, continous strip sampling, and delenation method. The research found five species of mistletoes are included in three genera i.e Amyema cuernosensis, Amyema enneantha, Amyema tristis, Macrosolen retusus and Scurrula artropurpurea. These five kinds of mistletoe are associated with 23 hosts species of plants, 18 genera from 13 families. The most favorite host of these mistletoes is Ficus septica, and the most agresive mistletoe is Scurrula artropurpurea. The important finding of the research is finding new species or new record of mistletoes. The benefit of these new record or new species is providing new material of new medicinal for treating some diseases such as various cancers.

  17. Minimization of number of setups for mounting machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolman, Pavel; Nchor, Dennis; Hampel, David [Department of Statistics and Operation Analysis, Faculty of Business and Economics, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 603 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Žák, Jaroslav [Institute of Technology and Business, Okružní 517/10, 370 01 České Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-10

    The article deals with the problem of minimizing the number of setups for mounting SMT machines. SMT is a device used to assemble components on printed circuit boards (PCB) during the manufacturing of electronics. Each type of PCB has a different set of components, which are obligatory. Components are placed in the SMT tray. The problem consists in the fact that the total number of components used for all products is greater than the size of the tray. Therefore, every change of manufactured product requires a complete change of components in the tray (i.e., a setup change). Currently, the number of setups corresponds to the number of printed circuit board type. Any production change affects the change of setup and stops production on one shift. Many components occur in more products therefore the question arose as to how to deploy the products into groups so as to minimize the number of setups. This would result in a huge increase in efficiency of production.

  18. The geology of Mount Taftan stratovolcano, southeast of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biabangard, H.; Moradian, A.

    2008-01-01

    Mount Taftan is a double-peaked stratovolcano, located in southeast of Iran. This volcano constructed a number of calderas among which one of the most important is Anjerk. The magmas erupted from this multi-caldera complex range from andesi-basalt to dacite, but are dominated by andesite and dacite. Two terminal cones, Narkuh and Matherkuh, culminate at 4100 m and 3950 m, respectively. There are three evolutionary stages in the history of the volcanic complex (stage 1: Palaevolcanism, 6.95±0.72Ma, stage 2: Mesovolcanism, 6.01±0.15Ma and stage 3: Neo volcanism, 0.71± 0.03Ma). The eruptive products consist of lava flows, iguimbrites and pyroclastic rocks. The later include tuffs, nuees ardents, breccias and sometimes reworked as lahars. Textural and mineralogical data suggest that both magma mixing and fractional crystallization were involved in the generation of the andesites and dacites. The magmas erupted from this volcano show a calc-alkaline trend. The corresponding lavas are calk-alkaline with a potasic tendency.

  19. Wet gas flow modeling for a vertically mounted Venturi meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Lijun; Zhou, Wanlu; Li, Xiaomin

    2012-01-01

    Venturi meters are playing an increasingly important role in wet gas metering in natural gas and oil industries. Due to the effect of liquid in a wet gas, the differential pressure over the converging section of a Venturi meter is higher than that when a pure gas flows through with the same flow rate. This phenomenon is referred to as over-reading. Thus, a correction for the over-reading is required. Most of the existing wet gas models are more suitable for higher pressure (>2 MPa) than lower pressure ( 0.5) than lower quality (<0.5) in recent years. However, conditions of lower pressure and lower quality also widely exist in the gas and oil industries. By comparing the performances of eight existing wet gas models in low-pressure range of 0.26–0.86 MPa and low-quality range of 0.07–0.36 with a vertically mounted Venturi meter of diameter ratio 0.45, de Leeuw's model was proven to perform best. Derived from de Leeuw's model, a modified model with better performance for the low-pressure and low-quality ranges was obtained. Experimental data showed that the root mean square of the relative errors of the over-reading was 2.30%. (paper)

  20. Interstitial radiation therapeutic techniques at Mount Vernon Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, J.W.; Strickland, P.; Alderson, A.M.; Hudson, F.R.; Bennett, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of 56 cases of carcinoma on the lateral border of the anterior two thirds of the tongue treated at Mount Vernon Hospital using radium needle implant alone yielded 5-year actuarial survivals of 75.3 per cent in 25 T1N0 cases and 81.8 per cent in 25 T2N0 cases. Five-year actuarial local recurrence of 17.5 per cent was recorded in the T1 group and 35 per cent in the T2 group. Local recurrences were attributed to failure of the implant to encompass extensions of the tumour along the lateral border or into the musculature of the tongue. Five-year actuarial local recurrence of 66.2 per cent was recorded in 18 patients with carcinoma of the breast treated by radium needle implant alone; 4 of these 9 local recurrences occurred at some distance from the treated area and could not be classed as marginal recurrences. A preliminary investigation carried out in 1981 indicated that significant improvements in source distribution, particularly at poorly accessible sites, could be achieved using afterloading techniques. In addition the use of 192 Ir as a source could result in improvements in staff protection. (Auth.)

  1. Stochastic Bifurcation Analysis of an Elastically Mounted Flapping Airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bose Chandan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the effects of noisy flow fluctuations on the fluid-structure interaction (FSI behaviour of a span-wise flexible wing modelled as a two degree-of-freedom elastically mounted flapping airfoil. In the sterile flow conditions, the system undergoes a Hopf bifurcation as the free-stream velocity exceeds a critical limit resulting in a stable limit-cycle oscillation (LCO from a fixed point response. On the other hand, the qualitative dynamics changes from a stochastic fixed point to a random LCO through an intermittent state in the presence of irregular flow fluctuations. The probability density function depicts the most probable system state in the phase space. A phenomenological bifurcation (P-bifurcation analysis based on the transition in the topology associated with the structure of the joint probability density function (pdf of the response variables has been carried out. The joint pdf corresponding to the stochastic fixed point possesses a Dirac delta function like structure with a sharp single peak around zero. As the mean flow speed crosses the critical value, the joint pdf bifurcates to a crater-like structure indicating the occurrence of a P-bifurcation. The intermittent state is characterized by the co-existence of the unimodal as well as the crater like structure.

  2. Fuselage mounted anti-collision lights utilizing high power LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, John; Machi, Nicolo; Mangum, Scott; Singer, Jeffrey

    2005-09-01

    As LEDs continue to improve in efficacy and total light output, they are increasingly finding their way in to new applications in the aviation industry as well as adjacent markets. One function that is particularly challenging and may reap substantial benefits from this new technology is the fuselage mounted anti-collision light. Anti-collision lights provide conspicuity for the aircraft by periodically emitting bright flashes of light. The color, light distribution and intensity levels for these lights are all closely regulated through Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) documents. These lighting requirements, along with thermal, environmental and aerodynamic requirements, drive the overall design. In this paper, we will discuss the existing technologies used in anti-collision lights and the advantages and challenges associated with an LED solution. Particular attention will be given to the optical, thermal, electrical and aerodynamic aspects associated with an LED approach. A specific case study will be presented along with some of the challenges that have arisen during the design process. These challenges include the addition of an integrated covert anti-collision lighting.

  3. Energetic and developmental costs of mounting an immune response in greenfinches (Carduelis chloris)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amat, Juan A.; Aguilera, Eduardo; Visser, G. Henk

    It is assumed that there is a trade-off between the costs allocated to mounting an immune defence and those allocated to costly functions such as breeding and moulting. The physiological basis for this is that mounting an immune response to pathogen challenge has energetic and/or nutrient costs

  4. Using Priors to Compensate Geometrical Problems in Head-Mounted Eye Trackers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batista Narcizo, Fabricio; Ahmed, Zaheer; Hansen, Dan Witzner

    The use of additional information (a.k.a. priors) to help the eye tracking process is presented as an alternative to compensate classical geometrical problems in head-mounted eye trackers. Priors can be obtained from several distinct sources, such as: sensors to collect information related...... estimation specially for uncalibrated head-mounted setups....

  5. Method and apparatus for mounting or dismounting a semi-automatic twist-lock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Breteler, A.J.; Tekeli, G.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for mounting or dismounting a semi-automatic twistlock at a corner of a deck container, wherein the twistlock is mounted or dismounted on a quayside where a ship may be docked for loading or unloading, in a loading or unloading terminal installed on the quayside,

  6. The Effect of Mounting Vortex Generators on the DTU 10MW Reference Wind Turbine Blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current work is to analyze possible advantages of mounting Vortex Generators (VG's) on a wind turbine blade. Specifically, the project aims at investigating at which radial sections of the DTU 10 MW Reference Wind Turbine blade it is most beneficial to mount the VG's in order...

  7. Male-Male Mounting Behaviour in Free-Ranging Golden Snub-Nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Gu; Dixson, Alan F; Qi, Xiao-Guang; Li, Bao-Guo

    2018-01-01

    An all-male band of golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) was observed for 3 months in the Qinling Mountains of China, in order to collect data on the frequencies and contextual significance of male-male mounting behaviour. Mounts occurred in a variety of affiliative, dominance-related and sexual contexts, which differed depending upon the ages of the males involved. Mounting behaviour in this group was mainly initiated by adults. Juveniles mounted each other in affiliative contexts (during play and prior to grooming). Adult males mounted subadult and juvenile partners in a greater variety of sociosexual contexts (dominance/rank-related interactions; reconciliation following agonistic encounters, and sometimes as a prelude to receiving grooming). However, subadults and juveniles were never observed to mount adults. In one dyad, involving an adult male and a subadult partner, mounting was more frequent and prolonged, and included bouts of deep pelvic thrusting. Two mounts resulted in anal intromissions and, in 1 case, the subadult partner exhibited seminal emission. Given that the study took place during the annual mating peak period of R. roxellana, it is possible that this unusual male-male sexual activity was related to the absence of mating opportunities for those adults that were excluded from 1-male units. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Aerodynamic interaction effects of tip-mounted propellers installed on the horizontal tailplane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Arnhem, N.; Sinnige, T.; Stokkermans, T.C.A.; Eitelberg, G.; Veldhuis, L.L.M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of propeller installation on the aerodynamic performance of a tailplane featuring tip-mounted propellers. A model of a low aspect ratio tailplane equipped with an elevator and a tip-mounted propeller was installed in a low-speed wind-tunnel. Measurements were

  9. Determination of the maximum MGS mounting height : phase II detailed analysis with LS-DYNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Determination of the maximum Midwest Guardrail System (MGS) mounting height was performed in two phases. : Phase I concentrated on crash testing: two full-scale crash tests were performed on the MGS with top-rail mounting heights : of 34 in. (864 mm)...

  10. Design of a new engine mount for vertical and horizontal vibration control using magnetorheological fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phu, D X; Choi, S B; Lee, Y S; Han, M S

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new design of a magnetorheological fluid (MR) mount for vibration control considering both vertical forces and horizontal moments such as are met in various engine systems, including a medium high-speed engine of ship. The newly designed mount, called a MR brake mount, offers several salient benefits such as small size and relatively high load capacity compared with a conventional MR engine mount that can control vertical vibration only. The principal design parameters of the proposed mount are optimally determined to achieve maximum torque with geometric and spatial constraints. Subsequently, the proposed MR mount is designed and manufactured based on the optimized design parameters. It is shown from experimental testing that the proposed mount, which combines MR mount with MR brake, can produce the desired force and torque to reduce unwanted vibration of a medium high-speed engine system of ship subjected to both vertical and horizontal exciting motions. In addition, it is verified that there is no large difference between experiment results and simulation results that are obtained from an analytical model derived in this work. (technical note)

  11. Two-sensor control in active vibration isolation using hard mounts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijen, M.A.; Tjepkema, D.; van Dijk, J.

    To isolate precision machines from floor vibrations, active vibration isolators are often applied. In this paper, a two-sensor control strategy, based on acceleration feedback and force feedback, is proposed for an active vibration isolator using a single-axis active hard mount. The hard mount

  12. Two-sensor control in active vibration isolation using hard mounts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijen, M.A.; Tjepkema, D.; van Dijk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    To isolate precision machines from floor vibrations, active vibration isolators are often applied. In this paper, a two-sensor control strategy, based on acceleration feedback and force feedback, is proposed for an active vibration isolator using a single-axis active hard mount. The hard mount

  13. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls, engine... controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight... they are capable of withstanding the effects of a fire. Engine vibration isolators must incorporate...

  14. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls, engine... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in...

  15. Arterial blood gases and oxygen content in climbers on Mount Everest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grocott, Michael P. W.; Martin, Daniel S.; Levett, Denny Z. H.; McMorrow, Roger; Windsor, Jeremy; Montgomery, Hugh E.; Ahuja, V.; Aref-Adib, G.; Burnham, R.; Chisholm, A.; Clarke, K.; Coates, D.; Coates, M.; Cook, D.; Cox, M.; Dhillon, S.; Dougall, C.; Doyle, P.; Duncan, P.; Edsell, M.; Edwards, L.; Evans, L.; Gardiner, P.; Grocott, M.; Gunning, P.; Hart, N.; Harrington, J.; Harvey, J.; Holloway, C.; Howard, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Imray, C.; Ince, C.; Jonas, M.; van der Kaaij, J.; Khosravi, M.; Kolfschoten, N.; Levett, D.; Luery, H.; Luks, A.; Martin, D.; McMorrow, R.; Meale, P.; Mitchell, K.; Montgomery, H.; Morgan, G.; Morgan, J.; Murray, A.; Mythen, M.; Newman, S.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The level of environmental hypobaric hypoxia that affects climbers at the summit of Mount Everest (8848 m [29,029 ft]) is close to the limit of tolerance by humans. We performed direct field measurements of arterial blood gases in climbers breathing ambient air on Mount Everest. METHODS:

  16. A magneto-rheological fluid mount featuring squeeze mode: analysis and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng; Bai, Xian-Xu; Qian, Li-Jun; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for a new semi-active vehicle engine mount utilizing magneto-rheological (MR) fluids in squeeze mode (MR mount in short) and validates the model by comparing analysis results with experimental tests. The proposed MR mount is mainly comprised of a frame for installation, a main rubber, a squeeze plate and a bobbin for coil winding. When the magnetic fields on, MR effect occurs in the upper gap between the squeeze plate and the bobbin, and the dynamic stiffness can be controlled by tuning the applied currents. Employing Bingham model and flow properties between parallel plates of MR fluids, a mathematical model for the squeeze type of MR mount is formulated with consideration of the fluid inertia, MR effect and hysteresis property. The field-dependent dynamic stiffness of the MR mount is then analyzed using the established mathematical model. Subsequently, in order to validate the mathematical model, an appropriate size of MR mount is fabricated and tested. The field-dependent force and dynamic stiffness of the proposed MR mount are evaluated and compared between the model and experimental tests in both time and frequency domains to verify the model efficiency. In addition, it is shown that both the damping property and the stiffness property of the proposed MR mount can be simultaneously controlled. (paper)

  17. 76 FR 19125 - Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From Korea and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ...)] Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From Korea and Mexico AGENCY: United States International... bottom mount combination refrigerator-freezers from Korea and Mexico, provided for in subheadings 8418.10... five business days thereafter, or by May 23, 2011. For further information concerning the conduct of...

  18. Self-tuning disturbance feedforward control with drift prevention for air mount systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijen, M.A.; Heertjes, M.F.; Butler, H.

    2015-01-01

    A MIMO disturbance feedforward control strategy is presented to isolate an industrial active vibration isolation system with air mounts from broadband floor vibrations. The feedforward controller compensates for the static damping and stiffness of the air mount suspension, leading to significant

  19. White House Communications Agency (WHCA) Presidential Voice Communications Rack Mount System Mechanical Drawing Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Rack Mount System Mechanical Drawing Package by Steven P Callaway Approved for public release; distribution unlimited...Laboratory White House Communications Agency (WHCA) Presidential Voice Communications Rack Mount System Mechanical Drawing Package by Steven P...Note 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 04/2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE White House Communications Agency (WHCA) Presidential Voice Communications Rack

  20. Vertical repositioning accuracy of magnetic mounting systems on 4 articulator models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonsup; Kwon, Ho-Beom

    2018-03-01

    Research of the ability of a cast mounted on an articulator on maintaining the identical position of a cast mounted on an articulator after repeated repositioning is lacking, despite the possible effects this may have on the occlusion of a mounted cast. The purpose of this in vitro study was to verify and compare the vertical repositioning accuracy of 4 different, commercially available articulator magnetic mounting plate systems. Four articulators and their associated magnetic mounting plates were selected for the study. These were the Artex AR articulator (Amann Girrbach AG), the Denar Mark II articulator (Whip Mix Corp), the Kavo Protar Evo articulator (Kavo Dental GmbH), and the SAM3 articulator (SAM Präzisionstechnik GmbH). Three new magnetic mounting plates were prepared for each articulator system. The repositioning accuracy of each mounting plate was evaluated by comparing the standard deviation of the vertical distances measured between the mounting plate and a laser displacement sensor. The lower arm of the articulator was secured, and the vertical distance was measured by positioning the laser displacement sensor positioned vertically above the mounting plate. Once the vertical distance was measured, the mounting plate was detached from the articulator and reattached manually to prepare for the next measurement. This procedure was repeated 30 times for each of the 3 magnetic mounting plates. Data were analyzed by ANOVA for 2-stage nested design and the Levene test (α=.05). Significant differences were detected among articulator systems and between magnetic mounting plates of the same type. The standard deviations of the measurements made with the Artex AR articulator, Denar Mark II articulator, Kavo Protar Evo articulator, and SAM3 articulator were 0.0027, 0.0308, 0.0214, and 0.0215 mm, respectively. Thus, the repositioning accuracy could be ranked in the order as follows: Artex AR, Kavo Protar Evo, SAM3, and Denar Mark II. The position of the